WorldWideScience

Sample records for therapy method slows

  1. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contraception - slow-release hormonal methods; Progestin implants; Progestin injections; Skin patch; Vaginal ring ... might want to consider a different birth control method. SKIN PATCH The skin patch is placed on ...

  2. Slow evaporation method and enhancement in photoluminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nescence (PL) properties and decay time of phosphors were studied at room temperature. The YPO4 ... Keywords. Slow evaporation method; YPO4 : Eu3+, Bi3+; quenching effect; optical material. 1. ... intensity of Eu3+-doped compounds such as CaMoO4 : Bi3+, .... Figure 4 shows FESEM images of YPO4 : Eu3+ and Bi3+.

  3. Slowing of charged particles by particle methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, B.

    1985-03-01

    We review some facts about particle methods for solving linear hyperbolic equations. We show how one gets an evaluation of integral quantities like: ∫ u(x,t) zeta(x,t) dxdt where u denotes the solution and zeta an arbitrary weight function. Then, we apply the method to the equation describing charged particle transport in a plasma with emphasis on the evaluation of energy deposition on ions and electrons [fr

  4. Medical aspects of boron-slow neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Earlier radiations of patients with cerebral tumors disclosed the need: (1) to find a carrier of the boron compound which would leave the blood and concentrate in the tumor, (2) to use a more penetrating neutron beam, and (3) to develop a much faster method for assaying boron in blood and tissue. To some extent number1 has been accomplished in the form of Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH, number2 has yet to be achieved, and number3 has been solved by the measurement of the 478-keV gamma ray when the 10 B atom disintegrates following its capture of a slow neutron. The hitherto unreported data in this paper describe through the courtesy of Professor Hiroshi Hatanaka his studies on the pharmacokinetics and quality control of Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH based on 96 boron infusions in 86 patients. Simultaneous blood and tumor data are plotted here for 30 patients with glioblastomas (Grade III-IV gliomas), illustrating remarkable variability. Detailed autopsy findings on 18 patients with BNCT showed radiation injury in only 1. Clinical results in 12 of the most favorably situated glioblastomas reveal that 5 are still alive with a 5-year survival rate of 58% and the excellent Karnofsky performance rating of 87%. For the first time evidence is presented that slow-growing astrocytomas may benefit from BNCT. 10 references, 8 figures, 5 tables

  5. Computation of saddle-type slow manifolds using iterative methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall

    2015-01-01

    with respect to , appropriate estimates are directly attainable using the method of this paper. The method is applied to several examples, including a model for a pair of neurons coupled by reciprocal inhibition with two slow and two fast variables, and the computation of homoclinic connections in the Fitz......This paper presents an alternative approach for the computation of trajectory segments on slow manifolds of saddle type. This approach is based on iterative methods rather than collocation-type methods. Compared to collocation methods, which require mesh refinements to ensure uniform convergence...

  6. Pulsed neutron method for diffusion, slowing down, and reactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoestrand, N.G.

    1985-01-01

    An outline is given on the principles of the pulsed neutron method for the determination of thermal neutron diffusion parameters, for slowing-down time measurements, and for reactivity determinations. The historical development is sketched from the breakthrough in the middle of the nineteen fifties and the usefulness and limitations of the method are discussed. The importance for the present understanding of neutron slowing-down, thermalization and diffusion are point out. Examples are given of its recent use for e.g. absorption cross section measurements and for the study of the properties of heterogeneous systems

  7. Advanced RF-KO slow-extraction method for the reduction of spill ripple

    CERN Document Server

    Noda, K; Shibuya, S; Uesugi, T; Muramatsu, M; Kanazawa, M; Takada, E; Yamada, S

    2002-01-01

    Two advanced RF-knockout (RF-KO) slow-extraction methods have been developed at HIMAC in order to reduce the spill ripple for accurate heavy-ion cancer therapy: the dual frequency modulation (FM) method and the separated function method. As a result of simulations and experiments, it was verified that the spill ripple could be considerably reduced using these advanced methods, compared with the ordinary RF-KO method. The dual FM method and the separated function method bring about a low spill ripple within standard deviations of around 25% and of 15% during beam extraction within around 2 s, respectively, which are in good agreement with the simulation results.

  8. Slow-neutron capture therapy for malignant tumours: its history and recent development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatanaka, H.

    1975-01-01

    Slow-neutron capture therapy was first suggested in 1936. The early clinical trials were performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Massachusetts Institute of Technology reactors. In the last series of treatments in 1960 and 1961, none of the 17 glioblastoma patients lived longer than a year and the clinical trial was discontinued, particularly because the was pathological evidence that normal tissue had been seriously damaged. Hatanaka, who worked first with Sweet between 1964 and 1967, continued intensive basic research and organized a collaborating team of chemists, physicists and physicians in Japan where he resumed treatment of brain tumour patients in 1968. The rationale of the revised therapy included: (1) use of promising compounds such as mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate, which has a high tumour binding property, (2) use of adrenocorticoid to minimize vascular damage, (3) intra-arterial infusion of boron to obtain a higher concentration in the tumour, (4) restriction of excessive neutron intensity, (5) and some technical improvements. New research techniques were also introduced, such as alpha autoradiography, electron microscopy, and immunotherapy. With the mercaptoundecahydrododecaborate compound an absolute concentration of 30 μg per gram of tumour is easily attainable, while the blood level of the isotope can be lowered to at least half of the tumour concentration. Normal dog brains were able to tolerate this therapy. Among the 15 patients so far treated, 13 were treated at the Hitachi Training Reactor. Patients, who had undergone repeated surgery as well as excessive irradiation before they came for the therapy, could not recover their full activities, but proved they could enjoy a significant prolongation of their lives. The only two fresh cases of glioblastoma responded so well to the therapy that one has been working as an engineer and the other as a farmer for 3 years without neurological deficits. Recent progress and future potentials of the

  9. Slow neutron capture therapy for malignant glioma (boron or lithium neutron capture therapy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatanaka, Hiroshi

    1981-01-01

    In recurrent glioblastoma, the mean survival period is approx. 6 months by the routine methods of treatment, but is extended more than 3-fold by neutron capture therapy. This method and a routine method with 60 Co or an accelerator were used for comparison in the clinical treatment of 26 patients with supratentorial malignant glioma. There were no significant differences as for prognostic factors of the group treated by this method and those of the control group; No. of cases 14 and 12, the mean age 46 and 53.5 yr, and the stage (TNM) 3.14 and 2.83, respectively. As of the end of Feb. 1980, this method showed a lifeprolonging effect 3 times that of the control, the mean survival period being 67 weeks for this method and 21 for the control. Although 100% improvement was observed in about one half of the cases by this method, the control group showed improvement of only 80% at maximum. It is also possible to treat any deep portion of the brain with thermal neutrons. As a Boron compound, mercaptoundecahydrododecarborate with a low toxicity has been put into practical use for brain tumors, and as Li, the use of 6 LiCl for lung cancer is under examination. (Chiba, N.)

  10. [Better performance of Western blotting: quick vs slow protein transfer, blotting membranes and the visualization methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling-Quan; Pu, Ying-Hui; Ma, Shi-Kun

    2008-01-01

    To study how the choices of the quick vs slow protein transfer, the blotting membranes and the visualization methods influence the performance of Western blotting. The cellular proteins were abstracted from human breast cell line MDA-MB-231 for analysis with Western blotting using quick (2 h) and slow (overnight) protein transfer, different blotting membranes (nitrocellulose, PVDF and nylon membranes) and different visualization methods (ECL and DAB). In Western blotting with slow and quick protein transfer, the prestained marker presented more distinct bands on nitrocellulose membrane than on the nylon and PVDF membranes, and the latter also showed clear bands on the back of the membrane to very likely cause confusion, which did not occur with nitrocellulose membrane. PVDF membrane allowed slightly clearer visualization of the proteins with DAB method as compared with nitrocellulose and nylon membranes, and on the latter two membranes, quick protein transfer was likely to result in somehow irregular bands in comparison with slow protein transfer. With slow protein transfer and chemiluminescence for visualization, all the 3 membranes showed clear background, while with quick protein transfer, nylon membrane gave rise to obvious background noise but the other two membranes did not. Different membranes should be selected for immunoblotting according to the actual needs of the experiment. Slow transfer of the proteins onto the membranes often has better effect than quick transfer, and enhanced chemiluminescence is superior to DAB for protein visualization and allows highly specific and sensitive analysis of the protein expressions.

  11. A framework for the correction of slow physiological drifts during MR-guided HIFU therapies: Proof of concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachiu, Cornel; Moonen, Chrit; Ries, Mario; Denis de Senneville, Baudouin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: While respiratory motion compensation for magnetic resonance (MR)-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) interventions has been extensively studied, the influence of slow physiological motion due to, for example, peristaltic activity, has so far been largely neglected. During lengthy interventions, the magnitude of the latter can exceed acceptable therapeutic margins. The goal of the present study is to exploit the episodic workflow of these therapies to implement a motion correction strategy for slow varying drifts of the target area and organs at risk over the entire duration of the intervention. Methods: The therapeutic workflow of a MR-guided HIFU intervention is in practice often episodic: Bursts of energy delivery are interleaved with periods of inactivity, allowing the effects of the beam on healthy tissues to recede and/or during which the plan of the intervention is reoptimized. These periods usually last for at least several minutes. It is at this time scale that organ drifts due to slow physiological motion become significant. In order to capture these drifts, the authors propose the integration of 3D MR scans in the therapy workflow during the inactivity intervals. Displacements were estimated using an optical flow algorithm applied on the 3D acquired images. A preliminary study was conducted on ten healthy volunteers. For each volunteer, 3D MR images of the abdomen were acquired at regular intervals of 10 min over a total duration of 80 min. Motion analysis was restricted to the liver and kidneys. For validating the compatibility of the proposed motion correction strategy with the workflow of a MR-guided HIFU therapy, an in vivo experiment on a porcine liver was conducted. A volumetric HIFU ablation was completed over a time span of 2 h. A 3D image was acquired before the first sonication, as well as after each sonication. Results: Following the volunteer study, drifts larger than 8 mm for the liver and 5 mm for the kidneys prove that

  12. A framework for the correction of slow physiological drifts during MR-guided HIFU therapies: Proof of concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachiu, Cornel, E-mail: C.Zachiu@umcutrecht.nl; Moonen, Chrit; Ries, Mario [Imaging Division, UMC Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht 3584 CX (Netherlands); Denis de Senneville, Baudouin [Imaging Division, UMC Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht 3584 CX (Netherlands); Mathematical Institute of Bordeaux, University of Bordeaux, Talence Cedex 33405 (France)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: While respiratory motion compensation for magnetic resonance (MR)-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) interventions has been extensively studied, the influence of slow physiological motion due to, for example, peristaltic activity, has so far been largely neglected. During lengthy interventions, the magnitude of the latter can exceed acceptable therapeutic margins. The goal of the present study is to exploit the episodic workflow of these therapies to implement a motion correction strategy for slow varying drifts of the target area and organs at risk over the entire duration of the intervention. Methods: The therapeutic workflow of a MR-guided HIFU intervention is in practice often episodic: Bursts of energy delivery are interleaved with periods of inactivity, allowing the effects of the beam on healthy tissues to recede and/or during which the plan of the intervention is reoptimized. These periods usually last for at least several minutes. It is at this time scale that organ drifts due to slow physiological motion become significant. In order to capture these drifts, the authors propose the integration of 3D MR scans in the therapy workflow during the inactivity intervals. Displacements were estimated using an optical flow algorithm applied on the 3D acquired images. A preliminary study was conducted on ten healthy volunteers. For each volunteer, 3D MR images of the abdomen were acquired at regular intervals of 10 min over a total duration of 80 min. Motion analysis was restricted to the liver and kidneys. For validating the compatibility of the proposed motion correction strategy with the workflow of a MR-guided HIFU therapy, an in vivo experiment on a porcine liver was conducted. A volumetric HIFU ablation was completed over a time span of 2 h. A 3D image was acquired before the first sonication, as well as after each sonication. Results: Following the volunteer study, drifts larger than 8 mm for the liver and 5 mm for the kidneys prove that

  13. Comparison of the efficacy of conventional slow freezing and rapid cryopreservation methods for bovine embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagtendonk-de Leeuw, van A.M.; Daas, den J.H.; Kruip, T.A.; Rail, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    Day 7 bovine morulae and early blastocysts were randomly assigned to one of four cryopreservation methods: (i) a modified conventional controlled slow freezing and stepwise dilution after thawing; and three methods which enable direct transfer of the embryo into the recipient upon thawing: (ii)

  14. Evaluation of cephalometric changes in patients with class III malocclusion in mixed dentition period following face mask therapy and slow maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Akhondi MS.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Among different treatments of patients with Class III malocclusion , orthopedic protraction of maxilla has been known as an effective method in mixed dentition period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cephalometric changes of Cl III patients in mixed dentition period following face mask therapy and slow maxillary expansion. "nMaterials and Methods: This was a before-after study which was conducted on 10 children in mixed dentition period, who had class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency according to the Stiener and Mc Namara's analysis. The patients were all treated by protraction face mask and slow maxillary expansion. The cephalometric changes of maxilla , mandible and dental relations during the treatment were analyzed by Paired sample T Test. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significant. "nResults: The overjet increasement was 1.7mm. Co. ANS distance improvement was 5.6mm, Ptm.ANS distance increasing was 3mm, and ultimately improvement of Gf.s distance was 1.5mm which were all statistically significant (p<0.05. "nConclusion: Based on the results of this study, face mask therapy with slow maxillary expansion is able to improve the horizotal position of maxilla, in patients with Cl III malocclusion , in mixed dentition period.

  15. Comparison between different dispersion engineering methods in slow light photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of different dispersion engineering methods in slow light photonic crystal waveguides, i.e., geometrical parameter optimization and topology optimization. In both methods, the design robustness is enforced by considering the dilated, intermediate and eroded...... that waveguides with optimized hole sizes and positions can be efficient for dispersion engineering but that large improvements are possible if irregular geometries are allowed using topology optimization....

  16. Fast and slow thinking in distressing delusions: A review of the literature and implications for targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Thomas; Garety, Philippa A

    2017-09-16

    The recent literature on reasoning biases in psychosis and delusions is reviewed. The state-of-the-art knowledge from systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the evidence for jumping to conclusions is briefly summarised, before a fuller discussion of the more recent empirical literature on belief flexibility as applied to delusions. The methodology and evidence in relation to studies of belief flexibility and the Bias Against Disconfirmatory Evidence (BADE) across the delusional continuum will be critically appraised, and implications drawn for improving cognitive therapy. It will be proposed that dual process models of reasoning, which Kahneman (Kahneman, 2011) popularised as 'fast and slow thinking', provide a useful theoretical framework for integrating further research and informing clinical practice. The emergence of therapies which specifically target fast and slow thinking in people with distressing delusions will be described. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Methods for slow axis beam quality improvement of high power broad area diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Haiyan; Xiong, Yihan; Jiang, Ching-Long J.; Schmidt, Berthold; Treusch, Georg

    2014-03-01

    For high brightness direct diode laser systems, it is of fundamental importance to improve the slow axis beam quality of the incorporated laser diodes regardless what beam combining technology is applied. To further advance our products in terms of increased brightness at a high power level, we must optimize the slow axis beam quality despite the far field blooming at high current levels. The later is caused predominantly by the built-in index step in combination with the thermal lens effect. Most of the methods for beam quality improvements reported in publications sacrifice the device efficiency and reliable output power. In order to improve the beam quality as well as maintain the efficiency and reliable output power, we investigated methods of influencing local heat generation to reduce the thermal gradient across the slow axis direction, optimizing the built-in index step and discriminating high order modes. Based on our findings, we have combined different methods in our new device design. Subsequently, the beam parameter product (BPP) of a 10% fill factor bar has improved by approximately 30% at 7 W/emitter without efficiency penalty. This technology has enabled fiber coupled high brightness multi-kilowatt direct diode laser systems. In this paper, we will elaborate on the methods used as well as the results achieved.

  18. A system and method for online high-resolution mapping of gastric slow-wave activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Simon H; O'Grady, Gregory; Du, Peng; Cheng, Leo K

    2014-11-01

    High-resolution (HR) mapping employs multielectrode arrays to achieve spatially detailed analyses of propagating bioelectrical events. A major current limitation is that spatial analyses must currently be performed "off-line" (after experiments), compromising timely recording feedback and restricting experimental interventions. These problems motivated development of a system and method for "online" HR mapping. HR gastric recordings were acquired and streamed to a novel software client. Algorithms were devised to filter data, identify slow-wave events, eliminate corrupt channels, and cluster activation events. A graphical user interface animated data and plotted electrograms and maps. Results were compared against off-line methods. The online system analyzed 256-channel serosal recordings with no unexpected system terminations with a mean delay 18 s. Activation time marking sensitivity was 0.92; positive predictive value was 0.93. Abnormal slow-wave patterns including conduction blocks, ectopic pacemaking, and colliding wave fronts were reliably identified. Compared to traditional analysis methods, online mapping had comparable results with equivalent coverage of 90% of electrodes, average RMS errors of less than 1 s, and CC of activation maps of 0.99. Accurate slow-wave mapping was achieved in near real-time, enabling monitoring of recording quality and experimental interventions targeted to dysrhythmic onset. This work also advances the translation of HR mapping toward real-time clinical application.

  19. Reduced dynamics in spin-boson models: A method for both slow and fast bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golosov, Andrei A.; Friesner, Richard A.; Pechukas, Philip

    2000-01-01

    We study a model for treating dissipative systems, a one dimensional quantum system coupled to a harmonic bath. The dynamics of such a system can be described by Feynman's path integral expression for the reduced density matrix. In this formulation the interaction of the system with the environment is stored in the influence functional. Recently we showed that fast environmental modes that give rise to correlations in the influence functional which are short range in time can be treated efficiently by a memory equation algorithm, which is a discretized version of a master equation. In this work we extend this approach to treat slow environmental modes as well, thereby efficiently linking adiabatic and nonadiabatic regimes. In this extended method the long range correlations in the influence functional arising from slow bath modes are taken into account through Stock's semiclassical self-consistent-field approach. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  20. A New Method for Predicting the Penetration and Slowing-Down of Neutrons in Reactor Shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjaerne, L.; Leimdoerfer, M.

    1965-05-01

    A new approach is presented in the formulation of removal-diffusion theory. The 'removal cross-section' is redefined and the slowing-down between the multigroup diffusion equations is treated with a complete energy transfer matrix rather than in an age theory approximation. The method, based on the new approach contains an adjustable parameter. Examples of neutron spectra and thermal flux penetrations are given in a number of differing shield configurations and the results compare favorably with experiments and Moments Method calculations

  1. A New Method for Predicting the Penetration and Slowing-Down of Neutrons in Reactor Shields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjaerne, L; Leimdoerfer, M

    1965-05-15

    A new approach is presented in the formulation of removal-diffusion theory. The 'removal cross-section' is redefined and the slowing-down between the multigroup diffusion equations is treated with a complete energy transfer matrix rather than in an age theory approximation. The method, based on the new approach contains an adjustable parameter. Examples of neutron spectra and thermal flux penetrations are given in a number of differing shield configurations and the results compare favorably with experiments and Moments Method calculations.

  2. ROLAIDS-CPM, 1-D Slowing-Down by Collision Problems Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Kruijf, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: ROLAIDS-CPM is based on the AMPX-module ROLAIDS (PSR-315). CPM stands for Collision Probability Method. ROLAIDS is a one-dimensional slowing-down code which uses the interface currents method. ROLAIDS-CPM does not need the assumption of cosine currents at the interface of the zones. Extensions: collision probability method for slab and cylinder geometry; different temperatures for a nuclide can be used; flat lethargy source can be modelled. 2 - Method of solution: Collision probabilities in cylindrical geometry are calculated according to the Carlvik Method. This means that a Gauss integration is used. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The maximum number of zones is 30 for the collision probability method

  3. Early warning of climate tipping points from critical slowing down: comparing methods to improve robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, T. M.; Livina, V. N.; Dakos, V.; Van Nes, E. H.; Scheffer, M.

    2012-01-01

    We address whether robust early warning signals can, in principle, be provided before a climate tipping point is reached, focusing on methods that seek to detect critical slowing down as a precursor of bifurcation. As a test bed, six previously analysed datasets are reconsidered, three palaeoclimate records approaching abrupt transitions at the end of the last ice age and three models of varying complexity forced through a collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Approaches based on examining the lag-1 autocorrelation function or on detrended fluctuation analysis are applied together and compared. The effects of aggregating the data, detrending method, sliding window length and filtering bandwidth are examined. Robust indicators of critical slowing down are found prior to the abrupt warming event at the end of the Younger Dryas, but the indicators are less clear prior to the Bølling-Allerød warming, or glacial termination in Antarctica. Early warnings of thermohaline circulation collapse can be masked by inter-annual variability driven by atmospheric dynamics. However, rapidly decaying modes can be successfully filtered out by using a long bandwidth or by aggregating data. The two methods have complementary strengths and weaknesses and we recommend applying them together to improve the robustness of early warnings. PMID:22291229

  4. Influence of tungsten fiber’s slow drift on the measurement of G with angular acceleration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Jie; Wu, Wei-Huang; Zhan, Wen-Ze [School of Mechanical Engineering and Electronic Information, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Xue, Chao [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Physics and Astronomy, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Shao, Cheng-Gang, E-mail: cgshao@mail.hust.edu.cn; Wu, Jun-Fei [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Milyukov, Vadim [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    In the measurement of the gravitational constant G with angular acceleration method, the equilibrium position of torsion pendulum with tungsten fiber undergoes a linear slow drift, which results in a quadratic slow drift on the angular velocity of the torsion balance turntable under feedback control unit. The accurate amplitude determination of the useful angular acceleration signal with known frequency is biased by the linear slow drift and the coupling effect of the drifting equilibrium position and the room fixed gravitational background signal. We calculate the influences of the linear slow drift and the complex coupling effect on the value of G, respectively. The result shows that the bias of the linear slow drift on G is 7 ppm, and the influence of the coupling effect is less than 1 ppm.

  5. Methods of Feminist Family Therapy Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Anne M.; Thomas, Volker; Johnson, Scott; Long, Janie K.

    2001-01-01

    Presents three supervision methods which emerged from a qualitative study of the experiences of feminist family therapy supervisors and the therapists they supervised: the supervision contract, collaborative methods, and hierarchical methods. Provides a description of the participants' experiences of these methods and discusses their fit with…

  6. Episomal Nonviral Gene Therapy Vectors Slow Progression of Atherosclerosis in a Model of Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair G Kerr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH is a life-threatening genetic disorder characterized by elevated levels of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol. Current attempts at gene therapy for FH have been limited by the use of strong heterologous promoters which lack genomic DNA elements essential for regulated expression. Here, we have combined a minigene vector expressing the human LDLR cDNA from a 10 kb native human LDLR locus genomic DNA promoter element, with an efficient miRNA targeting 3-hydroxy-3-methylgutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr, to further enhance LDLR expression. We show that the combined vector suppresses endogenous Hmgcr transcripts in vivo, leading to an increase in LDLR transgene expression. In a diet-induced Ldlr-/- mouse model of FH, we show that administration of the combined vector reduces atherogenic plasma lipids by ≃32%. Finally, we demonstrate that our episomal nonviral vectors are able to reduce atherosclerosis by ≃40% after 12 weeks in vivo. Taken together, the vector system we describe exploits the normal cellular regulation of the LDLR to provide prolonged expression of LDLR through targeted knockdown of Hmgcr. This novel gene therapy system could act alone, or in synergy with current therapies that modulate intracellular cholesterol, such as statins, greatly enhancing its therapeutic application for FH.

  7. ADVANCEMENTS IN TIME-SPECTRA ANALYSIS METHODS FOR LEAD SLOWING-DOWN SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Leon E.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Shaver, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Direct measurement of Pu in spent nuclear fuel remains a key challenge for safeguarding nuclear fuel cycles of today and tomorrow. Lead slowing-down spectroscopy (LSDS) is an active nondestructive assay method that has the potential to provide independent, direct measurement of Pu and U isotopic mass with an uncertainty lower than the approximately 10 percent typical of today's confirmatory assay methods. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) previous work to assess the viability of LSDS for the assay of pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies indicated that the method could provide direct assay of Pu-239 and U-235 (and possibly Pu-240 and Pu-241) with uncertainties less than a few percent, assuming suitably efficient instrumentation, an intense pulsed neutron source, and improvements in the time-spectra analysis methods used to extract isotopic information from a complex LSDS signal. This previous simulation-based evaluation used relatively simple PWR fuel assembly definitions (e.g. constant burnup across the assembly) and a constant initial enrichment and cooling time. The time-spectra analysis method was founded on a preliminary analytical model of self-shielding intended to correct for assay-signal nonlinearities introduced by attenuation of the interrogating neutron flux within the assembly.

  8. A data-driven prediction method for fast-slow systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Andreas; Chekroun, Mickael; Kondrashov, Dmitri; Ghil, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we present a prediction method for processes that exhibit a mixture of variability on low and fast scales. The method relies on combining empirical model reduction (EMR) with singular spectrum analysis (SSA). EMR is a data-driven methodology for constructing stochastic low-dimensional models that account for nonlinearity and serial correlation in the estimated noise, while SSA provides a decomposition of the complex dynamics into low-order components that capture spatio-temporal behavior on different time scales. Our study focuses on the data-driven modeling of partial observations from dynamical systems that exhibit power spectra with broad peaks. The main result in this talk is that the combination of SSA pre-filtering with EMR modeling improves, under certain circumstances, the modeling and prediction skill of such a system, as compared to a standard EMR prediction based on raw data. Specifically, it is the separation into "fast" and "slow" temporal scales by the SSA pre-filtering that achieves the improvement. We show, in particular that the resulting EMR-SSA emulators help predict intermittent behavior such as rapid transitions between specific regions of the system's phase space. This capability of the EMR-SSA prediction will be demonstrated on two low-dimensional models: the Rössler system and a Lotka-Volterra model for interspecies competition. In either case, the chaotic dynamics is produced through a Shilnikov-type mechanism and we argue that the latter seems to be an important ingredient for the good prediction skills of EMR-SSA emulators. Shilnikov-type behavior has been shown to arise in various complex geophysical fluid models, such as baroclinic quasi-geostrophic flows in the mid-latitude atmosphere and wind-driven double-gyre ocean circulation models. This pervasiveness of the Shilnikow mechanism of fast-slow transition opens interesting perspectives for the extension of the proposed EMR-SSA approach to more realistic situations.

  9. Mixed methods research in music therapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Burns, Debra S; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Music therapists have an ethical and professional responsibility to provide the highest quality care possible to their patients. Much of the time, high quality care is guided by evidence-based practice standards that integrate the most current, available research in making decisions. Accordingly, music therapists need research that integrates multiple ways of knowing and forms of evidence. Mixed methods research holds great promise for facilitating such integration. At this time, there have not been any methodological articles published on mixed methods research in music therapy. The purpose of this article is to introduce mixed methods research as an approach to address research questions relevant to music therapy practice. This article describes the core characteristics of mixed methods research, considers paradigmatic issues related to this research approach, articulates major challenges in conducting mixed methods research, illustrates four basic designs, and provides criteria for evaluating the quality of mixed methods articles using examples of mixed methods research from the music therapy literature. Mixed methods research offers unique opportunities for strengthening the evidence base in music therapy. Recommendations are provided to ensure rigorous implementation of this research approach.

  10. Cryopreservation of human oocytes, zygotes, embryos and blastocysts: A comparison study between slow freezing and ultra rapid (vitrification methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahani Al-Azawi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of female genetics is currently done primarily by means of oocyte and embryo cryopreservation. The field has seen much progress during its four-decade history, progress driven predominantly by research in humans. It can also be done by preservation of ovarian tissue or entire ovary for transplantation, followed by oocyte harvesting or natural fertilization. Two basic cryopreservation techniques rule the field, slow-rate freezing, the first to be developed and vitrification which in recent years, has gained a foothold. The slow-rate freezing method previously reported had low survival and pregnancy rates, along with the high cost of cryopreservation. Although there are some recent data indicating better survival rates, cryopreservation by the slow freezing method has started to discontinue. Vitrification of human embryos, especially at early stages, became a more popular alternative to the slow rate freezing method due to reported comparable clinical and laboratory outcomes. In addition, vitrification is relatively simple, requires no expensive programmable freezing equipment, and uses a small amount of liquid nitrogen for freezing. Moreover, oocyte cryopreservation using vitrification has been proposed as a solution to maintain women’s fertility by serving and freezing their oocytes at the optimal time. The aim of this research is to compare slow freezing and vitrification in cryopreservation of oocytes, zygotes, embryos and blastocysts during the last twelve years. Therefore, due to a lot of controversies in this regard, we tried to achieve an exact idea about the subject and the best technique used.

  11. Slow pre-movement cortical potentials do not reflect individual response to therapy in writer's cramp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuner, K E; Peller, M; Knutzen, A

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP) provide a physiological correlate that indicates the response to treatment in patients with writer's cramp. METHODS: In 21 patients with writer's cramp, who underwent 4 weeks of limb immobilization followed by re...... apart. RESULTS: Patients benefited from the therapeutical intervention (Zeuner et al., 2008). They showed no abnormalities of the MRCPs at baseline. In controls, MRCPs did not significantly change after 4 weeks. In patients, immobilization and re-training had no effect on MRCPs. There was no correlation......-training for 8 weeks, we recorded MRCPs preceding a self-initiated brisk finger abduction movement. MRCP measurements of pre-movement activity were performed at baseline, after the end of immobilization and four and 8 weeks of re-training. We examined 12 controls, who received no intervention, twice 4 weeks...

  12. Determination of the slow crack growth susceptibility coefficient of dental ceramics using different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Miranda, Walter Gomes; Yoshimura, Humberto Naoyuki

    2011-11-01

    This study compared three methods for the determination of the slow crack growth susceptibility coefficient (n) of two veneering ceramics (VM7 and d.Sign), two glass-ceramics (Empress and Empress 2) and a glass-infiltrated alumina composite (In-Ceram Alumina). Discs (n = 10) were prepared according to manufacturers' recommendations and polished. The constant stress-rate test was performed at five constant stress rates to calculate n(d) . For the indentation fracture test to determine n(IF) , Vickers indentations were performed and the crack lengths were measured under an optical microscope. For the constant stress test (performed only for d.Sign for the determination of n(s) ) four constant stresses were applied and held constant until the specimens' fracture and the time to failure was recorded. All tests were performed in artificial saliva at 37°C. The n(d) values were 17.2 for Empress 2, followed by d.Sign (20.5), VM7 (26.5), Empress (30.2), and In-Ceram Alumina (31.1). In-Ceram Alumina and Empress 2 showed the highest n(IF) values, 66.0 and 40.2, respectively. The n(IF) values determined for Empress (25.2), d.Sign (25.6), and VM7 (20.1) were similar. The n(s) value determined for d.Sign was 31.4. It can be concluded that the n values determined for the dental ceramics evaluated were significantly influenced by the test method used. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Analysis and Calculation Method of Urban Rail Transit Carrying Capacity Based on Express-Slow Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban railway transport that connects suburbs and city areas is characterized by uneven temporal and spatial distribution in terms of passenger flow and underutilized carrying capacity. This paper aims to develop methodologies to measure the carrying capacity of the urban railway by introducing a concept of the express-slow mode. We first explore factors influencing the carrying capacity under the express-slow mode and the interactive relationships among these factors. Then we establish seven different scenarios to measure the carrying capacity by considering the ratio of the number of the express trains and the slow trains, the station where overtaking takes place, and the number of overtaking maneuvers. Taking Shanghai Metro Line 16 as an empirical study, the proposed methods to measure the carrying capacity under different express-slow mode are proved to be valid. This paper contributes to the literature by remodifying the traditional methods to measure the carrying capacity when different express-slow modes are applied to improve the carrying capacity of the suburban railway.

  14. Slow Antihydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielse, G.; Speck, A.; Storry, C.H.; Le Sage, D.; Guise, N.; Larochelle, P.C.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Schepers, G.; Sefzick, T.; Pittner, H.; Herrmann, M.; Walz, J.; Haensch, T.W.; Comeau, D.; Hessels, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Slow antihydrogen is now produced by two different production methods. In Method I, large numbers of H atoms are produced during positron-cooling of antiprotons within a nested Penning trap. In a just-demonstrated Method II, lasers control the production of antihydrogen atoms via charge exchange collisions. Field ionization detection makes it possible to probe the internal structure of the antihydrogen atoms being produced - most recently revealing atoms that are too tightly bound to be well described by the guiding center atom approximation. The speed of antihydrogen atoms has recently been measured for the first time. After the requested overview, the recent developments are surveyed

  15. Activities in the Dynamic Occupational Therapy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jô Benetton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the concept and use of the instrument named ‘activities’ in occupational therapy, sustained by the propositions of the Dynamic Occupational Therapy Method (DOTM. Initially, we present general aspects related to the activities in the DOTM such as the option for the name ‘activities’, its conceptual definition, use as a tool, and active participation in the dynamic of triadic relationship. Further, it approaches the character of activities: therapeutic, educational and social qualities, which distinguish this peculiar occupational therapy. Moreover, the paper highlights the use of activities as a tool, both as a central element of the processes that should underpin clinical reasoning (observation, information, association, setting up space of historicity, and construction of narrative, and as an element belonging to diagnostic procedures, to the course of clinical process, and to evaluation. Finally, we present our understanding of what we call resources in DOTM, and its intrinsic connection with the possibility of performing ‘activities’. For the creation of DOTM, occupational therapy, as a practice focused on the uniqueness of the case, was made the object of study in order to promote knowledge construction. The conceptual and instrumental framework presented in this work held this effort. We hope that this study could be useful for initial and continuing training in Occupational Therapy as well as for enriching the debate on the use of ‘activities’ in our profession.

  16. Diabetic osteoarthropathy: modern methods of therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Nikolaevna Ul'yanova

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the main aspects of pathogenesis of diabetic osteoarthropathy (DOAP underlain by motor and sensory neuropathies, injuries(including microfractures and joint disintegration, and inflammation accompanied by enhanced cytokine expression. The role of osteopenia andbone resorption-formation decoupling at different stages of DOAP is discussed. Modern methods of DOAP treatment are considered with special referenceto immobilization, drug therapy, surgical and orthopedic care

  17. A framework for the correction of slow physiological drifts during MR-guided HIFU therapies : Proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zachiu, Cornel; de Senneville, Baudouin Denis; Moonen, Chrit; Ries, Mario

    Purpose: While respiratory motion compensation for magnetic resonance (MR)-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) interventions has been extensively studied, the influence of slow physiological motion due to, for example, peristaltic activity, has so far been largely neglected. During

  18. Slow-wave sleep estimation on a load-cell-installed bed: a non-constrained method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Hun; Chung, Gih Sung; Lee, Jin-Seong; Jeong, Do-Un; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-01-01

    Polysomnography (PSG) involves simultaneous and continuous monitoring of relevant normal and abnormal physiological activity during sleep. At present, an electroencephalography-based rule is generally used for classifying sleep stages. However, scoring the PSG record is quite laborious and time consuming. In this paper, movement and cardiac activity were measured unobtrusively by a load-cell-installed bed, and sleep was classified into two stages: slow-wave sleep and non-slow-wave sleep. From the measured cardiac activity, we extracted heartbeat data and calculated heart rate variability parameters: standard deviation of R–R intervals SDNN, low frequency-to-high frequency ratio, alpha of detrended fluctuation analysis and correlation coefficient of R–R interval. The developed system showed a substantial concordance with PSG results when compared using a contingency test. The mean epoch-by-epoch agreement between the proposed method and PSG was 92.5% and Cohen's kappa was 0.62

  19. "Fast" and "slow" skeleto-fusimotor innervation in cat tenuissimus spindles; a study with the glycogen-depletion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jami, L; Lan-Couton, D; Malmgren, K; Petit, J

    1978-07-01

    The glycogen-depletion method was used to investigate the motor supply to tenuissimus with respect to the presence of fast beta axons and to assess the total proportion of both fast and slow beta-innervated spindles in this muscle. In a first series of 5 expts., groups of motor axons with conduction velocities higher than 85 m/s were repetitively stimulated so as to produce glycogen depletion in the muscle fibres they innervated. The whole muscle was then quick-frozen, serially cut, stained to demonstrate glycogen and examined for intrafusal glycogen depletion. Zones of glycogen depletion were found in 16 of the 46 examined spindles; they were most frequently located in the longest of the chain intrafusal muscle fibres. Since it is known that there are no purely fusimotor axons to tenuissimus with conduction velocities above 50 m/s, it was concluded that beta axons are present among the fastest axons to this muscle. In a second series of 5 expts. as many motor axons as possible with conduction velocities above 60 m/s were stimulated. Zones of glycogen depletion were found in 19 of the 47 examined spindles. They affected chain fibres in about half of the instances and bag1 fibers in the others. As this latter location is characteristic of slow dynamic beta axons, it was concluded that both slow and fast beta axons occur regularly in the motor supply to tenuissimus. beta-innervation is present in at least 40% of tenuissimus spindles with almost no convergence of fast and slow beta axons onto the same spindle.

  20. Source of spill ripple in the RF-KO slow-extraction method with FM and AM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, K.; Furukawa, T.; Shibuya, S.; Muramatsu, M.; Uesugi, T.; Kanazawa, M.; Torikoshi, M.; Takada, E.; Yamada, S.

    2002-01-01

    The RF-knockout (RF-KO) slow-extraction method with frequency modulation (FM) and amplitude modulation (AM) has brought high-accuracy irradiation to the treatment of a cancer tumor moving with respiration, because of a quick response to beam start/stop. However, a beam spill extracted from a synchrotron ring through RF-KO slow-extraction has a huge ripple with a frequency of around 1 kHz related to the FM. The spill ripple will disturb the lateral dose distribution in the beam scanning methods. Thus, the source of the spill ripple has been investigated through experiments and simulations. There are two tune regions for the extraction process through the RF-KO method: the extraction region and the diffusion region. The particles in the extraction region can be extracted due to amplitude growth through the transverse RF field, only when its frequency matches with the tune in the extraction region. For a large chromaticity, however, the particles in the extraction region can be extracted through the synchrotron oscillation, even when the frequency does not match with the tune in the extraction region. Thus, the spill structure during one period of the FM strongly depends on the horizontal chromaticity. They are repeated with the repetition frequency of the FM, which is the very source of the spill ripple in the RF-KO method

  1. Source of spill ripple in the RF-KO slow-extraction method with FM and AM

    CERN Document Server

    Noda, K; Shibuya, S; Muramatsu, M; Uesugi, T; Kanazawa, M; Torikoshi, M; Takada, E; Yamada, S

    2002-01-01

    The RF-knockout (RF-KO) slow-extraction method with frequency modulation (FM) and amplitude modulation (AM) has brought high-accuracy irradiation to the treatment of a cancer tumor moving with respiration, because of a quick response to beam start/stop. However, a beam spill extracted from a synchrotron ring through RF-KO slow-extraction has a huge ripple with a frequency of around 1 kHz related to the FM. The spill ripple will disturb the lateral dose distribution in the beam scanning methods. Thus, the source of the spill ripple has been investigated through experiments and simulations. There are two tune regions for the extraction process through the RF-KO method: the extraction region and the diffusion region. The particles in the extraction region can be extracted due to amplitude growth through the transverse RF field, only when its frequency matches with the tune in the extraction region. For a large chromaticity, however, the particles in the extraction region can be extracted through the synchrotron ...

  2. Vegetative deviation in patients with slow-repair processes in the post-operative wound and effect of the combined use of low-intensity laser therapy and pantovegin electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugieva M.Z.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of combined use of low-intensity infrared laser therapy when exposed area of the thymus and electrophoresis of pantovegin on vegetative status of patients with the slowdown in the wound recovery reparative processes. Material study were 190 patients after gynecological laparotomy. Result. The article presents data on changes in vegetative status in postoperative gynecological patients with a slowdown in the wound recovery reparative processes. In this group of patients in the postoperative period parasimpatikotony prevails. By combination of low-intensity infrared laser therapy when exposed area of the thymus and pantovegin electrophoresis achieved more rapid normalization of available changes with the transition to the use of combination eitony. It is recommended to use physiotherapy method for slowing reparative processes in the wound.

  3. Some method for teaching physics to residents in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D.B.

    A method is presented for teaching physics to residents in radiation therapy. Some of the various responsabilities of a hospital physicist are listed, with particular reference to radiation therapy departments [pt

  4. Colonic transit time in patient with slow-transit constipation: Comparison of radiopaque markers and barium suspension method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Huimin [Department of General Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 8 Gongtina Lu, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100020 (China); Department of General Surgery, Weifang People' s Hospital, ShanDong Province 261041 (China); Han Jiagang [Department of General Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 8 Gongtina Lu, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100020 (China); Na Ying [Department of Medical Imaging, Weifang People' s Hospital, ShanDong Province 261041 (China); Zhao Bo; Ma Huachong [Department of General Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 8 Gongtina Lu, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100020 (China); Wang Zhenjun, E-mail: wang3zj@sohu.com [Department of General Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 8 Gongtina Lu, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100020 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Background: Colonic transit study provides valuable information before surgical treatment is considered for patient with constipation. The radiopaque markers method is the most common way for evaluating colon transit time. The aim of this study is to compare the barium suspension with the radiopaque makers to assess the colonic mobility in patient with constipation. Methods: Colonic transit time was measured in 11 female patients with slow-transit constipation using both radiopaque markers and barium suspension method. In radiopaque markers method, the patient ingested 20 markers on the first day, and an abdominal radiograph was performed every 24 h until 80% markers were excreted. In barium suspension method, the patient swallowed up to 50 ml of 200% (w/v) barium meal. The abdominal radiographs were taken at the same time point as the former. Results: The total or segmental colonic transit time were obviously prolonged in all patients. Segmental transits time spent in the right colon, left colon and rectosigmoid for radiopaque markers and barium suspension method was, respectively, 30 {+-} 6 h and 34 {+-} 7 h; 38 {+-} 9 h and 32 {+-} 6 h; 40 {+-} 8 h and 38 {+-} 10 h. In the radiopaque markers method, total colonic transit time was 108 {+-} 14 h and it was 103 {+-} 13 h in the barium suspension method (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The barium suspension and radiopaque markers gave the similar results for colonic transit time. The barium suspension was a simple and cheap method for evaluating the colonic mobility.

  5. Colonic transit time in patient with slow-transit constipation: Comparison of radiopaque markers and barium suspension method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Huimin; Han Jiagang; Na Ying; Zhao Bo; Ma Huachong; Wang Zhenjun

    2011-01-01

    Background: Colonic transit study provides valuable information before surgical treatment is considered for patient with constipation. The radiopaque markers method is the most common way for evaluating colon transit time. The aim of this study is to compare the barium suspension with the radiopaque makers to assess the colonic mobility in patient with constipation. Methods: Colonic transit time was measured in 11 female patients with slow-transit constipation using both radiopaque markers and barium suspension method. In radiopaque markers method, the patient ingested 20 markers on the first day, and an abdominal radiograph was performed every 24 h until 80% markers were excreted. In barium suspension method, the patient swallowed up to 50 ml of 200% (w/v) barium meal. The abdominal radiographs were taken at the same time point as the former. Results: The total or segmental colonic transit time were obviously prolonged in all patients. Segmental transits time spent in the right colon, left colon and rectosigmoid for radiopaque markers and barium suspension method was, respectively, 30 ± 6 h and 34 ± 7 h; 38 ± 9 h and 32 ± 6 h; 40 ± 8 h and 38 ± 10 h. In the radiopaque markers method, total colonic transit time was 108 ± 14 h and it was 103 ± 13 h in the barium suspension method (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The barium suspension and radiopaque markers gave the similar results for colonic transit time. The barium suspension was a simple and cheap method for evaluating the colonic mobility.

  6. Slow briefs: slow food....slow architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Crotch, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    We are moving too fast…fast lives, fast cars, fast food…..and fast architecture. We are caught up in a world that allows no time to stop and think; to appreciate and enjoy all the really important things in our lives. Recent responses to this seemingly unstoppable trend are the growing movements of Slow Food and Cittaslow. Both initiatives are, within their own realms, attempting to reverse speed, homogeny, expediency and globalisation, considering the values of regionality, patience, craft, ...

  7. A boundary integral method for two-dimensional (non)-Newtonian drops in slow viscous flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toose, E.M.; Geurts, B.J.; Kuerten, J.G.M.

    1995-01-01

    A boundary integral method for the simulation of the time-dependent deformation of Newtonian or non-Newtonian drops suspended in a Newtonian fluid is developed. The boundary integral formulation for Stokes flow is used and the non-Newtonian stress is treated as a source term which yields an extra

  8. Laser therapy and comparative therapy methods in parodontology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, P

    1997-02-01

    This two studies aim to examine application of a diode-laser in periodontal therapy. The aim of the pilot-study was to examine the immediate effect of the diode-laser in reducing the bacterial concentration in periodontal pockets. 50 patients were randomly subdivided into two groups (laser group, control group) and microbiologic samples were collected. One week after the therapy (1 st group: scaling and laser, 2 nd group: scaling) there were taken further more samples from the same periodontal pockets treated before. The microbiologic samples were evaluated to verify bacterial elimination from the periodontal pockets, especially Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans could be considerably eliminated from periodontal pockets by the diode laser. In the long-term study, there were two groups, one laser-group and one control-group. All 50 patients were required to have periodontal pockets with a minimum depth of 4 mm in each quadrate. The bacterial reduction, the change of bleeding on probing and the pocket depth had been evaluated six months after therapy. The irradiation with the diode laser allows considerable bacterial elimination, the index of bleeding on probing came out to be significantly better than in the control group. The reduction of pocket depth was also greater than in the control group. (author)

  9. Some possibilities of the slow electron diffraction method when studying film systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsanova, T.S.; Tumareva, T.A.; Kiseleva, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    A film structure of an initial thickness was studied with film probing in depth by an electron beam; for this purpose energy of incident electrons changed in sufficient wide ranges. Barium oxide films of 6-10 monolayer thickness deposited on a monocrystal (110) W have been chosen for the investigation. The structure was detected in a certain temperature range (850-1250 K) and the maximum development, the largest energy range fit approximatly 1000-1100 K temperature. Optimal temperature increases slightly with increasing an initial film thickness. The investigations carried on have shown that the structure of barium oxide films is heterogeneous in the layer thickness. This is concerned espicially the films of 6-10 monolayers. Notwithstanding the thickness trifle, the ''surface'' which structure was different from a region immediately adjacent to a substrate may be separated in films of this area. The method of the investigation in layers, i. e. the method for observing the film structure when varying incident electron energy permitted to establish that an absolute by certain structure of the layer adjacent to a substrate corresponds to each structure of the surface layer. In turn the structures of the layer adjacent to a substrate for the total film thickness of 6-10 monolayers turn out to be similar to the structures of 2-5 monolayer film, anyhow these structures are described with similar diffraction pictures

  10. SlowMo, a digital therapy targeting reasoning in paranoia, versus treatment as usual in the treatment of people who fear harm from others: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garety, Philippa A; Ward, Thomas; Freeman, Daniel; Fowler, David; Emsley, Richard; Dunn, Graham; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Bebbington, Paul; Waller, Helen; Greenwood, Kathryn; Rus-Calafell, Mar; McGourty, Alison; Hardy, Amy

    2017-11-02

    Paranoia is one of the most common symptoms of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, and is associated with significant distress and disruption to the person's life. Developing more effective and accessible psychological interventions for paranoia is a clinical priority. Our research team has approached this challenge in two main ways: firstly, by adopting an interventionist causal approach to increase effectiveness and secondly, by incorporating user-centred inclusive design methods to enhance accessibility and usability. Our resultant new digital intervention, SlowMo, intensively targets a reasoning style associated with paranoia, fast thinking, characterised by jumping to conclusions and belief inflexibility. It consists of an easy-to-use, enjoyable and memorable digital interface. An interactive web-based app facilitates delivery of face-to-face meetings which is then synchronised with an innovative mobile app for use in daily life. We aim to test the clinical efficacy of SlowMo over 24 weeks to determine the mechanisms through which it reduces paranoia, and to identify participant characteristics that moderate its effectiveness. In a parallel-group randomised controlled trial, with 1:1 allocation, 360 participants with distressing persecutory beliefs will be independently randomised to receive either the SlowMo intervention added to treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU, using randomly varying permuted blocks, stratified by paranoia severity and site. Research workers will be blind to therapy allocation. The primary outcome is paranoia severity over 24 weeks; our hypothesised mechanism of change is reasoning; moderators include negative symptoms and working memory; and secondary outcomes include wellbeing, quality of life, and service use. The accessibility, usability and acceptability of the digital platform will be assessed. SlowMo has been developed as the first blended digital therapy to target fears of harm from others through an inclusive design approach. In

  11. Molecular methods in nuclear medicine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Han

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear medicine has traditionally contributed to molecular oncology by allowing noninvasive monitoring of tumor metabolism, growth and genetic changes, thereby providing a basis for appropriate biology-based treatment planning. However, NM techniques are now being applied as an active therapeutic tool in novel molecular approaches for cancer treatment. Such areas include research on cancer therapy with radiolabeled ligands or oligonucleotides, and utilization of synergism between NM radiotherapy and gene transfer techniques. Here we will focus on novel aspects of nuclear medicine therapy

  12. Measurement of the anti reactivity of a control rod of G1, by a slow oscillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, D.; Leroy, J.; Vidal, R.

    1957-01-01

    It is possible to determine the effect of the end of a control rod on the reactivity of the pile by measuring the modulation induced in the neutron flux by the slow oscillation of this control rod. The total effect of the control rod can be deduced, given certain hypothesis and corrections, from the experimental curve giving the effect of the end of the rod as a function of its position. This method has the advantage of permitting the measurement of very large anti reactivities, such as p= 10 -2 for example, which would not be possible by other kinetic methods. Thus the control rod B 3 , in the low position, brings about a reduction in reactivity equal to 1130 p.c.m. ± 30 in the pile charged with 518 fuel elements, on one side only of the slit. We have compared the oscillation method with the classical divergence method, in the fields where the two measurements were possible: a satisfactory agreement was found. We have established that the phase displacement between the oscillation of the rod and the modulation of the flux varied greatly with the position of the rod. This variation cannot be explained on the basis of the dynamic model independent of space; we have attributed it to the influence of spatial harmonics of the flux distribution, and have determined a correction which frees the measurements of this influence. (author) [fr

  13. A Simple and Efficient Method of Slow Freezing for Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Keitaro; Iha, Momoe; Nishishita, Naoki; Kawamata, Shin; Nishikawa, Shinichi; Akuta, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    Protocols available for the cryopreservation of human embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are very inefficient and laborious compared to those for the cryopreservation of murine ES/iPS cells or other general cell lines. While the vitrification method may be adequate when working with small numbers of human ES/iPS cells, it requires special skills and is unsuitable when working with large cell numbers. Here, we describe a simple and efficient method for the cryopreservation of hES/hiPS cells that is based on a conventional slow freezing method that uses a combination of Pronase/EDTA for Stem™ and CP-5E™ [final concentrations: 6 % hydroxyethyl starch, 5 % DMSO, and 5 % ethylene glycol in saline]. CP-5E™ is highly effective for the cryopreservation of small cell clumps produced by hES/hiPS colony detachment in the presence of Pronase and EDTA (Pronase/EDTA for Stem™, a formulation containing multiple digestive enzymes from Streptomyces griseus). This novel method would be quite useful for large-scale hES/iPS cell banking for use in clinical applications.

  14. Using mixed methods in music therapy health care research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2015-01-01

    »Mixed methods« (or »multiple methods») is a fairly new concept in music therapy research. It is inspired by recent methodological developments in social science, covering the interaction of quantitative and qualitative methods in one and the same research study. Mixed methods are not the same...... as the diversity or pluralism of methods advocated by many scholars who are critical towards the principles of evidence-based medicine. This article presents a concrete example of mixed methods in music therapy research: a psycho-social study of music therapy with female cancer survivors. Problems related...

  15. Drug resistance in HIV patients with virological failure or slow virological response to antiretroviral therapy in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdissa, Alemseged; Yilma, Daniel; Fonager, Jannik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ongoing scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa has prompted the interest in surveillance of transmitted and acquired HIV drug resistance. Resistance data on virological failure and mutations in HIV infected populations initiating treatment in sub-Saharan Af...... mutations among failing patients justify increased vigilance by improving the availability and systematic use of VL testing to monitor ART response, and underlines the need for rapid, inexpensive tests to identify the most common drug resistance mutations....

  16. Very slow neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A.

    1983-01-01

    The history is briefly presented of the research so far of very slow neutrons and their basic properties are explained. The methods are described of obtaining very slow neutrons and the problems of their preservation are discussed. The existence of very slow neutrons makes it possible to perform experiments which may deepen the knowledge of the fundamental properties of neutrons. Their wavelength approximates that of visible radiation. The possibilities and use are discussed of neutron optical systems (neutron microscope) which could be an effective instrument for the study of the detailed arrangement, especially of organic substances. (B.S.)

  17. [Titration comparative study of TOPINA Tablets in patients with localization related epilepsy: double-blind comparative study by rapid and slow titration methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Sunao; Inoue, Yushi; Sasagawa, Mutsuo; Kato, Masaaki

    2012-04-01

    To compare the tolerability and efficacy of two titration methods (rapid and slow titration) for TOPINA Tablets with different dosages and periods of escalation, a double-blind comparative study was conducted in patients with localization-related epilepsy. A total of 183 patients were randomized to either rapid titration (initial dosage 100 mg/day increased by 100-200 mg at weekly intervals) or to slow titration (initial dosage 50 mg/day increased in 50 mg/day increments at weekly intervals). TOPINA Tablets were administered for 12 weeks to the maximum dosage of 400 mg/day. The incident of adverse events leading to treatment interruptions or withdrawals was 18.9% in rapid titration and 14.8% in slow titration, with no statistical significance (p = 0.554). The incident of adverse events and adverse reactions of slow titration was slightly lower than that of rapid titration. The common adverse events and adverse reactions reported in the two titration methods were comparable and were well tolerated. On the other hand, the efficacy of slow titration, percent reduction in seizure rate and responder rate, was comparable with that of rapid titration. In conclusion, there were no significant differences of therapeutic response to TOPINA Tablets between the two titration methods.

  18. Investigation of inorganic nonlinear optical potassium penta borate tetra hydrate (PPBTH) single crystals grown by slow evaporation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivuselvi, R.; Babu, P. Ramesh

    2018-03-01

    Borates family crystals were plays vital role in the field of non linear optics (NLO) due to needs of wide range of applications. In this report, NLO crystals (potassium penta borate tetra hydrate (KB5H8O12) are grown by slow evaporation method at room temperature (28° C) and studied their physical properties. The harvested single crystals are transparent with the dimension of 12 × 10 × 6 mm3 and colourless. X-ray diffraction of single crystals reveals that the grown crystal belongs to orthorhombic system with non-centrosymmetric space group Pba2. All the absorbed functional groups are present in the order of inorganic compounds expect 1688 cm-1 because of water (Osbnd H sbnd O blending) molecule present in the pristine. Crystals show transparent in the entire visible region with 5.9 eV optical band gap and also it shows excellence in both second and third order nonlinear optical properties. Crystals can withstand upto 154 °C without any phase changes which is observed using thermal (TGA/DTA) analysis.

  19. Alternative Therapy of Animals – Homeopathy and Other Alternative Methods of Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Løken Torleiv

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Alternative therapy of animals is described, in the meaning of alternatives to veterinary therapy traditionally accepted by veterinary faculties and schools and included in their curricula. Alternative therapy composes of different disciplines, of which homeopathy is emphasised in this presentation. Information is given on the use and interest of such therapy among veterinarians and animal owners. Homeopathy as other alternative therapies, may offer great advances, if they induce any effect. Some of the disciplines are based on a scientifically accepted documentation. Others, and homeopathy in particular, are missing such a documentation of effect. The justification of including alternative therapy in treating animals is discussed. Research in alternative therapy of animals is greatly needed, in particular to evaluate therapeutic methods which are in extensive use without any documented effect. An ongoing research project in Norway on the effect of homeopathic treatment of mastitis in cows is shortly presented.

  20. The Use of Backscattered Electron Imaging and Transmission Electron Microscopy to Assess Bone Architecture and Mineral Loci: Effect of Intermittent Slow-Release Sodium Fluoride Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerwekh, Joseph E.; Bellotto, Dennis; Prostak, Kenneth S.; Hagler, Herbert K.; Pak, Charles Y. C.

    1996-04-01

    Backscattered electron imaging (BEI) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the effects of treatment with intermittent slow-release sodium fluoride (SRNaF) and continuous calcium citrate on bone architecture and crystallinity. Examination was performed in nondecalcified biopsies obtained from patients following up to four years of therapy (placebo or SRNaF) and compared to pretreatment biopsies from each patient, as well as to bone from young, normal subjects. BEI images disclosed increased areas of recent bone formation following fluoride administration. There was no evidence of a mineralization defect in any biopsy and both cortical and trabecular architecture remained normal. TEM analysis demonstrated intrafibrillar platelike crystals and extrafibrillar needlelike crystals for both the pre- and post-treatment biopsies as well as for the bone from young normal subjects. There was no evidence of increased crystal size or of an increase in extrafibrillar mineral deposition. These observations suggest that intermittent SRNaF and continuous calcium therapy exerts an anabolic action on the skeleton not accompanied by a mineralization defect or an alteration of bone mineral deposition. The use of BEI and TEM holds promise for the study of the pathophysiology and treatment of metabolic bone diseases.

  1. Method of radiation therapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodes, L.

    1976-01-01

    A technique of radiation therapy treatment planning designed to allow the assignment of dosage limits directly to chosen points in the computer-displayed cross-section of the patient. These dosage limits are used as constraints in a linear programming attempt to solve for beam strengths, minimizing integral dosage. If a feasible plan exists, the optimized plan will be displayed for approval as an isodose pattern. If there is no feasible plan, the operator/therapist can designate some of the point dosage constraints as ''relaxed.'' Linear programming will then optimize for minimum deviation at the relaxed points. This process can be iterated and new points selected until an acceptable plan is realized. In this manner the plan is optimized for uniformity as well as overall low dosage. 6 claims, 6 drawing figures

  2. Methods for Stem Cell Production and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valluri, Jagan V. (Inventor); Claudio, Pier Paolo (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for rapidly expanding a stem cell population with or without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention relates to methods for rapidly increasing the life span of stem cell populations without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention also relates to methods for increasing the sensitivity of cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions and in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The methods of the present invention can also be used to proliferate cancer cells by culturing them in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The present invention also relates to methods for testing the sensitivity of cancer cells and cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer cells and cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce tissue for use in transplantation by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors to promote differentiation of cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions.

  3. Music therapy CD creation for initial pediatric radiation therapy: a mixed methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Philippa; O'Callaghan, Clare; Wheeler, Greg; Grocke, Denise

    2010-01-01

    A mixed methods research design was used to investigate the effects of a music therapy CD (MTCD) creation intervention on pediatric oncology patients' distress and coping during their first radiation therapy treatment. The music therapy method involved children creating a music CD using interactive computer-based music software, which was "remixed" by the music therapist-researcher to extend the musical material. Eleven pediatric radiation therapy outpatients aged 6 to 13 years were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, in which they could create a music CD prior to their initial treatment to listen to during radiation therapy, or to a standard care group. Quantitative and qualitative analyses generated multiple perceptions from the pediatric patients, parents, radiation therapy staff, and music therapist-researcher. Ratings of distress during initial radiation therapy treatment were low for all children. The comparison between the two groups found that 67% of the children in the standard care group used social withdrawal as a coping strategy, compared to 0% of the children in the music therapy group; this trend approached significance (p = 0.076). MTCD creation was a fun, engaging, and developmentally appropriate intervention for pediatric patients, which offered a positive experience and aided their use of effective coping strategies to meet the demands of their initial radiation therapy treatment.

  4. Therapy Decision Support Based on Recommender System Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräßer, Felix; Beckert, Stefanie; Küster, Denise; Schmitt, Jochen; Abraham, Susanne; Malberg, Hagen; Zaunseder, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    We present a system for data-driven therapy decision support based on techniques from the field of recommender systems. Two methods for therapy recommendation, namely, Collaborative Recommender and Demographic-based Recommender , are proposed. Both algorithms aim to predict the individual response to different therapy options using diverse patient data and recommend the therapy which is assumed to provide the best outcome for a specific patient and time, that is, consultation. The proposed methods are evaluated using a clinical database incorporating patients suffering from the autoimmune skin disease psoriasis. The Collaborative Recommender proves to generate both better outcome predictions and recommendation quality. However, due to sparsity in the data, this approach cannot provide recommendations for the entire database. In contrast, the Demographic-based Recommender performs worse on average but covers more consultations. Consequently, both methods profit from a combination into an overall recommender system.

  5. Therapy Decision Support Based on Recommender System Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Gräßer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a system for data-driven therapy decision support based on techniques from the field of recommender systems. Two methods for therapy recommendation, namely, Collaborative Recommender and Demographic-based Recommender, are proposed. Both algorithms aim to predict the individual response to different therapy options using diverse patient data and recommend the therapy which is assumed to provide the best outcome for a specific patient and time, that is, consultation. The proposed methods are evaluated using a clinical database incorporating patients suffering from the autoimmune skin disease psoriasis. The Collaborative Recommender proves to generate both better outcome predictions and recommendation quality. However, due to sparsity in the data, this approach cannot provide recommendations for the entire database. In contrast, the Demographic-based Recommender performs worse on average but covers more consultations. Consequently, both methods profit from a combination into an overall recommender system.

  6. Dosimetry methods in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G.; Artuso, E.; Felisi, M.; Regazzoni, V.; Giove, D. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Physics, Via Festa del Patrono 7, 20122 Milano (Italy); Agosteo, S.; Barcaglioni, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milano (Italy); Campi, F.; Garlati, L. [Politecnico di Milano, Energy Department, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); De Errico, F. [Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Lungamo Pacinotti 43, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Borroni, M.; Carrara, M. [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Medical Physics Unit, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milano (Italy); Burian, J.; Klupak, V.; Viererbl, L.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez, Department of Neutron Physics, 250-68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-15

    Dosimetry studies have been carried out at thermal and epithermal columns of Lvr-15 research reactor for investigating the spatial distribution of gamma dose, fast neutron dose and thermal neutron fluence. Two different dosimetry methods, both based on solid state detectors, have been studied and applied and the accuracy and consistency of the results have been inspected. One method is based on Fricke gel dosimeters that are dilute water solutions and have good tissue equivalence for neutrons and also for all the secondary radiations produced by neutron interactions in tissue or water phantoms. Fricke gel dosimeters give the possibility of separating the various dose contributions, i.e. the gamma dose, the fast neutron dose and the dose due to charged particles generated during thermal neutron reactions by isotopes having high cross section, like 10-B. From this last dose, thermal neutron fluence can be obtained by means of the kerma factor. The second method is based on thermoluminescence dosimeters. In particular, the developed method draw advantage from the different heights of the peaks of the glow curve of such phosphors when irradiated with photons or with thermal neutrons. The results show that satisfactory results can be obtained with simple methods, in spite of the complexity of the subject. However, the more suitable dosimeters and principally their utilization and analysis modalities are different for the various neutron beams, mainly depending on the relative intensities of the three components of the neutron field, in particular are different for thermal and epithermal columns. (Author)

  7. Dosimetry methods in boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambarini, G.; Artuso, E.; Felisi, M.; Regazzoni, V.; Giove, D.; Agosteo, S.; Barcaglioni, L.; Campi, F.; Garlati, L.; De Errico, F.; Borroni, M.; Carrara, M.; Burian, J.; Klupak, V.; Viererbl, L.; Marek, M.

    2014-08-01

    Dosimetry studies have been carried out at thermal and epithermal columns of Lvr-15 research reactor for investigating the spatial distribution of gamma dose, fast neutron dose and thermal neutron fluence. Two different dosimetry methods, both based on solid state detectors, have been studied and applied and the accuracy and consistency of the results have been inspected. One method is based on Fricke gel dosimeters that are dilute water solutions and have good tissue equivalence for neutrons and also for all the secondary radiations produced by neutron interactions in tissue or water phantoms. Fricke gel dosimeters give the possibility of separating the various dose contributions, i.e. the gamma dose, the fast neutron dose and the dose due to charged particles generated during thermal neutron reactions by isotopes having high cross section, like 10-B. From this last dose, thermal neutron fluence can be obtained by means of the kerma factor. The second method is based on thermoluminescence dosimeters. In particular, the developed method draw advantage from the different heights of the peaks of the glow curve of such phosphors when irradiated with photons or with thermal neutrons. The results show that satisfactory results can be obtained with simple methods, in spite of the complexity of the subject. However, the more suitable dosimeters and principally their utilization and analysis modalities are different for the various neutron beams, mainly depending on the relative intensities of the three components of the neutron field, in particular are different for thermal and epithermal columns. (Author)

  8. Strength Enhancement of Car Front Bumper for Slow Speed Impact by FEA Method as per IIHS Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Chandrakant Rameshchandra; Shelar, Ajit Lavaji

    2017-05-01

    Low speed collisions happen significantly due to on road slow moving heavy traffic as well as during parking of vehicles. The bumpers are provided in front and back side of a vehicle has two main purposes: first is to absorb the energy generated during these kinds of slow speed impacts and secondly to protect the expensive parts like main engine parts, radiators and connected engine cooling mechanism, headlights, taillights, etc, by slowing down the vehicles. The problem often in various cars bumper is that they doesn't line-up vertically during low speed impact and leads to damage of various parts which are costly to repair. Many a times bumper design does not have sufficient capacity to absorb the energy generated during these impact. Guideline by International Institute Highway Safety (IIHS) regulation provides useful insight for such low speed impact study. In this paper, slow speed impact test were conducted as per IIHS regulation in three positions namely central impact, left hand corner impact and right hand corner impact. Parameters including bumper material, shape, thickness and impact condition are analyzed using fine element analysis (FEA) to enhance crashworthiness design in low speed impact. Then the vehicle front structure has been modified suitably. It has been observed that lining up the front metal bumper with suitable stiffness provides the best result which ultimately reduces the damage to the vehicle parts.

  9. Advanced methods in diagnosis and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This important meeting covers the following topics: use and optimization of monoclonal antibobies in oncology: - Tumor markers: Clinical follow-up of patients through tumor marker serum determinations. - Cancer and medical imaging: The use of monoclonal antibodies in immunoscintigraphy. - Immunoradiotherapy: Monoclonal antibodies as therapeutic vectors. Advanced methods in diagnosis: - Contribution of monoclonal antibodies in modern immunochemistry (RIA, EIA). - Interest of monoclonal antibody in immunohistochemical pathology diagnosis. - In vitro diagnosis future prospects: with receptors and oncogenes. - Immunofluoroassay: a new sensitive immunoanalytical procedure with broad applications. Recent advances in brachitherapy: - Interest of computer processing. Blood products irradiation: - Interest in transfusion and bone marrow transplantations [fr

  10. In search of new methods. Qigong in stuttering therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Półrola

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Even though stuttering is probably as old a phenomenon as the human speech itself, the stuttering therapy is still a challenge for the therapist and requires constant searching for new methods. Qigong may prove to be one of them. Aim of the research: The research paper presents the results of an experimental investigation evaluating the usefulness of qigong practice in stuttering therapy. Material and methods: Two groups of stuttering adults underwent 6-month therapy. In group I – the experimental one (n = 11 – the therapy consisted of speech fluency training, psychotherapy and qigong practice. In group II – the control one (n = 12 – it included speech fluency training and psychotherapy. In both groups 2-hour sessions of speech fluency training and psychotherapy were conducted twice a week. Two-hour qigong sessions took place once a week. Results: After 6 months the therapy results were compared with regard to the basic stuttering parameters, such as the degree of speech disfluency, the level of logophobia and speech disfluency symptoms. Improvement was observed in both groups, the beneficial effects, however, being more prominent in the qigong-practising group. Conclusions : Qigong exercises used in the therapy of stuttering people along with speech fluency training and psychotherapy give beneficial effects.

  11. Development of medical application methods using radiation. Radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E.H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Choi, T. H.; Hong, S. W.; Chung, H. Y.; No, W. C.; Oh, B. H.; Hong, H. J.

    1999-04-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. development of monoclonal antibodies and radiopharmaceuticals 2. clinical applications of radionuclide therapy 3. radioimmunoguided surgery 4. prevention of restenosis with intracoronary radiation. The results can be applied for the following objectives: 1) radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial. 2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research. 3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology

  12. Development of medical application methods using radiation. Radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E.H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Choi, T. H.; Hong, S. W.; Chung, H. Y.; No, W. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Oh, B. H. [Seoul National University. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, H. J. [Antibody Engineering Research Unit, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. development of monoclonal antibodies and radiopharmaceuticals 2. clinical applications of radionuclide therapy 3. radioimmunoguided surgery 4. prevention of restenosis with intracoronary radiation. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial. (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research. (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology.

  13. An Annotated Bibliography of the Gestalt Methods, Techniques, and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt-Diaz, Joseph O.

    The purpose of this annotated bibliography is to provide the reader with a guide to relevant research in the area of Gestalt therapy, techniques, and methods. The majority of the references are journal articles written within the last 5 years or documents easily obtained through interlibrary loans from local libraries. These references were…

  14. Effects of tripolar TENS on slow and fast motoneurons: a preliminary study using H-reflex recovery curve method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simorgh, L; Torkaman, G; Firoozabadi, S M

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at examining the effect of tripolar TENS of vertebral column on the activity of slow and fast motoneurons on 10 healthy non-athlete women aged 22.7 +/- 2.21 yrs. H-reflex recovery curve of soleus (slow) and gastrocnemius (fast) muscles were recorded before and after applying tripolar TENS. For recording of this curve, rectangular paired stimuli were applied on tibial nerve (with 40-520 ISI, frequency of 0.2 Hz and pulse width of 600 micros). Our findings showed that maximum H-reflex recovery in gastrocnemius muscle appeared in the shorter ISI, while in soleus muscle, it appeared in the longer ISI and its amplitude slightly decreased after applying tripolar TENS. It is suggested that tripolar TENS excites not only the skin but also Ia and Ib afferents in the dorsal column. A Synaptic interaction of these afferents in spinal cord causes the inhibition of type I MNs and facilitation of type II MNs. This effect can be used in muscle tone modulation.

  15. New dimension of slow food movement using supercritical fluid technology and methods to influence society by effective marketing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzel, Ruhan Aşkın

    2016-07-01

    Although slow food movement is a well-known movement nowadays, in order to make it more widespread to the society, necessity to develop and to adapt new techniques has become inevitable for healthier consumption age. For this purpose, possibility of increased usage of healthy foods with addition of natural extracts using new techniques came out from relevant questionaries applied to people of different age groups. In this study, specific properties of supercritical carbon dioxide at distinct temperatures and water in subcritical conditions were used to obtain extracts rich in water-soluble organic compounds. Experiments were carried out at pressures of 10, 20, 30, and 40 MPa and temperatures ranging from 40 to 200 ℃ with and without modifier for 2 h of extraction time. The flow rate was kept at 4 and 1 ml/min for CO2 and water, respectively. The highest water-soluble organic compound recovery yield was 78.10%. Results were supported by marketing strategies to announce this new application and products to the society. Group of sample questions was prepared to investigate (a) frequency of staple food usage, (b) the brand names and relevant reasons that bring up consumers to buy specifically same branded products, (c) knowledge about the ingredients and how advertising effects purchasing decision, etc. Finally, efficiency increase in slow food consumption was proved with supercritical fluid technology to draw attention to the health of consumers with newer and functional healthy foods. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Systematization of types and methods of radiation therapy methods and techniques of irradiation of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajnberg, M.Sh.

    1991-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the principles of systematization and classification of types and methods of radiation therapy, approaches to the regulation of its terminology. They are based on the distinction of the concepts of radiation therapy and irradiation of patients. The author gives a consice historical review of improvement of the methodology of radiation therapy in the course of developing of its methods and facilities. Problems of terminology are under discussion. There is a table of types and methods of radiation therapy, methods and techniques of irradiation. In the appendices one can find a table of typical legends and examples of graphic signs to denote methods of irradiation. Potentialities of a practical use of the system are described

  17. Structural, mechanical, electrical and optical properties of a new lithium boro phthalate NLO crystal synthesized by a slow evaporation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanraj, K.; Balasubramanian, D.; Jhansi, N.

    2017-11-01

    A new non-linear optical (NLO) single crystal of lithium boro phthalate (LiBP) was grown by slow solvent evaporation technique. The powder sample was subjected to powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) to find its crystalline nature and the crystal structure of the grown crystal was determined using single crystal X-ray (SXRD) diffraction analysis. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrum was recorded for grown crystal to identify the various functional groups present in the compound. The mechanical property of the LiBP single crystal was studied using Vickers microhardness tester. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss measurements were carried out for the grown crystal at various temperatures. The grown crystal was subjected to UV-Visible Spectral Studies to analyze the linear optical behavior of the grown crystal. The Kurtz-Perry Powder technique was employed to measure the Second Harmonic Generation efficiency of the grown crystal.

  18. Physical methods of treatment of complications of anti tumoral therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukovets, A.G.; Ulashchik, V.S.

    1998-01-01

    Numerous experimental and clinical materials about expediency of the use of physical methods for lowering of frequency and heaviness of complications of radial therapy are reviewed. One of such methods, possessing most expressed radioprotection ability, is low intensity laser radiation. Some of the authors demonstrated that use of this method move aside the time of appearance of early radial reactions. Preliminary local use of laser irradiation (λ = 510 nm) permits to avoid of development of epidermis disease and such radial reactions as ulcer and skin fibrosis in cancer patients after neutron-photon therapy. There are good results of application of ultraviolet irradiation in the region of action of ionizing radiation in the case of medical treatment of skin cancer. Low frequency magnetic field can reduce the expression of radial reactions

  19. FROM SLOW FOOD TO SLOW TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bac Dorin Paul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the effects of globalization is the faster pace of our lives. This rhythm can be noticed in all aspects of life: travel, work, shopping, etc. and it has serious negative effects. It has become common knowledge that stress and speed generate serious medical issues. Food and eating habits in the modern world have taken their toll on our health. However, some people took a stand and argued for a new kind of lifestyle. It all started in the field of gastronomy, where a new movement emerged – Slow Food, based on the ideas and philosophy of Carlo Petrini. Slow Food represents an important adversary to the concept of fast food, and is promoting local products, enjoyable meals and healthy food. The philosophy of the Slow Food movement developed in several directions: Cittaslow, slow travel and tourism, slow religion and slow money etc. The present paper will account the evolution of the concept and its development during the most recent years. We will present how the philosophy of slow food was applied in all the other fields it reached and some critical points of view. Also we will focus on the presence of the slow movement in Romania, although it is in a very early stage of development. The main objectives of the present paper are: to present the chronological and ideological evolution of the slow movement; to establish a clear separation of slow travel and slow tourism, as many mistake on for the other; to review the presence of the slow movement in Romania. Regarding the research methodology, information was gathered from relevant academic papers and books and also from interviews and discussions with local entrepreneurs. The research is mostly theoretical and empirical, as slow food and slow tourism are emerging research themes in academic circles.

  20. Adaptive operational modal identification for slow linear time-varying structures based on frozen-in coefficient method and limited memory recursive principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Guan, Wei; Wang, J. Y.; Zhong, Bineng; Lai, Xiongming; Chen, Yewang; Xiang, Liang

    2018-02-01

    To adaptively identify the transient modal parameters for linear weakly damped structures with slow time-varying characteristics under unmeasured stationary random ambient loads, this paper proposes a novel operational modal analysis (OMA) method based on the frozen-in coefficient method and limited memory recursive principal component analysis (LMRPCA). In the modal coordinate, the random vibration response signals of mechanical weakly damped structures can be decomposed into the inner product of modal shapes and modal responses, from which the natural frequencies and damping ratios can be well acquired by single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) identification approach such as FFT. Hence, for the OMA method based on principal component analysis (PCA), it becomes very crucial to examine the relation between the transformational matrix and the modal shapes matrix, to find the association between the principal components (PCs) matrix and the modal responses matrix, and to turn the operational modal parameter identification problem into PCA of the stationary random vibration response signals of weakly damped mechanical structures. Based on the theory of "time-freezing", the method of frozen-in coefficient, and the assumption of "short time invariant" and "quasistationary", the non-stationary random response signals of the weakly damped and slow linear time-varying structures (LTV) can approximately be seen as the stationary random response time series of weakly damped and linear time invariant structures (LTI) in a short interval. Thus, the adaptive identification of time-varying operational modal parameters is turned into decompositing the PCs of stationary random vibration response signals subsection of weakly damped mechanical structures after choosing an appropriate limited memory window. Finally, a three-degree-of-freedom (DOF) structure with weakly damped and slow time-varying mass is presented to illustrate this method of identification. Results show that the LMRPCA

  1. Movement - uncontrolled or slow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dystonia; Involuntary slow and twisting movements; Choreoathetosis; Leg and arm movements - uncontrollable; Arm and leg movements - uncontrollable; Slow involuntary movements of large muscle groups; Athetoid movements

  2. Assessment of the microbial growth potential of slow sand filtrate with the biomass production potential test in comparison with the assimilable organic carbon method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, Dick; Veenendaal, Harm R; van der Mark, Ed J; Dignum, Marco

    2017-11-15

    Slow sand filtration is the final treatment step at four surface-water supplies in the Netherlands. The microbial growth potential (MGP) of the finished water was measured with the assimilable organic carbon (AOC) method using pure cultures and the biomass production potential (BPP) test. In the BPP test, water samples were incubated untreated at 25 °C and the active-biomass concentration was measured by adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) analysis. Addition of a river-water inoculum improved the test performance and characteristic growth and maintenance profiles of the water were obtained. The maximum ATP concentration attained within seven days and the cumulative biomass production after 14 days of incubation (BPC 14 , d ng ATP L -1 ) showed highly significant and strong linear relationships with the AOC in the slow sand filtrates. The lowest AOC and BPC 14 levels were observed in the supplies applying dune filtration without ozonation in post treatment, with AOC/TOC = 1.7 ± 0.3 μg acetate-C equivalents mg -1 C and BPC 14 /TOC = 16.3 ± 2.2 d ng ATP mg -1 C, corresponding with 1.2 ± 0.19 ng ATP mg -1 C. These characteristics may represent the lowest specific MGP of natural organic matter achievable by biofiltration at temperatures ≤20 °C. The AOC and BPC 14 concentrations in the slow sand filtrate of the supply treating lake water by ozonation with granular-activated-carbon filtration and slow sand filtration as post treatment increased with decreasing temperature. The BPP test revealed that this slow sand filtrate sampled at 2 °C contained growth-promoting compounds that were not detected with the AOC test. These observations demonstrate the utility of the BPP test for assessing the MGP of drinking water and show the performance limits of biofiltration for MGP reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Proton therapy analysis using the Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshad, Houshyar [Center for Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, AEOI, P.O. Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: hnoshad@aeoi.org.ir; Givechi, Nasim [Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-10-01

    The range and straggling data obtained from the transport of ions in matter (TRIM) computer program were used to determine the trajectories of monoenergetic 60 MeV protons in muscle tissue by using the Monte Carlo technique. The appropriate profile for the shape of a proton pencil beam in proton therapy as well as the dose deposited in the tissue were computed. The good agreements between our results as compared with the corresponding experimental values are presented here to show the reliability of our Monte Carlo method.

  4. Linear algebraic methods applied to intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, S M; Xing, L

    2001-10-01

    Methods of linear algebra are applied to the choice of beam weights for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). It is shown that the physical interpretation of the beam weights, target homogeneity and ratios of deposited energy can be given in terms of matrix equations and quadratic forms. The methodology of fitting using linear algebra as applied to IMRT is examined. Results are compared with IMRT plans that had been prepared using a commercially available IMRT treatment planning system and previously delivered to cancer patients.

  5. Physico-technical progress in neutron-capture therapy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Keiji; Furubayashi, Toru; Aoki, Kazuhiko

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes mainly development studies on the determination method of in vivo 10 B for the purpose of employment for neutron capture therapy for malignant melanoma and other tumors. To darify the efficacy of the neutron capture therapy, it is necessary to determine 10 B concentration in the diseased part. This study aimed at in vivo 10 B concention determination in living sample to the level of ppm order with 10 % of analytical error within 1 hour, and these determination conditions were satified by prompt γ-ray (478 keV) determination of 10 B (n, αγ) 7 Li reaction. This method required no sample pretreatment. Further, data normalization by γ-ray of H(n, γ)D reaction permitted no disturbance by sample shape or size. Lower limit of detection of the proposed method was estimated in terms of measuring time and statistical error by the equations of 10 B concentration and error analysis derived by the authors. As for the effect of prompt γ-rays of 23 Na(n, γ) 24 Na and 6 Li(n, γ) 7 Li reactions, it was clarified that the former showed no disturbance but some correction was necessary in case of less than 0.1 g of smaple size owing to the latter reaction. In vivo sample determination showed the proposed method was practical. In this paper some results of phantom experiment for in vivo non-destructive 10 B measurement and related simulation calculation, and examination of effect of (γ, n) reaction in heavy water of biomedical irradiation equipment on radiation quality were also described. (Takagi, S.)

  6. Detecting chaos, determining the dimensions of tori and predicting slow diffusion in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattices by the Generalized Alignment Index method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokos, C.; Bountis, T.; Antonopoulos, C.

    2008-12-01

    The recently introduced GALI method is used for rapidly detecting chaos, determining the dimensionality of regular motion and predicting slow diffusion in multi-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. We propose an efficient computation of the GALIk indices, which represent volume elements of k randomly chosen deviation vectors from a given orbit, based on the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) algorithm. We obtain theoretically and verify numerically asymptotic estimates of GALIs long-time behavior in the case of regular orbits lying on low-dimensional tori. The GALIk indices are applied to rapidly detect chaotic oscillations, identify low-dimensional tori of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) lattices at low energies and predict weak diffusion away from quasiperiodic motion, long before it is actually observed in the oscillations.

  7. Noninvasive k3 estimation method for slow dissociation PET ligands: application to [11C]Pittsburgh compound B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Koichi; Fukushi, Kiyoshi; Shinotoh, Hitoshi; Shimada, Hitoshi; Hirano, Shigeki; Tanaka, Noriko; Suhara, Tetsuya; Irie, Toshiaki; Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-11-16

    Recently, we reported an information density theory and an analysis of three-parameter plus shorter scan than conventional method (3P+) for the amyloid-binding ligand [11C]Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) as an example of a non-highly reversible positron emission tomography (PET) ligand. This article describes an extension of 3P + analysis to noninvasive '3P++' analysis (3P + plus use of a reference tissue for input function). In 3P++ analysis for [11C]PIB, the cerebellum was used as a reference tissue (negligible specific binding). Fifteen healthy subjects (NC) and fifteen Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients participated. The k3 (index of receptor density) values were estimated with 40-min PET data and three-parameter reference tissue model and were compared with that in 40-min 3P + analysis as well as standard 90-min four-parameter (4P) analysis with arterial input function. Simulation studies were performed to explain k3 biases observed in 3P++ analysis. Good model fits of 40-min PET data were observed in both reference and target regions-of-interest (ROIs). High linear intra-subject (inter-15 ROI) correlations of k3 between 3P++ (Y-axis) and 3P + (X-axis) analyses were shown in one NC (r2 = 0.972 and slope = 0.845) and in one AD (r2 = 0.982, slope = 0.655), whereas inter-subject k3 correlations in a target region (left lateral temporal cortex) from 30 subjects (15 NC + 15 AD) were somewhat lower (r2 = 0.739 and slope = 0.461). Similar results were shown between 3P++ and 4P analyses: r2 = 0.953 for intra-subject k3 in NC, r2 = 0.907 for that in AD and r2 = 0.711 for inter-30 subject k3. Simulation studies showed that such lower inter-subject k3 correlations and significant negative k3 biases were not due to unstableness of 3P++ analysis but rather to inter-subject variation of both k2 (index of brain-to-blood transport) and k3 (not completely negligible) in the reference region. In [11C]PIB, the applicability of 3

  8. Cough: neurophysiology, methods of research, pharmacological therapy and phonoaudiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbani, Aracy Pereira Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The cough is the more common respiratory symptom in children and adults. Objective: To present a revision on the neurophysiology and the methods for study of the consequence of the cough, as well as the pharmacotherapy and phonoaudiology therapy of the cough, based on the works published between 2005 and 2010 and indexed in the bases Medline, Lilacs and Library Cochrane under them to keywords "cough" or "anti-cough". Synthesis of the data: The consequence of the cough involves activation of receiving multiples becomes vacant in the aerial ways and of neural projections of the nucleus of the solitary treatment for other structures of the central nervous system. Experimental techniques allow studying the consequence of the cough to the cellular and molecular level to develop new anti-cough agents. It does not have evidences of that anti-cough exempt of medical lapsing they have superior effectiveness to the one of placebo for the relief of the cough. The phonoaudiology therapy can benefit patients with refractory chronic cough to the pharmacological treatment, over all when paradoxical movement of the vocal folds coexists. Final Comments: The boarding to multidiscipline has basic paper in the etiological diagnosis and treatment of the cough. The otolaryngologist must inform the patients on the risks of the anti-cough of free sales in order to prevent adverse poisonings and effect, especially in children.

  9. Slow-release L-Cysteine (Acetium®) Lozenge Is an Effective New Method in Smoking Cessation. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrjänen, Kari; Eronen, Katja; Hendolin, Panu; Paloheimo, Lea; Eklund, Carita; Bäckström, Anna; Suovaniemi, Osmo

    2017-07-01

    adequately powered study to be an effective means to aid smoking quit, represents a major breakthrough in the development of smoking intervention methods, because slow-release L-cysteine is non-toxic, with no side-effects or limitations of use. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  10. A standardized method for beam design in neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storr, G.J.: Harrington, B.V.

    1993-01-01

    A desirable end point for a given beam design for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT) should be quantitative description of tumour control probability and normal tissue damage. Achieving this goal will ultimately rely on data from NCT human clinical trials. Traditional descriptions of beam designs have used a variety of assessment methods to quantify proposed or installed beam designs. These methods include measurement and calculation of open-quotes free fieldclose quotes parameters, such as neutron and gamma flux intensities and energy spectra, and figures-of-merit in tissue equivalent phantoms. The authors propose here a standardized method for beam design in NCT. This method would allow all proposed and existing NCT beam facilities to be compared equally. The traditional approach to determining a quantitative description of tumour control probability and normal tissue damage in NCT research may be described by the following path: Beam design → dosimetry → macroscopic effects → microscopic effects. Methods exist that allow neutron and gamma fluxes and energy dependence to be calculated and measured to good accuracy. By using this information and intermediate dosimetric quantities such as kerma factors for neutrons and gammas, macroscopic effect (absorbed dose) in geometries of tissue or tissue-equivalent materials can be calculated. After this stage, for NCT the data begins to become more sparse and in some areas ambiguous. Uncertainties in the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) of some NCT dose components means that beam designs based on assumptions considered valid a few years ago may have to be reassessed. A standard method is therefore useful for comparing different NCT facilities

  11. Applications of Slow Light in Telecommunications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boyd, Robert W; Gauthier, Daniel J; Gaeta, Alexander L

    2006-01-01

    .... Now, optical scientists are turning their attention toward developing useful applications of slow light, including controllable optical delay lines, optical buffers and true time delay methods...

  12. Thiourea derivatives, methods of their preparation and their use in neutron capture therapy of malignant melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabel, D.

    1991-06-04

    The present invention pertains to boron containing thiouracil derivatives, their method of preparations, and their use in the therapy of malignant melanoma using boron neutron capture therapy. No Drawings

  13. Polifeprosan 20, 3.85% carmustine slow release wafer in malignant glioma: patient selection and perspectives on a low-burden therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinberg L

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Kleinberg Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Polifeprosan 20 with carmustine (GLIADEL® polymer implant wafer is a biodegradable compound containing 3.85% carmustine (BCNU, bischloroethylnitrosourea implanted in the brain at the time of planned tumor surgery, which then slowly degrades to release the BCNU chemotherapy directly into the brain thereby bypassing the blood–brain barrier. Carmustine implant wafers were demonstrated to improve survival in randomized placebo-controlled trials in patients undergoing a near total resection of newly diagnosed or recurrent malignant glioma. Based on these trials and other supporting data, carmustine wafer therapy was approved for use for newly diagnosed and recurrent malignant glioma in the United States and the European Union. Adverse events are uncommon, and as this therapy is placed at the time of surgery, it does not add to patient treatment burden. Nevertheless, this therapy appears to be underutilized. This article reviews the evidence for a favorable therapeutic ratio for the patient and the potential barriers. Consideration of these issues is important for optimal use of this therapeutic approach and may be important as this technology and other local therapies are further developed in the future. Keywords: carmustine, wafer, gliadel, glioblastoma

  14. Multisystemic Therapy and Functional Family Therapy Compared on their Effectiveness Using the Propensity Score Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeren, Hester V; Goossens, Lucas M A; Scholte, Ron H J; Busschbach, Jan J V; van der Rijken, Rachel E A

    2018-01-09

    Multisystemic Therapy (MST) and Functional Family Therapy (FFT) have overlapping target populations and treatment goals. In this study, these interventions were compared on their effectiveness using a quasi-experimental design. Between October, 2009 and June, 2014, outcome data were collected from 697 adolescents (mean age 15.3 (SD 1.48), 61.9% male) assigned to either MST or FFT (422 MST; 275 FFT). Data were gathered during Routine Outcome Monitoring. The primary outcome was externalizing problem behavior (Child Behavior Checklist and Youth Self Report). Secondary outcomes were the proportion of adolescents living at home, engaged in school or work, and who lacked police contact during treatment. Because of the non-random assignment, a propensity score method was used to control for observed pre-treatment differences. Because the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model guided treatment assignment, effectiveness was also estimated in youth with and without a court order as an indicator of their risk level. Looking at the whole sample, no difference in effect was found with regard to externalizing problems. For adolescents without a court order, effects on externalizing problems were larger after MST. Because many more adolescents with a court order were assigned to MST compared to FFT, the propensity score method could not balance the treatment groups in this subsample. In conclusion, few differences between MST and FFT were found. In line with the RNR model, higher risk adolescents were assigned to the more intensive treatment, namely MST. In the group with lower risk adolescents, this more intensive treatment was more effective in reducing externalizing problems.

  15. Monte-Carlo method for studying the slowing down of neutrons in a thin plate of hydrogenated matter; Methode de Monte-Carlo pour l'etude du ralentissement des neutrons dans une plaque mince de matiere hydrogenee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribon, P; Michaudon, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The studies of interaction of slow neutrons with atomic nuclei by means of the time of flight methods are made with a pulsed neutron source with a broad energy spectrum. The measurement accuracy needs a high intensity and an output time as short as possible and well defined. If the neutrons source is a target bombarded by the beam of a pulsed accelerator, it is usually required to slow down the neutrons to obtain a sufficient intensity at low energies. The purpose of the Monte-Carlo method which is described in this paper is to study the slowing down properties, mainly the intensity and the output time distribution of the slowed-down neutrons. The choice of the method and parameters studied is explained as well as the principles, some calculations and the program organization. A few results given as examples were obtained in the line of this program, the limits of which are principally due to simplifying physical hypotheses. (author) [French] l'etude de l'interaction des neutrons lents avec les noyaux atomiques par la methode du temps de vol s'effectue avec une source pulsee de neutrons dont le spectre en energie est assez etendu. La precision des mesures demande que la source soit intense et que la duree d'emission des neutrons soit breve et bien definie. Si la source est une cible bombardee par le faisceau de particules d'un accelerateur pulse, il est generalement indispensable de ralentir les neutrons pour avoir une intensite suffisante a basse energie. Nous presentons ici une methode de Monte-Carlo pour l'etude detaillee de ce ralentissement, notamment l'intensite et la distribution des temps de sortie des neutrons ralentis. Cette presentation comprend: la justification du choix de la methode de Monte-Carlo, les principes generaux, les differentes etapes du calcul et du programme ecrit pour le calculateur electronique IBM 7090. Nous indiquons aussi les restrictions qui sont apportees au domaine d'application de ce programme et qui proviennent surtout des

  16. Impact of early personal-history characteristics on the Pace of Aging: implications for clinical trials of therapies to slow aging and extend healthspan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Cohen, Harvey J; Kraus, William E; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2017-08-01

    Therapies to extend healthspan are poised to move from laboratory animal models to human clinical trials. Translation from mouse to human will entail challenges, among them the multifactorial heterogeneity of human aging. To inform clinical trials about this heterogeneity, we report how humans' pace of biological aging relates to personal-history characteristics. Because geroprotective therapies must be delivered by midlife to prevent age-related disease onset, we studied young-adult members of the Dunedin Study 1972-73 birth cohort (n = 954). Cohort members' Pace of Aging was measured as coordinated decline in the integrity of multiple organ systems, by quantifying rate of decline across repeated measurements of 18 biomarkers assayed when cohort members were ages 26, 32, and 38 years. The childhood personal-history characteristics studied were known predictors of age-related disease and mortality, and were measured prospectively during childhood. Personal-history characteristics of familial longevity, childhood social class, adverse childhood experiences, and childhood health, intelligence, and self-control all predicted differences in cohort members' adulthood Pace of Aging. Accumulation of more personal-history risks predicted faster Pace of Aging. Because trials of anti-aging therapies will need to ascertain personal histories retrospectively, we replicated results using cohort members' retrospective personal-history reports made in adulthood. Because many trials recruit participants from clinical settings, we replicated results in the cohort subset who had recent health system contact according to electronic medical records. Quick, inexpensive measures of trial participants' early personal histories can enable clinical trials to study who volunteers for trials, who adheres to treatment, and who responds to anti-aging therapies. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Too slow, for Milton

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, N.

    2011-01-01

    Too slow, for Milton was written in 2011, as part of a memorial project for Milton Babbitt. The piece borrows harmonies from Babbitt's Composition for 12 Instruments (harmonies which Babbitt had in turn borrowed from Schoenberg's Ode to Napoleon), but unfolds them as part of a musical texture characterised by repetition, resonance, and a slow rate of change. As Babbitt once told me that my music was 'too slow', this seemed an appropriately obstinate form of homage.

  18. Recombination methods for boron neutron capture therapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, N.; Tulik, P.; Zielczynski, M.

    2003-01-01

    The radiation effects of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are associated with four-dose-compartment radiation field - boron dose (from 10 B(n,α) 7 Li) reaction), proton dose from 14 N(n,p) 14 C reaction, neutron dose (mainly fast and epithermal neutrons) and gamma-ray dose (external and from capture reaction 1 H(n,γ) 2 D). Because of this the relation between the absorbed dose and the biological effects is very complex and all the above mentioned absorbed dose components should be determined. From this point of view, the recombination chambers can be very useful instruments for characterization of the BNCT beams. They can be used for determination of gamma and high-LET dose components for the characterization of radiation quality of mixed radiation fields by recombination microdosimetric method (RMM). In present work, a graphite high-pressure recombination chamber filled with nitrogen, 10 BF 3 and tissue equivalent gas was used for studies on application of RMM for BNCT dosimetry. The use of these gases or their mixtures opens a possibility to design a recombination chamber for determination of the dose fractions due to gamma radiation, fast neutrons, neutron capture on nitrogen and high LET particles from (n, 10 B) reaction in simulated tissue with different content of 10 B. (author)

  19. Studies of the efficiency of nitrogen placement methods and slow release nitrogen fertilizers for rice and wheat, using N-15 labelled fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaukat, A.

    1979-12-01

    A series of experiments with rice and wheat were carried out to study the efficiency of nitrogen placement methods and slow-release nitrogen fertilizers for these two crops using N-15-labelled fertilizer. The results show that (1) reduced N levels, of the order of 75 percent of the full recommended dose, are equally efficient as the full dose for wheat. The yield of rice grain increased with the increased dose of nitrogen; (2) Point placement of fertilizers for rice was superior to broadcast application in terms of uptake and yield. For optimum yield of wheat grain, urea should perferably be applied as a single dose banded between the rows at 5 cm depth or by broadcasting and incorporation in the soil at the time of sowing; (3) Sulphur-coated urea (SCU) at a comparable dose and mode of application gave better yields of rice grain than the application of urea and IBDU (Isobutylidine Diurea); (4) More nitrogen was taken up by wheat when SCU was applied. The best uptake was when it was applied half at sowing and half at tillering. The nitrogen uptake from the SCU by point placement was better for rice plants than broadcast application and was higher in magnitude than the IBDU

  20. A clinical stydy on the effectiveness of slow - resorbing collagen membrane barrier therapy to guide regeneration in mandibular class II furcations in human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazli N

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The present clinical trial was designed to evaluate the regenerative potential of periodontal tissues in degree II"nfurcation defects at mandibular molars of human using a slow-resorbing collagen membrane and a surgical treatment"ntechnique based on the principles of guided tissue regeneration."nThe patient sampleinclude 8 subjects who had periodontal lessions in right and left mandibular molars regions, including moderate to advance periodonal destruction within the radicular area. Following a baseline examination including recording the clinical measurements (PD, Al, HC, F.G.M , the furcation- involved molars were randomly assigned in each patient to either a test or a control treatment procedure. Included the evevation of mucoperiosteal flaps, recording measurement from the cemento enamel junction (C.E.J directly coronal to the furcation area to the alveolar crest and to the base of the defect-Horizontal furcation measurements were also made using a William's probe, finally a collagen membrrane placed on the involved area to cover the entrance of the furcation and adjucent root surfaces as well as a portion of the alveolar bone apical to the crest. The flaps were repositioned and secured with interdental sutures. A procedure identical to the one used at the test teeth was Performed at the control teeth region with the exception of the placement of the collagen membrance. Following surgery all patients were placed on a plaque control regimen. All Patients received normal postsurgical care and at 6 month post-surgery were scheduled for re-entry surgery. Before re-entry surgery all clinical parameters recorded again. The re-entry mucoperiosteal flaps were designed to expose the furcation area for measurements, as describedabove. There was clinical improvement in all measurements made in both the test and control patients (especially in test group over the 6 month period. The horizontal and vertical furcation measurements did yield a

  1. Stem Cell Therapy: A Promising Therapeutic Method for Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liansheng; Xu, Weilin; Li, Tao; Chen, Jingyin; Shao, Anwen; Yan, Feng; Chen, Gao

    2018-01-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one type of the most devastating cerebrovascular diseases worldwide, which causes high morbidity and mortality. However, efficient treatment is still lacking. Stem cell therapy has shown good neuroprotective and neurorestorative effect in ICH and is a promising treatment. In this study, our aim was to review the therapeutic effects, strategies, related mechanisms and safety issues of various types of stem cell for ICH treatment. Numerous studies had demonstrated the therapeutic effects of diverse stem cell types in ICH. The potential mechanisms include tissue repair and replacement, neurotrophy, promotion of neurogenesis and angiogenesis, anti-apoptosis, immunoregulation and anti-inflammation and so forth. The microenvironment of the central nervous system (CNS) can also influence the effects of stem cell therapy. The detailed therapeutic strategies for ICH treatment such as cell type, the number of cells, time window, and the routes of medication delivery, varied greatly among different studies and had not been determined. Moreover, the safety issues of stem cell therapy for ICH should not be ignored. Stem cell therapy showed good therapeutic effect in ICH, making it a promising treatment. However, safety should be carefully evaluated, and more clinical trials are required before stem cell therapy can be extensively applied to clinical use.

  2. N-15-aided field experiments on evaluation of different methods of application of new slow-release nitrogen fertilizer for rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Y.

    1979-07-01

    A series of experiments with flooded rice were carried out at Fukuoka site to compare the efficiency of a single deep application of briquette urea (BU), a slow release fertilizer, with that of broadcasted and incorporated conventional urea fertilizer with 2 top dressings, to compare the response curve for BU and conventional urea application practice, and to observe the influence of different geometrical placement patterns of BU on growth and N-utilization by rice. 15 N-labelled fertilizers were used in this study which supplements the INPUTS (Increasing Productivity Under Tight Supplies) Project. Broadcasted and incorporated urea with 2 top dressings was inferior to deep basal application of briquette urea in respect of N uptake and grain yield of rice in the paddy soil. 46 and 69 Kg N/ha from BU as basal deep placement were equivalent to 69 and 92 Kg N/ha, respectively, from urea fertilizer applied as split broadcasting in respect of grain yield. Geometric pattern of placement as 1 placement/2 hills was superior to lower or higher number of placements of BU in respect of grain yield and N absorption by rice in this soil. At the optimum rate of N applied (60 - 90 Kg N/ha) the observed recovery of fertilizer N was 59% when briquette urea was applied in placement pattern of 1 placement/2 hills. With increased number of placements, namely, 1 placement/1 hill and decreased number of placements, namely, 1 placement/4 hills, recoveries of fertilizer N of 47.4% and 46.8%, respectively, were obtained. In comparison, the recovery of fertilizer N from split application method of conventional urea was only 14%

  3. Optical Methods and Instrumentation in Brain Imaging and Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive up-to-date review of optical approaches used in brain imaging and therapy. It covers a variety of imaging techniques including diffuse optical imaging, laser speckle imaging, photoacoustic imaging and optical coherence tomography. A number of laser-based therapeutic approaches are reviewed, including photodynamic therapy, fluorescence guided resection and photothermal therapy. Fundamental principles and instrumentation are discussed for each imaging and therapeutic technique. Represents the first publication dedicated solely to optical diagnostics and therapeutics in the brain Provides a comprehensive review of the principles of each imaging/therapeutic modality Reviews the latest advances in instrumentation for optical diagnostics in the brain Discusses new optical-based therapeutic approaches for brain diseases

  4. Music therapy with bereaved teenagers: a mixed methods perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina; Roberts, Melina; O'Grady, Lucy

    2010-07-01

    Qualitative investigations have indicated that music therapy groups may be beneficial for bereaved teenagers. The existing relationship between young people and music serves as a platform for connectedness and emotional expression that is utilised within a therapeutic, support group format. This investigation confirms this suggestion through grounded theory analysis of focus group interviews. Changes in self-perception were not found as a result of participation, however practically significant results were found on adolescent coping. These cannot be generalized because of the small sample size. Grief specific tools are recommended for use in future investigations in order to capture the emotional impact of music therapy grief work with adolescents.

  5. Transformer Industry Productivity Slows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Phyllis Flohr

    1981-01-01

    Annual productivity increases averaged 2.4 percent during 1963-79, slowing since 1972 to 1.5 percent; computer-assisted design and product standardization aided growth in output per employee-hour. (Author)

  6. A comparison of cryopreservation methods: Slow-cooling vs. rapid-cooling based on cell viability, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and CD34+ enumeration of human umbilical cord blood mononucleated cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ferry

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The finding of human umbilical cord blood as one of the most likely sources of hematopoietic stem cells offers a less invasive alternative for the need of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Due to the once-in-a-life time chance of collecting it, an optimum cryopreservation method that can preserve the life and function of the cells contained is critically needed. Methods Until now, slow-cooling has been the routine method of cryopreservation; however, rapid-cooling offers a simple, efficient, and harmless method for preserving the life and function of the desired cells. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of slow- and rapid-cooling to preserve umbilical cord blood of mononucleated cells suspected of containing hematopoietic stem cells. The parameters used in this study were differences in cell viability, malondialdehyde content, and apoptosis level. The identification of hematopoietic stem cells themselves was carried out by enumerating CD34+ in a flow cytometer. Results Our results showed that mononucleated cell viability after rapid-cooling (91.9% was significantly higher than that after slow-cooling (75.5%, with a p value = 0.003. Interestingly, the malondialdehyde level in the mononucleated cell population after rapid-cooling (56.45 μM was also significantly higher than that after slow-cooling (33.25 μM, with a p value p value = 0.138. However, CD34+ enumeration was much higher in the population that underwent slow-cooling (23.32 cell/μl than in the one that underwent rapid-cooling (2.47 cell/μl, with a p value = 0.001. Conclusions Rapid-cooling is a potential cryopreservation method to be used to preserve the umbilical cord blood of mononucleated cells, although further optimization of the number of CD34+ cells after rapid-cooling is critically needed.

  7. Music Therapy with Bereaved Teenagers: A Mixed Methods Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina; Roberts, Melina; O'Grady, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative investigations have indicated that music therapy groups may be beneficial for bereaved teenagers. The existing relationship between young people and music serves as a platform for connectedness and emotional expression that is utilised within a therapeutic, support group format. This investigation confirms this suggestion through…

  8. A method of obtaining dietary data for slow worms (Anguis fragilis) by means of non-harmful cooling and results from a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Iben; Jensen, Jan Kjærgaard; Toft, Søren

    2009-01-01

    and adults. The regurgitations revealed that the slow worms preyed on small snails, slugs, pill millipedes (Glomeris marginata), earthworms and Lepidoptera larvae. There were seasonal changes in taxon composition of the diet but no ontogenetic or sex-related differences. The food quality of selected prey...

  9. A method for implementation of nutritional therapy in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Kondrup, Jens; Staun, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Background & aims: Many barriers make implementation of nutritional therapy difficult in hospitals. In this study we investigated whether, a targeted plan made by the staff in different departments could improve nutritional treatment within selected quality goals based on the ESPEN screening guid...... included consecutively. Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test was used for ordinal data, and Pearson x2 test for nominative data. P values

  10. [New methods of patient selection for improved anticholinergic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, J; Schwalenberg, T; Schlichting, N; Schulze, M; Horn, L-C; Stolzenburg, J-U

    2007-09-01

    M3-specific inhibitors are currently preferred for anticholinergic therapy of OAB. However, not all of the patients profit from this regimen. This might reflect a heterogeneity of the patient group. The aim of this work is to define subgroups of patients with specific alterations of receptor expression and to profile the receptor expression individually. These receptor profiles might be used for the development of evidence-based "tailored" therapies. Detrusor probes from bladder carcinoma patients (BCa, n=9 F, n=7 male) and interstitial cystitis patients (IC, n=9 female) were examined using confocal immunofluorescence and PCR. M2, M3, P2X1-3, and H1-3 mRNAs were demonstrated in detrusor tissue. As revealed by immunofluorescence, the M2 receptor expression was significantly higher in female compared to male BCa tissues. In addition, the M2 receptor was further upregulated in IC vs BCa in female detrusor. IC patients showed specific alterations of their receptor profile. Individual receptor profiles might be used to optimize medicinal therapies.

  11. Failure to Integrate Quantitative Measurement Methods of Ocular Inflammation Hampers Clinical Practice and Trials on New Therapies for Posterior Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbort, Carl P; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur; Neri, Piergiorgio; Pavésio, Carlos; Onal, Sumru; LeHoang, Phuc

    2017-05-01

    Uveitis is one of the fields in ophthalmology where a tremendous evolution took place in the past 25 years. Not only did we gain access to more efficient, more targeted, and better tolerated therapies, but also in parallel precise and quantitative measurement methods developed allowing the clinician to evaluate these therapies and adjust therapeutic intervention with a high degree of precision. Objective and quantitative measurement of the global level of intraocular inflammation became possible for most inflammatory diseases with direct or spill-over anterior chamber inflammation, thanks to laser flare photometry. The amount of retinal inflammation could be quantified by using fluorescein angiography to score retinal angiographic signs. Indocyanine green angiography gave imaging insight into the hitherto inaccessible choroidal compartment, rendering possible the quantification of choroiditis by scoring indocyanine green angiographic signs. Optical coherence tomography has enabled measurement and objective monitoring of retinal and choroidal thickness. This multimodal quantitative appraisal of intraocular inflammation represents an exquisite security in monitoring uveitis. What is enigmatic, however, is the slow pace with which these improvements are integrated in some areas. What is even more difficult to understand is the fact that clinical trials to assess new therapeutic agents still mostly rely on subjective parameters such as clinical evaluation of vitreous haze as a main endpoint; whereas a whole array of precise, quantitative, and objective modalities are available for the design of clinical studies. The scope of this work was to review the quantitative investigations that improved the management of uveitis in the past 2-3 decades.

  12. Coaxial slow source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.D.; Jarboe, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    Field reversed configurations (FRCs) are a class of compact toroid with not toroidal field. The field reversed theta pinch technique has been successfully used for formation of FRCs since their inception in 1958. In this method an initial bias field is produced. After ionization of the fill gas, the current in the coil is rapidly reversed producing the radial implosion of a current sheath. At the ends of the coil the reversed field lines rapidly tear and reconnect with the bias field lines until no more bias flux remains. At this point, vacuum reversed field accumulates around the configuration which contracts axially until an equilibrium is reached. When extrapolating the use of such a technique to reactor size plasmas two main shortcomings are found. First, the initial bias field, and hence flux in a given device, which can be reconnected to form the configuration is limited from above by destructive axial dynamics. Second, the voltages required to produce rapid current reversal in the coil are very large. Clearly, a low voltage formation technique without limitations on flux addition is desirable. The Coaxial Slow Source (CSS) device was designed to meet this need. It has two coaxial theta pinch coils. Coaxial coil geometry allows for the addition of as much magnetic flux to the annular plasma between them as can be generated inside the inner coil. Furthermore the device can be operated at charging voltages less than 10 kV and on resistive diffusion, rather than implosive time scales. The inner coil is a novel, concentric, helical design so as to allow it to be cantilevered on one end to permit translation of the plasma. Following translation off the inner coil the Annular Field Reversed Configuration would be re-formed as a true FRC. In this paper we investigate the formation process in the new parallel configuration., CSSP, in which the inner and outer coils are connected in parallel to the main capacitor bank

  13. [Music therapy as an effective method of neurorehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakupov, E Z; Nalbat, A V; Semenova, M V; Tlegenova, K A

    To assess the role of music therapy in the recovery of motor, speech and autonomic functions in patients with ischemic stroke (II). Forty-five patients with II in the middle cerebral artery were examined. The patients were randomized into three groups (main, comparison and control) of 15 individuals each. With patients of the first and the second groups on the 3rd, 5th, 7th and 9th days of the rehabilitation period the special set of exercises with music and without that respectively was fulfilled. The third group received a basic set of physical exercises (a control group).The third group was control. Dynamics of patients' state was estimated by the NIHSS, the Rivermead Mobility Index, the Action Research Arm Test and the modified scale for speech evaluation on the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th and 10th day of disease. A study of cardiorespiratory synchronization was conducted since the 6th day of stroke. The statistically significant efficacy of music therapy was shown for all parameters. The authors suggest that neuroplasticity may underlie the mechanisms of the programs used in the study.

  14. Oncothermia: a new paradigm and promising method in cancer therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyi, Gabriella; Szasz, Oliver; Szasz, Andras

    2013-01-01

    In "hypethermia", the procedure of raising the temperature of a part, or the whole body, up to 42 degrees C to kill cancer cells for a defined period of time is applied alone or as an adjunctive with various established cancer treatment modalities such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, "hyperthermia" is not generally accepted as conventional therapy due to the complications of deep heating and lack of focusing of the heat effect only for malignant tissues. The idea of oncothermia solves the selective deep action on malignant tissue on nearly cellular level. Oncothermia is highly improved, safe and effective "hyperthermia" in clinical cancer therapy supported by in vivo, in vitro, and human research as shown in this article. Advantage of oncothermia: while the classical insufficiently, focused "hyperthermia" has to heat up in case of the multiple lesions overlapping all the volume, which contains both normal tissues and malignant tissues; while oncothermia automatically focuses on the malignant tissues in its multiple places, without treating the healthy tissue in between. The modulated radiofrequency current (RF) flows through the malignancies only. The radiofrequency modulated current with 13,56 MHz (fractal modulated) between 2 electrodes automatically focuses through malignant tissues with lower impedance and will flow mainly in the extracellular electrolyte because the normal cells are electronically isolated by their membrane by more than one-million V/m electrical field strength. Oncothermia today has the ability to be a candidate to a widely accepted modality of the standard cancer treatment.

  15. SPS slow extraction septa

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    SPS long straight section (LSS) with a series of 5 septum tanks for slow extraction (view in the direction of the proton beam). There are 2 of these: in LSS2, towards the N-Area; in LSS6 towards the W-Area. See also Annual Report 1975, p.175.

  16. AGS slow extraction improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, J.W.; Smith, G.A.; Sandberg, J.N.; Repeta, L.; Weisberg, H.

    1979-01-01

    Improvement of the straightness of the F5 copper septum increased the AGS slow extraction efficiency from approx. 80% to approx. 90%. Installation of an electrostatic septum at H2O, 24 betatron wavelengths upstream of F5, further improved the extraction efficiency to approx. 97%

  17. PF slow positron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakawa, A.; Enomoto, A.; Kurihara, T.

    1993-01-01

    A new slow-positron source is under construction at the Photon Factory. Positrons are produced by bombarding a tantalum rod with high-energy electrons; they are moderated in multiple tungsten vanes. We report here the present status of this project. (author)

  18. Repeated dose titration versus age-based method in electroconvulsive therapy: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aten, J.J.; Oudega, M.L.; van Exel, E.; Stek, M.L.; van Waarde, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    In electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a dose titration method (DTM) was suggested to be more individualized and therefore more accurate than formula-based dosing methods. A repeated DTM (every sixth session and dose adjustment accordingly) was compared to an age-based method (ABM) regarding treatment

  19. Slow wave cyclotron maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kho, T.H.; Lin, A.T.

    1988-01-01

    Cyclotron masers such as Gyrotrons and the Autoresonance Masers, are fast wave devices: the electromagnetic wave's phase velocity v rho , is greater than the electron beam velocity, v b . To be able to convert the beam kinetic energy into radiation in these devices the beam must have an initial transverse momentum, usually obtained by propagating the beam through a transverse wiggler magnet, or along a nonuniform guide magnetic field before entry into the interaction region. Either process introduces a significant amount of thermal spread in the beam which degrades the performance of the maser. However, if the wave phase velocity v rho v b , the beam kinetic energy can be converted directly into radiation without the requirement of an initial transverse beam momentum, making a slow wave cyclotron maser a potentially simpler and more compact device. The authors present the linear and nonlinear physics of the slow wave cyclotron maser and examine its potential for practical application

  20. Slow-transit Constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharucha, Adil E.; Philips, Sidney F.

    2001-08-01

    Idiopathic slow-transit constipation is a clinical syndrome predominantly affecting women, characterized by intractable constipation and delayed colonic transit. This syndrome is attributed to disordered colonic motor function. The disorder spans a spectrum of variable severity, ranging from patients who have relatively mild delays in transit but are otherwise indistinguishable from irritable bowel syndrome to patients with colonic inertia or chronic megacolon. The diagnosis is made after excluding colonic obstruction, metabolic disorders (hypothyroidism, hypercalcemia), drug-induced constipation, and pelvic floor dysfunction (as discussed by Wald ). Most patients are treated with one or more pharmacologic agents, including dietary fiber supplementation, saline laxatives (milk of magnesia), osmotic agents (lactulose, sorbitol, and polyethylene glycol 3350), and stimulant laxatives (bisacodyl and glycerol). A subtotal colectomy is effective and occasionally is indicated for patients with medically refractory, severe slow-transit constipation, provided pelvic floor dysfunction has been excluded or treated.

  1. The FLUKA code for application of Monte Carlo methods to promote high precision ion beam therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Parodi, K; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Mairani, A; Paganetti, H; Sommerer, F

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) methods are increasingly being utilized to support several aspects of commissioning and clinical operation of ion beam therapy facilities. In this contribution two emerging areas of MC applications are outlined. The value of MC modeling to promote accurate treatment planning is addressed via examples of application of the FLUKA code to proton and carbon ion therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center in Heidelberg, Germany, and at the Proton Therapy Center of Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Boston, USA. These include generation of basic data for input into the treatment planning system (TPS) and validation of the TPS analytical pencil-beam dose computations. Moreover, we review the implementation of PET/CT (Positron-Emission-Tomography / Computed- Tomography) imaging for in-vivo verification of proton therapy at MGH. Here, MC is used to calculate irradiation-induced positron-emitter production in tissue for comparison with the +-activity measurement in order to infer indirect infor...

  2. Slow electrons kill the ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerk, T.

    2001-01-01

    A new method and apparatus (Trochoidal electron monochromator) to study the interactions of electrons with atoms, molecules and clusters was developed. Two applications are briefly reported: a) the ozone destruction in the atmosphere is caused by different reasons, a new mechanism is proposed, that slow thermal electrons are self added to the ozone molecule (O 3 ) with a high frequency, then O 3 is destroyed ( O 3 + e - → O - + O 2 ); b) another application is the study of the binding energy of the football molecule C60. (nevyjel)

  3. Blowup for flat slow manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a way of extending the blowup method, in the formulation of Krupa and Szmolyan, to flat slow manifolds that lose hyperbolicity beyond any algebraic order. Although these manifolds have infinite co-dimensions, they do appear naturally in certain settings; for example, in (a......) the regularization of piecewise smooth systems by tanh, (b) a particular aircraft landing dynamics model, and finally (c) in a model of earthquake faulting. We demonstrate the approach using a simple model system and the examples (a) and (b)....

  4. Blowup for flat slow manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, K. U.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we present a way of extending the blowup method, in the formulation of Krupa and Szmolyan, to flat slow manifolds that lose hyperbolicity beyond any algebraic order. Although these manifolds have infinite co-dimensions, they do appear naturally in certain settings; for example, in (a) the regularization of piecewise smooth systems by \\tanh , (b) a particular aircraft landing dynamics model, and finally (c) in a model of earthquake faulting. We demonstrate the approach using a simple model system and the examples (a) and (b).

  5. Ancient Chinese Fangzhongshu (Sexual Skills and Methods Therapy for Premature Ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual dysfunction that can have significant effects on a couple’s relationship. Behavioral therapy and psychotherapy are both safe and effective methods of treating PE. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu (sexual skills and methods, which reflects a summary of expert experiences in sexology, contains many therapies for sexual dysfunction that are similar to those used in behavioral therapy or psychotherapy. A brief introduction dealing with the latest definitions of PE and treatment strategies drawn from behavioral therapy and psychotherapy is provided. Typical therapies for PE from ancient Chinese fangzhongshu are listed and briefly analyzed in order to define their domain of applicability and instructions for use. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu contains many effective and safe therapies for PE. It should be incorporated into modern medical practice after critical analysis, and its scientific aspects should be promoted as a way of improving reproductive health, both to benefit individuals affected by PE and to promote traditional Chinese culture. Based on an analysis of the condition of the individual patient, one or multiple therapies guided by fangzhongshu can be expected to have an effect on the patient. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu is of great value and should to be popularized and applied as a remedy for PE.

  6. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF CANDIDAL DYSBACTERIOSIS THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Nikolaeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of effectiveness of different methods of microbiological disorders correction in children after 3 years old with candidal dysbacteriosis are presented in this article. The study compared probiotical sour milk-made stuff («Actimel» and sour milk-made stuff, not fortified with probiotical cultures («Rastishka» and traditional kefir. It was shown that an inclusion of probiotical sour milkmade stuff in diet of children with candidal dysbacteriosis results in normalization of lacto- and bifidobacteria level and decreasing of Candida level.Key words: children, candidal dysbacteriosis, probiotics.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(6:31-35

  7. A Split-and-Merge-Based Uterine Fibroid Ultrasound Image Segmentation Method in HIFU Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglong Xu

    Full Text Available High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU therapy has been used to treat uterine fibroids widely and successfully. Uterine fibroid segmentation plays an important role in positioning the target region for HIFU therapy. Presently, it is completed by physicians manually, reducing the efficiency of therapy. Thus, computer-aided segmentation of uterine fibroids benefits the improvement of therapy efficiency. Recently, most computer-aided ultrasound segmentation methods have been based on the framework of contour evolution, such as snakes and level sets. These methods can achieve good performance, although they need an initial contour that influences segmentation results. It is difficult to obtain the initial contour automatically; thus, the initial contour is always obtained manually in many segmentation methods. A split-and-merge-based uterine fibroid segmentation method, which needs no initial contour to ensure less manual intervention, is proposed in this paper. The method first splits the image into many small homogeneous regions called superpixels. A new feature representation method based on texture histogram is employed to characterize each superpixel. Next, the superpixels are merged according to their similarities, which are measured by integrating their Quadratic-Chi texture histogram distances with their space adjacency. Multi-way Ncut is used as the merging criterion, and an adaptive scheme is incorporated to decrease manual intervention further. The method is implemented using Matlab on a personal computer (PC platform with Intel Pentium Dual-Core CPU E5700. The method is validated on forty-two ultrasound images acquired from HIFU therapy. The average running time is 9.54 s. Statistical results showed that SI reaches a value as high as 87.58%, and normHD is 5.18% on average. It has been demonstrated that the proposed method is appropriate for segmentation of uterine fibroids in HIFU pre-treatment imaging and planning.

  8. Measurement of the anti reactivity of a control rod of G1, by a slow oscillation method; Mesure de l'antireactivite d'une barre de reglage de G1 pour une methode d'oscillation lente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, D; Leroy, J; Vidal, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    It is possible to determine the effect of the end of a control rod on the reactivity of the pile by measuring the modulation induced in the neutron flux by the slow oscillation of this control rod. The total effect of the control rod can be deduced, given certain hypothesis and corrections, from the experimental curve giving the effect of the end of the rod as a function of its position. This method has the advantage of permitting the measurement of very large anti reactivities, such as p= 10{sup -2} for example, which would not be possible by other kinetic methods. Thus the control rod B{sub 3}, in the low position, brings about a reduction in reactivity equal to 1130 p.c.m. {+-} 30 in the pile charged with 518 fuel elements, on one side only of the slit. We have compared the oscillation method with the classical divergence method, in the fields where the two measurements were possible: a satisfactory agreement was found. We have established that the phase displacement between the oscillation of the rod and the modulation of the flux varied greatly with the position of the rod. This variation cannot be explained on the basis of the dynamic model independent of space; we have attributed it to the influence of spatial harmonics of the flux distribution, and have determined a correction which frees the measurements of this influence. (author) [French] II est possible de determiner l'effet de l'extremite d'une barre de reglage sur la reactivite de la pile, a partir de la mesure de la modulation induite dans le flux neutronique par l'oscillation lente de cette barre de reglage. L'effet total de la barre de reglage peut etre deduit, moyennant certaines hypotheses et certaines corrections, de la courbe experimentale donnant l'effet de l'extremite de la barre en fonction de sa position. Cette methode a l'avantage de rendre possible la mesure d'antireactivites tres grandes, telles que p = 10{sup -2} par exemple, ce qui ne serait pas possible par d'autres methodes

  9. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy integrated with systematic desensitization, cognitive behavioral therapy combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy combined with virtual reality exposure therapy methods in the treatment of flight anxiety: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triscari, Maria Teresa; Faraci, Palmira; Catalisano, Dario; D'Angelo, Valerio; Urso, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to compare the effectiveness of the following treatment methods for fear of flying: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) integrated with systematic desensitization, CBT combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and CBT combined with virtual reality exposure therapy. Overall, our findings have proven the efficacy of all interventions in reducing fear of flying in a pre- to post-treatment comparison. All groups showed a decrease in flight anxiety, suggesting the efficiency of all three treatments in reducing self-report measures of fear of flying. In particular, our results indicated significant improvements for the treated patients using all the treatment programs, as shown not only by test scores but also by participation in the post-treatment flight. Nevertheless, outcome measures maintained a significant effect at a 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, combining CBT with both the application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment and the virtual stimuli used to expose patients with aerophobia seemed as efficient as traditional cognitive behavioral treatments integrated with systematic desensitization.

  10. Comparison of Three Methods of Reducing Test Anxiety: Systematic Desensitization, Implosive Therapy, and Study Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Richard D.; Dilley, Josiah S.

    1973-01-01

    Systematic desensitization, implosive therapy, and study counseling have all been effective in reducing test anxiety. In addition, systematic desensitization has been compared to study counseling for effectiveness. This study compares all three methods and suggests that systematic desentization is more effective than the others, and that implosive…

  11. Cost evaluation of two methods of post tooth extraction hemostasis in patients on anticoagulant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusman, S P; Lustig, J P; Bin Nun, G

    1993-06-01

    The classical management of patients on oral anticoagulant therapy included hospitalisation, cessation of the anticoagulant agent, and extraction of teeth when the prothrombine levels rise. This method was substituted in the High Risk Dental Clinic at Barzilai Medical Center in Ashkelon by use of a tissue sealant (Tisseel) which does not need hospitalisation nor cessation of the anticoagulant therapy. In comparing the last 23 sessions employing the former method to the first 23 sessions using the new method there were significant differences in the cost effectiveness for the health system, provider, insurer and patient. Despite the fact that from the health system point of view the new method is much more cost effective, there is no financial incentive for the provider (hospital) nor awareness on the part of the insurer (General Sick Fund) to embrace it and 'market' it.

  12. In ovo method for evaluating the effect of nutritional therapies on tumor development, growth and vascularization

    OpenAIRE

    Dupertuis, Yves M.; Delie, Florence; Cohen, Marie; Pichard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    In the state of the art evaluation of nutritional therapy on tumor development, growth and vascularization requires tedious and expensive in vivo assays in which a significant number of animals undergo invasive treatments. Therefore, new alternative methods to avoid animal suffering and sacrifice are welcome. This review presents a rapid and low-cost method of experimental radio/chemotherapy in tumor xenografted chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), which may contribute to implement the 3R ...

  13. Development of a quantitative analysis method for mRNA from Mycobacterium leprae and slow-growing acid-fast bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanaga, Kazue; Maeda Shinji; Matsuoka, Masanori; Kashiwabara, Yoshiko

    1999-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a specific method for detection and quantitative determination of mRNA that allows estimation of viable counts of M. leprae and other mycobacteria. Of heart-shock protein of 65 kDa (hsp65), mRNA was used as an indicator to discriminate the living cells and died ones. To compare mRNA detections by RNase protection assay (RPA) and Northern blot hybridization (NBH), labelled anti-sense RNA for hsp65 gene of M. leprae was synthesized using plasmid pUC8/N5. The anti-sense RNA synthesized from the template DNA containing about 580 bp (194 to 762) of hsp65 gene. When compared with NBH method, the amount of probe required for the detection by RPA method was 1/30 or less and the detection sensitivity of RPA was also 10 times higher. In addition, complicated procedures were needed to eliminate non-specific reactions in NBH method. These results indicated that RPA method is more convenient and superior for the mRNA detection. However, isotope degradation in the probe used for RPA method might affect the results. Therefore, 33 P of 35 P, of which degradation energy is less that 32 P should be used for labelling. Total RNA was effectively extracted from M. chelonae, M. marinum by AGPC method, but not from M. leprae. In conclusion, RPA is a very effective detection method for these mRNA, but it seems necessary to further improve the sensitivity of detection for a small amount of test materials. (M.N.)

  14. Development of a quantitative analysis method for mRNA from Mycobacterium leprae and slow-growing acid-fast bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanaga, Kazue; Maeda Shinji; Matsuoka, Masanori; Kashiwabara, Yoshiko [National Inst. of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    This study aimed to develop a specific method for detection and quantitative determination of mRNA that allows estimation of viable counts of M. leprae and other mycobacteria. Of heart-shock protein of 65 kDa (hsp65), mRNA was used as an indicator to discriminate the living cells and died ones. To compare mRNA detections by RNase protection assay (RPA) and Northern blot hybridization (NBH), labelled anti-sense RNA for hsp65 gene of M. leprae was synthesized using plasmid pUC8/N5. The anti-sense RNA synthesized from the template DNA containing about 580 bp (194 to 762) of hsp65 gene. When compared with NBH method, the amount of probe required for the detection by RPA method was 1/30 or less and the detection sensitivity of RPA was also 10 times higher. In addition, complicated procedures were needed to eliminate non-specific reactions in NBH method. These results indicated that RPA method is more convenient and superior for the mRNA detection. However, isotope degradation in the probe used for RPA method might affect the results. Therefore, {sup 33}P of {sup 35}P, of which degradation energy is less that {sup 32}P should be used for labelling. Total RNA was effectively extracted from M. chelonae, M. marinum by AGPC method, but not from M. leprae. In conclusion, RPA is a very effective detection method for these mRNA, but it seems necessary to further improve the sensitivity of detection for a small amount of test materials. (M.N.)

  15. Physical therapy methods in the treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucherova, T. Ya.; Choinzonov, E. L.; Tuzikov, S. A.; Vusik, M. V.; Doroshenko, A. V.; Velikaya, V. V.; Gribova, O. V.; Startseva, Zh. A.

    2016-01-01

    The results of the effective use of magnetic laser therapy in the treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients were presented. The effect of magnetic-laser therapy in the treatment of radiation-induced reactions in the patients with head and neck cancer and in the patients with breast cancer was analyzed. High efficiency of lymphedema and lymphorrhea treatment in the postoperative period in the patients with breast cancer was proved. The results of rehabilitation of the patients with gastric cancer after surgical treatment were presented. These data indicate a high effectiveness of different physical methods of treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients.

  16. Sex and couples therapy: a method of treatment to enhance physical and emotional intimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, L

    1990-01-01

    It has been well documented that couples presenting for sex therapy frequently have difficulties in resolving conflict and in expressing emotional as well as physical intimacy. Recent studies have shown that intimacy is an important variable in determining the health or pathology in the dyadic system. Furthermore, the level of intimacy is influenced by a capacity for self disclosure and an ability to consider the partner's opinion. This paper describes a method of treatment that combines well-known strategies to treat sexual problems with a new approach to couples therapy, which encourages self-disclosure to facilitate mutual understanding, decrease conflict, and increase intimacy.

  17. [Physical treatment methods for acne. Light, laser, photodynamic therapy and peeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, C; Korting, H C

    2010-02-01

    The medical treatment of acne is generally sufficient to meet the expectations of acne patients. However, in a number of situations additional therapeutic approaches may be advisable. There are a wide variety of useful physical methods. They range from electromagnetic waves, usually light, to peeling and manual therapy. Phototherapy of acne includes not just visible light but also laser and flash lamp therapy. The present review provides an overview on the evidence. Visible light, in particular blue light, provides an effective option for treatment of inflammatory acne. Photodynamic therapy also is efficacious; however, it should not be used because of an unfavorable risk-benefit ratio. UV treatment of acne is obsolete. Newer studies on the use of a variety of laser systems and flash lamps have demonstrated in part rewarding results.

  18. [Attention diversion in tinnitus therapy. Comparison of the effects of different treatment methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysel-Gosepath, K; Gerhards, F; Schicketanz, K-H; Teichmann, K; Benthien, M

    2004-05-01

    Diversion or distraction of auditory attention is a core principle of tinnitus retraining therapy as introduced by P. Jastreboff and J. Hazell. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a different form of attention diversion in tinnitus therapy. In a prospective and randomized study, 40 patients suffering from chronic tinnitus were assigned to two different groups, A or B. All patients received appropriate counselling and were instructed in relaxation training. Patients in group A learned to distract attention away from the tinnitus by using sound or music. White noise generators or hearing aids were applied in this group. Patients in group B were instructed to direct their attention away from the tinnitus using imagination that was facilitated by the use of light and warmth stimuli as distracters. Different standardized questionnaires were used for an evaluation of therapy effectiveness. In both groups, patients were significantly less annoyed and disabled by their tinnitus immediately after therapy and after 6 months. Tinnitus annoyance still proved to be reduced 1 year after the end of the therapy. There were no significant differences in the effects of each treatment. Attention diversion is an important method for decreasing tinnitus-related distress. Patients should be instructed to use not only auditory but also visual and thermal sensations in order to distract attention away from their tinnitus.

  19. Development of quantitative analysis method for mRNA in Mycobacterium leprae and slow-growing acid-fast bacteria using radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanaga, Kazue; Maeda, Shinji; Matsuoka, Masanori; Kashiwabara, Yoshiko

    2000-01-01

    Since RNase protection assay (RPA) system for specific detection of mRNA from M. lepra was established in the previous year, modification of the system was attempted to detect a trace amount of mRNA in this study. Thus, RNA amplification was examined using nucleic aid sequence-based amplification method (NASBA). Since 32 P CTP was used as an isotope for synthesis of anti-sense RNA probe in the previous method, the label compound was exchanged to that with a lower energy in this study, resulting that the half life of the probe was increased and handling of the probe became easier. Several short bands consisting of 100-130b were detected in total RNA sample of M.marinum and M.choelonae by RPA using T1 probe (194-762, 580b). Whereas the new probe M1 detected longer bands of about 350b from M.marinum RNA and of 250b from M.chelonae, M. bovis BCG and M. kansaii. However, T1 probe was more suitable for specific detection of M.leprae hsp 65 than M1 probe because high and low homogeneous regions are coexisting in the gene. Specific mRNA was detectable from only 3 pg of total RNA by the use of NASBA. RNA recovery for QIAGEN was about 50%, however, the sensitivity of NASBA method was estimated to be several ten to hundred thousands times higher, suggesting that this method is very effective for detection and determination of trace amount of mRNA. (M.N.)

  20. Development of quantitative analysis method for mRNA in Mycobacterium leprae and slow-growing acid-fast bacteria using radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanaga, Kazue; Maeda, Shinji; Matsuoka, Masanori; Kashiwabara, Yoshiko [National Inst. of Infectious Deseases, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    Since RNase protection assay (RPA) system for specific detection of mRNA from M. lepra was established in the previous year, modification of the system was attempted to detect a trace amount of mRNA in this study. Thus, RNA amplification was examined using nucleic aid sequence-based amplification method (NASBA). Since {sup 32}P CTP was used as an isotope for synthesis of anti-sense RNA probe in the previous method, the label compound was exchanged to that with a lower energy in this study, resulting that the half life of the probe was increased and handling of the probe became easier. Several short bands consisting of 100-130b were detected in total RNA sample of M.marinum and M.choelonae by RPA using T1 probe (194-762, 580b). Whereas the new probe M1 detected longer bands of about 350b from M.marinum RNA and of 250b from M.chelonae, M. bovis BCG and M. kansaii. However, T1 probe was more suitable for specific detection of M.leprae hsp 65 than M1 probe because high and low homogeneous regions are coexisting in the gene. Specific mRNA was detectable from only 3 pg of total RNA by the use of NASBA. RNA recovery for QIAGEN was about 50%, however, the sensitivity of NASBA method was estimated to be several ten to hundred thousands times higher, suggesting that this method is very effective for detection and determination of trace amount of mRNA. (M.N.)

  1. Slow Earthquake Hunters: A New Citizen Science Project to Identify and Catalog Slow Slip Events in Geodetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlow, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Slow Earthquake Hunters is a new citizen science project to detect, catalog, and monitor slow slip events. Slow slip events, also called "slow earthquakes", occur when faults slip too slowly to generate significant seismic radiation. They typically take between a few days and over a year to occur, and are most often found on subduction zone plate interfaces. While not dangerous in and of themselves, recent evidence suggests that monitoring slow slip events is important for earthquake hazards, as slow slip events have been known to trigger damaging "regular" earthquakes. Slow slip events, because they do not radiate seismically, are detected with a variety of methods, most commonly continuous geodetic Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. There is now a wealth of GPS data in some regions that experience slow slip events, but a reliable automated method to detect them in GPS data remains elusive. This project aims to recruit human users to view GPS time series data, with some post-processing to highlight slow slip signals, and flag slow slip events for further analysis by the scientific team. Slow Earthquake Hunters will begin with data from the Cascadia subduction zone, where geodetically detectable slow slip events with a duration of at least a few days recur at regular intervals. The project will then expand to other areas with slow slip events or other transient geodetic signals, including other subduction zones, and areas with strike-slip faults. This project has not yet rolled out to the public, and is in a beta testing phase. This presentation will show results from an initial pilot group of student participants at the University of Missouri, and solicit feedback for the future of Slow Earthquake Hunters.

  2. The use of human factors methods to identify and mitigate safety issues in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Alvita J.; Islam, Mohammad K.; Rosewall, Tara; Jaffray, David A.; Easty, Anthony C.; Cafazzo, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: New radiation therapy technologies can enhance the quality of treatment and reduce error. However, the treatment process has become more complex, and radiation dose is not always delivered as intended. Using human factors methods, a radiotherapy treatment delivery process was evaluated, and a redesign was undertaken to determine the effect on system safety. Material and methods: An ethnographic field study and workflow analysis was conducted to identify human factors issues of the treatment delivery process. To address specific issues, components of the user interface were redesigned through a user-centered approach. Sixteen radiation therapy students were then used to experimentally evaluate the redesigned system through a usability test to determine the effectiveness in mitigating use errors. Results: According to findings from the usability test, the redesigned system successfully reduced the error rates of two common errors (p < .04 and p < .01). It also improved the mean task completion time by 5.5% (p < .02) and achieved a higher level of user satisfaction. Conclusions: These findings demonstrated the importance and benefits of applying human factors methods in the design of radiation therapy systems. Many other opportunities still exist to improve patient safety in this area using human factors methods.

  3. Paradigms, pragmatism and possibilities: mixed-methods research in speech and language therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glogowska, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    After the decades of the so-called 'paradigm wars' in social science research methodology and the controversy about the relative place and value of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies, 'paradigm peace' appears to have now been declared. This has come about as many researchers have begun to take a 'pragmatic' approach in the selection of research methodology, choosing the methodology best suited to answering the research question rather than conforming to a methodological orthodoxy. With the differences in the philosophical underpinnings of the two traditions set to one side, an increasing awareness, and valuing, of the 'mixed-methods' approach to research is now present in the fields of social, educational and health research. To explore what is meant by mixed-methods research and the ways in which quantitative and qualitative methodologies and methods can be combined and integrated, particularly in the broad field of health services research and the narrower one of speech and language therapy. The paper discusses the ways in which methodological approaches have already been combined and integrated in health services research and speech and language therapy, highlighting the suitability of mixed-methods research for answering the typically multifaceted questions arising from the provision of complex interventions. The challenges of combining and integrating quantitative and qualitative methods and the barriers to the adoption of mixed-methods approaches are also considered. The questions about healthcare, as it is being provided in the 21st century, calls for a range of methodological approaches. This is particularly the case for human communication and its disorders, where mixed-methods research offers a wealth of possibilities. In turn, speech and language therapy research should be able to contribute substantively to the future development of mixed-methods research. © 2010 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  4. [Predictive methods versus clinical titration for the initiation of lithium therapy. A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraerts, I; Sienaert, P

    2013-01-01

    When lithium is administered, the clinician needs to know when the lithium in the patient’s blood has reached a therapeutic level. At the initiation of treatment the level is usually achieved gradually through the application of the titration method. In order to increase the efficacy of this procedure several methods for dosing lithium and for predicting lithium levels have been developed. To conduct a systematic review of the publications relating to the various methods for dosing lithium or predicting lithium levels at the initiation of therapy. We searched Medline systematically for articles published in English, French or Dutch between 1966 and April 2012 which described or studied a method for dosing lithium or for predicting the lithium level reached following a specific dosage. We screened the reference lists of relevant articles in order to locate additional papers. We found 38 lithium prediction methods, in addition to the clinical titration method. These methods can be divided into two categories: the ‘a priori’ methods and the ‘test-dose’ methods, the latter requiring the administration of a test dose of lithium. The lithium prediction methods generally achieve a therapeutic blood level faster than the clinical titration method, but none of the methods achieves convincing results. On the basis of our review, we propose that the titration method should be used as the standard method in clinical practice.

  5. Slow Tourism: Exploring the discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guiver

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘Slow travel’ and ‘slow tourism’ are relatively new, but contested, concepts. This paper examines the meanings ascribed to them in the academic literature and websites targeted at potential tourists. It finds concurrence on aspects of savouring time at the destination and investing time to appreciate the locality, its people, history, culture and products, but detects different emphases. The academic literature stresses the benefits to the destination and global sustainability, while the websites focus on the personal benefits and ways of becoming a ‘slow tourist’. Food and drink epitomise the immersion in and absorption of the destination and the multi-dimensional tourism experience, contrasted with the superficiality of mainstream tourism. The paper discusses whether tourists practising slow tourism without using the label are slow tourists or not.

  6. Dynamics of psychological crisis experience with psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrutdinova, Liliya Raifovna; Nugmanova, Dzhamilia Renatovna

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics of experience as such and its corporeal, emotional and cognitive elements in the situation of psychological consulting provisioning is covered. The aim of research was to study psychological crisis experience dynamics in the situation when psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods is provided. Theoretical analysis of the problem of crisis situations, phenomenon and structural, and dynamic organization of experience of the subject of consulting have been carried out. To fulfill research project test subjects experience crisis situation have been selected, studied in the situation when they provided psychological consulting by methods of gestalt therapy, and methodology of study of crisis situations experience has been prepared. Specifics of psychological crisis experience have been revealed and its elements in different stages of psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods. Dynamics of experience of psychological crisis and its structural elements have been revealed and reliable changes in it have been revealed. Dynamics of psychological crisis experience and its structural elements have been revealed and reliable changes in it have been revealed. "Desiccation" of experience is being observed, releasing its substantiality of negative impression to the end of consulting and development of the new experience of control over crisis situation. Interrelations of structural elements of experience in the process of psychological consulting have been shown. Effecting one structure causes reliable changes in all others structural elements of experience. Giving actual psychological help to clients in crisis situation by methods of gestalt therapy is possible as it was shown in psychological consulting sessions. Structure of client's request has been revealed - problems of personal sense are fixed as the most frequent cause of clients' applications, as well as absence of choices, obtrusiveness of negative thoughts, tend to getting stuck on events

  7. METHODS OF ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIVE BIOLOGICAL EFFECTIVENESS OF NEUTRONS IN NEUTRON THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lisin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative biological effectiveness (RBE of fast neutrons is an important factor influencing the quality of neutron therapy therefore, the assessment of RBE is of great importance. Experimental and clinical studies as well as different mathematical and radiobiological models are used for assessing RBE. Research is conducted for neutron sources differing in the method of producing particles, energy and energy spectrum. Purpose: to find and analyze the dose-dependence of fast neutron RBE in neutron therapy using the U-120 cyclotron and NG-12I generator. Material and methods: The optimal method for assessing the relative biological effectiveness of neutrons for neutron therapy was described. To analyze the dependence of the RBE on neutron dose, the multi-target model of cell survival was applied. Results: The dependence of the RBE of neutrons produced from the U-120 cyclotron and NG-120 generator on the dose level was found for a single irradiation of biological objects. It was shown that the function of neutron dose was consistent with similar dependencies found by other authors in the experimental and clinical studies.

  8. A new slow positron beam facility using a compact cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Masafumi

    1998-01-01

    In 1993, Sumitomo Heavy Industries became the first in the world to successfully produce a slow positron beam using a compact cyclotron. Slow positron beam production using an accelerator had mainly consisted of using an electron linear accelerator (LINAC). However, the newly developed system that uses a compact cyclotron enabled cost reduction, downsizing of equipment, production of a DC slow positron beam, a polarized slow positron beam, and other benefits. After that, a genuine slow positron beam facility was developed with the construction of compact cyclotron No.2, and beam production in the new facility has already been started. The features of this new slow positron beam facility are explained below. 1) It is the world's first compact slow positron beam facility using a compact cyclotron. 2) It is the only genuine slow positron beam facility in the world which incorporates the production and use of a slow positron beam in the design stage of the cyclotron. To use a slow positron beam for non-destructive detection of lattice defects in semiconductor material, it is necessary to convert the beam into ultra-short pulses of several hundreds of pico-seconds. Sumitomo Heavy Industries has devised a new short-pulsing method (i.e. an induction bunching method) that enables the conversion of a slow positron beam into short pulses with an optimum pulsing electric field change, and succeeded in converting a slow positron beam into short pulses using this method for the first time in the world. Non-destructive detection of lattice defects in semiconductor material using this equipment has already been started, and some information about the depth distribution, size, density, etc. of lattice defects has already been obtained. (J.P.N.)

  9. About neutron capture therapy method development at WWR-SM reactor in institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullaeva, G.A.; Baytelesov, S.A.; Dosimbaev, A.A.; Koblik, Yu.N.; Gritsay, O.O.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Neutron capture therapy (NCT) is developing method of swellings treatment, on which specialists set one's serious hopes, as at its realization the practical possibilities of the effect on any swellings open. The essence of method is simple and lies in the fact that to the swelling enter preparation containing boron or gadolinium, which one have a large capture cross-section of the thermal and slow neutrons. Then the swelling is irradiated once with the slow (epithermal) neutron beam with fluency about 10 9 neutrons /sm 2 s for a short time and single. As a result of thermal neutrons capture by the boron (or gadolinium) nuclei secondary radiation which affecting swelling cells is emitted. NCT of oncologic diseases makes the specific demands to physical parameters of neutron beams. Now research reactors are often used for NCT. However, research reactor WWR-SM (INP, Uzbekistan AS, Tashkent) doesn't provide with the epithermal neutron beams and to develop this technique the reactor, first of all, needs for obtaining the epithermal neutron beams with energy spectrum in range from 1 eV up to 10 keV and with intensity ∼ 10 9 neutron /sm 2 s. Practically it is connected with upgrade of at least one of existed reactor channels, namely with equipping with the special equipment (filters), forming from the reactor spectrum the beam of necessary energy neutrons. It requires realization of preliminary model calculations, including calculations of capture cross-sections, of filters types and their geometrical parameters on the basis of optimal selected materials. Such calculations, as a rule, are carried out on the basis of Monte-Carlo method and designed software for calculation of nuclear reactor physical and technical characteristics [1]. In this work the calculation results of devices variants and problems discussion, related with possibility of WWR-SM reactor using for NCT are presented. (author)

  10. Comparative evaluation of skin cancer therapy with impulse laser radiation and surgical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskalik, K.G.; Kozlov, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    Altogether 324 patients with skin basilomas, 559 with recurrent basiloma and 38 with squamous-cell carcinoma of the skin were treated by means of impulse neodymium laser radiation. A follow-up period was up to 7 years. It was shown that impulse laser radiation is a highly effective means of treating skin cancer, having a number of advantages over the radiation and surgical methods. Laser radiation is also highly effective in the treatment of basiloma relapses. If relapses accounted for by the development of a radioresistant tumour occur at the sites where surgical eXcision yields an unstatisfactory cosmetic effect, laser therapy should be considered a method of choice

  11. A PILOT METHOD FOR MULTIMODAL GROUP THERAPY FOR ADULTS WITH ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Marin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The management of ADHD across the lifespan is a topic of scientific and public debate, with much discussion centering on optimal treatments. Increasing empirical evidence suggests that successful management of ADHD involves a combination of stimulant medication and psychosocial interventions. This article describes an original approach combining multiple psychotherapeutic modalities that addresses the complex treatment requirements of adult patients with ADHD, through a structured, integrative, psychosocial therapeutic model that holistically encompasses problematic aspects of life for the adult with ADHD. This model integrates a range of methods, including, problem-solving therapy, mindfulness, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT and family therapy. Each of these methods have previously been empirically proven to be effective for this patient population, but have never been integrated into a coherent intervention comprised of group work designed for problem identification, positive reinforcement and modeling, peer discussions aimed to facilitate anger expression, communication and assertiveness training, and mindfulness and CBT exercises for increased awareness and organization, and to support new solutions for identified problems. Patients are also encouraged to identify trans-generational interaction patterns, reflect on how these patterns impact their emotional difficulties, and eventually achieve enhanced self-acceptance.

  12. The Localizing Value Of Focal Delta Slowing In Temporal Lobe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Slow wave EEG had a higher marginal probability than neuropsychological assessment of predicting the focus, and was equally effective as other investigative methods. Conclusion These results suggest that focal temporal delta slowing is useful in the localization of epileptogenic foci. There was no discordance with the ...

  13. Slow light in moving media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, U.; Piwnicki, P.

    2001-06-01

    We review the theory of light propagation in moving media with extremely low group velocity. We intend to clarify the most elementary features of monochromatic slow light in a moving medium and, whenever possible, to give an instructive simplified picture.

  14. Slow-release fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.

    1992-10-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  15. Slow-release fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Inventor); Golden, Dadigamuwage C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  16. [The effectiveness of physical therapy methods (Bobath and motor relearning program) in rehabilitation of stroke patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutulyte, Grazina; Kimtys, Algimantas; Krisciūnas, Aleksandras

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether two different physiotherapy regimes caused any differences in outcome in the rehabilitation after stroke. We examined 240 patients with stroke. Examination was carried out at the Rehabilitation Center of Kaunas Second Clinical Hospital. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Bobath method was applied to the first (I) group (n=147), motor relearning program (MRP) method was applied to the second (II) group (n=93). In every group of patients we established samples according to sex, age, hospitalization to rehab unit as occurrence of CVA degree of disorder (hemiplegia, hemiparesis). The mobility of patients was evaluated according to European Federation for Research in Rehabilitation (EFRR) scale. Activities of daily living were evaluated by Barthel index. Analyzed groups were evaluated before physical therapy. When preliminary analysis was carried out it proved no statically reliable differences between analyzed groups (reliability 95%). The same statistical analysis was carried out after physical therapy. The results of differences between patient groups were compared using chi(2) method. Bobath method was applied working with the first group of patients. The aim of the method is to improve quality of the affected body side's movements in order to keep both sides working as harmoniously as possible. While applying this method at work, physical therapist guides patient's body on key-points, stimulating normal postural reactions, and training normal movement pattern. MRP method was used while working with the second group patients. This method is based on movement science, biomechanics and training of functional movement. Program is based on idea that movement pattern shouldn't be trained; it must be relearned. CONCLUSION. This study indicates that physiotherapy with task-oriented strategies represented by MRP, is preferable to physiotherapy with facilitation/inhibition strategies, such the Bobath programme, in the

  17. Slow rupture of frictional interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Sinai, Yohai Bar; Brener, Efim A.; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2011-01-01

    The failure of frictional interfaces and the spatiotemporal structures that accompany it are central to a wide range of geophysical, physical and engineering systems. Recent geophysical and laboratory observations indicated that interfacial failure can be mediated by slow slip rupture phenomena which are distinct from ordinary, earthquake-like, fast rupture. These discoveries have influenced the way we think about frictional motion, yet the nature and properties of slow rupture are not comple...

  18. [Promising new injection method to prevent angialgia/phlebitis from epirubicin hydrochloride therapy for breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Chiemi; Yamagami, Mitsue; Kamatani, Rika; Yamamoto, Makoto; Mukouyama, Tomoya; Sugimoto, Masakazu; Suzuki, Taizan; Kamo, Nobuyuki; Seki, Nobuhiko; Eguchi, Kenji; Ikeda, Tadashi

    2012-05-01

    Epirubicin hydrochloride(EPI)is well known to cause phlebitis as a typical adverse drug reaction. By preventing the development of severe phlebitis, patients are expected to continue effective chemotherapy with EPI without a decrease in QOL. We have previously reported promising results of a new injection method to prevent phlebitis from occurring during EPI therapy thorough a prospective clinical trial in our hospital(Jpn J Cancer Chemother 36: 969-974, 2009). In the present study, we have compared the conventional injection method(EPI main -route method, n=15)with our new method, which has been consistently practiced at present(EPI sub -route method, n=77). We found that in the EPI main -route method, angialgia/phlebitis developed in 14 of 15 cases(Grade 3, 53. 3%), leading to alteration of the regimen in 3 cases. On the other hand, with the EPI sub -route method, incidence of angialgia/phlebitis was markedly decreased, and only 6 of 77 cases developed these adverse reactions(Grade 3, 0%). One possible explanation for these results is that the reduction of intimal stimulation by the EPI sub -route method might be caused by the dilution and washout of EPI with pre-medication, as well as the shortened infusion times of EPI. Therefore, on the basis of the above hypothesis, we conclude that the EPI sub-route method might be a more effective treatment for the expected prevention of angialgia/phlebitis.

  19. Endoscopic Therapy of Refractory Post-Papillotomy Bleeding With Electrocautery Forceps Coagulation Method Combined With Prophylactic Pancreatic Stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Dubravcsik

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: We presented a new, effective and safe second line endoscopic hemostatic method in patients with therapy resistant post-papillotomy bleeding. Combination of prophylactic pancreatic stenting and thermal coagulation with coagulation forceps might be suggested as a rescue treatment in patients with severe post-papillotomy bleeding, resistant to standard endoscopic therapy.

  20. Toward standardization of slow earthquake catalog -Development of database website-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, M.; Aso, N.; Annoura, S.; Arai, R.; Ito, Y.; Kamaya, N.; Maury, J.; Nakamura, M.; Nishimura, T.; Obana, K.; Sugioka, H.; Takagi, R.; Takahashi, T.; Takeo, A.; Yamashita, Y.; Matsuzawa, T.; Ide, S.; Obara, K.

    2017-12-01

    Slow earthquakes have now been widely discovered in the world based on the recent development of geodetic and seismic observations. Many researchers detect a wide frequency range of slow earthquakes including low frequency tremors, low frequency earthquakes, very low frequency earthquakes and slow slip events by using various methods. Catalogs of the detected slow earthquakes are open to us in different formats by each referring paper or through a website (e.g., Wech 2010; Idehara et al. 2014). However, we need to download catalogs from different sources, to deal with unformatted catalogs and to understand the characteristics of different catalogs, which may be somewhat complex especially for those who are not familiar with slow earthquakes. In order to standardize slow earthquake catalogs and to make such a complicated work easier, Scientific Research on Innovative Areas "Science of Slow Earthquakes" has been developing a slow earthquake catalog website. In the website, we can plot locations of various slow earthquakes via the Google Maps by compiling a variety of slow earthquake catalogs including slow slip events. This enables us to clearly visualize spatial relations among slow earthquakes at a glance and to compare the regional activities of slow earthquakes or the locations of different catalogs. In addition, we can download catalogs in the unified format and refer the information on each catalog on the single website. Such standardization will make it more convenient for users to utilize the previous achievements and to promote research on slow earthquakes, which eventually leads to collaborations with researchers in various fields and further understanding of the mechanisms, environmental conditions, and underlying physics of slow earthquakes. Furthermore, we expect that the website has a leading role in the international standardization of slow earthquake catalogs. We report the overview of the website and the progress of construction. Acknowledgment: This

  1. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Mindfulness, and Hypnosis as Treatment Methods for Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daitch, Carolyn

    2018-07-01

    Individuals suffering from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) experience a broad range of physical, emotional, and cognitive distress. A hallmark of GAD is anxiety around making decisions. Many clinicians notice improvements in patients through specific modalities, such as mindfulness, hypnosis, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT); however, these individual methods sometimes fall short. Clinicians and researchers alike note that it can be more effective to combine these three methods into an integrative treatment protocol. This article demonstrates the efficacy of an integrative model through the case study of a client who suffers from GAD and acute fear of decision making. Competent use of mindfulness, hypnosis, and CBT helps the client build the skills necessary to self-soothe, diminish worry, access resources, and enhance hope for the future. Through the article, clinicians interested in integrated treatment models will gain insight into how to apply these methods.

  2. A method to select aperture margin in collimated spot scanning proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dongxu; Smith, Blake R; Gelover, Edgar; Flynn, Ryan T; Hyer, Daniel E

    2015-01-01

    The use of collimator or aperture may sharpen the lateral dose gradient for spot scanning proton therapy. However, to date, there has not been a standard method to determine the aperture margin for a single field in collimated spot scanning proton therapy. This study describes a theoretical framework to select the optimal aperture margin for a single field, and also presents the spot spacing limit required such that the optimal aperture margin exists. Since, for a proton pencil beam partially intercepted by collimator, the maximum point dose (spot center) shifts away from the original pencil beam central axis, we propose that the optimal margin should be equal to the maximum pencil beam center shift under the condition that spot spacing is small with respect to the maximum pencil beam center shift, which can be numerically determined based on beam modeling data. A test case is presented which demonstrates agreement with the prediction made based on the proposed methods. When apertures are applied in a commercial treatment planning system this method may be implemented. (note)

  3. Measurement of anatomy contouring in EPI review: a practical method for use in radiation therapy departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halkett, Georgia; Williams, Marie

    2004-01-01

    Radiation therapy treatment verification can be performed using hard copy portal films or digital Electronic Portal Images (EPI) of the treatment field, acquired at the time of treatment. This paper describes a practical method of assessing the accuracy of reference anatomy outlining, for treatment sites involving the pelvis, breast and lumbar spine. Seven original bone anatomy outlines contoured onto verification images of five patients, were printed on transparency sheets and reference points were marked at equal distances along the anatomy curves. Two sample anatomy contour sets were created by two independent radiation therapists who outlined visible bone anatomy on the same seven digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) and hard copy outlines were obtained. Three independent observers with differing levels of experience, assessed the discrepancies between the original anatomy contours and the sample sets on two occasions one week apart, by measuring the distances between the original and sample set contours (absolute values in mm). The degree of agreement between the same assessor on two occasions (intra-rater reliability) and between assessors (inter-rater reliability) was analysed using parametric analysis for levels of relationship and significant differences. This simple method of reference anatomy outline measurement was shown to be highly reliable within assessors and between assessors (r > 0.87 and rz > 0.75 for both intra- and inter-rater comparisons). This measurement process may be a suitable method, for undertaking quality assurance activities in image verification within radiation therapy departments. Copyright (2004) Australian Institute of Radiography

  4. Face recognition using slow feature analysis and contourlet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuehao; Peng, Lingling; Zhe, Fuchuan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we propose a novel face recognition approach based on slow feature analysis (SFA) in contourlet transform domain. This method firstly use contourlet transform to decompose the face image into low frequency and high frequency part, and then takes technological advantages of slow feature analysis for facial feature extraction. We named the new method combining the slow feature analysis and contourlet transform as CT-SFA. The experimental results on international standard face database demonstrate that the new face recognition method is effective and competitive.

  5. Nuclear medicine. Clinical value of the medicine methods. Nuklearmedizin. Klinische Bedeutung nuklearmedizinischer Diagnostik und Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, H A.E. [Evangelisches Krankenhaus Bethesda Gemeinnuetzige G.m.b.H., Duisburg (Germany, F.R.). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik; Ortiz Berrocal, J [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; eds.

    1979-01-01

    This proceedings volume of the 16th International Annual Meeting of the Gesellschaft fuer Nuklearmedizin, which took place in Madrid on October 24-27, 1978, contains 183 compacts on the following subjects: Metrology and data processing, cyclotron products and radiopharmaceuticals, nuclear medicine as compared with computerized tomography and sonography, radioimmunoassay, haematology, thyreology, osteology, pulmonology, cardiology, angiology, nephrology, gastroenterology and hepatology, oncology, nuclear therapy methods and some free lectures and thus give a good picture of the state of the art in nuclear medicine at the time.

  6. The Potential of/for 'Slow': Slow Tourists and Slow Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guiver

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Slow tourism practices are nothing new; in fact, they were once the norm and still are for millions of people whose annual holiday is spent camping, staying in caravans, rented accommodation, with friends and relations or perhaps in a second home, who immerse themselves in their holiday environment, eat local food, drink local wine and walk or cycle around the area. So why a special edition about slow tourism? Like many aspects of life once considered normal (such as organic farming or free-range eggs, the emergence of new practices has highlighted differences and prompted a re-evaluation of once accepted practices and values. In this way, the concept of ‘slow tourism’ has recently appeared as a type of tourism that contrasts with many contemporary mainstream tourism practices. It has also been associated with similar trends already ‘branded’ slow: slow food and cittaslow (slow towns and concepts such as mindfulness, savouring and well-being.

  7. Fundamental research with polarized slow neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupchitsky, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    In the last twenty years polarized beams of slow neutrons have been used effectively in fundamental research in nuclear physics. This book gives a thorough introduction to these experimental methods including the most recent techniques of generating and analyzing polarized neutron beams. It clearly shows the close relationship between elementary particle physics and nuclear physics. The book not only addresses specialists but also those interested in the foundations of elementary particle and nuclear physics. With 42 figs

  8. Inpatient Massage Therapy Versus Music Therapy Versus Usual Care: A Mixed-methods Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseen, Eric J; Cornelio-Flores, Oscar; Lemaster, Chelsey; Hernandez, Maria; Fong, Calvin; Resnick, Kirsten; Wardle, Jon; Hanser, Suzanne; Saper, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the feasibility of providing massage or music therapy to medical inpatients at urban safety-net hospitals or the impact these treatments may have on patient experience. To determine the feasibility of providing massage and music therapy to medical inpatients and to assess the impact of these interventions on patient experience. Single-center 3-arm feasibility randomized controlled trial. Urban academic safety-net hospital. Adult inpatients on the Family Medicine ward. Massage therapy consisted of a standardized protocol adapted from a previous perioperative study. Music therapy involved a preference assessment, personalized compact disc, music-facilitated coping, singing/playing music, and/or songwriting. Credentialed therapists provided the interventions. Patient experience was measured with the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) within 7 days of discharge. We compared the proportion of patients in each study arm reporting "top box" scores for the following a priori HCAHPS domains: pain management, recommendation of hospital, and overall hospital rating. Responses to additional open-ended postdischarge questions were transcribed, coded independently, and analyzed for common themes. From July to December 2014, 90 medical inpatients were enrolled; postdischarge data were collected on 68 (76%) medical inpatients. Participants were 70% females, 43% non-Hispanic black, and 23% Hispanic. No differences between groups were observed on HCAHPS. The qualitative analysis found that massage and music therapy were associated with improved overall hospital experience, pain management, and connectedness to the massage or music therapist. Providing music and massage therapy in an urban safety-net inpatient setting was feasible. There was no quantitative impact on HCAHPS. Qualitative findings suggest benefits related to an improved hospital experience, pain management, and connectedness to the massage or music therapist.

  9. Inpatient Massage Therapy Versus Music Therapy Versus Usual Care: A Mixed-methods Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelio-Flores, Oscar; Lemaster, Chelsey; Hernandez, Maria; Fong, Calvin; Resnick, Kirsten; Wardle, Jon; Hanser, Suzanne; Saper, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background Little is known about the feasibility of providing massage or music therapy to medical inpatients at urban safety-net hospitals or the impact these treatments may have on patient experience. Objective To determine the feasibility of providing massage and music therapy to medical inpatients and to assess the impact of these interventions on patient experience. Design Single-center 3-arm feasibility randomized controlled trial. Setting Urban academic safety-net hospital. Patients Adult inpatients on the Family Medicine ward. Interventions Massage therapy consisted of a standardized protocol adapted from a previous perioperative study. Music therapy involved a preference assessment, personalized compact disc, music-facilitated coping, singing/playing music, and/or songwriting. Credentialed therapists provided the interventions. Measurements Patient experience was measured with the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) within 7 days of discharge. We compared the proportion of patients in each study arm reporting “top box” scores for the following a priori HCAHPS domains: pain management, recommendation of hospital, and overall hospital rating. Responses to additional open-ended postdischarge questions were transcribed, coded independently, and analyzed for common themes. Results From July to December 2014, 90 medical inpatients were enrolled; postdischarge data were collected on 68 (76%) medical inpatients. Participants were 70% females, 43% non-Hispanic black, and 23% Hispanic. No differences between groups were observed on HCAHPS. The qualitative analysis found that massage and music therapy were associated with improved overall hospital experience, pain management, and connectedness to the massage or music therapist. Conclusions Providing music and massage therapy in an urban safety-net inpatient setting was feasible. There was no quantitative impact on HCAHPS. Qualitative findings suggest benefits related to an

  10. Slow, stopped and stored light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, G.; Scully, M.

    2005-01-01

    Light that can been slowed to walking pace could have applications in telecommunications, optical storage and quantum computing. Whether we use it to estimate how far away a thunderstorm is, or simply take it for granted that we can have a conversation with someone on the other side of the world, we all know that light travels extremely fast. Indeed, special relativity teaches us that nothing in the universe can ever move faster than the speed of light in a vacuum: 299 792 458 ms sup - sup 1. However, there is no such limitation on how slowly light can travel. For the last few years, researchers have been routinely slowing light to just a few metres per second, and have recently even stopped it dead in its tracks so that it can be stored for future use. Slow-light has considerable popular appeal, deriving perhaps from the importance of the speed of light in relativity and cosmology. If everyday objects such as cars or people can travel faster than 'slow' light, for example, then it might appear that relativistic effects could be observed at very low speeds. Although this is not the case, slow light nonetheless promises to play an important role in optical technology because it allows light to be delayed for any period of time desired. This could lead to all-optical routers that would increase the bandwidth of the Internet, and applications in optical data storage, quantum information and even radar. (U.K.)

  11. Slow rupture of frictional interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar Sinai, Yohai; Brener, Efim A.; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2012-02-01

    The failure of frictional interfaces and the spatiotemporal structures that accompany it are central to a wide range of geophysical, physical and engineering systems. Recent geophysical and laboratory observations indicated that interfacial failure can be mediated by slow slip rupture phenomena which are distinct from ordinary, earthquake-like, fast rupture. These discoveries have influenced the way we think about frictional motion, yet the nature and properties of slow rupture are not completely understood. We show that slow rupture is an intrinsic and robust property of simple non-monotonic rate-and-state friction laws. It is associated with a new velocity scale cmin, determined by the friction law, below which steady state rupture cannot propagate. We further show that rupture can occur in a continuum of states, spanning a wide range of velocities from cmin to elastic wave-speeds, and predict different properties for slow rupture and ordinary fast rupture. Our results are qualitatively consistent with recent high-resolution laboratory experiments and may provide a theoretical framework for understanding slow rupture phenomena along frictional interfaces.

  12. A mixed methods analysis of songs written by bereaved preadolescents in individual music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Melina; McFerran, Katrina

    2013-01-01

    Providing opportunities for children to process loss and express grief in response to the loss of a loved one has been shown to assist with successful coping (Worden, 1996). Songwriting may be a relevant method that fosters the expression of thoughts and feelings related to the loss. The purpose of this study was to analyse lyrics written by bereaved children during individual music therapy and to determine if they did use the opportunity to address grief through songwriting. Participants were 14 bereaved children (13 girls, 1 boy) aged between 7 and 12 years. Children were recruited and participated in individual music therapy in their homes with a credentialed music therapist. Participants wrote a total of 49 songs and their lyrics were analysed using a mixed methods content analysis. An inductive analysis identified categories existing within the lyrics and each lyric was then deductively attributed to one of the categories. Results revealed that the children wrote songs about themselves, their experiences, and their relationships, including, but not limited to the topic of loss. It became apparent that through songwriting these children expressed their experiences of the world based on their developmental capacities and limitations.

  13. Efferent detoxification methods and evaluation of the intensive therapy efficacy in children with bacterial toxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Kurochkin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of severe bacterial infections intensive therapy in children is toxemia, disorder of hemodynamic and oxygen transport. Aim. The aim of the work was to study the features of hemodynamics, oxygen transport, the level of toxemia during bacterial intoxication treatment in children, including discrete plasmapheresis. Methods and results. The study included 28 children with severe bacterial infections. We found that the inclusion of efferent methods of intensive care, such as a discrete plasmapheresis, helped to reduce circulation hyperdynamia and restore a balanced mode of delivery and oxygen consumption within 24 hours after the plasmapheresis session. Conclusion. Reduction of toxemia was noted after plasmapresis, which was confirmed by a significant decreasing in the toxicity markers level – middle molecules in the blood and leukocyte index of intoxication.

  14. Beam angle optimization for intensity-modulated radiation therapy using a guided pattern search method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Humberto; Dias, Joana M; Ferreira, Brígida C; Lopes, Maria C

    2013-01-01

    Generally, the inverse planning of radiation therapy consists mainly of the fluence optimization. The beam angle optimization (BAO) in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) consists of selecting appropriate radiation incidence directions and may influence the quality of the IMRT plans, both to enhance better organ sparing and to improve tumor coverage. However, in clinical practice, most of the time, beam directions continue to be manually selected by the treatment planner without objective and rigorous criteria. The goal of this paper is to introduce a novel approach that uses beam’s-eye-view dose ray tracing metrics within a pattern search method framework in the optimization of the highly non-convex BAO problem. Pattern search methods are derivative-free optimization methods that require a few function evaluations to progress and converge and have the ability to better avoid local entrapment. The pattern search method framework is composed of a search step and a poll step at each iteration. The poll step performs a local search in a mesh neighborhood and ensures the convergence to a local minimizer or stationary point. The search step provides the flexibility for a global search since it allows searches away from the neighborhood of the current iterate. Beam’s-eye-view dose metrics assign a score to each radiation beam direction and can be used within the pattern search framework furnishing a priori knowledge of the problem so that directions with larger dosimetric scores are tested first. A set of clinical cases of head-and-neck tumors treated at the Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Coimbra is used to discuss the potential of this approach in the optimization of the BAO problem. (paper)

  15. Slow Images and Entangled Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swordy, Simon

    2007-01-01

    I will discuss some recent experiments using slow light and entangled photons. We recently showed that it was possible to map a two dimensional image onto very low light level signals, slow them down in a hot atomic vapor while preserving the amplitude and phase of the images. If time remains, I will discuss some of our recent work with time-energy entangled photons for quantum cryptography. We were able to show that we could have a measurable state space of over 1000 states for a single pair of entangled photons in fiber.

  16. Pulsar slow-down epochs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintzmann, H.; Novello, M.

    1981-01-01

    The relative importance of magnetospheric currents and low frequency waves for pulsar braking is assessed and a model is developed which tries to account for the available pulsar timing data under the unifying aspect that all pulsars have equal masses and magnetic moments and are born as rapid rotators. Four epochs of slow-down are distinguished which are dominated by different braking mechanisms. According to the model no direct relationship exists between 'slow-down age' and true age of a pulsar and leads to a pulsar birth-rate of one event per hundred years. (Author) [pt

  17. A critical evaluation of worst case optimization methods for robust intensity-modulated proton therapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksson, Albin; Bokrantz, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To critically evaluate and compare three worst case optimization methods that have been previously employed to generate intensity-modulated proton therapy treatment plans that are robust against systematic errors. The goal of the evaluation is to identify circumstances when the methods behave differently and to describe the mechanism behind the differences when they occur. Methods: The worst case methods optimize plans to perform as well as possible under the worst case scenario that can physically occur (composite worst case), the combination of the worst case scenarios for each objective constituent considered independently (objectivewise worst case), and the combination of the worst case scenarios for each voxel considered independently (voxelwise worst case). These three methods were assessed with respect to treatment planning for prostate under systematic setup uncertainty. An equivalence with probabilistic optimization was used to identify the scenarios that determine the outcome of the optimization. Results: If the conflict between target coverage and normal tissue sparing is small and no dose-volume histogram (DVH) constraints are present, then all three methods yield robust plans. Otherwise, they all have their shortcomings: Composite worst case led to unnecessarily low plan quality in boundary scenarios that were less difficult than the worst case ones. Objectivewise worst case generally led to nonrobust plans. Voxelwise worst case led to overly conservative plans with respect to DVH constraints, which resulted in excessive dose to normal tissue, and less sharp dose fall-off than the other two methods. Conclusions: The three worst case methods have clearly different behaviors. These behaviors can be understood from which scenarios that are active in the optimization. No particular method is superior to the others under all circumstances: composite worst case is suitable if the conflicts are not very severe or there are DVH constraints whereas

  18. MRI definition of target volumes using fuzzy logic method for three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caudrelier, Jean-Michel; Vial, Stephane; Gibon, David; Kulik, Carine; Fournier, Charles; Castelain, Bernard; Coche-Dequeant, Bernard; Rousseau, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Three-dimensional (3D) volume determination is one of the most important problems in conformal radiation therapy. Techniques of volume determination from tomographic medical imaging are usually based on two-dimensional (2D) contour definition with the result dependent on the segmentation method used, as well as on the user's manual procedure. The goal of this work is to describe and evaluate a new method that reduces the inaccuracies generally observed in the 2D contour definition and 3D volume reconstruction process. Methods and Materials: This new method has been developed by integrating the fuzziness in the 3D volume definition. It first defines semiautomatically a minimal 2D contour on each slice that definitely contains the volume and a maximal 2D contour that definitely does not contain the volume. The fuzziness region in between is processed using possibility functions in possibility theory. A volume of voxels, including the membership degree to the target volume, is then created on each slice axis, taking into account the slice position and slice profile. A resulting fuzzy volume is obtained after data fusion between multiorientation slices. Different studies have been designed to evaluate and compare this new method of target volume reconstruction and a classical reconstruction method. First, target definition accuracy and robustness were studied on phantom targets. Second, intra- and interobserver variations were studied on radiosurgery clinical cases. Results: The absolute volume errors are less than or equal to 1.5% for phantom volumes calculated by the fuzzy logic method, whereas the values obtained with the classical method are much larger than the actual volumes (absolute volume errors up to 72%). With increasing MRI slice thickness (1 mm to 8 mm), the phantom volumes calculated by the classical method are increasing exponentially with a maximum absolute error up to 300%. In contrast, the absolute volume errors are less than 12% for phantom

  19. Enhancement of sleep slow waves: underlying mechanisms and practical consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eBellesi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Even modest sleep restriction, especially the loss of sleep slow wave activity, is invariably associated with slower EEG activity during wake, the occurrence of local sleep in an otherwise awake brain, and impaired performance due to cognitive and memory deficits. Recent studies not only confirm the beneficial role of sleep in memory consolidation, but also point to a specific role for sleep slow waves. Thus, the implementation of methods to enhance sleep slow waves without unwanted arousals or lightening of sleep could have significant practical implications. Here we first review the evidence that it is possible to enhance sleep slow waves in humans using transcranial direct-current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Since these methods are currently impractical and their safety is questionable, especially for chronic long-term exposure, we then discuss novel data suggesting that it is possible to enhance slow waves using sensory stimuli. We consider the physiology of the K-complex, a peripheral evoked slow wave, and show that, among different sensory modalities, acoustic stimulation is the most effective in increasing the magnitude of slow waves, likely through the activation of non-lemniscal ascending pathways to the thalamo-cortical system. In addition, we discuss how intensity and frequency of the acoustic stimuli, as well as exact timing and pattern of stimulation, affect sleep enhancement. Finally, we discuss automated algorithms that read the EEG and, in real-time, adjust the stimulation parameters in a closed-loop manner to obtain an increase in sleep slow waves and avoid undesirable arousals. In conclusion, while discussing the mechanisms that underlie the generation of sleep slow waves, we review the converging evidence showing that acoustic stimulation is safe and represents an ideal tool for slow wave sleep enhancement.

  20. A slowing-down problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlvik, I; Pershagen, B

    1958-06-15

    An infinitely long circular cylinder of radius a is surrounded by an infinite moderator. Both media are non-capturing. The cylinder emits neutrons of age zero with a constant source density of S. We assume that the ratios of the slowing-down powers and of the diffusion constants are independent of the neutron energy. The slowing-down density is calculated for two cases, a) when the slowing-down power of the cylinder medium is very small, and b) when the cylinder medium is identical with the moderator. The ratios of the slowing-down density at the age {tau} and the source density in the two cases are called {psi}{sub V}, and {psi}{sub M} respectively. {psi}{sub V} and {psi}{sub M} are functions of y=a{sup 2}/4{tau}. These two functions ({psi}{sub V} and {psi}{sub M}) are calculated and tabulated for y = 0-0.25.

  1. Numerical modeling of slow shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winske, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews previous attempt and the present status of efforts to understand the structure of slow shocks by means of time dependent numerical calculations. Studies carried out using MHD or hybrid-kinetic codes have demonstrated qualitative agreement with theory. A number of unresolved issues related to hybrid simulations of the internal shock structure are discussed in some detail. 43 refs., 8 figs

  2. Automation and uncertainty analysis of a method for in-vivo range verification in particle therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, K; Unholtz, D; Bauer, J; Debus, J; Min, C H; Bortfeld, T; Paganetti, H; Parodi, K

    2014-10-07

    We introduce the automation of the range difference calculation deduced from particle-irradiation induced β(+)-activity distributions with the so-called most-likely-shift approach, and evaluate its reliability via the monitoring of algorithm- and patient-specific uncertainty factors. The calculation of the range deviation is based on the minimization of the absolute profile differences in the distal part of two activity depth profiles shifted against each other. Depending on the workflow of positron emission tomography (PET)-based range verification, the two profiles under evaluation can correspond to measured and simulated distributions, or only measured data from different treatment sessions. In comparison to previous work, the proposed approach includes an automated identification of the distal region of interest for each pair of PET depth profiles and under consideration of the planned dose distribution, resulting in the optimal shift distance. Moreover, it introduces an estimate of uncertainty associated to the identified shift, which is then used as weighting factor to 'red flag' problematic large range differences. Furthermore, additional patient-specific uncertainty factors are calculated using available computed tomography (CT) data to support the range analysis. The performance of the new method for in-vivo treatment verification in the clinical routine is investigated with in-room PET images for proton therapy as well as with offline PET images for proton and carbon ion therapy. The comparison between measured PET activity distributions and predictions obtained by Monte Carlo simulations or measurements from previous treatment fractions is performed. For this purpose, a total of 15 patient datasets were analyzed, which were acquired at Massachusetts General Hospital and Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center with in-room PET and offline PET/CT scanners, respectively. Calculated range differences between the compared activity distributions are reported in a

  3. Real-time dose compensation methods for scanned ion beam therapy of moving tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luechtenborg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Scanned ion beam therapy provides highly tumor-conformal treatments. So far, only tumors showing no considerable motion during therapy have been treated as tumor motion and dynamic beam delivery interfere, causing dose deteriorations. One proposed technique to mitigate these deteriorations is beam tracking (BT), which adapts the beam position to the moving tumor. Despite application of BT, dose deviations can occur in the case of non-translational motion. In this work, real-time dose compensation combined with beam tracking (RDBT) has been implemented into the control system to compensate these dose changes by adaptation of nominal particle numbers during irradiation. Compared to BT, significantly reduced dose deviations were measured using RDBT. Treatment planning studies for lung cancer patients including the increased biological effectiveness of ions revealed a significantly reduced over-dose level (3/5 patients) as well as significantly improved dose homogeneity (4/5 patients) for RDBT. Based on these findings, real-time dose compensated re-scanning (RDRS) has been proposed that potentially supersedes the technically complex fast energy adaptation necessary for BT and RDBT. Significantly improved conformity compared to re-scanning, i.e., averaging of dose deviations by repeated irradiation, was measured in film irradiations. Simulations comparing RDRS to BT revealed reduced under- and overdoses of the former method.

  4. Sensitization of the analytical methods for photoneutron calculations to the wall concrete composition in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiasi, Hosein; Mesbahi, Asghar

    2012-01-01

    The effect of wall material on photoneutron production in radiation therapy rooms was studied using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. An analytical formula was proposed to take into account the concrete composition in photoneutron dose calculations. Using the MCNPX MC code, the 18 MV photon beam of the Varian Clinac 2100 and a typical treatment room with concrete compositions according to report No. 144 of National Council of Radiation Protection (NCRP) were simulated. Number of room produced photoneutrons per Gray of X-ray at the isocenter was determined for different types of concrete and named as “Q W ”. This new factor was inserted in the used formula for photoneutron fluence calculations at the inner entrance of maze. The photoneutron fluence was calculated using new proposed formula at the inner entrance of maze for all studied concretes. The difference between conventional and proposed equations varied from 11% to 46% for studied concretes. It was found that room produced photoneutrons could be significant for high density concretes. Additionally, applying the new proposed formula can consider the effect of wall material composition on the photoneutron production in high energy radiation therapy rooms. Further studies to confirm the accuracy of newly developed method is recommended.

  5. Therapy evaluation and diagnostic accuracy in neuroendocrine tumours: assessment of radiological methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvin, A.

    1993-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonically guided biopsy-gun biopsies was assessed in a group of 47 patients with suspected pancreatic carcinoma. A correct diagnosis was obtained in 44 of the 47 patients (94%). Biopsy-gun biopsy of the pancreas is considered a useful, reliable and non-traumatic method for the diagnosis of pancreatic malignancy. Twenty-five patients with known neuroendocrine tumour disease were biopsied with 1.2 mm and 0.9 mm biopsy-gun needles. The influence of treatment-related fibrosis was also evaluated. The overall diagnostic accuracy with the 0.9 mm needle was 69% as compared to 92% with the 1.2 mm needle. In order to assess the diagnostic accuracy rate for radiologists with different experience of biopsy procedures 175 cases of renal biopsy-gun biopsies were evaluated. No statistical significant difference was found between the different operators. The role of duplex Doppler ultrasound in monitoring interferon treatment-related changes in carcinoid metastases was evaluated. It present duplex Doppler ultrasound does not seem to play a role in the evaluation of tumour therapy in carcinoid patients. Therapy response evaluation was performed with MR imaging in a group of 17 patients with neuroendocrine liver metastases. A significant difference was found between patients responding to and patients with failure of treatment in terms of tumour T1, contrast enhancement and signal intensity ratio. This indicates that MR investigation may be used in therapy monitoring of patients with neuroendocrine metastases. The neuroendocrine-differentiated colonic carcinoma cell line (LCC-18) was transplanted to 29 mice to establish a tumour/animal model that would allow the monitoring of changes with MR imaging induced by interferon therapy and to evaluate whether the therapeutic response could be modulated by different interferon dosages. Interferon does not seem to have any prolonged anti-proliferative effect on the LCC-18 tumour cell line when transplanted to

  6. From traditional cognitive-behavioural therapy to acceptance and commitment therapy for chronic pain: a mixed-methods study of staff experiences of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Estelle; McCracken, Lance M

    2014-08-01

    Health care organizations, both large and small, frequently undergo processes of change. In fact, if health care organizations are to improve over time, they must change; this includes pain services. The purpose of the present study was to examine a process of change in treatment model within a specialty interdisciplinary pain service in the UK. This change entailed a switch from traditional cognitive-behavioural therapy to a form of cognitive-behavioural therapy called acceptance and commitment therapy. An anonymous online survey, including qualitative and quantitative components, was carried out approximately 15 months after the initial introduction of the new treatment model and methods. Fourteen out of 16 current clinical staff responded to the survey. Three themes emerged in qualitative analyses: positive engagement in change; uncertainty and discomfort; and group cohesion versus discord. Quantitative results from closed questions showed a pattern of uncertainty about the superiority of one model over the other, combined with more positive views on progress reflected, and the experience of personal benefits, from adopting the new model. The psychological flexibility model, the model behind acceptance and commitment therapy, may clarify both processes in patient behaviour and processes of staff experience and skilful treatment delivery. This integration of processes on both sides of treatment delivery may be a strength of acceptance and commitment therapy.

  7. Teaching Theory in Occupational Therapy Using a Cooperative Learning: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Hinojosa, Jim

    2018-01-01

    Cooperative learning provides an important vehicle for active learning, as knowledge is socially constructed through interaction with others. This study investigated the effect of cooperative learning on occupational therapy (OT) theory knowledge attainment in professional-level OT students in a classroom environment. Using a pre- and post-test group design, 24 first-year, entry-level OT students participated while taking a theory course in their second semester of the program. Cooperative learning methods were implemented via in-class group assignments. The students were asked to complete two questionnaires regarding their attitudes toward group environments and their perception toward group learning before and after the semester. MANCOVA was used to examine changes in attitudes and perceived learning among groups. Students' summary sheets for each in-class assignment and course evaluations were collected for content analysis. Results indicated significant changes in students' attitude toward working in small groups regardless of their prior group experience.

  8. A region-based segmentation method for ultrasound images in HIFU therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dong; Liu, Yu; Yang, Yan; Xu, Menglong; Yan, Yu; Qin, Qianqing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Precisely and efficiently locating a tumor with less manual intervention in ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy is one of the keys to guaranteeing the therapeutic result and improving the efficiency of the treatment. The segmentation of ultrasound images has always been difficult due to the influences of speckle, acoustic shadows, and signal attenuation as well as the variety of tumor appearance. The quality of HIFU guidance images is even poorer than that of conventional diagnostic ultrasound images because the ultrasonic probe used for HIFU guidance usually obtains images without making contact with the patient’s body. Therefore, the segmentation becomes more difficult. To solve the segmentation problem of ultrasound guidance image in the treatment planning procedure for HIFU therapy, a novel region-based segmentation method for uterine fibroids in HIFU guidance images is proposed. Methods: Tumor partitioning in HIFU guidance image without manual intervention is achieved by a region-based split-and-merge framework. A new iterative multiple region growing algorithm is proposed to first split the image into homogenous regions (superpixels). The features extracted within these homogenous regions will be more stable than those extracted within the conventional neighborhood of a pixel. The split regions are then merged by a superpixel-based adaptive spectral clustering algorithm. To ensure the superpixels that belong to the same tumor can be clustered together in the merging process, a particular construction strategy for the similarity matrix is adopted for the spectral clustering, and the similarity matrix is constructed by taking advantage of a combination of specifically selected first-order and second-order texture features computed from the gray levels and the gray level co-occurrence matrixes, respectively. The tumor region is picked out automatically from the background regions by an algorithm according to a priori

  9. Methods for extracting dose response curves from radiation therapy data. I. A unified approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herring, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses an approach to fitting models to radiation therapy data in order to extract dose response curves for tumor local control and normal tissue damage. The approach is based on the method of maximum likelihood and is illustrated by several examples. A general linear logistic equation which leads to the Ellis nominal standard dose (NSD) equation is discussed; the fit of this equation to experimental data for mouse foot skin reactions produced by fractionated irradiation is described. A logistic equation based on the concept that normal tissue reactions are associated with the surviving fraction of cells is also discussed, and the fit of this equation to the same set of mouse foot skin reaction data is also described. These two examples illustrate the importance of choosing a model based on underlying mechanisms when one seeks to attach biological significance to a model's parameters

  10. A region-based segmentation method for ultrasound images in HIFU therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dong, E-mail: dongz@whu.edu.cn; Liu, Yu; Yang, Yan; Xu, Menglong; Yan, Yu [School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Qin, Qianqing [State Key Laboratory of Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Precisely and efficiently locating a tumor with less manual intervention in ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy is one of the keys to guaranteeing the therapeutic result and improving the efficiency of the treatment. The segmentation of ultrasound images has always been difficult due to the influences of speckle, acoustic shadows, and signal attenuation as well as the variety of tumor appearance. The quality of HIFU guidance images is even poorer than that of conventional diagnostic ultrasound images because the ultrasonic probe used for HIFU guidance usually obtains images without making contact with the patient’s body. Therefore, the segmentation becomes more difficult. To solve the segmentation problem of ultrasound guidance image in the treatment planning procedure for HIFU therapy, a novel region-based segmentation method for uterine fibroids in HIFU guidance images is proposed. Methods: Tumor partitioning in HIFU guidance image without manual intervention is achieved by a region-based split-and-merge framework. A new iterative multiple region growing algorithm is proposed to first split the image into homogenous regions (superpixels). The features extracted within these homogenous regions will be more stable than those extracted within the conventional neighborhood of a pixel. The split regions are then merged by a superpixel-based adaptive spectral clustering algorithm. To ensure the superpixels that belong to the same tumor can be clustered together in the merging process, a particular construction strategy for the similarity matrix is adopted for the spectral clustering, and the similarity matrix is constructed by taking advantage of a combination of specifically selected first-order and second-order texture features computed from the gray levels and the gray level co-occurrence matrixes, respectively. The tumor region is picked out automatically from the background regions by an algorithm according to a priori

  11. A method of segment weight optimization for intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Xi; Cao Ruifen; Jing Jia; Cheng Mengyun; Zheng Huaqing; Li Jia; Huang Shanqing; Li Gui; Song Gang; Wang Weihua; Wu Yican; FDS Team

    2011-01-01

    The error caused by leaf sequencing often leads to planning of Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) arrange system couldn't meet clinical demand. The optimization approach in this paper can reduce this error and improve efficiency of plan-making effectively. Conjugate Gradient algorithm was used to optimize segment weight and readjust segment shape, which could minimize the error anterior-posterior leaf sequencing eventually. Frequent clinical cases were tasted by precise radiotherapy system, and then compared Dose-Volume histogram between target area and organ at risk as well as isodose line in computed tomography (CT) film, we found that the effect was improved significantly after optimizing segment weight. Segment weight optimizing approach based on Conjugate Gradient method can make treatment planning meet clinical request more efficiently, so that has extensive application perspective. (authors)

  12. The unappreciated slowness of conventional tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Larsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Most tourists are not consciously engaging in ‘slow travel’, but a number of travel behaviours displayed by conventional tourists can be interpreted as slow travel behaviour. Based on Danish tourists’ engagement with the distances they travel across to reach their holiday destination, this paper explores unintended slow travel behaviours displayed by these tourists. None of the tourists participating in this research were consciously doing ‘slow travel’, and yet some of their most valued holiday memories are linked to slow travel behaviours. Based on the analysis of these unintended slow travel behaviours, this paper will discuss the potential this insight might hold for promotion of slow travel. If unappreciated and unintentional slow travel behaviours could be utilised in the deliberate effort of encouraging more people to travel slow, ‘slow travel’ will be in a better position to become integrated into conventional travel behaviour.

  13. Individual radiation therapy patient whole-body phantoms for peripheral dose evaluations: method and specific software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alziar, I; Vicente, C; Giordana, G; Ben-Harrath, O; De Vathaire, F; Diallo, I; Bonniaud, G; Couanet, D; Chavaudra, J; Lefkopoulos, D; Ruaud, J B; Diaz, J C; Grandjean, P; Kafrouni, H

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a method aimed at creating radiotherapy (RT) patient-adjustable whole-body phantoms to permit retrospective and prospective peripheral dose evaluations for enhanced patient radioprotection. Our strategy involves virtual whole-body patient models (WBPM) in different RT treatment positions for both genders and for different age groups. It includes a software tool designed to match the anatomy of the phantoms with the anatomy of the actual patients, based on the quality of patient data available. The procedure for adjusting a WBPM to patient morphology includes typical dimensions available in basic auxological tables for the French population. Adjustment is semi-automatic. Because of the complexity of the human anatomy, skilled personnel are required to validate changes made in the phantom anatomy. This research is part of a global project aimed at proposing appropriate methods and software tools capable of reconstituting the anatomy and dose evaluations in the entire body of RT patients in an adapted treatment planning system (TPS). The graphic user interface is that of a TPS adapted to obtain a comfortable working process. Such WBPM have been used to supplement patient therapy planning images, usually restricted to regions involved in treatment. Here we report, as an example, the case of a patient treated for prostate cancer whose therapy planning images were complemented by an anatomy model. Although present results are preliminary and our research is ongoing, they appear encouraging, since such patient-adjusted phantoms are crucial in the optimization of radiation protection of patients and for follow-up studies. (note)

  14. Individual radiation therapy patient whole-body phantoms for peripheral dose evaluations: method and specific software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alziar, I; Bonniaud, G; Couanet, D; Ruaud, J B; Vicente, C; Giordana, G; Ben-Harrath, O; Diaz, J C; Grandjean, P; Kafrouni, H; Chavaudra, J; Lefkopoulos, D; de Vathaire, F; Diallo, I

    2009-09-07

    This study presents a method aimed at creating radiotherapy (RT) patient-adjustable whole-body phantoms to permit retrospective and prospective peripheral dose evaluations for enhanced patient radioprotection. Our strategy involves virtual whole-body patient models (WBPM) in different RT treatment positions for both genders and for different age groups. It includes a software tool designed to match the anatomy of the phantoms with the anatomy of the actual patients, based on the quality of patient data available. The procedure for adjusting a WBPM to patient morphology includes typical dimensions available in basic auxological tables for the French population. Adjustment is semi-automatic. Because of the complexity of the human anatomy, skilled personnel are required to validate changes made in the phantom anatomy. This research is part of a global project aimed at proposing appropriate methods and software tools capable of reconstituting the anatomy and dose evaluations in the entire body of RT patients in an adapted treatment planning system (TPS). The graphic user interface is that of a TPS adapted to obtain a comfortable working process. Such WBPM have been used to supplement patient therapy planning images, usually restricted to regions involved in treatment. Here we report, as an example, the case of a patient treated for prostate cancer whose therapy planning images were complemented by an anatomy model. Although present results are preliminary and our research is ongoing, they appear encouraging, since such patient-adjusted phantoms are crucial in the optimization of radiation protection of patients and for follow-up studies.

  15. Repeated dose titration versus age-based method in electroconvulsive therapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aten, Jan Jaap; Oudega, Mardien; van Exel, Eric; Stek, Max L; van Waarde, Jeroen A

    2015-06-01

    In electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a dose titration method (DTM) was suggested to be more individualized and therefore more accurate than formula-based dosing methods. A repeated DTM (every sixth session and dose adjustment accordingly) was compared to an age-based method (ABM) regarding treatment characteristics, clinical outcome, and cognitive functioning after ECT. Thirty-nine unipolar depressed patients dosed using repeated DTM and 40 matched patients treated with ABM were compared. Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were assessed at baseline and at the end of the index course, as well as the total number of ECT sessions. Both groups were similar regarding age, sex, psychotic features, mean baseline MADRS, and median baseline MMSE. At the end of the index course, the two methods showed equal outcome (mean end MADRS, 11.6 ± 8.3 in DTM and 9.5 ± 7.6 in ABM (P = 0.26); median end MMSE, 28 (25-29) and 28 (25-29.8), respectively (P = 0.81). However, the median number of all ECT sessions differed 16 (11-22) in DTM versus 12 (10-14.8) in ABM; P = 0.02]. Using regression analysis, dosing method and age were independently associated with the total number of ECT sessions, with less sessions needed in ABM (P = 0.02) and in older patients (P = 0.001). In this comparative cohort study, ABM and DTM showed equal outcome for depression and cognition. However, the median ECT course duration in repeated DTM appeared longer. Additionally, higher age was associated with shorter ECT courses regardless of the dosing method. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  16. In ovo method for evaluating the effect of nutritional therapies on tumor development, growth and vascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves M. Dupertuis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the state of the art evaluation of nutritional therapy on tumor development, growth and vascularization requires tedious and expensive in vivo assays in which a significant number of animals undergo invasive treatments. Therefore, new alternative methods to avoid animal suffering and sacrifice are welcome. This review presents a rapid and low-cost method of experimental radio/chemotherapy in tumor xenografted chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM, which may contribute to implement the 3R principle (Reduce, Refine, Replace. Advantages and limitations of the CAM as an experimental model in cancer research are discussed. Improving the CAM model by using tumor spheroid grafting and positron emission and computed tomography imaging would help to overcome the drawbacks of poor tumor grafting efficiency and restrained 2-D tumor growth measurement to the CAM surface. Such a simple, reliable, reproducible and quantitative method for obtaining dose–response analysis and estimating treatment schedule (i.e. type, route, dose and timing would provide an alternative to the time-consuming and expensive evaluation step in animals before initiating clinical trials.

  17. Use of a risk assessment method to improve the safety of negative pressure wound therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelong, Anne-Sophie; Martelli, Nicolas; Bonan, Brigitte; Prognon, Patrice; Pineau, Judith

    2014-06-01

    To conduct a risk analysis of the negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) care process and to improve the safety of NPWT, a working group of nurses, hospital pharmacists, physicians and hospital managers performed a risk analysis for the process of NPWT care. The failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) method was used for this analysis. Failure modes and their consequences were defined and classified as a function of their criticality to identify priority actions for improvement. By contrast to classical FMECA, the criticality index (CI) of each consequence was calculated by multiplying occurrence, severity and detection scores. We identified 13 failure modes, leading to 20 different consequences. The CI of consequences was initially 712, falling to 357 after corrective measures were implemented. The major improvements proposed included the establishment of 6-monthly training cycles for nurses, physicians and surgeons and the introduction of computerised prescription for NPWT. The FMECA method also made it possible to prioritise actions as a function of the criticality ranking of consequences and was easily understood and used by the working group. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to use the FMECA method to improve the safety of NPWT. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Seizure threshold and the half-age method in bilateral electroconvulsive therapy in Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Kazuyuki; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Yamaguchi, Masayasu; Tanaka, Koichi; Fujii, Tomokazu; Kitahara, Yuichi; Tamaoki, Toshio; Matsushita, Yutaka; Nunomura, Akihiko; Motohashi, Nobutaka

    2015-01-01

    Seizure threshold (ST) in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has not been reported previously in Japanese patients. We investigated ST in bilateral ECT in Japanese patients using the dose-titration method. The associations between demographic and clinical characteristics and ST were analyzed to identify the predictors of ST. Finally, the validity of the half-age method for the stimulus dose was evaluated. Fifty-four Japanese patients with mood disorder, schizophrenia, and other psychotic disorders received an acute course of bilateral ECT using a brief-pulse device. ST was determined at the first session using a fixed titration schedule. ST was correlated with age, sex, body mass index, history of previous ECT, and psychotropic drugs on multiple regression analysis. Furthermore, the rate of accomplished seizures was calculated using the half-age method. Mean ST was 136 mC. ST was influenced by age, sex, history of previous ECT, and medication with benzodiazepines. The accomplished seizure rate using the half-age method was 72%, which was significantly lower in men and subjects on benzodiazepines. ST in Japanese patients was equal to or slightly higher than that previously reported in other ethnic groups, which might be attributable, at least in part, to high prevalence of and large-dose benzodiazepine prescription. Higher age, male gender, no history of ECT, and benzodiazepines were related to higher ST. The half-age method was especially useful in female patients and subjects without benzodiazepine medication. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  19. A Primer to Slow Light

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhardt, U.

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory-based optical analogs of astronomical objects such as black holes rely on the creation of light with an extremely low or even vanishing group velocity (slow light). These brief notes represent a pedagogical attempt towards elucidating this extraordinary form of light. This paper is a contribution to the book Artificial Black Holes edited by Mario Novello, Matt Visser and Grigori Volovik. The paper is intended as a primer, an introduction to the subject for non-experts, not as a det...

  20. Capillary waves in slow motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seydel, Tilo; Tolan, Metin; Press, Werner; Madsen, Anders; Gruebel, Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    Capillary wave dynamics on glycerol surfaces has been investigated by means of x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy performed at grazing angles. The measurements show that thermally activated capillary wave motion is slowed down exponentially when the sample is cooled below 273 K. This finding directly reflects the freezing of the surface waves. The wave-number dependence of the measured time constants is in quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions for overdamped capillary waves

  1. The fast slow TDPAC spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cekic, B.; Koicki, S.; Manasijevic, M.; Ivanovic, N.; Koteski, V.; Milosevic, Z.; Radisavljevic, I.; Cavor, J.; Novakovic, N.; Marjanovic, D.

    2001-01-01

    A 2-BaF 2 detector - fast slow time spectrometer for time differential perturbed angular correlations (TDPAC) experiments is described. This apparatus has been developed in the Group for Hyperfine Interactions in the Institute for Nuclear Sciences in VINCA. The excellent time resolution combined with high efficiency offered by these detectors enables one high counting rate performance and is operating in the wide temperature range 78-1200 K. (author)

  2. Hidden slow pulsars in binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Marco; Brookshaw, Leigh

    1993-01-01

    The recent discovery of the binary containing the slow pulsar PSR 1718-19 orbiting around a low-mass companion star adds new light on the characteristics of binary pulsars. The properties of the radio eclipses of PSR 1718-19 are the most striking observational characteristics of this system. The surface of the companion star produces a mass outflow which leaves only a small 'window' in orbital phase for the detection of PSR 1718-19 around 400 MHz. At this observing frequency, PSR 1718-19 is clearly observable only for about 1 hr out of the total 6.2 hr orbital period. The aim of this Letter is twofold: (1) to model the hydrodynamical behavior of the eclipsing material from the companion star of PSR 1718-19 and (2) to argue that a population of binary slow pulsars might have escaped detection in pulsar surveys carried out at 400 MHz. The possible existence of a population of partially or totally hidden slow pulsars in binaries will have a strong impact on current theories of binary evolution of neutron stars.

  3. Pilates and mobilization methods in therapy for low back pain among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Mączka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bad body posture, insufficient physical activity, excessive body weight gain of pregnant women, with overloads due to pregnancy in their body, results in pain of fatigued muscle. The enlarged uterus with fetus cause the forward shifts of the gravity center which leads to the pelvis forward tilt. This mechanism women compensate by the body posture deflection that leads to lumbar hyperlordosis. In adaptation to the new biomechanical conditions, the iliolumbar and erector spinae muscles are contracted, while the gluteus maximus and abdominal muscles are overstretched. All of these changes are further coused by the increasing levels of relaxin and estrogen hormones in pregnancy, which relax the ligaments and muscles. Muscle weakness and presence of pathological overloads in body leads to lower back pain of the spine. OBJECTIVE: The assessment of lumbar spine pain among women in the third trimester of pregnancy in context of comprehensive therapy of Pilates exercises and lumbar mobilization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The qualifying interview identified a group of 224 pregnant women with lumbar spine complications. The study was conducted in a targeted manner and all the participants did not have any contraindications from a gynecologist to physical activity during pregnancy. Women who reported sedentary lifestyle, according to pedometer classification, were assigned to a control group (GK with only a lumbar mobilization intervention. On the other hand, women who were active, were arranged in the Pilates exercise also with lumbar mobilization (GP. Respondents received the Oswestry questionnaire to assess the low back pain. The questionnaire was twice conducted - at 26 Hbd and after the period of interventions in 39 Hbd. In addition, women subjectively assessed the severity of pain sensations in the visual analogue pain scale from 0-10. The obtained data were statistically analyzed. THE RESULTS of the evaluation of lumbar spine pain in 39 Hbd

  4. Comparison of the effect of ibuprofen and slow-released Diclofenac Sodium in controlling post endodontic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saatchi M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Despite the significant improvement in dentistry, pain after endodontic therapy is still of concern for patients. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most commonly prescribed oral analgesics used for dental pain relief after root canal treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Ibuprofen versus slow-released Diclofenac Sodium in controlling pain following root canal treatment. "nMaterials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, mandibular molars with irreversible pulpitis in 90 patients were selected. The patients were divided into three groups (Ibuprofen, slow-released Diclofenac Sodium and placebo. After examination patients filled in the consent form. Then they received one of the mentioned drugs. After inferior alveolar nerve block, access cavity was prepared and the root canals were prepared using passive step back method. The canals were dried and temporary filling material was placed. Then the pain evaluation form (visual analog scale was explained and delivered to the patients. Data were analyzed using Repeated Measurement ANOVA, Kruskal-wallis and Man-Whitney U tests. "nResults: The mean pain intensity in slow-released Diclofenac Sodium group was 0.87 0.95, 1.17 1.10 for Ibuprofen group, and 2.14  1.70 for placebo group. The differences between groups were statistically significant (P<0.001. The effect of Ibuprofen in controlling post endodontic pain in the first 2 hours was more than slow-released Diclofenac Sodium (P=0.01, but in 10, 18, and 36 hours after treatment, slow-released Diclofenac Sodium was more effective than Ibuprofen (P<0.001. "nConclusion: Premedication with single dose of slow-released Diclofenac Sodium can control post endodontic pain for a longer period of time compared with Ibuprofen. "n.

  5. Assessment of cone beam CT registration for prostate radiation therapy: fiducial marker and soft tissue methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Timothy; Owen, Rebecca; Holt, Tanya; Fielding, Andrew; Biggs, Jennifer; Parfitt, Matthew; Coates, Alicia; Roberts, Lisa

    2015-02-01

    This investigation aimed to assess the consistency and accuracy of radiation therapists (RTs) performing cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) alignment to fiducial markers (FMs) (CBCTFM ) and the soft tissue prostate (CBCTST ). Six patients receiving prostate radiation therapy underwent daily CBCTs. Manual alignment of CBCTFM and CBCTST was performed by three RTs. Inter-observer agreement was assessed using a modified Bland-Altman analysis for each alignment method. Clinically acceptable 95% limits of agreement with the mean (LoAmean ) were defined as ±2.0 mm for CBCTFM and ±3.0 mm for CBCTST . Differences between CBCTST alignment and the observer-averaged CBCTFM (AvCBCTFM ) alignment were analysed. Clinically acceptable 95% LoA were defined as ±3.0 mm for the comparison of CBCTST and AvCBCTFM . CBCTFM and CBCTST alignments were performed for 185 images. The CBCTFM 95% LoAmean were within ±2.0 mm in all planes. CBCTST 95% LoAmean were within ±3.0 mm in all planes. Comparison of CBCTST with AvCBCTFM resulted in 95% LoA of -4.9 to 2.6, -1.6 to 2.5 and -4.7 to 1.9 mm in the superior-inferior, left-right and anterior-posterior planes, respectively. Significant differences were found between soft tissue alignment and the predicted FM position. FMs are useful in reducing inter-observer variability compared with soft tissue alignment. Consideration needs to be given to margin design when using soft tissue matching due to increased inter-observer variability. This study highlights some of the complexities of soft tissue guidance for prostate radiation therapy. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  6. Assessment of cone beam CT registration for prostate radiation therapy: fiducial marker and soft tissue methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deegan, Timothy; Owen, Rebecca; Holt, Tanya; Fielding, Andrew; Biggs, Jennifer; Parfitt, Matthew; Coates, Alicia; Roberts, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This investigation aimed to assess the consistency and accuracy of radiation therapists (RTs) performing cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) alignment to fiducial markers (FMs) (CBCT FM ) and the soft tissue prostate (CBCT ST ). Six patients receiving prostate radiation therapy underwent daily CBCTs. Manual alignment of CBCT FM and CBCT ST was performed by three RTs. Inter-observer agreement was assessed using a modified Bland–Altman analysis for each alignment method. Clinically acceptable 95% limits of agreement with the mean (LoA mean ) were defined as ±2.0 mm for CBCT FM and ±3.0 mm for CBCT ST . Differences between CBCT ST alignment and the observer-averaged CBCT FM (AvCBCT FM ) alignment were analysed. Clinically acceptable 95% LoA were defined as ±3.0 mm for the comparison of CBCT ST and AvCBCT FM . CBCT FM and CBCT ST alignments were performed for 185 images. The CBCT FM 95% LoA mean were within ±2.0 mm in all planes. CBCT ST 95% LoA mean were within ±3.0 mm in all planes. Comparison of CBCT ST with AvCBCT FM resulted in 95% LoA of −4.9 to 2.6, −1.6 to 2.5 and −4.7 to 1.9 mm in the superior–inferior, left–right and anterior–posterior planes, respectively. Significant differences were found between soft tissue alignment and the predicted FM position. FMs are useful in reducing inter-observer variability compared with soft tissue alignment. Consideration needs to be given to margin design when using soft tissue matching due to increased inter-observer variability. This study highlights some of the complexities of soft tissue guidance for prostate radiation therapy.

  7. A comparison of two methods for estimating the technical costs of external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayman, James A.; Lash, Kathy A.; Tao, May L.; Halman, Marc A.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To accurately assess the cost-effectiveness of treatment with external beam radiation, it is necessary to have accurate estimates of its cost. One of the most common methods for estimating technical costs has been to convert Medicare charges into costs using Medicare Cost-to-Charge Ratios (CCR). More recently, health care organizations have begun to invest in sophisticated cost-accounting systems (CAS) that are capable of providing procedure-specific cost estimates. The purpose of this study was to examine whether these competing approaches result in similar cost estimates for four typical courses of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Technical costs were estimated for the following treatment courses: 1) a palliative 'simple' course of 10 fractions using a single field without blocks; 2) a palliative 'complex' course of 10 fractions using two opposed fields with custom blocks; 3) a curative course of 30 fractions for breast cancer using tangent fields followed by an electron beam boost; and 4) a curative course of 35 fractions for prostate cancer using CT-planning and a 4-field technique. Costs were estimated using the CCR approach by multiplying the number of units of each procedure billed by its Medicare charge and CCR and then summing these costs. Procedure-specific cost estimates were obtained from a cost-accounting system, and overall costs were then estimated for the CAS approach by multiplying the number of units billed by the appropriate unit cost estimate and then summing these costs. All costs were estimated using data from 1997. The analysis was also repeated using data from another academic institution to estimate their costs using the CCR and CAS methods, as well as the appropriate relative value units (RVUs) and conversion factor from the 1997 Medicare Fee Schedule to estimate Medicare reimbursement for the four treatment courses. Results: The estimated technical costs for the CCR vs. CAS approaches for the four

  8. [Treatment and personality development with art therapy. A description of the method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antalfai, Márta

    2007-01-01

    Composition as a creative form of self-expression plays an important role not only in maintaining health, but also in gaining insight into the healthy personality and in the definition of this category. It seems nowadays that psychology has collected more information on the pathological personality than on the healthy one. Therefore, different workshops of art therapy are also scenes of a "spiritual alchemy" because they can give a deeper insight into the personality in addition to the primary aim of treatment. The method of the thematic art psychotherapy based on catharsis-experience is based on analytical psychology and on analytically oriented group-therapy. The aim is to generate artificial catharsis-experiences employing the impressive forces of poems, music compositions in order to raise the unconscious or the partly experienced partner-conflicts to the surface, which could manifest themselves in the process of the creative work and could be elaborated in group-activity. The creative process (specially adapted art techniques) provides good opportunities for patients to depict their traumas and complexes and also to resolve them involving the whole personality and not only at a cognitive level. The method, tuned to the workings of nature, helps the personality to develop the emotional and volitional segments, the sensitive and empathetic capabilities, as well as the recognition skills of consciousness. In the therapeutic process, the work of art that is created holds a mirror to the creator, offering to him or her the opportunity to face the real complex at the background the actual conflict. The method aims to achieve a reconstruction of psychic dynamics in two ways. The first is an emotional resonance to the changes of nature, of the year and of the feasts, in which the psychic process starts from inside to the direction of the outside world (psychic enrichment and accomodation). The second way leads from the outer world to the inner one and this psychic

  9. Emotional Prosody Measurement (EPM): a voice-based evaluation method for psychological therapy effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Egon L

    2004-01-01

    The voice embodies three sources of information: speech, the identity, and the emotional state of the speaker (i.e., emotional prosody). The latter feature is resembled by the variability of the F0 (also named fundamental frequency of pitch) (SD F0). To extract this feature, Emotional Prosody Measurement (EPM) was developed, which consists of 1) speech recording, 2) removal of speckle noise, 3) a Fourier Transform to extract the F0-signal, and 4) the determination of SD F0. After a pilot study in which six participants mimicked emotions by their voice, the core experiment was conducted to see whether EPM is successful. Twenty-five patients suffering from a panic disorder with agoraphobia participated. Two methods (story-telling and reliving) were used to trigger anxiety and were compared with comparable but more relaxed conditions. This resulted in a unique database of speech samples that was used to compare the EPM with the Subjective Unit of Distress to validate it as measure for anxiety/stress. The experimental manipulation of anxiety proved to be successful and EPM proved to be a successful evaluation method for psychological therapy effectiveness.

  10. Virtual reality as a method for evaluation and therapy after traumatic hand surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, Adriana Sarah; Brailescu, Consuela Monica; Scarlet, Rodica Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, Virtual Reality has encountered a continuous development concerning medical purposes and there are a lot of devices based on the classic "cyberglove" concept that are used as new therapeutic method for upper limb pathology, especially neurologic problems [1;2;3]. One of the VR devices is Pablo (Tyromotion), with very sensitive sensors that can measure the hand grip strenght and the pinch force, also the ROM (range of motion) for all the joints of the upper limb (shoulder, elbow, wrist) and offering the possibility of interactive games based on Virtual Reality concept with application in occupational therapy programs. We used Pablo in our study on patients with hand surgery as an objective tool for assessment and as additional therapeutic method to the classic Rehabilitation program [4;5]. The results of the study proved that Pablo represents a modern option for evaluation of hand deficits and dysfunctions, with objective measurement replacement of classic goniometry and dynamometry, with computerized data base of patients with monitoring of parameters during the recovery program and with better muscular and neuro-cognitive feedback during the interactive therapeutic modules.

  11. Components of Effective Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Headache: A Mixed Methods Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Emily F; Beals-Erickson, Sarah E; Fisher, Emma; Lang, Emily A; Palermo, Tonya M

    2017-01-01

    Internet-delivered treatment has the potential to expand access to evidence-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for pediatric headache, and has demonstrated efficacy in small trials for some youth with headache. We used a mixed methods approach to identify effective components of CBT for this population. In Study 1, component profile analysis identified common interventions delivered in published RCTs of effective CBT protocols for pediatric headache delivered face-to-face or via the Internet. We identified a core set of three treatment components that were common across face-to-face and Internet protocols: 1) headache education, 2) relaxation training, and 3) cognitive interventions. Biofeedback was identified as an additional core treatment component delivered in face-to-face protocols only. In Study 2, we conducted qualitative interviews to describe the perspectives of youth with headache and their parents on successful components of an Internet CBT intervention. Eleven themes emerged from the qualitative data analysis, which broadly focused on patient experiences using the treatment components and suggestions for new treatment components. In the Discussion, these mixed methods findings are integrated to inform the adaptation of an Internet CBT protocol for youth with headache.

  12. A modified method of planning and delivery for dynamic multileaf collimator intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogan, Nesrin; Leybovich, Leonid B.; Sethi, Anil; Krasin, Matthew; Emami, Bahman

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a modified planning and delivery technique that reduces dose nonuniformity for tomographic delivery of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: The NOMOS-CORVUS system delivers IMRT in a tomographic paradigm. This type of delivery is prone to create multiple dose nonuniformity regions at the arc abutment regions. The modified technique was based on the cyclical behavior of arc positions as a function of a target length. With the modified technique, two plans are developed for the same patient, one with the original target and the second with a slightly increased target length and the abutment regions shifted by ∼5 mm compared to the first plan. Each plan is designed to deliver half of the target prescription dose delivered on alternate days, resulting in periodic shifts of abutment regions. This method was experimentally tested in phantoms with and without intentionally introduced errors in couch indexing. Results: With the modified technique, the degree of dose nonuniformity was reduced. For example, with 1 mm error in couch indexing, the degree of dose nonuniformity changed from ∼25% to ∼12%. Conclusion: Use of the modified technique reduces dose nonuniformity due to periodic shifts of abutment regions during treatment delivery

  13. Potential Suitable Methods for Measuring the Effects of Animal-Assisted Activities and Therapy: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machová K.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are companions of humans since time beyond memory and their use in rehabilitation processes is increasingly frequent. Dogs can be used for animal-assisted activities (AAA as well as animal-assisted therapy (AAT. The effects, however, have not been fully demonstrated, reasons for this including difficulties in providing evidence of positive action. According to previous studies, there is a decrease in heart and respiratory rate, blood pressure reduction, more positive mood as well as warming of muscles, which promotes relaxation of spastic areas. Regulation of hormone levels might also occur as a result of AAA/AAT. Indeed, increases in oxytocin levels and decreases of cortisol have been found. However, a unified methodology for clear measuring the entire impact of AAA/AAT on patients is missing. This survey evaluated different methods for measuring the effects of AAA/AAT, with results showing that the most suitable ones, selected on the basis of the effect of rehabilitation, comprise thermography, spectral analysis of heart rate, electromyography (EMG, polyelectromyography (PEMG, and blood sampling. Because AAT making use of dogs has not yet been recognized as an official method of treatment, it is very important to find out objective means to evidence its beneficial effects. Highlights:

  14. [The significance of the Montessori method and phenomenon with a particular view to the therapy of the aphasics (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchmeier-Nussbaumer, A K

    1980-05-01

    The methods of the Italian physician Maria Montessori influenced the development of modern learning practices. There is general agreement that the Montessori phenomenon is personality forming. Aspects of this method, which are relevant for the rehabilitation of the brain-damaged and, in particular, the aphasics are presented. Possible shifts of emphasis within the relationship therapist - method - patient are analysed. Examples are used to outline in how far an increasingly patient-oriented therapy can influence the development of the aphasic patient.

  15. Observation of Interactions in Adolescent Group Therapy: A Mixed Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulàlia Arias-Pujol

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Group psychotherapy is a useful clinical practice for adolescents with mental health issues. Groups typically consist of young people of similar ages but with different personalities, and this results in a complex communication network. The goal of group psychoanalytic psychotherapy is to improve participants' mentalization abilities, facilitating interactions between peers and their therapist in a safe, containing environment. The main aim of this study was to analyze conversation turn-taking between a lead therapist, a co-therapist, and six adolescents over the course of 24 treatment sessions divided into four blocks over 8 months. We employed a mixed-methods design based on systematic observation, which we consider to be a mixed method itself, as the qualitative data collected in the initial observation phase is transformed into quantitative data and subsequently interpreted qualitatively with the aid of clinical vignettes. The observational methodology design was nomothetic, follow-up, and multidimensional. The choice of methodology is justified as we used an ad-hoc observation instrument combining a field format and a category system. Interobserver agreement was analyzed quantitatively by Cohen's kappa using the free QSEQ5 software program. Once we had confirmed the reliability of the data, these were analyzed by polar coordinate analysis, which is a powerful data reduction technique that provides a vector representation of relationships between categories. The results show significant relationships between the therapist and (1 the activation of turn-taking by the participants and the co-therapist and silence and (2 conversation-facilitating interventions and interventions designed to improve mentalization abilities. Detailed analysis of questions demonstrating interest in others showed how the communication changed from radial interactions stemming from the therapist at the beginning of therapy to circular interactions half way through

  16. Spinal Tissue Loading Created by Different Methods of Spinal Manipulative Therapy Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabashi, Martha; Nougarou, François; Descarreaux, Martin; Prasad, Narasimha; Kawchuk, Gregory N

    2017-05-01

    Comparative study using robotic replication of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) vertebral kinematics together with serial dissection. The aim of this study was to quantify loads created in cadaveric spinal tissues arising from three different forms of SMT application. There exist many distinct methods by which to apply SMT. It is not known presently whether different forms of SMT application have different effects on spinal tissues. Should the method of SMT application modulate spinal tissue loading, quantifying this relation may help explain the varied outcomes of SMT in terms of effect and safety. SMT was applied to the third lumbar vertebra in 12 porcine cadavers using three SMT techniques: a clinical device that applies forces through a hand-held instrument (INST), a manual technique of applying SMT clinically (MAN) and a research device that applies parameters of manual SMT through a servo-controlled linear actuator motor (SERVO). The resulting kinematics from each SMT application were tracked optically via indwelling bone pins. The L3/L4 segment was then removed, mounted in a parallel robot and the resulting kinematics from SMT replayed for each SMT application technique. Serial dissection of spinal structures was conducted to quantify loading characteristics of discrete spinal tissues. In terms of load magnitude, SMT application with MAN and SERVO created greater forces than INST in all conditions (P < 0.05). Additionally, MAN and SERVO created comparable posterior forces in the intact specimen, but MAN created greater posterior forces on IVD structures compared to SERVO (P < 0.05). Specific methods of SMT application create unique vertebral loading characteristics, which may help explain the varied outcomes of SMT in terms of effect and safety. N/A.

  17. Dose calculation methods in photon beam therapy using energy deposition kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahnesjoe, A.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of calculating accurate dose distributions in treatment planning of megavoltage photon radiation therapy has been studied. New dose calculation algorithms using energy deposition kernels have been developed. The kernels describe the transfer of energy by secondary particles from a primary photon interaction site to its surroundings. Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport have been used for derivation of kernels for primary photon energies form 0.1 MeV to 50 MeV. The trade off between accuracy and calculational speed has been addressed by the development of two algorithms; one point oriented with low computional overhead for interactive use and one for fast and accurate calculation of dose distributions in a 3-dimensional lattice. The latter algorithm models secondary particle transport in heterogeneous tissue by scaling energy deposition kernels with the electron density of the tissue. The accuracy of the methods has been tested using full Monte Carlo simulations for different geometries, and found to be superior to conventional algorithms based on scaling of broad beam dose distributions. Methods have also been developed for characterization of clinical photon beams in entities appropriate for kernel based calculation models. By approximating the spectrum as laterally invariant, an effective spectrum and dose distribution for contaminating charge particles are derived form depth dose distributions measured in water, using analytical constraints. The spectrum is used to calculate kernels by superposition of monoenergetic kernels. The lateral energy fluence distribution is determined by deconvolving measured lateral dose distributions by a corresponding pencil beam kernel. Dose distributions for contaminating photons are described using two different methods, one for estimation of the dose outside of the collimated beam, and the other for calibration of output factors derived from kernel based dose calculations. (au)

  18. Influence of antibiotic therapy prior to admission on the efficacy of classical methods for the diagnosis of meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemescu, Roxana Elena; Iancu, Luminiţa Smaranda; Dorneanu, Olivia Simona; Ursu, Ramona Gabriela; Dorobăţ, Carmen Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    To assess the influence of preadmission antibiotic therapy on the results of the classical methods for bacteriological confirmation of meningococcal disease (MD). Retrospective study of the MD cases diagnosed in the "St. Parascheva" Universitary Clinical Infectious Diseases Iaşi between 1994 and 2011. The etiological diagnosis was made by identifying the meningococcus in the CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) in 71.9% of the 323 patients and by blood culture in 8%. Preadmission antibiotic therapy received 39% of the patients, thus the sensitivity of test was significantly reduced: direct examination from 64.6% to 43.2% (p antibiotic therapy significantly increased the ratio of cases in which meningococcus was not detected in CSF by any of the classical methods (44% compared to 17.9% in the cases without prior treatment). The proportion of cases in which meningococcal isolation was done by two methods decreased from 38.5% to 19.2%, and of those by all three methods from 16.9% to 5.6% (p antibiotic therapy also decreased the rate of positive blood cultures from 14.7% to 3.5% (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.009). Antibiotic treatment prior to admission significantly decreases the percentage of patients with MD in which meningococcal isolation can be done; this requires the use of a more sensitive diagnosis method (ex. qPCR).

  19. The CUORE slow monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, L.; Biare, D.; Cappelli, L.; Cushman, J. S.; Del Corso, F.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Hickerson, K. P.; Moggi, N.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Schmidt, B.; Wagaarachchi, S. L.; Welliver, B.; Winslow, L. A.

    2017-09-01

    CUORE is a cryogenic experiment searching primarily for neutrinoless double decay in 130Te. It will begin data-taking operations in 2016. To monitor the cryostat and detector during commissioning and data taking, we have designed and developed Slow Monitoring systems. In addition to real-time systems using LabVIEW, we have an alarm, analysis, and archiving website that uses MongoDB, AngularJS, and Bootstrap software. These modern, state of the art software packages make the monitoring system transparent, easily maintainable, and accessible on many platforms including mobile devices.

  20. Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT) as a method for treatment of tinnitus and hyperacusis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J; Jastreboff, M M

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide information about the neurophysiologic model of tinnitus and Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT). With this overview of the model and therapy, professionals may discern with this basic foundation of knowledge whether they wish to pursue learning and subsequently implement TRT in their practice. This paper provides an overview only and is insufficient for the implementation of TRT.

  1. Critical slowing down and error analysis in lattice QCD simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Stefan [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Sommer, Rainer; Virotta, Francesco [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2010-09-15

    We study the critical slowing down towards the continuum limit of lattice QCD simulations with Hybrid Monte Carlo type algorithms. In particular for the squared topological charge we find it to be very severe with an effective dynamical critical exponent of about 5 in pure gauge theory. We also consider Wilson loops which we can demonstrate to decouple from the modes which slow down the topological charge. Quenched observables are studied and a comparison to simulations of full QCD is made. In order to deal with the slow modes in the simulation, we propose a method to incorporate the information from slow observables into the error analysis of physical observables and arrive at safer error estimates. (orig.)

  2. Critical slowing down and error analysis in lattice QCD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Stefan; Sommer, Rainer; Virotta, Francesco

    2010-09-01

    We study the critical slowing down towards the continuum limit of lattice QCD simulations with Hybrid Monte Carlo type algorithms. In particular for the squared topological charge we find it to be very severe with an effective dynamical critical exponent of about 5 in pure gauge theory. We also consider Wilson loops which we can demonstrate to decouple from the modes which slow down the topological charge. Quenched observables are studied and a comparison to simulations of full QCD is made. In order to deal with the slow modes in the simulation, we propose a method to incorporate the information from slow observables into the error analysis of physical observables and arrive at safer error estimates. (orig.)

  3. Beam neutron energy optimization for boron neutron capture therapy using monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazirandeh, A.; Shekarian, E.

    2006-01-01

    In last two decades the optimal neutron energy for the treatment of deep seated tumors in boron neutron capture therapy in view of neutron physics and chemical compounds of boron carrier has been under thorough study. Although neutron absorption cross section of boron is high (3836b), the treatment of deep seated tumors such as glioblastoma multiform requires beam of neutrons of higher energy that can penetrate deeply into the brain and thermalized in the proximity of the tumor. Dosage from recoil proton associated with fast neutrons however poses some constraints on maximum neutron energy that can be used in the treatment. For this reason neutrons in the epithermal energy range of 10eV-10keV are generally to be the most appropriate. The simulation carried out by Monte Carlo methods using MCBNCT and MCNP4C codes along with the cross section library in 290 groups extracted from ENDF/B6 main library. The ptimal neutron energy for deep seated tumors depends on the sue and depth of tumor. Our estimated optimized energy for the tumor of 5cm wide and 1-2cm thick stands at 5cm depth is in the range of 3-5keV

  4. Low-Cost Method to Monitor Patient Adherence to HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Using Multiplex Cathepsin Zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Manu O; Evans, Denise; Keegan, Philip M; McNamara, Lynne; Parker, Ivana K; Roberts, LaDeidra M; Caulk, Alexander W; Gleason, Rudolph L; Seifu, Daniel; Amogne, Wondwossen; Penny, Clement

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring patient adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) by patient survey is inherently error prone, justifying a need for objective, biological measures affordable in low-resource settings where HIV/AIDS epidemic is highest. In preliminary studies conducted in Ethiopia and South Africa, we observed loss of cysteine cathepsin activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-positive patients on ART. We optimized a rapid protocol for multiplex cathepsin zymography to quantify cysteine cathepsins, and prospectively enrolled 350 HIV-positive, ART-naïve adults attending the Themba Lethu Clinic, Johannesburg, South Africa, to test if suppressed cathepsin activity could be a biomarker of ART adherence (103 patients were included in final analysis). Poor adherence was defined as detectable viral load (>400 copies/ml) or simplified medication adherence questionnaire, 4-6 months after ART initiation. 86 % of patients with undetectable viral loads after 6 months were cathepsin negative, and cathepsin-positive patients were twice as likely to have detectable viral loads (RR 2.32 95 % CI 1.26-4.29). Together, this demonstrates proof of concept that multiplex cathepsin zymography may be an inexpensive, objective method to monitor patient adherence to ART. Low cost of this electrophoresis-based assay makes it a prime candidate for implementation in resource-limited settings.

  5. Low cost method to monitor patient adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy using multiplex cathepsin zymography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Manu O.; Evans, Denise; Keegan, Philip M.; McNamara, Lynne; Parker, Ivana K.; Roberts, LaDeidra M.; Caulk, Alexander W.; Gleason, Rudolph L.; Seifu, Daniel; Amogne, Wondwossen; Penny, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring patient adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) by patient survey is inherently error-prone, justifying a need for objective, biological measures affordable in low resource settings where HIV/AIDS epidemic is highest. In preliminary studies conducted in Ethiopia and South Africa, we observed loss of cysteine cathepsin activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HIV-positive patients on ART. We optimized a rapid protocol for multiplex cathepsin zymography to quantify cysteine cathepsins, and prospectively enrolled 350 HIV-positive, ART naïve adults attending the Themba Lethu Clinic, Johannesburg, South Africa, to test if suppressed cathepsin activity could be a biomarker of ART adherence (103 patients were included in final analysis). Poor adherence was defined as detectable viral load (>400 copies/ml) or simplified medication adherence questionnaire (SMAQ), 4–6 months after ART initiation. 86% of patients with undetectable viral loads after 6 months were cathepsin negative, and cathepsin positive patients were twice as likely to have detectable viral loads (RR 2.32 95% CI 1.26–4.29). Together, this demonstrates proof of concept that multiplex cathepsin zymography may be an inexpensive, objective method to monitor patient adherence to ART. Low cost of this electrophoresis based assay makes it a prime candidate for implementation in resource limited settings. PMID:26589706

  6. Alignment and position visualization methods for the biomedical imaging and therapy (BMIT) MRT lift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bree, Michael; Miller, Denise; Kerr, Graham; Belev, George; Wysokinski, Tomasz W.; Dolton, Wade

    2016-01-01

    The Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) Lift is an eight stage positioning and scanning system at the Canadian Light Source’s BMIT Facility. Alignment of the sample with the beam using the MRT Lift is a time consuming and challenging task. The BMIT Group has developed a Python-based MRT Lift positioning and control program that uses a combination of computational and iterative methods to independently adjust the sample’s X, Y, Z, pitch and roll positions. The program offers “1-Click” alignment of the sample to the beam. Use of a wireframe visualization technique enables even minute movements to be illustrated. Proposed movements and the resulting MRT Lift position can be manually verified before being applied. Optional integration with the SolidWorks modelling platform allows high quality renderings of the MRT Lift in its current or proposed position to be displayed in real time. Human factors principles are incorporated into the program with the objective of delivering easy to use controls for this complex device.

  7. New methods of minimally invasive brain modulation as therapies in psychiatry: TMS, MST, VNS and DBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mark S

    2002-08-01

    Over the past 20 years, new methods have been developed that have allowed scientists to visualize the human brain in action. Initially positron emission tomography (PET) and now functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are causing a paradigm shift in psychiatry and the neurosciences. Psychiatry is abandoning the pharmacological model of 'brain as soup', used for much of the past 20 years. Instead, there is new realization that both normal and abnormal behavior arise from chemical processes that occur within parallel distributed networks in specific brain regions. Many of these pathological circuits are becoming well characterized, in disorders ranging from Parkinson's disease, to obsessive-compulsive disorder, to depression. Most recently, there has been an explosion of new techniques that allow for direct stimulation of these brain circuits, without the need for open craniotomy and neurosurgical ablation. The techniques include transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), magnetic seizure therapy (MST), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), and deep brain stimulation (DBS). This review will describe these new tools, and overview their current and future potential for research and clinical neuropsychiatric use. The psychiatry of the future will be better grounded in a firm understanding of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology (as well as pharmacology). These brain stimulation tools, or their next iterations, will play an ever-larger role in clinical neuropsychiatric practice.

  8. Alignment and position visualization methods for the biomedical imaging and therapy (BMIT) MRT lift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bree, Michael, E-mail: michael.bree@lightsource.ca; Miller, Denise; Kerr, Graham; Belev, George; Wysokinski, Tomasz W.; Dolton, Wade [Canadian Light Source Inc., 44 Innovation Blvd, Saskatoon, SK S7N 2V3 Canada (Canada)

    2016-07-27

    The Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) Lift is an eight stage positioning and scanning system at the Canadian Light Source’s BMIT Facility. Alignment of the sample with the beam using the MRT Lift is a time consuming and challenging task. The BMIT Group has developed a Python-based MRT Lift positioning and control program that uses a combination of computational and iterative methods to independently adjust the sample’s X, Y, Z, pitch and roll positions. The program offers “1-Click” alignment of the sample to the beam. Use of a wireframe visualization technique enables even minute movements to be illustrated. Proposed movements and the resulting MRT Lift position can be manually verified before being applied. Optional integration with the SolidWorks modelling platform allows high quality renderings of the MRT Lift in its current or proposed position to be displayed in real time. Human factors principles are incorporated into the program with the objective of delivering easy to use controls for this complex device.

  9. Interaction of slow pions with atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskij, M.A.; Tsybul'nikov, A.V.; Chekunaev, N.I.

    1984-01-01

    Interactions of slow pions with atomic nuclei near to pion condensation are investigated. From comparison of experimental data with the theoretical calculation results on the basis of precise microscopic approach not bound with the random phase approximation (RPA) nuclear matter fundamental parameters near a critical point can be found. Optical potential of slow pions in nuclei, πN-scattering amplitudes and lengths, π-atom level isotopic shift, phenomenon of single-nucleon pion absorption by nucleus, phenomenon of nuclear critical opalescence are considered. The results of πN-scattering lengths calculation, sup(40-44)Ca, sup(24-29)Mg, sup(16-18)O π-atom level shift are presented. It is shown that the presence of π-condensate in nuclei can explain the observed suppression of p-wave potential terms. The phenomenon of single-nucleon pion absorption by nucleus is one of direct experiments which permits to reveal the π-condensate. The nuclear opalescence phenomenon is manifested in increase of pion photoproduction reaction cross section for account of nucleus proximity to π-condensation as compared with the calculated in the Fermi-gas model. The suggested method for calculating precondensate phenomena operates the better, the nearer is the system to the condensation threshold whereas the RPA method in this region is inapplicable

  10. Gamma-index method sensitivity for gauging plan delivery accuracy of volumetric modulated arc therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong In; Park, Jong Min; Kim, Jung-In; Park, So-Yeon; Ye, Sung-Joon

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the sensitivity of the gamma-index method according to various gamma criteria for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Twenty head and neck (HN) and twenty prostate VMAT plans were retrospectively selected for this study. Both global and local 2D gamma evaluations were performed with criteria of 3%/3 mm, 2%/2 mm, 1%/2 mm and 2%/1 mm. In this study, the global and local gamma-index calculated the differences in doses relative to the maximum dose and the dose at the current measurement point, respectively. Using log files acquired during delivery, the differences in parameters at every control point between the VMAT plans and the log files were acquired. The differences in dose-volumetric parameters between reconstructed VMAT plans using the log files and the original VMAT plans were calculated. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (rs) were calculated between the passing rates and those differences. Considerable correlations with statistical significances were observed between global 1%/2 mm, local 1%/2 mm and local 2%/1 mm and the MLC position differences (rs = -0.712, -0.628 and -0.581). The numbers of rs values with statistical significance between the passing rates and the changes in dose-volumetric parameters were largest in global 2%/2 mm (n = 16), global 2%/1 mm (n = 15) and local 2%/1 mm (n = 13) criteria. Local gamma-index method with 2%/1 mm generally showed higher sensitivity to detect deviations between a VMAT plan and the delivery of the VMAT plan. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-01-01

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of th...

  12. Integrated Photonics Enabled by Slow Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Chen, Yuntian; Ek, Sara

    2012-01-01

    In this talk we will discuss the physics of slow light in semiconductor materials and in particular the possibilities offered for integrated photonics. This includes ultra-compact slow light enabled optical amplifiers, lasers and pulse sources.......In this talk we will discuss the physics of slow light in semiconductor materials and in particular the possibilities offered for integrated photonics. This includes ultra-compact slow light enabled optical amplifiers, lasers and pulse sources....

  13. A clinically feasible method for the detection of potential collision in proton therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou Wei; Lin Haibo; Plastaras, John P.; Wang Huanshu; Bui, Viet; Vapiwala, Neha; McDonough, James; Tochner, Zelig; Both, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States) and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Potential collision between the patient/couch and the gantry could delay the start of the treatment and reduce clinical efficiency. The ability to accurately detect possible collisions during the treatment planning phase is desired. Such collision detection should account for the specific proton gantry design, the treatment beam configuration, couch orientation, and the patient specific geometry. In this paper the authors developed an approach to detect possible patient-machine collisions using patient treatment plan data. Methods: The geometry of the machine and the patient was reconstructed relative to the isocenter of the proton treatment room. The surface contour of the gantry was first captured from the proton computer aided design and reconstructed to account for specific gantry rotation, snout position, collimator rotation, and range compensator dimensions based on the patient treatment plan data. The patient body and couch contours were captured from the patient's CT DICOM structure file. They were reconstructed relative to the isocenter taking into account treatment couch rotation. For potential collision that occurs at body portions where no CT images exist, scout images are used to construct the body contour. A software program was developed using a ray casting algorithm that was applied to detect collisions by determining if any of the patient and couch contour points fall into the spatial polygons formed by the proton gantry surfaces. Results: Twenty-four patient plans with or without potential collisions were retrospectively identified and analyzed using the collision detection software. In addition, five collision cases were artificially generated using an anthropomorphic phantom. The program successfully detected the collisions in all cases. The calculation time for each case was within 20 s. The software program was implemented in the authors' clinic to detect patient-gantry or gantry-couch collisions in the treatment planning

  14. Neutron slowing-down time in finite water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.

    1981-11-01

    The influence of the size of a moderator system on the neutron slowing-down time has been investigated. The experimental part of the study was performed on six cubes of water with side lengths from 8 to 30 cm. Neutrons generated in pulses of about 1 ns width were slowed down from 14 MeV to 1.457 eV. The detection method used was based on registration of gamma radiation from the main capture resonance of indium. The most probable slowing-down times were found to be 778 +- 23 ns and 898 +- 25 ns for the smallest and for the largest cubes, respectively. The corresponding mean slowing-down times were 1205 +- 42 ns and 1311 +- 42 ns. In a separate measurement series the space dependence of the slowing-down time close to the source was studied. These experiments were supplemented by a theoretical calculation which gave an indication of the space dependence of the slowingdown time in finite systems. The experimental results were compared to the slowing-down times obtained from various theoretical approaches and from Monte Carlo calculations. All the methods show a decrease of the slowing-down time with decreasing size of the moderator. This effect was least pronounced in the experimental results, which can be explained by the fact the measurements are spatially dependent. The agreement between the Monte Carlo results and those obtained using the diffusion approximation or the age-diffusion theory is surprisingly good, especially for large systems. The P1 approximation, on the other hand, leads to an overestimation of the effect of the finite size on the slowing-down time. (author)

  15. Slowing down bubbles with sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Cedric; Dangla, Remie; Guinard, Marion

    2009-11-01

    We present experimental evidence that a bubble moving in a fluid in which a well-chosen acoustic noise is superimposed can be significantly slowed down even for moderate acoustic pressure. Through mean velocity measurements, we show that a condition for this effect to occur is for the acoustic noise spectrum to match or overlap the bubble's fundamental resonant mode. We render the bubble's oscillations and translational movements using high speed video. We show that radial oscillations (Rayleigh-Plesset type) have no effect on the mean velocity, while above a critical pressure, a parametric type instability (Faraday waves) is triggered and gives rise to nonlinear surface oscillations. We evidence that these surface waves are subharmonic and responsible for the bubble's drag increase. When the acoustic intensity is increased, Faraday modes interact and the strongly nonlinear oscillations behave randomly, leading to a random behavior of the bubble's trajectory and consequently to a higher slow down. Our observations may suggest new strategies for bubbly flow control, or two-phase microfluidic devices. It might also be applicable to other elastic objects, such as globules, cells or vesicles, for medical applications such as elasticity-based sorting.

  16. Antiretroviral therapy drug adherence in Rwanda: perspectives from patients and healthcare workers using a mixed-methods approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyankandondera, Joseph; Mitchell, Kirstin; Asiimwe-Kateera, Brenda; Boer, Kimberly; Mutwa, Philippe; Balinda, Jean-Paul; van Straten, Masja; Reiss, Peter; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2013-01-01

    Rwanda has achieved high enrollment into antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs but data on adherence after enrollment are not routinely collected. We used a mixed-methods approach (standardized questionnaires, pill counts, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews) to determine levels of and

  17. A Study of Effectiveness of Rational, Emotive, Behavior Therapy (REBT) with Group Method on Decrease of Stress among Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kianoush Zahrakar

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the present research was studying the effectiveness of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) with Group method in decreasing stress of diabetic patients. Methods: The population of research consisted of all diabetic patients that are member of diabetic patient’s association 0f karaj city. The sample consisted of 30 diabetic patients (experimental group 15 persons and control group 15 persons) that selected through random sampling. Research design was experiment...

  18. Aggression control therapy for violent forensic psychiatric patients: method and clinical practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornsveld, R.H.J.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Hollin, C.R.; Kraaimaat, F.W.

    2008-01-01

    Aggression control therapy is based on Goldstein, Gibbs, and Glick's aggression replacement training and was developed for violent forensic psychiatric in- and outpatients (adolescents and adults) with a (oppositional-defiant) conduct disorder or an antisocial personality disorder. First, the

  19. Preclinical imaging methods for assessing the safety and efficacy of regenerative medicine therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfe, Lauren; Brillant, Nathalie; Kumar, J. Dinesh; Ali, Noura; Alrumayh, Ahmed; Amali, Mohammed; Barbellion, Stephane; Jones, Vendula; Niemeijer, Marije; Potdevin, Sophie; Roussignol, Gautier; Vaganov, Anatoly; Barbaric, Ivana; Barrow, Michael; Burton, Neal C.; Connell, John; Dazzi, Francesco; Edsbagge, Josefina; French, Neil S.; Holder, Julie; Hutchinson, Claire; Jones, David R.; Kalber, Tammy; Lovatt, Cerys; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Patel, Sara; Patrick, P. Stephen; Piner, Jacqueline; Reinhardt, Jens; Ricci, Emanuelle; Sidaway, James; Stacey, Glyn N.; Starkey Lewis, Philip J.; Sullivan, Gareth; Taylor, Arthur; Wilm, Bettina; Poptani, Harish; Murray, Patricia; Goldring, Chris E. P.; Park, B. Kevin

    2017-10-01

    Regenerative medicine therapies hold enormous potential for a variety of currently incurable conditions with high unmet clinical need. Most progress in this field to date has been achieved with cell-based regenerative medicine therapies, with over a thousand clinical trials performed up to 2015. However, lack of adequate safety and efficacy data is currently limiting wider uptake of these therapies. To facilitate clinical translation, non-invasive in vivo imaging technologies that enable careful evaluation and characterisation of the administered cells and their effects on host tissues are critically required to evaluate their safety and efficacy in relevant preclinical models. This article reviews the most common imaging technologies available and how they can be applied to regenerative medicine research. We cover details of how each technology works, which cell labels are most appropriate for different applications, and the value of multi-modal imaging approaches to gain a comprehensive understanding of the responses to cell therapy in vivo.

  20. A fast-slow logic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Hideo.

    1977-01-01

    A fast-slow logic system has been made for use in multi-detector experiments in nuclear physics such as particle-gamma and particle-particle coincidence experiments. The system consists of a fast logic system and a slow logic system. The fast logic system has a function of fast coincidences and provides timing signals for the slow logic system. The slow logic system has a function of slow coincidences and a routing control of input analog signals to the ADCs. (auth.)

  1. An Anatomically Validated Brachial Plexus Contouring Method for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Velde, Joris; Audenaert, Emmanuel; Speleers, Bruno; Vercauteren, Tom; Mulliez, Thomas; Vandemaele, Pieter; Achten, Eric; Kerckaert, Ingrid; D'Herde, Katharina; De Neve, Wilfried; Van Hoof, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To develop contouring guidelines for the brachial plexus (BP) using anatomically validated cadaver datasets. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were used to obtain detailed visualizations of the BP region, with the goal of achieving maximal inclusion of the actual BP in a small contoured volume while also accommodating for anatomic variations. Methods and Materials: CT and MRI were obtained for 8 cadavers positioned for intensity modulated radiation therapy. 3-dimensional reconstructions of soft tissue (from MRI) and bone (from CT) were combined to create 8 separate enhanced CT project files. Dissection of the corresponding cadavers anatomically validated the reconstructions created. Seven enhanced CT project files were then automatically fitted, separately in different regions, to obtain a single dataset of superimposed BP regions that incorporated anatomic variations. From this dataset, improved BP contouring guidelines were developed. These guidelines were then applied to the 7 original CT project files and also to 1 additional file, left out from the superimposing procedure. The percentage of BP inclusion was compared with the published guidelines. Results: The anatomic validation procedure showed a high level of conformity for the BP regions examined between the 3-dimensional reconstructions generated and the dissected counterparts. Accurate and detailed BP contouring guidelines were developed, which provided corresponding guidance for each level in a clinical dataset. An average margin of 4.7 mm around the anatomically validated BP contour is sufficient to accommodate for anatomic variations. Using the new guidelines, 100% inclusion of the BP was achieved, compared with a mean inclusion of 37.75% when published guidelines were applied. Conclusion: Improved guidelines for BP delineation were developed using combined MRI and CT imaging with validation by anatomic dissection

  2. Music therapy for early cognitive rehabilitation post-childhood TBI: an intrinsic mixed methods case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Janeen; Catroppa, Cathy; Grocke, Denise; Shoemark, Helen

    2014-10-01

    The primary aim of this case study was to explore the behavioural changes of a paediatric patient in post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) during a music therapy session. A secondary objective was to measure the effect of the music therapy intervention on agitation. Video data from pre, during and post-music therapy sessions were collected and analysed using video micro-analysis and the Agitated Behaviour Scale. The participant displayed four discrete categories of behaviours: Neutral, Acceptance, Recruitment and Rejection. Further analysis revealed brief but consistent and repeated periods of awareness and responsiveness to the live singing of familiar songs, which were classified as Islands of Awareness. Song offered an Environment of Potential to maximise these periods of emerging consciousness. The quantitative data analysis yielded inconclusive results in determining if music therapy was effective in reducing agitation during and immediately post the music therapy sessions. The process of micro-analysis illuminated four discrete participant behaviours not apparent in the immediate clinical setting. The results of this case suggest that the use of familiar song as a music therapy intervention may harness early patient responsiveness to foster cognitive rehabilitation in the early acute phase post-TBI.

  3. Beneficial Effects of Slow Steaming in Bulk Freight Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Boone

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Slow steaming has recently been adopted into normal practice by many maritime shipping companies for the fuel and monetary savings it offers. The practice also offers savings in Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions. With regulations coming into play such as the 2020 sulfur cap, slow steaming may be the least costly option for some maritime companies to adjust their operations. While some have accepted the new practice, there are still companies and vessels that see this exercise as a loss of revenue due to the extra time it takes to deliver goods to their destination. This paper reviews how the method of rating ships by their GHG emissions per nautical mile can be directly related to slow steaming. We propose that ships with poor ratings (E, F, G find mandatory regulations to slow steam or improve their CO2 output in some way. Those with superior ratings (A, B, C, D would benefit from incentives packages tied to their implementation of slow steaming practices. It will also examine how slow steaming benefits maritime businesses both economically and environmentally to find ways to lower their emissions and discusses the possible chain reaction that may occur if these eco-friendly shipping practices are observed.

  4. Traditional Procurement is too Slow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Kong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an exploratory interview survey of construction project participants aimed at identifying the reasons for the decrease in use of the traditional, lump-sum, procurement system in Malaysia. The results show that most people believe it is too slow. This appears to be in part due to the contiguous nature of the various phase and stages of the process and especially the separation of the design and construction phases. The delays caused by disputes between the various parties are also seen as a contributory factor - the most prominent cause being the frequency of variations, with design and scope changes being a particular source of discontent. It is concluded that an up scaling of the whole of the time related reward/penalty system may be the most appropriate measure for the practice in future.

  5. Slow pyrolysis of pistachio shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apaydin-Varol, Esin; Putun, Ersan; Putun, Ayse E [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-08-15

    In this study, pistachio shell is taken as the biomass sample to investigate the effects of pyrolysis temperature on the product yields and composition when slow pyrolysis is applied in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure to the temperatures of 300, 400, 500, 550, 700{sup o}C. The maximum liquid yield was attained at about 500-550{sup o}C with a yield of 20.5%. The liquid product obtained under this optimum temperature and solid products obtained at all temperatures were characterized. As well as proximate and elemental analysis for the products were the basic steps for characterization, column chromatography, FT-IR, GC/MS and SEM were used for further characterization. The results showed that liquid and solid products from pistachio shells show similarities with high value conventional fuels. 31 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  6. The TTI slowness surface approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, A.

    2011-01-01

    The relation between the vertical and horizontal slownesses, better known as the dispersion relation, for a transversely isotropic media with titled symmetry axis {left parenthesis, less than bracket}TTI{right parenthesis, greater than bracket} requires solving a quartic polynomial, which does not admit a practical explicit solution to be used, for example, in downward continuation. Using a combination of perturbation theory with respect to the anelliptic parameter and Shanks transform to improve the accuracy of the expansion, we develop an explicit formula for the dispersion relation that is highly accurate for all practical purposes. It also reveals some insights into the anisotropy parameter dependency of the dispersion relation including the low impact that the anelliptic parameter has on the vertical placement of reflectors for small tilt in the symmetry angle. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  7. Output calculation of electron therapy at extended SSD using an improved LBR method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkhatib, Hassaan A.; Gebreamlak, Wondesen T., E-mail: wondtassew@gmail.com; Wright, Ben W.; Neglia, William J. [South Carolina Oncology Associates, Columbia, South Carolina 29210 (United States); Tedeschi, David J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States); Mihailidis, Dimitris [CAMC Cancer Center and Alliance Oncology, Charleston, West Virginia 25304 (United States); Sobash, Philip T. [The Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 (United States); Fontenot, Jonas D. [Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To calculate the output factor (OPF) of any irregularly shaped electron beam at extended SSD. Methods: Circular cutouts were prepared from 2.0 cm diameter to the maximum possible size for 15 × 15 applicator cone. In addition, two irregular cutouts were prepared. For each cutout, percentage depth dose (PDD) at the standard SSD and doses at different SSD values were measured using 6, 9, 12, and 16 MeV electron beam energies on a Varian 2100C LINAC and the distance at which the central axis electron fluence becomes independent of cutout size was determined. The measurements were repeated with an ELEKTA Synergy LINAC using 14 × 14 applicator cone and electron beam energies of 6, 9, 12, and 15 MeV. The PDD measurements were performed using a scanning system and two diodes—one for the signal and the other a stationary reference outside the tank. The doses of the circular cutouts at different SSDs were measured using PTW 0.125 cm{sup 3} Semiflex ion-chamber and EDR2 films. The electron fluence was measured using EDR2 films. Results: For each circular cutout, the lateral buildup ratio (LBR) was calculated from the measured PDD curve using the open applicator cone as the reference field. The effective SSD (SSD{sub eff}) of each circular cutout was calculated from the measured doses at different SSD values. Using the LBR value and the radius of the circular cutout, the corresponding lateral spread parameter [σ{sub R}(z)] was calculated. Taking the cutout size dependence of σ{sub R}(z) into account, the PDD curves of the irregularly shaped cutouts at the standard SSD were calculated. Using the calculated PDD curve of the irregularly shaped cutout along with the LBR and SSD{sub eff} values of the circular cutouts, the output factor of the irregularly shaped cutout at extended SSD was calculated. Finally, both the calculated PDD curves and output factor values were compared with the measured values. Conclusions: The improved LBR method has been generalized to

  8. Low, slow, small target recognition based on spatial vision network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhao; Guo, Pei; Qi, Xin

    2018-03-01

    Traditional photoelectric monitoring is monitored using a large number of identical cameras. In order to ensure the full coverage of the monitoring area, this monitoring method uses more cameras, which leads to more monitoring and repetition areas, and higher costs, resulting in more waste. In order to reduce the monitoring cost and solve the difficult problem of finding, identifying and tracking a low altitude, slow speed and small target, this paper presents spatial vision network for low-slow-small targets recognition. Based on camera imaging principle and monitoring model, spatial vision network is modeled and optimized. Simulation experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method has good performance.

  9. Radiation Therapy Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy has side effects because it not only kills or slows the growth of cancer cells, it can also affect nearby healthy cells. Many people who get radiation therapy experience fatigue. Other side effects depend on the part of the body that is being treated. Learn more about possible side effects.

  10. Effects of changed working methods on personnel doses at a I-131 and afterloading therapy ward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, D.; Wolf, G.; Georgi, P.; Bauer, M.

    1985-01-01

    The external load of the personnel from I-131 therapy can be kept small (almost 'neglectable') by appropriate behaviour without keeping patients 'under-lock and key'. The marked decrease in personnel doses is due to improved radiation protection for afterloading therapy (gynecological Ra-therapy, Cs-137-therapy) by technical equipment. This therapy is now possible but with the door of the application room closed; when the door is opened, the instruments automatically go back to their original position. From 1975 through 1982, there were remote control errors forcing the personnel to withdraw the instruments to the safe manually. Despite working regulations the personnel was able to go into the room without prior instrument withdrawal. The personnel doses so received were within the tolerance limits, however markedly above the inevitable values. Because of regular thyroid gland examination of the personnel there is proof for the fact that the radiation load of this organ from I-131 is probably smaller than 2% (6 mSv/a=600 mrem/a) of the annual limit value of 0.3 Sv (30 rem) which corresponds to 6 times the value of normal load. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Awareness of doctors of health care and possible therapy methods for alcohol and drug dependant patients in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim is to investigate the knowledge of Latvian doctors about addiction treatment and healthcare possibilities in Latvia, to compare which methods are the best known to physicians, and which are offered to addicted patients. Work material and methods. Questionnaire was developed by researchers themselves, it contains 14 questions (about demographical data, treatment methods and their application. 250 questionnaires were distributed, 158 (63, 2% were received. Results. Average age of participants – 43.7 years. 31,0% of respondents are psychiatrists, 13,3% – addiction specialists, 34,8% – other specialists (general practitioners, internists, health care doctors, neurologists and others, 12,0% – psychotherapists, 4,4% – surgeons, 1,9% – dentists and 1,9% – paediatricians. The best known were detoxification (98,2% and suggestion (892% methods. The least known methods for drug addicts were substitution therapy (73,4% and rehabilitation communities (73,4%. The most recommended treatment method was Minnesota programme – 108 (68,4% and detoxification 99 (62,7%, the least recommended – substitution therapy – 29 (18,5%. Conclusions. 17,1% of respondents do not meet patients with addiction problems, but 20,3% of respondents don’t recommend any of treatment methods. Although 73%-98% of respondents have information about treatment methods, only 18%-68% of respondents offer them.

  12. Magneto-laser-ultrasonic therapy. Particular methodic of different diseases treatment. Scientific materials used in practice. V.4(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samosyuk, I.Z.; Chukhraev, N.V.; Myasnikov, V.G.; Samosyuk, N.I.

    2001-01-01

    Contemporary data about the use of magnetotherapy, ultrasound and magnetolaser therapy in resonance energy ranges are presented in this book. Practical methodics of simultaneous and combined use of these physical factors in different branches of clinical medicine (neurology, cardiology, gastroenterology and others) are described. Modern principles of the sensitive zone choice, bases of biorhythmic and resonance phenomena are presented. Practical uses of them became more and more important in physiotherapy and acupuncture. Diseases of different organs are considered, and magnetic, laser and ultrasound mehtods of their treatment are discussed. Special attention is paid to the use of magneto-laser and low-frequency ultrasonic therapy methods for diabetus melitus and respiratory organ treatment. Diseases of urinary tract, of ischemia, insult, ophthalmological ones and series of surgery profile diseases are considered in connection with different modern treatment methods of them. Review of cardiovascular, skin, digestive system diseases, those of ophtalmology, stomatology, otolaryngology nervous-psychic violations is presented and optimum methods of their treatment are recommended. The most part of magneto-laser-ultrasound therapy uses refers to the new generation of series 'MIT' and 'MIT-11' apparata which combine all three treatment factors

  13. Therapeutic Alliance and Retention in Brief Strategic Family Therapy: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Alyson H; Friedlander, Myrna L

    2015-10-01

    We explored how the therapeutic alliance contributed to retention in Brief Strategic Family Therapy by analyzing videotapes of eight-first sessions in which four therapists worked with one family that stayed in treatment and one family that dropped out. Although behavioral exchange patterns between clients and therapists did not differ by retention status, positive therapist alliance-related behavior followed negative client alliance behavior somewhat more frequently in the retained cases. In the qualitative aspect of the study, four family therapy experts each viewed two randomly assigned sessions and commented on their quality without knowing the families' retention status. A qualitative analysis of the audiotaped commentaries revealed 18 alliance-related themes that were more characteristic of either the retained or the nonretained cases. © 2015 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  14. The interplay between the immune system and chemotherapy: emerging methods for optimizing therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiringhelli, François; Apetoh, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical studies have revealed an unexpected ability of the immune system to contribute to the success of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Anticancer therapies can trigger immune system activation by promoting the release of danger signals from dying tumor cells and/or the elimination of immunosuppressive cells. We have, however, recently discovered that some chemotherapies, such as 5-fluorouracil and gemcitabine, exert conflicting effects on anticancer immune responses. Although 5-fluorouracil and Gem selectively eliminated myeloid-derived suppressive cells in tumor-bearing rodents, these chemotherapies promoted the release of IL-1β and the development of pro-angiogenic IL-17-producing CD4 T cells. The ambivalent effects of chemotherapy on immune responses should thus be carefully considered to design effective combination therapies based on chemotherapy and immune modulators. Herein, we discuss how the initial findings underscoring the key role of the immune system in mediating the antitumor efficacy of anticancer agents could begin to translate into effective therapies in humans.

  15. Study of Dynamic Characteristics of Slow-Changing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinong Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A vibration system with slow-changing parameters is a typical nonlinear system. Such systems often occur in the working and controlled process of some intelligent structures when vibration and deformation exist synchronously. In this paper, a system with slow-changing stiffness, damping and mass is analyzed in an intelligent structure. The relationship between the amplitude and the frequency of the system is studied, and its dynamic characteristic is also discussed. Finally, a piecewise linear method is developed on the basis of the asymptotic method. The simulation and the experiment show that a suitable slow-changing stiffness can restrain the amplitude of the system when the system passes through the resonant region.

  16. Several methods and apparatus of low-energy laser therapy in veterinary practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirin, Vaytcheslav N.; Rogatkin, Dmitrii A.; Barybin, Vitalii F.

    1998-12-01

    During same years various medical effect of low-energy laser therapy in veterinary were tested. We established that the laser low-energy therapy can be very effective for treatment such animal's diseases as mastitis and demodekose when certain combinations of laser beam parameters are used. This combinations were taken as the principle of a number of laser veterinary apparatus, which we started to produce at `POLUS'. It is our series of apparatus `VEGA-MB' and `VETLAS-3', which is real used today for dogs and cows treatment in Russia.

  17. Cherenkov imaging method for rapid optimization of clinical treatment geometry in total skin electron beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreozzi, Jacqueline M., E-mail: Jacqueline.M.Andreozzi.th@dartmouth.edu, E-mail: Lesley.A.Jarvis@hitchcock.org; Glaser, Adam K. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Zhang, Rongxiao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Gladstone, David J.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Jarvis, Lesley A., E-mail: Jacqueline.M.Andreozzi.th@dartmouth.edu, E-mail: Lesley.A.Jarvis@hitchcock.org [Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766 (United States); Pogue, Brian W. [Thayer School of Engineering and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Purpose: A method was developed utilizing Cherenkov imaging for rapid and thorough determination of the two gantry angles that produce the most uniform treatment plane during dual-field total skin electron beam therapy (TSET). Methods: Cherenkov imaging was implemented to gather 2D measurements of relative surface dose from 6 MeV electron beams on a white polyethylene sheet. An intensified charge-coupled device camera time-gated to the Linac was used for Cherenkov emission imaging at sixty-two different gantry angles (1° increments, from 239.5° to 300.5°). Following a modified Stanford TSET technique, which uses two fields per patient position for full body coverage, composite images were created as the sum of two beam images on the sheet; each angle pair was evaluated for minimum variation across the patient region of interest. Cherenkov versus dose correlation was verified with ionization chamber measurements. The process was repeated at source to surface distance (SSD) = 441, 370.5, and 300 cm to determine optimal angle spread for varying room geometries. In addition, three patients receiving TSET using a modified Stanford six-dual field technique with 6 MeV electron beams at SSD = 441 cm were imaged during treatment. Results: As in previous studies, Cherenkov intensity was shown to directly correlate with dose for homogenous flat phantoms (R{sup 2} = 0.93), making Cherenkov imaging an appropriate candidate to assess and optimize TSET setup geometry. This method provided dense 2D images allowing 1891 possible treatment geometries to be comprehensively analyzed from one data set of 62 single images. Gantry angles historically used for TSET at their institution were 255.5° and 284.5° at SSD = 441 cm; however, the angles optimized for maximum homogeneity were found to be 252.5° and 287.5° (+6° increase in angle spread). Ionization chamber measurements confirmed improvement in dose homogeneity across the treatment field from a range of 24.4% at the initial

  18. Slow creep in soft granular packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ishan; Fisher, Timothy S

    2017-05-14

    Transient creep mechanisms in soft granular packings are studied numerically using a constant pressure and constant stress simulation method. Rapid compression followed by slow dilation is predicted on the basis of a logarithmic creep phenomenon. Characteristic scales of creep strain and time exhibit a power-law dependence on jamming pressure, and they diverge at the jamming point. Microscopic analysis indicates the existence of a correlation between rheology and nonaffine fluctuations. Localized regions of large strain appear during creep and grow in magnitude and size at short times. At long times, the spatial structure of highly correlated local deformation becomes time-invariant. Finally, a microscale connection between local rheology and local fluctuations is demonstrated in the form of a linear scaling between granular fluidity and nonaffine velocity.

  19. GLUT4 is reduced in slow muscle fibers of type 2 diabetic patients: is insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes a slow, type 1 fiber disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Staehr, P; Beck-Nielsen, H

    2001-01-01

    To gain further insight into the mechanisms underlying muscle insulin resistance, the influence of obesity and type 2 diabetes on GLUT4 immunoreactivity in slow and fast skeletal muscle fibers was studied. Through a newly developed, very sensitive method using immunohistochemistry combined...... with morphometry, GLUT4 density was found to be significantly higher in slow compared with fast fibers in biopsy specimens from lean and obese subjects. In contrast, in type 2 diabetic subjects, GLUT4 density was significantly lower in slow compared with fast fibers. GLUT4 density in slow fibers from diabetic...... was reduced to 77% in the obese subjects and to 61% in type 2 diabetic patients compared with the control subjects. We propose that a reduction in the fraction of slow-twitch fibers, combined with a reduction in GLUT4 expression in slow fibers, may reduce the insulin-sensitive GLUT4 pool in type 2 diabetes...

  20. The GLUT4 density in slow fibres is not increased in athletes. How does training increase the GLUT4 pool originating from slow fibres?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Franch, J; Beck-Nielsen, H

    2001-01-01

    % of the fraction in the control group. Thus, GLUT4 originating from slow-twitch fibres was increased by 30% (Pincreases slow-twitch fibre GLUT4 expression by means of an elevated slow-twitch fibre mass in human skeletal muscle.......The influence of training on GLUT4 expression in slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibres was studied in male endurance-trained athletes and control subjects. The trained state was ensured by elevated maximal oxygen uptake (29%), as well as citrate synthase (60%) and 3-hydroxy......-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (38%) activities in muscle biopsy samples of the vastus lateralis. GLUT4 densities in slow- and fast-twitch fibres were measured by the use of a newly developed, sensitive method combining immunohistochemistry with morphometry, and no effect of training was found. GLUT4 density was higher in slow...

  1. Optimizing detection and analysis of slow waves in sleep EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensen, Armand; Riedner, Brady; Tononi, Giulio

    2016-12-01

    Analysis of individual slow waves in EEG recording during sleep provides both greater sensitivity and specificity compared to spectral power measures. However, parameters for detection and analysis have not been widely explored and validated. We present a new, open-source, Matlab based, toolbox for the automatic detection and analysis of slow waves; with adjustable parameter settings, as well as manual correction and exploration of the results using a multi-faceted visualization tool. We explore a large search space of parameter settings for slow wave detection and measure their effects on a selection of outcome parameters. Every choice of parameter setting had some effect on at least one outcome parameter. In general, the largest effect sizes were found when choosing the EEG reference, type of canonical waveform, and amplitude thresholding. Previously published methods accurately detect large, global waves but are conservative and miss the detection of smaller amplitude, local slow waves. The toolbox has additional benefits in terms of speed, user-interface, and visualization options to compare and contrast slow waves. The exploration of parameter settings in the toolbox highlights the importance of careful selection of detection METHODS: The sensitivity and specificity of the automated detection can be improved by manually adding or deleting entire waves and or specific channels using the toolbox visualization functions. The toolbox standardizes the detection procedure, sets the stage for reliable results and comparisons and is easy to use without previous programming experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Food therapy and medical diet therapy of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Qunli Wu; Xiaochun Liang

    2018-01-01

    Food therapy of traditional Chinese medicine aims to maintain balanced nutrition through diet. Medical diet therapy, however, is to achieve the balance of Yin and Yang through the combination of nutrition and medicine. Either “food therapy” or “medical diet therapy” aims to keep health, prevent disease, remove illness and slow aging. In recent years, both food therapy and medical diet therapy have been increasingly applied in clinical nutrition therapy. In terms of traditional Chinese food th...

  3. Plant domestication slows pest evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Lochab, Amaneet K; Turley, Nash E; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural practices such as breeding resistant varieties and pesticide use can cause rapid evolution of pest species, but it remains unknown how plant domestication itself impacts pest contemporary evolution. Using experimental evolution on a comparative phylogenetic scale, we compared the evolutionary dynamics of a globally important economic pest - the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) - growing on 34 plant taxa, represented by 17 crop species and their wild relatives. Domestication slowed aphid evolution by 13.5%, maintained 10.4% greater aphid genotypic diversity and 5.6% higher genotypic richness. The direction of evolution (i.e. which genotypes increased in frequency) differed among independent domestication events but was correlated with specific plant traits. Individual-based simulation models suggested that domestication affects aphid evolution directly by reducing the strength of selection and indirectly by increasing aphid density and thus weakening genetic drift. Our results suggest that phenotypic changes during domestication can alter pest evolutionary dynamics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  4. Overcoming Barriers to Disseminating Exposure Therapies for Anxiety Disorders: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Training Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Harned, Melanie S.; Dimeff, Linda A.; Woodcock, Eric A.; Skutch, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated methods for training mental health providers (N=46) in exposure therapies (ETs) for anxiety disorders. A pilot randomized controlled trial compared: 1) an interactive, multimedia online training (ET OLT), 2) the ET OLT plus a brief Motivational Interviewing-based intervention (ET OLT + MI), and 3) a placebo control OLT. Assessments were completed at baseline, post-training, and one week following training. Both ET OLT and ET OLT + MI received high satisfaction rati...

  5. Characteristics of neutron irradiation facility and dose estimation method for neutron capture therapy at Kyoto University research reactor institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Sakurai, Y.; Kanda, K.

    2001-01-01

    The neutron irradiation characteristics of the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility (HWNIF) at the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KIJRRI) for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), is described. The present method of dose measurement and its evaluation at the KURRI, is explained. Especially, the special feature and noticeable matters were expounded for the BNCT with craniotomy, which has been applied at present only in Japan. (author)

  6. Grounded Theory as a Method for Research in Speech and Language Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeat, J.; Perry, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The use of qualitative methodologies in speech and language therapy has grown over the past two decades, and there is now a body of literature, both generally describing qualitative research, and detailing its applicability to health practice(s). However, there has been only limited profession-specific discussion of qualitative…

  7. New method for cardiac resynchronization therapy: Transapical endocardial lead implantation for left ventricular free wall pacing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Kassai (Imre); C. Foldesi (Csaba); A. Szekely (Andrea); T. Szili-Torok (Tamas)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractCoronary sinus lead placement for transvenous left ventricular (LV) pacing in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has a significant failure rate at implant and a significant dislocation rate during follow-up. For these patients, epicardial pacing lead implantation is the most

  8. Study on medical economic evaluation methods for metastatic brain tumors therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takura, Tomoyuki; Hayashi, Motohiro; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Iseki, Hiroshi; Uetsuka, Yoshio

    2010-01-01

    Treatment design for metastatic brain tumors is required to firstly care about the life and function for which the patient hopes because it is terminal care. Therefore, to discuss the value of the therapy, a viewpoint of the quality of life (QOL) and the socioeconomic factors other than the survival rate is important. However, examination that applies these factors to the therapy needs to be carried out more thoroughly. With this in mind, we discuss cost effectiveness of therapy for metastatic brain tumor, through a pilot study on gamma knife therapy. We studied 18 patients (mean age 61.6 years old) undergoing therapy for metastatic brain tumors. The health rate QOL was assessed by the profile-type measure SF-36 (Short-Form 36-Item Ver1.2) and the preference-based measure EQ-5D (EuroQoL-5D), before and six months after gamma knife therapy. Cost-utility-analysis (yen/Qaly) was carried out from quality adjusted life years (Qalys) and medical fee claims. In addition, we made a correlation analysis of the irradiation procedure and the gains attained. The observation by SF-36 for six months was useful for metastatic brain tumor. As a result, the QOL indicators showed increased mental health (MH: p=0.040) and role emotional (RE: p=0.029) with significant difference. In the measurement of EQ-5D, it was added only for one month based on the significant difference (p=0.022) from the pre-therapy QOL. The utilities that were analyzed became 0.052±0.175 standard deviation (SD) (score), and Qalys were 0.135. Because the cost was 721.4±5.2 SD (thousand yen), the performance of cost-utility-analysis was estimated as 5,330,000 (yen/Qaly). In addition, positive correlation (r=0.845/p=0.034) was found between the EQ-5D utility score and the tumor irradiation energy (mJ), etc. We established a new value over and above mere survival rate concerning metastatic brain tumor therapy. The socioeconomics and efficacy of therapy are more difficult to discuss in this disease than in other

  9. Extracorporeal adsorption therapy: A Method to improve targeted radiation delivered by radiometal-labeled monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemecek, Eneida R.; Green, Damian J.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Pagal, John M.; Lin, Yukang; Gopal, A. K.; Durack, Lawrence D.; Rajendran, Joseph G.; Wilbur, D. S.; Nilsson, Rune; Sandberg, Bengt; Press, Oliver W.

    2008-01-01

    Many investigators have demonstrated the ability to treat hematologic malignancies with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies targeting hematopoietic antigens such as anti-CD20 and anti-CD45. [1-5] Although the remission rates achieved with radioimmunotherapy (RIT) are relatively high, many patients subsequently relapse presumably due to suboptimal delivery of enough radiation to eradicate the malignancy. The dose-response of leukemia and lymphoma to radiation has been proven. Substantial amounts of radiation can be delivered by RIT if followed by hematopoietic cell transplantation to rescue the bone marrow from myeloablation.[ref] However, the maximum dose of RIT that can be used is still limited by toxicity to normal tissues affected by nonspecific delivery of radiation. Efforts to improve RIT focus on improving the therapeutic ratios of radiation in target versus non-target tissues by removing the fraction of radioisotope that fails to bind to target tissues and circulates freely in the bloodstream perfusing non-target tissues. Our group and others have explored several alternatives for removal of unbound circulating antibody. [refs] One such method, extracorporeal adsorption therapy (ECAT) consists of removing unbound antibody by a method similar to plasmapheresis after critical circulation time and distribution of antibody into target tissues have been achieved. Preclinical studies of ECAT in murine xenograft models demonstrated significant improvement in therapeutic ratios of radioactivity. Chen and colleagues demonstrated that a 2-hour ECAT procedure could remove 40 to 70% of the radioactivity from liver, lung and spleen. [ref] Although isotope concentration in the tumor was initially unaffected, a 50% decrease was noted approximately 36 hours after the procedure. This approach was also evaluated in a limited phase I pilot study of patients with refractory B-cell lymphoma. [ref] After radiographic confirmation of tumor localization of a test dose of anti-CD20

  10. Distribution of stress on TMJ disc induced by use of chincup therapy: assessment by the finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calçada, Flávio Siqueira; Guimarães, Antônio Sérgio; Teixeira, Marcelo Lucchesi; Takamatsu, Flávio Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the distribution of stress produced on TMJ disc by chincup therapy, by means of the finite element method. Methods: a simplified three-dimensional TMJ disc model was developed by using Rhinoceros 3D software, and exported to ANSYS software. A 4.9N load was applied on the inferior surface of the model at inclinations of 30, 40, and 50 degrees to the mandibular plane (GoMe). ANSYS was used to analyze stress distribution on the TMJ disc for the different angulations, by means of finite element method. Results: The results showed that the tensile and compressive stresses concentrations were higher on the inferior surface of the model. More presence of tensile stress was found in the middle-anterior region of the model and its location was not altered in the three directions of load application. There was more presence of compressive stress in the middle and mid-posterior regions, but when a 50o inclined load was applied, concentration in the middle region was prevalent. Tensile and compressive stresses intensities progressively diminished as the load was more vertically applied. Conclusions: stress induced by the chincup therapy is mainly located on the inferior surface of the model. Loads at greater angles to the mandibular plane produced distribution of stresses with lower intensity and a concentration of compressive stresses in the middle region. The simplified three-dimensional model proved useful for assessing the distribution of stresses on the TMJ disc induced by the chincup therapy. PMID:29160348

  11. The effects of humor therapy on nursing home residents measured using observational methods: the SMILE cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lee-Fay; Goodenough, Belinda; Fletcher, Jennifer; Xu, Kenny; Casey, Anne-Nicole; Chenoweth, Lynn; Fleming, Richard; Spitzer, Peter; Bell, Jean-Paul; Brodaty, Henry

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of humor therapy assessed using observational methods on agitation, engagement, positive behaviors, affect, and contentment. Single-blind cluster randomized controlled trial. A total of 35 Sydney nursing homes. All eligible residents within geographically defined areas within each nursing home were invited to participate. Professional "ElderClowns" provided 9 to 12 weekly humor therapy sessions, augmented by resident engagement by trained staff "LaughterBosses." Controls received usual care. The Behavior Engagement Affect Measure (BEAM) touchpad observational tool was used to capture real-time behavioral data. The tool assesses the duration in seconds of agitation, positive behavior toward others, engagement, and affect (angry, anxious, happy, neutral, sad). Seventeen nursing homes (189 residents) received the intervention and 18 homes (209 residents) received usual care. Over 26 weeks, in comparison with controls, the humor therapy group decreased in duration of high agitation (effect size = 0.168 and 0.129 at 13 and 26 weeks, respectively) and increased in duration of happiness (effect size = 0.4 and 0.236 at 13 and 26 weeks, respectively). We confirmed that humor therapy decreases agitation and also showed that it increases happiness. Researchers may consider evaluating impacts of nonpharmaceutical interventions on positive outcomes. Computer-assisted observational measures should be considered, particularly for residents with dementia and when the reliability of staff is uncertain. Copyright © 2014 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multileaf collimator leaf position verification and analysis for adaptive radiation therapy using a video-optical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, Sohrab B.

    External beam radiation therapy is commonly used to eliminate and control cancerous tumors. High-energy beams are shaped to match the patient's specific tumor volume, whereby maximizing radiation dose to malignant cells and limiting dose to normal tissue. A multileaf collimator (MLC) consisting of multiple pairs of tungsten leaves is used to conform the radiation beam to the desired treatment field. Advanced treatment methods utilize dynamic MLC settings to conform to multiple treatment fields and provide intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Future methods would further increase conformity by actively tracking tumor motion caused by patient cardiac and respiratory motion. Leaf position quality assurance for a dynamic MLC is critical as variation between the planned and actual leaf positions could induce significant errors in radiation dose. The goal of this research project is to prototype a video-optical quality assurance system for MLC leaf positions. The system captures light-field images of MLC leaf sequences during dynamic therapy. Image acquisition and analysis software was developed to determine leaf edge positions. The mean absolute difference between QA prototype predicted and caliper measured leaf positions was found to be 0.6 mm with an uncertainty of +/- 0.3 mm. Maximum errors in predicted positions were below 1.0 mm for static fields. The prototype served as a proof of concept for quality assurance of future tumor tracking methods. Specifically, a lung tumor phantom was created to mimic a lung tumor's motion from respiration. The lung tumor video images were superimposed on MLC field video images for visualization and analysis. The toolbox is capable of displaying leaf position, leaf velocity, tumor position, and determining errors between planned and actual treatment fields for dynamic radiation therapy.

  13. Accurate reporting of adherence to inhaled therapies in adults with cystic fibrosis: methods to calculate normative adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoo ZH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zhe Hui Hoo,1,2 Rachael Curley,1,2 Michael J Campbell,1 Stephen J Walters,1 Daniel Hind,3 Martin J Wildman1,2 1School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR, University of Sheffield, 2Sheffield Adult Cystic Fibrosis Centre, Northern General Hospital, 3Sheffield Clinical Trials Research Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK Background: Preventative inhaled treatments in cystic fibrosis will only be effective in maintaining lung health if used appropriately. An accurate adherence index should therefore reflect treatment effectiveness, but the standard method of reporting adherence, that is, as a percentage of the agreed regimen between clinicians and people with cystic fibrosis, does not account for the appropriateness of the treatment regimen. We describe two different indices of inhaled therapy adherence for adults with cystic fibrosis which take into account effectiveness, that is, “simple” and “sophisticated” normative adherence. Methods to calculate normative adherence: Denominator adjustment involves fixing a minimum appropriate value based on the recommended therapy given a person’s characteristics. For simple normative adherence, the denominator is determined by the person’s Pseudomonas status. For sophisticated normative adherence, the denominator is determined by the person’s Pseudomonas status and history of pulmonary exacerbations over the previous year. Numerator adjustment involves capping the daily maximum inhaled therapy use at 100% so that medication overuse does not artificially inflate the adherence level. Three illustrative cases: Case A is an example of inhaled therapy under prescription based on Pseudomonas status resulting in lower simple normative adherence compared to unadjusted adherence. Case B is an example of inhaled therapy under-prescription based on previous exacerbation history resulting in lower sophisticated normative adherence compared to unadjusted adherence and simple normative adherence

  14. Investigating the critical slowing down of QCD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    Simulations of QCD are known to suffer from serious critical slowing down towards the continuum limit. This is particularly prominent in the topological charge. We investigate the severeness of the problem in the range of lattice spacings used in contemporary simulations and propose a method to give more reliable error estimates. (orig.)

  15. One Size Fits All? Slow Cortical Potentials Neurofeedback: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Kerstin; Wyckoff, Sarah N.; Strehl, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The intent of this manuscript was to review all published studies on slow cortical potentials (SCP) neurofeedback for the treatment of ADHD, with emphasis on neurophysiological rationale, study design, protocol, outcomes, and limitations. Method: For review, PubMed, MEDLINE, ERIC, and Google Scholar searches identified six studies and…

  16. Experimental studies of heavy-ion slowing down in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geissel, H.; Weick, H.; Scheidenberger, C.; Bimbot, R.; Gardes, D.

    2002-08-01

    Measurements of heavy-ion slowing down in matter differ in many aspects from experiments with light particles like protons and α-particles. An overview of the special experimental requirements, methods, data analysis and interpretation is presented for heavy-ion stopping powers, energy- and angular-straggling and ranges in the energy domain from keV/u up to GeV/u. Characteristic experimental results are presented and compared with theory and semiempirical predictions. New applications are outlined, which represent a challenge to continuously improve the knowledge of heavy-ion slowing down. (orig.)

  17. Solution of neutron slowing down equation including multiple inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Wakil, S.A.; Saad, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    The present work is devoted the presentation of an analytical method for the calculation of elastically and inelastically slowed down neutrons in an infinite non absorbing homogeneous medium. On the basis of the Central limit theory (CLT) and the integral transform technique the slowing down equation including inelastic scattering in terms of the Green function of elastic scattering is solved. The Green function is decomposed according to the number of collisions. A formula for the flux at any lethargy O (u) after any number of collisions is derived. An equation for the asymptotic flux is also obtained

  18. Wide-band slow-wave systems simulation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Staras, Stanislovas

    2012-01-01

    The field of electromagnetics has seen considerable advances in recent years, based on the wide applications of numerical methods for investigating electromagnetic fields, microwaves, and other devices. Wide-Band Slow-Wave Systems: Simulation and Applications presents new technical solutions and research results for the analysis, synthesis, and design of slow-wave structures for modern electronic devices with super-wide pass-bands. It makes available, for the first time in English, significant research from the past 20 years that was previously published only in Russian and Lithuanian. The aut

  19. Therapies with pharmaceuticals in Sweden - a survey of the methods applied

    CERN Document Server

    Joensson, H

    2003-01-01

    A study has been performed to see how the treatment with radiopharmaceuticals varies between various hospitals in the country. At the same time a compilation is achieved to what extent the regulations issued by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority are followed. Information about the most common treatments was asked for: sup 1 sup 3 sup 1 I for thyrotoxicosis, sup 1 sup 3 sup 1 I for thyroid cancer, sup 3 sup 2 P for policytemi vera, sup 8 sup 9 Sr and sup 1 sup 5 sup 3 Sm for palliative treatments. There are differences between the hospitals how the treatments with radiopharmaceuticals are performed and how the activity for the therapy is determined. Mostly, the hospitals are complying with SSI's regulations. Exceptions from this concerns individual dose planning, measurement of the activity administrated for therapy and written information for the patient

  20. Drama techniques as part of cluttering therapy according to the verbotonal method

    OpenAIRE

    Hercigonja Salamoni, Darija; Rendulić, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Cluttering is a syndrome characterised by a wide range of symptoms. It always contains one or more key elements such as abnormally fast speech rate, greater than expected number of disfluencies, reduced intelligibility due to over-coarticulation and indistinct articulation, inappropriate brakes in speech pattern, monotone speech, disturbance in language planning, etc. Drama activities and storytelling share a number of features that allow spontaneous use during therapy process and detachment ...

  1. Human skeletal muscle: transition between fast and slow fibre types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunhäuserer, Daniel; Zebedin, Michaela; Obermoser, Magdalena; Moser, Gerhard; Tauber, Mark; Niebauer, Josef; Resch, Herbert; Galler, Stefan

    2011-05-01

    Human skeletal muscles consist of different fibre types: slow fibres (slow twitch or type I) containing the myosin heavy chain isoform (MHC)-I and fast fibres (fast twitch or type II) containing MHC-IIa (type IIA) or MHC-IId (type IID). The following order of decreasing kinetics is known: type IID > type IIA > type I. This order is especially based on the kinetics of stretch activation, which is the most discriminative property among fibre types. In this study we tested if hybrid fibres containing both MHC-IIa and MHC-I (type C fibres) provide a transition in kinetics between fast (type IIA) and slow fibres (type I). Our data of stretch activation kinetics suggest that type C fibres, with different ratios of MHC-IIa and MHC-I, do not provide a continuous transition. Instead, a specialized group of slow fibres, which we called "transition fibres", seems to provide a transition. Apart of their kinetics of stretch activation, which is most close to that of type IIA, the transition fibres are characterized by large cross-sectional areas and low maximal tensions. The molecular cause for the mechanical properties of the transition fibres is unknown. It is possible that the transition fibres contain an unknown slow MHC isoform, which cannot be separated by biochemical methods. Alternatively, or in addition, isoforms of myofibrillar proteins, other than MHC, and posttranslational modifications of myofibrillar proteins could play a role regarding the characteristics of the transition fibres.

  2. Treatment of paranoid personality disorder with cognitive analytic therapy: a mixed methods single case experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, Stephen; Hardy, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) presents as chronic and widespread interpersonal distrust, whereby the actions of others are interpreted as malevolent and malicious. This research details the assessment, formulation and treatment of a case of PPD within a 24-session contract of cognitive analytic therapy (CAT). The outcome methodology was an A/B with extended follow-up single case experimental design (SCED). The SCED was supplemented with qualitative patient interviewing via the Change Interview regarding their experience of CAT, whether change had taken place and detailing of any identified change mechanisms. Quantitative results show that five out of the six daily rated paranoia target complaint measures were extinguished during the treatment phase. Qualitatively, the patient attributed change to the therapy conducted. The results suggest that CAT was an effective intervention in this case of PPD and are discussed in terms of identified methodological shortcomings, treatment implications and the potential for generating a convincing evidence base for the psychotherapy of PPD. Narrative reformulation using a CAT model offers a key opportunity for the patient to achieve a new understanding of their paranoia. Psychotherapy for PPD requires a cognitive component, within a boundaried and relational therapy, that is able to reflect on paranoid enactments and ruptures within the therapeutic relationship.There is a large role for clinician-researchers in developing a PPD outcome evidence base. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Modeling fast and slow earthquakes at various scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake sources represent dynamic rupture within rocky materials at depth and often can be modeled as propagating shear slip controlled by friction laws. These laws provide boundary conditions on fault planes embedded in elastic media. Recent developments in observation networks, laboratory experiments, and methods of data analysis have expanded our knowledge of the physics of earthquakes. Newly discovered slow earthquakes are qualitatively different phenomena from ordinary fast earthquakes and provide independent information on slow deformation at depth. Many numerical simulations have been carried out to model both fast and slow earthquakes, but problems remain, especially with scaling laws. Some mechanisms are required to explain the power-law nature of earthquake rupture and the lack of characteristic length. Conceptual models that include a hierarchical structure over a wide range of scales would be helpful for characterizing diverse behavior in different seismic regions and for improving probabilistic forecasts of earthquakes.

  4. Slow dynamics in translation-invariant quantum lattice models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidis, Alexios A.; Žnidarič, Marko; Medvedyeva, Mariya; Abanin, Dmitry A.; Prosen, Tomaž; Papić, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Many-body quantum systems typically display fast dynamics and ballistic spreading of information. Here we address the open problem of how slow the dynamics can be after a generic breaking of integrability by local interactions. We develop a method based on degenerate perturbation theory that reveals slow dynamical regimes and delocalization processes in general translation invariant models, along with accurate estimates of their delocalization time scales. Our results shed light on the fundamental questions of the robustness of quantum integrable systems and the possibility of many-body localization without disorder. As an example, we construct a large class of one-dimensional lattice models where, despite the absence of asymptotic localization, the transient dynamics is exceptionally slow, i.e., the dynamics is indistinguishable from that of many-body localized systems for the system sizes and time scales accessible in experiments and numerical simulations.

  5. Slow Orbit Feedback at the ALS Using Matlab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portmann, G.

    1999-01-01

    The third generation Advanced Light Source (ALS) produces extremely bright and finely focused photon beams using undulatory, wigglers, and bend magnets. In order to position the photon beams accurately, a slow global orbit feedback system has been developed. The dominant causes of orbit motion at the ALS are temperature variation and insertion device motion. This type of motion can be removed using slow global orbit feedback with a data rate of a few Hertz. The remaining orbit motion in the ALS is only 1-3 micron rms. Slow orbit feedback does not require high computational throughput. At the ALS, the global orbit feedback algorithm, based on the singular valued decomposition method, is coded in MATLAB and runs on a control room workstation. Using the MATLAB environment to develop, test, and run the storage ring control algorithms has proven to be a fast and efficient way to operate the ALS

  6. Lacrimal system pathology in patients with malignant thyroid tumors after radioactive iodine therapy, and its correction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Yu. Beldovskaya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Radioactive iodine therapy after thyroidectomy is the standard of differentiated thyroid cancer treatment in the modern world. Main dose-dependent side effects described in the literature include: sialadenitis, xerostomia, taste and/or odor loss, swelling of surrounding tissues. Ophthalmic complications are rarely reported. Aim. To assess the lacrimal system condition in patients after radioactive iodine therapy for thyroid cancer. Material and methods. The study included 17 patients (34 eyes. There were female patients aged 19 to 43 years (mean age was 31 years who underwent a course of radioactive iodine therapy for thyroid cancer. All of them complained of periodic or constant tearing in the period from 2 months to 1 year after therapy course. In four patients, there was a permanent or periodic mucopurulent discharge when pressing on the lacrimal sac area. All patients underwent a standard ophthalmological examination, including visual acuity testing, anterior segment biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, and tear production tests. Dye disappearance test, Jones I and II tests, lacrimal pathways irrigation, and, if necessary, cone-ray computer tomography with preliminary lacrimal pathways contrasting were performed to evaluate the tear outflow abnormalities. Results. Tear production disorders were detected in 20 eyes (58.8% (among them, moderate dry eye syndrome was diagnosed in 3 cases; tear outflow pathology was revealed in 14 eyes (41.2% (namely naso-lacrimal duct obstruction and stenosis, and chronic purulent dacryocystitis. For patients with tear production pathology artificial tears were prescribed, and endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy was performed in cases of tear outflow disturbances. Conclusion. The use of radioactive iodine in doses exceeding 80 mCi leads to the development of lacrimal system pathology: dry eye syndrome of various severity, and tear outflow disorders. Lacrimal system pathology significantly worsens

  7. Vocal Music Therapy for Chronic Pain Management in Inner-City African Americans: A Mixed Methods Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Norris, Marisol; Shim, Minjung; Gracely, Edward J; Gerrity, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    To date, research on music for pain management has focused primarily on listening to prerecorded music for acute pain. Research is needed on the impact of active music therapy interventions on chronic pain management. The aim of this mixed methods research study was to determine feasibility and estimates of effect of vocal music therapy for chronic pain management. Fifty-five inner-city adults, predominantly African Americans, with chronic pain were randomized to an 8-week vocal music therapy treatment group or waitlist control group. Consent and attrition rates, treatment compliance, and instrument appropriateness/burden were tracked. Physical functioning (pain interference and general activities), self-efficacy, emotional functioning, pain intensity, pain coping, and participant perception of change were measured at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Focus groups were conducted at the 12-week follow-up. The consent rate was 77%. The attrition rate was 27% at follow-up. We established acceptability of the intervention. Large effect sizes were obtained for self-efficacy at weeks 8 and 12; a moderate effect size was found for pain interference at week 8; no improvements were found for general activities and emotional functioning. Moderate effect sizes were obtained for pain intensity and small effect sizes for coping, albeit not statistically significant. Qualitative findings suggested that the treatment resulted in enhanced self-management, motivation, empowerment, a sense of belonging, and reduced isolation. This study suggests that vocal music therapy may be effective in building essential stepping-stones for effective chronic pain management, namely enhanced self-efficacy, motivation, empowerment, and social engagement. © the American Music Therapy Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Response of electret dosemeter to slow neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghilardi, A.J.P.; Pela, C.A.; Zimmerman, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The response of electret dosemeter to slow neutrons exposure is cited, mentioning the preparation and the irradiation of dosemeter with Am-Be source. Some theory considerations about the response of electret dosemeter to slow and fast neutrons are also presented. (C.G.C.) [pt

  9. Tandem queue with server slow-down

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miretskiy, D.I.; Scheinhardt, W.R.W.; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2007-01-01

    We study how rare events happen in the standard two-node tandem Jackson queue and in a generalization, the socalled slow-down network, see [2]. In the latter model the service rate of the first server depends on the number of jobs in the second queue: the first server slows down if the amount of

  10. Slow-light pulses in moving media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiurasek, J.; Leonhardt, U.; Parentani, R.

    2002-01-01

    Slow light in moving media reaches a counterintuitive regime when the flow speed of the medium approaches the group velocity of light. Pulses can penetrate a region where a counterpropagating flow exceeds the group velocity. When the counterflow slows down, pulses are reflected

  11. Can fast and slow intelligence be differentiated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Partchev, I.; de Boeck, P.

    2012-01-01

    Responses to items from an intelligence test may be fast or slow. The research issue dealt with in this paper is whether the intelligence involved in fast correct responses differs in nature from the intelligence involved in slow correct responses. There are two questions related to this issue: 1.

  12. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging methods for planning and monitoring radiation therapy in patients with high-grade glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Janine M; Nelson, Sarah J

    2014-10-01

    This review explores how the integration of advanced imaging methods with high-quality anatomical images significantly improves the characterization, target definition, assessment of response to therapy, and overall management of patients with high-grade glioma. Metrics derived from diffusion-, perfusion-, and susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in conjunction with magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, allows us to characterize regions of edema, hypoxia, increased cellularity, and necrosis within heterogeneous tumor and surrounding brain tissue. Quantification of such measures may provide a more reliable initial representation of tumor delineation and response to therapy than changes in the contrast-enhancing or T2 lesion alone and have a significant effect on targeting resection, planning radiation, and assessing treatment effectiveness. In the long term, implementation of these imaging methodologies can also aid in the identification of recurrent tumor and its differentiation from treatment-related confounds and facilitate the detection of radiationinduced vascular injury in otherwise normal-appearing brain tissue.

  13. Slow Movement/Slow University: Critical Engagements. Introduction to the Thematic Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie O'Neill

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This thematic section emerged from two seminars that took place at Durham University in England in November 2013 and March 2014 on the possibilities for thinking through what a change movement towards slow might mean for the University. Slow movements have emerged in relation to a number of topics: Slow food, Citta slow and more recently, slow science. What motivated us in the seminars was to explore how far these movements could help us address the acceleration and intensification of work within our own and other universities, and indeed, what new learning, research, philosophies, practices, structures and governance might emerge. This editorial introduction presents the concept of the "slow university" and introduces our critical engagements with slow. The articles presented here interrogate the potentialities, challenges, problems and pitfalls of the slow university in an era of corporate culture and management rationality. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1403166

  14. Experimental treatment of neoplasic diseases and tumors with iono magnetic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizsanyi, Elek Karsay; Quiróz, David Lavan; Huamaccto, Carlos Levano; Marroquín, Erwin Guerra

    2001-10-01

    The Iono Magnetic Therapy is a alternative control method for cell growth population in pancreas and cerebral cancer. The magnetic field applied to cells with cancer decrease the growth of this cells or their multiplication. We observed a potential difference opposite to cell potential and propose that the ionic interchange is very slow tampering with cell growth in cancer.

  15. Perceptions of the Slow Food Cultural Trend among the Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelia Voinea

    2016-11-01

    nutritional imbalance they generate. Comparative analysis of nutrition was produced by using the coverage degree method and the results have shown that the Slow Food type menu is a balanced food option. Given the issues that we highlighted, this paper can be a reference point in our endeavor to increase the awareness of the Romanian young people regarding the need to create a sustainable food system, in economic, environmental and socio-cultural point of view, as well as their orienting towards natural and healthy food options.

  16. Social, Cultural, and Environmental Challenges Faced by Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe: a Mixed-Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macherera, Margaret; Moyo, Lindani; Ncube, Mkhanyiseli; Gumbi, Angella

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), many children, particularly in the rural communities of Zimbabwe, remain vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors and challenges facing children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Brunapeg area of Mangwe District, Zimbabwe. Methods A mixed-method approach involving interviewer-guided focus group discussions and piloted semi-structured questionnaires was utilized to collect data from different key population groups. The data obtained were analyzed through content coding procedures based on a set of predetermined themes of interest. Results A number of challenges emerged as barriers to the success of antiretroviral therapy for children. Primary care givers were less informed about HIV and AIDS issues for people having direct impact on the success of antiretroviral therapy in children whilst some were found to be taking the antiretroviral drugs meant for the children. It also emerged that some primary care givers were either too young or too old to care for the children while others had failed to disclose to the children why they frequently visited the Opportunistic Infections (OI) clinic. Most primary care givers were not the biological parents of the affected children. Other challenges included inadequate access to health services, inadequate food and nutrition and lack of access to clean water, good hygiene and sanitation. The lack of community support and stigma and discrimination affected their school attendance and hospital visits. All these factors contributed to non-adherence to antiretroviral drugs. Conclusions and Public Health Implications Children on ART in rural communities in Zimbabwe remain severely compromised and have unique problems that need multi-intervention strategies both at policy and programmatic levels. Effective mitigating measures must be fully established and implemented in rural communities of developing countries in the fight for universal

  17. Social, Cultural, and Environmental Challenges Faced by Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe: a Mixed Method Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Macherera, MSc

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART, many children, particularly in the rural communities of Zimbabwe, remain vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors and challenges facing children on antiretroviral therapy (ART in Brunapeg area of Mangwe District, Zimbabwe.Methods:A mixed-method approach involving interviewer-guided focus group discussions and piloted semi-structured questionnaires was utilized to collect data from different key population groups. The data obtained were analyzed through content coding procedures based on a set of predetermined themes of interest.Results:A number of challenges emerged as barriers to the success of antiretroviral therapy for children. Primary care givers were less informed about HIV and AIDS issues for people having direct impact on the success of antiretroviral therapy in children whilst some were found to be taking the antiretroviral drugs meant for the children. It also emerged that some primary care givers were either too young or too old to care for the children while others had failed to disclose to the children why they frequently visited the Opportunistic Infections (OI clinic. Most primary care givers were not the biological parents of the affected children. Other challenges included inadequate access to health services, inadequate food and nutrition and lack of access to clean water, good hygiene and sanitation. The lack of community support and stigma and discrimination affected their school attendance and hospital visits. All these factors contributed to non-adherence to antiretroviral drugs.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:Children on ART in rural communities in Zimbabwe remain severely compromised and have unique problems that need multi-intervention strategies both at policy and programmatic levels. Effective mitigating measures must be fully established and implemented in rural communities of developing countries in the fight for

  18. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Elimination of Cigarette Smoke-derived Acetaldehyde in Saliva by Slow-release L-Cysteine Lozenge Is a Potential New Method to Assist Smoking Cessation. A Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrjänen, Kari; Salminen, Johanna; Aresvuo, Ulla; Hendolin, Panu; Paloheimo, Lea; Eklund, Carita; Salaspuro, Mikko; Suovaniemi, Osmo

    2016-05-01

    Harmans are condensation products of acetaldehyde and biogenic amines in saliva. Like other monoamine oxidase inhibitors, harmans help maintain behavioral sensitization to nicotine and mediate the addictive potential of cigarette smoke-derived acetaldehyde. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that effective elimination of acetaldehyde in saliva by slow-release L-cysteine (Acetium™ lozenge; Biohit Oyj, Helsinki, Finland) blocks the formation of harmans and eliminates acetaldehyde-enhanced nicotine addiction in smokers. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing Acetium lozenges and placebo in smoking intervention was undertaken. A cohort of 423 cigarette smokers were randomly allocated to intervention (n=212) and placebo arms (n=211). Smoking-related data were recorded by questionnaires, together with nicotine dependence testing by Fagerström scale. The participants used a smoking diary to record the daily number of cigarettes, test lozenges and sensations of smoking. The data were analyzed separately for point prevalence of abstinence and prolonged abstinence endpoints. Altogether, 110 study participants completed the trial per protocol, 234 had minor violations, and the rest (n=79) were lost to follow-up. During the 6-month trial, 65 participants quit smoking; 38 (17.9%) in the intervention arm and 27 (12.8%) in the placebo arm [odds ratio (OR)=1.48; 95% confidence intervals (CI)=0.87-2.54; p=0.143]. Success in the per protocol group was better (42.9% vs. 31.1%, respectively; OR=1.65, 95% CI=0.75-3.62; p=0.205) than in the modified intention-to-treat group: 13.5% vs. 7.4% (p=0.128). If the efficacy of Acetium lozenge can be confirmed in an adequately powered study, this new approach would represent a major breakthrough in smoking quit intervention because slow-release L-cysteine is non-toxic with no side-effects or limitations of use. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All

  20. Method for estimating optimal spectral and energy parameters of laser irradiation in photodynamic therapy of biological tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisenko, S A; Kugeiko, M M [Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)

    2015-04-30

    We have solved the problem of layer-by-layer laser-light dosimetry in biological tissues and of selecting an individual therapeutic dose in laser therapy. A method is proposed for real-time monitoring of the radiation density in tissue layers in vivo, concentrations of its endogenous (natural) and exogenous (specially administered) chromophores, as well as in-depth distributions of the spectrum of light action on these chromophores. As the background information use is made of the spectrum of diffuse light reflected from a patient's tissue, measured by a fibre-optic spectrophotometer. The measured spectrum is quantitatively analysed by the method of approximating functions for fluxes of light multiply scattered in tissue and by a semi-analytical method for calculating the in-depth distribution of the light flux in a multi-layered medium. We have shown the possibility of employing the developed method for monitoring photosensitizer and oxyhaemoglobin concentrations in tissue, light power absorbed by chromophores in tissue layers at different depths and laser-induced changes in the tissue morphology (vascular volume content and ratios of various forms of haemoglobin) during photodynamic therapy. (biophotonics)

  1. A method of dosimetry for synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy using radiochromic films and microdensitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, J. C.; Svalbe, I. D.; Lewis, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Normal tissue displays an exceptional tolerance to high doses of radiation (hundreds of Gy) when delivered as a microplanar array of synchrotron-generated x-rays. Furthermore, MRT has been shown to cause significant tumour growth delay and in some case complete ablation. The biological effects of MRT on tissue are not fully understood. This is further complicated by difficulties in performing accurate dosimetry. The majority of dosimetry performed for MRT has been Monte Carlo simulations. The aim of this work was to utilise film dosimetry and microdensitometry to measure the peak-to-valley dose ratios (PVDRs) for synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy.

  2. A New Method to Directly Observe Tuberculosis Treatment: Skype Observed Therapy, a Patient-Centered Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, Tavora; Cabello, Celina

    Tuberculosis (TB) treatment completion is in part determined by patient's adherence to long-term drug regimens. To best ensure compliance, directly observed therapy (DOT) is considered the standard of practice. Nassau County Department of Health TB Control is responsible for providing DOT to patients with TB. Tuberculosis Control sought to use and evaluate Skype Observed Therapy (SOT) as an alternative to DOT for eligible patients. The evaluation included analysis of patient's acceptance and adherence to drug regimen using SOT. Tuberculosis Control assessed staff efficiency and cost savings for this program. Percentages of SOT of patients and successful SOT visits, mileage, and travel time savings. Twenty percent of the caseload used SOT and 100% of patients who were eligible opted in. Average SOT success was 79%. Total mileage savings and time saved were $9,929.07 and 614 hours. Because SOT saves cost and time and is a suitable alternative to DOT for patients, it should be considered as part of new policies and practices in TB control programs.

  3. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy integrated with systematic desensitization, cognitive behavioral therapy combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocess­ing therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy combined with virtual reality exposure therapy methods in the treatment of flight anxiety: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triscari MT

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Maria Teresa Triscari,1 Palmira Faraci,2 Dario Catalisano,3 Valerio D’Angelo,1 Viviana Urso1 1Laboratory for Psychosomatic Disorders, Local Health Trust, Palermo, Italy; 2Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, University of Enna “Kore”, Enna, Italy; 3Italian Flight Safety Committee, Aeroporto di Fiumicino, Fiumicino (RM, Italy Abstract: The purpose of the research was to compare the effectiveness of the following treatment methods for fear of flying: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT integrated with systematic desensitization, CBT combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and CBT combined with virtual reality exposure therapy. Overall, our findings have proven the efficacy of all interventions in reducing fear of flying in a pre- to post-treatment comparison. All groups showed a decrease in flight anxiety, suggesting the efficiency of all three treatments in reducing self-report measures of fear of flying. In particular, our results indicated significant improvements for the treated patients using all the treatment programs, as shown not only by test scores but also by participation in the post-treatment flight. Nevertheless, outcome measures maintained a significant effect at a 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, combining CBT with both the application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment and the virtual stimuli used to expose patients with aerophobia seemed as efficient as traditional cognitive behavioral treatments integrated with systematic desensitization. Keywords: flight anxiety, fear of flying, aerophobia, cognitive behavioral therapy, EMDR, VRET 

  4. Proposal for a new LEIR Slow Extraction Scheme dedicated to Biomedical Research

    CERN Document Server

    Garonna, A; Carli, C

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a proposal for a new slow extraction scheme for the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) in the context of the feasibility study for a biomedical research facility at CERN. LEIR has to be maintained as a heavy ion accumulator ring for LHC and for fixed-target experiments with the SPS. In parallel to this on-going operation for physics experiments, an additional secondary use of LEIR for a biomedical research facility was proposed [Dosanjh2013, Holzscheiter2012, PHE2010]. This facility would complement the existing research beam-time available at other laboratories for studies related to ion beam therapy. The new slow extraction [Abler2013] is based on the third-integer resonance. The reference beam is composed of fully stripped carbon ions with extraction energies of 20-440 MeV/u, transverse physical emittances of 5-25 µm and momentum spreads of ±2-9•10-4. Two resonance driving mechanisms have been studied: the quadrupole-driven method and the RF-knockout technique. Both were made compatible...

  5. Contribution to analytical solution of neutron slowing down problem in homogeneous and heterogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovic, D.B.

    1970-12-01

    The objective of this work is to describe the new analytical solution of the neutron slowing down equation for infinite monoatomic media with arbitrary energy dependence of cross section. The solution is obtained by introducing Green slowing down functions instead of starting from slowing down equations directly. The previously used methods for calculation of fission neutron spectra in the reactor cell were numerical. The proposed analytical method was used for calculating the space-energy distribution of fast neutrons and number of neutron reactions in a thermal reactor cell. The role of analytical method in solving the neutron slowing down in reactor physics is to enable understating of the slowing down process and neutron transport. The obtained results could be used as standards for testing the accuracy od approximative and practical methods

  6. Slowing down with resonance absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Nair, R.P.K.

    1979-08-01

    The presence of heavy nuclei in nuclear reactors, in significant concentrations, facilitates the appearance of absorption resonances. For the moderation in the presence of absorbers an exact solution of the integral equations is possible by numerical methods. Approximated solutions for separated resonances in function of the practical width, (NR and NRIM approximations) are discussed in this paper. The method is generalized, presenting the solution by an intermediate approximation, in the definition of the resonance integral. (Author) [pt

  7. EFFECT OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY BASED ON NEW METHOD OF INDIVIDUAL CHOICE OF DRUGS ON LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY IN ELDERLY PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Pshenichkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effects of antihypertensive therapy based on consideration of individual heart rhythm variability (HRV on left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH in hypertensive elderly patients.Material and methods. 60 hypertensive elderly patients with LVH were included in the study. They were split in two groups (30 people in each one. Patients of the group-I had common antihypertensive therapy. Patients of group-II received medications prescribed with consideration of individual heart rate variability. Holter monitoring with analysis of HRV, 24-hour blood pressure monitoring and ultrasonography were conducted initially and 18 months after treatment beginning.Results. BP control was reached in the majority of patients of both groups. The patients of group-II in comparison with patients of group-I had reduction of low- high frequency power ratio (LF/HF and higher rate of LVH reduction. Relationship between LVH dynamics and ratio LF/HF was found.Conclusion. Arterial hypertension therapy considering individual HRV contributes in LVH reduction in elderly patients.

  8. Contribution to the study of the interaction of slow neutrons with {sup 235}U using the time-of-flight method; Contribution a l'etude par la methode du temps de vol de l'interaction de neutrons lents avec l'U{sup 235}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaudon, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-05-15

    This study concerns the properties of the excited levels of uranium 236 obtained by interaction of slow neutron with uranium 235. The experiments have been carried out at the Saclay linear electron accelerator by use of the time of flight method. In the first part of this paper, we examine the technical and physical conditions which rule the experiments: compromise between resolution and counting rate, time dispersion due to the slowing down of the neutrons and crystalline binding effects. In a second part the experimental results i.e. total, fission and ternary fission cross sections are given. The third part deals with the analysis of these results: the resonance parameters determination ({tau}{sub n}, {tau}{sub {gamma}}, {tau}{sub f}), the study of their statistical distribution and of their correlations. We tried some classifications of the resonances according to their parameters and compared these classifications to each other and to other results. At least the evidence of a cross section correlation with a range smaller than 100 eV seems to be confirmed. (author) [French] Cette etude porte sur les proprietes des niveaux excites de l'Uranium-236 obtenus par l'interaction de neutrons lents avec le {sup 235}U. La technique experimentale est celle de la spectrometrie par temps de vol, les experiences ayant ete realisees aupres de l'accelerateur lineaire d'electrons de Saclay, Dans une premiere partie nous examinons les donnees techniques et physiques conditionnant les experiences: compromis entre resolution et taux de comptage, dispersion en temps due au ralentissement des neutrons, effet des liaisons cristallines. Dans une deuxieme partie sont exposes les resultats experimentaux: sections efficaces totales, de fission et de fission ternaire du {sup 235}U. Une troisieme partie porte sur l'analyse de ces resultats: determination des parametres ({tau}{sub n}, {tau}{sub {gamma}}, {tau}{sub f}), etude de leurs distributions statistiques et des correlations entre ces

  9. Contribution to the study of the interaction of slow neutrons with {sup 235}U using the time-of-flight method; Contribution a l'etude par la methode du temps de vol de l'interaction de neutrons lents avec l'U{sup 235}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaudon, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-05-15

    This study concerns the properties of the excited levels of uranium 236 obtained by interaction of slow neutron with uranium 235. The experiments have been carried out at the Saclay linear electron accelerator by use of the time of flight method. In the first part of this paper, we examine the technical and physical conditions which rule the experiments: compromise between resolution and counting rate, time dispersion due to the slowing down of the neutrons and crystalline binding effects. In a second part the experimental results i.e. total, fission and ternary fission cross sections are given. The third part deals with the analysis of these results: the resonance parameters determination ({tau}{sub n}, {tau}{sub {gamma}}, {tau}{sub f}), the study of their statistical distribution and of their correlations. We tried some classifications of the resonances according to their parameters and compared these classifications to each other and to other results. At least the evidence of a cross section correlation with a range smaller than 100 eV seems to be confirmed. (author) [French] Cette etude porte sur les proprietes des niveaux excites de l'Uranium-236 obtenus par l'interaction de neutrons lents avec le {sup 235}U. La technique experimentale est celle de la spectrometrie par temps de vol, les experiences ayant ete realisees aupres de l'accelerateur lineaire d'electrons de Saclay, Dans une premiere partie nous examinons les donnees techniques et physiques conditionnant les experiences: compromis entre resolution et taux de comptage, dispersion en temps due au ralentissement des neutrons, effet des liaisons cristallines. Dans une deuxieme partie sont exposes les resultats experimentaux: sections efficaces totales, de fission et de fission ternaire du {sup 235}U. Une troisieme partie porte sur l'analyse de ces resultats: determination des parametres ({tau}{sub n}, {tau}{sub {gamma}}, {tau}{sub f}), etude de leurs distributions statistiques et

  10. KEK-IMSS Slow Positron Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyodo, T; Wada, K; Yagishita, A; Kosuge, T; Saito, Y; Kurihara, T; Kikuchi, T; Shirakawa, A; Sanami, T; Ikeda, M; Ohsawa, S; Kakihara, K; Shidara, T, E-mail: toshio.hyodo@kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan)

    2011-12-01

    The Slow Positron Facility at the Institute of Material Structure Science (IMSS) of High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) is a user dedicated facility with an energy tunable (0.1 - 35 keV) slow positron beam produced by a dedicated 55MeV linac. The present beam line branches have been used for the positronium time-of-flight (Ps-TOF) measurements, the transmission positron microscope (TPM) and the photo-detachment of Ps negative ions (Ps{sup -}). During the year 2010, a reflection high-energy positron diffraction (RHEPD) measurement station is going to be installed. The slow positron generator (converter/ moderator) system will be modified to get a higher slow positron intensity, and a new user-friendly beam line power-supply control and vacuum monitoring system is being developed. Another plan for this year is the transfer of a {sup 22}Na-based slow positron beam from RIKEN. This machine will be used for the continuous slow positron beam applications and for the orientation training of those who are interested in beginning researches with a slow positron beam.

  11. Manual lymphatic drainage with comprehensive anti-diabetic therapy (MLD / CDT as a method of treatment of lymphoedema - literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Płoszaj

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lymphedema is an accumulation of lymph, i.e stagnation of water and proteins in extracellular space and lymphatic vessel due to impairment of its transportation as an effect of congenital disorders or lymph vessel lesion. The priority in therapeutic approach to lymphedema should be establishing the cause of edema, setting medical diagnosis and treatment method as early as possible. Complex Decongestive Therapy is recommended by International Society of Lymphology and considered as a standard in lympedema treatment irrespective of their stage of development and the cause.

  12. A 4D dose computation method to investigate motion interplay effects in scanned ion beam prostate therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammazzalorso, F; Jelen, U

    2014-01-01

    In particle therapy, the interplay between beam scanning and target motion during treatment delivery may result in dose deterioration. Interplay effects have been studied for targets exhibiting periodic respiratory motion, however, they are not well understood for irregular motion patterns, such as those exhibited by the prostate. In this note, we propose and validate a 4D dose computation method, which enables estimation of effective dose delivered to the prostate by scanning ion beams in presence of intrafraction motion, as well as facilitates investigation of various motion interplay countermeasures. (note)

  13. A Methods and procedures to apply probabilistic safety Assessment (PSA) techniques to the cobalt-therapy process. Cuban experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilaragut Llanes, J.J.; Ferro Fernandez, R.; Lozano Lima, B; De la Fuente Puch, A.; Dumenigo Gonzalez, C.; Troncoso Fleitas, M.; Perez Reyes, Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) to the Cobalt Therapy Process, which was performed as part of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to Investigate Appropriate Methods and Procedures to Apply Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) Techniques to Large Radiation Sources. The primary methodological tools used in the analysis were Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Event Trees and Fault Trees. These tools were used to evaluate occupational, public and medical exposures during cobalt therapy treatment. The emphasis of the study was on the radiological protection of patients. During the course of the PSA, several findings were analysed concerning the cobalt treatment process. In relation with the Undesired Events Probabilities, the lowest exposures probabilities correspond to the public exposures during the treatment process (Z21); around 10-10 per year, being the workers exposures (Z11); around 10-4 per year. Regarding to the patient, the Z33 probabilities prevail (not desired dose to normal tissue) and Z34 (not irradiated portion to target volume). Patient accidental exposures are also classified in terms of the extent to which the error is likely to affect individual treatments, individual patients, or all the patients treated on a specific unit. Sensitivity analyses were realised to determine the influence of certain tasks or critical stages on the results. As a conclusion the study establishes that the PSA techniques may effectively and reasonably determine the risk associated to the cobalt-therapy treatment process, though there are some weaknesses in its methodological application for this kind of study requiring further research. These weaknesses are due to the fact that the traditional PSA has been mainly applied to complex hardware systems designed to operate with a high automation level, whilst the cobalt therapy treatment is a relatively simple hardware system with a

  14. Etching of semiconductor cubic crystals: Determination of the dissolution slowness surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, C. R.

    1990-03-01

    Equations of the representative surface of dissolution slowness for cubic crystals are determined in the framework of a tensorial approach of the orientation-dependent etching process. The independent dissolution constants are deduced from symmetry considerations. Using previous data on the chemical etching of germanium and gallium arsenide crystals, some possible polar diagrams of the dissolution slowness are proposed. A numerical and graphical simulation method is used to obtain the derived dissolution shapes. The influence of extrema in the dissolution slowness on the successive dissolution shapes is also examined. A graphical construction of limiting shapes of etched crystals appears possible using the tensorial representation of the dissolution slowness.

  15. The cryogenic source of slow monochromatic positrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkov, I.N.; Pavlov, V.N.; Sidorin, A.O.; Yakovenko, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    The cryogenic source of slow monochromatic positrons based on the 22 Na isotope has been designed and constructed at JINR. Positrons emitted from radioactive source 22 Na have a very broad energy spectrum up to 0.5 MeV. To generate monochromatic beam of slow positrons the solid neon is used as a moderator. The solid neon allows forming slow positron beam of the energy of 1.2 eV at the spectrum width of 1 eV. The efficiency of moderation is 1 % of total positron flux

  16. Dystonia Associated with Idiopathic Slow Orthostatic Tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kobylecki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to characterize the clinical and electrophysiological features of patients with slow orthostatic tremor.Case Report: The clinical and neurophysiological data of patients referred for lower limb tremor on standing were reviewed. Patients with symptomatic or primary orthostatic tremor were excluded. Eight patients were identified with idiopathic slow 4–8 Hz orthostatic tremor, which was associated with tremor and dystonia in cervical and upper limb musculature. Coherence analysis in two patients showed findings different to those seen in primary orthostatic tremor.Discussion: Slow orthostatic tremor may be associated with dystonia and dystonic tremor.

  17. Revealing the cluster of slow transients behind a large slow slip event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, William B; Rousset, Baptiste; Lasserre, Cécile; Campillo, Michel

    2018-05-01

    Capable of reaching similar magnitudes to large megathrust earthquakes [ M w (moment magnitude) > 7], slow slip events play a major role in accommodating tectonic motion on plate boundaries through predominantly aseismic rupture. We demonstrate here that large slow slip events are a cluster of short-duration slow transients. Using a dense catalog of low-frequency earthquakes as a guide, we investigate the M w 7.5 slow slip event that occurred in 2006 along the subduction interface 40 km beneath Guerrero, Mexico. We show that while the long-period surface displacement, as recorded by Global Positioning System, suggests a 6-month duration, the motion in the direction of tectonic release only sporadically occurs over 55 days, and its surface signature is attenuated by rapid relocking of the plate interface. Our proposed description of slow slip as a cluster of slow transients forces us to re-evaluate our understanding of the physics and scaling of slow earthquakes.

  18. Calculation of primary and secondary dose in proton therapy of brain tumors using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghbel Esfahani, F.; Alamatsaz, M.; Karimian, A.

    2012-01-01

    High-energy beams of protons offer significant advantages for the treatment of deep-seated local tumors. Their physical depth-dose distribution in tissue is characterized by a small entrance dose and a distinct maximum - Bragg peak - near the end of range with a sharp falloff at the distal edge. Therefore, research must be done to investigate the possible negative and positive effects of using proton therapy as a treatment modality. In proton therapy, protons do account for the vast majority of dose. However, when protons travel through matter, secondary particles are created by the interactions of protons and matter en route to and within the patient. It is believed that secondary dose can lead to secondary cancer, especially in pediatric cases. Therefore, the focus of this work is determining both primary and secondary dose. Dose calculations were performed by MCNPX in tumoral and healthy parts of brain. The brain tumor has a 10 mm diameter and is located 16 cm under the skin surface. The brain was simulated by a cylindrical water phantom with the dimensions of 19 x 19cm 2 (length x diameter), with 0.5 cm thickness of plexiglass (C 4 H 6 O 2 ). Then beam characteristics were investigated to ensure the accuracy of the model. Simulations were initially validated with against packages such as SRIM/TRIM. Dose calculations were performed using different configurations to evaluate depth-dose profiles and dose 2D distributions.The results of the simulation show that the best proton energy interval, to cover completely the brain tumor, is from 152 to 154 MeV. (authors)

  19. Downstream processing and chromatography based analytical methods for production of vaccines, gene therapy vectors, and bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramberger, Petra; Urbas, Lidija; Štrancar, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Downstream processing of nanoplexes (viruses, virus-like particles, bacteriophages) is characterized by complexity of the starting material, number of purification methods to choose from, regulations that are setting the frame for the final product and analytical methods for upstream and downstream monitoring. This review gives an overview on the nanoplex downstream challenges and chromatography based analytical methods for efficient monitoring of the nanoplex production. PMID:25751122

  20. Slow manifolds in chemical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, M.; Haq, I. U.; Sultan, F.; Wahab, A.; Faizullah, F.; Rahman, G. U.

    2016-01-01

    Modelling the chemical system, especially for complex and higher dimensional problems, gives an easy way to handle the ongoing reaction process with respect to time. Here, we will consider some of the newly developed computational methods commonly used for model reductions in a chemical reaction. An effective (simple) method is planned to measure the low dimensional manifold, which reduces the higher dimensional system in such a way that it may not affect the precision of the whole mechanism. The phase flow of the solution trajectories near the equilibrium point is observed while the initial approximation is measured with the spectral quasi equilibrium manifold, which starts from the equilibrium point. To make it an invariant curve, the approximated curve is first refined a certain number of times using the method of invariant grids. The other way of getting the reduced data in the low dimensional manifold is possible through the intrinsic low dimensional manifold. Then, we compare these two invariant curves given by both the methods. Finally, the idea is extended to the higher dimensional manifold, where more number of progress variables will be added. (author)

  1. A Calibrated Method of Massage Therapy Decreases Systolic Blood Pressure Concomitant With Changes in Heart Rate Variability in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgin, Kurt A; Kaprelian, Anthony; Gutierrez, Roberto; Jha, Vidyasagar; Wilson, Christopher G; Dobyns, Abigail; Xu, Karen H; Curras-Collazo, Margarita C

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method for applying calibrated manual massage pressures by using commonly available, inexpensive sphygmomanometer parts and validate the use of this approach as a quantitative method of applying massage therapy to rodents. Massage pressures were monitored by using a modified neonatal blood pressure (BP) cuff attached to an aneroid gauge. Lightly anesthetized rats were stroked on the ventral abdomen for 5 minutes at pressures of 20 mm Hg and 40 mm Hg. Blood pressure was monitored noninvasively for 20 minutes following massage therapy at 5-minute intervals. Interexaminer reliability was assessed by applying 20 mm Hg and 40 mm Hg pressures to a digital scale in the presence or absence of the pressure gauge. With the use of this method, we observed good interexaminer reliability, with intraclass coefficients of 0.989 versus 0.624 in blinded controls. In Long-Evans rats, systolic BP dropped by an average of 9.86% ± 0.27% following application of 40 mm Hg massage pressure. Similar effects were seen following 20 mm Hg pressure (6.52% ± 1.7%), although latency to effect was greater than at 40 mm Hg. Sprague-Dawley rats behaved similarly to Long-Evans rats. Low-frequency/high-frequency ratio, a widely-used index of autonomic tone in cardiovascular regulation, showed a significant increase within 5 minutes after 40 mm Hg massage pressure was applied. The calibrated massage method was shown to be a reproducible method for applying massage pressures in rodents and lowering BP. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The impact of parameter identification methods on drug therapy control in an intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hann, C.E.; Chase, J.G.; Ypma, M.F.; Elfring, J.; Nor, N.H.M.; Lawrence, P.; Shaw, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of fast parameter identification methods, which do not require any forward simulations, on model-based glucose control, using retrospective data in the Christchurch Hospital Intensive Care Unit. The integral-based identification method has been previously

  3. Using gEUD based plan analysis method to evaluate proton vs. photon plans for lung cancer radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiyan; Zou, Wei J; Chen, Ting; Yue, Ning J; Jabbour, Salma K; Parikh, Rahul; Zhang, Miao

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this study was to exam the efficacy of current DVH based clinical guidelines draw from photon experience for lung cancer radiation therapy on proton therapy. Comparison proton plans and IMRT plans were generated for 10 lung patients treated in our proton facility. A gEUD based plan evaluation method was developed for plan evaluation. This evaluation method used normal lung gEUD(a) curve in which the model parameter "a" was sampled from the literature reported value. For all patients, the proton plans delivered lower normal lung V 5 Gy with similar V 20 Gy and similar target coverage. Based on current clinical guidelines, proton plans were ranked superior to IMRT plans for all 10 patients. However, the proton and IMRT normal lung gEUD(a) curves crossed for 8 patients within the tested range of "a", which means there was a possibility that proton plan would be worse than IMRT plan for lung sparing. A concept of deficiency index (DI) was introduced to quantify the probability of proton plans doing worse than IMRT plans. By applying threshold on DI, four patients' proton plan was ranked inferior to the IMRT plan. Meanwhile if a threshold to the location of curve crossing was applied, 6 patients' proton plan was ranked inferior to the IMRT plan. The contradictory ranking results between the current clinical guidelines and the gEUD(a) curve analysis demonstrated there is potential pitfalls by applying photon experience directly to the proton world. A comprehensive plan evaluation based on radio-biological models should be carried out to decide if a lung patient would really be benefit from proton therapy. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  4. A new method to model electroconvulsive therapy in rats with increased construct validity and enhanced translational value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theilmann, Wiebke; Löscher, Wolfgang; Socala, Katarzyna; Frieling, Helge; Bleich, Stefan; Brandt, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy is the most effective therapy for major depressive disorder (MDD). The remission rate is above 50% in previously pharmacoresistant patients but the mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) in rodents mimics antidepressant electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in humans and is widely used to investigate the underlying mechanisms of ECT. For the translational value of findings in animal models it is essential to establish models with the highest construct, face and predictive validity possible. The commonly used model for ECT in rodents does not meet the demand for high construct validity. For ECT, cortical surface electrodes are used to induce therapeutic seizures whereas ECS in rodents is exclusively performed by auricular or corneal electrodes. However, the stimulation site has a major impact on the type and spread of the induced seizure activity and its antidepressant effect. We propose a method in which ECS is performed by screw electrodes placed above the motor cortex of rats to closely simulate the clinical situation and thereby increase the construct validity of the model. Cortical ECS in rats induced reliably seizures comparable to human ECT. Cortical ECS was more effective than auricular ECS to reduce immobility in the forced swim test. Importantly, auricular stimulation had a negative influence on the general health condition of the rats with signs of fear during the stimulation sessions. These results suggest that auricular ECS in rats is not a suitable ECT model. Cortical ECS in rats promises to be a valid method to mimic ECT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Systematic dependence on the slowing down environment, of nuclear lifetime measurements by DSAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulemonde, M.; Haas, F.

    1976-01-01

    The meanlife of the 22 Ne 3.34MeV level measured by DSAM (Doppler Shift Attenuation Method) at an average velocity of 0.009 c, shows large fluctuations with different slowing down materials ranging from Li to Pb. These fluctuations are correlated with a linear dependence of the 'apparent' meanlife tau on the electronic slowing down time

  6. VERY SLOW SPEED AXIAL MOTION RELUCTANCE MOTOR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1984-09-01

    Sep 1, 1984 ... VERY SLOW SPEED AXIAL MOTION RELUCTANCE MOTOR by. L. A. Agu ... order as that of the screw-thread motor can be obtained. LIST OF .... The n stator have equal non- magnetic spacers .... induction motor. An.

  7. Slow and Fast Light, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to the NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program 2015 Phase I Solicitation S3.08: Slow and Fast Light, Torch Technologies in partnership...

  8. Experimental demonstration of spinor slow light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Jung; Ruseckas, Julius; Lee, Chin-Yuan; Kudriašov, Viačeslav; Chang, Kao-Fang; Cho, Hung-Wen; JuzeliÅ«nas, Gediminas; Yu, Ite A.

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade there has been a continuing interest in slow and stored light based on the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect, because of their potential applications in quantum information manipulation. However, previous experimental works all dealt with the single-component slow light which cannot be employed as a qubit. In this work, we report the first experimental demonstration of two-component or spinor slow light (SSL) using a double tripod (DT) atom-light coupling scheme. The oscillations between the two components, similar to the Rabi oscillation of a two-level system or a qubit, were observed. Single-photon SSL can be considered as two-color qubits. We experimentally demonstrated a possible application of the DT scheme as quantum memory and quantum rotator for the two-color qubits. This work opens up a new direction in the slow light research.

  9. Elastic scattering of slow positrons by helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Cherepkov, N.A.; Chernysheva, L.V.; Shapiro, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    The s-, p-, d- and f-wave phaseshifts for elastic scattering of slow positrons by He are calculated using a simplified version of the random phase approximation with exchange, with virtual positronium formation effect taken into account. (author)

  10. A tilted transversely isotropic slowness surface approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, A.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-01-01

    for the vertical slowness that is highly accurate for all practical purposes. It also reveals some insights into the anisotropy parameter dependency of the dispersion relation including the low impact that the anelliptic parameter has on the vertical placement

  11. Slow feature analysis: unsupervised learning of invariances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskott, Laurenz; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2002-04-01

    Invariant features of temporally varying signals are useful for analysis and classification. Slow feature analysis (SFA) is a new method for learning invariant or slowly varying features from a vectorial input signal. It is based on a nonlinear expansion of the input signal and application of principal component analysis to this expanded signal and its time derivative. It is guaranteed to find the optimal solution within a family of functions directly and can learn to extract a large number of decorrelated features, which are ordered by their degree of invariance. SFA can be applied hierarchically to process high-dimensional input signals and extract complex features. SFA is applied first to complex cell tuning properties based on simple cell output, including disparity and motion. Then more complicated input-output functions are learned by repeated application of SFA. Finally, a hierarchical network of SFA modules is presented as a simple model of the visual system. The same unstructured network can learn translation, size, rotation, contrast, or, to a lesser degree, illumination invariance for one-dimensional objects, depending on only the training stimulus. Surprisingly, only a few training objects suffice to achieve good generalization to new objects. The generated representation is suitable for object recognition. Performance degrades if the network is trained to learn multiple invariances simultaneously.

  12. Mixing, ergodicity and slow relaxation phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, I. V. L.; Vainstein, M. H.; Lapas, L. C.; Batista, A. A.; Oliveira, F. A.

    2006-11-01

    Investigations on diffusion in systems with memory [I.V.L. Costa, R. Morgado, M.V.B.T. Lima, F.A. Oliveira, Europhys. Lett. 63 (2003) 173] have established a hierarchical connection between mixing, ergodicity, and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT). This hierarchy means that ergodicity is a necessary condition for the validity of the FDT, and mixing is a necessary condition for ergodicity. In this work, we compare those results with recent investigations using the Lee recurrence relations method [M.H. Lee, Phys. Rev. B 26 (1982) 2547; M.H. Lee, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 250601; M.H. Lee, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 (2006) 4651]. Lee shows that ergodicity is violated in the dynamics of the electron gas [M.H. Lee, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 (2006) 4651]. This reinforces both works and implies that the results of [I.V.L. Costa, R. Morgado, M.V.B.T. Lima, F.A. Oliveira, Europhys. Lett. 63 (2003) 173] are more general than the framework in which they were obtained. Some applications to slow relaxation phenomena are discussed.

  13. Frequency response of slow beam extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Takeshi; Sato, Hikaru; Marutsuka, Katsumi; Shirakata, Masashi.

    1994-01-01

    A servo control system has been incorporated into the practical slow extraction system in order to stabilize the spill structure less than a few kHz. Frequency responses of the components of the servo-spill control system and the open-loop frequency response were measured. The beam transfer function of the slow extraction process was derived from the measured data and approximated using a simple function. This is utilized to improve the performance of the servo-loop. (author)

  14. Slow potentials in a melody recognition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verleger, R; Schellberg, D

    1990-01-01

    In a previous study, slow negative shifts were found in the EEG of subjects listening to well-known melodies. The two experiments reported here were designed to investigate the variables to which these slow potentials are related. In the first experiment, two opposite hypotheses were tested: The slow shifts might express subjects' acquaintance with the melodies or, on the contrary, the effort invested to identify them. To this end, some of the melodies were presented in the rhythms of other melodies to make recognition more difficult. Further, melodies rated as very well-known and as very unknown were analysed separately. However, the slow shifts were not affected by these experimental variations. Therefore in the second experiment, on the one hand the purely physical parameters intensity and duration were varied, but this variation had no impact on the slow shifts either. On the other hand, recognition was made more difficult by monotonously repeating the pitch of the 4th tone for the rest of some melodies. The slow negative shifts were enhanced with these monotonous melodies. This enhancement supports the "effort" hypothesis. Accordingly, the ofter shifts obtained in both experiments might likewise reflect effort. But since the task was not demanding, it is suggested that these constant shifts reflect the effort invested for coping with the entire underarousing situation rather than with the task. Frequently, slow eye movements occurred in the same time range as the slow potentials, resulting in EOG potentials spreading to the EEG recording sites. Yet results did not change substantially when the EEG recordings were corrected for the influence of EOG potentials.

  15. An investigation of the adjoint method for external beam radiation therapy treatment planning using Monte Carlo transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalok, M.; Mackie, T.R.

    2001-01-01

    A relatively new technique for achieving the right dose to the right tissue, is intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In this technique, a megavoltage x-ray beam is rotated around a patient, and the intensity and shape of the beam is modulated as a function of source position and patient anatomy. The relationship between beam-let intensity and patient dose can be expressed under a matrix form where the matrix D ij represents the dose delivered to voxel i by beam-let j per unit fluence. The D ij influence matrix is the key element that enables this approach. In this regard, sensitivity theory lends itself in a natural way to the process of computing beam weights for treatment planning. The solution of the adjoint form of the Boltzmann equation is an adjoint function that describes the importance of particles throughout the system in contributing to the detector response. In this case, adjoint methods can provide the sensitivity of the dose at a single point in the patient with respect to all points in the source field. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using the adjoint method and Monte Carlo transport for radiation therapy treatment planning

  16. Manual Intracardiac Electrogram Method Is Accurate Alternative to Echocardiography for Atrioventricular and Interventricular Optimization in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezo Nikolić, Borka; Lovrić, Daniel; Ljubas Maček, Jana; Rešković Lukšić, Vlatka; Matasić, Richard; Šeparović Hanževački, Jadranka

    2017-12-01

    Some manufacturers do not provide automated intracardiac electrogram method (IEGM) systems for atrioventricular (AV) and interventricular (VV) delay optimization in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of manual IEGM method in 48 patients previously implanted with Medtronic Syncra CRT. All patients underwent standard device interrogation followed by CRT optimization by IEGM method and by echocardiography one month after implantation. The patient mean age was 60.7±11.8 years and there were 33 (68.8%) males. After CRT implantation, the left ventricular ejection fraction increased from 28.0±7.9% to 39.1±11.0% (p<0.001). Optimal aortic flow Velocity Time Integral (aVTI) was obtained when VV was set to 20-50 ms left ventricular pre-activation. There was a strong correlation between VV values determined by echocardiography and IEGM (R=0.823, p<0.001). We found no significant difference in AV, VV and aVTI values between echocardiography and IEGM method. However, IEGM was significantly less time-consuming than echocardiography [20 (10-28) vs. 40 (35-60) minutes, p<0.001]. Manual IEGM method may be good alternative to echocardiography and automated IEGM method. It also emphasizes the need for implementation of automated IEGM systems in as many CRT devices as possible.

  17. Methods for Determining Metal Uptake in Cellular DNA for Auger Electron Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seror, V.; Novick, S.; Weiner, E.; Laster, B.; Hambright, P.

    2004-01-01

    Stable indium-labeled tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin [InTMPyP(4)] was evaluated as a carrier of a high Z atom, indium (In), into tumor cell DNA for its subsequent activation by radiation in a proposed radiotherapeutic technique, Auger Electron Therapy (AET). Porphyrins with metals can bind to DNA and are useful vehicles for transporting the indium to the DNA of the tumor. AET combines the use of a metalloporphyrin with a stable high Z atom, such as indium, and photons emitted from radioactive brachytherapy seeds, such as iodine-125, to increase the radiation dose in the DNA of the tumor by generating a photoelectric effect in the K absorption edge of the indium (In) atom. This results in the emission of cascading Auger electrons that act as high LET radiation and thus impart significant non-reparable damage to the tumor compared to the radiation alone. The K absorption edge of In is 27.9 keV and the average photon energy of the iodine-125 seeds is ∼ 28 keV

  18. Validation of computational methods for treatment planning of fast-neutron therapy using activation foil techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigg, D.W.; Wemple, C.A.; Hartwell, J.K.; Harker, Y.D.; Venhuizen, J.R.; Risler, R.

    1997-12-01

    A closed-form direct method for unfolding neutron spectra from foil activation data is presented. The method is applied to measurements of the free-field neutron spectrum produced by the proton-cyclotron-based fast-neutron radiotherapy facility at the University of Washington (UW) School of Medicine. The results compare favorably with theoretical expectations based on an a-priori calculational model of the target and neutron beamline configuration of the UW facility

  19. Spatial ability of slow learners based on Hubert Maier theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permatasari, I.; Pramudya, I.; Kusmayadi, T. A.

    2018-03-01

    Slow learners are children who have low learning achievement (under the average of normal children) in one or all of the academic field, but they are not classified as a mentally retarded children. Spatial ability developed according to age and level of knowledge possessed, both from the neighborhood and formal education. Analyzing the spatial ability of students is important for teachers, as an effort to improve the quality of learning for slow learners. Especially on the implementation of inclusion school which is developing in Indonesia. This research used a qualitative method and involved slow learner students as the subject. Based on the data analysis it was found the spatial ability of slow learners, there were: spatial perception, students were able to describe the other shape of object when its position changed; spatial visualisation, students were able to describe the materials that construct an object; mental rotation, students cannot describe the object being rotated; spatial relation, students cannot describe the relations of same objects; spatial orientation, students were able to describe object from the others perspective.

  20. Simple Method to Estimate Mean Heart Dose From Hodgkin Lymphoma Radiation Therapy According to Simulation X-Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimwegen, Frederika A. van [Department of Psychosocial Research, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cutter, David J. [Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Oxford Cancer Centre, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford (United Kingdom); Schaapveld, Michael [Department of Psychosocial Research, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rutten, Annemarieke [Department of Radiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kooijman, Karen [Department of Psychosocial Research, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Krol, Augustinus D.G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Janus, Cécile P.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Darby, Sarah C. [Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Leeuwen, Flora E. van [Department of Psychosocial Research, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aleman, Berthe M.P., E-mail: b.aleman@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: To describe a new method to estimate the mean heart dose for Hodgkin lymphoma patients treated several decades ago, using delineation of the heart on radiation therapy simulation X-rays. Mean heart dose is an important predictor for late cardiovascular complications after Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treatment. For patients treated before the era of computed tomography (CT)-based radiotherapy planning, retrospective estimation of radiation dose to the heart can be labor intensive. Methods and Materials: Patients for whom cardiac radiation doses had previously been estimated by reconstruction of individual treatments on representative CT data sets were selected at random from a case–control study of 5-year Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (n=289). For 42 patients, cardiac contours were outlined on each patient's simulation X-ray by 4 different raters, and the mean heart dose was estimated as the percentage of the cardiac contour within the radiation field multiplied by the prescribed mediastinal dose and divided by a correction factor obtained by comparison with individual CT-based dosimetry. Results: According to the simulation X-ray method, the medians of the mean heart doses obtained from the cardiac contours outlined by the 4 raters were 30 Gy, 30 Gy, 31 Gy, and 31 Gy, respectively, following prescribed mediastinal doses of 25-42 Gy. The absolute-agreement intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.85-0.97), indicating excellent agreement. Mean heart dose was 30.4 Gy with the simulation X-ray method, versus 30.2 Gy with the representative CT-based dosimetry, and the between-method absolute-agreement intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.80-0.95), indicating good agreement between the two methods. Conclusion: Estimating mean heart dose from radiation therapy simulation X-rays is reproducible and fast, takes individual anatomy into account, and yields results comparable to the labor

  1. Reconstruction of gastric slow wave from finger photoplethysmographic signal using radial basis function neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Yacin, S; Srinivasa Chakravarthy, V; Manivannan, M

    2011-11-01

    Extraction of extra-cardiac information from photoplethysmography (PPG) signal is a challenging research problem with significant clinical applications. In this study, radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is used to reconstruct the gastric myoelectric activity (GMA) slow wave from finger PPG signal. Finger PPG and GMA (measured using Electrogastrogram, EGG) signals were acquired simultaneously at the sampling rate of 100 Hz from ten healthy subjects. Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) was used to extract slow wave (0-0.1953 Hz) component from the finger PPG signal; this slow wave PPG was used to reconstruct EGG. A RBFNN is trained on signals obtained from six subjects in both fasting and postprandial conditions. The trained network is tested on data obtained from the remaining four subjects. In the earlier study, we have shown the presence of GMA information in finger PPG signal using DWT and cross-correlation method. In this study, we explicitly reconstruct gastric slow wave from finger PPG signal by the proposed RBFNN-based method. It was found that the network-reconstructed slow wave provided significantly higher (P wave than the correlation obtained (≈0.7) between the PPG slow wave from DWT and the EEG slow wave. Our results showed that a simple finger PPG signal can be used to reconstruct gastric slow wave using RBFNN method.

  2. Limitations of a convolution method for modeling geometric uncertainties in radiation therapy. I. The effect of shift invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Tim; Battista, Jerry; Van Dyk, Jake

    2003-01-01

    Convolution methods have been used to model the effect of geometric uncertainties on dose delivery in radiation therapy. Convolution assumes shift invariance of the dose distribution. Internal inhomogeneities and surface curvature lead to violations of this assumption. The magnitude of the error resulting from violation of shift invariance is not well documented. This issue is addressed by comparing dose distributions calculated using the Convolution method with dose distributions obtained by Direct Simulation. A comparison of conventional Static dose distributions was also made with Direct Simulation. This analysis was performed for phantom geometries and several clinical tumor sites. A modification to the Convolution method to correct for some of the inherent errors is proposed and tested using example phantoms and patients. We refer to this modified method as the Corrected Convolution. The average maximum dose error in the calculated volume (averaged over different beam arrangements in the various phantom examples) was 21% with the Static dose calculation, 9% with Convolution, and reduced to 5% with the Corrected Convolution. The average maximum dose error in the calculated volume (averaged over four clinical examples) was 9% for the Static method, 13% for Convolution, and 3% for Corrected Convolution. While Convolution can provide a superior estimate of the dose delivered when geometric uncertainties are present, the violation of shift invariance can result in substantial errors near the surface of the patient. The proposed Corrected Convolution modification reduces errors near the surface to 3% or less

  3. Photodynamic therapy: development of methods and clinical applications in FCI MRCC MOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kaplan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to clinical experience of photodynamic therapy (PDT in Medical Radiological Research Center. Authors represent the results of treatment in 156 patients with primary untreated tumors of different localizations as follows: basal cell skin cancer (BCSC in 156 patients, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (SCCS in 24 patients, cancer of upper and lower lips in 30 patients. The other group of patients included recurrent and metastatic diseases: recurrent BCSC were in 127 patients, recurrent or continued growth of SCCS – in 27, recurrent or continued growth of lip cancer – in 13, intracutaneous metastases of skin melanoma (62 patients and breast cancer (46 – in 108. PDT was performed with photosensitizers Photosense (2.0 mg/kg, Photolon (0.9–2.5 mg/kg, and Photoditazine (0.7–0.8 mg/kg. The light irradiation dose was 100–600 J/cm2. After PDT of previously untreated BCSC the complete regression (CR of tumor lesions was in 96.8% of patients, partial regression (PR – in 3.2% of patients; for PDT of recurrent BCSC in 76.4% and 23.6%, respectively. After PDT treatment in patients with previously untreated SCCS CR of tumor lesions was achieved in 91.7% of patients, PR – in 8.3% of patients. For treatment of relapses in SCCS CR was achieved in 59.3% of cases, PR – in 33.3%, absence of regression was reported in 7.4% of cases. PDT of intracutaneous metastases of skin melanoma and breast cancer provided positive treatment effect (CR + PR + stabilizing in 95 and 98% of cases, respectively. CR in primary lip cancer after PDT was reported in 86.0% of patients, PR – in 14.0%. For PDT of recurrent lip cancer CR accounted for 69.2%, PR – 30.8%. 

  4. Slow light and pulse propagation in semiconductor waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Lunnemann

    This thesis concerns the propagation of optical pulses in semiconductor waveguide structures with particular focus on methods for achieving slow light or signal delays. Experimental pulse propagation measurements of pulses with a duration of 180 fs, transmitted through quantum well based waveguide...... structures, are presented. Simultaneous measurements of the pulse transmission and delay are measured as a function of input pulse energy for various applied electrical potentials. Electrically controlled pulse delay and advancement are demonstrated and compared with a theoretical model. The limits...... of the model as well as the underlying physical mechanisms are analysed and discussed. A method to achieve slow light by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in an inhomogeneously broadened quantum dot medium is proposed. The basic principles of EIT are assessed and the main dissimilarities between...

  5. The report of Task Group 100 of the AAPM: Application of risk analysis methods to radiation therapy quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, M. Saiful, E-mail: HUQS@UPMC.EDU [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute and UPMC CancerCenter, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States); Fraass, Benedick A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 (United States); Dunscombe, Peter B. [Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary T2N 1N4 (Canada); Gibbons, John P. [Ochsner Health System, New Orleans, Louisiana 70121 (United States); Ibbott, Geoffrey S. [Department of Radiation Physics, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Mundt, Arno J. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California 92093-0843 (United States); Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Palta, Jatinder R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, P.O. Box 980058, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Rath, Frank [Department of Engineering Professional Development, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Thomadsen, Bruce R. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705-2275 (United States); Williamson, Jeffrey F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298-0058 (United States); Yorke, Ellen D. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    The increasing complexity of modern radiation therapy planning and delivery challenges traditional prescriptive quality management (QM) methods, such as many of those included in guidelines published by organizations such as the AAPM, ASTRO, ACR, ESTRO, and IAEA. These prescriptive guidelines have traditionally focused on monitoring all aspects of the functional performance of radiotherapy (RT) equipment by comparing parameters against tolerances set at strict but achievable values. Many errors that occur in radiation oncology are not due to failures in devices and software; rather they are failures in workflow and process. A systematic understanding of the likelihood and clinical impact of possible failures throughout a course of radiotherapy is needed to direct limit QM resources efficiently to produce maximum safety and quality of patient care. Task Group 100 of the AAPM has taken a broad view of these issues and has developed a framework for designing QM activities, based on estimates of the probability of identified failures and their clinical outcome through the RT planning and delivery process. The Task Group has chosen a specific radiotherapy process required for “intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)” as a case study. The goal of this work is to apply modern risk-based analysis techniques to this complex RT process in order to demonstrate to the RT community that such techniques may help identify more effective and efficient ways to enhance the safety and quality of our treatment processes. The task group generated by consensus an example quality management program strategy for the IMRT process performed at the institution of one of the authors. This report describes the methodology and nomenclature developed, presents the process maps, FMEAs, fault trees, and QM programs developed, and makes suggestions on how this information could be used in the clinic. The development and implementation of risk-assessment techniques will make radiation

  6. The report of Task Group 100 of the AAPM: Application of risk analysis methods to radiation therapy quality management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huq, M. Saiful; Fraass, Benedick A.; Dunscombe, Peter B.; Gibbons, John P.; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Mundt, Arno J.; Mutic, Sasa; Palta, Jatinder R.; Rath, Frank; Thomadsen, Bruce R.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Yorke, Ellen D.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing complexity of modern radiation therapy planning and delivery challenges traditional prescriptive quality management (QM) methods, such as many of those included in guidelines published by organizations such as the AAPM, ASTRO, ACR, ESTRO, and IAEA. These prescriptive guidelines have traditionally focused on monitoring all aspects of the functional performance of radiotherapy (RT) equipment by comparing parameters against tolerances set at strict but achievable values. Many errors that occur in radiation oncology are not due to failures in devices and software; rather they are failures in workflow and process. A systematic understanding of the likelihood and clinical impact of possible failures throughout a course of radiotherapy is needed to direct limit QM resources efficiently to produce maximum safety and quality of patient care. Task Group 100 of the AAPM has taken a broad view of these issues and has developed a framework for designing QM activities, based on estimates of the probability of identified failures and their clinical outcome through the RT planning and delivery process. The Task Group has chosen a specific radiotherapy process required for “intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)” as a case study. The goal of this work is to apply modern risk-based analysis techniques to this complex RT process in order to demonstrate to the RT community that such techniques may help identify more effective and efficient ways to enhance the safety and quality of our treatment processes. The task group generated by consensus an example quality management program strategy for the IMRT process performed at the institution of one of the authors. This report describes the methodology and nomenclature developed, presents the process maps, FMEAs, fault trees, and QM programs developed, and makes suggestions on how this information could be used in the clinic. The development and implementation of risk-assessment techniques will make radiation

  7. The report of Task Group 100 of the AAPM: Application of risk analysis methods to radiation therapy quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, M. Saiful; Fraass, Benedick A.; Dunscombe, Peter B.; Gibbons, John P.; Mundt, Arno J.; Mutic, Sasa; Palta, Jatinder R.; Rath, Frank; Thomadsen, Bruce R.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Yorke, Ellen D.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing complexity of modern radiation therapy planning and delivery challenges traditional prescriptive quality management (QM) methods, such as many of those included in guidelines published by organizations such as the AAPM, ASTRO, ACR, ESTRO, and IAEA. These prescriptive guidelines have traditionally focused on monitoring all aspects of the functional performance of radiotherapy (RT) equipment by comparing parameters against tolerances set at strict but achievable values. Many errors that occur in radiation oncology are not due to failures in devices and software; rather they are failures in workflow and process. A systematic understanding of the likelihood and clinical impact of possible failures throughout a course of radiotherapy is needed to direct limit QM resources efficiently to produce maximum safety and quality of patient care. Task Group 100 of the AAPM has taken a broad view of these issues and has developed a framework for designing QM activities, based on estimates of the probability of identified failures and their clinical outcome through the RT planning and delivery process. The Task Group has chosen a specific radiotherapy process required for “intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)” as a case study. The goal of this work is to apply modern risk-based analysis techniques to this complex RT process in order to demonstrate to the RT community that such techniques may help identify more effective and efficient ways to enhance the safety and quality of our treatment processes. The task group generated by consensus an example quality management program strategy for the IMRT process performed at the institution of one of the authors. This report describes the methodology and nomenclature developed, presents the process maps, FMEAs, fault trees, and QM programs developed, and makes suggestions on how this information could be used in the clinic. The development and implementation of risk-assessment techniques will make radiation

  8. Simple method to estimate mean heart dose from Hodgkin lymphoma radiation therapy according to simulation X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nimwegen, Frederika A; Cutter, David J; Schaapveld, Michael; Rutten, Annemarieke; Kooijman, Karen; Krol, Augustinus D G; Janus, Cécile P M; Darby, Sarah C; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Aleman, Berthe M P

    2015-05-01

    To describe a new method to estimate the mean heart dose for Hodgkin lymphoma patients treated several decades ago, using delineation of the heart on radiation therapy simulation X-rays. Mean heart dose is an important predictor for late cardiovascular complications after Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treatment. For patients treated before the era of computed tomography (CT)-based radiotherapy planning, retrospective estimation of radiation dose to the heart can be labor intensive. Patients for whom cardiac radiation doses had previously been estimated by reconstruction of individual treatments on representative CT data sets were selected at random from a case-control study of 5-year Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (n=289). For 42 patients, cardiac contours were outlined on each patient's simulation X-ray by 4 different raters, and the mean heart dose was estimated as the percentage of the cardiac contour within the radiation field multiplied by the prescribed mediastinal dose and divided by a correction factor obtained by comparison with individual CT-based dosimetry. According to the simulation X-ray method, the medians of the mean heart doses obtained from the cardiac contours outlined by the 4 raters were 30 Gy, 30 Gy, 31 Gy, and 31 Gy, respectively, following prescribed mediastinal doses of 25-42 Gy. The absolute-agreement intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.85-0.97), indicating excellent agreement. Mean heart dose was 30.4 Gy with the simulation X-ray method, versus 30.2 Gy with the representative CT-based dosimetry, and the between-method absolute-agreement intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.80-0.95), indicating good agreement between the two methods. Estimating mean heart dose from radiation therapy simulation X-rays is reproducible and fast, takes individual anatomy into account, and yields results comparable to the labor-intensive representative CT-based method. This simpler method may produce a

  9. A method of surface marker location optimization for tumor motion estimation in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Bo; Park, Justin C.; Fan, Qiyong; Kahler, Darren; Liu, Chihray; Chen, Yunmei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Accurately localizing lung tumor localization is essential for high-precision radiation therapy techniques such as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Since direct monitoring of tumor motion is not always achievable due to the limitation of imaging modalities for treatment guidance, placement of fiducial markers on the patient’s body surface to act as a surrogate for tumor position prediction is a practical alternative for tracking lung tumor motion during SBRT treatments. In this work, the authors propose an innovative and robust model to solve the multimarker position optimization problem. The model is able to overcome the major drawbacks of the sparse optimization approach (SOA) model. Methods: The principle-component-analysis (PCA) method was employed as the framework to build the authors’ statistical prediction model. The method can be divided into two stages. The first stage is to build the surrogate tumor matrix and calculate its eigenvalues and associated eigenvectors. The second stage is to determine the “best represented” columns of the eigenvector matrix obtained from stage one and subsequently acquire the optimal marker positions as well as numbers. Using 4-dimensional CT (4DCT) and breath hold CT imaging data, the PCA method was compared to the SOA method with respect to calculation time, average prediction accuracy, prediction stability, noise resistance, marker position consistency, and marker distribution. Results: The PCA and SOA methods which were both tested were on all 11 patients for a total of 130 cases including 4DCT and breath-hold CT scenarios. The maximum calculation time for the PCA method was less than 1 s with 64 752 surface points, whereas the average calculation time for the SOA method was over 12 min with 400 surface points. Overall, the tumor center position prediction errors were comparable between the two methods, and all were less than 1.5 mm. However, for the extreme scenarios (breath hold), the

  10. Slow brushing reduces heat pain in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljencrantz, J; Strigo, I; Ellingsen, D M; Krämer, H H; Lundblad, L C; Nagi, S S; Leknes, S; Olausson, H

    2017-08-01

    C-tactile (CT) afferents are unmyelinated low-threshold mechanoreceptors optimized for signalling affective, gentle touch. In three separate psychophysical experiments, we examined the contribution of CT afferents to pain modulation. In total, 44 healthy volunteers experienced heat pain and CT optimal (slow brushing) and CT sub-optimal (fast brushing or vibration) stimuli. Three different experimental paradigms were used: Concurrent application of heat pain and tactile (slow brushing or vibration) stimulation; Slow brushing, applied for variable duration and intervals, preceding heat pain; Slow versus fast brushing preceding heat pain. Slow brushing was effective in reducing pain, whereas fast brushing or vibration was not. The reduction in pain was significant not only when the CT optimal touch was applied simultaneously with the painful stimulus but also when the two stimuli were separated in time. For subsequent stimulation, the pain reduction was more pronounced for a shorter time interval between brushing and pain. Likewise, the effect was more robust when pain was preceded by a longer duration of brush stimulation. Strong CT-related pain reduction was associated with low anxiety and high calmness scores obtained by a state anxiety questionnaire. Slow brushing - optimal for CT activation - is effective in reducing pain from cutaneous heating. The precise mechanisms for the pain relief are as yet unknown but possible mechanisms include inhibition of nociceptive projection neurons at the level of the dorsal horn as well as analgesia through cortical mechanisms. Slow brushing stimuli - optimal for activation of C-tactile fibres - can reduce pain from cutaneous heating. No such effect was seen with fast brushing or vibration. These observations indicate the role of C-tactile fibres in pain modulation. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  11. Complexity and accuracy of image registration methods in SPECT-guided radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, L S; Duzenli, C; Moiseenko, V [Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Tang, L; Hamarneh, G [Computing Science, Simon Fraser University, 9400 TASC1, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Gill, B [Medical Physics, Vancouver Cancer Centre, BC Cancer Agency, 600 West 10th Ave, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4E6 (Canada); Celler, A; Shcherbinin, S [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, 828 West 10th Ave, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1L8 (Canada); Fua, T F; Thompson, A; Sheehan, F [Radiation Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, BC Cancer Agency, 600 West 10th Ave, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4E6 (Canada); Liu, M [Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Cancer Centre, BC Cancer Agency, 13750 9th Ave, Surrey, BC, V3V 1Z2 (Canada)], E-mail: lyin@bccancer.bc.ca

    2010-01-07

    The use of functional imaging in radiotherapy treatment (RT) planning requires accurate co-registration of functional imaging scans to CT scans. We evaluated six methods of image registration for use in SPECT-guided radiotherapy treatment planning. Methods varied in complexity from 3D affine transform based on control points to diffeomorphic demons and level set non-rigid registration. Ten lung cancer patients underwent perfusion SPECT-scans prior to their radiotherapy. CT images from a hybrid SPECT/CT scanner were registered to a planning CT, and then the same transformation was applied to the SPECT images. According to registration evaluation measures computed based on the intensity difference between the registered CT images or based on target registration error, non-rigid registrations provided a higher degree of accuracy than rigid methods. However, due to the irregularities in some of the obtained deformation fields, warping the SPECT using these fields may result in unacceptable changes to the SPECT intensity distribution that would preclude use in RT planning. Moreover, the differences between intensity histograms in the original and registered SPECT image sets were the largest for diffeomorphic demons and level set methods. In conclusion, the use of intensity-based validation measures alone is not sufficient for SPECT/CT registration for RTTP. It was also found that the proper evaluation of image registration requires the use of several accuracy metrics.

  12. MO-FG-BRA-03: A Novel Method for Characterizing Gating Response Time in Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, R; McCabe, B; Belcher, A; Jenson, P [The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Smith, B [University Illinois at Chicago, Orland Park, IL (United States); Aydogan, B [The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); University Illinois at Chicago, Orland Park, IL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Low temporal latency between a gating ON/OFF signal and the LINAC beam ON/OFF during respiratory gating is critical for patient safety. Current film based methods to assess gating response have poor temporal resolution and are highly qualitative. We describe a novel method to precisely measure gating lag times at high temporal resolutions and use it to characterize the temporal response of several gating systems. Methods: A respiratory gating simulator with an oscillating platform was modified to include a linear potentiometer for position measurement. A photon diode was placed at linear accelerator isocenter for beam output measurement. The output signals of the potentiometer and diode were recorded simultaneously at 2500 Hz (0.4 millisecond (ms) sampling interval) with an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC). The techniques was used on three commercial respiratory gating systems. The ON and OFF of the beam signal were located and compared to the expected gating window for both phase and position based gating and the temporal lag times extracted using a polynomial fit method. Results: A Varian RPM system with a monoscopic IR camera was measured to have mean beam ON and OFF lag times of 98.2 ms and 89.6 ms, respectively. A Varian RPM system with a stereoscopic IR camera was measured to have mean beam ON and OFF lag times of 86.0 ms and 44.0 ms, respectively. A Calypso magnetic fiducial tracking system was measured to have mean beam ON and OFF lag times of 209.0 ms and 60.0 ms, respectively. Conclusions: A novel method allowed for quantitative determination of gating timing accuracy for several clinically used gating systems. All gating systems met the 100 ms TG-142 criteria for mean beam OFF times. For beam ON response, the Calypso system exceeded the recommended response time.

  13. Time coder for slow neutron time-of-flight spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grashilin, V.A.; Ofengenden, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Time coder for slow neutron time-of-flight spectrometer is described. The time coder is of modular structure, is performed in the CAMAC standard and operates on line with DVK-2 computer. The main coder units include supporting generator, timers, time-to-digital converter, memory unit and crate controller. Method for measuring background symmetrically to the effect is proposed for a more correct background accounting. 4 refs.; 1 fig

  14. The slow cell death response when screening chemotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Joseph; Smith, Adam; Josephson, Lee

    2011-09-01

    To examine the correlation between cell death and a common surrogate of death used in screening assays, we compared cell death responses to those obtained with the sulforhodamine B (SRB) cell protein-based "cytotoxicity" assay. With the SRB assay, the Hill equation was used to obtain an IC50 and final cell mass, or cell mass present at infinite agent concentrations, with eight adherent cell lines and four agents (32 agent/cell combinations). Cells were treated with high agent concentrations (well above the SRB IC50) and the death response determined as the time-dependent decrease in cells failing to bind both annexin V and vital fluorochromes by flow cytometry. Death kinetics were categorized as fast (5/32) (similar to the reference nonadherent Jurkat line), slow (17/32), or none (10/32), despite positive responses in the SRB assay in all cases. With slow cell death, a single exposure to a chemotherapeutic agent caused a slow, progressive increase in dead (necrotic) and dying (apoptotic) cells for at least 72 h. Cell death (defined by annexin and/or fluorochrome binding) did not correlate with the standard SRB "cytotoxicity" assay. With the slow cell death response, a single exposure to an agent caused a slow conversion from vital to apoptotic and necrotic cells over at least 72 h (the longest time point examined). Here, increasing the time of exposure to agent concentrations modestly above the SRB IC50 provides a method of maximizing cell kill. If tumors respond similarly, sustained low doses of chemotherapeutic agents, rather than a log-kill, maximum tolerated dose strategy may be an optimal strategy of maximizing tumor cell death.

  15. A new tissue segmentation method to calculate 3D dose in small animal radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblet, C; Delpon, G; Supiot, S; Potiron, V; Paris, F; Chiavassa, S

    2018-02-26

    In pre-clinical animal experiments, radiation delivery is usually delivered with kV photon beams, in contrast to the MV beams used in clinical irradiation, because of the small size of the animals. At this medium energy range, however, the contribution of the photoelectric effect to absorbed dose is significant. Accurate dose calculation therefore requires a more detailed tissue definition because both density (ρ) and elemental composition (Z eff ) affect the dose distribution. Moreover, when applied to cone beam CT (CBCT) acquisitions, the stoichiometric calibration of HU becomes inefficient as it is designed for highly collimated fan beam CT acquisitions. In this study, we propose an automatic tissue segmentation method of CBCT imaging that assigns both density (ρ) and elemental composition (Z eff ) in small animal dose calculation. The method is based on the relationship found between CBCT number and ρ*Z eff product computed from known materials. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate the impact of ρZ eff variation on the absorbed dose in tissues. These results led to the creation of a tissue database composed of artificial tissues interpolated from tissue values published by the ICRU. The ρZ eff method was validated by measuring transmitted doses through tissue substitute cylinders and a mouse with EBT3 film. Measurements were compared to the results of the Monte Carlo calculations. The study of the impact of ρZ eff variation over the range of materials, from ρZ eff  = 2 g.cm - 3 (lung) to 27 g.cm - 3 (cortical bone) led to the creation of 125 artificial tissues. For tissue substitute cylinders, the use of ρZ eff method led to maximal and average relative differences between the Monte Carlo results and the EBT3 measurements of 3.6% and 1.6%. Equivalent comparison for the mouse gave maximal and average relative differences of 4.4% and 1.2%, inside the 80% isodose area. Gamma analysis led to a 94.9% success rate in the 10% isodose

  16. Development of an integrated cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety and opioid use disorder: Study protocol and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, R Kathryn; Votaw, Victoria R; Barlow, David H; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Greenfield, Shelly F; Weiss, Roger D

    2017-09-01

    Opioid use disorder is a highly disabling psychiatric disorder, and is associated with both significant functional disruption and risk for negative health outcomes such as infectious disease and fatal overdose. Even among those who receive evidence-based pharmacotherapy for opioid use disorder, many drop out of treatment or relapse, highlighting the importance of novel treatment strategies for this population. Over 60% of those with opioid use disorder also meet diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder; however, efficacious treatments for this common co-occurrence have not be established. This manuscript describes the rationale and methods for a behavioral treatment development study designed to develop and test an integrated cognitive-behavioral therapy for those with co-occurring opioid use disorder and anxiety disorders. The aims of the study are (1) to develop and pilot test a new manualized cognitive behavioral therapy for co-occurring opioid use disorder and anxiety disorders, (2) to test the efficacy of this treatment relative to an active comparison treatment that targets opioid use disorder alone, and (3) to investigate the role of stress reactivity in both prognosis and recovery from opioid use disorder and anxiety disorders. Our overarching aim is to investigate whether this new treatment improves both anxiety and opioid use disorder outcomes relative to standard treatment. Identifying optimal treatment strategies for this population are needed to improve outcomes among those with this highly disabling and life-threatening disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Art in Occupational Therapy Education: An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Study of an ArtsBased Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Coppola

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Art-based learning experiences have demonstrated a range of benefits, including improved observation skills and perspective taking. This article describes the effects of an art-based module in an entry-level curriculum for occupational therapy (OT students. An exploratory pilot study investigated the feasibility of a groupadministered visual art-based module for 20 first-year OT graduate students. Outcomes were evaluated using a mixed-methods approach that combined pre-post quantitative results from survey questionnaires and qualitative reflective essays. Pre- and post-surveys revealed significant changes in the students’ perception regarding the benefits of art in OT curricula. The students’ reflective essays on their learning described artbased sessions as: (a opportunities to practice perspective shifting, (b tapping into emotion, (c exemplars of the therapeutic encounter, (d integrative and “out of the box,” and (e impacting student roles and the classroom environment. Findings support art-based pedagogies to complement coursework to build an understanding of clients, creative thinking, and valued learning experiences. Learning partnerships between occupational therapy faculty, art museum educators, and artists can offer fruitful interdisciplinary learning experiences.

  18. Methods for Cf-252 cervix cancer therapy and treatment planning for GYN malignancies in Lexington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, C.W.; Yoneda, J.; Beach, J.L.; Maruyama, Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the clinical physics methods and treatment planning techniques used in both the external beam and brachytherapy treatment of GYN malignancies in the Radiotherapy Department of the University of Kentucky Medical Center. Specific description of the departmental implant suite and brachytherapy procedures are included. The optimization of brachytherapy applicator placement, source arrangement, and normal and tumor total dose and dose distributions are presented. Quality assurance protocols for teletherapy and brachytherapy and patient and staff safety procedures with Cf-252 are discussed

  19. Characterization and toxicity studies of bioglass by Sol-gel method for prostate cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, Wanderley S.; Veloso, Gabriela A.; Silva, Luciana; Campos, Tarcísio P.R.

    2017-01-01

    One of the most advanced methods for the treatment of prostate cancer in the initial stage is brachytherapy, which uses titanium seeds, incorporated with 125 I, which is radioactive, and which is implanted in the prosthetic volume. In recent studies, we investigated the possibility of applying the Sol-Gel (SG) method for the production of bioactive seeds, incorporated with radioactive Sm in silica glasses for the treatment of cancer. In this project three compositions of the glasses of the SiO 2 -CaO system were synthesized using the SG method. The chemical and physical composition of the seeds were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Atomic Absorption Analysis. A pilot study of in vivo and in vitro toxicity was conducted in rabbit and PC-3 lineage cells. The results showed that the ceramic matrices in the SiO 2 - CaO - Sm system present no toxicity in the in vivo model presenting no post-implant inflammatory process. None restriction of in vitro cell growth was found. In conclusion, there is no toxicity in seeds and the radiotoxicity will occur only in the period in which the seeds present activity coming from 153 Sm

  20. Critical slowing down and error analysis in lattice QCD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virotta, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In this work we investigate the critical slowing down of lattice QCD simulations. We perform a preliminary study in the quenched approximation where we find that our estimate of the exponential auto-correlation time scales as τ exp (a)∝a -5 , where a is the lattice spacing. In unquenched simulations with O(a) improved Wilson fermions we do not obtain a scaling law but find results compatible with the behavior that we find in the pure gauge theory. The discussion is supported by a large set of ensembles both in pure gauge and in the theory with two degenerate sea quarks. We have moreover investigated the effect of slow algorithmic modes in the error analysis of the expectation value of typical lattice QCD observables (hadronic matrix elements and masses). In the context of simulations affected by slow modes we propose and test a method to obtain reliable estimates of statistical errors. The method is supposed to help in the typical algorithmic setup of lattice QCD, namely when the total statistics collected is of O(10)τ exp . This is the typical case when simulating close to the continuum limit where the computational costs for producing two independent data points can be extremely large. We finally discuss the scale setting in N f =2 simulations using the Kaon decay constant f K as physical input. The method is explained together with a thorough discussion of the error analysis employed. A description of the publicly available code used for the error analysis is included.

  1. Slow electron contribution to inelastic reflection anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podsvirov, O.A.; Kuznetsov, Yu.A.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated is electron contribution with low energy (up to 1 keV) to the anisotropy of electron inelastic reflection (IRE) from silicon monocrystal (111) within 12-50 keV energy range of primary electrons. Experimental data on IRE anisotropy are presented: delay curves for silicon monocrystal, permitting to separate electrons with the energy up to 1 keV, dependences of IRE anisotropy on the energy of primary electrons for the systems - monocrystalline silicon-amorphous silicon film and delay curves for such systems (film thickness varies from 20 to 2000 A). Suggested is a phenomenologic model, permitting to take into account the contribution of slow electrons to IRE anisotropy: it is supposed, that three groups of electrons take part in the formation of the latter: elastic and inelastic reflected electrons, slow electrons, excited by primary electrons and slow electrons, generated by the reverse flow of the scattered electrons. Contribution of electrons, different by origin, to IRE anisotropy is evaluated in accordance with the experimental data on the basis of this model. It is stated, that slow electrons constitute approximately one half of the IRE anisotropy value, the contribution of both groups of slow electrons being approximately equal

  2. Human gamma oscillations during slow wave sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Valderrama

    Full Text Available Neocortical local field potentials have shown that gamma oscillations occur spontaneously during slow-wave sleep (SWS. At the macroscopic EEG level in the human brain, no evidences were reported so far. In this study, by using simultaneous scalp and intracranial EEG recordings in 20 epileptic subjects, we examined gamma oscillations in cerebral cortex during SWS. We report that gamma oscillations in low (30-50 Hz and high (60-120 Hz frequency bands recurrently emerged in all investigated regions and their amplitudes coincided with specific phases of the cortical slow wave. In most of the cases, multiple oscillatory bursts in different frequency bands from 30 to 120 Hz were correlated with positive peaks of scalp slow waves ("IN-phase" pattern, confirming previous animal findings. In addition, we report another gamma pattern that appears preferentially during the negative phase of the slow wave ("ANTI-phase" pattern. This new pattern presented dominant peaks in the high gamma range and was preferentially expressed in the temporal cortex. Finally, we found that the spatial coherence between cortical sites exhibiting gamma activities was local and fell off quickly when computed between distant sites. Overall, these results provide the first human evidences that gamma oscillations can be observed in macroscopic EEG recordings during sleep. They support the concept that these high-frequency activities might be associated with phasic increases of neural activity during slow oscillations. Such patterned activity in the sleeping brain could play a role in off-line processing of cortical networks.

  3. Magnon inflation: slow roll with steep potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adshead, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Blas, Diego [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Burgess, C.P.; Hayman, Peter [Physics & Astronomy, McMaster University,Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Patil, Subodh P. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Geneva,24 Quai Ansermet, Geneva, CH-1211 (Switzerland)

    2016-11-04

    We find multi-scalar effective field theories (EFTs) that can achieve a slow inflationary roll despite having a scalar potential that does not satisfy G{sup ab}∂{sub a}V∂{sub b}V≪V{sup 2}/M{sub p}{sup 2} (where G{sub ab} is the target-space metric). They evade the usual slow-roll conditions on V because their kinetic energies are dominated by single-derivative terms rather than the usual two-derivative terms. Single derivatives dominate during slow roll and so do not require a breakdown of the usual derivative expansion that underpins calculational control in much of cosmology. The presence of such terms requires some sort of UV Lorentz-symmetry breaking during inflation (besides the usual cosmological breaking). Chromo-natural inflation provides one particular example of a UV theory that can generate the multi-field single-derivative terms we consider, and we argue that the EFT we find indeed captures the slow-roll conditions for its background evolution. We also show that our EFT can be understood as a multi-field generalization of the single-field Cuscuton models. The multi-field case introduces a new feature, however: the scalar kinetic terms define a target-space 2-form, F{sub ab}, whose antisymmetry gives new ways for slow roll to be achieved.

  4. Magnon Inflation: Slow Roll with Steep Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Adshead, Peter; Burgess, C P; Hayman, Peter; Patil, Subodh P

    2016-01-01

    We find multi-scalar effective field theories (EFTs) that can achieve a slow inflationary roll despite having a scalar potential that does not satisfy the usual slow-roll condition (d V)^2 << V^2/Mp^2. They evade the usual slow-roll conditions on $V$ because their kinetic energies are dominated by single-derivative terms rather than the usual two-derivative terms. Single derivatives dominate during slow roll and so do not require a breakdown of the usual derivative expansion that underpins calculational control in much of cosmology. The presence of such terms requires some sort of UV Lorentz-symmetry breaking during inflation (besides the usual cosmological breaking). Chromo-natural inflation provides an example of a UV theory that can generate the multi-field single-derivative terms we consider, and we argue that the EFT we find indeed captures the slow-roll conditions for the background evolution for Chromo-natural inflation. We also show that our EFT can be understood as a multi-field generalization ...

  5. Comparison of two methods of therapy level calibration at 60Co gamma beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerke, H.; Jaervinen, H.; Grimbergen, T.W.M.; Grindborg, J.E.; Chauvenet, B.; Czap, L.; Ennow, K.; Moretti, C.; Rocha, P.

    1998-01-01

    The accuracy and traceability of the calibration of radiotherapy dosimeters is of great concern to those involved in the delivery of radiotherapy. It has been proposed that calibration should be carried out directly in terms of absorbed dose to water, instead of using the conventional and widely applied quantity of air kerma. In this study, the faithfulness in disseminating standards of both air kerma and absorbed dose to water were evaluated, through comparison of both types of calibration for three types of commonly used radiotherapy dosimeters at 60 Co gamma beams at a few secondary and primary standard dosimetry laboratories (SSDLs and PSDLs). A supplementary aim was to demonstrate the impact which the change in the method of calibration would have on clinical dose measurements at the reference point. Within the estimated uncertainties, both the air kerma and absorbed dose to water calibration factors obtained at different laboratories were regarded as consistent. As might be expected, between the SSDLs traceable to the same PSDL the observed differences were smaller (less than 0.5%) than between PSDLs or SSDLs traceable to different PSDLs (up to 1.5%). This can mainly be attributed to the reported differences between the primary standards. The calibration factors obtained by the two methods differed by up to about 1.5% depending on the primary standards involved and on the parameters of calculation used for 60 Co gamma radiation. It is concluded that this discrepancy should be settled before the new method of calibration at 60 Co gamma beams in terms of absorbed dose to water is taken into routine use. (author)

  6. Comparison of two methods of therapy level calibration at 60Co gamma beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerke, H; Jaervinen, H; Grimbergen, T W M; Grindborg, J-E; Chauvenet, B; Czap, L; Ennow, K; Moretti, C; Rocha, P

    1998-01-01

    The accuracy and traceability of the calibration of radiotherapy dosimeters is of great concern to those involved in the delivery of radiotherapy. It has been proposed that calibration should be carried out directly in terms of absorbed dose to water, instead of using the conventional and widely applied quantity of air kerma. In this study, the faithfulness in disseminating standards of both air kerma and absorbed dose to water were evaluated, through comparison of both types of calibration for three types of commonly used radiotherapy dosimeters at 60 Co gamma beams at a few secondary and primary standard dosimetry laboratories (SSDLs and PSDLs). A supplementary aim was to demonstrate the impact which the change in the method of calibration would have on clinical dose measurements at the reference point. Within the estimated uncertainties, both the air kerma and absorbed dose to water calibration factors obtained at different laboratories were regarded as consistent. As might be expected, between the SSDLs traceable to the same PSDL the observed differences were smaller (less than 0.5%) than between PSDLs or SSDLs traceable to different PSDLs (up to 1.5%). This can mainly be attributed to the reported differences between the primary standards. The calibration factors obtained by the two methods differed by up to about 1.5% depending on the primary standards involved and on the parameters of calculation used for 60 Co gamma radiation. It is concluded that this discrepancy should be settled before the new method of calibration at 60 Co gamma beams in terms of absorbed dose to water is taken into routine use

  7. Salk therapy begins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A clinical trial to test an immune therapy developed by polio pioneer Jonas Salk has begun enrollment of 3,000 participants, who will receive Remune shots every 12 weeks for 3 years to see if disease progression is slowed. The manufacturer is Immune Response, and the study is being conducted by the University of California at San Francisco.

  8. Development, fundamentals and objective of half-body irradiation as a method of systematic tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    A review is given on (1) the development of systemic radiotherapy - total body irradiation as well as sequential half-body irradiation in cases of palliative and curative treatment, resp., (2) radiobiological fundamentals of action and limits of the method, (3) clinical results of upper and lower half-body irradiation, resp., as palliative treatment of solid tumors, (4) studies of the prevention of radiation pneumonitis without decreasing radiation dose and (5) proposals for modification, improvement and combination of upper and lower half-body irradiation with other procedures such as hyperthermia and chemotherapy. 48 refs

  9. Combining garden therapy and supported employment - a method for preparing women on long-term sick leave for working life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidén, Eva; Alstersjö, Karin; Gurné, Frida L; Fransson, Sandra; Bergbom, Ingegerd

    2016-06-01

    Women are overrepresented among the group people suffering from long-term illness. In addition to their illness, suffering long-term sick leave leads to economical restraints as well social distress. There are gaps in our understanding of the challenges these women face. There is also lack of knowledge about how these challenges can be effectively addressed in rehabilitation. This deficiency is problematic from an ethical, justice and a caring perspective. In this study, changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among women on long-term sick leave were investigated during and after participating in a rehabilitation programme combining two validated methods, Garden Therapy and Supported Employment (SE). The study also discusses difficulties in realising research related to vulnerable under-privileged people. From a population of 329 women who had reported their interest to participate, 245 were randomised to the programme. Of these 144 accepted participation in the research project and of these 123 women accepted to answer the SF-36 questionnaire. The participants were between 21 and 62 years with poor physical and mental health. They had received public financial support from 10 years. The SF-36 measurement was carried out at baseline, after completion of Garden Therapy and after completion of SE. The results are based on data of respondents who participated at all the three occasions (n = 52). When comparing HRQoL baseline with the following occasions, the participants' General Health (GH), Vitality (VT), Social Functioning (SF) and mental health had improved significantly. The Four Leaf Clover (FLC) programme could be an appropriate method for reducing socially induced suffering. However, to conduct intervention studies where vulnerable persons are involved, it is off vital importance to consider whether the participants have the strength to complete the intervention. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  10. High-dose biotin therapy leading to false biochemical endocrine profiles: validation of a simple method to overcome biotin interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, Marie-Liesse; Prie, Dominique; Sedel, Frederic; Bernard, Delphine; Hercend, Claude; Chanson, Philippe; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2017-05-01

    High-dose biotin therapy is beneficial in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) and is expected to be adopted by a large number of patients. Biotin therapy leads to analytical interference in many immunoassays that utilize streptavidin-biotin capture techniques, yielding skewed results that can mimic various endocrine disorders. We aimed at exploring this interference, to be able to remove biotin and avoid misleading results. We measured free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), parathyroid homrone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, C-peptide, cortisol (Roche Diagnostics assays), biotin and its main metabolites (liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) in 23 plasmas from MS patients and healthy volunteers receiving high-dose biotin, and in 39 biotin-unsupplemented patients, before and after a simple procedure (designated N5) designed to remove biotin by means of streptavidin-coated microparticles. We also assayed fT4, TSH and PTH in the 23 high-biotin plasmas using assays not employing streptavidin-biotin binding. The biotin concentration ranged from 31.7 to 1160 µg/L in the 23 high-biotin plasmas samples. After the N5 protocol, the biotin concentration was below the detection limit in all but two samples (8.3 and 27.6 μg/L). Most hormones results were abnormal, but normalized after N5. All results with the alternative methods were normal except two slight PTH elevations. In the 39 biotin-unsupplemented patients, the N5 protocol did not affect the results for any of the hormones, apart from an 8.4% decrease in PTH. We confirm that most streptavidin-biotin hormone immunoassays are affected by high biotin concentrations, leading to a risk of misdiagnosis. Our simple neutralization method efficiently suppresses biotin interference.

  11. Identification, diagnostic assistance and planning methods that use multi-modality imaging for prostate cancer focal therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makni, Nasr

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of death from cancer among men. In In the last decade, new diagnosis procedures and treatment options have been developed and made possible thanks to the recent progress in prostate imaging modalities. The newest challenges in this field are to detect the smallest tumors and to treat locally to minimise the treatment morbidity. In this thesis, we introduce a set of automatic image processing methods for the guidance and assistance of diagnosis and treatment, in laser-based prostate cancer focal therapies. In the first part of this work, segmentation and computer-aided detection algorithms have been developed for the enhancement of image-based diagnosis of prostate cancer. First, we propose a novel approach that combines Markov Random Fields framework with an Active Shape Model, in order to extract three dimensional outlines of the gland from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data. Second, prostate's MRI volume is segmented into peripheral and central zones: we introduce a method that explores features of multispectral MRI, and is based on belief functions and the modelling of an a priori knowledge as an additional source of information. Finally, computer-aided detection of prostate's peripheral zone tumors is investigated by experimenting novel texture features based on fractal geometry-based. These parameters, extracted from morphological MRI, were tested using both supervised and unsupervised classification methods. The results of these different approaches were studied and compared. The second part of this work addresses the guidance of laser-based focal ablation of prostate tumors. A novel non rigid registration method is introduced for fusion of pre-operative MRI and planning data, and per-operative ultrasound imaging. We test and evaluate our algorithms using simulated data and physical phantoms, which enable comparison to ground truth. Patients' data, combined to expert interpretation, are also used in the

  12. Neutron slowing-down time in matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabod, Sebastien P., E-mail: sebastien.chabod@lpsc.in2p3.fr [LPSC, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2012-03-21

    We formulate the neutron slowing-down time through elastic collisions in a homogeneous, non-absorbing, infinite medium. Our approach allows taking into account for the first time the energy dependence of the scattering cross-section as well as the energy and temporal distribution of the source neutron population in the results. Starting from this development, we investigate the specific case of the propagation in matter of a mono-energetic neutron pulse. We then quantify the perturbation on the neutron slowing-down time induced by resonances in the scattering cross-section. We show that a resonance can induce a permanent reduction of the slowing-down time, preceded by two discontinuities: a first one at the resonance peak position and an echo one, appearing later. From this study, we suggest that a temperature increase of the propagating medium in presence of large resonances could modestly accelerate the neutron moderation.

  13. Kinetic slow mode-type solitons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Baumgärtel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional hybrid code simulations are presented, carried out in order both to study solitary waves of the slow mode branch in an isotropic, collisionless, medium-β plasma (βi=0.25 and to test the fluid based soliton interpretation of Cluster observed strong magnetic depressions (Stasiewicz et al., 2003; Stasiewicz, 2004 against kinetic theory. In the simulations, a variety of strongly oblique, large amplitude, solitons are seen, including solitons with Alfvenic polarization, similar to those predicted by the Hall-MHD theory, and robust, almost non-propagating, solitary structures of slow magnetosonic type with strong magnetic field depressions and perpendicular ion heating, which have no counterpart in fluid theory. The results support the soliton-based interpretation of the Cluster observations, but reveal substantial deficiencies of Hall-MHD theory in describing slow mode-type solitons in a plasma of moderate beta.

  14. A point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadioglu, Samet Y., E-mail: kadioglu@yildiz.edu.tr [Department of Mathematical Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, 34210 Davutpasa-Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey); Berry, Ray A., E-mail: ray.berry@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, MS 3840, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Martineau, Richard C. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, MS 3840, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • This new method does not require implicit iteration; instead it time advances the solutions in a similar spirit to explicit methods. • It is unconditionally stable, as a fully implicit method would be. • It exhibits the simplicity of implementation of an explicit method. • It is specifically designed for slow transient flow problems of long duration such as can occur inside nuclear reactor coolant systems. • Our findings indicate the new method can integrate slow transient problems very efficiently; and its implementation is very robust. - Abstract: We introduce a point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems. The method treats the solution variables of interest (that can be located at cell centers, cell edges, or cell nodes) implicitly and the rest of the information related to same or other variables are handled explicitly. The method does not require implicit iteration; instead it time advances the solutions in a similar spirit to explicit methods, except it involves a few additional function(s) evaluation steps. Moreover, the method is unconditionally stable, as a fully implicit method would be. This new approach exhibits the simplicity of implementation of explicit methods and the stability of implicit methods. It is specifically designed for slow transient flow problems of long duration wherein one would like to perform time integrations with very large time steps. Because the method can be time inaccurate for fast transient problems, particularly with larger time steps, an appropriate solution strategy for a problem that evolves from a fast to a slow transient would be to integrate the fast transient with an explicit or semi-implicit technique and then switch to this point implicit method as soon as the time variation slows sufficiently. We have solved several test problems that result from scalar or systems of flow equations. Our findings indicate the new method can integrate slow transient problems very

  15. A point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadioglu, Samet Y.; Berry, Ray A.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This new method does not require implicit iteration; instead it time advances the solutions in a similar spirit to explicit methods. • It is unconditionally stable, as a fully implicit method would be. • It exhibits the simplicity of implementation of an explicit method. • It is specifically designed for slow transient flow problems of long duration such as can occur inside nuclear reactor coolant systems. • Our findings indicate the new method can integrate slow transient problems very efficiently; and its implementation is very robust. - Abstract: We introduce a point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems. The method treats the solution variables of interest (that can be located at cell centers, cell edges, or cell nodes) implicitly and the rest of the information related to same or other variables are handled explicitly. The method does not require implicit iteration; instead it time advances the solutions in a similar spirit to explicit methods, except it involves a few additional function(s) evaluation steps. Moreover, the method is unconditionally stable, as a fully implicit method would be. This new approach exhibits the simplicity of implementation of explicit methods and the stability of implicit methods. It is specifically designed for slow transient flow problems of long duration wherein one would like to perform time integrations with very large time steps. Because the method can be time inaccurate for fast transient problems, particularly with larger time steps, an appropriate solution strategy for a problem that evolves from a fast to a slow transient would be to integrate the fast transient with an explicit or semi-implicit technique and then switch to this point implicit method as soon as the time variation slows sufficiently. We have solved several test problems that result from scalar or systems of flow equations. Our findings indicate the new method can integrate slow transient problems very

  16. Optimal control for mathematical models of cancer therapies an application of geometric methods

    CERN Document Server

    Schättler, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This book presents applications of geometric optimal control to real life biomedical problems with an emphasis on cancer treatments. A number of mathematical models for both classical and novel cancer treatments are presented as optimal control problems with the goal of constructing optimal protocols. The power of geometric methods is illustrated with fully worked out complete global solutions to these mathematically challenging problems. Elaborate constructions of optimal controls and corresponding system responses provide great examples of applications of the tools of geometric optimal control and the outcomes aid the design of simpler, practically realizable suboptimal protocols. The book blends mathematical rigor with practically important topics in an easily readable tutorial style. Graduate students and researchers in science and engineering, particularly biomathematics and more mathematical aspects of biomedical engineering, would find this book particularly useful.

  17. Optical fiber detectors as in-vivo dosimetry method of quality assurance in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plazas, M.C.; Justus, B.L.; Falkenstein, P.; Huston, A.L.; Ning, H.; Miller, R.

    2004-01-01

    A new in-vivo dosimetry system has been under development for some time using radio luminescent phosphors. These phosphors are activated, metal ion doped glasses (Ex: Cu 1± doped quartz fiber), have excellent optical transparency and offer several potential advantages for radiation dosimetry; including: small size, high sensitivity, linearity of dose response insensitivity to electromagnetic interference. The utility of these phosphors as a detection modality has been limited in real-time dosimetry applications due to the production of Cerenkov radiation in the carrier fiber, which produces a contaminant signal proportional to dose rate as well as the size of the radiation field. One possible method for eliminating this signal is using an electronic gating signal from the accelerator to delay data acquisition during the actual beam pulse, when Cerenkov radiation is produced. Due to the intrinsic properties of our particular scintillator, this method offers the best mechanism for eliminating Cerenkov noise, while retaining the ability to detect individual beam pulses. The dosimeter was tested using an external beam radiotherapy machine that provided pulses of 6 MeV x-rays. Gated detection was used to discriminate the signal collected during the radiation pulses, which included contributions from Cerenkov radiation and native fiber fluorescence, from the signal collected between the radiation pulses, which contained only the long-lived phosphorescence from the Cu 1± doped fused quartz detector. Gated detection of the phosphorescence provided accurate, real-time dose measurements that were linear with absorbed dose, independent of dose rate and that were accurate for all field sizes studied. (author)

  18. First test of the prompt gamma ray timing method with heterogeneous targets at a clinical proton therapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueso-González, Fernando; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Golnik, Christian; Petzoldt, Johannes; Pausch, Guntram; Fiedler, Fine; Priegnitz, Marlen; Römer, Katja E; Wagner, Andreas; Janssens, Guillaume; Prieels, Damien; Smeets, Julien; Vander Stappen, François

    2015-01-01

    Ion beam therapy promises enhanced tumour coverage compared to conventional radiotherapy, but particle range uncertainties significantly blunt the achievable precision. Experimental tools for range verification in real-time are not yet available in clinical routine. The prompt gamma ray timing method has been recently proposed as an alternative to collimated imaging systems. The detection times of prompt gamma rays encode essential information about the depth-dose profile thanks to the measurable transit time of ions through matter. In a collaboration between OncoRay, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and IBA, the first test at a clinical proton accelerator (Westdeutsches Protonentherapiezentrum Essen, Germany) with several detectors and phantoms is performed. The robustness of the method against background and stability of the beam bunch time profile is explored, and the bunch time spread is characterized for different proton energies. For a beam spot with a hundred million protons and a single detector, range differences of 5 mm in defined heterogeneous targets are identified by numerical comparison of the spectrum shape. For higher statistics, range shifts down to 2 mm are detectable. A proton bunch monitor, higher detector throughput and quantitative range retrieval are the upcoming steps towards a clinically applicable prototype. In conclusion, the experimental results highlight the prospects of this straightforward verification method at a clinical pencil beam and settle this novel approach as a promising alternative in the field of in vivo dosimetry. (paper)

  19. Generalized slow roll for noncanonical kinetic terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    We show that the generalized slow roll approach for calculating the power spectrum where the inflationary slow roll parameters are neither small nor slowly varying can be readily extended to models with noncanonical kinetic terms in the inflaton action. For example, rapid sound speed variations can arise in Dirac-Born-Infeld models with features in the warp factor leading to features in the power spectrum. Nonetheless there remains a single source function for deviations that is simply related to the power spectrum. Empirical constraints on this source function can be readily interpreted in the context of features in the inflaton potential or sound speed.

  20. Fast and slow spindles during the sleep slow oscillation: disparate coalescence and engagement in memory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölle, Matthias; Bergmann, Til O; Marshall, Lisa; Born, Jan

    2011-10-01

    Thalamo-cortical spindles driven by the up-state of neocortical slow (memory consolidation during sleep. We examined interactions between SOs and spindles in human slow wave sleep, focusing on the presumed existence of 2 kinds of spindles, i.e., slow frontocortical and fast centro-parietal spindles. Two experiments were performed in healthy humans (24.5 ± 0.9 y) investigating undisturbed sleep (Experiment I) and the effects of prior learning (word paired associates) vs. non-learning (Experiment II) on multichannel EEG recordings during sleep. Only fast spindles (12-15 Hz) were synchronized to the depolarizing SO up-state. Slow spindles (9-12 Hz) occurred preferentially at the transition into the SO down-state, i.e., during waning depolarization. Slow spindles also revealed a higher probability to follow rather than precede fast spindles. For sequences of individual SOs, fast spindle activity was largest for "initial" SOs, whereas SO amplitude and slow spindle activity were largest for succeeding SOs. Prior learning enhanced this pattern. The finding that fast and slow spindles occur at different times of the SO cycle points to disparate generating mechanisms for the 2 kinds of spindles. The reported temporal relationships during SO sequences suggest that fast spindles, driven by the SO up-state feed back to enhance the likelihood of succeeding SOs together with slow spindles. By enforcing such SO-spindle cycles, particularly after prior learning, fast spindles possibly play a key role in sleep-dependent memory processing.

  1. An atomic coilgun: using pulsed magnetic fields to slow a supersonic beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narevicius, E; Parthey, C G; Libson, A; Narevicius, J; Chavez, I; Even, U; Raizen, M G

    2007-01-01

    We report the experimental demonstration of a novel method to slow atoms and molecules with permanent magnetic moments using pulsed magnetic fields. In our experiments, we observe the slowing of a supersonic beam of metastable neon from 461.0 ± 7.7 to 403 ± 16 m s -1 in 18 stages, where the slowed peak is clearly separated from the initial distribution. This method has broad applications as it may easily be generalized, using seeding and entrainment into supersonic beams, to all paramagnetic atoms and molecules

  2. Appropriate customization of radiation therapy for stage II and III rectal cancer: Executive summary of an ASTRO Clinical Practice Statement using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Karyn A; Patton, Caroline E; Fisher, George A; Hoffe, Sarah E; Haddock, Michael G; Parikh, Parag J; Kim, John; Baxter, Nancy N; Czito, Brian G; Hong, Theodore S; Herman, Joseph M; Crane, Christopher H; Hoffman, Karen E

    2016-01-01

    To summarize results of a Clinical Practice Statement on radiation therapy for stage II-III rectal cancer, which addressed appropriate customization of (neo)adjuvant radiation therapy and use of non-surgical therapy for patients who are inoperable or refuse abdominoperineal resection. The RAND/University of California, Los Angeles, Appropriateness Method was applied to combine current evidence with multidisciplinary expert opinion. A systematic literature review was conducted and used by the expert panel to rate appropriateness of radiation therapy options for different clinical scenarios. Treatments were categorized by median rating as Appropriate, May Be Appropriate, or Rarely Appropriate. In the neoadjuvant setting, chemoradiation was rated Appropriate and the ratings indicated short-course radiation therapy, chemotherapy alone, and no neoadjuvant therapy are potential options in selected patients. However, neoadjuvant endorectal brachytherapy was rated Rarely Appropriate. For adjuvant therapy, chemoradiation (plus ≥4 months of chemotherapy) was rated Appropriate and chemotherapy alone May Be Appropriate for most scenarios. For medically inoperable patients, definitive external beam radiation therapy and chemotherapy alone were rated May Be Appropriate, whereas endorectal brachytherapy and chemoradiation plus endorectal brachytherapy were possible approaches for some scenarios. The last option, definitive chemoradiation, was rated Appropriate to May Be Appropriate based on performance status. Finally, for patients with low-lying tumors refusing abdominoperineal resection, definitive chemoradiation alone, chemoradiation plus endorectal brachytherapy, and chemoradiation plus external beam radiation therapy were all rated Appropriate. This Clinical Practice Statement demonstrated the central role of radiation therapy in stage II-III rectal cancer management and evaluated ways to better individualize its use in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and definitive settings

  3. Light storage via slow-light four-wave mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yun-Fei; Wang, Hai-Hua; Wei, Xiao-Gang; Li, Ai-Jun; Kang, Zhi-Hui; Wu, Jin-Hui; Zhang, Han-Zhuang; Xu, Huai-Liang; Gao, Jin-Yue

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a light storage via slow-light four-wave mixing in a solid-state medium with a four-level double lambda scheme. Using slow light based on electromagnetically induced transparency, we obtain a slowed four-wave mixing signal pulse together with the slowed probe pulse. During the propagation of light pulses, the storage and retrieval of both the slowed four-wave mixing pulse and the slowed probe pulse are studied by manipulating the intensities of the control fields. -- Highlights: ► A light storage via slow-light four-wave mixing is observed in a solid. ► The probe pulse is slowed under electromagnetically induced transparency. ► A slowed four-wave mixing pulse is obtained by slow light. ► The storage of slowed double pulses is studied.

  4. Coding "We-ness" in couple's relationship stories: A method for assessing mutuality in couple therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildersleeve, Sara; Singer, Jefferson A; Skerrett, Karen; Wein, Shelter

    2017-05-01

    "We-ness," a couple's mutual investment in their relationship and in each other, has been found to be a potent dimension of couple resilience. This study examined the development of a method to capture We-ness in psychotherapy through the coding of relationship narratives co-constructed by couples ("We-Stories"). It used a coding system to identify the core thematic elements that make up these narratives. Couples that self-identified as "happy" (N = 53) generated We-Stories and completed measures of relationship satisfaction and mutuality. These stories were then coded using the We-Stories coding manual. Findings indicated that security, an element that involves aspects of safety, support, and commitment, was most common, appearing in 58.5% of all narratives. This element was followed by the elements of pleasure (49.1%) and shared meaning/vision (37.7%). The number of "We-ness" elements was also correlated with and predictive of discrepancy scores on measures of relationship mutuality, indicating the validity of the We-Stories coding manual. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  5. Optimization of radiation therapy, III: a method of assessing complication probabilities from dose-volume histograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, J.T.; Wolbarst, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    To predict the likelihood of success of a therapeutic strategy, one must be able to assess the effects of the treatment upon both diseased and healthy tissues. This paper proposes a method for determining the probability that a healthy organ that receives a non-uniform distribution of X-irradiation, heat, chemotherapy, or other agent will escape complications. Starting with any given dose distribution, a dose-cumulative-volume histogram for the organ is generated. This is then reduced by an interpolation scheme (involving the volume-weighting of complication probabilities) to a slightly different histogram that corresponds to the same overall likelihood of complications, but which contains one less step. The procedure is repeated, one step at a time, until there remains a final, single-step histogram, for which the complication probability can be determined. The formalism makes use of a complication response function C(D, V) which, for the given treatment schedule, represents the probability of complications arising when the fraction V of the organ receives dose D and the rest of the organ gets none. Although the data required to generate this function are sparse at present, it should be possible to obtain the necessary information from in vivo and clinical studies. Volume effects are taken explicitly into account in two ways: the precise shape of the patient's histogram is employed in the calculation, and the complication response function is a function of the volume

  6. Exercise therapy in oncology rehabilitation in Australia: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Amy M; Peiris, Casey L; Shields, Nora; Morgan, Delwyn; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2017-10-01

    Oncology rehabilitation improves outcomes for cancer survivors but little is known about program availability in Australia. The aims of this study were: to describe oncology rehabilitation programs in Australia: determine whether the exercise component of programs is consistent with guidelines: and to explore barriers and facilitators to program implementation. A sequential, explanatory mixed-methods study was completed in two phases: (1) a survey of Australian oncology rehabilitation programs; and (2) purposively sampled follow-up semistructured interviews with senior clinicians working in oncology rehabilitation who were involved with exercise prescription. Hospitals and/or cancer centers from 42 public hospital health networks (representing 163 hospitals) and 39 private hospitals were contacted to identify 31 oncology rehabilitation programs. All 31 surveys were returned (100% response rate). Programs were typically multidisciplinary, ran twice weekly, provided education and exercise and included self-management strategies. Exercise prescription and progression was patient centered and included a combination of resistance and aerobic training supplemented by balance, pelvic floor, and core stability exercises. Challenges to implementation included a lack of awareness of programs in the community and organizational barriers such as funding. Strong links with oncologists facilitated program referrals. Despite evidence to support oncology rehabilitation, there are few programs in Australia and there are challenges that limit it becoming part of standard practice. Programs that exist are multidisciplinary with a focus on exercise with the majority of programs following a cardiac rehabilitation model of care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Supporting children to adhere to anti-retroviral therapy in urban Malawi: multi method insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiri Sam

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ensuring good adherence is critical to the success of anti-retroviral treatment (ART. However, in resource-poor contexts, where paediatric HIV burden is high there has been limited progress in developing or adapting tools to support adherence for HIV-infected children on ART and their caregivers. We conducted formative research to assess children's adherence and to explore the knowledge, perceptions and attitudes of caregivers towards children's treatment. Methods All children starting ART between September 2002 and January 2004 (when ART was at cost in Malawi were observed for at least 6 months on ART. Their adherence was assessed quantitatively by asking caregivers of children about missed ART doses during the previous 3 days at monthly visits. Attendance to clinic appointments was also monitored. In June and July 2004, four focus group discussions, each with 6 to 8 caregivers, and 5 critical incident narratives were conducted to provide complementary contextual data on caregivers' experiences on the challenges to and opportunities of paediatric ART adherence. Results We followed prospectively 47 children who started ART between 8 months and 12 years of age over a median time on ART of 33 weeks (2–91 weeks. 72% (34/47 never missed a single dose according to caregivers' report and 82% (327/401 of clinic visits were either as scheduled, or before or within 1 week after the scheduled appointment. Caregivers were generally knowledgeable about ART and motivated to support children to adhere to treatment despite facing multiple challenges. Caregivers were particularly motivated by seeing children begin to get better; but faced challenges in meeting the costs of medicine and transport, waiting times in clinic, stock outs and remembering to support children to adhere in the face of multiple responsibilities. Conclusion In the era of rapid scale-up of treatment for children there is need for holistic support strategies that focus

  8. Implementing music therapy on an adolescent inpatient unit: a mixed-methods evaluation of acceptability, experience of participation and perceived impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Sue; Duhig, Michael; Darbyshire, Chris; Counsel, Robin; Higgins, Niall; Williams, Ian

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to assess the feasibility of delivering a music therapy program on adolescent psychiatric wards. We undertook a mixed-methods evaluation of a pilot program. Various active and receptive techniques were employed in group music therapy sessions delivered as part of a structured clinical program. Data collected in interviews with participants and staff and feedback questionnaires were thematically and descriptively analysed and triangulated. Data from 62 questionnaires returned by 43 patients who took part in 16 music therapy sessions, and seven staff, evidenced strong support for music therapy. Patients typically reported experiencing sessions as relaxing, comforting, uplifting, and empowering; >90% would participate by choice and use music therapeutically in the future. Staff endorsed music therapy as valuable therapeutically, reporting that patients engaged enthusiastically and identified sessions as improving their own moods and ward milieu. Integration of music therapy in inpatient treatment of adolescents is feasible and acceptable, and is valued by staff and patients as a complement to 'talking therapies'. Participation is enjoyed and associated with outcomes including improvement in mood, expression of feelings and social engagement consistent with recovery. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  9. Quick-Connect, Slow-Disconnect Bolt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Proposed bolt functions similarly to device described in article "Quick-Connect, Slow-Disconnect Nut" (MFS-28833). Bolt installed in standard threaded hole simply by pushing it into hole. Once inserted, bolt withdrawn only by turning it in conventional way.

  10. A slow component of classic Stroop interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phaf, R. Hans; Horsman, Hark H.; van der Moolen, Bas; Roos, Yvo B. W. E. M.; Schmand, Ben

    2010-01-01

    The interference in colour naming may extend beyond critical Stroop trials. This "slow'' effect was first discovered in emotional Stroop tasks, but is extended here to classical Stroop. In two experiments, meaningless coloured letter strings followed a colour word or neutral word. Student

  11. Slow Reading: Reading along "Lectio" Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, K. Jo-Ann; Badley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The medieval monastic movement preserved and developed reading practices--lectio--from ancient Greek pedagogy as a slow, mindful approach to reading for formation. This ancient way of reading, now better known as lectio divina, challenges the fast, pragmatic reading so characteristic of our time. We propose that the present moment may be ripe for…

  12. Slowed ageing, welfare, and population problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareham, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Biological studies have demonstrated that it is possible to slow the ageing process and extend lifespan in a wide variety of organisms, perhaps including humans. Making use of the findings of these studies, this article examines two problems concerning the effect of life extension on population size and welfare. The first--the problem of overpopulation--is that as a result of life extension too many people will co-exist at the same time, resulting in decreases in average welfare. The second--the problem of underpopulation--is that life extension will result in too few people existing across time, resulting in decreases in total welfare. I argue that overpopulation is highly unlikely to result from technologies that slow ageing. Moreover, I claim that the problem of underpopulation relies on claims about life extension that are false in the case of life extension by slowed ageing. The upshot of these arguments is that the population problems discussed provide scant reason to oppose life extension by slowed ageing.

  13. Response of electret dosemeter to slow neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghilardi, A.J.P.; Pela, C.A.; Zimmerman, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The response of the electret dosemeter to exposition of slow neutrons is studied. Different external coatings are used on the dosemeter (polyethylene, alminium, polyethylene + boron, aluminium + boron) and exposure curves (with and without water) are compared. (M.A.C.) [pt

  14. Analysis of the neutron slowing down equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, A.; Karnick, H.

    1978-01-01

    The infinite series solution of the elementary neutron slowing down equation is studied using the theory of entire functions of exponential type and nonharmonic Fourier series. It is shown from Muntz--Szasz and Paley--Wiener theorems, that the set of exponentials ]exp(ilambda/sub n/u) ]/sup infinity//sub n/=-infinity, where ]lambda/sub n/]/sup infinity//sub n/=-infinity are the roots of the transcendental equation in slowing down theory, is complete and forms a basis in a lethargy interval epsilon. This distinctive role of the maximum lethargy change per collision is due to the Fredholm character of the slowing down operator which need not be quasinilpotent. The discontinuities in the derivatives of the collision density are examined by treating the slowing down equation in its differential-difference form. The solution (Hilbert) space is the union of a countable number of subspaces L 2 (-epsilon/2, epsilon/2) over each of which the exponential functions are complete

  15. Probabilistic Slow Features for Behavior Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafeiriou, Lazaros; Nicolaou, Mihalis A.; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Nikitidis, Symeon; Pantic, Maja

    A recently introduced latent feature learning technique for time-varying dynamic phenomena analysis is the so-called slow feature analysis (SFA). SFA is a deterministic component analysis technique for multidimensional sequences that, by minimizing the variance of the first-order time derivative

  16. Learning slow features for behavior analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafeiriou, Lazaros; Nicolaou, Mihalis A.; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Nikitids, Symeon; Pantic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    A recently introduced latent feature learning technique for time varying dynamic phenomena analysis is the socalled Slow Feature Analysis (SFA). SFA is a deterministic component analysis technique for multi-dimensional sequences that by minimizing the variance of the first order time derivative

  17. Proton energy dependence of slow neutron intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshigawara, Makoto; Harada, Masahide; Watanabe, Noboru; Kai, Tetsuya; Sakata, Hideaki; Ikeda, Yujiro

    2001-01-01

    The choice of the proton energy is an important issue for the design of an intense-pulsed-spallation source. The optimal proton beam energy is rather unique from a viewpoint of the leakage neutron intensity but no yet clear from the slow-neutron intensity view point. It also depends on an accelerator type. Since it is also important to know the proton energy dependence of slow-neutrons from the moderators in a realistic target-moderator-reflector assembly (TMRA). We studied on the TMRA proposed for Japan Spallation Neutron Source. The slow-neutron intensities from the moderators per unit proton beam power (MW) exhibit the maximum at about 1-2 GeV. At higher proton energies the intensity per MW goes down; at 3 and 50 GeV about 0.91 and 0.47 times as low as that at 1 GeV. The proton energy dependence of slow-neutron intensities was found to be almost the same as that of total neutron yield (leakage neutrons) from the same bare target. It was also found that proton energy dependence was almost the same for the coupled and decoupled moderators, regardless the different moderator type, geometry and coupling scheme. (author)

  18. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we did some preliminary characterization of six slow growing rhizobial strains, isolated from Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. root nodules sampled from 3 sites along the coast of Oran (CapeFalcon, Bousfer and MersElHadjadj) in Northwestern Algeria. Results of this study showed that all strains had a very ...

  19. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COMPAQ

    2016-05-18

    May 18, 2016 ... strains had a very slow growth rate in yeast malt (YM) agar medium, forming colonies less than 1 mm in ... dominant genus of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria ... Single colonies were picked up and checked for purity by.

  20. Treatment in patients with osteoarthritis at different sites: Place of slow-acting drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Chichasova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of osteoarthritis (OA treatment is to perform rational analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapy, to slow down the progression of the disease, and to preserve quality of life in patients. The performance of analgesic therapy in the elderly is impeded by the presence of a concomitant disease, primarily that of the cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract. A group of experts has elaborated the algorithm for managing OA patients, which tracks a careful approach to using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and confirms the efficacy of slow-acting agents (chondroitin sulfate (CS and glucosamine and intraarticular hyaluronate. The experts have concluded that the use of symptomatic slow-acting drugs for the treatment of OA (SYSADOA, if need be, in combination with short-term paracetanol cycles as basic therapy for this condition is safer and more effective. The 2003 EULAR guidelines identify CS and glucosamine as chondroprotectors. Many studies have shown that CS and glucosamine have a moderate or significant effect on joint pain syndrome and functional mobility in OA; they are safe and characterized by minimal side effects. Long-term qualitative randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that CS and glucosamine are able to slow down the progression of joint space narrowing in OA. It is also shown that the use of a combination of glucosamine and CS allows cartilage loss to be prevented.

  1. Results of clinical approbation of new local treatment method in the complex therapy of inflammatory parodontium diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. G. Romanova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases of parodontium are one of the most difficult problems in stomatology today. Purpose of research: estimation of clinical efficiency of local combined application of developed agent apigel for oral cavity care and low-frequency electromagnetic field magnetotherapy at treatment of inflammatory diseases of parodontium. Materials and methods: 46 patients with chronic generalized catarrhal gingivitis and chronic generalized periodontitis of 1st degree were included into the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups depending on treatment management: basic (n = 23 and control (n = 23. Conventional treatment with the local use of the dental gel with camomile was used in the control group. Patients of the basic group were treated with local combined application of apigel and magnetotherapy. Efficiency was estimated with clinical, laboratory, microbiological and functional (ultrasonic Doppler examination methods of examination. Results: The application of the apigel and pulsating electromagnetic field in the complex medical treatment of patients with chronic generalized periodontitis (GhGP caused positive changes in clinical symptom and condition of parodontal tissues, that was accompanied by decline of hygienic and parodontal indexes. As compared with patients who had traditional anti-inflammatory therapy, patients who were treated with local application of apigel and magnetoterapy had decline of edema incidence. It was revealed that decrease of the pain correlated with improvement of hygienic condition of oral cavity and promoted prevention of bacterial contamination of damaged mucous membranes. Estimation of microvasculatory blood stream with the method of ultrasonic doppler flowmetry revealed more rapid normalization of volume and linear high systole, speed of blood stream in the parodontal tissues in case of use of new complex local method. Conclusions: Effect of the developed local agent in patients

  2. Stochastic dynamic modeling of regular and slow earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, N.; Ando, R.; Ide, S.

    2017-12-01

    Both regular and slow earthquakes are slip phenomena on plate boundaries and are simulated by a (quasi-)dynamic modeling [Liu and Rice, 2005]. In these numerical simulations, spatial heterogeneity is usually considered not only for explaining real physical properties but also for evaluating the stability of the calculations or the sensitivity of the results on the condition. However, even though we discretize the model space with small grids, heterogeneity at smaller scales than the grid size is not considered in the models with deterministic governing equations. To evaluate the effect of heterogeneity at the smaller scales we need to consider stochastic interactions between slip and stress in a dynamic modeling. Tidal stress is known to trigger or affect both regular and slow earthquakes [Yabe et al., 2015; Ide et al., 2016], and such an external force with fluctuation can also be considered as a stochastic external force. A healing process of faults may also be stochastic, so we introduce stochastic friction law. In the present study, we propose a stochastic dynamic model to explain both regular and slow earthquakes. We solve mode III problem, which corresponds to the rupture propagation along the strike direction. We use BIEM (boundary integral equation method) scheme to simulate slip evolution, but we add stochastic perturbations in the governing equations, which is usually written in a deterministic manner. As the simplest type of perturbations, we adopt Gaussian deviations in the formulation of the slip-stress kernel, external force, and friction. By increasing the amplitude of perturbations of the slip-stress kernel, we reproduce complicated rupture process of regular earthquakes including unilateral and bilateral ruptures. By perturbing external force, we reproduce slow rupture propagation at a scale of km/day. The slow propagation generated by a combination of fast interaction at S-wave velocity is analogous to the kinetic theory of gasses: thermal

  3. Slowing down of relativistic heavy ions and new applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geissel, H.; Scheidenberger, C.

    1997-10-01

    New precision experiments using powerful accelerator facilities and high-resolution spectrometers have contributed to a better understanding of the atomic and nuclear interactions of relativistic heavy ions with matter. Experimental results on stopping power and energy-loss straggling of bare heavy projectiles demonstrate large systematic deviations from theories based on first order perturbation. The energy-loss straggling is more than a factor of two enhanced for the heaviest projectiles compared to the relativistic Bohr formula. The interaction of cooled relativistic heavy ions with crystals opens up new fields for basic research and applications, i. e., for the first time resonant coherent excitations of both atomic and nuclear levels can be measured at the first harmonic. The spatial monoisotopic separation of exotic nuclei with in-flight separators and the tumor therapy with heavy ions are new applications based on a precise knowledge of slowing down. (orig.)

  4. Gene therapy for the inner ear: challenges and promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Allen F; Dazert, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Since the recognition of genes as the discrete units of heritability, and of DNA as their molecular substrate, the utilization of genes for therapeutic purposes has been recognized as a potential means of correcting genetic disorders. The tools of molecular biology, which allow the manipulation of DNA sequence, provided the means to put this concept into practice. However, progress in the implementation of these ideas has been slow. Here we review the history of the idea of gene therapy and the complexity of genetic disorders. We also discuss the requirements for sequence-based therapy to be accomplished for different types of inherited diseases, as well as the methods available for gene manipulation. The challenges that have limited the applications of gene therapy are reviewed, as are ethical concerns. Finally, we discuss the promise of gene therapy to address inherited and acquired disorders of the inner ear. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. New Substrate-Guided Method of Predicting Slow Conducting Isthmuses of Ventricular Tachycardia: Preliminary Analysis to the Combined Use of Voltage Limit Adjustment and Fast-Fourier Transform Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Kenji; Nogami, Akihiko; Igarashi, Miyako; Masuda, Keita; Kowase, Shinya; Kurosaki, Kenji; Komatsu, Yuki; Naruse, Yoshihisa; Machino, Takeshi; Yamasaki, Hiro; Xu, Dongzhu; Murakoshi, Nobuyuki; Sekiguchi, Yukio; Aonuma, Kazutaka

    2018-04-01

    Several conducting channels of ventricular tachycardia (VT) can be identified using voltage limit adjustment (VLA) of substrate mapping. However, the sensitivity or specificity to predict a VT isthmus is not high by using VLA alone. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the combined use of VLA and fast-Fourier transform analysis to predict VT isthmuses. VLA and fast-Fourier transform analyses of local ventricular bipolar electrograms during sinus rhythm were performed in 9 postinfarction patients who underwent catheter ablation for a total of 13 monomorphic VTs. Relatively higher voltage areas on an electroanatomical map were defined as high voltage channels (HVCs), and relatively higher fast-Fourier transform areas were defined as high-frequency channels (HFCs). HVCs were classified into full or partial HVCs (the entire or >30% of HVC can be detectable, respectively). Twelve full HVCs were identified in 7 of 9 patients. HFCs were located on 7 of 12 full HVCs. Five VT isthmuses (71%) were included in the 7 full HVC+/HFC+ sites, whereas no VT isthmus was found in the 5 full HVC+/HFC- sites. HFCs were identical to 9 of 16 partial HVCs. Eight VT isthmuses (89%) were included in the 9 partial HVC+/HFC+ sites, whereas no VT isthmus was found in the 7 partial HVC+/HFC- sites. All HVC+/HFC+ sites predicted VT isthmus with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 80%. Combined use of VLA and fast-Fourier transform analysis may be a useful method to detect VT isthmuses. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Effects of Low-frequency Current Sacral Dermatome Stimulation on Idiopathic Slow Transit Constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Seop; Yi, Seung-Ju

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine whether low-frequency current therapy can be used to reduce the symptoms of idiopathic slow transit constipation (ISTC). [Subjects] Fifteen patients (ten male and five female) with idiopathic slow transit constipation were enrolled in the present study. [Results] Bowel movements per day, bowel movements per week, and constipation assessment scale scores significantly improved after low-frequency current simulation of S2-S3. [Conclusion] Our results show that stimulation with low-frequency current of the sacral dermatomes may offer therapeutic benefits for a subject of patients with ISTC.

  7. Generation and application of slow positrons based on a electron LINAC

    CERN Document Server

    Kurihara, T

    2002-01-01

    History of slow positron in Institute of Materials Structure Science High Energy Accelerator Research Organization is explained. The principle of generation and application of intense positron beam is mentioned. Two sources of intense positron are radioactive decay of radioactive isotopes emitting positron and electron-positron pair creation. The radioactive decay method uses sup 5 sup 8 Co, sup 6 sup 4 Cu, sup 1 sup 1 C, sup 1 sup 3 N, sup 1 sup 5 O and sup 1 sup 8 F. The electron-positron pair creation method uses nuclear reactor or electron linear accelerator (LINAC). The positron experimental facility in this organization consists of electron LINAC, slow positron beam source, positron transport and experimental station. The outline of this facility is started. The intense slow positron beam is applied to research positronium work function, electron structure of surface. New method such as combination of positron lifetime measurement and slow positron beam or Auger electron spectroscopy by positron annihil...

  8. Generation and application of slow positrons based on a electron LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Toshikazu

    2002-01-01

    History of slow positron in Institute of Materials Structure Science High Energy Accelerator Research Organization is explained. The principle of generation and application of intense positron beam is mentioned. Two sources of intense positron are radioactive decay of radioactive isotopes emitting positron and electron-positron pair creation. The radioactive decay method uses 58 Co, 64 Cu, 11 C, 13 N, 15 O and 18 F. The electron-positron pair creation method uses nuclear reactor or electron linear accelerator (LINAC). The positron experimental facility in this organization consists of electron LINAC, slow positron beam source, positron transport and experimental station. The outline of this facility is started. The intense slow positron beam is applied to research positronium work function, electron structure of surface. New method such as combination of positron lifetime measurement and slow positron beam or Auger electron spectroscopy by positron annihilation excitation and positron reemission microscope are developed. (S.Y.)

  9. Multisteps Global Kinetic Analysis of MSW Slow Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Aries Himawanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to find relationships between single components slow pyrolysis characteristics and mixed component slow pyrolysis characteristics of segregated municipal solid wastes (MSW. The material of this research consists of organic wastes (bamboo wastes and banana leaves wastes and inorganic wastes (styrofoam wastes and snack wrapping wastes. The materials which used to study were the unprosessing waste. The samples were collected, dried and crushed until passing 20 mesh shieves then characterized in self manufactured macro balance. The thermogravimetry analyses were done to find the MSW slow pyrolysis characteristics. The 20 gram sample was placed in the furnace whose temperature is increased with 10 0C/min heating rate until reached 400 0 final temperature and held for 30 minutes before the sample is cooled into room temperature. One hundred ml/min nitrogen introduced from the bottom of furnace as a swept gas. The results of the research show that the global kinetic method could be used to predict the MSW single component activation energy but it should be modified to calculate the mixed sample activation energy . The predictive activation energy values which calculated based on weighed sum of single component have 18.5 % deviations if compared with experimental result.

  10. Nonhuman primates prefer slow tempos but dislike music overall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Josh; Hauser, Marc D

    2007-09-01

    Human adults generally find fast tempos more arousing than slow tempos, with tempo frequently manipulated in music to alter tension and emotion. We used a previously published method [McDermott, J., & Hauser, M. (2004). Are consonant intervals music to their ears? Spontaneous acoustic preferences in a nonhuman primate. Cognition, 94(2), B11-B21] to test cotton-top tamarins and common marmosets, two new-World primates, for their spontaneous responses to stimuli that varied systematically with respect to tempo. Across several experiments, we found that both tamarins and marmosets preferred slow tempos to fast. It is possible that the observed preferences were due to arousal, and that this effect is homologous to the human response to tempo. In other respects, however, these two monkey species showed striking differences compared to humans. Specifically, when presented with a choice between slow tempo musical stimuli, including lullabies, and silence, tamarins and marmosets preferred silence whereas humans, when similarly tested, preferred music. Thus despite the possibility of homologous mechanisms for tempo perception in human and nonhuman primates, there appear to be motivational ties to music that are uniquely human.

  11. [Invasive aspergillosis in hematooncological patients: advantages and disadvantages of various diagnostic methods, treatment options and financial costs of therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácil, Z; Mayer, J; Kocmanová, I; Wagnerová, B; Winterová, J; Folber, F; Lengerová, M; Moulis, M; Zácková, D; Smardová, L; Janíková, A; Navrátil, M; Dvoráková, D; Vorlícek, J

    2008-02-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a leading invasive fungal infection in hematooncological patients. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence, diagnostic procedures and treatment of IA in hematooncological department in large hospital in the Czech Republic. A retrospective analysis of medical and laboratory records from patients hospitalised in our department with proven/probable IA between January 2000 and December 2006 was performed. 52 cases of IA in 51 patients were identified (17.3% proven IA/82.7% probable IA). Number of IA cases notably increased during study period (1 case of IA in 2000 vs 21 cases of IA in 2006) and majority of them was of nosocomial origin (61.5%). Pulmonary aspergillosis was diagnosed in 46 cases (88.5%). Patients treated for acute leukemia or undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation represent the group at the highest risk of IA (in total 52% of cases). Fever and signs of pulmonary involvement were the most common clinical signs of infection (presented in 92.3% and 69.2 cases respectively). Conventional diagnostic methods including autopsy were able to diagnose only 15 cases of IA (28.8%). In all other cases (71.2%) the diagnosis was done by detection of galactomannan (GM) in serum. Introduction of GM monitoring enabled erlier initiation of antifungal treatment by 4 days. Initial therapy of IA led to the treatment response (partial and complete) in 18 (34.6%) of infections--the highest percentage of response has been seen in voriconazole monotherapy group (42%) and when combination of voriconazole and caspofungin has been used (83%). Salvage therapy was initiated due to the failure of initial treatment in 21 (40.3%) of cases. Patients were treated mostly with combination ofvoriconazole and caspofungin and/or monotherapy with voriconazole has been used with treatment response 55% and 50% respectively. Introduction of new antifungal drugs together with increased number of patients with IA led to the marked increase of total

  12. Cell proliferation of Paramecium tetraurelia on a slow rotating clinostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Satoe; Mogami, Yoshihiro; Baba, Shoji A.

    Paramecium is known to proliferate faster under microgravity conditions, and slower under hypergravity. Experiments using axenic culture medium have demonstrated that hypergravity affected directly on the proliferation of Paramecium itself. In order to assess the mechanisms underlying the physiological effects of gravity on cell proliferation, Paramecium tetraurelia was grown under clinorotation (2.5 rpm) and the time course of the proliferation was investigated in detail on the basis of the logistic analysis. On the basis of the mechanical properties of Paramecium, this slow rate of the rotation appears to be enough to simulate microgravity in terms of the randomization of the cell orientation with respect to gravity. P. tetraurelia was cultivated in a closed chamber in which cells were confined without air bubbles, reducing the shear forces and turbulences under clinorotation. The chamber is made of quartz and silicone rubber film; the former is for the optically-flat walls for the measurement of cell density by means of a non-invasive laser optical-slice method, and the latter for gas exchange. Because of the small dimension for culture space, Paramecium does not accumulate at the top of the chamber in spite of its known negative gravitactic behavior. We measured the cell density at regular time intervals without breaking the configuration of the chamber, and analyzed the proliferation parameters by fitting the data to a logistic equation. As a result, P. tetraurelia showed reduced proliferation under slow clinorotation. The saturation of the cell density as well as the maximum proliferation rate decreased, although we found no significant changes on the half maximal time for proliferation. We also found that the mean swimming velocity decreased under slow clinorotation. These results were not consistent with those under microgravity and fast rotating clinostat. This may suggest that randomization of the cell orientation performed by slow rotating clinostat has

  13. Comparison of the effectiveness of complex decongestive therapy and compression bandaging as a method of treatment of lymphedema in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zasadzka E

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ewa Zasadzka,1 Tomasz Trzmiel,1 Maria Kleczewska,2 Mariola Pawlaczyk1 1Department of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland; 2Day Rehabilitation Center, Hospicjum Palium, Poznań, Poland Background: Lymphedema is a chronic condition which significantly lowers the quality of patient life, particularly among elderly populations, whose mobility and physical function are often reduced. Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of multi-layer compression bandaging (MCB and complex decongestive therapy (CDT, and to show that MCB is a cheaper, more accessible and less labor intensive method of treating lymphedema in elderly patients. Patients and methods: The study included 103 patients (85 women and 18 men aged ≥60 years, with unilateral lower limb lymphedema. The subjects were divided into two groups: 50 treated with CDT and 53 with MCB. Pre- and post-treatment BMI, and average and maximum circumference of the edematous extremities were analyzed. Results: Reduction in swelling in both groups was achieved after 15 interventions. Both therapies demonstrated similar efficacy in reducing limb volume and circumference, but MCB showed greater efficacy in reducing the maximum circumference. Conclusion: Compression bandaging is a vital component of CDT. Maximum lymphedema reduction during therapy and maintaining its effect cannot be achieved without it. It also demonstrates its effectiveness as an independent method, which can reduce therapy cost and accessibility. Keywords: lymphedema, elderly, therapy, compression bandaging

  14. Validation of the methods of cosmetic assessment after breast-conserving therapy in the EORTC 'boost versus no boost' trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrieling, Conny; Collette, Laurence; Bartelink, Ellen; Borger, Jacques H.; Brenninkmeyer, Stefan J.; Horiot, Jean-Claude; Pierart, Marianne; Poortmans, Philip M.; Struikmans, Henk; Schueren, Emmanuel van der; Dongen, Joop A. van; Limbergen, Erik van; Bartelink, Harry

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate both qualitative and quantitative scoring methods for the cosmetic result after breast-conserving therapy (BCT), and to compare the usefulness and reliability of these methods. Methods and Materials: In EORTC trial 22881/10882, stage I and II breast cancer patients were treated with tumorectomy and axillary dissection. A total of 5318 patients were randomized between no boost and a boost of 16 Gy following whole-breast irradiation of 50 Gy. The cosmetic result was assessed for 731 patients in two ways. A panel scored the qualitative appearance of the breast using photographs taken after surgery and 3 years later. Digitizer measurements of the displacement of the nipple were also made using these photographs in order to calculate the breast retraction assessment (BRA). The cosmetic results after 3-year follow-up were used to analyze the correlation between the panel evaluation and digitizer measurements. Results: For the panel evaluation the intraobserver agreement for the global cosmetic score as measured by the simple Kappa statistic was 0.42, considered moderate agreement. The multiple Kappa statistic for interobserver agreement for the global cosmetic score was 0.28, considered fair agreement. The specific cosmetic items scored by the panel were all significantly related to the global cosmetic score; breast size and shape influenced the global score most. For the digitizer measurements, the standard deviation from the average value of 30.0 mm was 2.3 mm (7.7%) for the intraobserver variability and 2.6 mm (8.7%) for the interobserver variability. The two methods were significantly, though moderately, correlated; some items scored by the panel were only correlated to the digitizer measurements if the tumor was not located in the inferior quadrant of the breast. Conclusions: The intra- and interobserver variability of the digitizer evaluation of cosmesis was smaller than that of the panel evaluation. However, there are some treatment sequelae

  15. Polymeric membrane studied using slow positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, W.-S.; Lo, C.-H.; Cheng, M.-L.; Chen Hongmin; Liu Guang; Chakka, Lakshmi; Nanda, D.; Tung, K.-L.; Huang, S.-H.; Lee, Kueir-Rarn; Lai, J.-Y.; Sun Yiming; Yu Changcheng; Zhang Renwu; Jean, Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    A radioisotope slow positron beam has been built at the Chung Yuan Christian University in Taiwan for the research and development in membrane science and technology. Doppler broadening energy spectra and positron annihilation lifetime have been measured as a function of positron energy up to 30 keV in a polyamide membrane prepared by the interfacial polymerization between triethylenetetraamine (TETA) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) on modified porous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) asymmetric membrane. The multilayer structures and free-volume depth profile for this asymmetric membrane system are obtained. Positron annihilation spectroscopy coupled with a slow beam could provide new information about size selectivity of transporting molecules and guidance for molecular designs in polymeric membranes

  16. A tilted transversely isotropic slowness surface approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, A.

    2012-05-09

    The relation between vertical and horizontal slownesses, better known as the dispersion relation, for transversely isotropic media with a tilted symmetry axis (TTI) requires solving a quartic polynomial equation, which does not admit a practical explicit solution to be used, for example, in downward continuation. Using a combination of the perturbation theory with respect to the anelliptic parameter and Shanks transform to improve the accuracy of the expansion, we develop an explicit formula for the vertical slowness that is highly accurate for all practical purposes. It also reveals some insights into the anisotropy parameter dependency of the dispersion relation including the low impact that the anelliptic parameter has on the vertical placement of reflectors for a small tilt in the symmetry angle. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  17. Slow and fast light in semiconductor waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Xue, Weiqi

    2010-01-01

    Investigations of slow and fast light effects in semiconductor waveguides entail interesting physics and point to a number of promising applications. In this review we give an overview of recent progress in the field, in particular focusing on the physical mechanisms of electromagnetically induced...... transparency and coherent population oscillations. While electromagnetically induced transparency has been the most important effect in realizing slowdown effects in atomic gasses, progress has been comparatively slow in semiconductors due to inherent problems of fast dephasing times and inhomogeneous...... broadening in quantum dots. The physics of electromagnetically induced transparency in semiconductors is discussed, emphasizing these limitations and recent suggestions for overcoming them. On the other hand, the mechanism of coherent population oscillations relies on wave mixing effects and is well suited...

  18. Slow Invariant Manifolds in Chemically Reactive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Samuel; Powers, Joseph M.

    2006-11-01

    The scientific design of practical gas phase combustion devices has come to rely on the use of mathematical models which include detailed chemical kinetics. Such models intrinsically admit a wide range of scales which renders their accurate numerical approximation difficult. Over the past decade, rational strategies, such as Intrinsic Low Dimensional Manifolds (ILDM) or Computational Singular Perturbations (CSP), for equilibrating fast time scale events have been successfully developed, though their computation can be challenging and their accuracy in most cases uncertain. Both are approximations to the preferable slow invariant manifold which best describes how the system evolves in the long time limit. Strategies for computing the slow invariant manifold are examined, and results are presented for practical combustion systems.

  19. A Simple and Effective Daily Pain Management Method for Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy for Painful Bone Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Regiane S.; Proctor, Julian W.; Slack, Robert; Marlowe, Ursula; Ashby, Karlotta R.; Schenken, Larry L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The incidence of painful bone metastases increases with longer survival times. Although external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is an effective palliative treatment, it often requires several days from the start of treatment to produce a measurable reduction in pain scores and a qualitative amelioration of patient pain levels. Meanwhile, the use of analgesics remains the best approach early on in the treatment course. We investigated the role of radiation therapists as key personnel for collecting daily pain scores to supplement assessments by physician and oncology nursing staff and manage pain more effectively during radiation treatment. Methods and Materials: Daily pain scores were obtained by the radiation therapists for 89 patients undertaking a total of 124 courses of EBRT for bone metastases and compared with pretreatment pain scores. The majority of patients (71%) were treated to 30 Gy (range, 20-37.5) in 10 fractions (range, 8-15 fractions). Results: One hundred nineteen treatment courses (96%) were completed. Pain scores declined rapidly to 37.5%, 50%, and 75% of the pretreatment levels by Days 2, 4, and 10, respectively. Pain was improved in 91% of patients with only 4% of worse pain at the end of treatment. Improved pain scores were maintained in 83% of patients at 1-month follow-up, but in 35% of them, the pain was worse than at the end of treatment. Conclusions: Collection of daily pain scores by radiation therapists was associated with an effective reduction in pain scores early on during EBRT of painful osseous metastases.

  20. Why are HIV-infected people not started on antiretroviral therapy? A mixed-methods study from Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shringarpure, K.; Modi, B.; Sharma, R.; Rewari, B. B.; Shah, A. N.; Verma, P. B.; Dongre, A. R.; Kumar, A. M. V.

    2017-01-01

    Setting: Five purposively selected antiretroviral therapy (ART) centres in Gujarat, India. Objectives: To assess the proportion of ART-eligible people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) who were not initiated on ART within 2 months of being recorded as eligible, to identify factors associated with non-initiation and to explore reasons from the provider's perspective. Design: We used a mixed-methods design (triangulation) of 1) a quantitative phase involving record reviews and cohort analysis (Poisson regression) of PLHIV registered during April 2014–March 2015, and 2) a qualitative phase involving one-to-one interviews with 25 providers. Results: Of 2079 ART-eligible PLHIV, 339 (16%) were not started on ART within 2 months. PLHIV with CD4 counts of bedridden or registered with certain ART centres were more likely not to be initiated on ART. Qualitative results were categorised into two broad themes: government health system- and patient-related challenges, which validated and complemented the quantitative findings. Conclusion: Several patient subgroups at greater risk of ART non-initiation were identified, along with reasons for risk; this has important programme implications for achieving the UNAIDS 90–90–90 goal, and particularly the second 90 component of having 90% of diagnosed PLHIV start ART. PMID:29201653

  1. The Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies in Treatment of Addicts in Iran by Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Mami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Addiction and its complications is one of the major problems in the world and various types of psychotherapy approaches are used for its treatment. Among these approaches, cognitive-behavioral therapies have been widely used for the treatment of addiction in recent decades. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of cognitive-behavioral therapies on the treatment of addicts in Iran by systematic review and meta-analysis method. Methods: Meta-analysis method was used, without limitation, to investigate all internal databases as well as Medlib, Sid, Magiran, Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopuse, Iranmedex, and ISI. Finally, 12 out of 63 articles were entered into the meta-analysis. Meta-regression was used to investigate the heterogeneity of the studies. Results: In this study, 12 articles were investigated, which increased to 25 studies, including therapeutic approaches. In 6 studies, no significant difference was observed in the experimental group before and after intervention, and in the remaining 19 studies the difference was significant. Combination of the results of 25 studies and using a random effects model of meta-analysis showed that cognitive-behavioral therapy was effective in the treatment of addiction (p<0.001. The standardized effect size in the experimental group before and after cognitive-behavioral therapy, was estimated to be -2.08 and its 95% confidence interval was -1.57 to -2.58. The standardized effect size in control and experimental groups after cognitive-behavioral therapy was estimated 0.40 and its 95% confidence interval was 0.10 to 0.70. Conclusion: Given that cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective in reducing addiction and its symptoms, this method can be used as a common treatment of addiction.

  2. A comparative study on vaccination pain in the methods of massage therapy and mothers' breast feeding during injection of infants referring to Navabsafavi Health Care Center in Isfahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Mitra Savabi; Sheykhi, Sanaz; Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Jodakee, Mohamadreza; Boroumandfar, Khadijeh

    2013-11-01

    Vaccination is one of the most common painful procedures in infants. The irreversible consequences due to pain experiences in infants are enormous. Breast feeding and massage therapy methods are the non-drug methods of pain relief. Therefore, this research aimed to compare the vaccination-related pain in infants who underwent massage therapy or breast feeding during injection. This study is a randomized clinical trial. Ninety-six infants were allocated randomly and systematically to three groups (breast feeding, massage, and control groups). The study population comprised all infants, accompanied by their mothers, referring to one of the health centers in Isfahan for vaccination of hepatitis B and DPT at 6 months of age and for MMR at 12 months of age. Data gathering was done using questionnaire and checklist [neonatal infant pain scale (NIPS)]. Data analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistical methods with SPSS software. Findings of the study showed that the three groups had no statistically significant difference in terms of demographic characteristics (P > 0/05). The mean pain scores in the breast feeding group, massage therapy, and control group were 3.4, 3.9, and 4.8, respectively (P massage therapy and breast feeding (P = 0.041), breast feeding group and control (P massage therapy and control groups (P = 0.002) were statistically significant. Considering the results of the study, it seems that breast feeding during vaccination has more analgesic effect than massage therapy. Therefore, it is suggested as a noninvasive, safe, and accessible method without any side effects for reducing vaccination-related pain.

  3. Slowed demand ushers in summer season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This article is the June 1996 market summary in uranium market. During this reporting period, there were six deals in the U3O8 spot market and three long-term deals for U3O8. There were four deals for UF6 conversion, and the spot market for uranium separation services had no transactions. This was little change from the previous month's activities, and this slowness was reflected in the price trends of little or no increase

  4. Testing algorithms for critical slowing down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cossu Guido

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the preliminary tests on two modifications of the Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC algorithm. Both algorithms are designed to travel much farther in the Hamiltonian phase space for each trajectory and reduce the autocorrelations among physical observables thus tackling the critical slowing down towards the continuum limit. We present a comparison of costs of the new algorithms with the standard HMC evolution for pure gauge fields, studying the autocorrelation times for various quantities including the topological charge.

  5. SOFTWARE Manual for VMM3 Slow Control

    CERN Document Server

    Guth, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    For the New Small Wheel upgrade of the ATLAS detector a new readout chip, called VMM3(a), was developed. In order to provide this new technology to a larger community, the RD51 collaboration is integrating the VMM3 in their scalable readout system (SRS). For this purpose, a new slow control and calibration tool is necessary. This new software was developed and improved within a CERN Summer Student project.

  6. Theory of a slow-light catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, Ulf

    2002-01-01

    In diffraction catastrophes such as the rainbow, the wave nature of light resolves ray singularities and draws delicate interference patterns. In quantum catastrophes such as the black hole, the quantum nature of light resolves wave singularities and creates characteristic quantum effects related to Hawking radiation. This paper describes the theory behind a recent proposal [U. Leonhardt, Nature (London) 415, 406 (2002)] to generate a quantum catastrophe of slow light

  7. Theory of a slow-light catastrophe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Ulf

    2002-04-01

    In diffraction catastrophes such as the rainbow, the wave nature of light resolves ray singularities and draws delicate interference patterns. In quantum catastrophes such as the black hole, the quantum nature of light resolves wave singularities and creates characteristic quantum effects related to Hawking radiation. This paper describes the theory behind a recent proposal [U. Leonhardt, Nature (London) 415, 406 (2002)] to generate a quantum catastrophe of slow light.

  8. Theory of a Slow-Light Catastrophe

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhardt, Ulf

    2001-01-01

    In diffraction catastrophes such as the rainbow the wave nature of light resolves ray singularities and draws delicate interference patterns. In quantum catastrophes such as the black hole the quantum nature of light resolves wave singularities and creates characteristic quantum effects related to Hawking radiation. The paper describes the theory behind a recent proposal [U. Leonhardt, arXiv:physics/0111058, Nature (in press)] to generate a quantum catastrophe of slow light.

  9. Magnetic energy analyser for slow electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limberg, W.

    1974-08-01

    A differential spectrometer with high time and energy resolution has been developed using the principle of energy analysis with a longitudinal homogeneous magnetic field. This way it is possible to measure the energy distribution of low energy electrons (eV-range) in the presence of high energy electrons without distortions by secondary electrons. The functioning and application of the analyzer is demonstrated by measuring the energy distributions of slow electrons emitted by a filament. (orig.) [de

  10. γ-ray emission from slow pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, M.; Treves, A.

    1981-01-01

    The scope of this communication is to calculate the expected γ-ray flux from slow pulsars, neglecting the problem of the reliability of the observations. The key hypothesis is that since the γ-ray luminosity is a substantial fraction of Lsub(T) (the intrinsic energy loss), it should be produced in the vicinity of the speed of light radius. This comes from the well known argument of simultaneous conservation of energy and angular momentum. (Auth.)

  11. Slowing down modernity: A critique : A critique

    OpenAIRE

    Vostal , Filip

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The connection between modernization and social acceleration is now a prominent theme in critical social analysis. Taking a cue from these debates, I explore attempts that aim to 'slow down modernity' by resisting the dynamic tempo of various social processes and experiences. The issue of slowdown now accounts for a largely unquestioned measure, expected to deliver unhasty tempo conditioning good and ethical life, mental well-being and accountable democracy. In princip...

  12. Evaluation of Slow Release Fertilizer Applying Chemical and Spectroscopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdEl-Kader, A.A.; Al-Ashkar, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    Controlled-release fertilizer offers a number of advantages in relation to crop production in newly reclaimed soils. Butadiene styrene latex emulsion is one of the promising polymer for different purposes. In this work, laboratory evaluation of butadiene styrene latex emulsion 24/76 polymer loaded with a mixed fertilizer was carried out. Macro nutrients (N, P and K) and micro-nutrients(Zn, Fe, and Cu) were extracted by basic extract from the polymer fertilizer mixtures. Micro-sampling technique was investigated and applied to measure Zn, Fe, and Cu using flame atomic absorption spectrometry in order to overcome the nebulization difficulties due to high salt content samples. The cumulative releases of macro and micro-nutrients have been assessed. From the obtained results, it is clear that the release depends on both nutrients and polymer concentration in the mixture. Macro-nutrients are released more efficient than micro-nutrients of total added. Therefore it can be used for minimizing micro-nutrients hazard in soils

  13. A study of different dose calculation methods and the impact on the dose evaluation protocol in lung stereotactic radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Takahiro; Furuya, Tomohisa; Ozawa, Shuichi; Ito, Kana; Kurokawa, Chie; Karasawa, Kumiko; Miura, Kohei

    2008-01-01

    AAA (analytical anisotropic algorithm) dose calculation, which shows a better performance for heterogeneity correction, was tested for lung stereotactic radiation therapy (SBRT) in comparison to conventional PBC (pencil beam convolution method) to evaluate its impact on tumor dose parameters. Eleven lung SBRT patients who were treated with photon 4 MV beams in our department between April 2003 and February 2007 were reviewed. Clinical target volume (CTV) was delineated including the spicula region on planning CT images. Planning target volume (PTV) was defined by adding the internal target volume (ITV) and set-up margin (SM) of 5 mm from CTV, and then an multileaf collimator (MLC) penumbra margin of another 5 mm was also added. Six-port non-coplanar beams were employed, and a total prescribed dose of 48 Gy was defined at the isocenter point with four fractions. The entire treatment for an individual patient was completed within 8 days. Under the same prescribed dose, calculated dose distribution, dose volume histogram (DVH), and tumor dose parameters were compared between two dose calculation methods. In addition, the fractionated prescription dose was repeatedly scaled until the monitor units (MUs) calculated by AAA reached a level of MUs nearly identical to those achieved by PBC. AAA resulted in significantly less D95 (irradiation dose that included 95% volume of PTV) and minimal dose in PTV compared to PBC. After rescaling of each MU for each beam in the AAA plan, there was no revision of the isocenter of the prescribed dose required. However, when the PTV volume was less than 20 cc, a 4% lower prescription resulted in nearly identical MUs between AAA and PBC. The prescribed dose in AAA should be the same as that in PBC, if the dose is administered at the isocenter point. However, planners should compare DVHs and dose distributions between AAA and PBC for a small lung tumor with a PTV volume less than approximately 20 cc. (author)

  14. A study on measurement of neutrons generated in radiation therapy – Measurement of neurons in CR-39 detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Cheol-Soo; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Hae-Kag; Lee, Sun-Yeob; Jang, Hyon-Chol; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Jin, Lee; Moon, Deog-Hwan; Lee, Kwang-Sung; Yang, Nam-Oh; Cho, Moo-Seong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► To measure the neutrons generated in a linear accelerator. ► Both fast neutrons and thermal neutrons produced an increase in the dose of neutrons generated with increasing irradiation dose. ► The generation of neutrons increased when a wedge filter was used. ► When the SRS cone that required a high dose was used, more neutrons were detected. -- Abstract: The CR-39 [diethylene glycol bis-(allylcarbonate)] neuron detection method was used to measure the dose of neutrons generated in X-ray (photon) therapy conducted in a linear accelerator, and to use high-energy photons as part of the clinical applications to examine the problems associated with the dose for patients caused by the generation of neutrons from high-energy photons used for cancer therapy. According to the experimental results, 0.35 mSv, 0.65 mSv 1.82 mSv of fast neutrons on average were generated from 1 Gy, 2 Gy and 5 Gy of photon irradiation, respectively, whereas 0.26 mSv, 0.56 mSv and 1.23 mSv of thermal neutrons were generated. Both fast neutrons and thermal neutrons produced an increase in the dose of neutrons generated with increasing irradiation dose. With in regard to the dose generated within and around the irradiation area of the photon rays, it was confirmed that more neutrons were generated within the irradiation area. A wedge filer was used to measure the generation of neutrons. According to the measurement results, the generation of neutrons increased when a wedge filter was used. When the SRS cone that required a high dose was used, more neutrons were detected than those in the previous experiment. When fast neutrons were used, 2.85 mSv neutrons on average were generated from 5 Gy of photon irradiation. When thermal neutrons were used, 1.37 mSv neutrons on average were generated from 5 Gy of photon irradiation. Overall, approximately 1.6 times and 1.12 times more fast and thermal neutrons, respectively, were generated than in the case of a general treatment with 5 Gy

  15. Critical slowing down and error analysis in lattice QCD simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virotta, Francesco

    2012-02-21

    In this work we investigate the critical slowing down of lattice QCD simulations. We perform a preliminary study in the quenched approximation where we find that our estimate of the exponential auto-correlation time scales as {tau}{sub exp}(a){proportional_to}a{sup -5}, where a is the lattice spacing. In unquenched simulations with O(a) improved Wilson fermions we do not obtain a scaling law but find results compatible with the behavior that we find in the pure gauge theory. The discussion is supported by a large set of ensembles both in pure gauge and in the theory with two degenerate sea quarks. We have moreover investigated the effect of slow algorithmic modes in the error analysis of the expectation value of typical lattice QCD observables (hadronic matrix elements and masses). In the context of simulations affected by slow modes we propose and test a method to obtain reliable estimates of statistical errors. The method is supposed to help in the typical algorithmic setup of lattice QCD, namely when the total statistics collected is of O(10){tau}{sub exp}. This is the typical case when simulating close to the continuum limit where the computational costs for producing two independent data points can be extremely large. We finally discuss the scale setting in N{sub f}=2 simulations using the Kaon decay constant f{sub K} as physical input. The method is explained together with a thorough discussion of the error analysis employed. A description of the publicly available code used for the error analysis is included.

  16. Evaluation of the effectiveness of robotic gait training and gait-focused physical therapy programs for children and youth with cerebral palsy: a mixed methods RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiart, Lesley; Rosychuk, Rhonda J; Wright, F Virginia

    2016-06-02

    Robot assisted gait training (RAGT) is considered to be a promising approach for improving gait-related gross motor function of children and youth with cerebral palsy. However, RAGT has yet to be empirically demonstrated to be effective. This knowledge gap is particularly salient given the strong interest in this intensive therapy, the high cost of the technology, and the requirement for specialized rehabilitation centre resources. This is a research protocol describing a prospective, multi-centre, concurrent mixed methods study comprised of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and an interpretive descriptive qualitative design. It is a mixed methods study designed to determine the relative effectiveness of three physical therapy treatment conditions (i.e., RAGT, a functional physical therapy program conducted over-ground (fPT), and RAGT + fPT) on gait related motor skills of ambulatory children with cerebral palsy. Children with cerebral palsy aged 5-18 years who are ambulatory (Gross Motor Function Classification System Levels II and III) will be randomly allocated to one of four treatment conditions: 1) RAGT, 2) fPT, 3) RAGT and fPT combined, or 4) a maintenance therapy only control group. The qualitative component will explicate child and parent experiences with the interventions, provide insight into the values that underlie their therapy goals, and assist with interpretation of the results of the RCT. n/a. NCT02391324 Registered March 12, 2015.

  17. A method for evaluating treatment quality using in vivo EPID dosimetry and statistical process control in radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuangrod, Todsaporn; Greer, Peter B; Simpson, John; Zwan, Benjamin J; Middleton, Richard H

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Due to increasing complexity, modern radiotherapy techniques require comprehensive quality assurance (QA) programmes, that to date generally focus on the pre-treatment stage. The purpose of this paper is to provide a method for an individual patient treatment QA evaluation and identification of a "quality gap" for continuous quality improvement. Design/methodology/approach A statistical process control (SPC) was applied to evaluate treatment delivery using in vivo electronic portal imaging device (EPID) dosimetry. A moving range control chart was constructed to monitor the individual patient treatment performance based on a control limit generated from initial data of 90 intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and ten volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) patient deliveries. A process capability index was used to evaluate the continuing treatment quality based on three quality classes: treatment type-specific, treatment linac-specific, and body site-specific. Findings The determined control limits were 62.5 and 70.0 per cent of the χ pass-rate for IMRT and VMAT deliveries, respectively. In total, 14 patients were selected for a pilot study the results of which showed that about 1 per cent of all treatments contained errors relating to unexpected anatomical changes between treatment fractions. Both rectum and pelvis cancer treatments demonstrated process capability indices were less than 1, indicating the potential for quality improvement and hence may benefit from further assessment. Research limitations/implications The study relied on the application of in vivo EPID dosimetry for patients treated at the specific centre. Sampling patients for generating the control limits were limited to 100 patients. Whilst the quantitative results are specific to the clinical techniques and equipment used, the described method is generally applicable to IMRT and VMAT treatment QA. Whilst more work is required to determine the level of clinical significance, the

  18. Actual survey of dose evaluation method for standardization of radiation therapy techniques. With special reference to display method of radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Kozo; Yoshiura, Takao; Izumi, Takashi; Araki, Fujio; Takada, Takuo; Jingu, Kenichi.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of questionnaire survey for actual conditions of radiation therapy, which was conducted with the aim of establishing the standardization of radiation therapy techniques. Questionnaires were sent to 100 facilities in Japan, and 86 of these answered, consisting of 62 university hospitals, 2 national hospitals, 14 cancer centers, 4 prefectural or municipal hospitals, and 4 other hospitals. In addition to electron beam therapy, the following typical diseases for radiation therapy were selected as standard irradiation models: cancers of the larynx, esophagus, breast, and uterine cervix, and malignant lymphomas. According to these models, questionnaire results are analyzed in terms of the following four items: (1) irradiation procedures, (2) energy used for radiotherapy, (3) the depth for calculating target absorption doses, and (4) points for displaying target absorption doses. (N.K.)

  19. Nonlinear dynamical triggering of slow slip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knuth, Matthew W [WISCONSIN; Kaproth, Bryan M [PENN STATE; Carpenter, Brett [PENN STATE; Guyer, Robert A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Le Bas, Pierre - Yves [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daub, Eric G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marone, Chris [PENN STATE

    2010-12-10

    Among the most fascinating, recent discoveries in seismology have been the phenomena of triggered slip, including triggered earthquakes and triggered-tremor, as well as triggered slow, silent-slip during which no seismic energy is radiated. Because fault nucleation depths cannot be probed directly, the physical regimes in which these phenomena occur are poorly understood. Thus determining physical properties that control diverse types of triggered fault sliding and what frictional constitutive laws govern triggered faulting variability is challenging. We are characterizing the physical controls of triggered faulting with the goal of developing constitutive relations by conducting laboratory and numerical modeling experiments in sheared granular media at varying load conditions. In order to simulate granular fault zone gouge in the laboratory, glass beads are sheared in a double-direct configuration under constant normal stress, while subject to transient perturbation by acoustic waves. We find that triggered, slow, silent-slip occurs at very small confining loads ({approx}1-3 MPa) that are smaller than those where dynamic earthquake triggering takes place (4-7 MPa), and that triggered slow-slip is associated with bursts of LFE-like acoustic emission. Experimental evidence suggests that the nonlinear dynamical response of the gouge material induced by dynamic waves may be responsible for the triggered slip behavior: the slip-duration, stress-drop and along-strike slip displacement are proportional to the triggering wave amplitude. Further, we observe a shear-modulus decrease corresponding to dynamic-wave triggering relative to the shear modulus of stick-slips. Modulus decrease in response to dynamical wave amplitudes of roughly a microstrain and above is a hallmark of elastic nonlinear behavior. We believe that the dynamical waves increase the material non-affine elastic deformation during shearing, simultaneously leading to instability and slow-slip. The inferred

  20. Slow movement execution in event-related potentials (P300).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Kumi; Sakuma, Haruo; Hirai, Takane

    2002-02-01

    We examined whether slow movement execution has an effect on cognitive and information processing by measuring the P300 component. 8 subjects performed a continuous slow forearm rotational movement using 2 task speeds. Slow (a 30-50% decrease from the subject's Preferred speed) and Very Slow (a 60-80% decrease). The mean coefficient of variation for rotation speed under Very Slow was higher than that under Slow, showing that the subjects found it difficult to perform the Very Slow task smoothly. The EEG score of alpha-1 (8-10 Hz) under Slow Condition was increased significantly more than under the Preferred Condition; however, the increase under Very Slow was small when compared with Preferred. After performing the task. P300 latency under Very Slow increased significantly as compared to that at pretask. Further, P300 amplitude decreased tinder both speed conditions when compared to that at pretask, and a significant decrease was seen under the Slow Condition at Fz, whereas the decrease under the Very Slow Condition was small. These differences indicated that a more complicated neural composition and an increase in subjects' attention might have been involved when the task was performed under the Very Slow Condition. We concluded that slow movement execution may have an influence on cognitive function and may depend on the percentage of decrease from the Preferred speed of the individual.

  1. Slow-Learner Student, Verbal and Nonverbal Intelligence, Wechsler, Leiter, Goodenough

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdieh-Sadat Khoshou'ei; Fakhri-Sadat Mirlohi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This research has been conducted with the aim of examining the performance of slow-learner first grade elementary students in Wechsler, Laiter and Goodenough Intelligence scales. Materials & Methods: The present study was a comparative study. The statistical population was consisted of slow-learner students who were studying in the 1st grade in elementary schools in Isfahan 50 students (25 girls, 25 boys) were selected randomly. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revi...

  2. Identification of slow magnetosonic wave trains and their evolution in 3-D compressible turbulence simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In solar wind, dissipation of slow-mode magnetosonic waves may play a significant role in heating the solar wind, and these modes contribute essentially to the solar wind compressible turbulence. Most previous identifications of slow waves utilized the characteristic negative correlation between δ|B| and δρ. However, that criterion does not well identify quasi-parallel slow waves, for which δ|B| is negligible compared to δρ. Here we present a new method of identification, which will be used in 3-D compressible simulation. It is based on two criteria: (1 that VpB0 (phase speed projected along B0 is around ± cs, and that (2 there exists a clear correlation of δv|| and δρ. Our research demonstrates that if vA > cs, slow waves possess correlation between δv|| and δρ, with δρ / δv|| ≈ ± ρ0 / cs. This method helps us to distinguish slow-mode waves from fast and Alfvén waves, both of which do not have this polarity relation. The criteria are insensitive to the propagation angle θk B, defined as the angle between wave vector k and B0; they can be applied with a wide range of β if only vA > cs. In our numerical simulation, we have identified four cases of slow wave trains with this method. The slow wave trains seem to deform, probably caused by interaction with other waves; as a result, fast or Alfvén waves may be produced during the interaction and seem to propagate bidirectionally away. Our identification and analysis of the wave trains provide useful methods for investigations of compressible turbulence in the solar wind or in similar environments, and will thus deepen understandings of slow waves in the turbulence.

  3. Development of slow positron beam lines and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Nagendra Nath

    2018-05-01

    A positron is an antiparticle of an electron that can be formed in diverse methods: natural or artificial β-decay process, fission and fusion reactions, and a pair production of electron-positron occurred in the reactor and the high energy accelerator centers. Usually a long-lifetime radio isotope is customized for the construction of a slow positron beam lines in many laboratories. The typical intensity of this beam depends upon the strength of the positron source, moderator efficiency, and guiding, pulsing, focusing and detecting systems. This article will review a few positron beam lines and their potential applications in research, especially in the Positronium Bose-Einstein Condensation.

  4. Slow Activity in Focal Epilepsy During Sleep and Wakefulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellegrino, Giovanni; Tombini, Mario; Curcio, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to test differences between healthy subjects and patients with respect to slow wave activity during wakefulness and sleep. Methods Fifteen patients affected by nonlesional focal epilepsy originating within temporal areas and fourteen matched controls underwent a 24-hour EEG....... The effect was widespread for alpha band and above, while localized over the affected hemisphere for delta (sleep cycle 1, P = .006; sleep cycle 2, P = .008; sleep cycle 3, P = .017). The analysis of interhemispheric differences showed that the only frequency band stronger over the affected regions...

  5. Analysis of a slow-dissolving medicine by EPMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasayama, Tetsuaki; Kohara, Kiyohiro; Araki, Takeshi

    1995-01-01

    Along with a dissolution test of a slow-dissolving medicine, the change in distribution of the drug in solution can be observed by using EPMA, and the structual factors and dissolution mechanism which determine the bioavailability of medicine can be clarified. In the evaluation of physical, chemical and pharmaceutical qualities, it is concluded that EPMA is very effective in elemental and state analyses with observation of microscopic areas on the micrometer order. Especially, the color mapping method clarifies the distribution of a drug in the total image field and enables us to analyze the mechanism of a dissolution medicine. (author)

  6. Slow dynamics at critical points: the field-theoretical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambassi, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The dynamics at a critical point provides a simple instance of slow collective evolution, characterised by aging phenomena and by a violation of the fluctuation-dissipation relation even for long times. By virtue of the universality in critical phenomena it is possible to provide quantitative predictions for some aspects of these behaviours by field-theoretical methods. We review some of the theoretical results that have been obtained in recent years for the relevant (universal) quantities, such as the fluctuation-dissipation ratio, associated with the non-equilibrium critical dynamics

  7. Energy spectra from coupled electron-photon slowing down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, H.L.

    1976-08-01

    A coupled electron-photon slowing down calculation for determining electron and photon track length in uniform homogeneous media is described. The method also provides fluxes for uniformly distributed isotropic sources. Source energies ranging from 10 keV to over 10 GeV are allowed and all major interactions are treated. The calculational technique and related cross sections are described in detail and sample calculations are discussed. A listing of the Fortran IV computer code used for the calculations is also included. 4 tables, 7 figures, 16 references

  8. Neuroendokrine Tumore (NET des Gastrointestinaltraktes: Nuklearmedizinische Optionen in Diagnose und Therapie // Neuroendocrine Tumours (NET of the Gastrointestinal Tract: Nuclear Medicine Methods in Diagnosis and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the diagnosis of tumours of neuroendocrine origin PET-CT plays a central role using 68Ga-DOTA-conjugated peptides. In addition to primary diagnosis with clinical and biochemical suspicion, this diagnostic procedure also is essential for staging and further therapy decision, showing in many cases better diagnostic performance than radiological cross-sectional imaging. The detection of unexpected lesions changes therapy management in about one-third of cases. In addition, the 18F-FDG, which is mainly used in non-neuroendocrine tumours, can be an option in poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (NET and, to a certain extent, for estimation of prognosis.br New findings in a prospective randomized multicentre study (NETTER-1 Phase III study strongly confirm the efficacy and safety of radionuclide peptide therapy (PRRT using 177Lu-DOTATATE (Lutathera®. It has been used in several European and US centers including a total of 230 patients with a grade 1–2 midgut tumours. It is evident from the data so far that patients with advanced midgut NETs who are treated with Lutathera have a statistically significantly longer PFS and the OS might be also positively influenced. Although no comparable prospective ranomized study is available for 90Y-DOTA-TOC so far, a comparable therapy efficiency and also good tolerability can be assumed for this compound as indicated by numerous monocentric studies with an overall high number of patients being treated.br In patients with preferential hepatic involvement, the selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT, also called radioembolisation, represents a possible alternative for the local intrahepatic radiation treatment of liver metastases.br bKurzfassung:/b Bei der Diagnose von Tumoren neuroendokrinen Ursprungs spielt die PET-CT mittels 68Ga-DOTA-konjugierter Peptide eine zentrale Rolle. Neben der Primärdiagnose bei klinischem und biochemischem Verdacht erweist sich dieses Diagnoseverfahren auch bei der

  9. Effect of horticultural therapy on wellbeing among dementia day care programme participants: A mixed-methods study (Innovative Practice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jodi; Mitchell, Gary; Webber, Catherine; Johnson, Karen

    2016-04-11

    Fourteen people attending an adult day programme were recruited to a structured horticultural therapy programme which took place over 10 weeks. The effects were assessed using Dementia Care Mapping and questionnaires completed by family carers. High levels of wellbeing were observed while the participants were engaged in horticultural therapy, and these were sustained once the programme was completed. This study adds to the growing evidence on the benefits of horticultural therapy for people with dementia who have enjoyed gardening in the past. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Slow-light solitons in atomic media and doped optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolkova, N.; Sinclair, G.F.; Leonhardt, U.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We show how to generate optical solitons in atomic media that can be slowed down or accelerated at will. Such slow-light soliton is a polarization structure propagating with a speed that is proportional to the total intensity of the incident light. Ultimately, this method will allow the storage, retrieval and possibly the manipulation of the quantum information in atomic media. Solitons with controllable speed are constructed generalizing the theory of slow-light propagation to an integrable regime of nonlinear dynamics. For the first time, the inverse scattering method for slow-light solitons is developed. In contrast to the pioneering experimental demonstrations of slow light, we consider strong spin modulations where the non-linear dynamics of light and atoms creates polarization solitons. We also analyze how this scheme can be implemented in optical fibers doped with Lambda-atoms. In quantum-information applications, such slow-light solitons could complement the use of quantum solitons in fibres with the advantage of storing quantum information in media and complement methods for quantum memory with the advantages of non-linear dynamics, in particular the intrinsic stability of solitons. (author)

  11. SU-C-207B-06: Comparison of Registration Methods for Modeling Pathologic Response of Esophageal Cancer to Chemoradiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riyahi, S; Choi, W; Bhooshan, N; Tan, S; Zhang, H; Lu, W [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To compare linear and deformable registration methods for evaluation of tumor response to Chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in patients with esophageal cancer. Methods: Linear and multi-resolution BSpline deformable registration were performed on Pre-Post-CRT CT/PET images of 20 patients with esophageal cancer. For both registration methods, we registered CT using Mean Square Error (MSE) metric, however to register PET we used transformation obtained using Mutual Information (MI) from the same CT due to being multi-modality. Similarity of Warped-CT/PET was quantitatively evaluated using Normalized Mutual Information and plausibility of DF was assessed using inverse consistency Error. To evaluate tumor response four groups of tumor features were examined: (1) Conventional PET/CT e.g. SUV, diameter (2) Clinical parameters e.g. TNM stage, histology (3)spatial-temporal PET features that describe intensity, texture and geometry of tumor (4)all features combined. Dominant features were identified using 10-fold cross-validation and Support Vector Machine (SVM) was deployed for tumor response prediction while the accuracy was evaluated by ROC Area Under Curve (AUC). Results: Average and standard deviation of Normalized mutual information for deformable registration using MSE was 0.2±0.054 and for linear registration was 0.1±0.026, showing higher NMI for deformable registration. Likewise for MI metric, deformable registration had 0.13±0.035 comparing to linear counterpart with 0.12±0.037. Inverse consistency error for deformable registration for MSE metric was 4.65±2.49 and for linear was 1.32±2.3 showing smaller value for linear registration. The same conclusion was obtained for MI in terms of inverse consistency error. AUC for both linear and deformable registration was 1 showing no absolute difference in terms of response evaluation. Conclusion: Deformable registration showed better NMI comparing to linear registration, however inverse consistency of

  12. Modified constraint-induced movement therapy or bimanual occupational therapy following injection of Botulinum toxin-A to improve bimanual performance in young children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a randomised controlled trial methods paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imms Christine

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of Botulinum toxin-A (BoNT-A for treatment of upper limb spasticity in children with cerebral palsy has become routine clinical practice in many paediatric treatment centres worldwide. There is now high-level evidence that upper limb BoNT-A injection, in combination with occupational therapy, improves outcomes in children with cerebral palsy at both the body function/structure and activity level domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Investigation is now required to establish what amount and specific type of occupational therapy will further enhance functional outcomes and prolong the beneficial effects of BoNT-A. Methods/Design A randomised, controlled, evaluator blinded, prospective parallel-group trial. Eligible participants were children aged 18 months to 6 years, diagnosed with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy and who were able to demonstrate selective motor control of the affected upper limb. Both groups received upper limb injections of BoNT-A. Children were randomised to either the modified constraint-induced movement therapy group (experimental or bimanual occupational therapy group (control. Outcome assessments were undertaken at pre-injection and 1, 3 and 6 months following injection of BoNT-A. The primary outcome measure was the Assisting Hand Assessment. Secondary outcomes included: the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test; Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory; Canadian Occupational Performance Measure; Goal Attainment Scaling; Pediatric Motor Activity Log; modified Ashworth Scale and; the modified Tardieu Scale. Discussion The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology of a randomised controlled trial comparing the effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (a uni-manual therapy versus bimanual occupational therapy (a bimanual therapy on improving bimanual upper limb performance of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy following

  13. Comparison of 3 Different Teaching Methods for a Behavioral Therapy Program for Female Overactive Bladder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezginci, Elif; Iyigun, Emine; Yilmaz, Sercan

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of 3 instructional methods for behavioral therapy on lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) severity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in women with overactive bladder. Single-center, parallel-group, randomized, clinical trial. The sample comprised 60 women diagnosed with overactive bladder. The study setting was a university-based female urology clinic in Ankara, Turkey; data were collected from November 2012 to May 2013. Eligible participants were ambulatory women 18 years or older with predominant overactive bladder and urge urinary incontinence (UI) symptoms, with or without stress UI symptoms. Subjects were randomized into 4 groups based on educational intervention; group 1 received structured verbal instruction plus a leaflet, group 2 received structured verbal instruction, group 3 received a leaflet alone, and group 4 received usual care that included unstructured verbal counseling about continence care. The primary outcome measures were Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 (IIQ-7) and Urinary Distress Inventory-6 (UDI-6) scores. We also measured changes in UI-specific HRQOL scores via the Urinary Incontinence Quality of Life Instrument (I-QOL). All outcomes were measured before and 6 to 8 weeks after the interventions. The Wilcoxon test was used to identify differences in LUTS severity and HRQOL before and after the educational intervention. The Kruskall-Wallis test was used to compare differences among the groups. The severity of LUTS and UI-specific quality of life assessed by the IIQ-7, UDI-6, and I-QOL scores significantly improved after training in all 4 groups (P women with overactive bladder and urge UI.

  14. Advancing Patient-Centered Care in Tuberculosis Management: A Mixed-Methods Appraisal of Video Directly Observed Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Samuel B; Zenilman, Avi; Shah, Maunank

    2018-04-01

    Directly observed therapy (DOT) remains an integral component of treatment support and adherence monitoring in tuberculosis care. In-person DOT is resource intensive and often burdensome for patients. Video DOT (vDOT) has been proposed as an alternative to increase treatment flexibility and better meet patient-specific needs. We conducted a pragmatic, prospective pilot implementation of vDOT at 3 TB clinics in Maryland. A mixed-methods approach was implemented to assess (1) effectiveness, (2) acceptability, and (3) cost. Medication adherence on vDOT was compared with that of in-person DOT. Interviews and surveys were conducted with patients and providers before and after implementation, with framework analysis utilized to extract salient themes. Last, a cost analysis assessed the economic impacts of vDOT implementation across heterogeneous clinic structures. Medication adherence on vDOT was comparable to that of in-person DOT (94% vs 98%, P = .17), with a higher percentage of total treatment doses (inclusive of weekend/holiday self-administration) ultimately observed during the vDOT period (72% vs 66%, P = .03). Video DOT was well received by staff and patients alike, who cited increased treatment flexibility, convenience, and patient privacy. Our cost analysis estimated a savings with vDOT of $1391 per patient for a standard 6-month treatment course. Video DOT is an acceptable and important option for measurement of TB treatment adherence and may allow a higher proportion of prescribed treatment doses to be observed, compared with in-person DOT. Video DOT may be cost-saving and should be considered as a component of individualized, patient-centered case management plans.

  15. 'Recover quicker, train harder, and increase flexibility': massage therapy for elite paracyclists, a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann Blair; Patil, Nirav; Trilk, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    Massage therapy (MT) enhances recovery by reducing pain and fatigue in able-bodied endurance athletes. In athletes with disabilities, no studies have examined similar MT outcomes, yet participation in sport has increased by >1000 athletes from 1996 to 2016 Olympic games. We examined the effect of MT on pain, sleep, stress, function and performance goals on the bike, as well as quality of life off the bike, in elite paracycling athletes. This is a quasi-experimental, convergent, parallel, mixed-methods design study of one team, with nine paracycling participants, in years 2015 and 2016. One-hour MT sessions were scheduled one time per week for 4 weeks, and then every other week for the duration of the time the athlete was on the team and/or in the study. Closed and open-ended survey questions investigating athlete goals, stress, sleep, pain and muscle tightness were gathered pre and post each MT session, and every 6 months for health-related quality of life. Quantitative analysis timepoints include baseline, 4-6 months of intervention and final visit. Additional qualitative data were derived from therapists' treatment notes, exit surveys, and follow-up emails from the athletes and therapists. Significant improvement was found for sleep and muscle tightness; quantitative results were reinforced by athlete comments indicating MT assisted in their recovery while in training. There were no improvements in dimensions measuring quality of life; qualitative comments from athletes suggest reasons for lack of improvement. This real-world study provides new information to support MT for recovery in elite paracyclists.

  16. The impact of music therapy versus music medicine on psychological outcomes and pain in cancer patients: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Potvin, Noah; Kesslick, Amy; Shim, Minjung; Radl, Donna; Schriver, Emily; Gracely, Edward J; Komarnicky-Kocher, Lydia T

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of music therapy (MT) versus music medicine (MM) interventions on psychological outcomes and pain in cancer patients and to enhance understanding of patients' experiences of these two types of music interventions. This study employed a mixed methods intervention design in which qualitative data were embedded within a randomized cross-over trial. Thirty-one adult cancer patients participated in two sessions that involved interactive music making with a music therapist (MT) and two sessions in which they listened to pre-recorded music without the presence of a therapist (MM). Before and after each session, participants reported on their mood, anxiety, relaxation, and pain by means of visual analogue and numeric rating scales. Thirty participants completed an exit interview. The quantitative data suggest that both interventions were equally effective in enhancing target outcomes. However, 77.4 % of participants expressed a preference for MT sessions. The qualitative data indicate that music improves symptom management, embodies hope for survival, and helps connect to a pre-illness self, but may also access memories of loss and trauma. MT sessions helped participants tap into inner resources such as playfulness and creativity. Interactive music making also allowed for emotional expression. Some participants preferred the familiarity and predictability of listening to pre-recorded music. The findings of this study advocate for the use of music in cancer care. Treatment benefits may depend on patient characteristics such as outlook on life and readiness to explore emotions related to the cancer experience.

  17. Appropriateness of clinical and organizational criteria for intra-articular injection therapies in osteoarthritis: A Delphi method consensus initiative among experts in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Paoloni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify the main aspects involved in patient selection, the choice of therapeutic agents and the safety profile, as well as the medico-legal and organizational aspects of intra-articular injection therapies for osteoarthritis. METHODS: A committee of 10 experts from Italian universities, public hospitals, territorial services, research institutes and patient associations was set up. Fifty-two clinicians from a large number of Italian medical centers specialized in intra-articular injection therapy took part in a Delphi process aimed at obtaining consensus statements among the participants. RESULTS: Large consensus was obtained for statements grouped under the following main themes: treatment indications; drug/medical device choice; treatment efficacy; and appropriate setting. CONCLUSIONS: The consensus statements developed by a large number of experts may be used as a practical reference tool to help physicians treat osteoarthritis patients by means of intra-articular injection therapies.

  18. Counting graphene layers with very slow electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Ludĕk; Mikmeková, Eliška; Müllerová, Ilona [Institute of Scientific Instruments AS CR, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, 61264 Brno (Czech Republic); Lejeune, Michaël [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Faculté des Sciences d' Amiens, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-01-05

    The study aimed at collection of data regarding the transmissivity of freestanding graphene for electrons across their full energy scale down to the lowest energies. Here, we show that the electron transmissivity of graphene drops with the decreasing energy of the electrons and remains below 10% for energies below 30 eV, and that the slow electron transmissivity value is suitable for reliable determination of the number of graphene layers. Moreover, electrons incident below 50 eV release adsorbed hydrocarbon molecules and effectively clean graphene in contrast to faster electrons that decompose these molecules and create carbonaceous contamination.

  19. Slow relaxation in weakly open rational polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokshenev, Valery B; Vicentini, Eduardo

    2003-07-01

    The interplay between the regular (piecewise-linear) and irregular (vertex-angle) boundary effects in nonintegrable rational polygonal billiards (of m equal sides) is discussed. Decay dynamics in polygons (of perimeter P(m) and small opening Delta) is analyzed through the late-time survival probability S(m) approximately equal t(-delta). Two distinct slow relaxation channels are established. The primary universal channel exhibits relaxation of regular sliding orbits, with delta=1. The secondary channel is given by delta>1 and becomes open when m>P(m)/Delta. It originates from vertex order-disorder dual effects and is due to relaxation of chaoticlike excitations.

  20. Quasistatic modelling of the coaxial slow source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, K.D.; Pietrzyk, Z.A.; Vlases, G.C.

    1986-01-01

    A new 1-D Lagrangian MHD numerical code in flux coordinates has been developed for the Coaxial Slow Source (CSS) geometry. It utilizes the quasistatic approximation so that the plasma evolves as a succession of equilibria. The P=P (psi) equilibrium constraint, along with the assumption of infinitely fast axial temperature relaxation on closed field lines, is incorporated. An axially elongated, rectangular plasma is assumed. The axial length is adjusted by the global average condition, or assumed to be fixed. In this paper predictions obtained with the code, and a limited amount of comparison with experimental data are presented

  1. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, C.

    2014-09-01

    We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze - a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple ;crossover model; without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space-time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe.

  2. Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Glen A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bonebrake, Eric; Casella, Andrew M.; Danon, Yaron; Devlin, M.; Gavron, Victor A.; Haight, R.C.; Imel, G.R.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; O'Donnell, J.M.; Weltz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    This report documents the progress that has been completed in the first half of FY2012 in the MPACT-funded Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer project. Significant progress has been made on the algorithm development. We have an improve understanding of the experimental responses in LSDS for fuel-related material. The calibration of the ultra-depleted uranium foils was completed, but the results are inconsistent from measurement to measurement. Future work includes developing a conceptual model of an LSDS system to assay plutonium in used fuel, improving agreement between simulations and measurement, design of a thorium fission chamber, and evaluation of additional detector techniques.

  3. Polymers having slow release function and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaetsu, Isao; Yamada, Akio.

    1982-01-01

    The research of giving slow releasing property to drugs by compounding them with suitable matrices and forming has been carried out actively in order to minimize the adverse effect, to reduce the frequency of administration and to improve the bioavailability of such drugs. The slow release function of drugs may be acquired by the copolymerization with synthetic and natural polymers. Drugs are mixed with monomers, and the mixture is polymerized by means of heat, light or radiation (gamma ray or electron beam). Various physical and chemical factors influencing on the rate of release are shown. The compound capsules of drugs and polymers may be used for chemotherapy, enzyme and hormone therapy, immunotherapy, artificial organs, medical and pharmaceutical applications in the form of suppositary, and administration by mucous membrane, subcutaneous and intra-fascia contact or burying. Mytomycin (MMC) of 1.6 mg/kg (LD 50 of i.v. injection) or 3.2 mg/kg (LD 50 x 2) was implanted in the abdomen of dogs. The release of MMC from the implanted capsules was relatively localized to the vicinity of implantation. More hydrophilic polymer (39 % water retention, for example, hydroxyethylmetacrylate polymer) gave more death (toxicity) cases than less hydrophilic one (2 % water retention, for example, diethylglycoldimetacrylate polymer) in the mice with Ehrlich ascites cancer cells, 5 x 10 6 cells/0.2 ml. Because of the nature of locally limited release of the drug, the capsules of anti-cancer drugs, analgesics, antibiotics, hormone, etc. should be delivered to disease foci by means of a fiber scope technique, or intravascular microcapsules. (Yamashita, S.)

  4. Fluctuation-Response Relation and modeling in systems with fast and slow dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lacorata

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We show how a general formulation of the Fluctuation-Response Relation is able to describe in detail the connection between response properties to external perturbations and spontaneous fluctuations in systems with fast and slow variables. The method is tested by using the 360-variable Lorenz-96 model, where slow and fast variables are coupled to one another with reciprocal feedback, and a simplified low dimensional system. In the Fluctuation-Response context, the influence of the fast dynamics on the slow dynamics relies in a non trivial behavior of a suitable quadratic response function. This has important consequences for the modeling of the slow dynamics in terms of a Langevin equation: beyond a certain intrinsic time interval even the optimal model can give just statistical prediction.

  5. Sustainable Development of Slow Fashion Businesses: Customer Value Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sojin Jung

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative to the prevalent fast fashion model, slow fashion has emerged as a way of enhancing sustainability in the fashion industry, yet how slow fashion can enhance profitability is still largely unknown. Based on a customer value creation framework, this study empirically tested a structural model that specified the slow fashion attributes that contribute to creating perceived customer value, which subsequently increases a consumer’s intention to buy and pay a price premium for slow fashion products. An analysis of 221 U.S. consumer data revealed that delivering exclusive product value is significantly critical in creating customer value for slow fashion, and customer value, in turn, positively affects consumers’ purchase intentions. Further analysis also revealed that different slow fashion attributes distinctively affect customer value. This provides potential strategies on which slow fashion businesses can focus to secure an economically sustainable business model, thereby continuously improving environmental and social sustainability with the slow fashion ideal.

  6. Slow-light dynamics in nonlinear periodic waveguides couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukhorukov, A.A.; Ha, S.; Powell, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    We predict pulse switching and reshaping through nonlinear mixing of two slow-light states with different phase velocities in the same frequency range, and report on the first experimental observation of slow-light tunneling between coupled periodic waveguides.......We predict pulse switching and reshaping through nonlinear mixing of two slow-light states with different phase velocities in the same frequency range, and report on the first experimental observation of slow-light tunneling between coupled periodic waveguides....

  7. Slow-light effects in photonic crystal membrane lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Yu, Yi; Ottaviano, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic investigation of photonic crystal cavity laser operating in the slow-light regime. The dependence of lasing threshold on the effect of slow-light will be particularly highlighted.......In this paper, we present a systematic investigation of photonic crystal cavity laser operating in the slow-light regime. The dependence of lasing threshold on the effect of slow-light will be particularly highlighted....

  8. Nonlinear Gain Saturation in Active Slow Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated.......We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated....

  9. Bone marrow-derived cells for cardiovascular cell therapy: an optimized GMP method based on low-density gradient improves cell purity and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radrizzani, Marina; Lo Cicero, Viviana; Soncin, Sabrina; Bolis, Sara; Sürder, Daniel; Torre, Tiziano; Siclari, Francesco; Moccetti, Tiziano; Vassalli, Giuseppe; Turchetto, Lucia

    2014-09-27

    Cardiovascular cell therapy represents a promising field, with several approaches currently being tested. The advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP) for the ongoing METHOD clinical study ("Bone marrow derived cell therapy in the stable phase of chronic ischemic heart disease") consists of fresh mononuclear cells (MNC) isolated from autologous bone marrow (BM) through density gradient centrifugation on standard Ficoll-Paque. Cells are tested for safety (sterility, endotoxin), identity/potency (cell count, CD45/CD34/CD133, viability) and purity (contaminant granulocytes and platelets). BM-MNC were isolated by density gradient centrifugation on Ficoll-Paque. The following process parameters were optimized throughout the study: gradient medium density; gradient centrifugation speed and duration; washing conditions. A new manufacturing method was set up, based on gradient centrifugation on low density Ficoll-Paque, followed by 2 washing steps, of which the second one at low speed. It led to significantly higher removal of contaminant granulocytes and platelets, improving product purity; the frequencies of CD34+ cells, CD133+ cells and functional hematopoietic and mesenchymal precursors were significantly increased. The methodological optimization described here resulted in a significant improvement of ATMP quality, a crucial issue to clinical applications in cardiovascular cell therapy.

  10. Music therapy in kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Šírová, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    This work deals with the subject of music therapy in a special kindergarten for the children with combined disabilities. In the theoretical part it clarifies the concept and principle of music therapy and characterizes the types of disabilities that occur at researched clients. As a research method were used observation and interviews with three music therapists from the institution. KEYWORDS Music therapy, preschool education, special pedagogy, group music therapy,individual music therapy, p...

  11. Factors Contributing Decreased Performance Of Slow Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. L. Kannan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Back ground Even experienced teaching faculty and administrators can be challenged by learners who have not able to perform up to expected need in their annual performance of their students these students are called as slow learnersStruggle learners. There should be a designed study to foster discussion about diagnosing particular problems that contribute with meeting objectives of slow learners. Methodology The study was performed on the entire current first year of Medical students were all the three internal assessments of 250 students performance is taken in to consideration for the study. This study is of cross section type.After obtaining the list of all students marks in internal examination from medical education unit supporting mentors are contacted to meet the students and confidentiality is maintained throughout the study. After obtaining informed consent a questionnaire was administered to the students by the investigator. The questionnaire contains the following sections. Section I will be on the background characteristics of the student name age sex type of family. Section II will be on the details of their learning capabilities. Section III will focus on the awareness of the slow learners in which the precipitating factors contributing to them. Results The prevalence of slow learners as low achievers were contributed to be 32.4 percentages.The performance of the students is based on combination of all three internal assessment marks including theory and practical performance. In this the students age ranges from 17 to 21 years the mean age of student was contributed to be 17.81 and majority of the students were in the age group of 18 years which contributed to be 16867.2.In the present study majority were males 13252.8 compared to females 11847.2.but when study is compared to percentage of attendance majority of the individual 15177 scored more than 50 percentage of marks have more than 80 percentage of attendance but when

  12. Good, Clean, Fair: The Rhetoric of the Slow Food Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines the origins of the Slow Food movement before examining the ways in which Slow Food rhetoric seeks to redefine gastronomy and combat the more deleterious effects of globalization. In articulating a new gastronomy, Slow Food founder Carlo Petrini attempts to reconstruct the gastronomy of Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, at once…

  13. Neutron shielding calculations in a proton therapy facility based on Monte Carlo simulations and analytical models: Criterion for selecting the method of choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titt, U.; Newhauser, W. D.

    2005-01-01

    Proton therapy facilities are shielded to limit the amount of secondary radiation to which patients, occupational workers and members of the general public are exposed. The most commonly applied shielding design methods for proton therapy facilities comprise semi-empirical and analytical methods to estimate the neutron dose equivalent. This study compares the results of these methods with a detailed simulation of a proton therapy facility by using the Monte Carlo technique. A comparison of neutron dose equivalent values predicted by the various methods reveals the superior accuracy of the Monte Carlo predictions in locations where the calculations converge. However, the reliability of the overall shielding design increases if simulation results, for which solutions have not converged, e.g. owing to too few particle histories, can be excluded, and deterministic models are being used at these locations. Criteria to accept or reject Monte Carlo calculations in such complex structures are not well understood. An optimum rejection criterion would allow all converging solutions of Monte Carlo simulation to be taken into account, and reject all solutions with uncertainties larger than the design safety margins. In this study, the optimum rejection criterion of 10% was found. The mean ratio was 26, 62% of all receptor locations showed a ratio between 0.9 and 10, and 92% were between 1 and 100. (authors)

  14. Enhancement of Intermittent Androgen Ablation Therapy by Finasteride Administration in Animal Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhou

    2006-01-01

    .... Intermittent androgen ablation therapy (IAAT) may slow down the development of androgen refractory tumors because intermittent recovery of androgens can induce differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells...

  15. Enhancement of Intermittent Androgen Ablation Therapy by Finasteride Administration in Animal Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhou

    2004-01-01

    .... Intermittent androgen ablation therapy may slow down the development of androgen refractory tumors because intermittent recovery of androgens can induce differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells...

  16. Enhancement of Intermittent Androgen Ablation Therapy by Finasteride Administration in Animal Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhou

    2005-01-01

    .... Intermittent androgen ablation therapy may slow down the development of androgen refractory tumors because intermittent recovery of androgens can induce differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells...

  17. Enhancement of Intermittent Androgen Ablation Therapy by Finasteride Administration in Animal Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhou

    2003-01-01

    .... Intermittent androgen ablation therapy may slow down the development of androgen refractory tumors because intermittent recovery of androgens can induce differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells...

  18. SU-C-BRD-01: A Statistical Modeling Method for Quality Control of Intensity- Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, S; Meyer, R; Shi, L; D'Souza, W; Zhang, H

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To apply a statistical modeling approach, threshold modeling (TM), for quality control of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plans. Methods: A quantitative measure, which was the weighted sum of violations of dose/dose-volume constraints, was first developed to represent the quality of each IMRT plan. Threshold modeling approach, which is is an extension of extreme value theory in statistics and is an effect way to model extreme values, was then applied to analyze the quality of the plans summarized by our quantitative measures. Our approach modeled the plans generated by planners as a series of independent and identically distributed random variables and described the behaviors of them if the plan quality was controlled below certain threshold. We tested our approach with five locally advanced head and neck cancer patients retrospectively. Two statistics were incorporated for numerical analysis: probability of quality improvement (PQI) of the plans and expected amount of improvement on the quantitative measure (EQI). Results: After clinical planners generated 15 plans for each patient, we applied our approach to obtain the PQI and EQI as if planners would generate additional 15 plans. For two of the patients, the PQI was significantly higher than the other three (0.17 and 0.18 comparing to 0.08, 0.01 and 0.01). The actual percentage of the additional 15 plans that outperformed the best of initial 15 plans was 20% and 27% comparing to 11%, 0% and 0%. EQI for the two potential patients were 34.5 and 32.9 and the rest of three patients were 9.9, 1.4 and 6.6. The actual improvements obtained were 28.3 and 20.5 comparing to 6.2, 0 and 0. Conclusion: TM is capable of reliably identifying the potential quality improvement of IMRT plans. It provides clinicians an effective tool to assess the trade-off between extra planning effort and achievable plan quality. This work was supported in part by NIH/NCI grant CA130814

  19. Electromagnetic radiation damping of charges in external gravitational fields (weak field, slow motion approximation). [Harmonic coordinates, weak field slow-motion approximation, Green function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, E [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen (F.R. Germany)

    1975-01-01

    As a model for gravitational radiation damping of a planet the electromagnetic radiation damping of an extended charged body moving in an external gravitational field is calculated in harmonic coordinates using a weak field, slowing-motion approximation. Special attention is paid to the case where this gravitational field is a weak Schwarzschild field. Using Green's function methods for this purpose it is shown that in a slow-motion approximation there is a strange connection between the tail part and the sharp part: radiation reaction terms of the tail part can cancel corresponding terms of the sharp part. Due to this cancelling mechanism the lowest order electromagnetic radiation damping force in an external gravitational field in harmonic coordinates remains the flat space Abraham Lorentz force. It is demonstrated in this simplified model that a naive slow-motion approximation may easily lead to divergent higher order terms. It is shown that this difficulty does not arise up to the considered order.

  20. [Italy's Slow Medicine: a new paradigm in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaldi, Antonio; Vernero, Sandra

    2015-02-01

    Italy's Slow Medicine was founded in 2011 as a movement aimed to promote processes of care based on appropriateness, but within a relation of listening, dialogue and decision sharing with the patient. The mission of Slow Medicine is synthetized by three key words: measured, because it acts with moderation, gradually and without waste; respectful, because it is careful in preserving the dignity and values of each person; and equitable, because it is committed to ensuring access to appropriate care for all. In a short time, the association spreads at national and international level, gathering the needs of change of a growing number of health professionals, patients and citizens, committed to manage health problems with a new cultural and methodological paradigm. Medicine is soaked with inappropriateness, wastes, conflicts of interest, and many clichés induce professionals and patients to consume more and more healthcare services in the illusion that it is always better doing more for improving health. Moreover, the dominant reductionist cultural model, on which the concept of health and disease is based today, considers man as a machine, investigated by a growing number of specialists, particularly interested in the pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases. The interest is mainly focused on technologies, while the person along with the relations with his/her family and the social environment are completely neglected. The systemic approach adopted by Slow Medicine, on the contrary, teaches us that health and disease are complex phenomena and the life of a person is more than the sum of the chemical reactions that occur in its cells. At different levels of complexity, in fact, new and unexpected properties appear, such as thinking, emotions, pleasure, health. These properties are not detectable in the individual elements and can only be studied using methods of analysis and knowledge belonging to other domains of knowledge, such as humanity sciences: philosophy

  1. Improved Visualization of Gastrointestinal Slow Wave Propagation Using a Novel Wavefront-Orientation Interpolation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Terence P; Paskaranandavadivel, Niranchan; Erickson, Jonathan C; OGrady, Gregory; Cheng, Leo K; Angeli, Timothy R

    2018-02-01

    High-resolution mapping of gastrointestinal (GI) slow waves is a valuable technique for research and clinical applications. Interpretation of high-resolution GI mapping data relies on animations of slow wave propagation, but current methods remain as rudimentary, pixelated electrode activation animations. This study aimed to develop improved methods of visualizing high-resolution slow wave recordings that increases ease of interpretation. The novel method of "wavefront-orientation" interpolation was created to account for the planar movement of the slow wave wavefront, negate any need for distance calculations, remain robust in atypical wavefronts (i.e., dysrhythmias), and produce an appropriate interpolation boundary. The wavefront-orientation method determines the orthogonal wavefront direction and calculates interpolated values as the mean slow wave activation-time (AT) of the pair of linearly adjacent electrodes along that direction. Stairstep upsampling increased smoothness and clarity. Animation accuracy of 17 human high-resolution slow wave recordings (64-256 electrodes) was verified by visual comparison to the prior method showing a clear improvement in wave smoothness that enabled more accurate interpretation of propagation, as confirmed by an assessment of clinical applicability performed by eight GI clinicians. Quantitatively, the new method produced accurate interpolation values compared to experimental data (mean difference 0.02 ± 0.05 s) and was accurate when applied solely to dysrhythmic data (0.02 ± 0.06 s), both within the error in manual AT marking (mean 0.2 s). Mean interpolation processing time was 6.0 s per wave. These novel methods provide a validated visualization platform that will improve analysis of high-resolution GI mapping in research and clinical translation.

  2. Slow-release fluoride devices for the control of dental decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Lee-Yee; Clarkson, Jan E; Dobbyn-Ross, Lorna; Bhakta, Smriti

    2018-03-01

    Slow-release fluoride devices have been investigated as a potentially cost-effective method of reducing dental caries in people with high risk of disease. This is the second update of the Cochrane Review first published in 2006 and previously updated in 2014. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different types of slow-release fluoride devices on preventing, arresting, or reversing the progression of carious lesions on all surface types of primary (deciduous) and permanent teeth. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 23 January 2018); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 12) in the Cochrane Library (searched 23 January 2018); MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 23 January 2018); and Embase Ovid (1980 to 23 January 2018). The US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials (23 January 2018). We placed no restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Parallel randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing slow-release fluoride devices with an alternative fluoride treatment, placebo, or no intervention in all age groups. The main outcome measures sought were changes in numbers of decayed, missing, and filled teeth or surfaces (DMFT/DMFS in permanent teeth or dmft/dmfs in primary teeth), and progression of carious lesions through enamel and into dentine. We conducted data collection and analysis using standard Cochrane review methods. At least two review authors independently performed all the key steps in the review such as screening of abstracts, application of inclusion criteria, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment. We resolved discrepancies through discussions or arbitration by a third or fourth review author. We found no evidence comparing slow

  3. A phase II RCT and economic analysis of three exercise delivery methods in men with prostate cancer on androgen deprivation therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Alibhai, Shabbir MH; Santa Mina, Daniel; Ritvo, Paul; Sabiston, Catherine; Krahn, Murray; Tomlinson, George; Matthew, Andrew; Segal, Roanne; Warde, Padraig; Durbano, Sara; O?Neill, Meagan; Culos-Reed, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Background Androgen deprivation therapy is commonly used to treat prostate cancer, the most common visceral cancer in men. However, various side effects often worsen physical functioning and reduce well-being among men on this treatment. Based on existing evidence, both resistance and aerobic training provide benefits for this population yet adherence rates are often low. The method of exercise delivery (supervised in-center or home-based) may be important, yet few studies have compared diffe...

  4. Addressing Relapse in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Panic Disorder: Methods for Optimizing Long-Term Treatment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, Joanna J.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a client with panic disorder and agoraphobia who relapses following a full course of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). To frame the client's treatment, the major components of CBT for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A) are reviewed. Likely reasons for the treatment's failure and strategies for improving…

  5. Identifying Mechanisms of Change in a Conversation Therapy for Aphasia Using Behaviour Change Theory and Qualitative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fiona M.; Best, Wendy; Beckley, Firle Christina; Maxim, Jane; Beeke, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Conversation therapy for aphasia is a complex intervention comprising multiple components and targeting multiple outcomes. UK Medical Research Council (MRC) guidelines published in 2008 recommend that in addition to measuring the outcomes of complex interventions, evaluation should seek to clarify how such outcomes are produced,…

  6. Unexpected formation of gold nanoflowers by a green synthesis method as agents for a safe and effective photothermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Da-Peng; Liu, Xuan; Teng, Choon Peng; Owh, Cally; Win, Khin Yin; Lin, Ming; Loh, Xian Jun; Wu, Yun-Long; Li, Zibiao; Ye, Enyi

    2017-10-26

    Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) juice rich in vitamin C and polyphenolic antioxidants was used to synthesize branched gold nanoflowers. These biocompatible and stable gold nanoflowers show strong near-infrared absorption. They are successfully demonstrated to be highly efficient for both in vitro and in vivo photothermal therapy by using an 808 nm laser.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of emamectin-benzoate slow-release microspheres with different surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Anqi; Wang, Chunxin; Cui, Bo; Sun, Changjiao; Zhao, Xiang; Zeng, Zhanghua; Shen, Yue; Gao, Fei; Liu, Guoqiang; Cui, Haixin

    2017-10-06

    Pesticide slow-release formulations provide a way to increase the efficiency of active components by reducing the amount of pesticide that needs to be applied. Slow-release formulations also increase the stability and prolong the control effect of photosensitive pesticides. Surfactants are an indispensable part of pesticide formulations, and the choice of surfactant can strongly affect formulation performance. In this study, emamectin-benzoate (EMB) slow-release microspheres were prepared by the microemulsion polymerization method. We explored the effect of different surfactants on the particle size and dispersity of EMB in slow-release microspheres. The results indicated that the samples had uniform spherical shapes with an average diameter of 320.5 ±5.24 nm and good dispersity in the optimal formulation with the polymeric stabilizer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and composite non-ionic surfactant polyoxyethylene castor oil (EL-40). The optimal EMB pesticide slow-release microspheres had excellent anti-photolysis performance, stability, controlled release properties, and good leaf distribution. These results demonstrated that EMB slow-release microspheres are an attractive candidate for improving pesticide efficacy and prolonging the control effect of EMB in the environment.

  8. The slow oscillation in cortical and thalamic networks: mechanisms and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett T. Neske

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During even the most quiescent behavioral periods, the cortex and thalamus express rich spontaneous activity in the form of slow (<1 Hz, synchronous network state transitions. Throughout this so-called slow oscillation, cortical and thalamic neurons fluctuate between periods of intense synaptic activity (Up states and almost complete silence (Down states. The two decades since the original characterization of the slow oscillation in the cortex and thalamus have seen considerable advances in deciphering the cellular and network mechanisms associated with this pervasive phenomenon. There are, nevertheless, many questions regarding the slow oscillation that await more thorough illumination, particularly the mechanisms by which Up states initiate and terminate, the functional role of the rhythmic activity cycles in unconscious or minimally conscious states, and the precise relation between Up states and the activated states associated with waking behavior. Given the substantial advances in multineuronal recording and imaging methods in both in vivo and in vitro preparations, the time is ripe to take stock of our current understanding of the slow oscillation and pave the way for future investigations of its mechanisms and functions. My aim in this Review is to provide a comprehensive account of the mechanisms and functions of the slow oscillation, and to suggest avenues for further exploration.

  9. Spinor Slow Light and Two-Color Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ite; Lee, Meng-Jung; Ruseckas, Julius; Lee, Chin-Yuan; Kudriasov, Viaceslav; Chang, Kao-Fang; Cho, Hung-Wen; Juzeliunas, Gediminas; Yu, Ite A.

    2015-05-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of two-component or spinor slow light (SSL) using a double tripod (DT) atom-light coupling scheme. The scheme involves three atomic ground states coupled to two excited states by six light fields. The oscillation due to the interaction between the two components was observed. SSL can be used to achieve high conversion efficiencies in the sum frequency generation and is a better method than the widely-used double- Λ scheme. On the basis of the stored light, our data showed that the DT scheme behaves like the two outcomes of an interferometer enabling precision measurements of frequency detuning. Furthermore, the single-photon SSL can be considered as the qubit with the superposition state of two frequency modes or, simply, as the two-color qubit. We experimentally demonstrated a possible application of the DT scheme as quantum memory/rotator for the two-color qubit. This work opens up a new direction in the EIT/slow light research. yu@phys.nthu.edu.tw

  10. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetterich, C.

    2014-09-07

    We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze — a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space–time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe.

  11. Interaction of slow electrons with surfaces. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komolov, S.A.; Chadderton, L.T.

    1976-01-01

    Total current spectroscopy (TCS) has been used to study the growth of films of gold and silver on (100) vanadium surfaces. A slow transition from TCS curves characteristic of vanadium to curves characteristic of the noble metals is observed, accompanied by an increase in the net work function - more rapid for silver than for gold. Vanadium characteristics are lost from the TCS curves for mean overlayer thicknesses > approximately 15A, and a simple analysis shows that the thickness of the surface zone from which TCS signals originate is approximately given by the electron mean free path. Observations of progressive attenuation of a characteristic vanadium feature with increasing mean thickness of overlayer permits separation into stages of nucleation and growth. There is a critical nucleus size of approximately 2A for silver and approximately 4A for gold. (Auth.)

  12. Limits of slow light in photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2008-01-01

    in the group velocity acquiring a finite value above zero at the band-gap edges while attaining uperluminal values within the band gap. Simple scalings of the minimum and maximum group velocities with the imaginary part of the dielectric function or, equivalently, the linewidth of the broadened states......While ideal photonic crystals would support modes with a vanishing group velocity, state-of-the-art structures have still only provided a slow down by roughly two orders of magnitude. We find that the induced density of states caused by lifetime broadening of the electromagnetic modes results...... are presented. The results obtained are entirely general and may be applied to any effect which results in a broadening of the electromagnetic states, such as loss, disorder, and finite-size effects. This significantly limits the reduction in group velocity attainable via photonic crystals....

  13. Slow neutron scattering by water molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancic, V [Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1970-07-01

    In this work some new, preliminary formulae for slow neutron scattering cross section calculation by heavy and light water molecules have been done. The idea was to find, from the sum which exists in well known Nelkin model, other cross sections in a more simple analytical form, so that next approximations may be possible. In order to sum a series it was starting from Euler-Mclaurin formula. Some new summation formulae have been derived there, and defined in two theorems. Extensive calculations, especially during the evaluation of residues, have been made at the CDC 3600 computer. validation of derived formulae was done by comparison with the BNL-325 results. Good agreement is shown. (author)

  14. Acoustic slow waves and the consolidation transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.L.; Plona, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    We have investigated the ultrasonic properties of unconsolidated (loose) glass beads and of lightly fused (consolidated) glass beads when the pore space is saturated with water. At a frequency of 500 kHz we have observed a single compressional wave in the former whose speed is 1.79 km/s and two distinct compressional waves with speeds 2.81 km/s and 0.96 km/s in the latter. The Biot theory is shown to give an accurate description of this phenomenon. We also analyze the acoustics of low temperature He ii in packed powder superleaks; either the fast wave for unconsolidated systems or the slow wave in a highly consolidated (fused) frame may be considered to be the 4th sound mode. In all such systems, the acoustic properties can be very simply understood by considering the velocities of propagation as continuous functions of the elastic moduli of the solid skeletal frames

  15. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2014-01-01

    We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze — a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space–time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe

  16. Slow speed object detection for haul trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    Caterpillar integrates radar technology with its current camera based system. Caterpillar has developed the Integrated Object Detection System, a slow speed object detection system for mining haul trucks. Object detection is a system that aids the truck operator's awareness of their surroundings. The system consists of a color touch screen display along with medium- and short-range radar as well as cameras, harnesses and mounting hardware. It is integrated into the truck's Work Area Vision System (WAVS). After field testing in 2007, system commercialization began in 2008. Prototype systems are in operation in Australia, Utah and Arizona and the Integrated Object Detection System will be available in the fourth quarter of 2009 and on production trucks 785C, 789C, 793D and 797B. The article is adapted from a presentation by Mark Richards of Caterpillar to the Haulage & Loading 2009 conference, May, held in Phoenix, AZ. 1 fig., 5 photos.

  17. Slow neutron scattering by water molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancic, V.

    1970-01-01

    In this work some new, preliminary formulae for slow neutron scattering cross section calculation by heavy and light water molecules have been done. The idea was to find, from the sum which exists in well known Nelkin model, other cross sections in a more simple analytical form, so that next approximations may be possible. In order to sum a series it was starting from Euler-Mclaurin formula. Some new summation formulae have been derived there, and defined in two theorems. Extensive calculations, especially during the evaluation of residues, have been made at the CDC 3600 computer. validation of derived formulae was done by comparison with the BNL-325 results. Good agreement is shown. (author)

  18. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wetterich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze — a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space–time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe.

  19. Evaluation of conventional therapeutic methods versus maggot therapy in the evolution of healing of tegumental injuries in Wistar rats with and without diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiero, Franciéle Souza; Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline

    2016-06-01

    Larval therapy consists on the application of sterilized carrion flies larvae, reared in laboratory, on acute, chronic, and/or infected wounds in order to promote healing. Conventional methods for treating injuries include mechanical debridement or silver-based dressings; however, they are not always effective for wound healing. Larval therapy is a feasible and safe treatment for therapeutic application and, in many cases, the only and the most recommended alternative for difficult healing injuries. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the competence of Cochliomyia macellaria F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as a suitable species for therapeutic application and evaluate time and effectiveness of the types of treatments most commonly used to treat integumental injuries. C. macellaria eggs were obtained from colonies established in laboratory and sterilized prior to application. Twenty-five larvae were applied for each centimeter squared of lesion. Lesions were induced in 24 Wistar rats; type 1 diabetes mellitus was induced in 12 of them. Animals were divided in four groups with three individuals each, being denominated: larval therapy, larval therapy associated with foam dressing with silver release, mechanical debridement with foam dressing silver and control group, without treatment. All treatments were applied once and held for 24 h. Medical application of larvae was found to be safe, as only dead tissue was removed, and efficient to accelerate healing process when compared to other treatments.

  20. Craniosacral therapy as a relaxation method for hyperreactivity in a child with sensory integration disorder – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Strojek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Impaired sensory processing, the so-called sensory integration disorder, occurs when the brain is unable to correctly process the stimuli coming from the internal and the external environment. Proper sensory integration allows the child for normal everyday functioning (learning, playing, resting, whereas children with impaired sensory integration often lack the psycho-affective balance. They suffer from psychosomatic disorders, which may be caused by e.g. stress due to peer competition at school. Children affected by this disorder need relaxation to regain the balance necessary for proper physical and mental development. The aim of the study is to assess the therapeutic outcomes in a 7-year-old girl diagnosed with vestibular, tactile and proprioceptive deficits. Craniosacral therapy and somatosensory integration method were used. Relaxation therapy had beneficial effects on child’s development, behaviour and the manner of communication with the environment. The hyperesthesia sites, which were present before the therapy, resolved. Previously reported self-aggressive behaviours are no longer observed. Furthermore, the child’s independence, which is crucial for the psychosocial development, also increased during the therapy.