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Sample records for therapy method slows

  1. Slow evaporation method and enhancement in photoluminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and striations will appear in the samples and it is difficult to completely remove the residual hydroxyls from the phos- phors [18]. Similarly in combustion synthesis, fuel and oxi- dizer is required and also it is very difficult to maintain the fuel/oxidizer ratio. In co-precipitation method, drying and washing processes are required, ...

  2. Gene therapies development: slow progress and promising prospect

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Eve; R?muzat, C?cile; Auquier, Pascal; Toumi, Mondher

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: In 1989, the concept of human gene therapies has emerged with the first approved human gene therapy trial of Rosenberg et al. Gene therapies are considered as promising therapies applicable to a broad range of diseases. Objective: The objective of this study was to review the descriptive data on gene therapy clinical trials conducted worldwide between 1989 and 2015, and to discuss potential success rates of these trials over time and anticipated market launch in the upcom...

  3. METHODS AND PSYCHOLOGY OF TEACHING THE SLOW LEARNER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARTIN, RUTH; MARTIN, WILLIAM

    THE SPECIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF THE SLOW LEARNER ARE EMPHASIZED IN THIS PUBLIC SCHOOL CURRICULUM GUIDE. FOR THIS TYPE OF STUDENT MORE FOCUS MUST BE PLACED ON PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT AND ADEQUACY IN BASIC SKILLS THAN ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT. THEREFORE THE OBJECTIVES OF A "BASIC WORK PROGRAM" FOR SLOW LEARNERS SHOULD STRESS THE…

  4. Electrical stimulation therapy for slow transit constipation in children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Liang; He, Jin; Lu, Shifeier

    2015-05-01

    Slow transit constipation is a common disorder in children, which often does not respond well to ordinary treatments. We have conducted a systematic review of reported studies in order to better define the current state of knowledge about electrical stimulation treatment of slow transit constipation in children. We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, BioMed Central, and ISI Web of Knowledge with relevant terms; six studies, all from one center, met the criteria for inclusion. Two trials were randomized clinical trials, and four were prospective studies. The number of subjects included in the studies was 8 to 39, with ages 3 to 18 years. Treatment sessions varied from 20 to 30 min 3 times per week to 1 h daily, and duration of therapy varied from 3 weeks to 6 months. Statistically significant improvements after electrical stimulation therapy were recorded in one to four outcome measures in each of the studies: frequency of defecation, soiling, Bristol Stool Scale, radionuclear transit studies, and quality of life; however, the improvements were of modest degree and of uncertain clinical significance. Quality assessment of the studies found various levels of bias, with attrition bias and reporting bias in all six. This systemic review found moderate support for the effectiveness of electrical stimulation therapy in slow transit constipation in children. However, better-designed studies, with larger and more diverse patient populations followed for longer time periods, will be needed in order to reliably determine the efficacy of electrical stimulation therapy in the treatment of this disorder.

  5. Comparison between different dispersion engineering methods in slow light photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares the performance of different dispersion engineering methods in slow light photonic crystal waveguides, i.e., geometrical parameter optimization and topology optimization. In both methods, the design robustness is enforced by considering the dilated, intermediate and eroded...

  6. Comparison of the efficacy of conventional slow freezing and rapid cryopreservation methods for bovine embryos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagtendonk-de Leeuw, van A.M.; Daas, den J.H.; Kruip, T.A.; Rail, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    Day 7 bovine morulae and early blastocysts were randomly assigned to one of four cryopreservation methods: (i) a modified conventional controlled slow freezing and stepwise dilution after thawing; and three methods which enable direct transfer of the embryo into the recipient upon thawing: (ii)

  7. A framework for the correction of slow physiological drifts during MR-guided HIFU therapies: Proof of concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachiu, Cornel, E-mail: C.Zachiu@umcutrecht.nl; Moonen, Chrit; Ries, Mario [Imaging Division, UMC Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht 3584 CX (Netherlands); Denis de Senneville, Baudouin [Imaging Division, UMC Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht 3584 CX (Netherlands); Mathematical Institute of Bordeaux, University of Bordeaux, Talence Cedex 33405 (France)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: While respiratory motion compensation for magnetic resonance (MR)-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) interventions has been extensively studied, the influence of slow physiological motion due to, for example, peristaltic activity, has so far been largely neglected. During lengthy interventions, the magnitude of the latter can exceed acceptable therapeutic margins. The goal of the present study is to exploit the episodic workflow of these therapies to implement a motion correction strategy for slow varying drifts of the target area and organs at risk over the entire duration of the intervention. Methods: The therapeutic workflow of a MR-guided HIFU intervention is in practice often episodic: Bursts of energy delivery are interleaved with periods of inactivity, allowing the effects of the beam on healthy tissues to recede and/or during which the plan of the intervention is reoptimized. These periods usually last for at least several minutes. It is at this time scale that organ drifts due to slow physiological motion become significant. In order to capture these drifts, the authors propose the integration of 3D MR scans in the therapy workflow during the inactivity intervals. Displacements were estimated using an optical flow algorithm applied on the 3D acquired images. A preliminary study was conducted on ten healthy volunteers. For each volunteer, 3D MR images of the abdomen were acquired at regular intervals of 10 min over a total duration of 80 min. Motion analysis was restricted to the liver and kidneys. For validating the compatibility of the proposed motion correction strategy with the workflow of a MR-guided HIFU therapy, an in vivo experiment on a porcine liver was conducted. A volumetric HIFU ablation was completed over a time span of 2 h. A 3D image was acquired before the first sonication, as well as after each sonication. Results: Following the volunteer study, drifts larger than 8 mm for the liver and 5 mm for the kidneys prove that

  8. Evaluation of cephalometric changes in patients with class III malocclusion in mixed dentition period following face mask therapy and slow maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Akhondi MS.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Among different treatments of patients with Class III malocclusion , orthopedic protraction of maxilla has been known as an effective method in mixed dentition period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cephalometric changes of Cl III patients in mixed dentition period following face mask therapy and slow maxillary expansion. "nMaterials and Methods: This was a before-after study which was conducted on 10 children in mixed dentition period, who had class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency according to the Stiener and Mc Namara's analysis. The patients were all treated by protraction face mask and slow maxillary expansion. The cephalometric changes of maxilla , mandible and dental relations during the treatment were analyzed by Paired sample T Test. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significant. "nResults: The overjet increasement was 1.7mm. Co. ANS distance improvement was 5.6mm, Ptm.ANS distance increasing was 3mm, and ultimately improvement of Gf.s distance was 1.5mm which were all statistically significant (p<0.05. "nConclusion: Based on the results of this study, face mask therapy with slow maxillary expansion is able to improve the horizotal position of maxilla, in patients with Cl III malocclusion , in mixed dentition period.

  9. Fast and slow thinking in distressing delusions: A review of the literature and implications for targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Thomas; Garety, Philippa A

    2017-09-16

    The recent literature on reasoning biases in psychosis and delusions is reviewed. The state-of-the-art knowledge from systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the evidence for jumping to conclusions is briefly summarised, before a fuller discussion of the more recent empirical literature on belief flexibility as applied to delusions. The methodology and evidence in relation to studies of belief flexibility and the Bias Against Disconfirmatory Evidence (BADE) across the delusional continuum will be critically appraised, and implications drawn for improving cognitive therapy. It will be proposed that dual process models of reasoning, which Kahneman (Kahneman, 2011) popularised as 'fast and slow thinking', provide a useful theoretical framework for integrating further research and informing clinical practice. The emergence of therapies which specifically target fast and slow thinking in people with distressing delusions will be described. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Method for microbeam radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Dilmanian, F. Avraham; Spanne, Per O.

    1994-01-01

    A method of performing radiation therapy on a patient, involving exposing a target, usually a tumor, to a therapeutic dose of high energy electromagnetic radiation, preferably X-ray radiation, in the form of at least two non-overlapping microbeams of radiation, each microbeam having a width of less than about 1 millimeter. Target tissue exposed to the microbeams receives a radiation dose during the exposure that exceeds the maximum dose that such tissue can survive. Non-target tissue between the microbeams receives a dose of radiation below the threshold amount of radiation that can be survived by the tissue, and thereby permits the non-target tissue to regenerate. The microbeams may be directed at the target from one direction, or from more than one direction in which case the microbeams overlap within the target tissue enhancing the lethal effect of the irradiation while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue.

  11. Conventional, Bayesian, and Modified Prony's methods for characterizing fast and slow waves in equine cancellous bone

    OpenAIRE

    Groopman, Amber M.; Katz, Jonathan I.; Holland, Mark R.; Fujita, Fuminori; Matsukawa, Mami; Mizuno, Katsunori; Wear, Keith A.; Miller, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional, Bayesian, and the modified least-squares Prony's plus curve-fitting (MLSP + CF) methods were applied to data acquired using 1 MHz center frequency, broadband transducers on a single equine cancellous bone specimen that was systematically shortened from 11.8 mm down to 0.5 mm for a total of 24 sample thicknesses. Due to overlapping fast and slow waves, conventional analysis methods were restricted to data from sample thicknesses ranging from 11.8 mm to 6.0 mm. In contrast, Bayesi...

  12. Cryopreservation of Endothelial Cells in Various Cryoprotective Agents and Media - Vitrification versus Slow Freezing Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim von Bomhard

    Full Text Available Vitrification of endothelial cells (MHECT-5 has not previously been compared with controlled slow freezing methods under standardized conditions. To identify the best cryopreservation technique, we evaluated vitrification and standardized controlled-rate -1°C/minute cell freezing in a -80°C freezer and tested four cryoprotective agents (CPA, namely dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, ethylene glycol (EG, propylene glycol (PG, and glycerol (GLY, and two media, namely Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium Ham's F-12 (DMEMand K+-modified TiProtec (K+TiP, which is a high-potassium-containing medium. Numbers of viable cells in proliferation were evaluated by the CellTiter 96® AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay (Promega Corporation, Mannheim, Germany. To detect the exact frozen cell number per cryo vial, DNA content was measured by using Hoechst 33258 dye prior to analysis. Thus, results could be evaluated unconstrained by absolute cell number. Thawed cells were cultured in 25 cm2 cell culture flasks to confluence and examined daily by phase contrast imaging. With regard to cell recovery immediately after thawing, DMSO was the most suitable CPA combined with K+TiP in vitrification (99 ±0.5% and with DMEM in slow freezing (92 ±1.6%. The most viable cells in proliferation after three days of culture were obtained in cells vitrificated by using GLY with K+TiP (308 ±34% and PG with DMEM in slow freezing (280 ±27%.

  13. Early warning of climate tipping points from critical slowing down: comparing methods to improve robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, T M; Livina, V N; Dakos, V; van Nes, E H; Scheffer, M

    2012-03-13

    We address whether robust early warning signals can, in principle, be provided before a climate tipping point is reached, focusing on methods that seek to detect critical slowing down as a precursor of bifurcation. As a test bed, six previously analysed datasets are reconsidered, three palaeoclimate records approaching abrupt transitions at the end of the last ice age and three models of varying complexity forced through a collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Approaches based on examining the lag-1 autocorrelation function or on detrended fluctuation analysis are applied together and compared. The effects of aggregating the data, detrending method, sliding window length and filtering bandwidth are examined. Robust indicators of critical slowing down are found prior to the abrupt warming event at the end of the Younger Dryas, but the indicators are less clear prior to the Bølling-Allerød warming, or glacial termination in Antarctica. Early warnings of thermohaline circulation collapse can be masked by inter-annual variability driven by atmospheric dynamics. However, rapidly decaying modes can be successfully filtered out by using a long bandwidth or by aggregating data. The two methods have complementary strengths and weaknesses and we recommend applying them together to improve the robustness of early warnings.

  14. Influence of tungsten fiber’s slow drift on the measurement of G with angular acceleration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Jie; Wu, Wei-Huang; Zhan, Wen-Ze [School of Mechanical Engineering and Electronic Information, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Xue, Chao [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Physics and Astronomy, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Shao, Cheng-Gang, E-mail: cgshao@mail.hust.edu.cn; Wu, Jun-Fei [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Milyukov, Vadim [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    In the measurement of the gravitational constant G with angular acceleration method, the equilibrium position of torsion pendulum with tungsten fiber undergoes a linear slow drift, which results in a quadratic slow drift on the angular velocity of the torsion balance turntable under feedback control unit. The accurate amplitude determination of the useful angular acceleration signal with known frequency is biased by the linear slow drift and the coupling effect of the drifting equilibrium position and the room fixed gravitational background signal. We calculate the influences of the linear slow drift and the complex coupling effect on the value of G, respectively. The result shows that the bias of the linear slow drift on G is 7 ppm, and the influence of the coupling effect is less than 1 ppm.

  15. Evaluation of dosimetric effect caused by slowing with multi-leaf collimator (MLC leaves for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhengzheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is to report 1 the sensitivity of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT QA method for clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT plans with multi-leaf collimator (MLC leaf errors that will not trigger MLC interlock during beam delivery; 2 the effect of non-beam-hold MLC leaf errors on the quality of VMAT plan dose delivery.

  16. Influence of impregnation method on metal retention of CCB-treated wood in slow pyrolysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinata, Silao Espérance; Loubar, Khaled; Bouslamti, Amine; Belloncle, Christophe; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-09-30

    In the present work, the effects of copper, chromium and boron on the pyrolysis of wood and their distribution in the pyrolysis products were investigated. For this, the wood has been impregnated with chromium-copper-boron (CCB). In addition, to describe the effects of impregnation method, vacuum-pressure and dipping methods were also conducted. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results show that an increase in the final residue and decrease in degradation temperature on both methods of treated wood compared to untreated wood. Then, slow pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a laboratory reactor. The mass balance of pyrolysis products is confirmed by TGA. Furthermore, the concentration of metals in the final residue is measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The results show that the final residue contains more than 45% of the initial amount of metal present in the treated wood. The phenomenon is more pronounced with vacuum-pressure treated wood. The heating values of pyrolysis products were analyzed. The heating value of charcoal obtained from treated and untreated wood is approximately same. But the heating value of tar from untreated wood is higher than the heating value of the tar from treated wood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Slow chlorine releasing compounds: A viable sterilisation method for bioabsorbable nanocomposite biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Naghmeh; Griffin, Michelle; Malins, Edward; Becer, Remzi; Mosahebi, Afshin; Whitaker, Iain S; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2016-02-01

    Selection of the appropriate sterilisation method for biodegradable materials has been a challenging task. Many conventional sterilisation methods are not suitable for the next generation of biomaterials, mainly due to their complex composition, based on nanomaterials, often incorporating bioactive moieties. In this study, we investigate sterilisation efficacy of slow chlorine releasing compound sodium dichloroisocyanurate dihydrate (SDIC) for polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)-poly(caprolactone urea-urethane) (PCL) scaffolds in comparison with conventional sterilisation methods. POSS-PCL scaffolds were subjected to 70% ethanol, UV, and SDIC sterilisation methods. Samples were immersed in tryptone soya broth (TSB) and thioglycollate medium (THY) and after seven days visually inspected for signs of microbial growth. Bulk and surface properties and molecular weight distribution profiles of the scaffolds after sterilization were investigated using FTIR analysis, surface hydrophilicity, scanning electron microscopy analysis, tensile strength testing, and gel-permeation chromatography (GPC). Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) were seeded on the scaffolds and AlamarBlue® viability assay was performed to investigate cell metabolic activity. Confocal imaging of rhodamine phalloidin and Dapi stained ADSC on scaffolds was used to demonstrate cell morphology. GPC results showed that autoclaving led to a significant decrease in the molecular weight of POSS-PCL, whereas ethanol caused visible deformation of the polymer 3D structure and UV radiation did not effectively sterilise the scaffolds. AlamarBlue® analysis showed metabolic activity close to that of tissue culture plastic for ethanol and SDIC. SDIC sterilisation can be safely applied to biodegradable scaffolds unsuitable for the more common sterilisation methods. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Designing Slow Fun! Physical Therapy Games to Remedy the Negative Consequences of Spasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Vanden Abeele, Vero; Geurts, Luc; Husson, Jelle; Windey, Frederik; Annema, Jan Henk; Verstraete, Mathijs; Desmet, Stef

    2010-01-01

    Spasticity is a motor disorder defined by involuntary muscle contractions, resulting in uncoordinated gait, stiff body posture and shortening of range of limb movement. The first line treatment of spasticity is physical and occupational therapy, involving physical exercises that focus on stretching and strengthening of muscles. In this paper, we report on the difficulty of designing fun games that build upon these physical exercises and remedy the negative consequences of...

  19. Episomal Nonviral Gene Therapy Vectors Slow Progression of Atherosclerosis in a Model of Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair G Kerr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH is a life-threatening genetic disorder characterized by elevated levels of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol. Current attempts at gene therapy for FH have been limited by the use of strong heterologous promoters which lack genomic DNA elements essential for regulated expression. Here, we have combined a minigene vector expressing the human LDLR cDNA from a 10 kb native human LDLR locus genomic DNA promoter element, with an efficient miRNA targeting 3-hydroxy-3-methylgutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr, to further enhance LDLR expression. We show that the combined vector suppresses endogenous Hmgcr transcripts in vivo, leading to an increase in LDLR transgene expression. In a diet-induced Ldlr-/- mouse model of FH, we show that administration of the combined vector reduces atherogenic plasma lipids by ≃32%. Finally, we demonstrate that our episomal nonviral vectors are able to reduce atherosclerosis by ≃40% after 12 weeks in vivo. Taken together, the vector system we describe exploits the normal cellular regulation of the LDLR to provide prolonged expression of LDLR through targeted knockdown of Hmgcr. This novel gene therapy system could act alone, or in synergy with current therapies that modulate intracellular cholesterol, such as statins, greatly enhancing its therapeutic application for FH.

  20. Nanomotion Detection Method for Testing Antibiotic Resistance and Susceptibility of Slow-Growing Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, María Ines; Stupar, Petar; Chomicki, Wojciech; Bertacchi, Massimiliano; Dietler, Giovanni; Arnal, Laura; Vela, María Elena; Yantorno, Osvaldo; Kasas, Sandor

    2017-12-04

    Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms and are often severe. Time to fully characterize an infectious agent after sampling and to find the right antibiotic and dose are important factors in the overall success of a patient's treatment. Previous results suggest that a nanomotion detection method could be a convenient tool for reducing antibiotic sensitivity characterization time to several hours. Here, the application of the method for slow-growing bacteria is demonstrated, taking Bordetella pertussis strains as a model. A low-cost nanomotion device is able to characterize B. pertussis sensitivity against specific antibiotics within several hours, instead of days, as it is still the case with conventional growth-based techniques. It can discriminate between resistant and susceptible B. pertussis strains, based on the changes of the sensor's signal before and after the antibiotic addition. Furthermore, minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of clinically applied antibiotics are compared using both techniques and the suggested similarity is discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Human gene therapy for RPE65 isomerase deficiency activates the retinoid cycle of vision but with slow rod kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cideciyan, Artur V.; Aleman, Tomas S.; Boye, Sanford L.; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Kaushal, Shalesh; Roman, Alejandro J.; Pang, Ji-jing; Sumaroka, Alexander; Windsor, Elizabeth A. M.; Wilson, James M.; Flotte, Terence R.; Fishman, Gerald A.; Heon, Elise; Stone, Edwin M.; Byrne, Barry J.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Hauswirth, William W.

    2008-01-01

    The RPE65 gene encodes the isomerase of the retinoid cycle, the enzymatic pathway that underlies mammalian vision. Mutations in RPE65 disrupt the retinoid cycle and cause a congenital human blindness known as Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). We used adeno-associated virus-2-based RPE65 gene replacement therapy to treat three young adults with RPE65-LCA and measured their vision before and up to 90 days after the intervention. All three patients showed a statistically significant increase in visual sensitivity at 30 days after treatment localized to retinal areas that had received the vector. There were no changes in the effect between 30 and 90 days. Both cone- and rod-photoreceptor-based vision could be demonstrated in treated areas. For cones, there were increases of up to 1.7 log units (i.e., 50 fold); and for rods, there were gains of up to 4.8 log units (i.e., 63,000 fold). To assess what fraction of full vision potential was restored by gene therapy, we related the degree of light sensitivity to the level of remaining photoreceptors within the treatment area. We found that the intervention could overcome nearly all of the loss of light sensitivity resulting from the biochemical blockade. However, this reconstituted retinoid cycle was not completely normal. Resensitization kinetics of the newly treated rods were remarkably slow and required 8 h or more for the attainment of full sensitivity, compared with vision after RPE65 gene therapy. PMID:18809924

  2. Cryopreservation of human oocytes, zygotes, embryos and blastocysts: A comparison study between slow freezing and ultra rapid (vitrification methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahani Al-Azawi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of female genetics is currently done primarily by means of oocyte and embryo cryopreservation. The field has seen much progress during its four-decade history, progress driven predominantly by research in humans. It can also be done by preservation of ovarian tissue or entire ovary for transplantation, followed by oocyte harvesting or natural fertilization. Two basic cryopreservation techniques rule the field, slow-rate freezing, the first to be developed and vitrification which in recent years, has gained a foothold. The slow-rate freezing method previously reported had low survival and pregnancy rates, along with the high cost of cryopreservation. Although there are some recent data indicating better survival rates, cryopreservation by the slow freezing method has started to discontinue. Vitrification of human embryos, especially at early stages, became a more popular alternative to the slow rate freezing method due to reported comparable clinical and laboratory outcomes. In addition, vitrification is relatively simple, requires no expensive programmable freezing equipment, and uses a small amount of liquid nitrogen for freezing. Moreover, oocyte cryopreservation using vitrification has been proposed as a solution to maintain women’s fertility by serving and freezing their oocytes at the optimal time. The aim of this research is to compare slow freezing and vitrification in cryopreservation of oocytes, zygotes, embryos and blastocysts during the last twelve years. Therefore, due to a lot of controversies in this regard, we tried to achieve an exact idea about the subject and the best technique used.

  3. Time-Spectral Analysis Methods for Spent Fuel Assay Using Lead Slowing-Down Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. Eric; Anderson, Kevin K.; Ressler, Jennifer J.; Shaver, Mark W.

    2010-08-01

    Nondestructive techniques for measuring the mass of fissile isotopes in spent nuclear fuel is a considerable challenge in the safeguarding of nuclear fuel cycles. A nondestructive assay technology that could provide direct measurement of fissile mass, particularly for the plutonium (Pu) isotopes, and improve upon the uncertainty of today's confirmatory methods is needed. Lead slowing-down spectroscopy (LSDS) has been studied for the spent fuel application previously, but the nonlinear effects of assembly self shielding (of the interrogating neutron population) have led to discouraging assay accuracy for realistic pressurized water reactor fuels. In this paper, we describe the development of time-spectral analysis algorithms for LSDS intended to overcome these self-shielding effects. The algorithm incorporates the tabulated energy-dependent cross sections from key fissile and absorbing isotopes, but leaves their mass as free variables. Multi-parameter regression analysis is then used to directly calculate not only the mass of fissile isotopes in the fuel assembly (e.g., Pu-239, U-235, and Pu-241), but also the mass of key absorbing isotopes such as Pu-240 and U-238. Modeling-based assay results using this self-shielding relationship indicate that LSDS has the potential to directly measure fissile isotopes with less than 5% average relative error for pressurized water reactor assemblies with burnup as high as 60 GWd/MTU. Shortcomings in the initial self-shielding model and potential improvements to the formulation are described.

  4. Mixed methods research in music therapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Burns, Debra S; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Music therapists have an ethical and professional responsibility to provide the highest quality care possible to their patients. Much of the time, high quality care is guided by evidence-based practice standards that integrate the most current, available research in making decisions. Accordingly, music therapists need research that integrates multiple ways of knowing and forms of evidence. Mixed methods research holds great promise for facilitating such integration. At this time, there have not been any methodological articles published on mixed methods research in music therapy. The purpose of this article is to introduce mixed methods research as an approach to address research questions relevant to music therapy practice. This article describes the core characteristics of mixed methods research, considers paradigmatic issues related to this research approach, articulates major challenges in conducting mixed methods research, illustrates four basic designs, and provides criteria for evaluating the quality of mixed methods articles using examples of mixed methods research from the music therapy literature. Mixed methods research offers unique opportunities for strengthening the evidence base in music therapy. Recommendations are provided to ensure rigorous implementation of this research approach.

  5. The Analysis and Calculation Method of Urban Rail Transit Carrying Capacity Based on Express-Slow Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban railway transport that connects suburbs and city areas is characterized by uneven temporal and spatial distribution in terms of passenger flow and underutilized carrying capacity. This paper aims to develop methodologies to measure the carrying capacity of the urban railway by introducing a concept of the express-slow mode. We first explore factors influencing the carrying capacity under the express-slow mode and the interactive relationships among these factors. Then we establish seven different scenarios to measure the carrying capacity by considering the ratio of the number of the express trains and the slow trains, the station where overtaking takes place, and the number of overtaking maneuvers. Taking Shanghai Metro Line 16 as an empirical study, the proposed methods to measure the carrying capacity under different express-slow mode are proved to be valid. This paper contributes to the literature by remodifying the traditional methods to measure the carrying capacity when different express-slow modes are applied to improve the carrying capacity of the suburban railway.

  6. Cryopreservation of human failed-matured oocytes followed by in vitro maturation: vitrification is superior to the slow freezing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang ZhiGuo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oocyte cryopreservation is an important method used in a number of human fertility circumstances. Here, we compared the survival, in vitro maturation, fertilization, and early embryonic development rates of frozen-thawed human immature oocytes using two different cryopreservation methods. Methods A total of 454 failed-matured oocytes [germinal vesicle (GV and metaphase I (MI stages] were collected from 135 patients (mean age 33.84 +/- 5.0 y who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles between February 2009 and December 2009 and randomly divided into a slow freezing group [1.5 mol/L-1, 2-propanediol (PROH + 0.2 mol/l sucrose] and vitrification group [20% PROH + 20% ethylene glycol (EG + 0.5 mol/l sucrose]. Results The vitrification protocol yielded a better survival rate than the slow freezing protocol at each maturation stage assessed. Regardless of the maturation stage (GV + MI, the slow freezing protocol had a significantly lower survival rate than the vitrification protocol (p in vitro maturation (21.2 vs. 54.0%, respectively; p 0.05. For the GV-matured oocytes, no fertilized eggs were obtained in the slow-freezing group, while a 19.0% (4/21 fertilization rate was observed in the vitrification group. For the MI-matured oocytes, fertilization rates for the slow freezing and vitrified groups were 36% and 61.1%, respectively, but no significant difference was found between the two groups (PIn the Methods section in the MS, all procedures were compliant with ethical guidelines, i.e. approved by the Ethical Committee of our university and Informed Consent signed by each patient. > 0.05. In the GV vitrification group, no embryo formed; however, in the MI slow freezing group, 12 oocytes were fertilized, but only two achieved cleavage and were subsequently blocked at the 2-cell stage. In the MI vitrification group, a total of 22 embryos were obtained, five of which developed to the blastocyst stage. Conclusions

  7. Drug resistance in HIV patients with virological failure or slow virological response to antiretroviral therapy in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdissa, Alemseged; Yilma, Daniel; Fonager, Jannik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ongoing scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa has prompted the interest in surveillance of transmitted and acquired HIV drug resistance. Resistance data on virological failure and mutations in HIV infected populations initiating treatment in sub-Saharan Af......BACKGROUND: The ongoing scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa has prompted the interest in surveillance of transmitted and acquired HIV drug resistance. Resistance data on virological failure and mutations in HIV infected populations initiating treatment in sub......-Saharan Africa is sparse. METHODS: HIV viral load (VL) and resistance mutations pre-ART and after 6 months were determined in a prospective cohort study of ART-naïve HIV patients initiating first-line therapy in Jimma, Ethiopia. VL measurements were done at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. Genotypic HIV drug......: Our data confirm that the currently recommended first-line ART regimen is efficient in the vast majority of individuals initiating therapy in Jimma, Ethiopia eight years after the introduction of ART. However, the documented occurrence of transmitted resistance and accumulation of acquired HIVDR...

  8. Active music therapy and Parkinson's disease: methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchetti, C; Aglieri, R; Mancini, F; Martignoni, E; Nappi, G

    1998-01-01

    Music therapy (MT) is an unconventional, multisensorial therapy poorly assessed in medical care but widely used to different ends in a variety of settings. MT has two branches: active and passive. In active MT the utilisation of instruments is structured to correspond to all sensory organs so as to obtain suitable motor and emotional responses. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the effects of MT in the neurorehabilitation of patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD), a common degenerative disorder involving movement and emotional impairment. Sixteen PD patients took part in 13 weekly sessions of MT each lasting 2 hours. At the beginning and at the end of the session, every 2 weeks, the patients were evaluated by a neurologist, who assessed PD severity with UPDRS, emotional functions with Happiness Measures (HM) and quality of life using the Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (PDQL). After every session a significant improvement in motor function, particularly in relation to hypokinesia, was observed both in the overall and in the pre-post session evaluations. HM, UPDRS-ADL and PDQL changes confirmed an improving effect of MT on emotional functions, activities of daily living and quality of life. In conclusion, active MT, operating at a multisensorial level, stimulates motor, affective and behavioural functions. Finally, we propose active MT as new method to include in PD rehabilitation programmes. This article describes the methods adopted during MT sessions with PD patients.

  9. Precise Frequency and Period Measurements for Slow Slew Rate Signals Based on the Modified Method of the Dependent Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Y. Yurish

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an application of novel modified method of the dependent count for measuring the frequency (period of slow slew rate signals (common for the conversion-to-digital of resistance, capacitance, inductance or resistive-sensor–bridge signals based on direct connection to a microcontroller. The AVR 8-bit ATmega168-20PI microcontroller (Atmel, based on advanced reduced instruction set computing architecture, was used. The modified method of the dependent count improves the accuracy of period measurements for the slow slew rate signals of triangular, sine, exponential rise and fall, as well as rectangular waveforms, by 2-to-3 orders in comparison with the accuracy achieved with classical indirect counting in all frequency ranges. The error is evaluated from the statistical characteristics and histograms of measured pulse periods, quantitatively confirming the advantages of the modified method for frequency (period measurements for non-square pulse signals. Measurements are further improved (becoming about 1.5 times more accurate for some waveforms when an external Schmitt trigger is used.

  10. Source of spill ripple in the RF-KO slow-extraction method with FM and AM

    CERN Document Server

    Noda, K; Shibuya, S; Muramatsu, M; Uesugi, T; Kanazawa, M; Torikoshi, M; Takada, E; Yamada, S

    2002-01-01

    The RF-knockout (RF-KO) slow-extraction method with frequency modulation (FM) and amplitude modulation (AM) has brought high-accuracy irradiation to the treatment of a cancer tumor moving with respiration, because of a quick response to beam start/stop. However, a beam spill extracted from a synchrotron ring through RF-KO slow-extraction has a huge ripple with a frequency of around 1 kHz related to the FM. The spill ripple will disturb the lateral dose distribution in the beam scanning methods. Thus, the source of the spill ripple has been investigated through experiments and simulations. There are two tune regions for the extraction process through the RF-KO method: the extraction region and the diffusion region. The particles in the extraction region can be extracted due to amplitude growth through the transverse RF field, only when its frequency matches with the tune in the extraction region. For a large chromaticity, however, the particles in the extraction region can be extracted through the synchrotron ...

  11. Correction to “Control of fossil-fuel particulate black carbon and organic matter, possibly the most effective method of slowing global warming”

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark Z. Jacobson

    2005-01-01

    This document describes two updates and a correction that affect two figures (Figures 1 and 14) in “Control of fossil‐fuel particulate black carbon and organic matter, possibly the most effective method of slowing global warming...

  12. A boundary integral method for two-dimensional (non)-Newtonian drops in slow viscous flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toose, E.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.

    1995-01-01

    A boundary integral method for the simulation of the time-dependent deformation of Newtonian or non-Newtonian drops suspended in a Newtonian fluid is developed. The boundary integral formulation for Stokes flow is used and the non-Newtonian stress is treated as a source term which yields an extra

  13. Adjunct Methods of the Standard Diabetic Foot Ulceration Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Waniczek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of management of diabetic foot ulceration (DFU is poor and insufficient. DFU therapy includes the standard management as debridement of the wound, revascularization procedures, off-loading of the ulcer and antibacterial actions, and supplementation of growth factors and cytokines, leading to stimulation of granulation, epidermization, and angiogenesis. The aim of the present review is to summarize the adjunct methods of the standard DFU therapy as hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT, maggot therapy (MT, and platelet-rich plasma therapy (PRPT. The results of preclinical and clinical trials indicated that the methods may reduce time of therapy, short-term morbidity, and the risk of major amputation.

  14. Vegetative deviation in patients with slow-repair processes in the post-operative wound and effect of the combined use of low-intensity laser therapy and pantovegin electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugieva M.Z.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of combined use of low-intensity infrared laser therapy when exposed area of the thymus and electrophoresis of pantovegin on vegetative status of patients with the slowdown in the wound recovery reparative processes. Material study were 190 patients after gynecological laparotomy. Result. The article presents data on changes in vegetative status in postoperative gynecological patients with a slowdown in the wound recovery reparative processes. In this group of patients in the postoperative period parasimpatikotony prevails. By combination of low-intensity infrared laser therapy when exposed area of the thymus and pantovegin electrophoresis achieved more rapid normalization of available changes with the transition to the use of combination eitony. It is recommended to use physiotherapy method for slowing reparative processes in the wound.

  15. Slow Magic Angle Sample Spinning: A Non- or Minimally Invasive Method for High- Resolution 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Metabolic Profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian Z.

    2011-05-01

    High resolution 1H magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), using a sample spinning rate of several kHz or more (i.e., high resolution-magic angle spinning (hr-MAS)), is a well established method for metabolic profiling in intact tissues without the need for sample extraction. The only shortcoming with hr-MAS is that it is invasive and is thus unusable for non-destructive detections. Recently, a method called slow-MAS, using the concept of two dimensional NMR spectroscopy, has emerged as an alternative method for non- or minimal invasive metabolomics in intact tissues, including live animals, due to the slow or ultra-slow-sample spinning used. Although slow-MAS is a powerful method, its applications are hindered by experimental challenges. Correctly designing the experiment and choosing the appropriate slow-MAS method both require a fundamental understanding of the operation principles, in particular the details of line narrowing due to the presence of molecular diffusion. However, these fundamental principles have not yet been fully disclosed in previous publications. The goal of this chapter is to provide an in depth evaluation of the principles associated with slow-MAS techniques by emphasizing the challenges associated with a phantom sample consisting of glass beads and H2O, where an unusually large magnetic susceptibility field gradient is obtained.

  16. SlowMo, a digital therapy targeting reasoning in paranoia, versus treatment as usual in the treatment of people who fear harm from others: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garety, Philippa A; Ward, Thomas; Freeman, Daniel; Fowler, David; Emsley, Richard; Dunn, Graham; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Bebbington, Paul; Waller, Helen; Greenwood, Kathryn; Rus-Calafell, Mar; McGourty, Alison; Hardy, Amy

    2017-11-02

    Paranoia is one of the most common symptoms of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, and is associated with significant distress and disruption to the person's life. Developing more effective and accessible psychological interventions for paranoia is a clinical priority. Our research team has approached this challenge in two main ways: firstly, by adopting an interventionist causal approach to increase effectiveness and secondly, by incorporating user-centred inclusive design methods to enhance accessibility and usability. Our resultant new digital intervention, SlowMo, intensively targets a reasoning style associated with paranoia, fast thinking, characterised by jumping to conclusions and belief inflexibility. It consists of an easy-to-use, enjoyable and memorable digital interface. An interactive web-based app facilitates delivery of face-to-face meetings which is then synchronised with an innovative mobile app for use in daily life. We aim to test the clinical efficacy of SlowMo over 24 weeks to determine the mechanisms through which it reduces paranoia, and to identify participant characteristics that moderate its effectiveness. In a parallel-group randomised controlled trial, with 1:1 allocation, 360 participants with distressing persecutory beliefs will be independently randomised to receive either the SlowMo intervention added to treatment as usual (TAU) or TAU, using randomly varying permuted blocks, stratified by paranoia severity and site. Research workers will be blind to therapy allocation. The primary outcome is paranoia severity over 24 weeks; our hypothesised mechanism of change is reasoning; moderators include negative symptoms and working memory; and secondary outcomes include wellbeing, quality of life, and service use. The accessibility, usability and acceptability of the digital platform will be assessed. SlowMo has been developed as the first blended digital therapy to target fears of harm from others through an inclusive design approach. In

  17. Slow-electron velocity-map imaging study of aniline via resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zehua; Qin, Zhengbo; Zheng, Xianfeng; Wang, Hui; Yao, Guanxin; Zhang, Xianyi; Cui, Zhifeng

    2017-02-01

    Slow electron velocity-map imaging (SEVI) of aniline has been investigated via two-color resonant-enhanced two-photo (1 + 1‧) ionization (2C-R2PI) method. A number of vibrational frequencies in the first excited state of neutral (S1) and 2B1 ground electronic state of cation (D0) have been accurately determined. In addition, photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) in the two-step transitions are presented and reveal a near threshold shape resonance in the ionization of aniline. The SEVI spectra taken via various S1 intermediate states provide the detailed vibrational structures of D0 state and directly deduce the accurate adiabatic ionization potential (IP) of 62,271 ± 6 cm- 1. Ab initio calculations excellently reproduce the experimental IP value (Theo. 62,242 cm- 1). For most vibrational modes, good agreement between theoretical and experimental frequencies in the S0 and D0 states of aniline is obtained to aid us to clearly assign vibrational modes. Especially, the vibrational frequencies calculated at the CASSCF level are much better consistent with experimental data than that obtained using the TDDFT and CIS methods.

  18. Slow Meteors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubs, Martin; Sposetti, Stefano; Spinner, Roger; Booz, Beat

    2017-04-01

    Slow meteors are studied with video observations and spectroscopy. A comparison of their orbits and spectra points to a common origin. Although they do not belong to some meteor stream, they deserve to be studied in more detail. The present paper tries to make a first attempt to characterize the common properties of this class of meteors.

  19. Slow Learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the author's success in teaching English. Describes his experiences in achievement, including what has sometimes felt like a slow and even painful process of professional development. Presents an outline of a unit that illustrates a movement through approaches: from personal growth type activities, to post-structuralist and critical…

  20. [Titration comparative study of TOPINA Tablets in patients with localization related epilepsy: double-blind comparative study by rapid and slow titration methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Sunao; Inoue, Yushi; Sasagawa, Mutsuo; Kato, Masaaki

    2012-04-01

    To compare the tolerability and efficacy of two titration methods (rapid and slow titration) for TOPINA Tablets with different dosages and periods of escalation, a double-blind comparative study was conducted in patients with localization-related epilepsy. A total of 183 patients were randomized to either rapid titration (initial dosage 100 mg/day increased by 100-200 mg at weekly intervals) or to slow titration (initial dosage 50 mg/day increased in 50 mg/day increments at weekly intervals). TOPINA Tablets were administered for 12 weeks to the maximum dosage of 400 mg/day. The incident of adverse events leading to treatment interruptions or withdrawals was 18.9% in rapid titration and 14.8% in slow titration, with no statistical significance (p = 0.554). The incident of adverse events and adverse reactions of slow titration was slightly lower than that of rapid titration. The common adverse events and adverse reactions reported in the two titration methods were comparable and were well tolerated. On the other hand, the efficacy of slow titration, percent reduction in seizure rate and responder rate, was comparable with that of rapid titration. In conclusion, there were no significant differences of therapeutic response to TOPINA Tablets between the two titration methods.

  1. Characterizing charge centroids from lightning using a slow antenna network and the Levenberg-Marquardt inverse method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, J. L.; Sonnenfeld, R. G.; Hager, W. W.; Morris, K.

    2011-12-01

    Researchers have long studied the copious and complex electric field waveforms caused by lightning. By combining electric-field measurements taken at many different locations on the ground simultaneously [Krehbiel et al., 1979], we hope to learn more about charge sources for lightning flashes. The Langmuir Electric Field Array (LEFA) is a network of nine field-change measurement stations (slow-antennas) arranged around Langmuir Laboratory near Magdalena, New Mexico. Using a mathematical method called the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method, we can invert the electric field data to determine the magnitude and position of the charge centroid removed from the cloud. We analyzed three return strokes (RS) following a dart-leader from a storm occurring on October 21st 2011. RS 'A' occurred at 07:17:00.63 UT. The altitude of the charge centroid was estimated to be 5 km via LMA data. Because the LM method requires a prediction, the code was run with a wide range of values to verify the robustness of the method. Predictions varied from ±3 C for the charge magnitude and ±20 km N-S and E-W for the position (with the coordinate origin being the Langmuir Laboratory Annex). The LM method converged to a charge magnitude of -5.5 C and a centroid position of 3.3 km E-W and 12 km, N-S for that RS. RS 'B' occurred at 07:20:05.9 UT. With an altitude of 4 km, the predictions were again varied; ±3 C, ±15 km N-S and E-W. Most runs converged to -27.5 C, 4 km E-W, and 10.9 km N-S. Finally, while results seem best for events right over the array, success was had locating more distant events. RS 'C' occurred at 02:42:46.8 UT. Assuming an altitude of 5 km and varying the predictions as with RS 'A', the results converged to -9.2 C, 35.5 km E-W, and 9 km N-S. All of these results are broadly consistent with the LMA and the NLDN. By continuing this type of analysis, we hope to learn more about how lightning channels propagate and how the charges in the cloud respond to the sudden change in

  2. Correlation between slow-wave myoelectric signals and mechanical contractions in the gastrointestinal tract: Advanced electromyographic method in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Kalman F; Nagy, Aniko; Grosz, Gyorgy; Tiszai, Zita; Gaspar, Robert

    Gastrointestinal motility disorders are presumed to be associated with abnormalities of the generation of slow-wave electric impulses. A requirement for the development of non-invasive clinical methods for the diagnosis of motility disorders is the identification of these signals. We set out to separate and characterize the signals from the various sections of the gastrointestinal tract and to detect changes in the smooth muscle electromyography (SEMG) signals. Partially resected (stomach-small intestine, stomach-large intestine or small and large intestine) or non-resected male SPRD rats were measured under deep anaesthesia. Bipolar thread and disk electrodes and strain gauge sensors were used for SEMG and the detection of mechanical contractions, respectively. The electric activity was characterized by cycle per minute (cpm) and power spectrum density maximum (PsDmax) W by fast Fourier transformation analysis. Contractions were evaluated by area under the curve analysis. The myoelectric signals of the stomach, ileum and caecum were at 3-5, 20-25 and 1-3cpm, respectively. Neostigmine increased (40-60%), while atropine decreased (30-50%) the PsDmax values. However, the cpm values remained unchanged. Linear regression revealed a good correlation between the PsDmax values and the smooth muscle contractions. Electric signals of the same character were recorded from the organ and from the abdominal surface. The change in PsDmax perfectly reflects the change in the contractions of the smooth muscle. These results may serve as the basis for non-invasive gastrointestinal measurements in experimental animals, which can be translated into clinical practice for motility studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Alternative Therapy of Animals – Homeopathy and Other Alternative Methods of Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Løken Torleiv

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Alternative therapy of animals is described, in the meaning of alternatives to veterinary therapy traditionally accepted by veterinary faculties and schools and included in their curricula. Alternative therapy composes of different disciplines, of which homeopathy is emphasised in this presentation. Information is given on the use and interest of such therapy among veterinarians and animal owners. Homeopathy as other alternative therapies, may offer great advances, if they induce any effect. Some of the disciplines are based on a scientifically accepted documentation. Others, and homeopathy in particular, are missing such a documentation of effect. The justification of including alternative therapy in treating animals is discussed. Research in alternative therapy of animals is greatly needed, in particular to evaluate therapeutic methods which are in extensive use without any documented effect. An ongoing research project in Norway on the effect of homeopathic treatment of mastitis in cows is shortly presented.

  4. Methods for Stem Cell Production and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio, Pier Paolo (Inventor); Valluri, Jagan V. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for rapidly expanding a stem cell population with or without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention relates to methods for rapidly increasing the life span of stem cell populations without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention also relates to methods for increasing the sensitivity of cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions and in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The methods of the present invention can also be used to proliferate cancer cells by culturing them in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The present invention also relates to methods for testing the sensitivity of cancer cells and cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer cells and cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce tissue for use in transplantation by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors to promote differentiation of cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions.

  5. Slow and continuous delivery of a low dose of nimodipine improves survival and electrocardiogram parameters in rescue therapy of mice with experimental cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Yuri C; Clemmer, Leah; Orjuela-Sánchez, Pamela; Zanini, Graziela M; Ong, Peng Kai; Frangos, John A; Carvalho, Leonardo J M

    2013-04-24

    Human cerebral malaria (HCM) is a life-threatening complication caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection that continues to be a major global health problem despite optimal anti-malarial treatment. In the experimental model of cerebral malaria (ECM) by Plasmodium berghei ANKA, bolus administration of nimodipine at high doses together with artemether, increases survival of mice with ECM. However, the dose and administration route used is associated with cardiovascular side effects such as hypotension and bradycardia in humans and mice, which could preclude its potential use as adjunctive treatment in HCM. In the present study, alternative delivery systems for nimodipine during late-stage ECM in association with artesunate were searched to define optimal protocols to achieve maximum efficacy in increasing survival in rescue therapy while causing the least cardiac side effects. The baseline electrocardiogram (ECG) and arterial pressure characteristics of uninfected control animals and of mice with ECM and its response upon rescue treatment with artesunate associated or not with nimodipine is also analysed. Nimodipine, given at 0.5 mg/kg/day via a slow and continuous delivery system by osmotic pumps, increases survival of mice with ECM when used as adjunctive treatment to artesunate. Mice with ECM showed hypotension and ECG changes, including bradycardia and increases in PR, QRS, QTc and ST interval duration. ECM mice also show increased QTc dispersion, heart rate variability (HRV), RMSSD, low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands of the power spectrum. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic inputs to the heart were increased, but there was a predominance of sympathetic tone as demonstrated by an increased LF/HF ratio. Nimodipine potentiated bradycardia when given by bolus injection, but not when via osmotic pumps. In addition, nimodipine shortened PR duration and improved HRV, RMSSD, LF and HF powers in mice with ECM. In addition, nimodipine did not increased

  6. Selection of Voice Therapy Methods. Results of an Online Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Iris; Meier, Birte; Nolte, Katharina; Oppermann, Tina; Rogg, Verena; Beushausen, Ulla

    2015-11-01

    Providing an evidence basis for voice therapy in the German-speaking countries faces the challenge that-for historical reasons-a variety of direct voice therapy methods is available. The aim of this study was to clarify which therapy methods are chosen and the underlying principles for this selection. An online survey was implemented to identify to what extent the variety of methods described in theory is also applied in practice. A total of 434 voice therapists in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland were asked, among other things, which methods they prefer. A significant majority of therapists do not apply one specific method but rather work with a unique combination of direct voice therapy methods for individual clients. These results show that the variety of methods described in the literature is also applied in voice therapy practice. The combination of methods becomes apparent during the choice of exercises. The type of voice disorder plays no decisive role in the method selection process, whereas certain patient variables do have an influence on this process. In particular, the patients' movement restrictions, their state of mind or mood on a given day, and aspects of learning theory are taken into account. The results suggest that a patient-oriented selection of appropriate exercises is of primary importance to voice therapists and that they rarely focus on specific direct voice therapy methods. It becomes clear that an evaluation of single methods does not correspond to practical experience, and therefore, an overall evaluation of voice therapy appears to be more useful. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The Art therapy's methods use at work with handicapped children

    OpenAIRE

    Němcová, Jindřiška

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with using art therapy's methods and technique by multi-handicapped children. The first chapter characterizes multi-handicap, defines various disorders and their influence on the personality of a child. The second chapter introduces the therapy options which can be applied to multi-handicapped children, with a strong accent on artetherapy. In the third chapter there are various artetherapic methods and techniques which can be applied to multi-handicapped children. The fourth ...

  8. Strength Enhancement of Car Front Bumper for Slow Speed Impact by FEA Method as per IIHS Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Chandrakant Rameshchandra; Shelar, Ajit Lavaji

    2017-05-01

    Low speed collisions happen significantly due to on road slow moving heavy traffic as well as during parking of vehicles. The bumpers are provided in front and back side of a vehicle has two main purposes: first is to absorb the energy generated during these kinds of slow speed impacts and secondly to protect the expensive parts like main engine parts, radiators and connected engine cooling mechanism, headlights, taillights, etc, by slowing down the vehicles. The problem often in various cars bumper is that they doesn't line-up vertically during low speed impact and leads to damage of various parts which are costly to repair. Many a times bumper design does not have sufficient capacity to absorb the energy generated during these impact. Guideline by International Institute Highway Safety (IIHS) regulation provides useful insight for such low speed impact study. In this paper, slow speed impact test were conducted as per IIHS regulation in three positions namely central impact, left hand corner impact and right hand corner impact. Parameters including bumper material, shape, thickness and impact condition are analyzed using fine element analysis (FEA) to enhance crashworthiness design in low speed impact. Then the vehicle front structure has been modified suitably. It has been observed that lining up the front metal bumper with suitable stiffness provides the best result which ultimately reduces the damage to the vehicle parts.

  9. Using mixed methods in music therapy health care research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2015-01-01

    »Mixed methods« (or »multiple methods») is a fairly new concept in music therapy research. It is inspired by recent methodological developments in social science, covering the interaction of quantitative and qualitative methods in one and the same research study. Mixed methods are not the same...... as the diversity or pluralism of methods advocated by many scholars who are critical towards the principles of evidence-based medicine. This article presents a concrete example of mixed methods in music therapy research: a psycho-social study of music therapy with female cancer survivors. Problems related...... to ontology, epistemology, design and methodology are illustrated and discussed, and the perspective is broadened into a discussion of the core concept »triangulation« as related to validity....

  10. Dosimetry methods in boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G.; Artuso, E.; Felisi, M.; Regazzoni, V.; Giove, D. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Physics, Via Festa del Patrono 7, 20122 Milano (Italy); Agosteo, S.; Barcaglioni, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milano (Italy); Campi, F.; Garlati, L. [Politecnico di Milano, Energy Department, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); De Errico, F. [Universita degli Studi di Pisa, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Lungamo Pacinotti 43, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Borroni, M.; Carrara, M. [Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Medical Physics Unit, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milano (Italy); Burian, J.; Klupak, V.; Viererbl, L.; Marek, M. [Research Centre Rez, Department of Neutron Physics, 250-68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-15

    Dosimetry studies have been carried out at thermal and epithermal columns of Lvr-15 research reactor for investigating the spatial distribution of gamma dose, fast neutron dose and thermal neutron fluence. Two different dosimetry methods, both based on solid state detectors, have been studied and applied and the accuracy and consistency of the results have been inspected. One method is based on Fricke gel dosimeters that are dilute water solutions and have good tissue equivalence for neutrons and also for all the secondary radiations produced by neutron interactions in tissue or water phantoms. Fricke gel dosimeters give the possibility of separating the various dose contributions, i.e. the gamma dose, the fast neutron dose and the dose due to charged particles generated during thermal neutron reactions by isotopes having high cross section, like 10-B. From this last dose, thermal neutron fluence can be obtained by means of the kerma factor. The second method is based on thermoluminescence dosimeters. In particular, the developed method draw advantage from the different heights of the peaks of the glow curve of such phosphors when irradiated with photons or with thermal neutrons. The results show that satisfactory results can be obtained with simple methods, in spite of the complexity of the subject. However, the more suitable dosimeters and principally their utilization and analysis modalities are different for the various neutron beams, mainly depending on the relative intensities of the three components of the neutron field, in particular are different for thermal and epithermal columns. (Author)

  11. Therapy Decision Support Based on Recommender System Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Gräßer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a system for data-driven therapy decision support based on techniques from the field of recommender systems. Two methods for therapy recommendation, namely, Collaborative Recommender and Demographic-based Recommender, are proposed. Both algorithms aim to predict the individual response to different therapy options using diverse patient data and recommend the therapy which is assumed to provide the best outcome for a specific patient and time, that is, consultation. The proposed methods are evaluated using a clinical database incorporating patients suffering from the autoimmune skin disease psoriasis. The Collaborative Recommender proves to generate both better outcome predictions and recommendation quality. However, due to sparsity in the data, this approach cannot provide recommendations for the entire database. In contrast, the Demographic-based Recommender performs worse on average but covers more consultations. Consequently, both methods profit from a combination into an overall recommender system.

  12. Therapy Decision Support Based on Recommender System Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräßer, Felix; Beckert, Stefanie; Küster, Denise; Schmitt, Jochen; Abraham, Susanne; Malberg, Hagen; Zaunseder, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    We present a system for data-driven therapy decision support based on techniques from the field of recommender systems. Two methods for therapy recommendation, namely, Collaborative Recommender and Demographic-based Recommender, are proposed. Both algorithms aim to predict the individual response to different therapy options using diverse patient data and recommend the therapy which is assumed to provide the best outcome for a specific patient and time, that is, consultation. The proposed methods are evaluated using a clinical database incorporating patients suffering from the autoimmune skin disease psoriasis. The Collaborative Recommender proves to generate both better outcome predictions and recommendation quality. However, due to sparsity in the data, this approach cannot provide recommendations for the entire database. In contrast, the Demographic-based Recommender performs worse on average but covers more consultations. Consequently, both methods profit from a combination into an overall recommender system.

  13. Plasma emission spectroscopy method of tumor therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, K.J.

    1997-03-11

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for performing photon diagnostics using a portable and durable apparatus which incorporates the use of a remote sensing probe in fiberoptic communication with an interferometer or spectrometer. Also disclosed are applications for the apparatus including optically measuring high velocities and analyzing plasma/emission spectral characteristics. 6 figs.

  14. Music therapy CD creation for initial pediatric radiation therapy: a mixed methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Philippa; O'Callaghan, Clare; Wheeler, Greg; Grocke, Denise

    2010-01-01

    A mixed methods research design was used to investigate the effects of a music therapy CD (MTCD) creation intervention on pediatric oncology patients' distress and coping during their first radiation therapy treatment. The music therapy method involved children creating a music CD using interactive computer-based music software, which was "remixed" by the music therapist-researcher to extend the musical material. Eleven pediatric radiation therapy outpatients aged 6 to 13 years were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, in which they could create a music CD prior to their initial treatment to listen to during radiation therapy, or to a standard care group. Quantitative and qualitative analyses generated multiple perceptions from the pediatric patients, parents, radiation therapy staff, and music therapist-researcher. Ratings of distress during initial radiation therapy treatment were low for all children. The comparison between the two groups found that 67% of the children in the standard care group used social withdrawal as a coping strategy, compared to 0% of the children in the music therapy group; this trend approached significance (p = 0.076). MTCD creation was a fun, engaging, and developmentally appropriate intervention for pediatric patients, which offered a positive experience and aided their use of effective coping strategies to meet the demands of their initial radiation therapy treatment.

  15. Synthesis of CaMoO{sub 4} hierarchical structures via a simple slow-release co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Yubin; Song, Jimei, E-mail: jmsongsss@163.com; Hu, Gang; Liu, Ya

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Erythrocyte-like CaMoO{sub 4} with uniform shape were successfully synthesized. • The slow-release of MoO{sub 4}{sup 2−} affected the final CaMoO{sub 4} morphology. • Erythrocyte-like CaMoO{sub 4} exhibited high removal rate for the methylene blue. - Abstract: In this paper, erythrocyte-like calcium molybdate (CaMoO{sub 4}) hierarchical structures were successfully synthesized by a modified slow-release strategy. The structure of the as-prepared products was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy. The morphology was observed with scanning electron microscopy. A series of experiments of reaction conditions including reaction time, initial pH and molybdenum source were carefully carried out. The results showed that the slow release of MoO{sub 4}{sup 2−} played a key role in the morphology of the products. Moreover, the photoluminescence spectrum of the erythrocyte-like CaMoO{sub 4} revealed a strong and broad emission peak at 536 nm. The erythrocyte-like CaMoO{sub 4} exhibited high removal rate for the methylene blue (MB), suggesting its potential application in water treatment.

  16. A simple and highly effective method for slow-freezing human pluripotent stem cells using dimethyl sulfoxide, hydroxyethyl starch and ethylene glycol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitaro Imaizumi

    Full Text Available Vitrification and slow-freezing methods have been used for the cryopreservation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs. Vitrification requires considerable skill and post-thaw recovery is low. Furthermore, it is not suitable for cryopreservation of large numbers of hPSCs. While slow-freezing methods for hPSCs are easy to perform, they are usually preceded by a complicated cell dissociation process that yields poor post-thaw survival. To develop a robust and easy slow-freezing method for hPSCs, several different cryopreservation cocktails were prepared by modifying a commercially available freezing medium (CP-1™ containing hydroxyethyl starch (HES, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO in saline. The new freezing media were examined for their cryopreservation efficacy in combination with several different cell detachment methods. hPSCs in cryopreservation medium were slowly cooled in a conventional -80°C freezer and thawed rapidly. hPSC colonies were dissociated with several proteases. Ten percent of the colonies were passaged without cryopreservation and another 10% were cryopreserved, and then the recovery ratio was determined by comparing the number of Alkaline Phosphatase-positive colonies after thawing at day 5 with those passaged without cryopreservation at day 5. We found that cell detachment with Pronase/EDTA followed by cryopreservation using 6% HES, 5% DMSO, and 5% ethylene glycol (EG in saline (termed CP-5E achieved post-thaw recoveries over 80%. In summary, we have developed a new cryopreservation medium free of animal products for slow-freezing. This easy and robust cryopreservation method could be used widely for basic research and for clinical application.

  17. Control of fossil-fuel particulate black carbon and organic matter, possibly the most effective method of slowing global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2002-10-01

    Under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, no control of black carbon (BC) was considered. Here, it is found, through simulations in which 12 identifiable effects of aerosol particles on climate are treated, that any emission reduction of fossil-fuel (f.f.) particulate BC plus associated organic matter (OM) may slow global warming more than may any emission reduction of CO2 or CH4 for a specific period. When all f.f. BC + OM and anthropogenic CO2 and CH4 emissions are eliminated together, the period is 25-100 years. It is also estimated that historical net global warming can be attributed roughly to greenhouse gas plus f.f. BC + OM warming minus substantial cooling by other particles. Eliminating all f.f. BC + OM could eliminate 20-45% of net warming (8-18% of total warming before cooling is subtracted out) within 3-5 years if no other change occurred. Reducing CO2 emissions by a third would have the same effect, but after 50-200 years. Finally, diesel cars emitting continuously under the most recent U.S. and E.U. particulate standards (0.08 g/mi; 0.05 g/km) may warm climate per distance driven over the next 100+ years more than equivalent gasoline cars. Thus, fuel and carbon tax laws that favor diesel appear to promote global warming. Toughening vehicle particulate emission standards by a factor of 8 (0.01 g/mi; 0.006 g/km) does not change this conclusion, although it shortens the period over which diesel cars warm to 13-54 years. Although control of BC + OM can slow warming, control of greenhouse gases is necessary to stop warming. Reducing BC + OM will not only slow global warming but also improve human health.

  18. Development of medical application methods using radiation. Radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E.H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Choi, T. H.; Hong, S. W.; Chung, H. Y.; No, W. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Oh, B. H. [Seoul National University. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, H. J. [Antibody Engineering Research Unit, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. development of monoclonal antibodies and radiopharmaceuticals 2. clinical applications of radionuclide therapy 3. radioimmunoguided surgery 4. prevention of restenosis with intracoronary radiation. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial. (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research. (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology.

  19. New dimension of slow food movement using supercritical fluid technology and methods to influence society by effective marketing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzel, Ruhan Aşkın

    2016-07-01

    Although slow food movement is a well-known movement nowadays, in order to make it more widespread to the society, necessity to develop and to adapt new techniques has become inevitable for healthier consumption age. For this purpose, possibility of increased usage of healthy foods with addition of natural extracts using new techniques came out from relevant questionaries applied to people of different age groups. In this study, specific properties of supercritical carbon dioxide at distinct temperatures and water in subcritical conditions were used to obtain extracts rich in water-soluble organic compounds. Experiments were carried out at pressures of 10, 20, 30, and 40 MPa and temperatures ranging from 40 to 200 ℃ with and without modifier for 2 h of extraction time. The flow rate was kept at 4 and 1 ml/min for CO2 and water, respectively. The highest water-soluble organic compound recovery yield was 78.10%. Results were supported by marketing strategies to announce this new application and products to the society. Group of sample questions was prepared to investigate (a) frequency of staple food usage, (b) the brand names and relevant reasons that bring up consumers to buy specifically same branded products, (c) knowledge about the ingredients and how advertising effects purchasing decision, etc. Finally, efficiency increase in slow food consumption was proved with supercritical fluid technology to draw attention to the health of consumers with newer and functional healthy foods. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. An Annotated Bibliography of the Gestalt Methods, Techniques, and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt-Diaz, Joseph O.

    The purpose of this annotated bibliography is to provide the reader with a guide to relevant research in the area of Gestalt therapy, techniques, and methods. The majority of the references are journal articles written within the last 5 years or documents easily obtained through interlibrary loans from local libraries. These references were…

  1. Estimation of Slow Crack Growth Parameters for Constant Stress-Rate Test Data of Advanced Ceramics and Glass by the Individual Data and Arithmetic Mean Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Salem, Jonathan A.; Holland, Frederic A.

    1997-01-01

    The two estimation methods, individual data and arithmetic mean methods, were used to determine the slow crack growth (SCG) parameters (n and D) of advanced ceramics and glass from a large number of room- and elevated-temperature constant stress-rate ('dynamic fatigue') test data. For ceramic materials with Weibull modulus greater than 10, the difference in the SCG parameters between the two estimation methods was negligible; whereas, for glass specimens exhibiting Weibull modulus of about 3, the difference was amplified, resulting in a maximum difference of 16 and 13 %, respectively, in n and D. Of the two SCG parameters, the parameter n was more sensitive to the estimation method than the other. The coefficient of variation in n was found to be somewhat greater in the individual data method than in the arithmetic mean method.

  2. Method proposing a slow light ring resonator structure coupled with a metal-dielectric-metal waveguide system based on plasmonic induced transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleshtery, Mehdi Hassani; Kaatuzian, Hassan; Mir, Ali; Zandi, Ashkan

    2017-05-20

    We demonstrate the analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) plasmonic waveguide. Plasmonic induced transparency is a method similar to EIT. In this paper, a plasmonic MDM waveguide is proposed by using an ellipse shaped side-coupled ring resonator and simulated by finite difference time domain. Plasmonics as a new field of chip-scale technology is an interesting substrate, which is used to propose and numerically investigate a novel MDM structure. The aforementioned framework is a 2×2 plasmonic ring resonator, employing gold as a metal and polymethyl methacrylate as a dielectric. Simulations show that a transparent window is located at 1550 nm and signal wavelength is assumed to be 860 nm, which is the phenomenon of plasmonic induced transparency. The velocity of the plasmonic mode can be considerably slowed while propagating along the MDM bends. Our proposed configuration may thus be applied to storing and stopping light in plasmonic waveguide bends. This plasmonic waveguide system may find important applications for multichannel plasmonic filters, nano-scale optical switching, delay time devices, and slow-light devices in highly integrated optical circuits and networks. In comparison with our previous theoretical work based on circular shaped ring resonators, it is shown that ellipse shaped ring resonators demonstrate better specifications with a slow down factor estimated to be more than 30.

  3. FROM SLOW FOOD TO SLOW TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bac Dorin Paul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the effects of globalization is the faster pace of our lives. This rhythm can be noticed in all aspects of life: travel, work, shopping, etc. and it has serious negative effects. It has become common knowledge that stress and speed generate serious medical issues. Food and eating habits in the modern world have taken their toll on our health. However, some people took a stand and argued for a new kind of lifestyle. It all started in the field of gastronomy, where a new movement emerged – Slow Food, based on the ideas and philosophy of Carlo Petrini. Slow Food represents an important adversary to the concept of fast food, and is promoting local products, enjoyable meals and healthy food. The philosophy of the Slow Food movement developed in several directions: Cittaslow, slow travel and tourism, slow religion and slow money etc. The present paper will account the evolution of the concept and its development during the most recent years. We will present how the philosophy of slow food was applied in all the other fields it reached and some critical points of view. Also we will focus on the presence of the slow movement in Romania, although it is in a very early stage of development. The main objectives of the present paper are: to present the chronological and ideological evolution of the slow movement; to establish a clear separation of slow travel and slow tourism, as many mistake on for the other; to review the presence of the slow movement in Romania. Regarding the research methodology, information was gathered from relevant academic papers and books and also from interviews and discussions with local entrepreneurs. The research is mostly theoretical and empirical, as slow food and slow tourism are emerging research themes in academic circles.

  4. Theoretical and experimental physical methods of neutron-capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, G. I.

    2011-09-01

    This review is based to a substantial degree on our priority developments and research at the IR-8 reactor of the Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute. New theoretical and experimental methods of neutron-capture therapy are developed and applied in practice; these are: A general analytical and semi-empiric theory of neutron-capture therapy (NCT) based on classical neutron physics and its main sections (elementary theories of moderation, diffuse, reflection, and absorption of neutrons) rather than on methods of mathematical simulation. The theory is, first of all, intended for practical application by physicists, engineers, biologists, and physicians. This theory can be mastered by anyone with a higher education of almost any kind and minimal experience in operating a personal computer.

  5. Immunotherapy using slow-cycling tumor cells prolonged overall survival of tumor-bearing mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Qing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite considerable progress in the development of anticancer therapies, there is still a high mortality rate caused by cancer relapse and metastasis. Dormant or slow-cycling residual tumor cells are thought to be a source of tumor relapse and metastasis, and are therefore an obstacle to therapy. In this study, we assessed the drug resistance of tumor cells in mice, and investigated whether vaccination could promote survival. Methods The mouse colon carcinoma cell line CT-26 was treated with 5-fluorouracil to assess its sensitivity to drug treatment. Mice with colon tumors were immunized with inactivated slow-cycling CT-26 cells to estimate the efficacy of this vaccine. Results We identified a small population of slow-cycling tumor cells in the mouse colon carcinoma CT-26 cell line, which was resistant to conventional chemotherapy. To inhibit tumor recurrence and metastasis more effectively, treatments that selectively target the slow-cycling tumor cells should be developed to complement conventional therapies. We found that drug-treated, slow-cycling tumor cells induced a more intense immune response in vitro. Moreover, vaccination with inactivated slow-cycling tumor cells caused a reduction in tumor volume and prolonged the overall survival of tumor-bearing mice. Conclusions These findings suggest that targeting of slow-cycling tumor cells application using immunotherapy is a possible treatment to complement traditional antitumor therapy.

  6. Patients' satisfaction with therapy methods of advanced chronic venous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudek, Jerzy; Mikosiński, Jacek; Kobielski, Andrzej; Hering, Artur; Aleksiejew-Kleszczyński, Tomasz; Umiński, Jacek; Zubilewicz, Tomasz; Kobusiewicz, Wojciech; Iłżecki, Marek; Wojtak, Andrzej; Stec, Janusz; Urbanek, Tomasz

    2016-02-01

    To assess patients' satisfaction from the therapy of advanced chronic venous disorders (CVD) in everyday clinical practice in Poland, and to compare the efficacy of various venoactive drugs (VADs) in venous ulcers healing process. Seven hundred and eighty unselected adult patients with active (N.=441) or healed (N.=339) venous ulcers participated in the non-interventional observational 6-week study. Compression therapy and VADs were utilized by 81.5% and 89.2% of patients respectively: 31.2% of all patients underwent surgical procedures for vein incompetence, 61.3% were satisfied with surgical methods, 43% with compression therapy, and 32.6% with VADs ‑ with highest rate of satisfied patients in the group taking Ruscus aculeatus and HMC and ascorbic acid (51.4%). Of 377 patients with active venous ulcers smaller than 200 cm2, adherent to VADs, 18.0% have been cured, and 66.6% have improved during 6-week period of observation. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the compression therapy (OR=2.74), the size of ulcer ≤10 cm2 (OR=2.70) were increasing the change of ulcer healing. No VADs was better than another in the healing process. 1) Compression therapy and VADs are highly utilized by patients with advanced CVD. 2) Patients are more satisfied with surgical than conservative treatment of advanced CVD. 3) More than half of the patients with the advanced stage CVD taking Ruscus aculeatus and HMC and ascorbic acid is satisfied with the obtained improvement. 4) Ruscus aculeatus and HMC and ascorbic acid is similarly effective as other frequently used VADs in venous ulcer healing. 5) Ruscus aculeatus and HMC and ascorbic acid exerting effects on veins, capillaries and lymphatic vessels may explain the positive results observed in this study.

  7. [Short-term and long-term therapy with slow-release ISDN. Echographic, vector cardiographic and ergometric findings (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengden, H J; Just, H; Giesecke, J

    1978-08-25

    The effect of slow-release isosorbide dinitrate (Maycor retard) on the myocard was investigated in a short-term study (single dose of 20 mg slow-release ISDN) and in a long-term study (2 X 20 mg slow-release ISDN daily) in 10 patients with coronary heart disease. The parameters assessed were heart rate, blood pressure and skin temperature at rest, load ECG, orthogonal ECG and VCG by computer and UCG echocardiography. The reductions of diastolic and systolic ventricular diameter are statistically significant in the short-term and long-term trials. The ejection time decreases. The velocity of circumferential fiber shortening as a measure of myocardial contractility increases highly significantly. R peak and T wave amplitude in the Y lead change significantly. These findings can be interpreted as an expression of improved myocardial tension and a normalization of the contraction and relaxation.

  8. Adherence to raloxifene therapy: assessment methods and relationship with efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finigan, J; Naylor, K; Paggiosi, M A; Peel, N F; Eastell, R

    2013-11-01

    Response to therapy depends on patient compliance but accurate assessment is difficult and adequate levels of adherence are uncertain. Adherence to raloxifene treatment may be assessed more accurately by electronic monitoring than by counting returned tablets. The level of adherence is positively associated with the degree of bone response. Adherence to study medication is usually estimated by counting returned tablets. This method relies on subjects' honesty and may be inaccurate. We aimed to assess adherence more accurately, and examine its effect on measures of bone response, by using electronic monitoring. Osteopenic women, ages 50 to 80, were prescribed daily raloxifene for 2 years. Electronic bottle caps (Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS), Aardex) recorded the date and time on opening. Returned tablets were also counted. We measured bone mineral density (BMD) in duplicate at the spine and hip at baseline and 2 years. We also measured urinary N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) at baseline, 1 and 2 years. We calculated the percentage changes in BMD and NTX from mean baseline to mean follow up measurements. Percentage adherence was assessed by both methods for 71 subjects that completed the study. The two methods correlated significantly (p caps (95.7 vs. 85.0%, p caps may assess adherence more accurately than tablet counts and would be the preferred method in clinical trials. The degree of adherence is associated with both bone turnover and BMD responses to anti-resorptive therapy.

  9. Linear algebraic methods applied to intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, S M; Xing, L

    2001-10-01

    Methods of linear algebra are applied to the choice of beam weights for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). It is shown that the physical interpretation of the beam weights, target homogeneity and ratios of deposited energy can be given in terms of matrix equations and quadratic forms. The methodology of fitting using linear algebra as applied to IMRT is examined. Results are compared with IMRT plans that had been prepared using a commercially available IMRT treatment planning system and previously delivered to cancer patients.

  10. A method for implementation of nutritional therapy in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Kondrup, Jens; Staun, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Background & aims: Many barriers make implementation of nutritional therapy difficult in hospitals. In this study we investigated whether, a targeted plan made by the staff in different departments could improve nutritional treatment within selected quality goals based on the ESPEN screening...... guidelines. Methods: The project was carried out as a continuous quality improvement project. Four different specialities participated in the study with a nutrition team of both doctors, nurses, and a dietician, and included the following methods: (1) Premeasurement: assessment of quality goals prior...... to study including the use of screening of nutritional risk (NRS-2002), whether a nutrition plan was made, and monitoring was documented in the records. (2) Intervention: multidisciplinary meeting for the ward staff using a PC-based meeting system for detecting barriers in the department concerning...

  11. Slow-release L-Cysteine (Acetium®) Lozenge Is an Effective New Method in Smoking Cessation. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrjänen, Kari; Eronen, Katja; Hendolin, Panu; Paloheimo, Lea; Eklund, Carita; Bäckström, Anna; Suovaniemi, Osmo

    2017-07-01

    adequately powered study to be an effective means to aid smoking quit, represents a major breakthrough in the development of smoking intervention methods, because slow-release L-cysteine is non-toxic, with no side-effects or limitations of use. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  12. Cough: neurophysiology, methods of research, pharmacological therapy and phonoaudiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbani, Aracy Pereira Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The cough is the more common respiratory symptom in children and adults. Objective: To present a revision on the neurophysiology and the methods for study of the consequence of the cough, as well as the pharmacotherapy and phonoaudiology therapy of the cough, based on the works published between 2005 and 2010 and indexed in the bases Medline, Lilacs and Library Cochrane under them to keywords "cough" or "anti-cough". Synthesis of the data: The consequence of the cough involves activation of receiving multiples becomes vacant in the aerial ways and of neural projections of the nucleus of the solitary treatment for other structures of the central nervous system. Experimental techniques allow studying the consequence of the cough to the cellular and molecular level to develop new anti-cough agents. It does not have evidences of that anti-cough exempt of medical lapsing they have superior effectiveness to the one of placebo for the relief of the cough. The phonoaudiology therapy can benefit patients with refractory chronic cough to the pharmacological treatment, over all when paradoxical movement of the vocal folds coexists. Final Comments: The boarding to multidiscipline has basic paper in the etiological diagnosis and treatment of the cough. The otolaryngologist must inform the patients on the risks of the anti-cough of free sales in order to prevent adverse poisonings and effect, especially in children.

  13. Progress in Mathematical Modeling of Gastrointestinal Slow Wave Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Peng; Calder, Stefan; Angeli, Timothy R; Sathar, Shameer; Paskaranandavadivel, Niranchan; O'Grady, Gregory; Cheng, Leo K

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) motility is regulated in part by electrophysiological events called slow waves, which are generated by the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Slow waves propagate by a process of "entrainment," which occurs over a decreasing gradient of intrinsic frequencies in the antegrade direction across much of the GI tract. Abnormal initiation and conduction of slow waves have been demonstrated in, and linked to, a number of GI motility disorders. A range of mathematical models have been developed to study abnormal slow waves and applied to propose novel methods for non-invasive detection and therapy. This review provides a general outline of GI slow wave abnormalities and their recent classification using multi-electrode (high-resolution) mapping methods, with a particular emphasis on the spatial patterns of these abnormal activities. The recently-developed mathematical models are introduced in order of their biophysical scale from cellular to whole-organ levels. The modeling techniques, main findings from the simulations, and potential future directions arising from notable studies are discussed.

  14. Applications of Slow Light in Telecommunications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boyd, Robert W; Gauthier, Daniel J; Gaeta, Alexander L

    2006-01-01

    .... Now, optical scientists are turning their attention toward developing useful applications of slow light, including controllable optical delay lines, optical buffers and true time delay methods...

  15. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen RH, Kaunitz AM, Hickey M. Hormonal contraception. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 18. ...

  16. A Design Method for FES Bone Health Therapy in SCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Andrews

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available FES assisted activities such as standing, walking, cycling and rowing induce forces within the leg bones and have been proposed to reduce osteoporosis in spinal cord injury (SCI. However, details of the applied mechanical stimulus for osteogenesis is often not reported. Typically, comparisons of bone density results are made after costly and time consuming clinical trials. These studies have produced inconsistent results and are subject to sample size variations. Here we propose a design process that may be used to predict the clinical outcome based on biomechanical simulation and mechano-biology. This method may allow candidate therapies to be optimized and quantitatively compared. To illustrate the approach we have used data obtained from a rower with complete paraplegia using the RowStim (III system.

  17. The doripenem serum concentrations in intensive care patients suffering from acute kidney injury, sepsis, and multi organ dysfunction syndrome undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy slow low-efficiency dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieczorek A

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Andrzej Wieczorek, Andrzej Tokarz, Wojciech Gaszynski, Tomasz Gaszynski Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland Abstract: Doripenem is a novel wide-spectrum antibiotic, and a derivate of carbapenems. It is an ideal antibiotic for treatment of serious nosocomial infections and severe sepsis for its exceptionally high efficiency and broad antibacterial spectrum of action. Doripenem is eliminated mainly by the kidneys. In cases of acute kidney injury, dosing of doripenem depends on creatinine clearance and requires adjustments. Doripenem is eliminated during hemodialysis because its molecular weight is 300–400 Da. The aim of this study was to establish the impact of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT slow low-efficiency dialysis (SLED on doripenem serum concentrations in a population of intensive-therapy patients with life-threatening infections and severe sepsis. Ten patients were enrolled in this observational study. Twelve blood samples were collected during the first administration of doripenem in a 1-hour continuous infusion while CRRT SLED was provided. Fluid chromatography was used for measurement of the concentration of doripenem in serum. In all collected samples, concentration of doripenem was above the minimum inhibition concentration of this antibiotic. Based on these results, we can draw the conclusion that doripenem concentration is above the minimum inhibition ­concentration throughout all of CRRT. The dosing pattern proposed by the manufacturer can be used in patients receiving CRRT SLED without necessary modifications. Keywords: AKI, antibiotic, antimicrobial therapy, carbapenem, CRRT, infection, MODS, SLED

  18. A method to slow down the ionization-dependent release of risperidone loaded in a thermoresponsive poly(N-acryloyl glycinamide) hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustta, Mahfoud; Vert, Michel

    2017-06-01

    Poly(N-acryloyl glycinamide) polymers are soluble in hot aqueous media that gel rapidly on cooling. This gelatin-like behavior was previously compared with drug delivery requirements. Slow releases were demonstrated in vitro using different model molecules and macromolecules and in vivo using methylene blue. Risperidone is a weak basic drug sparingly soluble in water frequently used to treat patients suffering of schizophrenia. A standard risperidone-poly(N-acryloyl glycinamide) hydrogel formulation was selected from which the drug was allowed to release comparatively in buffered and non-buffered isotonic media at 37 °C under pseudo sink conditions. Linear release was observed in pH = 7.4 phosphate buffer whereas in buffer-free 0.15 M NaCl, the release was initially faster than in the buffer but became rapidly slower as the pH increased from 6.8 to 8.2. These features were related to the ionization-dependent solubility of risperidone. In order to minimize the ionization and thus the solubility of the drug inside the hydrogel despite outside buffering at 7.4, Mg(OH 2 ), a sparingly soluble mineral base, was added to the standard formulation. This addition resulted in a c.a. threefold increase of the zero-order release duration. The method should be applicable to other sparingly soluble weakly basic drugs.

  19. Scope of nanotechnology-based radiation therapy and thermotherapy methods in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakht, Mohamadreza K; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Pourbaghi-Masouleh, Milad; Tenreiro, Claudio

    2012-10-01

    The main aim of nanomedicine is to revolutionize the health care system and find effective approaches to fighting fatal diseases. Therapeutic beams, which are employed in radiation therapy, do not discriminate between normal and cancerous cells and must rely on targeting the radiation beams to specific cells. Interestingly, the application of nanoscale particles in radiation therapy has aimed to improve outcomes in radiation therapy by increasing toxicity in tumors and reducing it in normal tissues. This review focuses on approaches to nanotechnology-based cancer radiation therapy methods such as radionuclide therapy, photodynamic therapy, and neutron capture therapy. Moreover, we have investigated nanotechnology-based thermotherapy methods, including hyperthermia and thermoablation, as non-ionizing modalities of treatment using thermal radiation. The results strongly demonstrate that nanotechnology-based cancer radiation therapy and thermotherapy methods hold substantial potential to improve the efficacy of anticancer radiation and thermotherapy modalities.

  20. Slow and Steady Wins the Race: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Targeting Shame in Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, Jason B.; Kohlenberg, Barbara S.; Hayes, Steven C.; Fletcher, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Shame has long been seen as relevant to substance use disorders, but interventions have not been tested in randomized trials. This study examined a group-based intervention for shame based on the principles of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) in patients (N = 133; 61% female; M = 34 years old; 86% Caucasian) in a 28-day…

  1. Polifeprosan 20, 3.85% carmustine slow release wafer in malignant glioma: patient selection and perspectives on a low-burden therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinberg L

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Kleinberg Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Polifeprosan 20 with carmustine (GLIADEL® polymer implant wafer is a biodegradable compound containing 3.85% carmustine (BCNU, bischloroethylnitrosourea implanted in the brain at the time of planned tumor surgery, which then slowly degrades to release the BCNU chemotherapy directly into the brain thereby bypassing the blood–brain barrier. Carmustine implant wafers were demonstrated to improve survival in randomized placebo-controlled trials in patients undergoing a near total resection of newly diagnosed or recurrent malignant glioma. Based on these trials and other supporting data, carmustine wafer therapy was approved for use for newly diagnosed and recurrent malignant glioma in the United States and the European Union. Adverse events are uncommon, and as this therapy is placed at the time of surgery, it does not add to patient treatment burden. Nevertheless, this therapy appears to be underutilized. This article reviews the evidence for a favorable therapeutic ratio for the patient and the potential barriers. Consideration of these issues is important for optimal use of this therapeutic approach and may be important as this technology and other local therapies are further developed in the future. Keywords: carmustine, wafer, gliadel, glioblastoma

  2. Impact of early personal-history characteristics on the Pace of Aging: implications for clinical trials of therapies to slow aging and extend healthspan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Cohen, Harvey J; Kraus, William E; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2017-08-01

    Therapies to extend healthspan are poised to move from laboratory animal models to human clinical trials. Translation from mouse to human will entail challenges, among them the multifactorial heterogeneity of human aging. To inform clinical trials about this heterogeneity, we report how humans' pace of biological aging relates to personal-history characteristics. Because geroprotective therapies must be delivered by midlife to prevent age-related disease onset, we studied young-adult members of the Dunedin Study 1972-73 birth cohort (n = 954). Cohort members' Pace of Aging was measured as coordinated decline in the integrity of multiple organ systems, by quantifying rate of decline across repeated measurements of 18 biomarkers assayed when cohort members were ages 26, 32, and 38 years. The childhood personal-history characteristics studied were known predictors of age-related disease and mortality, and were measured prospectively during childhood. Personal-history characteristics of familial longevity, childhood social class, adverse childhood experiences, and childhood health, intelligence, and self-control all predicted differences in cohort members' adulthood Pace of Aging. Accumulation of more personal-history risks predicted faster Pace of Aging. Because trials of anti-aging therapies will need to ascertain personal histories retrospectively, we replicated results using cohort members' retrospective personal-history reports made in adulthood. Because many trials recruit participants from clinical settings, we replicated results in the cohort subset who had recent health system contact according to electronic medical records. Quick, inexpensive measures of trial participants' early personal histories can enable clinical trials to study who volunteers for trials, who adheres to treatment, and who responds to anti-aging therapies. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Long Term Effectiveness of Intensive Stuttering Therapy: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Farzan; Gabel, Rodney; Daniels, Derek; Hughes, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of client perceptions of an intensive stuttering therapy program that utilizes a multi-faceted approach to therapy. The study also proposed to gain a deeper understanding about the process involved in long-term maintenance of meaningful changes made in therapy. Methods: The…

  4. The Slow Learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roucek, Joseph S., Ed.

    Papers on the slow learner treat physical defects and learning abilities, social and economic background as an obstacle to learning, the causes of dropouts and lapses in study, and the limitations and potential of the ungifted. The contribution interest in the slow learner has made to education is discussed; also discussed are problems of the…

  5. STUDY OF SLOW LEARNERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIDANIK, J. SYDNEY

    A SPECIAL COMMITTEE REPORT TO THE BOARD OF EDUCATION, TORONTO, CANADA, REVIEWS THE PRESENT PROGRAM FOR SLOW LEARNERS (IQ 59 TO 90) AND RECOMMENDS A NEW TYPE OF EXPERIMENTAL HIGH SCHOOL. THE PROBLEM OF SLOW LEARNERS, THE USE AND MEANING OF INTELLIGENCE TESTS, AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF LEARNING CAPACITIES AMONG STUDENTS IN SCHOOL ARE DISCUSSED. THE…

  6. USAGE OF NON MEDICATED METHODS FOR CHILDREN'S BRONCHIAL ASTHMA THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Vishneva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes current situation of bronchial asthma non medicated therapy. The need to apply such therapy is associated with the on going trend of more frequent severe bronchial asthma cases, as well as not always efficient standard schemes of medicated treatment. The authors announce a physiotherapy device «aster» — it is based on innovative technologies and designed for noninvasive impact of electromagnetic waves with non thermal intensity upon the «pulmonary triangle» body area. A randomized multicentered survey of Russia's pediatricians union is being conducted to prove the efficiency of this device for children with bronchial asthma and basic therapy adequate to the severity degree. The application of this device is expected to reduce symptoms and eliminate dysfunctions of respiratory system typical for bronchial asthma, which cannot be totally eliminated with the current anti inflammatory agents.Key words: bronchial asthma, non medicated therapy.

  7. Methods on Efficiently Relating Data from the Sun to In-situ Data at L1: An Application to the Slow Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Maria; Viall, Nicholeen

    2017-01-01

    Understanding space weather has become increasingly important as scientists and spacecraft extend their reach further into the universe. The solar wind is highly ionized plasma that constantly bombards the earth. It causes compression and relaxation in our magnetosphere, and affects spacecraft and astronauts in outer space. There are two types of solar wind, fast wind and slow wind. The fast wind is considered to be steady in composition and speed, and travels at speeds greater than 500 km/s. The slow solar wind is known for being highly variable in composition and speed, and travels at speeds less than 500 km/s. Fast solar wind originates from coronal hole regions on the sun, while the slow solar wind’s origin is very controversial. There are currently two types of theories for slow solar wind. One theory involves wave heating dynamics, while the other contends that slow solar wind originates from magnetic reconnection that continually opens magnetic field lines. These models are currently under-constrained with both types able to reproduce the long-term, average behavior of the wind. To further constrain these models it was necessary to research small scale structure in the solar wind, however analyzing these structures pushes the limits of the current instrument capabilities. We developed techniques that provide an automated process to quickly generate results from multiple different analysis techniques, allowing the user to compare data from STEREO’s Heliospheric Imager (HI) and from data taken at L1. This increases the efficiency and ability to relate data from the sun in HI and data at Earth at L1. These techniques were applied to a study on the slow solar wind which lead to possible evidence for the S-Web model.

  8. A clinical stydy on the effectiveness of slow - resorbing collagen membrane barrier therapy to guide regeneration in mandibular class II furcations in human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazli N

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The present clinical trial was designed to evaluate the regenerative potential of periodontal tissues in degree II"nfurcation defects at mandibular molars of human using a slow-resorbing collagen membrane and a surgical treatment"ntechnique based on the principles of guided tissue regeneration."nThe patient sampleinclude 8 subjects who had periodontal lessions in right and left mandibular molars regions, including moderate to advance periodonal destruction within the radicular area. Following a baseline examination including recording the clinical measurements (PD, Al, HC, F.G.M , the furcation- involved molars were randomly assigned in each patient to either a test or a control treatment procedure. Included the evevation of mucoperiosteal flaps, recording measurement from the cemento enamel junction (C.E.J directly coronal to the furcation area to the alveolar crest and to the base of the defect-Horizontal furcation measurements were also made using a William's probe, finally a collagen membrrane placed on the involved area to cover the entrance of the furcation and adjucent root surfaces as well as a portion of the alveolar bone apical to the crest. The flaps were repositioned and secured with interdental sutures. A procedure identical to the one used at the test teeth was Performed at the control teeth region with the exception of the placement of the collagen membrance. Following surgery all patients were placed on a plaque control regimen. All Patients received normal postsurgical care and at 6 month post-surgery were scheduled for re-entry surgery. Before re-entry surgery all clinical parameters recorded again. The re-entry mucoperiosteal flaps were designed to expose the furcation area for measurements, as describedabove. There was clinical improvement in all measurements made in both the test and control patients (especially in test group over the 6 month period. The horizontal and vertical furcation measurements did yield a

  9. A method of obtaining dietary data for slow worms (Anguis fragilis) by means of non-harmful cooling and results from a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Iben; Jensen, Jan Kjærgaard; Toft, Søren

    2009-01-01

    types was tested on juveniles in a laboratory experiment. Mealworms gave a significantly lower gain in mass and snout-vent length than slugs, earthworms and a mix of all three prey types. A supplementary experiment revealed that slow worms from the present population completely rejected mealworms...

  10. Optical Methods and Instrumentation in Brain Imaging and Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive up-to-date review of optical approaches used in brain imaging and therapy. It covers a variety of imaging techniques including diffuse optical imaging, laser speckle imaging, photoacoustic imaging and optical coherence tomography. A number of laser-based therapeutic approaches are reviewed, including photodynamic therapy, fluorescence guided resection and photothermal therapy. Fundamental principles and instrumentation are discussed for each imaging and therapeutic technique. Represents the first publication dedicated solely to optical diagnostics and therapeutics in the brain Provides a comprehensive review of the principles of each imaging/therapeutic modality Reviews the latest advances in instrumentation for optical diagnostics in the brain Discusses new optical-based therapeutic approaches for brain diseases

  11. A narrative perspective on genograms: revisiting classical family therapy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzastowski, Szymon K

    2011-10-01

    This article presents how genograms, a classic family therapy technique, can be used in the context of narrative therapy. Genograms create a unique opportunity to explore and re-tell family stories thus enabling their re-authoring. An important aspect of this process is that of tracking down family resources and wisdom. The graphic form of a genogram can be very helpful in distancing a person from the dominant narrations in her/his family. Additionally, genogram analysis is an excellent opportunity to conduct re-membering conversation and introducing the "club of life" metaphor. Finally, the creative approach to drawing genograms can be an invitation for family members to "play" with their family stories and, as a consequence, re-position their roles in these stories. The article completes the presentation of the family therapy case study which was inspired by narrative ideas and genogram analysis.

  12. [Methods of heparin therapy in surgical patients with thrombohemorrhagic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasanov, F D

    2012-01-01

    The results of comparative study of different heparin medications efficacy in patients with thrombohemorrhagic syndrome (THS) are presented. The study was conducted in 286 patients with THS as a result of peritonitis of various etiology (174 patients), massive hemorrhage, shock, microcirculation disorders (112 patients). Heparin therapy carried out in 249 patients (87.1%), 37 patients (12.9%) had no heparin therapy./ In "heparin" group 193 patients (77.5%) received low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), 56 patients (22.5%) took unfractionated heparin (UFH). LWMH demonstrated high efficiency with fewer hemorrhagic complications in comparison with UFH/.

  13. Transformer Industry Productivity Slows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Phyllis Flohr

    1981-01-01

    Annual productivity increases averaged 2.4 percent during 1963-79, slowing since 1972 to 1.5 percent; computer-assisted design and product standardization aided growth in output per employee-hour. (Author)

  14. The doripenem serum concentrations in intensive care patients suffering from acute kidney injury, sepsis, and multi organ dysfunction syndrome undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy slow low-efficiency dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Andrzej; Tokarz, Andrzej; Gaszynski, Wojciech; Gaszynski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Doripenem is a novel wide-spectrum antibiotic, and a derivate of carbapenems. It is an ideal antibiotic for treatment of serious nosocomial infections and severe sepsis for its exceptionally high efficiency and broad antibacterial spectrum of action. Doripenem is eliminated mainly by the kidneys. In cases of acute kidney injury, dosing of doripenem depends on creatinine clearance and requires adjustments. Doripenem is eliminated during hemodialysis because its molecular weight is 300-400 Da. The aim of this study was to establish the impact of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) slow low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) on doripenem serum concentrations in a population of intensive-therapy patients with life-threatening infections and severe sepsis. Ten patients were enrolled in this observational study. Twelve blood samples were collected during the first administration of doripenem in a 1-hour continuous infusion while CRRT SLED was provided. Fluid chromatography was used for measurement of the concentration of doripenem in serum. In all collected samples, concentration of doripenem was above the minimum inhibition concentration of this antibiotic. Based on these results, we can draw the conclusion that doripenem concentration is above the minimum inhibition concentration throughout all of CRRT. The dosing pattern proposed by the manufacturer can be used in patients receiving CRRT SLED without necessary modifications.

  15. Slow medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Delese; Zarconi, Joseph; Kumagai, Arno; Cole-Kelly, Kathy

    2015-03-01

    Slow medical education borrows from other "slow" movements by offering a complementary orientation to medical education that emphasizes the value of slow and thoughtful reflection and interaction in medical education and clinical care. Such slow experiences, when systematically structured throughout the curriculum, offer ways for learners to engage in thoughtful reflection, dialogue, appreciation, and human understanding, with the hope that they will incorporate these practices throughout their lives as physicians. This Perspective offers several spaces in the medical curriculum where slowing down is possible: while reading and writing at various times in the curriculum and while providing clinical care, focusing particularly on conducting the physical exam and other dimensions of patient care. Time taken to slow down in these ways offers emerging physicians opportunities to more fully incorporate their experiences into a professional identity that embodies reflection, critical awareness, cultural humility, and empathy. The authors argue that these curricular spaces must be created in a very deliberate manner, even on busy ward services, throughout the education of physicians.

  16. Music Therapy with Bereaved Teenagers: A Mixed Methods Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina; Roberts, Melina; O'Grady, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative investigations have indicated that music therapy groups may be beneficial for bereaved teenagers. The existing relationship between young people and music serves as a platform for connectedness and emotional expression that is utilised within a therapeutic, support group format. This investigation confirms this suggestion through…

  17. Approaches and methods in gene therapy for kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, Els A; Sandovici, Maria; Henning, Robert H; de Zeeuw, Dick; Deelman, Leo E

    2004-01-01

    Renal gene therapy may offer new strategies to treat diseases of native and transplanted kidneys. Several experimental techniques have been developed and employed using nonviral, viral, and cellular vectors. The most efficient vector for in vivo transfection appears to be adenovirus. Glomeruli,

  18. Exponential estimates of symplectic slow manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall; Wulff, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we prove the existence of an almost invariant symplectic slow manifold for analytic Hamiltonian slow-fast systems with finitely many slow degrees of freedom for which the error field is exponentially small. We allow for infinitely many fast degrees of freedom. The method we use...... is motivated by a paper of MacKay from 2004. The method does not notice resonances, and therefore we do not pose any restrictions on the motion normal to the slow manifold other than it being fast and analytic. We also present a stability result and obtain a generalization of a result of Gelfreich and Lerman...... on an invariant slow manifold to (finitely) many fast degrees of freedom....

  19. Therapy with radionuclides in thyroid disease, method - indication. Therapie mit Radionukliden bei Schilddruesenerkrankungen, Methoden - Indikationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgi, P.; Bubeck, B.; Elser, H. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Strahlenklinik)

    1993-02-01

    Radioiodine therapy is indicated for every tumor stage following thyroidectomy of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, excepting papillary tumors stages as pT[sub 1], pN[sub 0], pM[sub 0]. Complete thyroid tissue ablatin occurs during endogenic stimulation 4-6 weeks after surgery, using either a standardized activity of 2.5-4 GBq, or after individual calculation of the activity required for a radiation dose exceeding 500 Gy. I-131 therapy of autoimmune hyperthyroidism or the thyroidism in multifocal or disseminated autonomic disease, requires the use of 150 Gy. The achieved 80-90% cure rate is however associated with frequent and early hypothyroidism, particularly in Grave's disease. Disease in patients less than 20 years of age, pregnancy, and malignancy are considered absolute or relative contraindications to this therapy. Conversely, a relative indication for therapy is considered to exist in the euthyroid patient with autonomic dysfunction. 400 Gy is commonly used in focal disease, whether single or bifocal in nature, while a dose of 200 Gy is considered minimal. The dosis calculation before therapy is based on the kinetic data obtained with a radioiodine test. (orig.).

  20. Methods to increase efficiency of laser therapy of oncologic diseases: methods, equipment, experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikov, A. A.; Svirin, V. N.

    2008-04-01

    The rapid development of quantum electronics and the advent of various types of lasers favored the formation of an independent line in medicine, namely, laser medicine In recent years devices based on semiconductor lasers have been introduced into medicine at a most rapid pace At present day this is connected with , that the essential improvement energy and spectral features has occurred in development semiconductor laser. The power of serial discrete near-IR semiconductor lasers has reached a level of 5 W and more, the spectral range has extended to 1.7...1.8 μm. Laser-optical information technologies and devices develop since the 70- years at the end of 20 century and are broadly used for treatment of oncologic diseases. Although such methods as photodynamic therapy (PDT), laser-induce thermotherapy (LITT), fluorescent diagnostics and spectrophotometry already more than 30 years are used for treatment and diagnostics of oncologic diseases, nevertheless, they are enough new methods and, as a rule, are used in large scientific centers and medical institutions. This is bound, first of all, with lack of information on modern method of cancer treatment, the absence of widely available laser procedures and corresponding devices in the polyclinics and even in district hospitals, as well as insufficient understanding of application areas, where laser methods has an advantage by comparison, for instance, with beam or chemotherapy. Presented in the article are new developed methods and results of designing equipment and software for their realization aimed at increase in efficiency of treatment of oncologic diseases as well as several clinical materials of the use of industrial models of the developed devices at medical institutions.

  1. Failure to Integrate Quantitative Measurement Methods of Ocular Inflammation Hampers Clinical Practice and Trials on New Therapies for Posterior Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbort, Carl P; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur; Neri, Piergiorgio; Pavésio, Carlos; Onal, Sumru; LeHoang, Phuc

    2017-05-01

    Uveitis is one of the fields in ophthalmology where a tremendous evolution took place in the past 25 years. Not only did we gain access to more efficient, more targeted, and better tolerated therapies, but also in parallel precise and quantitative measurement methods developed allowing the clinician to evaluate these therapies and adjust therapeutic intervention with a high degree of precision. Objective and quantitative measurement of the global level of intraocular inflammation became possible for most inflammatory diseases with direct or spill-over anterior chamber inflammation, thanks to laser flare photometry. The amount of retinal inflammation could be quantified by using fluorescein angiography to score retinal angiographic signs. Indocyanine green angiography gave imaging insight into the hitherto inaccessible choroidal compartment, rendering possible the quantification of choroiditis by scoring indocyanine green angiographic signs. Optical coherence tomography has enabled measurement and objective monitoring of retinal and choroidal thickness. This multimodal quantitative appraisal of intraocular inflammation represents an exquisite security in monitoring uveitis. What is enigmatic, however, is the slow pace with which these improvements are integrated in some areas. What is even more difficult to understand is the fact that clinical trials to assess new therapeutic agents still mostly rely on subjective parameters such as clinical evaluation of vitreous haze as a main endpoint; whereas a whole array of precise, quantitative, and objective modalities are available for the design of clinical studies. The scope of this work was to review the quantitative investigations that improved the management of uveitis in the past 2-3 decades.

  2. Coaxial slow source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, R.D.; Jarboe, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    Field reversed configurations (FRCs) are a class of compact toroid with not toroidal field. The field reversed theta pinch technique has been successfully used for formation of FRCs since their inception in 1958. In this method an initial bias field is produced. After ionization of the fill gas, the current in the coil is rapidly reversed producing the radial implosion of a current sheath. At the ends of the coil the reversed field lines rapidly tear and reconnect with the bias field lines until no more bias flux remains. At this point, vacuum reversed field accumulates around the configuration which contracts axially until an equilibrium is reached. When extrapolating the use of such a technique to reactor size plasmas two main shortcomings are found. First, the initial bias field, and hence flux in a given device, which can be reconnected to form the configuration is limited from above by destructive axial dynamics. Second, the voltages required to produce rapid current reversal in the coil are very large. Clearly, a low voltage formation technique without limitations on flux addition is desirable. The Coaxial Slow Source (CSS) device was designed to meet this need. It has two coaxial theta pinch coils. Coaxial coil geometry allows for the addition of as much magnetic flux to the annular plasma between them as can be generated inside the inner coil. Furthermore the device can be operated at charging voltages less than 10 kV and on resistive diffusion, rather than implosive time scales. The inner coil is a novel, concentric, helical design so as to allow it to be cantilevered on one end to permit translation of the plasma. Following translation off the inner coil the Annular Field Reversed Configuration would be re-formed as a true FRC. In this paper we investigate the formation process in the new parallel configuration., CSSP, in which the inner and outer coils are connected in parallel to the main capacitor bank.

  3. Coaxial slow source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R. D.; Jarboe, T. R.

    Field reversed configurations (FRC's) are a class of compact toroid with no toroidal field. The field reversed theta pinch technique has been successfully used for formation of FRC's since their inception in 1958. In this method an initial bias field is produced. After ionization of the fill gas, the current in the coil is rapidly reversed producing the radial implosion of a current sheath. At the ends of the coil the reversed field lines rapidly tear and reconnect with the bias field lines until no more bias flux remains. At this point, vacuum reversed field accumulates around the configuration which contracts axially until an equilibrium is reached. When extrapolating the use of such a technique to reactor size plasmas two main shortcomings are found. First, the initial bias field, and hence flux in a given device, which can be reconnected to form the configuration is limited from above by destructive axial dynamics. Second, the voltages required to produce rapid current reversal in the coil are very large. Clearly, a low voltage formation technique without limitations on flux addition is desirable. The Coaxial Slow Source (CSS) device was designed to meet this need. It has two coaxial theta pinch coils. Coaxial coil geometry allows for the addition of as much magnetic flux to the annular plasma between them as can be generated inside the inner coil. Furthermore the device can be operated at charging voltages less than 10 kV and on resistive diffusion, rather than implosive time scales. The inner coil is a novel, concentric, helical design so as to allow it to be cantilevered on one end to permit translation of the plasma. Following translation off the inner coil the Annular Field Reversed Configuration would be re-formed as a true FRC. In this paper, we investigate the formation process in the new parallel configuration, CSSP, in which the inner and outer coils are connected in parallel to the main capacitor bank.

  4. Teaching the Third World to Slow Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clabrough, Peter

    1978-01-01

    Describes a simulation game about the third world which can be valuable to slow learners because it enables them to acquire abstract concepts using a concrete method (induction). For journal availability, see SO 507 289. (Author/CK)

  5. Methods to Improve Adoptive T-Cell Therapy for Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; Hansen, Morten; Sendrup, Sarah L

    2013-01-01

    Further development of adoptive T-cell therapy (ACT) with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) has the potential to markedly change the long-term prognosis of patients with metastatic melanoma, and modifications of the original protocol that can improve its clinical efficacy are highly...... desirable. In this study, we demonstrated that a high in vitro tumor reactivity of infusion products was associated with clinical responses upon adoptive transfer. In addition, we systematically characterized the responses of a series of TIL products to relevant autologous short term-cultured melanoma cell...

  6. A Standardised Method for Investigating Learning in Music Therapy. Occasional Paper Number 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Dianne; Athanasou, James A.

    This paper outlines a method for professional assessment of music therapy students' learning and recall. The purpose of the assessment is to examine the Model of Domain Learning (P. Alexander, 1997) within an Australian context and to provide a professional assessment for application within music therapy education. Despite the music therapy…

  7. Slow Learners Speed Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Leonard

    1975-01-01

    The article describes a work/study program for slow learners where the students spend a month at the Brooklyn Bureau's Department for the Handicapped, an agency where the physically and emotionally handicapped are given a comprehensive program of work training, job placement, homemaker training, and recreation. (Author/JB)

  8. SPS slow extraction septa

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    SPS long straight section (LSS) with a series of 5 septum tanks for slow extraction (view in the direction of the proton beam). There are 2 of these: in LSS2, towards the N-Area; in LSS6 towards the W-Area. See also Annual Report 1975, p.175.

  9. Multi-band slow light metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Meng, Fan-Yi; Fu, Jia-Hui; Wu, Qun; Hua, Jun

    2012-02-13

    In this paper, a multi-band slow light metamaterial is presented and investigated. The metamaterial unit cell is composed of three cut wires of different sizes and parallel to each other. Two transparency windows induced by two-two overlaps of absorption bands of three cut wires are observed. The multi-band transmission characteristics and the slow light properties of metamaterial are verified by numerical simulation, which is in a good agreement with theoretical predictions. The impacts of structure parameters on transparency windows are also investigated. Simulation results show the spectral properties can be tuned by adjusting structure parameters of metamaterial. The equivalent circuit model and the synthesis method of the multi-band slow light metamaterial are presented. It is seen from simulation results that the synthesis method accurately predicts the center frequency of the multi-band metamaterial, which opens a door to a quick and accurate construction for multi-band slow light metamaterial.

  10. [Immunosuppressive therapy and fertility preservation: Indications and methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choux, C; Cavalieri, M; Barberet, J; Samson, M; Bonnotte, B; Fauque, P; Sagot, P

    2018-02-27

    Fertility preservation is routinely performed in cancerology but less systematically used in the field of immune diseases, even though the use of gonadotoxic treatments in young patients may be required and even though the disease itself can alter fertility. This review aimed to clarify the indications and methods of fertility preservation in this context. Cyclophosphamide is the only immunosuppressive drug requiring fertility preservation in women. In men, fertility preservation should be proposed before treatment with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil or mTOR inhibitors. Other factors inherent to the disease or the patient may alter fertility. Thus, screening for infertility and fertility preservation have to be implemented as much as possible to increase the chances of successful procreation in patients with immune disease. For women, the choice between the different preservation methods depends on the patient's age, disease activity, the time available before the start of treatment, the possibility of future pregnancy and the woman's and even couple's wishes. Before puberty, the only accepted method is cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. After puberty, the first-line method is the cryopreservation of mature oocytes. If the treatment has to be started in an emergency, if ovarian hyperstimulation/oocyte retrieval is contraindicated or if the patient refuses this option, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue or GnRH agonists could be proposed. For men, the accepted method is sperm cryopreservation. For prepubertal boys, the cryopreservation of spermatogonia after testicular biopsy is still experimental. Copyright © 2018 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The FLUKA code for application of Monte Carlo methods to promote high precision ion beam therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Parodi, K; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Mairani, A; Paganetti, H; Sommerer, F

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) methods are increasingly being utilized to support several aspects of commissioning and clinical operation of ion beam therapy facilities. In this contribution two emerging areas of MC applications are outlined. The value of MC modeling to promote accurate treatment planning is addressed via examples of application of the FLUKA code to proton and carbon ion therapy at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center in Heidelberg, Germany, and at the Proton Therapy Center of Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Boston, USA. These include generation of basic data for input into the treatment planning system (TPS) and validation of the TPS analytical pencil-beam dose computations. Moreover, we review the implementation of PET/CT (Positron-Emission-Tomography / Computed- Tomography) imaging for in-vivo verification of proton therapy at MGH. Here, MC is used to calculate irradiation-induced positron-emitter production in tissue for comparison with the +-activity measurement in order to infer indirect infor...

  12. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF CANDIDAL DYSBACTERIOSIS THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Nikolaeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of effectiveness of different methods of microbiological disorders correction in children after 3 years old with candidal dysbacteriosis are presented in this article. The study compared probiotical sour milk-made stuff («Actimel» and sour milk-made stuff, not fortified with probiotical cultures («Rastishka» and traditional kefir. It was shown that an inclusion of probiotical sour milkmade stuff in diet of children with candidal dysbacteriosis results in normalization of lacto- and bifidobacteria level and decreasing of Candida level.Key words: children, candidal dysbacteriosis, probiotics.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(6:31-35

  13. Longitudinal stability of rapid and slow maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Sá Leitão Pinheiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the longitudinal stability of two types of posterior crossbite correction: rapid maxillary expansion (RME and slow maxillary expansion (SME.METHODS: Study casts of 90 adolescent patients were assessed for interdental width changes at three different periods: pretreatment (T1, post-treatment (T2 and at least, five years post-retention (T3. Three groups of 30 patients were established according to the treatment received to correct posterior crossbite: Group A (RME, group B (SME and group C (control- Edgewise therapy only. After crossbite correction, all patients received fixed edgewise orthodontic appliances. Paired t-tests and one-way ANOVA were used to identify significant intra and intergroup changes, respectively (P < 0.05.RESULTS: Except for intercanine distance, all widths increased in groups A and B from T1 to T2. In the long-term, the amount of relapse was not different for groups A and B, except for 3-3 widths which showed greater decrease in group A. However, the percentage of clinically relapsed cases of posterior crossbite was similar for rapid and slow maxillary expansion.CONCLUSION: Rapid and slow maxillary expansion showed similar stability in the long-term.

  14. Ancient Chinese Fangzhongshu (Sexual Skills and Methods Therapy for Premature Ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is a common male sexual dysfunction that can have significant effects on a couple’s relationship. Behavioral therapy and psychotherapy are both safe and effective methods of treating PE. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu (sexual skills and methods, which reflects a summary of expert experiences in sexology, contains many therapies for sexual dysfunction that are similar to those used in behavioral therapy or psychotherapy. A brief introduction dealing with the latest definitions of PE and treatment strategies drawn from behavioral therapy and psychotherapy is provided. Typical therapies for PE from ancient Chinese fangzhongshu are listed and briefly analyzed in order to define their domain of applicability and instructions for use. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu contains many effective and safe therapies for PE. It should be incorporated into modern medical practice after critical analysis, and its scientific aspects should be promoted as a way of improving reproductive health, both to benefit individuals affected by PE and to promote traditional Chinese culture. Based on an analysis of the condition of the individual patient, one or multiple therapies guided by fangzhongshu can be expected to have an effect on the patient. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu is of great value and should to be popularized and applied as a remedy for PE.

  15. Ancient Chinese Fangzhongshu (Sexual Skills and Methods) Therapy for Premature Ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Chen, Qiang; Gu, Yuexing; Yue, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual dysfunction that can have significant effects on a couple's relationship. Behavioral therapy and psychotherapy are both safe and effective methods of treating PE. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu (sexual skills and methods), which reflects a summary of expert experiences in sexology, contains many therapies for sexual dysfunction that are similar to those used in behavioral therapy or psychotherapy. A brief introduction dealing with the latest definitions of PE and treatment strategies drawn from behavioral therapy and psychotherapy is provided. Typical therapies for PE from ancient Chinese fangzhongshu are listed and briefly analyzed in order to define their domain of applicability and instructions for use. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu contains many effective and safe therapies for PE. It should be incorporated into modern medical practice after critical analysis, and its scientific aspects should be promoted as a way of improving reproductive health, both to benefit individuals affected by PE and to promote traditional Chinese culture. Based on an analysis of the condition of the individual patient, one or multiple therapies guided by fangzhongshu can be expected to have an effect on the patient. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu is of great value and should to be popularized and applied as a remedy for PE. PMID:28053946

  16. Play-Diagnosis and Therapy in Sweden: The Erica-Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjolund, Margareta

    1981-01-01

    The Erica Method, a form of play-diagnosis and play-therapy used widely in Sweden, utilizes a standardized material that consists of sandboxes and miniature toys. The method is a very useful tool for better understanding of both developmental, neurological and psychopathological problems of childhood. (Author)

  17. Interstitial brachycurie therapy, renaissance of a radiooncological method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, R.; Thiel, H.J.; Mueller, R.

    1982-06-10

    In the past years there is a worldwide renaissance in interstitial low dose-rate implantation of tumors in many sites of origin. This renaissance is due to the development of new artifical radioisotopes (Au-198, Ir-192 and particularly I-125), the refinement of application techniques with after-loading devices and the introduction of computerized dosimetry. It is the opinion of a number of widely experienced radiotherapists that interstitial implants represent the treatment of choice 'par excellence' and one of the ways to overcome the treatment resistance of inoperable malignant tumors. For this reason we have introduced the method of permanent and removable implantation of inoperable brain tumors, head and neck cancers and prostate carcinomas with /sup 125/I-seeds at the University of Erlangen-Nuernberg. Our first clinical impressions are very encouraging. The techniques of implantation used, the properties and advantages of /sup 125/I-seeds, dosimetric considerations and problems related to radiation protection are described.

  18. Slow-light solitons revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Rybin, A. V.; Vadeiko, I. P.; Bishop, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate propagation of slow-light solitons in atomic media described by the nonlinear $\\Lambda$-model. Under a physical assumption, appropriate to the slow light propagation, we reduce the $\\Lambda$-scheme to a simplified nonlinear model, which is also relevant to 2D dilatonic gravity. Exact solutions describing various regimes of stopping slow-light solitons can then be readily derived.

  19. Magnetic seizure therapy (MST)--a safer method for evoking seizure activity than current therapy with a confirmed antidepressant efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyss, Tomasz; Zieba, Andrzej; Hese, Robert T; Dudek, Dominika; Grabski, Bartosz; Gorczyca, Piotr; Modrzejewska, Renata

    2010-01-01

    Since 1999, attempts have been made in the application of a new technique called magnetic seizure therapy (MST) or magnetic convulsion therapy (MCT) in the treatment of depressive disorder--as an alternative to electroconvulsive treatment. The technique of rapid rate transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is used to evoke intentional and repeated magnetoconvulsive seizures, though it requires the use of stimulation parameters practically inaccessible in commercially available rTMS magnetic stimulators. Magnetic convulsion therapy has been tested on monkeys as well as humans. A decisive majority of studies carried out both on animals and humans addressed the issue of safety of the MST method and confirmed that the side-effects (mostly of a cognitive nature) which occurred after magnetic seizures were weaker than those observed after electroconvulsive seizures. An analysis of available sources, however, does not confirm any proven antidepressant action of the MST technique. No experimental investigations have been carried out on animal models of depression. Clinical effectiveness had been confirmed in merely a few (perhaps three) patients with depression. The authors submit the results of the hitherto conducted studies on MST to critical analysis, particularly in the aspect of their antidepressant efficacy.

  20. A Split-and-Merge-Based Uterine Fibroid Ultrasound Image Segmentation Method in HIFU Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Menglong; Zhang, Dong; Yang, Yan; Liu, Yu; Yuan, Zhiyong; Qin, Qianqing

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy has been used to treat uterine fibroids widely and successfully. Uterine fibroid segmentation plays an important role in positioning the target region for HIFU therapy. Presently, it is completed by physicians manually, reducing the efficiency of therapy. Thus, computer-aided segmentation of uterine fibroids benefits the improvement of therapy efficiency. Recently, most computer-aided ultrasound segmentation methods have been based on the framework of contour evolution, such as snakes and level sets. These methods can achieve good performance, although they need an initial contour that influences segmentation results. It is difficult to obtain the initial contour automatically; thus, the initial contour is always obtained manually in many segmentation methods. A split-and-merge-based uterine fibroid segmentation method, which needs no initial contour to ensure less manual intervention, is proposed in this paper. The method first splits the image into many small homogeneous regions called superpixels. A new feature representation method based on texture histogram is employed to characterize each superpixel. Next, the superpixels are merged according to their similarities, which are measured by integrating their Quadratic-Chi texture histogram distances with their space adjacency. Multi-way Ncut is used as the merging criterion, and an adaptive scheme is incorporated to decrease manual intervention further. The method is implemented using Matlab on a personal computer (PC) platform with Intel Pentium Dual-Core CPU E5700. The method is validated on forty-two ultrasound images acquired from HIFU therapy. The average running time is 9.54 s. Statistical results showed that SI reaches a value as high as 87.58%, and normHD is 5.18% on average. It has been demonstrated that the proposed method is appropriate for segmentation of uterine fibroids in HIFU pre-treatment imaging and planning.

  1. A Split-and-Merge-Based Uterine Fibroid Ultrasound Image Segmentation Method in HIFU Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglong Xu

    Full Text Available High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU therapy has been used to treat uterine fibroids widely and successfully. Uterine fibroid segmentation plays an important role in positioning the target region for HIFU therapy. Presently, it is completed by physicians manually, reducing the efficiency of therapy. Thus, computer-aided segmentation of uterine fibroids benefits the improvement of therapy efficiency. Recently, most computer-aided ultrasound segmentation methods have been based on the framework of contour evolution, such as snakes and level sets. These methods can achieve good performance, although they need an initial contour that influences segmentation results. It is difficult to obtain the initial contour automatically; thus, the initial contour is always obtained manually in many segmentation methods. A split-and-merge-based uterine fibroid segmentation method, which needs no initial contour to ensure less manual intervention, is proposed in this paper. The method first splits the image into many small homogeneous regions called superpixels. A new feature representation method based on texture histogram is employed to characterize each superpixel. Next, the superpixels are merged according to their similarities, which are measured by integrating their Quadratic-Chi texture histogram distances with their space adjacency. Multi-way Ncut is used as the merging criterion, and an adaptive scheme is incorporated to decrease manual intervention further. The method is implemented using Matlab on a personal computer (PC platform with Intel Pentium Dual-Core CPU E5700. The method is validated on forty-two ultrasound images acquired from HIFU therapy. The average running time is 9.54 s. Statistical results showed that SI reaches a value as high as 87.58%, and normHD is 5.18% on average. It has been demonstrated that the proposed method is appropriate for segmentation of uterine fibroids in HIFU pre-treatment imaging and planning.

  2. [The application of methods of physical therapy in the military health resort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, I G; Didenko, S V

    2015-03-01

    Presented the main guidelines concerning the application of methods and forms of physical therapy in the complex sanatorium treatment and rehabilitation in sanatoria and health resorts of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. It is concluded that the basis for the application and further development of forms and methods of physical therapy should be based on the methodological principle of a differentiated approach to the assessment of the severity of dysfunction cardiorespiratory and nervous system, musculoskeletal system, the mode of motor activity and exercise tolerance.

  3. Fractionated afterloading irradiation as a new therapy method for inoperable cerebral tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, H.; Scheffler, A.; Oppel, F.; Brock, M.; Brust, V.; Bauer, R.; Pannek, H.W.

    1986-07-01

    A method is shown for fractionated afterloading therapy of inoperable cerebral tumors. A 3 mm thick, tube-form applicator of noble metal which is closed at the front side is implanted into the tumor by a stereotaxic technique and firmly screwed together with the osseous calotte. It remains there up to two weeks, giving full mobility to the patient. The afterloading therapy with a moving iridium source is performed one or two times per day with individual doses of 2 Gray. Thus, the chronological and - to a certain extent - also the spatial dose distribution is variable when applying this method.

  4. The French functional physical therapy method for the treatment of congenital clubfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeglio, Alain; Canavese, Federico

    2012-01-01

    The French method, also called the functional physical therapy method, is a combination of physiotherapy, splinting and surgery à la carte. The French functional physical therapy method consists of daily manipulations of the newborn's clubfoot by a specialized physical therapist, stimulation of the muscles around the foot and temporary immobilization of the foot with elastic and nonelastic adhesive taping. Physiotherapy is optimized by early triceps surae lengthening. Sequences of plaster can also be used. If conservative treatment is no longer effective, surgery should be considered. Mini-invasive surgery is a complementary procedure to nonoperative treatment (surgery 'à la carte'). The French method reduces but does not eliminate the need for mini-invasive surgical procedures. Equinus is the most difficult deformity to treat; posterior release is sometimes necessary in a severe foot. Very severe feet (stiff-stiff; score, 16-20) are still a challenge. However, regular manipulations and splinting improve foot morphology and stiffness, and, ultimately, make surgery easier and less extensive. From the French method to the Ponseti method, the Hybrid method or the 'the third way', combining the advantages of both methods, is the future. The primary reason for relapses is the inability of families to maintain the correction initially achieved. The aim of this work is to provide an overview of the French functional physical therapy method and to help understand how it has evolved over time.

  5. Slow Scan Telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Originally developed under contract for NASA by Ball Bros. Research Corporation for acquiring visual information from lunar and planetary spacecraft, system uses standard closed circuit camera connected to a device called a scan converter, which slows the stream of images to match an audio circuit, such as a telephone line. Transmitted to its destination, the image is reconverted by another scan converter and displayed on a monitor. In addition to assist scans, technique allows transmission of x-rays, nuclear scans, ultrasonic imagery, thermograms, electrocardiograms or live views of patient. Also allows conferencing and consultation among medical centers, general practitioners, specialists and disease control centers. Commercialized by Colorado Video, Inc., major employment is in business and industry for teleconferencing, cable TV news, transmission of scientific/engineering data, security, information retrieval, insurance claim adjustment, instructional programs, and remote viewing of advertising layouts, real estate, construction sites or products.

  6. Learning style and teaching method preferences of Saudi students of physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Maghraby, Mohamed A; Alshami, Ali M

    2013-09-01

    To the researchers' knowledge, there are no published studies that have investigated the learning styles and preferred teaching methods of physical therapy students in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted to determine the learning styles and preferred teaching methods of Saudi physical therapy students. A cross-sectional study design. Fifty-three Saudis studying physical therapy (21 males and 32 females) participated in the study. The principal researcher gave an introductory lecture to explain the different learning styles and common teaching methods. Upon completion of the lecture, questionnaires were distributed, and were collected on completion. Percentages were calculated for the learning styles and teaching methods. Pearson's correlations were performed to investigate the relationship between them. More than 45 (85%) of the students rated hands-on training as the most preferred teaching method. Approximately 30 (57%) students rated the following teaching methods as the most preferred methods: "Advanced organizers," "demonstrations," and "multimedia activities." Although 31 (59%) students rated the concrete-sequential learning style the most preferred, these students demonstrated mixed styles on the other style dimensions: Abstract-sequential, abstract-random, and concrete-random. The predominant concrete-sequential learning style is consistent with the most preferred teaching method (hands-on training). The high percentage of physical therapy students whose responses were indicative of mixed learning styles suggests that they can accommodate multiple teaching methods. It is recommended that educators consider the diverse learning styles of the students and utilize a variety of teaching methods in order to promote an optimal learning environment for the students.

  7. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy integrated with systematic desensitization, cognitive behavioral therapy combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy combined with virtual reality exposure therapy methods in the treatment of flight anxiety: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triscari, Maria Teresa; Faraci, Palmira; Catalisano, Dario; D'Angelo, Valerio; Urso, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to compare the effectiveness of the following treatment methods for fear of flying: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) integrated with systematic desensitization, CBT combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and CBT combined with virtual reality exposure therapy. Overall, our findings have proven the efficacy of all interventions in reducing fear of flying in a pre- to post-treatment comparison. All groups showed a decrease in flight anxiety, suggesting the efficiency of all three treatments in reducing self-report measures of fear of flying. In particular, our results indicated significant improvements for the treated patients using all the treatment programs, as shown not only by test scores but also by participation in the post-treatment flight. Nevertheless, outcome measures maintained a significant effect at a 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, combining CBT with both the application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment and the virtual stimuli used to expose patients with aerophobia seemed as efficient as traditional cognitive behavioral treatments integrated with systematic desensitization.

  8. Combined statistical analysis method assessing fast versus slow movement training in a patient with cerebellar stroke: a single-case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huiqiong; Kimberley, Teresa J; Durfee, William K; Dressler, Brittany L; Steil, Carie; Carey, James R

    2013-05-01

    Gold standards of data analysis for single-case research do not currently exist. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a combined statistical analysis method is more effective in assessing movement training effects in a patient with cerebellar stroke. A crossover single-case research design was conducted. The patient was a 69-year-old man with a chronic cerebellar infarct who received two 5-week phases of finger tracking training at different movement rates. Changes were measured with the Box and Block Test, the Jebsen-Taylor test, the finger extension force test, and the corticospinal excitability test. Both visual analysis and statistical tests (including split-middle line method, t test, confidence interval, and effect size) were used to assess potential intervention effects. The results of the t tests were highly consistent with the confidence interval tests, but less consistent with the split-middle line method. Most results produced medium to large effect sizes. The possibility of an incomplete washout effect was a confounding factor in the current analyses. The combined statistical analysis method may assist researchers in assessing intervention effects in single-case stroke rehabilitation studies.

  9. Physical therapy methods in the treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucherova, T. Ya., E-mail: nii@oncology.tomsk.ru; Choinzonov, E. L., E-mail: nii@oncology.tomsk.ru; Tuzikov, S. A., E-mail: TuzikovSA@oncology.tomsk.ru; Vusik, M. V., E-mail: vusik@oncology.tomsk.ru; Doroshenko, A. V., E-mail: doroshenko@sibmail.com [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Velikaya, V. V., E-mail: viktoria.v.v@inbox.ru; Gribova, O. V., E-mail: gribova79@mail.ru; Startseva, Zh. A., E-mail: zhanna.alex@rambler.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The results of the effective use of magnetic laser therapy in the treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients were presented. The effect of magnetic-laser therapy in the treatment of radiation-induced reactions in the patients with head and neck cancer and in the patients with breast cancer was analyzed. High efficiency of lymphedema and lymphorrhea treatment in the postoperative period in the patients with breast cancer was proved. The results of rehabilitation of the patients with gastric cancer after surgical treatment were presented. These data indicate a high effectiveness of different physical methods of treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients.

  10. Physical therapy methods in the treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherova, T. Ya.; Velikaya, V. V.; Gribova, O. V.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Choinzonov, E. L.; Tuzikov, S. A.; Vusik, M. V.; Doroshenko, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The results of the effective use of magnetic laser therapy in the treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients were presented. The effect of magnetic-laser therapy in the treatment of radiation-induced reactions in the patients with head and neck cancer and in the patients with breast cancer was analyzed. High efficiency of lymphedema and lymphorrhea treatment in the postoperative period in the patients with breast cancer was proved. The results of rehabilitation of the patients with gastric cancer after surgical treatment were presented. These data indicate a high effectiveness of different physical methods of treatment and rehabilitation of cancer patients.

  11. Development of quantitative analysis method for mRNA in Mycobacterium leprae and slow-growing acid-fast bacteria using radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanaga, Kazue; Maeda, Shinji; Matsuoka, Masanori; Kashiwabara, Yoshiko [National Inst. of Infectious Deseases, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    Since RNase protection assay (RPA) system for specific detection of mRNA from M. lepra was established in the previous year, modification of the system was attempted to detect a trace amount of mRNA in this study. Thus, RNA amplification was examined using nucleic aid sequence-based amplification method (NASBA). Since {sup 32}P CTP was used as an isotope for synthesis of anti-sense RNA probe in the previous method, the label compound was exchanged to that with a lower energy in this study, resulting that the half life of the probe was increased and handling of the probe became easier. Several short bands consisting of 100-130b were detected in total RNA sample of M.marinum and M.choelonae by RPA using T1 probe (194-762, 580b). Whereas the new probe M1 detected longer bands of about 350b from M.marinum RNA and of 250b from M.chelonae, M. bovis BCG and M. kansaii. However, T1 probe was more suitable for specific detection of M.leprae hsp 65 than M1 probe because high and low homogeneous regions are coexisting in the gene. Specific mRNA was detectable from only 3 pg of total RNA by the use of NASBA. RNA recovery for QIAGEN was about 50%, however, the sensitivity of NASBA method was estimated to be several ten to hundred thousands times higher, suggesting that this method is very effective for detection and determination of trace amount of mRNA. (M.N.)

  12. Gravity slows light

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Ian

    2014-03-01

    The speed of light is measured as a constant number of metres per second. However, a meter is a measure of how far light travels in a second. That is, light always travels as far as it does in a second every second. This is a circular definition. When measured against other things, light speed must change. Gravity is usually described as a consequence of a curve in spacetime. The word ``space'' has two distinct meanings. In geometry, space is a continuous area. In relativity, ``space'' refers exclusively to geometric spaces measured with light. ``Time'' in a relativistic sense also refers exclusively to the passage of time as measured against light. So a curve in spacetime (a relativistic concept) is a gradual deviation in the thing we use to measure geometric spaces and the passage of time, i.e. the speed of light. I show how Newtonian gravity can explain observable phenomena if the speed of light is inversely proportional to the strength of the gravitational field. For example, we would also expect light to refract as it changes speed passing near massive bodies. Boundary conditions are also discussed, for example, very high gravity will slow light to a stop, making it impossible to measure anything against light, giving a gravitational singularity.

  13. Slow frictional waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Koushik; Sundaram, Narayan; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan

    Stick-slip, manifest as intermittent tangential motion between two dry solid surfaces, is a friction instability that governs diverse phenomena from automobile brake squeals to earthquakes. We show, using high-speed in situ imaging of an adhesive polymer interface, that low velocity stick-slip is fundamentally of three kinds, corresponding to passage of three different surface waves -- separation pulses, slip pulses and the well-known Schallamach waves. These waves, traveling much slower than elastic waves, have clear distinguishing properties. Separation pulses and Schallamach waves involve local interface separation, and propagate in opposite directions while slip pulses are characterized by a sharp stress front and do not display any interface detachment. A change in the stick-slip mode from separation to slip pulse is effected simply by increasing the normal force. Together, these three waves constitute all possible stick-slip modes in adhesive friction and are shown to have direct analogues in muscular locomotory waves in soft bodied invertebrates. A theory for slow wave propagation is also presented which is capable of explaining the attendant interface displacements, velocities and stresses.

  14. Slowing Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, A.

    2016-12-01

    Currently our ocean's pH is 8.1, a decrease from 8.2 in the past 200 years since the beginning of the industrial revolution. The ocean absorbs about a third of the carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, which is helpful to us, since reducing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere shows global warming. However, what is the impact of all that CO2 on the ocean? I evaluated the effect of acidic water on bivalves, and found that the shells were broken down with exposure to increased acidity. I am concerned that continued ocean acidification will impact organisms that are unable to adapt to the changing ocean chemistry. While the US currently invests in alternative forms of energy including solar and wind, approximately 66% of our energy comes from sources that are releasing CO2 into the atmosphere. I want to explore the potential of wave energy as another form of renewable energy. When wind blows over the surface of the ocean, it creates a wave. Could this wave energy be a consistent clean energy source? Could a strategy to slow and reverse ocean acidification be found in the ocean?

  15. A Case for Slow Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Ostercamp

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay makes a case for the value of slow or deep reading.  Inspired by the Slow Food movement it seeks to apply their principles to reading.  It begins by exploring the meaning of information and how like food, information has come to be regarded as a commodity.  Drawing upon the philosophy of Albert Borgmann, it counters the prevalent commodity view of information by offering an alternative paradigm that connects careful reading to human flourishing.  It argues that by connecting information to pleasure and community, slow reading advocates can have comparable success to that enjoyed by the slow food movement.

  16. IFN Alfa-2B and BCG Therapy Is An Effective Method In Superficial Bladder Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ozdemir

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The initial therapy for superficial bladder carcinoma is the transurethral resection of the tumor. In spite of successful resections, there are 60-79% recurrence and 15% progression rates. Additional therapies are suggested for the treatment of superficial bladder carcinoma. We compared the efficacy of interferon alfa-2b monotherapy with interferon alfa-2b plus Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG combination therapy with urine interleukin (IL 2, 6 and 10 levels of patients with superficial bladder carcinoma. Material and Method: The patients who underwent TUR-BT for superficial bladder tumor (pathological staging Ta-T1 between 2004 and 2007 at our hospital included in this prospective study. Intravesical immunotherapy was administered once a week for 6 weeks and there after a month for 6 months, starting 4 weeks after TUR-BT. IL levels were measured. Results: IL-2, IL-6 and IL- 10 levels in urine samples were taken at 2nd and 4th hours of intravesical therapy. A statistically significant difference was observed between mean urine IL-2 levels of patients treated with IFN%u03B1-2b monotherapy and IFN%u03B1- 2b plus BCG combination both at 2nd and 4th hours. (p=0.05 In IFN%u03B1-2b plus BCG combination group, there was a statistical significant difference between stages regarding IL-2 and IL-6 levels (p=0.05. Among patients with G3 tumors, IL-2 levels were higher at 2 and 4 hours (p=0.05 but there was no significant difference in IL-6 and IL-10 levels in this group of patients regardless of intravesical therapy received (p=0.05. Discussion: IFN%u03B1-2b and BCG combination therapy is a reliable and effective therapy in the management of superficial bladder tumors.

  17. Slow Learner Education in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagg, Mary

    A survey of slow learner education in state secondary schools was conducted in Auckland and North Auckland, New Zealand. Thirty-five schools containing 30,787 pupils replied to the questionnaire which covered the following areas: assessment prior to placement, educational objectives, identification methods, special classes, teaching groups,…

  18. Periodic orbits near a bifurcating slow manifold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall

    2015-01-01

    (\\epsilon^{1/3})$-distance from the union of the normally elliptic slow manifolds that occur as a result of the bifurcation. Here $\\epsilon\\ll 1$ measures the time scale separation. These periodic orbits are predominantly unstable. The proof is based on averaging of two blowup systems, allowing one to estimate...... the effect of the singularity, combined with results on asymptotics of the second Painleve equation. The stable orbits of smallest amplitude that are {persistently} obtained by these methods remain slightly further away from the slow manifold being distant by an order $\\mathcal O(\\epsilon^{1/3}\\ln^{1/2}\\ln...

  19. Segmentation Method for Magnetic Resonance-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Therapy Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vargas-Olivares

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU is a minimally invasive therapy modality in which ultrasound beams are concentrated at a focal region, producing a rise of temperature and selective ablation within the focal volume and leaving surrounding tissues intact. HIFU has been proposed for the safe ablation of both malignant and benign tissues and as an agent for drug delivery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been proposed as guidance and monitoring method for the therapy. The identification of regions of interest is a crucial procedure in HIFU therapy planning. This procedure is performed in the MR images. The purpose of the present research work is to implement a time-efficient and functional segmentation scheme, based on the watershed segmentation algorithm, for the MR images used for the HIFU therapy planning. The achievement of a segmentation process with functional results is feasible, but preliminary image processing steps are required in order to define the markers for the segmentation algorithm. Moreover, the segmentation scheme is applied in parallel to an MR image data set through the use of a thread pool, achieving a near real-time execution and making a contribution to solve the time-consuming problem of the HIFU therapy planning.

  20. Slow light by Bloch surface wave tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koju, Vijay; Robertson, William M

    2014-06-30

    We demonstrate a slow light configuration that makes use of Bloch Surface Waves as an intermediate excitation in a double-prism tunneling configuration. This method is simple compared to the more usual technique for slowing light using the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic gases or doped ionic crystals operated at temperatures below 4 K. Using a semi-numerical approach, we show that a 1D photonic crystal, a multilayer structure composed of alternating layers of TiO(2) and SiO(2), can be used to slow down light by a factor of up to 400. The results also show that better control of the speed of light can be achieved by changing the number of bilayers and the air-gap thickness appropriately.

  1. Dose Assessment of Eye and Its Components in Proton Therapy by Monte Carlo Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Tavakol

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Proton therapy is used to treat malignant tumors such as melanoma inside the eye. Proton particles are adjusted according to various parameters such as tumor size and position and patient’s distance from the proton source. The purpose of this study was to assess absorbed doses in eyes and various tumors found in the area of sclera and choroid and the adjacent tissues in radiotherapy while changing most important proton therapy parameters such as moderators thickness (1.5-1.9 cm, exposure radius (0.5-0.8 cm, and proton energy beam (53.5-65 MeV. Materials and Methods A proton therapy system of Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFNwas simulated by Monte Carlo method. Moreover, the eye and its components were simulated using concentric spheres. To obtain a more accurate results, real density of eye components such as cornea and lens, were applied for simulation. Then, the absorbed dose of eye and eye tumor, in choroid and sclera areas, were calculated by Monte Carlo method. Results The absorbed dose in tumoral region of eye was calculated to be about 12.5 ±0.006Gy in one day with energy 62 MeV for a therapy session, which is suitable for treatment. However, normal eye cells received at most 11.01 Gy which is high. Conclusion The amount of absorbed dose in tumoral cells is noticeable. Therefore, accurate treatment planning, patient immobility and fine calibration of proton-therapy system and its simulator are very important to reduce the absorbed dose of healthy cells.

  2. Methods of «Gas» Therapy in Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases at Resort Medical Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid S. Khodasevich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers sanogenetic mechanisms and methods of “gas” therapy, namely ozone therapy and “dry” carbon dioxide baths impact on blood rheological factors, basing on the results of 1847 patients examination with the risk of developing coronary heart disease. The results are worth consideration in terms of “gas” therapy methods implementation for non-drug prevention and treatment of patients with the risk of developing coronary heart disease.

  3. Integrating Slow Learners in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowden, Gordon

    1984-01-01

    Results of interviews, attitude scales, questionnaires, and school record reviews revealed that teachers (N=120) generally approved of the principle of integration of slow learners while viewing the practice as impractical and sometimes undesirable. Students were not particularly antagonistic to slow learners, and parents were generally satisfied…

  4. Slow Tourism: Exploring the discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guiver

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ‘Slow travel’ and ‘slow tourism’ are relatively new, but contested, concepts. This paper examines the meanings ascribed to them in the academic literature and websites targeted at potential tourists. It finds concurrence on aspects of savouring time at the destination and investing time to appreciate the locality, its people, history, culture and products, but detects different emphases. The academic literature stresses the benefits to the destination and global sustainability, while the websites focus on the personal benefits and ways of becoming a ‘slow tourist’. Food and drink epitomise the immersion in and absorption of the destination and the multi-dimensional tourism experience, contrasted with the superficiality of mainstream tourism. The paper discusses whether tourists practising slow tourism without using the label are slow tourists or not.

  5. A scoping review of the Photovoice method: implications for occupational therapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Shalini; Jarus, Tal; Suto, Melinda J

    2012-06-01

    Photovoice is a participatory action research method combining photography and group work to give people an opportunity to record and reflect on their daily lives. To review the use of Photovoice in health research and consider the implications for occupational therapy research. Literature review, guided by a scoping framework, reveals the purposes, rationales and populations with whom Photovoice has been used. From 351 documents retrieved, 191 original studies were surveyed; 68% were peer-reviewed. The majority of studies (76%) occurred within the public health domain and a smaller percentage (24%) with individuals experiencing a specific illness and/or disability, with very few (2%) documented in the occupational therapy literature. Photovoice provides a useful framework to apply a participant-centred research approach on occupational participation. It is important to consider and further examine ethical and methodological issues related to stigma, physical and cognitive capacities, mobility and technical accessibility related to using this method.

  6. Alternative Therapeutic Method for Type Two Diabetes: Whole Body Vibration Therapy: A Mini-Review

    OpenAIRE

    Erika L Simmerman; Xu Qin; Henrik O Berdel; Mozaffari, Mahmood S.; Babak Baban; Jack C Yu

    2016-01-01

    Context As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes continues to increase there is a need for new interventions to control this epidemic. Multiple alternative treatment methods exist for type 2 diabetes mellitus such as acupuncture, bariatric surgery, yoga, aromatherapy, herbal remedies, etc. Whole Body Vibration is a relatively new area of interest recently utilized as an adjunctive therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus, representing a potentially new and novel treatment for type 2 diabetes mell...

  7. System and method for dose verification and gamma ray imaging in ion beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihailescu, Lucian

    2017-12-26

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to ion beam therapy. In one aspect, a system includes a position sensitive detector and a collimator. The position sensitive detector configured to detect gamma rays generated by an ion beam interacting with a target. The collimator is positioned between the target and the position sensitive detector. The collimator includes a plurality of knife-edge slits, with a first knife-edge slit intersecting with a second knife-edge slit.

  8. Dynamics of psychological crisis experience with psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrutdinova, Liliya Raifovna; Nugmanova, Dzhamilia Renatovna

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics of experience as such and its corporeal, emotional and cognitive elements in the situation of psychological consulting provisioning is covered. The aim of research was to study psychological crisis experience dynamics in the situation when psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods is provided. Theoretical analysis of the problem of crisis situations, phenomenon and structural, and dynamic organization of experience of the subject of consulting have been carried out. To fulfill research project test subjects experience crisis situation have been selected, studied in the situation when they provided psychological consulting by methods of gestalt therapy, and methodology of study of crisis situations experience has been prepared. Specifics of psychological crisis experience have been revealed and its elements in different stages of psychological consulting by gestalt therapy methods. Dynamics of experience of psychological crisis and its structural elements have been revealed and reliable changes in it have been revealed. Dynamics of psychological crisis experience and its structural elements have been revealed and reliable changes in it have been revealed. "Desiccation" of experience is being observed, releasing its substantiality of negative impression to the end of consulting and development of the new experience of control over crisis situation. Interrelations of structural elements of experience in the process of psychological consulting have been shown. Effecting one structure causes reliable changes in all others structural elements of experience. Giving actual psychological help to clients in crisis situation by methods of gestalt therapy is possible as it was shown in psychological consulting sessions. Structure of client's request has been revealed - problems of personal sense are fixed as the most frequent cause of clients' applications, as well as absence of choices, obtrusiveness of negative thoughts, tend to getting stuck on events

  9. Method to observe hemodynamic and metabolic changes during hemodiafiltration therapy with exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Miguel; Pérez-Grovas, Héctor; Flores, Pedro; Azpiroz, Joaquín; Borja, Gisella; Medel, Humberto; Rodriguez, Fausto; Flores, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Intradyalitic exercise programas are important to improve patient's hemodynamic stability. Blood pressure and metabolic changes are correlated when heat accumulation is due to increment of the body core temperature (+1.0 °C). However, increase in temperature could be controlled by lowering dialysate's temperature using two main modalities techniques (isothermic and thermoneural) with different patient's thermal balance consequences, not yet well studied. In this work, a new method to observe the main physiological parameters (hearth rate variability (HRV), blood pressure, BTM dialysate temperature control and substrate utilization by indirect calorimtery) which are involved in hemodiafitration (HDF), are displayd. An experiment was carried out in a group of 5 patients waiting kidney transplant. In each patient, EE was assessed as well as the HRV during isothermic and thermoneutral modalities as a manner of cross and prospective study (a) at before therapy, (b) during therapy and (c) at the end of the HDF therapy. Power extraction was also measured by a BTM (Blood Temperature Monitor from Fresenius Inc), in order to determine how the dialysate temperature was controlled. The results showed important method's advantages which place the BTM performance as unstable control system with the possibility to produce undesirable HRV changes as the vagotonical response. However more patient cases are needed in order to identify the real advantage of this new method.

  10. Photo-mediated ultrasound therapy (PUT): a novel method of selectively treating neovascularization (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haonan; Hu, Zi Zhong; Li, Jia; Mordovanakis, Aghapi G.; Yang, Xinmai; Paulus, Yannis M.; Wang, Xueding

    2017-02-01

    Retinal and choroidal neovascularization play a pivotal role in the leading causes of blindness including macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Current therapy by focal laser photocoagulation can damage the normal surrounding cells, such as the photoreceptor inner and outer segments which are adjacent to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), due to the use of high laser energy and millisecond pulse duration. Therapies with pharmaceutical agents involve systemic administration of drugs, which can cause adverse effects and patients may become drug-resistant. We have developed a noninvasive photo-mediated ultrasound therapy (PUT) technique as a localized antivascular method, and applied it to remove micro blood vessels in the retina. PUT takes advantage of the high native optical contrast among biological tissues, and has the unique capability to self-target microvessels without causing unwanted damages to the surrounding tissues. This technique promotes cavitation activity in blood vessels by synergistically applying nanosecond laser pulses and ultrasound bursts. Through the interaction between cavitation and blood vessel wall, blood clots in microvessels and vasoconstriction can be induced. As a result, microvessels can be occluded. In comparison with other techniques that involves cavitation, both laser and ultrasound energy needed in PUT is significantly lower, and hence improves the safety in therapy.

  11. Slow evaporation method and enhancement in photoluminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The series of Bi 3 + co-doped YPO 4 : E u ^{3+} n a n o p h o s p h o r s w e r e s u c c e s s f u l l y s y n t h e s i z e d b y t h e s l o w e v a p o r a t i o n m e t h o d . B i ^{3+} − d o p e d a n d u n − d o p e d Y P O _4 : E u ^{3+} p h o s p h o r s w e r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y u s i n g p o w d e r X − r a y d i f f r a c t i o n , F o u r i e ...

  12. A PILOT METHOD FOR MULTIMODAL GROUP THERAPY FOR ADULTS WITH ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Marin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The management of ADHD across the lifespan is a topic of scientific and public debate, with much discussion centering on optimal treatments. Increasing empirical evidence suggests that successful management of ADHD involves a combination of stimulant medication and psychosocial interventions. This article describes an original approach combining multiple psychotherapeutic modalities that addresses the complex treatment requirements of adult patients with ADHD, through a structured, integrative, psychosocial therapeutic model that holistically encompasses problematic aspects of life for the adult with ADHD. This model integrates a range of methods, including, problem-solving therapy, mindfulness, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT and family therapy. Each of these methods have previously been empirically proven to be effective for this patient population, but have never been integrated into a coherent intervention comprised of group work designed for problem identification, positive reinforcement and modeling, peer discussions aimed to facilitate anger expression, communication and assertiveness training, and mindfulness and CBT exercises for increased awareness and organization, and to support new solutions for identified problems. Patients are also encouraged to identify trans-generational interaction patterns, reflect on how these patterns impact their emotional difficulties, and eventually achieve enhanced self-acceptance.

  13. [Research of bleeding volume and method in blood-letting acupuncture therapy based on data mining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Jia, Chun-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Ling; Du, Yu-Zhu; Zhang, Xiao-Xu; Shi, Jing; Li, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Shen; Zhang, Xuan-Ping; Gang, Wei-Juan

    2014-03-01

    Through computer-based technology and data mining method, with treatment in cases of bloodletting acupuncture therapy in collected literature as sample data, the association rule in data mining was applied. According to self-built database platform, the data was input, arranged and summarized, and eventually required data was acquired to perform the data mining of bleeding volume and method in blood-letting acupuncture therapy, which summarized its application rules and clinical values to provide better guide for clinical practice. There were 9 kinds of blood-letting tools in the literature, in which the frequency of three-edge needle was the highest, accounting for 84.4% (1239/1468). The bleeding volume was classified into six levels, in which less volume (less than 0.1 mL) had the highest frequency (401 times). According to the results of the data mining, blood-letting acupuncture therapy was widely applied in clinical practice of acupuncture, in which use of three-edge needle and less volume (less than 0.1 mL) of blood were the most common, however, there was no central tendency in general.

  14. Physical Therapy and Exercise Interventions in Huntington's Disease: A Mixed Methods Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Nora E; Rao, Ashwini K; Kegelmeyer, Deb; Kloos, Anne; Busse, Monica; Hartel, Lynda; Carrier, Judith; Quinn, Lori

    2017-01-01

    A number of studies evaluating physical therapy and exercise interventions in Huntington's disease have been conducted over the past 15 years. However, an assessment of the quality and strength of the evidence in support of these interventions is lacking. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the effectiveness of physical therapy and exercise interventions in people with Huntington's disease, and to examine the perceptions of patients, families and caregivers of these interventions. This mixed-methods systematic review utilized the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) approach and extraction tools to evaluate the literature from January 2003 until May 2016. The review considered interventions that included exercise and physical therapy interventions, and included both quantitative and qualitative outcome measures. Twenty (20) studies met the inclusion criteria, including eighteen (18) that had quantitative outcome measures and two (2) that utilized qualitative methods. JBI Levels of evidence for the 18 quantitative studies were as follows: Eight studies were at evidence Level 1, seven were at Level 2, two were at Level 3, and one was at Level 4. Our review suggests that there is preliminary support for the benefits of exercise and physical activity in Huntington's disease in terms of motor function, gait speed, and balance, as well as a range of physical and social benefits identified through patient-reported outcomes. Variability in mode of intervention as well as outcome measures limits the interpretability of these studies, and high-quality studies that incorporate adaptive trial designs for this rare disease are needed.

  15. ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION IN RUSSIA: PROLOG STUDY AS A PROOF METHOD OF CONTEMPORARY THERAPY OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Shalnova

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To prove the advantage of the long-term controlled antihypertensive therapy compared with the real usual standard therapy in patients with mild to moderate arterial hypertension.Material and methods. It was multicenter, randomized, prospective parallel-group study in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. One part of patients (treatment group received the strongly regulated stepped antihypertensive therapy based on ACE-inhibitor spirapril, the second one (control group continued their usual standard therapy prescribed by doctors of polyclinics or other patient care institutions. The study lasted one year.Results. 1742 patients were enrolled in the study, 854 patients were included in the treatment group and 888 – in the control group. 220 patients dropped out of the study by different reasons, and 1552 patients finished the study. There were 651 (37,6% men and 1081 (62,4% women. It was substantial decrease in blood pressure in both group, but distinctions between systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the treatment and control group during the study were significant.The target levels of blood pressure (systolic < 140 mm Hg and diastolic < 90 mm Hg were registered substantially more frequent in the patients of treatment group than in control group (69,4% и 39,3% after three months and 83,6% и 66,9% after 12 months of the treatment correspondingly.Conclusion. Controlled stepped antihypertensive therapy resulted into more significant decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and more frequent achievement of target levels of blood pressure in comparison with control group. It supposes better prognosis of patients.

  16. ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION IN RUSSIA: PROLOG STUDY AS A PROOF METHOD OF CONTEMPORARY THERAPY OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Shalnova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To prove the advantage of the long-term controlled antihypertensive therapy compared with the real usual standard therapy in patients with mild to moderate arterial hypertension.Material and methods. It was multicenter, randomized, prospective parallel-group study in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. One part of patients (treatment group received the strongly regulated stepped antihypertensive therapy based on ACE-inhibitor spirapril, the second one (control group continued their usual standard therapy prescribed by doctors of polyclinics or other patient care institutions. The study lasted one year.Results. 1742 patients were enrolled in the study, 854 patients were included in the treatment group and 888 – in the control group. 220 patients dropped out of the study by different reasons, and 1552 patients finished the study. There were 651 (37,6% men and 1081 (62,4% women. It was substantial decrease in blood pressure in both group, but distinctions between systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the treatment and control group during the study were significant.The target levels of blood pressure (systolic < 140 mm Hg and diastolic < 90 mm Hg were registered substantially more frequent in the patients of treatment group than in control group (69,4% и 39,3% after three months and 83,6% и 66,9% after 12 months of the treatment correspondingly.Conclusion. Controlled stepped antihypertensive therapy resulted into more significant decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and more frequent achievement of target levels of blood pressure in comparison with control group. It supposes better prognosis of patients.

  17. Effect of modified slow breathing exercise on perceived stress and basal cardiovascular parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Sunil Naik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Different types of breathing exercises have varied effects on cardiovascular parameters and the stress levels in an individual. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a modified form of isolated alternate nostril, slow breathing exercise on perceived stress, and cardiovascular parameters in young, male volunteers. Settings and Design: This was a randomized control study carried out at Advanced Centre for Yoga Therapy Education and Research, Department of Physiology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry in 2014. Subjects and Methods: Hundred healthy male volunteers were randomized into control group, n = 50 and slow breathing group (study, n = 50. Slow breathing exercise training was given to study group for 30 min a day, 5 times/week for 12 weeks, under the supervision of certified yoga trainers. Perceived Stress Scale (PSS using Cohen's questionnaire, anthropometric parameters such as body mass index (BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR, and cardiovascular parameters such as heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were recorded at baseline and after 12 weeks. The control group did not receive any intervention. Slow breathing exercise training was provided for the study group. During the study period, one volunteer opted out of the study group due to personal reasons. Results: HR, SBP, DBP, and PSS decreased significantly (P 0.05 was observed in BMI and WHR. There was no significant change in the control group. Conclusion: Twelve weeks of modified slow breathing exercise reduced perceived stress and improved the cardiovascular parameters. The above results indicate that our modified slow breathing exercise is effective in reducing stress and improving the cardiovascular parameters.

  18. [Behavioral, stress and immunological evaluation methods of music therapy in elderly patients with senile dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mizue; Kanamori, Masao; Nagasawa, Shingo; Saruhara, Takayuki

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of behavioral, stress and immunological evaluation methods in music therapy (MT) with elderly patients with senile dementia. The MT group consisted of 8 elderly patients with dementia and the control group included 8 similarly matched patients. A total of 25 sessions of music therapy were conducted for one hour, twice each week for three months. The Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), Gottfries-Brane-Steen Scale (GBS), and Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale (Behave-AD) were used to evaluate behavioral changes. Saliva Chromogranin A (Cg A) and Immunoglobulin A (Ig A) were used to assess changes in stress and immunological status, respectively. The results of the study were as follows: 1. In GBS, the mean score of "different symptoms common in dementia" improved significantly after MT. 2. The mean Behave-AD score of "paranoid and delusional ideation" was also significantly improved (pdementia.

  19. An Approach in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning: A Fast, GPU-Based Monte Carlo Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaee, Mojtaba; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Tavakoli, Mohammad B

    2017-01-01

    An accurate and fast radiation dose calculation is essential for successful radiation radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to implement a new graphic processing unit (GPU) based radiation therapy treatment planning for accurate and fast dose calculation in radiotherapy centers. A program was written for parallel running based on GPU. The code validation was performed by EGSnrc/DOSXYZnrc. Moreover, a semi-automatic, rotary, asymmetric phantom was designed and produced using a bone, the lung, and the soft tissue equivalent materials. All measurements were performed using a Mapcheck dosimeter. The accuracy of the code was validated using the experimental data, which was obtained from the anthropomorphic phantom as the gold standard. The findings showed that, compared with those of DOSXYZnrc in the virtual phantom and for most of the voxels (>95%), GPU-based Monte Carlo method in dose calculation may be useful in routine radiation therapy centers as the core and main component of a treatment planning verification system.

  20. Source Modeling Sleep Slow Waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael Murphy; Brady A. Riedner; Reto Huber; Marcello Massimini; Fabio Ferrarelli; Giulio Tononi; Marcus E. Raichle

    2009-01-01

    .... Here we use high-density EEG (hd-EEG) source modeling to show that individual spontaneous slow waves have distinct cortical origins, propagate uniquely across the cortex, and involve unique subsets of cortical structures...

  1. A sensitivity comparison of the Quick and Owren prothrombin time methods in oral anticoagulant therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Eero Horsti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Prothrombin time (PT is the leading test for monitoring oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT. According to the World Health Organization recommendation, International Normalized Ratio (INR results obtained from the same patient samples with the major PT methods (Quick and Owren should be the same when the therapeutic range is the same. In our study blood samples were obtained from 207 OAT patients. We analyzed the samples using two Quick and two Owren PT (combined thromboplastin reagents for INR and assessed the sensitivity and true coagulation activity using a new-generation PT method. The INR values with the Quick PT and Owren PT methods were very similar around the normal range, while unacceptable differences were seen within the therapeutic range and at higher INR values. The Quick PT results as INR are clearly lower than those given by Owren PT and the difference increases toward higher INR. The new PT method functions well with both Owren PT reagents, and we can calculate the true active INR. The Quick PT methods show no sensitivity to coagulation inhibition measurement. The harmonization of the INR is an important goal for the safety of OAT patients. More accurate INR results reduce morbidity and mortality, and the therapeutic ranges should be similar worldwide. In this study we found unacceptable differences in INR results produced by the two PT methods. The new method showed a lack of sensitivity to Quick PT. For the global harmonization of OAT therapy and for INR accuracy only the more sensitive Owren PT method should be used.

  2. [The effectiveness of physical therapy methods (Bobath and motor relearning program) in rehabilitation of stroke patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutulyte, Grazina; Kimtys, Algimantas; Krisciūnas, Aleksandras

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether two different physiotherapy regimes caused any differences in outcome in the rehabilitation after stroke. We examined 240 patients with stroke. Examination was carried out at the Rehabilitation Center of Kaunas Second Clinical Hospital. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Bobath method was applied to the first (I) group (n=147), motor relearning program (MRP) method was applied to the second (II) group (n=93). In every group of patients we established samples according to sex, age, hospitalization to rehab unit as occurrence of CVA degree of disorder (hemiplegia, hemiparesis). The mobility of patients was evaluated according to European Federation for Research in Rehabilitation (EFRR) scale. Activities of daily living were evaluated by Barthel index. Analyzed groups were evaluated before physical therapy. When preliminary analysis was carried out it proved no statically reliable differences between analyzed groups (reliability 95%). The same statistical analysis was carried out after physical therapy. The results of differences between patient groups were compared using chi(2) method. Bobath method was applied working with the first group of patients. The aim of the method is to improve quality of the affected body side's movements in order to keep both sides working as harmoniously as possible. While applying this method at work, physical therapist guides patient's body on key-points, stimulating normal postural reactions, and training normal movement pattern. MRP method was used while working with the second group patients. This method is based on movement science, biomechanics and training of functional movement. Program is based on idea that movement pattern shouldn't be trained; it must be relearned. CONCLUSION. This study indicates that physiotherapy with task-oriented strategies represented by MRP, is preferable to physiotherapy with facilitation/inhibition strategies, such the Bobath programme, in the

  3. Range Verification Methods in Particle Therapy: Underlying Physics and Monte Carlo Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Aafke Christine

    2015-01-01

    Hadron therapy allows for highly conformal dose distributions and better sparing of organs-at-risk, thanks to the characteristic dose deposition as function of depth. However, the quality of hadron therapy treatments is closely connected with the ability to predict and achieve a given beam range in the patient. Currently, uncertainties in particle range lead to the employment of safety margins, at the expense of treatment quality. Much research in particle therapy is therefore aimed at developing methods to verify the particle range in patients. Non-invasive in vivo monitoring of the particle range can be performed by detecting secondary radiation, emitted from the patient as a result of nuclear interactions of charged hadrons with tissue, including β (+) emitters, prompt photons, and charged fragments. The correctness of the dose delivery can be verified by comparing measured and pre-calculated distributions of the secondary particles. The reliability of Monte Carlo (MC) predictions is a key issue. Correctly modeling the production of secondaries is a non-trivial task, because it involves nuclear physics interactions at energies, where no rigorous theories exist to describe them. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of various aspects in modeling the physics processes for range verification with secondary particles produced in proton, carbon, and heavier ion irradiation. We discuss electromagnetic and nuclear interactions of charged hadrons in matter, which is followed by a summary of some widely used MC codes in hadron therapy. Then, we describe selected examples of how these codes have been validated and used in three range verification techniques: PET, prompt gamma, and charged particle detection. We include research studies and clinically applied methods. For each of the techniques, we point out advantages and disadvantages, as well as clinical challenges still to be addressed, focusing on MC simulation aspects.

  4. Range Verification Methods in Particle Therapy: Underlying Physics and Monte Carlo Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Aafke Christine

    2015-01-01

    Hadron therapy allows for highly conformal dose distributions and better sparing of organs-at-risk, thanks to the characteristic dose deposition as function of depth. However, the quality of hadron therapy treatments is closely connected with the ability to predict and achieve a given beam range in the patient. Currently, uncertainties in particle range lead to the employment of safety margins, at the expense of treatment quality. Much research in particle therapy is therefore aimed at developing methods to verify the particle range in patients. Non-invasive in vivo monitoring of the particle range can be performed by detecting secondary radiation, emitted from the patient as a result of nuclear interactions of charged hadrons with tissue, including β+ emitters, prompt photons, and charged fragments. The correctness of the dose delivery can be verified by comparing measured and pre-calculated distributions of the secondary particles. The reliability of Monte Carlo (MC) predictions is a key issue. Correctly modeling the production of secondaries is a non-trivial task, because it involves nuclear physics interactions at energies, where no rigorous theories exist to describe them. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of various aspects in modeling the physics processes for range verification with secondary particles produced in proton, carbon, and heavier ion irradiation. We discuss electromagnetic and nuclear interactions of charged hadrons in matter, which is followed by a summary of some widely used MC codes in hadron therapy. Then, we describe selected examples of how these codes have been validated and used in three range verification techniques: PET, prompt gamma, and charged particle detection. We include research studies and clinically applied methods. For each of the techniques, we point out advantages and disadvantages, as well as clinical challenges still to be addressed, focusing on MC simulation aspects. PMID:26217586

  5. Experimental demonstration of spinor slow light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Jung; Ruseckas, Julius; Lee, Chin-Yuan; Kudriašov, Viačeslav; Chang, Kao-Fang; Cho, Hung-Wen; Juzeliānas, Gediminas; Yu, Ite A

    2014-11-24

    Slow light based on the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency is of great interest due to its applications in low-light-level nonlinear optics and quantum information manipulation. The previous experiments all dealt with the single-component slow light. Here, we report the experimental demonstration of two-component or spinor slow light using a double-tripod atom-light coupling scheme. The scheme involves three atomic ground states coupled to two excited states by six light fields. The oscillation due to the interaction between the two components was observed. On the basis of the stored light, our data showed that the double-tripod scheme behaves like the two outcomes of an interferometer enabling precision measurements of frequency detuning. We experimentally demonstrated a possible application of the double-tripod scheme as quantum memory/rotator for the two-colour qubit. Our study also suggests that the spinor slow light is a better method than a widely used scheme in the nonlinear frequency conversion.

  6. MIND diet slows cognitive decline with aging

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Martha Clare; Tangney, Christy C; Wang, Yamin; Sacks, Frank Martin; Barnes, Lisa L.; Bennett, David William; Aggarwal, Neelum T.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Mediterranean and dash diets have been shown to slow cognitive decline; however, neither diet is specific to the nutrition literature on dementia prevention. METHODS: We devised the Mediterranean-Dietary Approach to Systolic Hypertension (DASH) diet intervention for neurodegenerative delay (MIND) diet score that specifically captures dietary components shown to be neuroprotective and related it to change in cognition over an average 4.7 years among 960 participants ...

  7. The Tree Theme Method in psychosocial occupational therapy: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, A Birgitta; Jansson, Jan-Ake; Eklund, Mona

    2006-12-01

    This study aimed to describe the Tree Theme Method (TTM) as a method for intervention in psychosocial occupational therapy. The TTM is based on theories concerning creative activities and occupational storytelling and story making. In order to exemplify the method a case study of a treatment process with follow up was undertaken. The participant was a female client suffering from anxiety and depression. During an interview the client painted symbolic trees on five different occasions with specific variations of the tree theme: a tree symbolizing her present life, her childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and, finally, a tree representing her future. The trees were used as starting points for the client to tell her life story. The intention was that she would find new strategies for how to change her daily life. Three years later there was a follow up stage where the client painted new trees and told her story. Some life themes were identified. The TTM appears suitable for intervention in psychosocial occupational therapy. In future studies the TTM should be subjected to evaluation research based on several clients in order to develop a deeper understanding of the process and what kind of results changes in the TTM intervention may provide.

  8. Nonlinear theory of slow light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybin, Andrei; Timonen, Jussi

    2011-03-28

    In the framework of the nonlinear Λ model, propagation of solitons was analysed in atomic vapours and Bose-Einstein condensates. The complicated nonlinear interplay between fast and slow-light solitons in a Λ-type medium was shown to facilitate control of its optical transparency and formation of optical gates. An exact analytical description was given for the deceleration, stopping and revival of slow-light solitons in the experimentally relevant non-adiabatic regime. A stopping slow-light soliton imprints a localized immobile polarization pattern in the medium, which, as explicitly demonstrated here, can be used as a bit of readable optical memory. The whole process can be controlled with the background field and an auxiliary laser field. The latter regulates the signal velocity, while the slow-light soliton can be stopped by switching off the former. The location and shape of the imprinted memory bit were also determined. With few assumptions characteristic of slow light, the Λ model was reduced to a simpler nonlinear model that also describes two-dimensional dilatonic gravity. Exact solutions could now be derived also in the presence of relaxation. Spontaneous decay of the upper atomic level was found to be strongly suppressed, and the spatial form of the decelerating slow-light soliton was preserved, even if the optical relaxation time was much shorter than the typical time scale of the soliton. The effective relaxation coefficient of the slow-light soliton was significantly smaller than that of an arbitrary optical pulse. Such features are obviously of great importance when this kind of system is applied, in practice, to information processing. A number of experimentally observable properties of the solutions reported were found to be in good agreement with recent experimental results, and a few suggestions are also made for future experiments.

  9. Art-therapy as a method for mobilizing personal resources in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glozman J.M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging can be viewed as a continuation of development and an active interaction with the environment during which regressive changes are combined with progressive new formations. It is believed that the self-determining nature of subjectivity in the elderly mediates self-awareness and favors self-acceptance as an active agent that determines the outcomes of one’s own life at this age as an autonomous self-regulating subject of one’s own activity. A formative experience proved the efficiency of using art therapy as a method for mobilizing personal resources during aging.

  10. Pilates and mobilization methods in therapy for low back pain among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Mączka, Martyna; Sass, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Mączka Martyna, Sass Anna. Pilates and mobilization methods in therapy for low back pain among pregnant women. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(8):473-488. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.883771 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4760 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017). 1223 Journal of Education, Health an...

  11. The Potential of/for 'Slow': Slow Tourists and Slow Destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guiver

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Slow tourism practices are nothing new; in fact, they were once the norm and still are for millions of people whose annual holiday is spent camping, staying in caravans, rented accommodation, with friends and relations or perhaps in a second home, who immerse themselves in their holiday environment, eat local food, drink local wine and walk or cycle around the area. So why a special edition about slow tourism? Like many aspects of life once considered normal (such as organic farming or free-range eggs, the emergence of new practices has highlighted differences and prompted a re-evaluation of once accepted practices and values. In this way, the concept of ‘slow tourism’ has recently appeared as a type of tourism that contrasts with many contemporary mainstream tourism practices. It has also been associated with similar trends already ‘branded’ slow: slow food and cittaslow (slow towns and concepts such as mindfulness, savouring and well-being.

  12. Effect of Teaching Reading and Traditional Methods of Language Therapy on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dehghan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study compares the effects of reading instruction and traditional methods on grammar quotient of 4 to 10 years old children with down syndrome having IQ scores of 40 to 60. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental and interventional study, 20 children with down syndrome, average mean age of 63 months, and 40 to 60 IQ scores were selected from 96 children with down syndrome from rehabilitation clinics within Tehran and Karaj, using convenience sampling. Then, they were assigned into two groups in the presence of their parents, using balanced randomized method. The first group was educated by whole-word reading method and the second group by traditional methods. Both groups had three 15-minute sessions per week for a period of 6 months. Pre-test and post-test grammar quotient of both groups was assessed using the Test of Persian language development. The obtained data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, t-test, and paired t-test. Results: Both groups were quite similar in age, IQ, and grammar quotient, prior to training. However, the first group showed significant development in grammar quotient, after training (p<0.001. Conclusion: In comparison with traditional methods of language therapy that emphasize on weakness of children with down syndrome by employing auditory modality, teaching reading through whole-word method based on their strength “visual memory” has more influence on grammar quotient of them.

  13. Quinones as photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy: ROS generation, mechanism and detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, M

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the dye-sensitized photooxidation of biological matter in the target tissue, and utilizes light activated drugs for the treatment of a wide variety of malignancies. Quinones and porphyrins moiety are available naturally and involved in the biological process. Quinone metabolites perform a variety of key functions in plants which includes pathogen protection, oxidative phosphorylation, and redox signaling. Quinones and porphyrin are biologically accessible and will not create any allergic effects. In the field of photodynamic therapy, porphyrin derivatives are widely used, because it absorb in the photodynamic therapy window region (600-900 nm). Hence, researchers synthesize drugs based on porphyrin structure. Benzoquinone and its simple polycyclic derivatives such as naphthaquinone and anthraquinones absorb at lower wavelength region (300-400 nm), which is lower than porphyrin. Hence they are not involved in PDT studies. However, higher polycyclic quinones absorb in the photodynamic therapy window region (600-900 nm), because of its conjugation and can be used as PDT agents. Redox cycling has been proposed as a possible mechanism of action for many quinone species. Quinones are involved in the photodynamic as well as enzymatic generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Generations of ROS may be measured by optical, phosphorescence and EPR methods. The photodynamically generated ROS are also involved in many biological events. The photo-induced DNA cleavage by quinones correlates with the ROS generating efficiencies of the quinones. In this review basic reactions involving photodynamic generation of ROS by quinones and their biological applications were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A new method and device of aligning patient setup lasers in radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ui-Jung; Jo, Kwanghyun; Lim, Young Kyung; Kwak, Jung Won; Choi, Sang Hyuon; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kim, Mi Young; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Sung Yong; Kim, Siyong

    2016-01-08

    The aim of this study is to develop a new method to align the patient setup lasers in a radiation therapy treatment room and examine its validity and efficiency. The new laser alignment method is realized by a device composed of both a metallic base plate and a few acrylic transparent plates. Except one, every plate has either a crosshair line (CHL) or a single vertical line that is used for alignment. Two holders for radiochromic film insertion are prepared in the device to find a radiation isocenter. The right laser positions can be found optically by matching the shadows of all the CHLs in the gantry head and the device. The reproducibility, accuracy, and efficiency of laser alignment and the dependency on the position error of the light source were evaluated by comparing the means and the standard deviations of the measured laser positions. After the optical alignment of the lasers, the radiation isocenter was found by the gantry and collimator star shots, and then the lasers were translated parallel to the isocenter. In the laser position reproducibility test, the mean and standard deviation on the wall of treatment room were 32.3 ± 0.93 mm for the new method whereas they were 33.4 ± 1.49 mm for the conventional method. The mean alignment accuracy was 1.4 mm for the new method, and 2.1 mm for the conventional method on the walls. In the test of the dependency on the light source position error, the mean laser position was shifted just by a similar amount of the shift of the light source in the new method, but it was greatly magnified in the conventional method. In this study, a new laser alignment method was devised and evaluated successfully. The new method provided more accurate, more reproducible, and faster alignment of the lasers than the conventional method.

  15. A calibration method for patient specific IMRT QA using a single therapy verification film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Arvind Kumar; Oinam, Arun S; Kumar, Sanjeev; Sandhu, I S; Sharma, S C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to develop and verify the single film calibration procedure used in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance. Radiographic films have been regularly used in routine commissioning of treatment modalities and verification of treatment planning system (TPS). The radiation dosimetery based on radiographic films has ability to give absolute two-dimension dose distribution and prefer for the IMRT quality assurance. However, the single therapy verification film gives a quick and significant reliable method for IMRT verification. A single extended dose rate (EDR 2) film was used to generate the sensitometric curve of film optical density and radiation dose. EDR 2 film was exposed with nine 6 cm × 6 cm fields of 6 MV photon beam obtained from a medical linear accelerator at 5-cm depth in solid water phantom. The nine regions of single film were exposed with radiation doses raging from 10 to 362 cGy. The actual dose measurements inside the field regions were performed using 0.6 cm(3) ionization chamber. The exposed film was processed after irradiation using a VIDAR film scanner and the value of optical density was noted for each region. Ten IMRT plans of head and neck carcinoma were used for verification using a dynamic IMRT technique, and evaluated using the gamma index method with TPS calculated dose distribution. Sensitometric curve has been generated using a single film exposed at nine field region to check quantitative dose verifications of IMRT treatments. The radiation scattered factor was observed to decrease exponentially with the increase in the distance from the centre of each field region. The IMRT plans based on calibration curve were verified using the gamma index method and found to be within acceptable criteria. The single film method proved to be superior to the traditional calibration method and produce fast daily film calibration for highly accurate IMRT verification.

  16. Slowing dynamics of a supersonic beam, simulation and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamda, Mehdi; Taillandier-Loize, Thierry; Baudon, Jacques; Dutier, Gabriel; Perales, Francisco; Ducloy, Martial

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we present numerical and experimental methods aimed to study the evolution in space and time of a slowed supersonic beam. These generic methods are applicable to a variety of beams and decelerating techniques. The present implemented experimental set up is based upon Zeeman slowing of a metastable atom beam. The detection uses a channel-electron multiplier and a delay-line detector allowing time-of-flight analysis and numerical image reconstruction. In particular a depopulation effect at the centre of the beam is evidenced. In view of quantifying the slowing process, Monte Carlo calculations based on rate-equations are detailed.

  17. Breast Conserving Therapy and Quality of Life in Thai Females: a Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerawong, Thanarpan; Phenwan, Tharin; Supanitwatthana, Sojirat; Mahattanobon, Somrit; Kongkamol, Chanon

    2016-01-01

    To explore factors that influence quality of life (QOL) in patients receiving breast conserving therapy (BCT). In this sequential mixed methods study, 118 women from Songklanagarind Hospital were included. We used participants' characteristics, Body Image Scale (BIS), and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy with the Breast Cancer Subscale (FACT-B) for analysis. The BIS transformed into presence of body image disturbance (BID). Factors that influenced QOL were determined by stepwise multiple linear regression. Forty-one participants were selected for qualitative analysis. Our female researcher performed the semi-structured interviews with questions based on the symbolic interaction theory. Final codes were analysed using thematic analysis along with investigator triangulation methods. Ninety percent had early stage breast cancer with post-completed BCT, for an average of 2.7 years. The median BIS score and FACT-B score were 2 (IQR=10) and 130 (IQR=39). In the regression analysis, an age of more than 50 years and BID were significant factors. As for the value of conserved breasts, two themes emerged: a conserved breast is an essential part of a participant's life and also the representation of her womanhood; the importance of a breast is related to age. Body image influenced QOL in post BCT participants. The conserved breasts also lead to positive and better impact on their body image as an essential part of their life.

  18. Molecular diagnostics for pharmacogenomic testing of fluoropyrimidine based-therapy: costs, methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francia, Raffaele; Berretta, Massimiliano; Catapano, Oriana; Canzoniero, Lorella M T; Formisano, Luigi

    2011-07-01

    Abstract Genetic testing of drug response represents an important goal for targeted therapy. In particular, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is the backbone of several chemotherapic protocols for treatment of solid tumors. Unfortunately, in some patients, 5-FU is toxic and causes gastrointestinal and hematologic lesions leading to the suspension of therapy. Some adverse drug responses can be predicted by pharmacogenomics. Recently, several polymorphic traits of different genes involved with 5-FU biotransformation have been reported. Many methods have been used for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the mutational status of these genes, without a precise cost-effectiveness analysis. This article reviews recent findings on the seven germline polymorphic traits of four genes involved in the biotransformation of the 5-FU. In particular, we analyze the most common platforms used to identify the specific genetic alterations and their relative costs. Genotyping can be performed either by custom service laboratories or academic reference laboratories by using either the commercial kits (when available) or "in house" tests. By random selection of 20 certified laboratories out of a total of 71, we estimate that the cost of the analysis/single trait is on average €120.00 as custom genotyping service. "In house" validated tests by PCR-based platforms cost approximately €20.00 per single polimorphism. On the basis of this information, the lab manager can evaluate the advantage and limitations, in terms of costs and applicability, of the most appropriate methods for diagnostics of 5-FU pharmacogenomics tests.

  19. The Slow Learner in Mathematics: A Favorable Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, James R.

    1973-01-01

    Environmental characteristics, classroom atmosphere, motivation, and behavior of slow learners'' are some major categories discussed. Numerous specific examples are used to illustrate suggestions. Methods of reinforcing student attitudes are emphasized. (LS)

  20. Inpatient Massage Therapy Versus Music Therapy Versus Usual Care: A Mixed-methods Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseen, Eric J; Cornelio-Flores, Oscar; Lemaster, Chelsey; Hernandez, Maria; Fong, Calvin; Resnick, Kirsten; Wardle, Jon; Hanser, Suzanne; Saper, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the feasibility of providing massage or music therapy to medical inpatients at urban safety-net hospitals or the impact these treatments may have on patient experience. To determine the feasibility of providing massage and music therapy to medical inpatients and to assess the impact of these interventions on patient experience. Single-center 3-arm feasibility randomized controlled trial. Urban academic safety-net hospital. Adult inpatients on the Family Medicine ward. Massage therapy consisted of a standardized protocol adapted from a previous perioperative study. Music therapy involved a preference assessment, personalized compact disc, music-facilitated coping, singing/playing music, and/or songwriting. Credentialed therapists provided the interventions. Patient experience was measured with the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) within 7 days of discharge. We compared the proportion of patients in each study arm reporting "top box" scores for the following a priori HCAHPS domains: pain management, recommendation of hospital, and overall hospital rating. Responses to additional open-ended postdischarge questions were transcribed, coded independently, and analyzed for common themes. From July to December 2014, 90 medical inpatients were enrolled; postdischarge data were collected on 68 (76%) medical inpatients. Participants were 70% females, 43% non-Hispanic black, and 23% Hispanic. No differences between groups were observed on HCAHPS. The qualitative analysis found that massage and music therapy were associated with improved overall hospital experience, pain management, and connectedness to the massage or music therapist. Providing music and massage therapy in an urban safety-net inpatient setting was feasible. There was no quantitative impact on HCAHPS. Qualitative findings suggest benefits related to an improved hospital experience, pain management, and connectedness to the massage or music therapist.

  1. Inpatient Massage Therapy Versus Music Therapy Versus Usual Care: A Mixed-methods Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelio-Flores, Oscar; Lemaster, Chelsey; Hernandez, Maria; Fong, Calvin; Resnick, Kirsten; Wardle, Jon; Hanser, Suzanne; Saper, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background Little is known about the feasibility of providing massage or music therapy to medical inpatients at urban safety-net hospitals or the impact these treatments may have on patient experience. Objective To determine the feasibility of providing massage and music therapy to medical inpatients and to assess the impact of these interventions on patient experience. Design Single-center 3-arm feasibility randomized controlled trial. Setting Urban academic safety-net hospital. Patients Adult inpatients on the Family Medicine ward. Interventions Massage therapy consisted of a standardized protocol adapted from a previous perioperative study. Music therapy involved a preference assessment, personalized compact disc, music-facilitated coping, singing/playing music, and/or songwriting. Credentialed therapists provided the interventions. Measurements Patient experience was measured with the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) within 7 days of discharge. We compared the proportion of patients in each study arm reporting “top box” scores for the following a priori HCAHPS domains: pain management, recommendation of hospital, and overall hospital rating. Responses to additional open-ended postdischarge questions were transcribed, coded independently, and analyzed for common themes. Results From July to December 2014, 90 medical inpatients were enrolled; postdischarge data were collected on 68 (76%) medical inpatients. Participants were 70% females, 43% non-Hispanic black, and 23% Hispanic. No differences between groups were observed on HCAHPS. The qualitative analysis found that massage and music therapy were associated with improved overall hospital experience, pain management, and connectedness to the massage or music therapist. Conclusions Providing music and massage therapy in an urban safety-net inpatient setting was feasible. There was no quantitative impact on HCAHPS. Qualitative findings suggest benefits related to an

  2. Atrial Conduction Slows Immediately Before the Onset of Human Atrial Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, Gautam G.; Schricker, Amir; Gibson, Michael; Rostamian, Armand; Krummen, David E.; Narayan, Sanjiv M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine whether onset sites of human atrial fibrillation (AF) exhibit conduction slowing, reduced amplitude, and/or prolonged duration of signals (i.e., fractionation) immediately before AF onset. Background Few studies have identified functional determinants of AF initiation. Because conduction slowing is required for reentry, we hypothesized that AF from pulmonary vein triggers might initiate at sites exhibiting rate-dependent slowing in conduction velocity (CV restitution) or local slowing evidenced by signal fractionation. Methods In 28 patients with AF (left atrial size 43 ± 5 mm; n = 13 persistent) and 3 control subjects (no AF) at electrophysiological study, we measured bi-atrial conduction time (CT) electrogram fractionation at 64 or 128 electrodes with baskets in left (n = 17) or both (n = 14) atria during superior pulmonary vein pacing at cycle lengths (CL) accelerating from 500 ms (120 beats/min) to AF onset. Results Atrial fibrillation initiated in 19 of 28 AF patients and no control subjects. During rate acceleration, conduction slowed in 23 of 28 AF patients (vs. no control subjects, p = 0.01) at the site of AF initiation (15 of 19) or latest activated site (20 of 28). The CT lengthened from 79 ± 23 ms to 107 ± 39 ms (p < 0.001) on acceleration, in a spectrum from persistent AF (greatest slowing) to control subjects (least slowing; p < 0.05). Three patterns of CV restitution were observed: 1) broad (gradual CT prolongation, 37% patients); 2) steep (abrupt prolongation, at CL 266 ± 62 ms, 42%); and 3) flat (no prolongation, 21% AF patients, all control subjects). The AF initiation was more prevalent in patients with CV restitution (17 of 23 vs. 2 of 8; p = 0.03) and immediately followed abrupt reorientation of the activation vector in patients with broad but not steep CV restitution (p < 0.01). Patients with broad CV restitution had larger atria (p = 0.03) and were more likely to have persistent AF (p = 0

  3. Beam angle optimization for intensity-modulated radiation therapy using a guided pattern search method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Humberto; Dias, Joana M.; Ferreira, Brígida C.; Lopes, Maria C.

    2013-05-01

    Generally, the inverse planning of radiation therapy consists mainly of the fluence optimization. The beam angle optimization (BAO) in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) consists of selecting appropriate radiation incidence directions and may influence the quality of the IMRT plans, both to enhance better organ sparing and to improve tumor coverage. However, in clinical practice, most of the time, beam directions continue to be manually selected by the treatment planner without objective and rigorous criteria. The goal of this paper is to introduce a novel approach that uses beam’s-eye-view dose ray tracing metrics within a pattern search method framework in the optimization of the highly non-convex BAO problem. Pattern search methods are derivative-free optimization methods that require a few function evaluations to progress and converge and have the ability to better avoid local entrapment. The pattern search method framework is composed of a search step and a poll step at each iteration. The poll step performs a local search in a mesh neighborhood and ensures the convergence to a local minimizer or stationary point. The search step provides the flexibility for a global search since it allows searches away from the neighborhood of the current iterate. Beam’s-eye-view dose metrics assign a score to each radiation beam direction and can be used within the pattern search framework furnishing a priori knowledge of the problem so that directions with larger dosimetric scores are tested first. A set of clinical cases of head-and-neck tumors treated at the Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Coimbra is used to discuss the potential of this approach in the optimization of the BAO problem.

  4. A new method to reconstruct intra-fractional prostate motion in volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Y.; Rezaeian, N. H.; Shen, C.; Zhou, Y.; Lu, W.; Yang, M.; Hannan, R.; Jia, X.

    2017-07-01

    Intra-fractional motion is a concern during prostate radiation therapy, as it may cause deviations between planned and delivered radiation doses. Because accurate motion information during treatment delivery is critical to address dose deviation, we developed the projection marker matching method (PM3), a novel method for prostate motion reconstruction in volumetric modulated arc therapy. The purpose of this method is to reconstruct in-treatment prostate motion trajectory using projected positions of implanted fiducial markers measured in kV x-ray projection images acquired during treatment delivery. We formulated this task as a quadratic optimization problem. The objective function penalized the distance from the reconstructed 3D position of each fiducial marker to the corresponding straight line, defined by the x-ray projection of the marker. Rigid translational motion of the prostate and motion smoothness along the temporal dimension were assumed and incorporated into the optimization model. We tested the motion reconstruction method in both simulation and phantom experimental studies. We quantified the accuracy using 3D normalized root-mean-square (RMS) error defined as the norm of a vector containing ratios between the absolute RMS errors and corresponding motion ranges in three dimensions. In the simulation study with realistic prostate motion trajectories, the 3D normalized RMS error was on average ~0.164 (range from 0.097 to 0.333 ). In an experimental study, a prostate phantom was driven to move along a realistic prostate motion trajectory. The 3D normalized RMS error was ~0.172 . We also examined the impact of the model parameters on reconstruction accuracy, and found that a single set of parameters can be used for all the tested cases to accurately reconstruct the motion trajectories. The motion trajectory derived by PM3 may be incorporated into novel strategies, including 4D dose reconstruction and adaptive treatment replanning to address motion

  5. Slow and fast light in semiconductor structures: physics and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Xue, Weiqi

    We discuss the physics and applications of slow light in semiconductor waveguides. In particular we introduce methods for enhancing the degree of light speed control considering both electromagnetically induced transparency as well as coherent population oscillations.......We discuss the physics and applications of slow light in semiconductor waveguides. In particular we introduce methods for enhancing the degree of light speed control considering both electromagnetically induced transparency as well as coherent population oscillations....

  6. Enhancement of sleep slow waves: underlying mechanisms and practical consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eBellesi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Even modest sleep restriction, especially the loss of sleep slow wave activity, is invariably associated with slower EEG activity during wake, the occurrence of local sleep in an otherwise awake brain, and impaired performance due to cognitive and memory deficits. Recent studies not only confirm the beneficial role of sleep in memory consolidation, but also point to a specific role for sleep slow waves. Thus, the implementation of methods to enhance sleep slow waves without unwanted arousals or lightening of sleep could have significant practical implications. Here we first review the evidence that it is possible to enhance sleep slow waves in humans using transcranial direct-current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Since these methods are currently impractical and their safety is questionable, especially for chronic long-term exposure, we then discuss novel data suggesting that it is possible to enhance slow waves using sensory stimuli. We consider the physiology of the K-complex, a peripheral evoked slow wave, and show that, among different sensory modalities, acoustic stimulation is the most effective in increasing the magnitude of slow waves, likely through the activation of non-lemniscal ascending pathways to the thalamo-cortical system. In addition, we discuss how intensity and frequency of the acoustic stimuli, as well as exact timing and pattern of stimulation, affect sleep enhancement. Finally, we discuss automated algorithms that read the EEG and, in real-time, adjust the stimulation parameters in a closed-loop manner to obtain an increase in sleep slow waves and avoid undesirable arousals. In conclusion, while discussing the mechanisms that underlie the generation of sleep slow waves, we review the converging evidence showing that acoustic stimulation is safe and represents an ideal tool for slow wave sleep enhancement.

  7. Dragging cylinders in slow viscous flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Elena; Crowdy, Darren

    2015-11-01

    The so-called ``dragging problem'' in slow viscous fluids is an important basic flow with many applications. In two dimensions, the Stokes paradox means there is no solution to the dragging problem for a cylinder in free space. The presence of walls changes this; the solutions exist, but are not easy to find without purely numerical methods. This talk describes new ``transform methods'' that produce convenient, semi-analytical solutions to dragging problems for cylinders in various geometries. We apply the techniques to low-Reynolds-number swimming where dragging problem solutions can be combined with the reciprocal theorem to compute swimmer dynamics in confined domains.

  8. Reading and the Slow Learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Advocates of high standards and expectations usually believe that gaps in reading achievement can be eliminated with good teaching, but slow readers need a specially designed reading curriculum. The teacher first needs to use an informal reading inventory to determine the student's reading level. Functioning generally on a higher level than…

  9. Programmed Instruction for Slow Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Eric; Roberts, Ted

    1973-01-01

    A description of a project which produced and provided programed learning materials for slow learners. These programs have been printed and distributed in over 30,000 free copies throughout Canada and have been a source of hope and assistance to teachers and parents. (Author)

  10. A comparative evaluation of teaching methods in an introductory neuroscience course for physical therapy students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Gilbert M.

    Background and purpose. Use of computer based instruction (CBI) in physical therapy (P.T.) education is growing. P.T. educators have reported few studies regarding the effectiveness of CBI compared to lecture based instruction, and none have specifically addressed the area of neuroscience. The purpose of this study was to determine whether CBI would be a better alternative than lecture for teaching introductory neuroscience information to first year P.T. students. Subjects. This study was conducted over two years, with 28 participants in 2003 and 34 in 2004. Methods. A randomized, cross-over design was employed for this investigation. The course in which the study took place was divided into two sections with an exam after each. Both sections included 5 one hour lectures (or 5 equivalent CBI modules) and a two hour laboratory experience. Exams consisted of 30 multiple choice questions. Students in one group participated in CBI during the first half of the course and lecture during the second half. The order of participation was reversed for students in the other group. A review exam (60 multiple choice questions) was also taken by participants six months post-participation in the course. Exam scores, study time, course development costs, and student opinions regarding teaching methods were collected after each section of the course and analyzed using quantitative and qualitative methods. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in "within course" or review exam scores between participant groups based on instructional method, however, CBI taught students spent less time studying. Student opinions did not distinguish a major preference for either instruction method. Many students preferred that CBI be used as a complimentary rather than mutually exclusive instructional method. Lecture based instruction was clearly more cost effective than CBI. Conclusion. In this study, lecture based instruction was clearly the better choice of teaching method in

  11. Automation and uncertainty analysis of a method for in-vivo range verification in particle therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, K; Unholtz, D; Bauer, J; Debus, J; Min, C H; Bortfeld, T; Paganetti, H; Parodi, K

    2014-10-07

    We introduce the automation of the range difference calculation deduced from particle-irradiation induced β(+)-activity distributions with the so-called most-likely-shift approach, and evaluate its reliability via the monitoring of algorithm- and patient-specific uncertainty factors. The calculation of the range deviation is based on the minimization of the absolute profile differences in the distal part of two activity depth profiles shifted against each other. Depending on the workflow of positron emission tomography (PET)-based range verification, the two profiles under evaluation can correspond to measured and simulated distributions, or only measured data from different treatment sessions. In comparison to previous work, the proposed approach includes an automated identification of the distal region of interest for each pair of PET depth profiles and under consideration of the planned dose distribution, resulting in the optimal shift distance. Moreover, it introduces an estimate of uncertainty associated to the identified shift, which is then used as weighting factor to 'red flag' problematic large range differences. Furthermore, additional patient-specific uncertainty factors are calculated using available computed tomography (CT) data to support the range analysis. The performance of the new method for in-vivo treatment verification in the clinical routine is investigated with in-room PET images for proton therapy as well as with offline PET images for proton and carbon ion therapy. The comparison between measured PET activity distributions and predictions obtained by Monte Carlo simulations or measurements from previous treatment fractions is performed. For this purpose, a total of 15 patient datasets were analyzed, which were acquired at Massachusetts General Hospital and Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center with in-room PET and offline PET/CT scanners, respectively. Calculated range differences between the compared activity distributions are reported in a

  12. Development of an irradiation method of intraoperative radiation therapy for curatively resected rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadahiro, Sataro; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Ishikawa, Kenji [Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine] (and others)

    1999-08-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) has been performed to prevent local recurrence of rectal cancer only when positive margins are suspected. To further reduce local recurrence, we attempted to develop a new IORT irradiation method in which electron beam irradiation is administered as uniformly as possible to the intrapelvic dissection surfaces. Low anterior resection and abdominoperineal resection were performed in one male and one female cadaver. Electron beam irradiation was administered by four different methods, and absorbed doses were measured at 15 sites within the pelvis. We also attempted to measure absorbed doses at nine sites within the pelvis in 14 patients treated with IORT. The cadaver study revealed low absorbed doses in the lateral walls of the pelvis when a single irradiation was delivered from the anterior. When the lateral walls of the pelvis were irradiated twice, once each time on the right and left, the absorbed doses were low in the central pelvis and presacrum. Relatively high absorbed doses were achieved in all of these areas by a technique that combined these two methods. Adequate absorbed doses were not achieved by a single irradiation administered from the perineum. This study suggests that electron beam irradiation administered three times to the dissected surfaces in the pelvis after resection of rectal cancer (i.e., to the central pelvis and presacrum from the anterior, and to the left and right lateral walls of the pelvis) is the most suitable method for achieving adequate absorbed doses. (author)

  13. Proposed method for internal electron therapy based on high-intensity laser acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Michal; Barkai, Uri; Gannot, Israel

    2015-05-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the main methods to treat cancer. However, due to the propagation pattern of high-energy photons in tissue and their inability to discriminate between healthy and malignant tissues, healthy tissues may also be damaged, causing undesired side effects. A possible method for internal electron therapy, based on laser acceleration of electrons inside the patient's body, is suggested. In this method, an optical waveguide, optimized for high intensities, is used to transmit the laser radiation and accelerate electrons toward the tumor. The radiation profile can be manipulated in order to create a patient-specific radiation treatment profile by changing the laser characteristics. The propagation pattern of electrons in tissues minimizes the side effects caused to healthy tissues. A simulation was developed to demonstrate the use of this method, calculating the trajectories of the accelerated electron as a function of laser properties. The simulation was validated by comparison to theory, showing a good fit for laser intensities of up to 2×1020 (W/cm2), and was then used to calculate suggested treatment profiles for two tumor test cases (with and without penetration to the tumor). The results show that treatment profiles can be designed to cover tumor area with minimal damage to adjacent tissues.

  14. [Forms and method of rehabilitation therapy and social-occupational rehabilitation of patients with the sequelae of cerebrovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidenko, T D; Gol'dblat, Iu V; Grekova, A A; Kamenetskiĭ, V K; L'vova, R I

    1977-01-01

    The authors give some data on restitutional therapy of 516 patients (400 with sequelae following strokes and 116 with transient disorders of cerebral circulation). Treatment of the first group was made in a neurological ward, the second--in a cardiological sanatorium. The programme of restitutional therapy provided the use of psychosocial and biological methods, an appeal to the personality and stage-by-stage accomplishment of rehabilitative measures. Comprehensive restitutional therapy included psychotherapy, medical-activizing regimes, medical gymnastics, massage, occupational therapy, medicinal therapy, etc. The authors elaborated differentiated complexes of rehabilitative treatment for patients with spastic hemiparesis, normal or decreased tone, as well as for patients with transient disorders of cerebral circulation in conditions of a cardiological sanatorium. The indices of effectiveness were the following: an improvement of the condition in patients after brain strokes--97.8%, in patients with transient disorders of cerebral circulation--94%.

  15. Evaluation of three commercial metal artifact reduction methods for CT simulations in radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Y Huang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the success of three commercial metal artifact reduction methods (MAR in the context of radiation therapy treatment planning.Methods: Three MAR strategies were evaluated: Philips O-MAR, monochromatic imaging using Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI dual energy CT, and monochromatic imaging with metal artifact reduction software (GSI-MARs. The Gammex RMI 467 tissue characterization phantom with several metal rods and two anthropomorphic phantoms (pelvic phantom with hip prosthesis and head phantom with dental fillings, were scanned with and without metals (baseline. Each MAR method was evaluated based on CT number accuracy, metal size accuracy, and reduction in the severity of streak artifacts. CT number difference maps between the baseline and metal scan images were calculated, and the severity of streak artifacts was quantified using the percentage of pixels with > 40 HU error (“bad pixels”.Results: Philips O-MAR generally reduced HU errors in the RMI phantom. However, increased errors and induced artifacts were observed for lung materials. GSI monochromatic 70keV images generally showed similar HU errors as conventional 120kVp imaging, while 140keV images reduced HU errors. All the imaging techniques represented the diameter of a stainless steel rod to within ±1.6mm (2 pixels. For the hip prosthesis, O-MAR reduced the average % bad pixels from 47% to 32%. For GSI 140keV imaging, the % bad pixels was reduced from 37% to 29% compared to 120kVp imaging, and GSI-MARs further reduced it to 12%. For the head phantom, none of the MAR methods was particularly successful.Conclusion: O-MAR resulted in consistent artifact reduction but exhibited induced artifacts for metals located near lung tissue. GSI imaging at 140keV gave consistent reduction in HU errors and severity of artifacts. GSI-MARs at 140keV was the most successful MAR method for the hip prosthesis but exhibited induced artifacts at the edges of metals in some cases

  16. Technological methods to measure adherence to antiretroviral therapy and preexposure prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Lindsey E; Haberer, Jessica E

    2017-09-01

    The WHO's Consolidated Guidelines (2016) call for research on improved methods to proactively monitor adherence and identify those individuals who have the greatest needs for adherence support. This review aims to elucidate the latest technologies available to measure adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy and preexposure prophylaxis against HIV infection and present their utility in various settings and populations. Within the last few years, advances have been made in the features of existing technology to measure adherence (real-time electronic adherence measurements), additional approaches have been developed (digital medicine systems) and improved (short message service surveys), and point of care testing for pharmacokinetic measures are under development. Technology advances in adherence measurement are promising for improved accuracy and, in some cases, the ability to intervene with adherence challenges in real time. This progress will greatly further our understanding of adherence behavior, as well as the ability to effectively link interventions with individuals who need them, thus maximizing the clinical and public health benefits of both antiretroviral therapy and preexposure prophylaxis.

  17. Real-time dose compensation methods for scanned ion beam therapy of moving tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luechtenborg, Robert

    2012-01-15

    Scanned ion beam therapy provides highly tumor-conformal treatments. So far, only tumors showing no considerable motion during therapy have been treated as tumor motion and dynamic beam delivery interfere, causing dose deteriorations. One proposed technique to mitigate these deteriorations is beam tracking (BT), which adapts the beam position to the moving tumor. Despite application of BT, dose deviations can occur in the case of non-translational motion. In this work, real-time dose compensation combined with beam tracking (RDBT) has been implemented into the control system to compensate these dose changes by adaptation of nominal particle numbers during irradiation. Compared to BT, significantly reduced dose deviations were measured using RDBT. Treatment planning studies for lung cancer patients including the increased biological effectiveness of ions revealed a significantly reduced over-dose level (3/5 patients) as well as significantly improved dose homogeneity (4/5 patients) for RDBT. Based on these findings, real-time dose compensated re-scanning (RDRS) has been proposed that potentially supersedes the technically complex fast energy adaptation necessary for BT and RDBT. Significantly improved conformity compared to re-scanning, i.e., averaging of dose deviations by repeated irradiation, was measured in film irradiations. Simulations comparing RDRS to BT revealed reduced under- and overdoses of the former method.

  18. VIDA: a voxel-based dosimetry method for targeted radionuclide therapy using Geant4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Susan D; Dewaraja, Yuni K; Abramson, Richard G; Stabin, Michael G

    2015-02-01

    We have developed the Voxel-Based Internal Dosimetry Application (VIDA) to provide patient-specific dosimetry in targeted radionuclide therapy performing Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport with the Geant4 toolkit. The code generates voxel-level dose rate maps using anatomical and physiological data taken from individual patients. Voxel level dose rate curves are then fit and integrated to yield a spatial map of radiation absorbed dose. In this article, we present validation studies using established dosimetry results, including self-dose factors (DFs) from the OLINDA/EXM program for uniform activity in unit density spheres and organ self- and cross-organ DFs in the Radiation Dose Assessment Resource (RADAR) reference adult phantom. The comparison with reference data demonstrated agreement within 5% for self-DFs to spheres and reference phantom source organs for four common radionuclides used in targeted therapy ((131)I, (90)Y, (111)In, (177)Lu). Agreement within 9% was achieved for cross-organ DFs. We also present dose estimates to normal tissues and tumors from studies of two non-Hodgkin Lymphoma patients treated by (131)I radioimmunotherapy, with comparison to results generated independently with another dosimetry code. A relative difference of 12% or less was found between methods for mean absorbed tumor doses accounting for tumor regression.

  19. More Questions and Answers about Slow Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Jack

    1977-01-01

    Presented are responses to questions often asked about slow learners, including: What kinds of materials can be used with slow learners? Is it advisable to deliver lecture lessons to slow learners? How do you start a class lesson? Can the teacher of slow learners reach every student? Teaching techniques and learning activities are described.…

  20. The unappreciated slowness of conventional tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Larsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Most tourists are not consciously engaging in ‘slow travel’, but a number of travel behaviours displayed by conventional tourists can be interpreted as slow travel behaviour. Based on Danish tourists’ engagement with the distances they travel across to reach their holiday destination, this paper explores unintended slow travel behaviours displayed by these tourists. None of the tourists participating in this research were consciously doing ‘slow travel’, and yet some of their most valued holiday memories are linked to slow travel behaviours. Based on the analysis of these unintended slow travel behaviours, this paper will discuss the potential this insight might hold for promotion of slow travel. If unappreciated and unintentional slow travel behaviours could be utilised in the deliberate effort of encouraging more people to travel slow, ‘slow travel’ will be in a better position to become integrated into conventional travel behaviour.

  1. Traditional lecture versus jigsaw learning method for teaching Medication Therapy Management (MTM) core elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jennifer A; Pegram, Angela H; Battise, Dawn M; Robinson, April M

    2017-11-01

    To determine if traditional didactic lecture or the jigsaw learning method is more effective to teach the medication therapy management (MTM) core elements in a first year pharmacy course. Traditional didactic lecture and a pre-class reading assignment were used in the fall semester cohort, and the jigsaw method was used in the spring semester cohort. Jigsaw is a cooperative learning strategy requiring students to assume responsibility for learning, and subsequently teaching peers. The students were responsible for reading specific sections of the pre-class reading, and then teaching other students in small groups about their specific reading assignments. To assess potential differences, identical pre- and post-tests were administered before and after the MTM section. Additionally, grade performance on an in-class project and final exam questions were compared, and students were surveyed on perceptions of teaching method used. A total of 45 and 43 students completed both the pre- and post-test in the fall and spring (96% and 93% response rate), respectively. Improvement in post-test scores favored the traditional method (p = 0.001). No statistical differences were noted between groups with grade performance on the in-class project and final exam questions. However, students favored the jigsaw method over traditional lecture and perceived improvements in problem solving skills, listening/communication skills and encouragement of cooperative learning (p = 0.018, 0.025 and 0.031). Although students favored the jigsaw learning method, traditional didactic lecture was more effective for the pre- and post-knowledge test performance. This may indicate that traditional didactic lecture is more effective for more foundational content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The doripenem serum concentrations in intensive care patients suffering from acute kidney injury, sepsis, and multi organ dysfunction syndrome undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy slow low-efficiency dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wieczorek, Andrzej; Tokarz, Andrzej; Gaszynski, Wojciech; Gaszynski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Andrzej Wieczorek, Andrzej Tokarz, Wojciech Gaszynski, Tomasz Gaszynski Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland Abstract: Doripenem is a novel wide-spectrum antibiotic, and a derivate of carbapenems. It is an ideal antibiotic for treatment of serious nosocomial infections and severe sepsis for its exceptionally high efficiency and broad antibacterial spectrum of action. Doripenem is eliminated mainly by the kidneys. In cases of acute kidn...

  3. Individual radiation therapy patient whole-body phantoms for peripheral dose evaluations: method and specific software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alziar, I; Vicente, C; Giordana, G; Ben-Harrath, O; De Vathaire, F; Diallo, I [U605 INSERM, Villejuif (France); Bonniaud, G; Couanet, D; Chavaudra, J; Lefkopoulos, D [Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Ruaud, J B; Diaz, J C; Grandjean, P; Kafrouni, H [DOSIsoft, Cachan (France)], E-mail: ibrahim.diallo@igr.fr

    2009-09-07

    This study presents a method aimed at creating radiotherapy (RT) patient-adjustable whole-body phantoms to permit retrospective and prospective peripheral dose evaluations for enhanced patient radioprotection. Our strategy involves virtual whole-body patient models (WBPM) in different RT treatment positions for both genders and for different age groups. It includes a software tool designed to match the anatomy of the phantoms with the anatomy of the actual patients, based on the quality of patient data available. The procedure for adjusting a WBPM to patient morphology includes typical dimensions available in basic auxological tables for the French population. Adjustment is semi-automatic. Because of the complexity of the human anatomy, skilled personnel are required to validate changes made in the phantom anatomy. This research is part of a global project aimed at proposing appropriate methods and software tools capable of reconstituting the anatomy and dose evaluations in the entire body of RT patients in an adapted treatment planning system (TPS). The graphic user interface is that of a TPS adapted to obtain a comfortable working process. Such WBPM have been used to supplement patient therapy planning images, usually restricted to regions involved in treatment. Here we report, as an example, the case of a patient treated for prostate cancer whose therapy planning images were complemented by an anatomy model. Although present results are preliminary and our research is ongoing, they appear encouraging, since such patient-adjusted phantoms are crucial in the optimization of radiation protection of patients and for follow-up studies. (note)

  4. From traditional cognitive-behavioural therapy to acceptance and commitment therapy for chronic pain: a mixed-methods study of staff experiences of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Estelle; McCracken, Lance M

    2014-08-01

    Health care organizations, both large and small, frequently undergo processes of change. In fact, if health care organizations are to improve over time, they must change; this includes pain services. The purpose of the present study was to examine a process of change in treatment model within a specialty interdisciplinary pain service in the UK. This change entailed a switch from traditional cognitive-behavioural therapy to a form of cognitive-behavioural therapy called acceptance and commitment therapy. An anonymous online survey, including qualitative and quantitative components, was carried out approximately 15 months after the initial introduction of the new treatment model and methods. Fourteen out of 16 current clinical staff responded to the survey. Three themes emerged in qualitative analyses: positive engagement in change; uncertainty and discomfort; and group cohesion versus discord. Quantitative results from closed questions showed a pattern of uncertainty about the superiority of one model over the other, combined with more positive views on progress reflected, and the experience of personal benefits, from adopting the new model. The psychological flexibility model, the model behind acceptance and commitment therapy, may clarify both processes in patient behaviour and processes of staff experience and skilful treatment delivery. This integration of processes on both sides of treatment delivery may be a strength of acceptance and commitment therapy.

  5. [Intragastric sinusoidal modulated-current electrophoresis of cobamamide as a method in the pathogenetic therapy of chronic atrophic gastritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinov, A A; Korepanov, A M; Pastukhov, L Iu; Bazhenov, E L

    1988-01-01

    Therapy of patients with chronic atrophic gastritis using intragastric SMC-electrophoresis of cobamamide resulted in a marked clinical effect. Altogether 82 patients were investigated. Protein metabolism using I131-albumin and reparative regeneration (histochemical and electron microscopy methods) was studied in the course of treatment. A positive time course of protein metabolism determined by albumin and improvement of reparation of specialized epitheliocytes in the mucous membrane of the stomach were noted as a result of therapy.

  6. Comparison of the effect of ibuprofen and slow-released Diclofenac Sodium in controlling post endodontic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saatchi M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Despite the significant improvement in dentistry, pain after endodontic therapy is still of concern for patients. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most commonly prescribed oral analgesics used for dental pain relief after root canal treatment. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Ibuprofen versus slow-released Diclofenac Sodium in controlling pain following root canal treatment. "nMaterials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, mandibular molars with irreversible pulpitis in 90 patients were selected. The patients were divided into three groups (Ibuprofen, slow-released Diclofenac Sodium and placebo. After examination patients filled in the consent form. Then they received one of the mentioned drugs. After inferior alveolar nerve block, access cavity was prepared and the root canals were prepared using passive step back method. The canals were dried and temporary filling material was placed. Then the pain evaluation form (visual analog scale was explained and delivered to the patients. Data were analyzed using Repeated Measurement ANOVA, Kruskal-wallis and Man-Whitney U tests. "nResults: The mean pain intensity in slow-released Diclofenac Sodium group was 0.87 0.95, 1.17 1.10 for Ibuprofen group, and 2.14  1.70 for placebo group. The differences between groups were statistically significant (P<0.001. The effect of Ibuprofen in controlling post endodontic pain in the first 2 hours was more than slow-released Diclofenac Sodium (P=0.01, but in 10, 18, and 36 hours after treatment, slow-released Diclofenac Sodium was more effective than Ibuprofen (P<0.001. "nConclusion: Premedication with single dose of slow-released Diclofenac Sodium can control post endodontic pain for a longer period of time compared with Ibuprofen. "n.

  7. Generalized Slow Roll for Tensors

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The recent BICEP2 detection of degree scale CMB B-mode polarization, coupled with a deficit of observed power in large angle temperature anisotropy, suggest that the slow-roll parameter $\\epsilon_H$, the fractional variation in the Hubble rate per efold, is both relatively large and may evolve from an even larger value on scales greater than the horizon at recombination. The relatively large tensor contribution implied also requires finite matching features in the tensor power spectrum for an...

  8. Spinal Tissue Loading Created by Different Methods of Spinal Manipulative Therapy Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabashi, Martha; Nougarou, François; Descarreaux, Martin; Prasad, Narasimha; Kawchuk, Gregory N.

    2017-01-01

    Study Design. Comparative study using robotic replication of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) vertebral kinematics together with serial dissection. Objective. The aim of this study was to quantify loads created in cadaveric spinal tissues arising from three different forms of SMT application. Summary of Background Data. There exist many distinct methods by which to apply SMT. It is not known presently whether different forms of SMT application have different effects on spinal tissues. Should the method of SMT application modulate spinal tissue loading, quantifying this relation may help explain the varied outcomes of SMT in terms of effect and safety. Methods. SMT was applied to the third lumbar vertebra in 12 porcine cadavers using three SMT techniques: a clinical device that applies forces through a hand-held instrument (INST), a manual technique of applying SMT clinically (MAN) and a research device that applies parameters of manual SMT through a servo-controlled linear actuator motor (SERVO). The resulting kinematics from each SMT application were tracked optically via indwelling bone pins. The L3/L4 segment was then removed, mounted in a parallel robot and the resulting kinematics from SMT replayed for each SMT application technique. Serial dissection of spinal structures was conducted to quantify loading characteristics of discrete spinal tissues. Results. In terms of load magnitude, SMT application with MAN and SERVO created greater forces than INST in all conditions (P < 0.05). Additionally, MAN and SERVO created comparable posterior forces in the intact specimen, but MAN created greater posterior forces on IVD structures compared to SERVO (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Specific methods of SMT application create unique vertebral loading characteristics, which may help explain the varied outcomes of SMT in terms of effect and safety. Level of Evidence: N/A PMID:28146021

  9. Active music therapy in Parkinson's disease: an integrative method for motor and emotional rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchetti, C; Mancini, F; Aglieri, R; Fundarò, C; Martignoni, E; Nappi, G

    2000-01-01

    Modern management of Parkinson's disease (PD) aims to obtain symptom control, to reduce clinical disability, and to improve quality of life. Music acts as a specific stimulus to obtain motor and emotional responses by combining movement and stimulation of different sensory pathways. We explored the efficacy of active music therapy (MT) on motor and emotional functions in patients with PD. This prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blinded study lasted 3 months. It consisted of weekly sessions of MT and physical therapy (PT). Thirty-two patients with PD, all stable responders to levodopa and in Hoehn and Yahr stage 2 or 3, were randomly assigned to two groups of 16 patients each. We assessed severity of PD with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, emotional functions with the Happiness Measure, and quality of life using the Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire. MT sessions consisted of choral singing, voice exercise, rhythmic and free body movements, and active music involving collective invention. PT sessions included a series of passive stretching exercises, specific motor tasks, and strategies to improve balance and gait. MT had a significant overall effect on bradykinesia as measured by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (p < .034). Post-MT session findings were consistent with motor improvement, especially in bradykinesia items (p < .0001). Over time, changes on the Happiness Measure confirmed a beneficial effect of MT on emotional functions (p < .0001). Improvements in activities of daily living and in quality of life were also documented in the MT group (p < .0001). PT improved rigidity (p < .0001). MT is effective on motor, affective, and behavioral functions. We propose active MT as a new method for inclusion in PD rehabilitation programs.

  10. Virtual reality as a method for evaluation and therapy after traumatic hand surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, Adriana Sarah; Brailescu, Consuela Monica; Scarlet, Rodica Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, Virtual Reality has encountered a continuous development concerning medical purposes and there are a lot of devices based on the classic "cyberglove" concept that are used as new therapeutic method for upper limb pathology, especially neurologic problems [1;2;3]. One of the VR devices is Pablo (Tyromotion), with very sensitive sensors that can measure the hand grip strenght and the pinch force, also the ROM (range of motion) for all the joints of the upper limb (shoulder, elbow, wrist) and offering the possibility of interactive games based on Virtual Reality concept with application in occupational therapy programs. We used Pablo in our study on patients with hand surgery as an objective tool for assessment and as additional therapeutic method to the classic Rehabilitation program [4;5]. The results of the study proved that Pablo represents a modern option for evaluation of hand deficits and dysfunctions, with objective measurement replacement of classic goniometry and dynamometry, with computerized data base of patients with monitoring of parameters during the recovery program and with better muscular and neuro-cognitive feedback during the interactive therapeutic modules.

  11. A standardized novel method to measure radiographic root changes following endodontic therapy in immature teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flake, Natasha M.; Gibbs, Jennifer L.; Diogenes, Anibal; Hargreaves, Kenneth M.; Khan, Asma A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Outcome studies of endodontic treatment of necrotic immature permanent teeth rely on radiographic measures as surrogates of whether the treatment achieved regeneration/revascularization/revitalization. An increase in radiographic root length and/or width is thought to result in a better long-term prognosis for the tooth. In this study a method to measure radiographic outcomes of endodontic therapies on immature teeth was developed and validated. Methods A standardized protocol was developed for measuring the entire area of the root of immature teeth. The “Radiographic Root Area” (RRA) measurement accounts for the entire surface area of the root as observed on a periapical radiograph. Reviewers were given instructions on how to measure RRA and they completed measurements on a set of standardized radiographs. Results The intra class correlation (ICC) between the four reviewers was 0.9945, suggesting high concordance among reviewers. There was no effect of reviewer on the measured RRA values. High concordance was also observed when one rater repeated the measurements, with an ICC value of 0.9995. There was no significant difference in RRA values measured at the two sessions by the same rater. Furthermore, significant differences in RRA were detectable between clinical cases that demonstrated obvious continued root development and cases that did not demonstrate discernible root development. Conclusions These results suggest that RRA is a valid measure to assess radiographic outcomes in endodontically treated immature teeth, and RRA should be useful in future clinical studies of regenerative endodontic outcomes. PMID:24331990

  12. Emotional Prosody Measurement (EPM): a voice-based evaluation method for psychological therapy effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Egon L

    2004-01-01

    The voice embodies three sources of information: speech, the identity, and the emotional state of the speaker (i.e., emotional prosody). The latter feature is resembled by the variability of the F0 (also named fundamental frequency of pitch) (SD F0). To extract this feature, Emotional Prosody Measurement (EPM) was developed, which consists of 1) speech recording, 2) removal of speckle noise, 3) a Fourier Transform to extract the F0-signal, and 4) the determination of SD F0. After a pilot study in which six participants mimicked emotions by their voice, the core experiment was conducted to see whether EPM is successful. Twenty-five patients suffering from a panic disorder with agoraphobia participated. Two methods (story-telling and reliving) were used to trigger anxiety and were compared with comparable but more relaxed conditions. This resulted in a unique database of speech samples that was used to compare the EPM with the Subjective Unit of Distress to validate it as measure for anxiety/stress. The experimental manipulation of anxiety proved to be successful and EPM proved to be a successful evaluation method for psychological therapy effectiveness.

  13. Potential Suitable Methods for Measuring the Effects of Animal-Assisted Activities and Therapy: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machová K.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are companions of humans since time beyond memory and their use in rehabilitation processes is increasingly frequent. Dogs can be used for animal-assisted activities (AAA as well as animal-assisted therapy (AAT. The effects, however, have not been fully demonstrated, reasons for this including difficulties in providing evidence of positive action. According to previous studies, there is a decrease in heart and respiratory rate, blood pressure reduction, more positive mood as well as warming of muscles, which promotes relaxation of spastic areas. Regulation of hormone levels might also occur as a result of AAA/AAT. Indeed, increases in oxytocin levels and decreases of cortisol have been found. However, a unified methodology for clear measuring the entire impact of AAA/AAT on patients is missing. This survey evaluated different methods for measuring the effects of AAA/AAT, with results showing that the most suitable ones, selected on the basis of the effect of rehabilitation, comprise thermography, spectral analysis of heart rate, electromyography (EMG, polyelectromyography (PEMG, and blood sampling. Because AAT making use of dogs has not yet been recognized as an official method of treatment, it is very important to find out objective means to evidence its beneficial effects. Highlights:

  14. [The significance of the Montessori method and phenomenon with a particular view to the therapy of the aphasics (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchmeier-Nussbaumer, A K

    1980-05-01

    The methods of the Italian physician Maria Montessori influenced the development of modern learning practices. There is general agreement that the Montessori phenomenon is personality forming. Aspects of this method, which are relevant for the rehabilitation of the brain-damaged and, in particular, the aphasics are presented. Possible shifts of emphasis within the relationship therapist - method - patient are analysed. Examples are used to outline in how far an increasingly patient-oriented therapy can influence the development of the aphasic patient.

  15. Using of Strain-Sounterstrain method in the physical therapy of patients with myofascial pain syndrome of lumbosacral spine segment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lytovka M.V.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the influence of physiotherapy measures on sacrolumbal myofascial pain syndrome management in combination with Strain-Counterstrain method. Two groups of patients aged 35-55 years old took part in the experiment with 10 people in each group. In the experimental group besides classical methods of physiotherapy Strain-Counterstrain method was used. It proved to be efficient and appropriate for acute pain management during the first days of therapy.

  16. Expanded Safety and Efficacy Data for a New Method of Performing Electroconvulsive Therapy: Focal Electrically Administered Seizure Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlem, Gregory L; Short, E Baron; Kerns, Suzanne; Snipes, Jon; DeVries, William; Fox, James B; Burns, Carol; Schmidt, Matthew; Nahas, Ziad H; George, Mark S; Sackeim, Harold A

    2016-09-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most rapid and effective antidepressant treatment but with concerns about cognitive adverse effects. A new form of ECT, focal electrically administered seizure therapy (FEAST), was designed to increase the focality of stimulation and better match stimulus parameters with neurophysiology. We recently reported on the safety and feasibility of FEAST in a cohort (n = 17) of depressed patients. We now report on the safety, feasibility, preliminary efficacy, and cognitive effects of FEAST in a new cohort. Open-label FEAST was administered to 20 depressed adults (6 men; 3 with bipolar disorder; age 49.1 ± 10.6 years). Clinical and cognitive assessments were obtained at baseline and end of course. Time to orientation recovery was assessed at each treatment. Nonresponders switched to conventional ECT. Participants tolerated the treatment well with no dropouts. Five patients (25%) transitioned from FEAST to conventional ECT due to inadequate response. After FEAST (mean, 9.3 ± 3.5 sessions; range, 4-14), there was a 58.1% ± 36.0% improvement in Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores compared with that in the baseline (P < 0.0001); 13 (65%) of 20 patients met response criteria, and 11 (55%) of 20 met remission criteria. Patients achieved reorientation (4 of 5 items) in 4.4 ± 3.0 minutes (median, 4.5 minutes), timed from eyes opening. There was no deterioration in neuropsychological measures. These findings provide further support for the safety and efficacy of FEAST. The remission and response rates were in the range found using conventional ECT, and the time to reorientation may be quicker. However, without a randomized comparison group, conclusions are tentative.

  17. A method for acquiring random range uncertainty probability distributions in proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, S. M.; Holloway, M. D.; Thomas, S. J.

    2018-01-01

    In treatment planning we depend upon accurate knowledge of geometric and range uncertainties. If the uncertainty model is inaccurate then the plan will produce under-dosing of the target and/or overdosing of OAR. We aim to provide a method for which centre and site-specific population range uncertainty due to inter-fraction motion can be quantified to improve the uncertainty model in proton treatment planning. Daily volumetric MVCT data from previously treated radiotherapy patients has been used to investigate inter-fraction changes to water equivalent path-length (WEPL). Daily image-guidance scans were carried out for each patient and corrected for changes in CTV position (using rigid transformations). An effective depth algorithm was used to determine residual range changes, after corrections had been applied, throughout the treatment by comparing WEPL within the CTV at each fraction for several beam angles. As a proof of principle this method was used to quantify uncertainties for inter-fraction range changes for a sample of head and neck patients of Σ=3.39 mm, σ = 4.72 mm and overall mean = -1.82 mm. For prostate Σ=5.64 mm, σ = 5.91 mm and overall mean = 0.98 mm. The choice of beam angle for head and neck did not affect the inter-fraction range error significantly; however this was not the same for prostate. Greater range changes were seen using a lateral beam compared to an anterior beam for prostate due to relative motion of the prostate and femoral heads. A method has been developed to quantify population range changes due to inter-fraction motion that can be adapted for the clinic. The results of this work highlight the importance of robust planning and analysis in proton therapy. Such information could be used in robust optimisation algorithms or treatment plan robustness analysis. Such knowledge will aid in establishing beam start conditions at planning and for establishing adaptive planning protocols.

  18. Spinal Tissue Loading Created by Different Methods of Spinal Manipulative Therapy Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabashi, Martha; Nougarou, François; Descarreaux, Martin; Prasad, Narasimha; Kawchuk, Gregory N

    2017-05-01

    Comparative study using robotic replication of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) vertebral kinematics together with serial dissection. The aim of this study was to quantify loads created in cadaveric spinal tissues arising from three different forms of SMT application. There exist many distinct methods by which to apply SMT. It is not known presently whether different forms of SMT application have different effects on spinal tissues. Should the method of SMT application modulate spinal tissue loading, quantifying this relation may help explain the varied outcomes of SMT in terms of effect and safety. SMT was applied to the third lumbar vertebra in 12 porcine cadavers using three SMT techniques: a clinical device that applies forces through a hand-held instrument (INST), a manual technique of applying SMT clinically (MAN) and a research device that applies parameters of manual SMT through a servo-controlled linear actuator motor (SERVO). The resulting kinematics from each SMT application were tracked optically via indwelling bone pins. The L3/L4 segment was then removed, mounted in a parallel robot and the resulting kinematics from SMT replayed for each SMT application technique. Serial dissection of spinal structures was conducted to quantify loading characteristics of discrete spinal tissues. In terms of load magnitude, SMT application with MAN and SERVO created greater forces than INST in all conditions (P < 0.05). Additionally, MAN and SERVO created comparable posterior forces in the intact specimen, but MAN created greater posterior forces on IVD structures compared to SERVO (P < 0.05). Specific methods of SMT application create unique vertebral loading characteristics, which may help explain the varied outcomes of SMT in terms of effect and safety. N/A.

  19. The Slow Cycling Phenotype: A Growing Problem for Treatment Resistance in Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Antonio; Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Eccles, Michael R

    2017-06-01

    Treatment resistance in metastatic melanoma is a longstanding issue. Current targeted therapy regimes in melanoma largely target the proliferating cancer population, leaving slow-cycling cancer cells undamaged. Consequently, slow-cycling cells are enriched upon drug therapy and can remain in the body for years until acquiring proliferative potential that triggers cancer relapse. Here we overview the molecular mechanisms of slow-cycling cells that underlie treatment resistance in melanoma. Three main areas of molecular reprogramming are discussed that mediate slow cycling and treatment resistance. First, a low microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) dedifferentiated state activates various signaling pathways. This includes WNT5A, EGFR, as well as other signaling activators, such as AXL and NF-κB. Second, the chromatin-remodeling factor Jumonji/ARID domain-containing protein 1B (JARID1B, KDM5B ) orchestrates and maintains slow cycling and treatment resistance in a small subpopulation of melanoma cells. Finally, a shift in metabolic state toward oxidative phosphorylation has been demonstrated to regulate treatment resistance in slow-cycling cells. Elucidation of the underlying processes of slow cycling and its utilization by melanoma cells may reveal new vulnerable characteristics as therapeutic targets. Moreover, combining current therapies with targeting slow-cycling subpopulations of melanoma cells may allow for more durable and greater treatment responses. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(6); 1002-9. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Observation of Interactions in Adolescent Group Therapy: A Mixed Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulàlia Arias-Pujol

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Group psychotherapy is a useful clinical practice for adolescents with mental health issues. Groups typically consist of young people of similar ages but with different personalities, and this results in a complex communication network. The goal of group psychoanalytic psychotherapy is to improve participants' mentalization abilities, facilitating interactions between peers and their therapist in a safe, containing environment. The main aim of this study was to analyze conversation turn-taking between a lead therapist, a co-therapist, and six adolescents over the course of 24 treatment sessions divided into four blocks over 8 months. We employed a mixed-methods design based on systematic observation, which we consider to be a mixed method itself, as the qualitative data collected in the initial observation phase is transformed into quantitative data and subsequently interpreted qualitatively with the aid of clinical vignettes. The observational methodology design was nomothetic, follow-up, and multidimensional. The choice of methodology is justified as we used an ad-hoc observation instrument combining a field format and a category system. Interobserver agreement was analyzed quantitatively by Cohen's kappa using the free QSEQ5 software program. Once we had confirmed the reliability of the data, these were analyzed by polar coordinate analysis, which is a powerful data reduction technique that provides a vector representation of relationships between categories. The results show significant relationships between the therapist and (1 the activation of turn-taking by the participants and the co-therapist and silence and (2 conversation-facilitating interventions and interventions designed to improve mentalization abilities. Detailed analysis of questions demonstrating interest in others showed how the communication changed from radial interactions stemming from the therapist at the beginning of therapy to circular interactions half way through

  1. Effects of cervical self-stretching on slow vital capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongwook; Yoon, Nayoon; Jeong, Yeongran; Ha, Misook; Nam, Kunwoo

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of self-stretching of cervical muscles, because the accessory inspiratory muscle is considered to improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 healthy university students 19-21 years old who did not have any lung disease, respiratory dysfunction, cervical injury, or any problems upon cervical stretching. [Methods] Spirometry was used as a pulmonary function test to measure the slow vital capacity before and after stretching. The slow vital capacity of the experimental group was measured before and after cervical self-stretching. Meanwhile, the slow vital capacity of the control group, which did not perform stretching, was also measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The expiratory vital capacity, inspiratory reserve volume, and expiratory reserve volume of the experimental group increased significantly after the cervical self-stretching. [Conclusion] Self-stretching of the cervical muscle (i.e., the inspiratory accessory muscle) improves slow vital capacity.

  2. Slow light enhancement and limitations in periodic media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grgic, Jure

    to longer interaction time in the periodic media. Due to this reason, weak light-matter interaction is enhanced. The enhancement due to slow light has been studied for loss and gain. By introducing gain/loss, dispersive properties, in the slow light region, are severely influenced. The minimum attainable......Properties of periodic dielectric media have attracted a big interest in the last two decades due to numerous exciting physical phenomena that cannot occur in homogeneous media. Due to their strong dispersive properties, the speed of light can be significantly slowed down in periodic structures...... and significant structures with numerical and analytical methods. By analyzing different structures, we show very general properties for limitation and enhancement in the slow light regime. Inherent imperfections of fabricated structures such as a material loss and structural disorder have a strong influence...

  3. Critical slowing down and error analysis in lattice QCD simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Stefan [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Sommer, Rainer; Virotta, Francesco [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2010-09-15

    We study the critical slowing down towards the continuum limit of lattice QCD simulations with Hybrid Monte Carlo type algorithms. In particular for the squared topological charge we find it to be very severe with an effective dynamical critical exponent of about 5 in pure gauge theory. We also consider Wilson loops which we can demonstrate to decouple from the modes which slow down the topological charge. Quenched observables are studied and a comparison to simulations of full QCD is made. In order to deal with the slow modes in the simulation, we propose a method to incorporate the information from slow observables into the error analysis of physical observables and arrive at safer error estimates. (orig.)

  4. A finite element method model to simulate laser interstitial thermo therapy in anatomical inhomogeneous regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Yassene

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laser Interstitial ThermoTherapy (LITT is a well established surgical method. The use of LITT is so far limited to homogeneous tissues, e.g. the liver. One of the reasons is the limited capability of existing treatment planning models to calculate accurately the damage zone. The treatment planning in inhomogeneous tissues, especially of regions near main vessels, poses still a challenge. In order to extend the application of LITT to a wider range of anatomical regions new simulation methods are needed. The model described with this article enables efficient simulation for predicting damaged tissue as a basis for a future laser-surgical planning system. Previously we described the dependency of the model on geometry. With the presented paper including two video files we focus on the methodological, physical and mathematical background of the model. Methods In contrast to previous simulation attempts, our model is based on finite element method (FEM. We propose the use of LITT, in sensitive areas such as the neck region to treat tumours in lymph node with dimensions of 0.5 cm – 2 cm in diameter near the carotid artery. Our model is based on calculations describing the light distribution using the diffusion approximation of the transport theory; the temperature rise using the bioheat equation, including the effect of microperfusion in tissue to determine the extent of thermal damage; and the dependency of thermal and optical properties on the temperature and the injury. Injury is estimated using a damage integral. To check our model we performed a first in vitro experiment on porcine muscle tissue. Results We performed the derivation of the geometry from 3D ultrasound data and show for this proposed geometry the energy distribution, the heat elevation, and the damage zone. Further on, we perform a comparison with the in-vitro experiment. The calculation shows an error of 5% in the x-axis parallel to the blood vessel

  5. The CUORE slow monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, L.; Biare, D.; Cappelli, L.; Cushman, J. S.; Del Corso, F.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Hickerson, K. P.; Moggi, N.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Schmidt, B.; Wagaarachchi, S. L.; Welliver, B.; Winslow, L. A.

    2017-09-01

    CUORE is a cryogenic experiment searching primarily for neutrinoless double decay in 130Te. It will begin data-taking operations in 2016. To monitor the cryostat and detector during commissioning and data taking, we have designed and developed Slow Monitoring systems. In addition to real-time systems using LabVIEW, we have an alarm, analysis, and archiving website that uses MongoDB, AngularJS, and Bootstrap software. These modern, state of the art software packages make the monitoring system transparent, easily maintainable, and accessible on many platforms including mobile devices.

  6. Corpuscular slow-roll inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Giusti, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    We show that a corpuscular description of gravity can lead to an inflationary scenario similar to Starobinsky's model without requiring the introduction of the inflaton field. All relevant properties are determined by the number of gravitons in the cosmological condensate or, equivalently, by their Compton length. In particular, the relation between the Hubble parameter H and its time derivative H ˙ required by cosmic microwave background observations at the end of inflation, as well as the (minimum) initial value of the slow-roll parameter, are naturally obtained from the Compton size of the condensate.

  7. Resistance Training May Slow MS, Study Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167617.html Resistance Training May Slow MS, Study Says Scans revealed ... 4, 2017 FRIDAY, Aug. 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Resistance training may help slow progression of multiple sclerosis, ...

  8. Integrated Photonics Enabled by Slow Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Chen, Yuntian; Ek, Sara

    2012-01-01

    In this talk we will discuss the physics of slow light in semiconductor materials and in particular the possibilities offered for integrated photonics. This includes ultra-compact slow light enabled optical amplifiers, lasers and pulse sources....

  9. Lifestyle Changes Might Prevent or Slow Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 166825.html Lifestyle Changes Might Prevent or Slow Dementia The public should be aware of this encouraging ... to your lifestyle might delay the start of dementia or slow its progression, a new report suggests. ...

  10. Factors Contributing Decreased Performance Of Slow Learners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dr. L. Kannan; Dr. P. V. Vijayaragavan; Dr. Pankaj. B. Shah; Dr. Suganathan. S; Dr. Praveena .P

    2015-01-01

    ... these students are called as slow learnersStruggle learners. There should be a designed study to foster discussion about diagnosing particular problems that contribute with meeting objectives of slow learners...

  11. A new method for photodynamic therapy of melanotic melanoma -- effects of depigmentation with violet light photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Wei; Nielsen, Kristian Pagh; Iani, Vladimir; Moan, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Melanotic melanomas have a poor response to photodynamic therapy (PDT). The reason for this is that melanin absorbs light over the entire wavelength region used for PDT (400-750 nm). Photobleaching of melanin is an approach to overcome this obstacle. In the present work, reflectance spectroscopy was applied to study depigmentation of human and murine skin with different melanin contents, and effects induced by PDT with topical application of methyl 5-aminolevulinate (MAL) on B16F10 melanotic melanomas transplanted to nude mice. Depigmentation and inhibition of tumor growth after violet light (420 nm) exposure, red light (634 nm) exposure, and combinations of both were studied. Reflectance spectroscopy was suitable for evaluation of the pigmentation of both human and murine skin. Skin depigmentation leads to increase in reflectance. PDT with violet light bleached some of the melanin in the skin above the B16F10 melanomas, and possibly also in the upper part of the melanomas. This resulted in a larger growth inhibition of tumors first given PDT with violet light and then with red light compared to treatments using the reverse order of illumination, namely, red light before violet light. It is concluded that violet light PDT can bleach melanin in melanotic tumors and therefore increase their sensitivity to red light PDT. This finding indicates a new PDT modality that can be further developed for treatment of superficial melanotic melanomas and possibly other diseases where pigmentation is a problem.

  12. Method for MRI-guided conformal thermal therapy of prostate with planar transurethral ultrasound heating applicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Rajiv; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Haider, Masoom A; Bronskill, Michael J

    2005-11-07

    A method for conformal prostate thermal therapy using transurethral ultrasound heating applicators incorporating planar transducers is described. The capability to shape heating patterns to the geometry of the prostate gland from a single element in a multi-element heating applicator was evaluated using Bioheat transfer modelling. Eleven prostate geometries were obtained from patients who underwent MR imaging of the prostate gland prior to radical prostatectomy. Results indicate that ultrasound heating applicators incorporating multi-frequency planar transducers (4 x 20 mm, f = 4.7 MHz, 9.7 MHz) are capable of shaping thermal damage patterns to the geometry of individual prostates. A temperature feedback control algorithm has been developed to control the frequency, rotation rate and applied power level from transurethral heating applicators based on measurements of the boundary temperature during heating. The discrepancy between the thermal damage boundary and the target boundary was less than 5 mm, and the transition distance between coagulation and normal tissue was less than 1 cm. Treatment times for large prostate volumes were less than 50 min, and perfusion did not have significant impact on the control algorithm. Rectal cooling will play an important role in reducing undesired heating near the rectal wall. Experimental validation of the simulations in a tissue-mimicking gel phantom demonstrated good agreement between the predicted and generated patterns of thermal damage.

  13. Motion-based equilibrium reprocessing therapy a novel treatment method for chronic peripheral vestibulopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondebrink, Mirke S.; Mert, Agali; van der Lint, Roos; de Ru, J. Alexander; van der Wurff, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rehabilitation for vestibular disease is a safe method to partially alleviate symptoms of vertigo. It was hypothesized that principles of military aviation vestibular desensitization procedures that have a success rate of more than 80% can be extrapolated to chronic vestibular disease as well. The virtual reality motion base computer-assisted rehabilitation environment was used as treatment modality in 17 patients. They were exposed to sinusoidal vertical passive whole body motion in increasing intensity for a maximum of 12 sessions. The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) was used for assessment of the subjective complaints of vertigo. The median DHI scores of 50 points at baseline dropped to 22 points (P <.001) at follow-up. Post hoc analysis showed significant differences in outcome between measurements at baseline and at the end of the treatment, between baseline and follow-up, but not between end of treatment and follow-up. This pilot study concerning motion-based equilibrium reprocessing therapy (MERT) shows that it is a simple, quick, and well-tolerated treatment option to alleviate symptoms in patients with chronic peripheral vestibulopathies. PMID:28614234

  14. Beam neutron energy optimization for boron neutron capture therapy using Monte Carlo method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Pazirandeh

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available  In last two decades the optimal neutron energy for the treatment of deep seated tumors in boron neutron capture therapy in view of neutron physics and chemical compounds of boron carrier has been under thorough study. Although neutron absorption cross section of boron is high (3836b, the treatment of deep seated tumors such as gliobelastoma multiform (GBM requires beam of neutrons of higher energy that can penetrate deeply into the brain and thermalize in the proximity of the tumor. Dosage from recoil proton associated with fast neutrons however poses some constraints on maximum neutron energy that can be used in the treatment. For this reason neutrons in the epithermal energy range of 10eV-10keV are generally to be the most appropriate. The simulation carried out by Monte Carlo methods using MCBNCT and MCNP4C codes along with the cross section library in 290 groups extracted from ENDF/B6 main library. The optimal neutron energy for deep seated tumors depends on the size and depth of tumor. Our estimated optimized energy for the tumor of 5cm wide and 1-2cm thick stands at 5cm depth is in the range of 3-5keV

  15. Alignment and position visualization methods for the biomedical imaging and therapy (BMIT) MRT lift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bree, Michael, E-mail: michael.bree@lightsource.ca; Miller, Denise; Kerr, Graham; Belev, George; Wysokinski, Tomasz W.; Dolton, Wade [Canadian Light Source Inc., 44 Innovation Blvd, Saskatoon, SK S7N 2V3 Canada (Canada)

    2016-07-27

    The Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) Lift is an eight stage positioning and scanning system at the Canadian Light Source’s BMIT Facility. Alignment of the sample with the beam using the MRT Lift is a time consuming and challenging task. The BMIT Group has developed a Python-based MRT Lift positioning and control program that uses a combination of computational and iterative methods to independently adjust the sample’s X, Y, Z, pitch and roll positions. The program offers “1-Click” alignment of the sample to the beam. Use of a wireframe visualization technique enables even minute movements to be illustrated. Proposed movements and the resulting MRT Lift position can be manually verified before being applied. Optional integration with the SolidWorks modelling platform allows high quality renderings of the MRT Lift in its current or proposed position to be displayed in real time. Human factors principles are incorporated into the program with the objective of delivering easy to use controls for this complex device.

  16. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-01-01

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of th...

  17. Examining the Effects of Art Therapy on Reoccurring Tobacco Use in a Taiwanese Youth Population: A Mixed-Method Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Rei-Mei; Guo, Su-Er; Huang, Chun-Sheng; Yin, Cheng

    2018-03-21

    Cigarette smoking is a primary risk factor affecting mental and physical health worldwide. Many chronic diseases are closely related to smoking. Adolescents in Taiwan are increasingly using tobacco, especially in rural areas. This research project used a mixed-method study to examine the effects of art therapy on smoking cessation in rural Taiwanese youth smokers. Participants from years 10-11, were drawn from three senior high schools in Taiwan. The experimental group participated in a six-week smoking cessation intervention using art therapy. The comparison group participated in typical courses on smoking cessation. Quantitative measures included need for smoking, nicotine dependence, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and smoking cessation status. Qualitative analysis was based on phenomenology. A total of 66 students (n = 40 experimental group; n = 26 comparison group) were the subjects of quantitative analysis. No differences were noted in baseline characteristics of groups. Generalized estimating equation analyses suggested significant between-group differences in change from pre- to follow-up test scores in the "social domain" (B = -5.12, p art therapy on smoking prevention, benefits of art therapy on other outcome measures, and comparison between art therapy and traditional smoking cessation programs. Conclusions/importance: The findings of this study can potentially contribute significantly to existing knowledge regarding the perceptions of art therapy on reoccurring tobacco use in Taiwanese youth.

  18. Slow Learners: Are Educators Leaving Them Behind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznowski, Kimberly

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the school performance of a sample of slow learners who qualified for special education as learning disabled with a sample of slow learners who did not qualify for special education. The intent of the study was to determine which group of slow learners was more successful in school in order to know if special education or…

  19. Don't Forget the Slow Learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Daniel L.; Rangel, Lyle

    1989-01-01

    Advocates cooperative learning as an effective tool for reaching slow learners, by bridging the gaps between the learning styles of slow learners and the teaching requirements of the classroom, resulting in improved academic performance for both slow learners and high achievers. (SR)

  20. Loss engineered slow light waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Faolain, L; Schulz, S A; Beggs, D M; White, T P; Spasenović, M; Kuipers, L; Morichetti, F; Melloni, A; Mazoyer, S; Hugonin, J P; Lalanne, P; Krauss, T F

    2010-12-20

    Slow light devices such as photonic crystal waveguides (PhCW) and coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW) have much promise for optical signal processing applications and a number of successful demonstrations underpinning this promise have already been made. Most of these applications are limited by propagation losses, especially for higher group indices. These losses are caused by technological imperfections ("extrinsic loss") that cause scattering of light from the waveguide mode. The relationship between this loss and the group velocity is complex and until now has not been fully understood. Here, we present a comprehensive explanation of the extrinsic loss mechanisms in PhC waveguides and address some misconceptions surrounding loss and slow light that have arisen in recent years. We develop a theoretical model that accurately describes the loss spectra of PhC waveguides. One of the key insights of the model is that the entire hole contributes coherently to the scattering process, in contrast to previous models that added up the scattering from short sections incoherently. As a result, we have already realised waveguides with significantly lower losses than comparable photonic crystal waveguides as well as achieving propagation losses, in units of loss per unit time (dB/ns) that are even lower than those of state-of-the-art coupled resonator optical waveguides based on silicon photonic wires. The model will enable more advanced designs with further loss reduction within existing technological constraints.

  1. Further Investigations of Slow Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Karl; Sheleg, Gil

    2013-09-01

    The phenomenon of ``slow lightning'' is a new type of tracking or sliding atmospheric-pressure resistive-barrier discharge on the surface of a weakly conducting electrolyte. It occurs during the production of water plasmoids (also called ``Gatchina discharges'') in which a high-voltage capacitor is discharged into an insulated cathode in limited surface contact with the electrolyte. Unlike conventional dielectric-barrier and most other resistive-barrier discharges, these novel discharges propagate on the surface relatively slowly, spreading at a speed of 1-10 meters per second. We have investigated this phenomenon in several ways, using high-speed videography, time- and space-resolved spectroscopy, and current-density profiling. The plasma produced at cathode spots forms the plasmoid, and this plasma is distinct from the plasma in the slow-lightning discharge above the electrolyte. The primary visible emission from the latter discharge is a continuum, probably due to free-bound transitions, although an N2 + band is also present as well as intense emission from OH radicals under certain conditions. Possible applications of this phenomenon include water purification and pollution control.

  2. Exclusion Process with Slow Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldasso, Rangel; Menezes, Otávio; Neumann, Adriana; Souza, Rafael R.

    2017-06-01

    We study the hydrodynamic and the hydrostatic behavior of the simple symmetric exclusion process with slow boundary. The term slow boundary means that particles can be born or die at the boundary sites, at a rate proportional to N^{-θ }, where θ > 0 and N is the scaling parameter. In the bulk, the particles exchange rate is equal to 1. In the hydrostatic scenario, we obtain three different linear profiles, depending on the value of the parameter θ ; in the hydrodynamic scenario, we obtain that the time evolution of the spatial density of particles, in the diffusive scaling, is given by the weak solution of the heat equation, with boundary conditions that depend on θ . If θ \\in (0,1), we get Dirichlet boundary conditions, (which is the same behavior if θ =0, see Farfán in Hydrostatics, statical and dynamical large deviations of boundary driven gradient symmetric exclusion processes, 2008); if θ =1, we get Robin boundary conditions; and, if θ \\in (1,∞), we get Neumann boundary conditions.

  3. Slow Monitoring Systems for CUORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Suryabrata; Cuore Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a ton-scale neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment under construction at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS). The experiment is comprised of 988 TeO2 bolometric crystals arranged into 19 towers and operated at a temperature of 10 mK. We have developed slow monitoring systems to monitor the cryostat during detector installation, commissioning, data taking, and other crucial phases of the experiment. Our systems use responsive LabVIEW virtual instruments and video streams of the cryostat. We built a website using the Angular, Bootstrap, and MongoDB frameworks to display this data in real-time. The website can also display archival data and send alarms. I will present how we constructed these slow monitoring systems to be robust, accurate, and secure, while maintaining reliable access for the entire collaboration from any platform in order to ensure efficient communications and fast diagnoses of all CUORE systems.

  4. [Place of bilateral pulpectomy as a method of androgen suppression therapy in prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, B; Tengue, K; Sow, Y; Sarr, A; Thiam, A; Mohamed, S; Diao, B; Fall, P A; Ndoye, A K; Ba, M; Diagne, B A

    2010-05-01

    To report the oncologic results and morbidity of bilateral pulpectomy and to identify factors that make this method of androgen suppression therapy the most used in our country. We conducted a prospective study in the urology department of Aristide Le-Dantec hospital (Dakar) between January 2008 and June 2010 (30 months). It included 84 cases of prostate cancer treated by bilateral pulpectomy under local anesthesia. The mean age of patients was 72.17±12.48 years (53-91). The median PSA level was 101 ng/mL (12.18-9990). Metastasis have been detected in 75% of cases. The Gleason score was higher than 7 in 40 patients (47.6%). Three months after pulpectomy, an improvement of performance status was seen in 76 patients (90.4%). The back pain significantly decreased in intensity or disappeared in 65.3% (32/49) of cases. A complete recovery of lower limbs motor deficit was observed in 50% of cases (7/14). The PSA levels decreased in 57 of the 76 patients alive and the mean PSA level was then 72±11.7 ng/mL (3.8-2433). At six months, of the 53 patients in urinary retention, 18 had recovered spontaneous and complete urination. The PSA level was below 4 ng/mL in 33.8% (22/65) of cases and between 4 and 10 ng/mL in 52.3% (34/65) of cases. At 12 months, the median PSA nadir was 0.76 ng/mL (0,002-8,17) and 57.4% of the 54 patients alive had a PSA nadir less than 2 ng/mL. The mean follow-up was 11.08±10.34 months (1-30). A rising PSA occurred in 17 patients (20.2%) after an mean progression-free survival of 10.5 months (6-25). The overall survival at 6, 12 and 24 months were respectively 77.3, 64.3 and 52.3%. The overall cost of pulpectomy was 50 000 FCFA (76€). The specific morbidity of pulpectomy was two cases (2.4%) of infection of the operative site. The bilateral pulpectomy was a method of androgen suppression immediately effective, efficacious with a low morbidity. Its very low cost is the main reason why it is still the most used method in our country. Copyright

  5. Slow-freezing versus vitrification for human ovarian tissue cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Silke; Bündgen, Nana; Köster, Frank; Eichenlaub-Ritter, Ursula; Griesinger, Georg

    2015-02-01

    Ovarian tissue can be cryopreserved prior to chemotherapy using either the slow-freezing or the vitrification method; however, the data on the equality of the procedures are still conflicting. In this study, a comparison of the cryo-damage of human ovarian tissue induced by either vitrification or slow-freezing was performed. Ovarian tissue from 23 pre-menopausal patients was cryopreserved with either slow-freezing or vitrification. After thawing/warming, the tissue was histologically and immunohistochemically analyzed and cultured in vitro. During tissue culture the estradiol release was assessed. No significant difference was found in the proportion of high-quality follicles after thawing/warming in the slow-freezing and vitrification group, respectively (72.7 versus 66.7 %, p = 0.733). Estradiol secretion by the ovarian tissue was similar between groups during 18 days in vitro culture (area-under-the-curve 5,411 versus 13,102, p = 0.11). Addition of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate or Activin A to the culture medium did not alter estradiol release in both groups. The proportion of Activated Caspase-3 or 'Proliferating-Cell-Nuclear-Antigen' positive follicles at the end of the culture period was similar between slow-freezing and vitrification. Slow-freezing and vitrification result in similar morphological integrity after cryopreservation, a similar estradiol release in culture, and similar rates of follicular proliferation and apoptosis after culture.

  6. Reconstruction of constant slow-roll inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing

    2017-09-01

    Using the relations between the slow-roll parameters and the power spectra for the single field slow-roll inflation, we derive the scalar spectral tilt n s and the tensor to scalar ratio r for the constant slow-roll inflation, and obtain the constraint on the slow-roll parameter η from the Planck 2015 results. The inflationary potential for the constant slow-roll inflation is then reconstructed in the framework of both general relativity and the scalar-tensor theory of gravity, and compared with the recently reconstructed E model potential. In the strong coupling limit, we show that the η attractor is reached.

  7. Slow waves in mutually inhibitory neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalics, Jozsi

    2004-05-01

    A variety of experimental and modeling studies have been performed to investigate wave propagation in networks of thalamic neurons and their relationship to spindle sleep rhythms. It is believed that spindle oscillations result from the reciprocal interaction between thalamocortical (TC) and thalamic reticular (RE) neurons. We consider a network of TC and RE cells reduced to a one-layer network model and represented by a system of singularly perturbed integral-differential equations. Geometric singular perturbation methods are used to prove the existence of a locally unique slow wave pulse that propagates along the network. By seeking a slow pulse solution, we reformulate the problem to finding a heteroclinic orbit in a 3D system of ODEs with two additional constraints on the location of the orbit at two distinct points in time. In proving the persistence of the singular heteroclinic orbit, difficulties arising from the solution passing near points where normal hyperbolicity is lost on a 2D critical manifold are overcome by employing results by Wechselberger [Singularly perturbed folds and canards in R3, Thesis, TU-Wien, 1998].

  8. [Research of Characteristics of Stimulation Methods and Application of Acupoint in Auricular Needle Therapy Based on Data Mining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Na; Wang, Qiong; Jia, Ye-Juan; Yang, Ke; Kong, Ling-Juan; Sun, Yan-Hui; Li, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Xuan-Ping; Zhang, Xin; Du, Yu-Zhu; Li, Jun-Lei; Yang, Qing-Qing; Feng, Xin-Xin; Shi, Jing; Jia, Chun-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Ling

    2017-08-25

    In the present paper, using data mining technology,the authors downloaded information from databases on auricular needle therapy, and obtained data samples from journals and academic dissertations involving the application of auricular needle therapy to treat diseases, and then screened, audited, and extracted the data and performed a statistical analysis. The authors extracted data on the application of auricular needle therapy in the stimulation methods of medicine (needling instrument), selection of the side of ear to treat disease and the number of times the ear was pressed per day and the compression time. In the stimulation methods, the needling instrument varied, the seeds of cowherb Semen Vaccariae were applied in 60.89% of the total stimulation methods. The number of times the ear was pressed per day and the compression time in the clinic were optional. The main points in auricular needle therapy were the contralateral side; there was no significant difference in the effect of a single side or both sides of the ear to treat disease.

  9. Antibody Therapy Could Be an Effective Method for HIV-1 Prevention, Treatment | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four recent studies have given the scientific community a better understanding of how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) establishes and maintains itself in an infected individual and how antibody therapy may help prevent or fight the disease. Curren

  10. Preclinical imaging methods for assessing the safety and efficacy of regenerative medicine therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfe, Lauren; Brillant, Nathalie; Kumar, J. Dinesh; Ali, Noura; Alrumayh, Ahmed; Amali, Mohammed; Barbellion, Stephane; Jones, Vendula; Niemeijer, Marije; Potdevin, Sophie; Roussignol, Gautier; Vaganov, Anatoly; Barbaric, Ivana; Barrow, Michael; Burton, Neal C.; Connell, John; Dazzi, Francesco; Edsbagge, Josefina; French, Neil S.; Holder, Julie; Hutchinson, Claire; Jones, David R.; Kalber, Tammy; Lovatt, Cerys; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Patel, Sara; Patrick, P. Stephen; Piner, Jacqueline; Reinhardt, Jens; Ricci, Emanuelle; Sidaway, James; Stacey, Glyn N.; Starkey Lewis, Philip J.; Sullivan, Gareth; Taylor, Arthur; Wilm, Bettina; Poptani, Harish; Murray, Patricia; Goldring, Chris E. P.; Park, B. Kevin

    2017-10-01

    Regenerative medicine therapies hold enormous potential for a variety of currently incurable conditions with high unmet clinical need. Most progress in this field to date has been achieved with cell-based regenerative medicine therapies, with over a thousand clinical trials performed up to 2015. However, lack of adequate safety and efficacy data is currently limiting wider uptake of these therapies. To facilitate clinical translation, non-invasive in vivo imaging technologies that enable careful evaluation and characterisation of the administered cells and their effects on host tissues are critically required to evaluate their safety and efficacy in relevant preclinical models. This article reviews the most common imaging technologies available and how they can be applied to regenerative medicine research. We cover details of how each technology works, which cell labels are most appropriate for different applications, and the value of multi-modal imaging approaches to gain a comprehensive understanding of the responses to cell therapy in vivo.

  11. A standardized novel method to measure radiographic root changes after endodontic therapy in immature teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flake, Natasha M; Gibbs, Jennifer L; Diogenes, Anibal; Hargreaves, Kenneth M; Khan, Asma A

    2014-01-01

    Outcome studies of endodontic treatment of necrotic immature permanent teeth rely on radiographic measures as surrogates of whether the treatment achieved regeneration/revascularization/revitalization. An increase in radiographic root length and/or width is thought to result in a better long-term prognosis for the tooth. In this study, a method to measure radiographic outcomes of endodontic therapies on immature teeth was developed and validated. A standardized protocol was developed for measuring the entire area of the root of immature teeth. The radiographic root area (RRA) measurement accounts for the entire surface area of the root as observed on a periapical radiograph. Reviewers were given instructions on how to measure RRA, and they completed measurements on a set of standardized radiographs. The intraclass correlation between the 4 reviewers was 0.9945, suggesting a high concordance among reviewers. There was no effect of the reviewer on the measured RRA values. High concordance was also observed when 1 rater repeated the measurements, with an intraclass correlation value of 0.9995. There was no significant difference in RRA values measured at the 2 sessions by the same rater. Furthermore, significant differences in RRA were detectable between clinical cases that showed obvious continued root development and cases that did not demonstrate discernible root development. These results suggest that RRA is a valid measure to assess radiographic outcomes in endodontically treated immature teeth, and RRA should be useful in future clinical studies of regenerative endodontic outcomes. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An Anatomically Validated Brachial Plexus Contouring Method for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Velde, Joris, E-mail: joris.vandevelde@ugent.be [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Audenaert, Emmanuel [Department of Physical Medicine and Orthopedic Surgery, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Speleers, Bruno; Vercauteren, Tom; Mulliez, Thomas [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Vandemaele, Pieter; Achten, Eric [Department of Radiology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Kerckaert, Ingrid; D' Herde, Katharina [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Van Hoof, Tom [Department of Anatomy, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To develop contouring guidelines for the brachial plexus (BP) using anatomically validated cadaver datasets. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were used to obtain detailed visualizations of the BP region, with the goal of achieving maximal inclusion of the actual BP in a small contoured volume while also accommodating for anatomic variations. Methods and Materials: CT and MRI were obtained for 8 cadavers positioned for intensity modulated radiation therapy. 3-dimensional reconstructions of soft tissue (from MRI) and bone (from CT) were combined to create 8 separate enhanced CT project files. Dissection of the corresponding cadavers anatomically validated the reconstructions created. Seven enhanced CT project files were then automatically fitted, separately in different regions, to obtain a single dataset of superimposed BP regions that incorporated anatomic variations. From this dataset, improved BP contouring guidelines were developed. These guidelines were then applied to the 7 original CT project files and also to 1 additional file, left out from the superimposing procedure. The percentage of BP inclusion was compared with the published guidelines. Results: The anatomic validation procedure showed a high level of conformity for the BP regions examined between the 3-dimensional reconstructions generated and the dissected counterparts. Accurate and detailed BP contouring guidelines were developed, which provided corresponding guidance for each level in a clinical dataset. An average margin of 4.7 mm around the anatomically validated BP contour is sufficient to accommodate for anatomic variations. Using the new guidelines, 100% inclusion of the BP was achieved, compared with a mean inclusion of 37.75% when published guidelines were applied. Conclusion: Improved guidelines for BP delineation were developed using combined MRI and CT imaging with validation by anatomic dissection.

  13. Slow light optofluidics: a proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumetsky, M

    2014-10-01

    The resonant slow light structures created along a thin-walled optical capillary by nanoscale deformation of its surface can perform comprehensive simultaneous detection and manipulation of microfluidic components. This concept is illustrated with a model of a 0.5 mm long, 5 nm high, triangular bottle resonator created at a 50 μm radius silica capillary containing floating microparticles. The developed theory shows that the microparticle positions can be determined from the bottle resonator spectrum. In addition, the microparticles can be driven and simultaneously positioned at predetermined locations by the localized electromagnetic field created by the optimized superposition of eigenstates of this resonator, thus exhibiting a multicomponent, near-field optical tweezer.

  14. Incoherent "slow and fast light".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapasskii, Valerii; Kozlov, Gleb

    2009-11-23

    We show experimentally that the effects of pulse delay and advancement usually ascribed to the "slow and fast light" under conditions of the coherent population oscillations (CPO) can be universally observed with incoherent light fields on objects with the pure-intensity nonlinearity. As a light source, we used an incandescent lamp and as objects for study, a photochromic glass and a thermochromic coating. The response of the objects to intensity modulation of the incident light reproduced in all details the commonly accepted experimental evidences of the "light with a negative group velocity" and "ultraslow light". Thus we show that observations of the pulse delay (advancement) and characteristic changes in the light intensity modulation spectrum are not enough to make conclusion about modification of the light group velocity in the medium.

  15. The TTI slowness surface approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, A.

    2011-01-01

    The relation between the vertical and horizontal slownesses, better known as the dispersion relation, for a transversely isotropic media with titled symmetry axis {left parenthesis, less than bracket}TTI{right parenthesis, greater than bracket} requires solving a quartic polynomial, which does not admit a practical explicit solution to be used, for example, in downward continuation. Using a combination of perturbation theory with respect to the anelliptic parameter and Shanks transform to improve the accuracy of the expansion, we develop an explicit formula for the dispersion relation that is highly accurate for all practical purposes. It also reveals some insights into the anisotropy parameter dependency of the dispersion relation including the low impact that the anelliptic parameter has on the vertical placement of reflectors for small tilt in the symmetry angle. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  16. Traditional Procurement is too Slow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Kong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an exploratory interview survey of construction project participants aimed at identifying the reasons for the decrease in use of the traditional, lump-sum, procurement system in Malaysia. The results show that most people believe it is too slow. This appears to be in part due to the contiguous nature of the various phase and stages of the process and especially the separation of the design and construction phases. The delays caused by disputes between the various parties are also seen as a contributory factor - the most prominent cause being the frequency of variations, with design and scope changes being a particular source of discontent. It is concluded that an up scaling of the whole of the time related reward/penalty system may be the most appropriate measure for the practice in future.

  17. Slow molecular recognition by RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleitsman, Kristin R; Sengupta, Raghuvir N; Herschlag, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    Molecular recognition is central to biological processes, function, and specificity. Proteins associate with ligands with a wide range of association rate constants, with maximal values matching the theoretical limit set by the rate of diffusional collision. As less is known about RNA association, we compiled association rate constants for all RNA/ligand complexes that we could find in the literature. Like proteins, RNAs exhibit a wide range of association rate constants. However, the fastest RNA association rates are considerably slower than those of the fastest protein associations and fall well below the diffusional limit. The apparently general observation of slow association with RNAs has implications for evolution and for modern-day biology. Our compilation highlights a quantitative molecular property that can contribute to biological understanding and underscores our need to develop a deeper physical understanding of molecular recognition events. © 2017 Gleitsman et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  18. Music therapy for early cognitive rehabilitation post-childhood TBI: an intrinsic mixed methods case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Janeen; Catroppa, Cathy; Grocke, Denise; Shoemark, Helen

    2014-10-01

    The primary aim of this case study was to explore the behavioural changes of a paediatric patient in post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) during a music therapy session. A secondary objective was to measure the effect of the music therapy intervention on agitation. Video data from pre, during and post-music therapy sessions were collected and analysed using video micro-analysis and the Agitated Behaviour Scale. The participant displayed four discrete categories of behaviours: Neutral, Acceptance, Recruitment and Rejection. Further analysis revealed brief but consistent and repeated periods of awareness and responsiveness to the live singing of familiar songs, which were classified as Islands of Awareness. Song offered an Environment of Potential to maximise these periods of emerging consciousness. The quantitative data analysis yielded inconclusive results in determining if music therapy was effective in reducing agitation during and immediately post the music therapy sessions. The process of micro-analysis illuminated four discrete participant behaviours not apparent in the immediate clinical setting. The results of this case suggest that the use of familiar song as a music therapy intervention may harness early patient responsiveness to foster cognitive rehabilitation in the early acute phase post-TBI.

  19. Closed-loop transcranial alternating current stimulation of slow oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilde Christian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS is an emerging non-invasive tool for modulating brain oscillations. There is evidence that weak oscillatory electrical stimulation during sleep can entrain cortical slow oscillations to improve the memory consolidation in rodents and humans. Using a novel method and a custom built stimulation device, automatic stimulation of slow oscillations in-phase with the endogenous activity in a real-time closed-loop setup is possible. Preliminary data from neuroplasticity experiments show a high detection performance of the proposed method, electrical measurements demonstrate the outstanding quality of the presented stimulation device.

  20. Output calculation of electron therapy at extended SSD using an improved LBR method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkhatib, Hassaan A.; Gebreamlak, Wondesen T., E-mail: wondtassew@gmail.com; Wright, Ben W.; Neglia, William J. [South Carolina Oncology Associates, Columbia, South Carolina 29210 (United States); Tedeschi, David J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States); Mihailidis, Dimitris [CAMC Cancer Center and Alliance Oncology, Charleston, West Virginia 25304 (United States); Sobash, Philip T. [The Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 (United States); Fontenot, Jonas D. [Department of Physics, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70809 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To calculate the output factor (OPF) of any irregularly shaped electron beam at extended SSD. Methods: Circular cutouts were prepared from 2.0 cm diameter to the maximum possible size for 15 × 15 applicator cone. In addition, two irregular cutouts were prepared. For each cutout, percentage depth dose (PDD) at the standard SSD and doses at different SSD values were measured using 6, 9, 12, and 16 MeV electron beam energies on a Varian 2100C LINAC and the distance at which the central axis electron fluence becomes independent of cutout size was determined. The measurements were repeated with an ELEKTA Synergy LINAC using 14 × 14 applicator cone and electron beam energies of 6, 9, 12, and 15 MeV. The PDD measurements were performed using a scanning system and two diodes—one for the signal and the other a stationary reference outside the tank. The doses of the circular cutouts at different SSDs were measured using PTW 0.125 cm{sup 3} Semiflex ion-chamber and EDR2 films. The electron fluence was measured using EDR2 films. Results: For each circular cutout, the lateral buildup ratio (LBR) was calculated from the measured PDD curve using the open applicator cone as the reference field. The effective SSD (SSD{sub eff}) of each circular cutout was calculated from the measured doses at different SSD values. Using the LBR value and the radius of the circular cutout, the corresponding lateral spread parameter [σ{sub R}(z)] was calculated. Taking the cutout size dependence of σ{sub R}(z) into account, the PDD curves of the irregularly shaped cutouts at the standard SSD were calculated. Using the calculated PDD curve of the irregularly shaped cutout along with the LBR and SSD{sub eff} values of the circular cutouts, the output factor of the irregularly shaped cutout at extended SSD was calculated. Finally, both the calculated PDD curves and output factor values were compared with the measured values. Conclusions: The improved LBR method has been generalized to

  1. [Study on medical economic evaluation methods for metastatic brain tumors therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takura, Tomoyuki; Hayashi, Motohiro; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Iseki, Hiroshi; Uetsuka, Yoshio

    2010-07-01

    Treatment design for metastatic brain tumors is required to firstly care about the life and function for which the patient hopes because it is terminal care. Therefore, to discuss the value of the therapy, a viewpoint of the QOL and the socioeconomic factors other than the survival rate is important. However, examination that applies these factors to the therapy needs to be carried out more thoroughly. With this in mind, we discuss cost effectiveness of therapy for metastatic brain tumor, through a pilot study on gamma knife therapy. We studied 18 patients (mean age 61.6 years old) undergoing therapy for metastatic brain tumors. The health rate QOL was assessed by the profile-type measure SF-36 (Short-Form 36-Item Ver1.2) and the preference-based measure EQ-5D (EuroQoL-5D), before and six months after gamma knife therapy. Cost-utility-analysis (yen/Qaly) was carried out from quality adjusted life years (Qalys) and medical fee claims. In addition, we made a correlation analysis of the irradiation procedure and the gains attained. The observation by SF-36 for six months was useful for metastatic brain tumor. As a result, the QOL indicators showed increased mental health (MH: p=0.040) and role emotional (RE: p=0.029) with significant difference. In the measurement of EQ-5D, it was added only for one month based on the significant difference (p=0.022) from the pre-therapy QOL. The utilities that were analyzed became 0.052+/-0.175SD (score), and Qalys were 0.135. Because the cost was 721.4+/-5.2SD (thousand yen), the performance of cost-utility-analysis was estimated as 5, 330, 000 (yen/Qaly). In addition, positive correlation (r=0.845/p=0.034) was found between the EQ-5D utility score and the tumor irradiation energy (mJ), etc. We established a new value over and above mere survival rate concerning metastatic brain tumor therapy. The socioeconomics and efficacy of therapy are more difficult to discuss in this disease than in other diseases. We did this by clarifying

  2. Comparison of different SUV-based methods for monitoring cytotoxic therapy with FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, A.; Schwaiger, M.; Weber, W.A. [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Ott, K. [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Surgery, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    tumour SUV) for the prediction of response. Normalisation of SUVs by body surface area or lean body mass instead of body weight yielded essentially identical results. In gastric carcinomas the prediction of response to chemotherapy on the basis of relative tumour SUV changes is not essentially influenced by any of the methodological variations investigated (time delay after FDG administration, acquisition protocol, reconstruction algorithm, normalisation of SUV). This demonstrates the robustness of FDG PET for therapeutic monitoring and facilitates the comparability of studies obtained at different institutions and with different protocols. However, whichever method is used for therapy monitoring with FDG PET, a highly standardised protocol must be observed to take the dynamics of tumour FDG uptake into account. (orig.)

  3. Study of Dynamic Characteristics of Slow-Changing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinong Li

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A vibration system with slow-changing parameters is a typical nonlinear system. Such systems often occur in the working and controlled process of some intelligent structures when vibration and deformation exist synchronously. In this paper, a system with slow-changing stiffness, damping and mass is analyzed in an intelligent structure. The relationship between the amplitude and the frequency of the system is studied, and its dynamic characteristic is also discussed. Finally, a piecewise linear method is developed on the basis of the asymptotic method. The simulation and the experiment show that a suitable slow-changing stiffness can restrain the amplitude of the system when the system passes through the resonant region.

  4. GLUT4 is reduced in slow muscle fibers of type 2 diabetic patients: is insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes a slow, type 1 fiber disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Staehr, P; Beck-Nielsen, H

    2001-01-01

    To gain further insight into the mechanisms underlying muscle insulin resistance, the influence of obesity and type 2 diabetes on GLUT4 immunoreactivity in slow and fast skeletal muscle fibers was studied. Through a newly developed, very sensitive method using immunohistochemistry combined...... with morphometry, GLUT4 density was found to be significantly higher in slow compared with fast fibers in biopsy specimens from lean and obese subjects. In contrast, in type 2 diabetic subjects, GLUT4 density was significantly lower in slow compared with fast fibers. GLUT4 density in slow fibers from diabetic...... patients was reduced by 9% compared with the weight-matched obese subjects and by 18% compared with the lean control group. The slow-fiber fraction was reduced to 86% in the obese subjects and to 75% in the diabetic subjects compared with the control group. Estimated GLUT4 contribution from slow fibers...

  5. Optimizing detection and analysis of slow waves in sleep EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensen, Armand; Riedner, Brady; Tononi, Giulio

    2016-12-01

    Analysis of individual slow waves in EEG recording during sleep provides both greater sensitivity and specificity compared to spectral power measures. However, parameters for detection and analysis have not been widely explored and validated. We present a new, open-source, Matlab based, toolbox for the automatic detection and analysis of slow waves; with adjustable parameter settings, as well as manual correction and exploration of the results using a multi-faceted visualization tool. We explore a large search space of parameter settings for slow wave detection and measure their effects on a selection of outcome parameters. Every choice of parameter setting had some effect on at least one outcome parameter. In general, the largest effect sizes were found when choosing the EEG reference, type of canonical waveform, and amplitude thresholding. Previously published methods accurately detect large, global waves but are conservative and miss the detection of smaller amplitude, local slow waves. The toolbox has additional benefits in terms of speed, user-interface, and visualization options to compare and contrast slow waves. The exploration of parameter settings in the toolbox highlights the importance of careful selection of detection METHODS: The sensitivity and specificity of the automated detection can be improved by manually adding or deleting entire waves and or specific channels using the toolbox visualization functions. The toolbox standardizes the detection procedure, sets the stage for reliable results and comparisons and is easy to use without previous programming experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Slow creep in soft granular packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ishan; Fisher, Timothy S

    2017-05-14

    Transient creep mechanisms in soft granular packings are studied numerically using a constant pressure and constant stress simulation method. Rapid compression followed by slow dilation is predicted on the basis of a logarithmic creep phenomenon. Characteristic scales of creep strain and time exhibit a power-law dependence on jamming pressure, and they diverge at the jamming point. Microscopic analysis indicates the existence of a correlation between rheology and nonaffine fluctuations. Localized regions of large strain appear during creep and grow in magnitude and size at short times. At long times, the spatial structure of highly correlated local deformation becomes time-invariant. Finally, a microscale connection between local rheology and local fluctuations is demonstrated in the form of a linear scaling between granular fluidity and nonaffine velocity.

  7. Dose Assessment of Eye and Its Components in Proton Therapy by Monte Carlo Method

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh Tavakol; Alireza Karimian; Sayyed Mojtaba Mostajab Aldaavati

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Proton therapy is used to treat malignant tumors such as melanoma inside the eye. Proton particles are adjusted according to various parameters such as tumor size and position and patient’s distance from the proton source. The purpose of this study was to assess absorbed doses in eyes and various tumors found in the area of sclera and choroid and the adjacent tissues in radiotherapy while changing most important proton therapy parameters such as moderators thickness (1.5-1.9 cm),...

  8. Slow light engineering in photonic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, Toshihiko; Mori, Daisuke

    2007-01-01

    Light showing extremely slow propagation (known as slow light) provides various effects such as spatial compression of optical signals, buffering, convolution integral calculation, beam forming, and enhancement of optical absorption, gain, nonlinearity, and so on. To generate such light, very large material or structural dispersion is used. Photonic crystal waveguides are good candidates for many device applications since they can easily generate slow light at room temperature. This paper dis...

  9. Grounded Theory as a Method for Research in Speech and Language Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeat, J.; Perry, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The use of qualitative methodologies in speech and language therapy has grown over the past two decades, and there is now a body of literature, both generally describing qualitative research, and detailing its applicability to health practice(s). However, there has been only limited profession-specific discussion of qualitative…

  10. Electroencephalographic slow waves prior to sleepwalking episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Rosemarie; Carrier, Julie; Desautels, Alex; Montplaisir, Jacques; Zadra, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the onset of sleepwalking episodes may be preceded by fluctuations in slow-wave sleep electroencephalographic characteristics. However, whether or not such fluctuations are specific to sleepwalking episodes or generalized to all sleep-wake transitions in sleepwalkers remains unknown. The goal of this study was to compare spectral power for delta (1-4 Hz) and slow delta (0.5-1 Hz) as well as slow oscillation density before the onset of somnambulistic episodes versus non-behavioral awakenings recorded from the same group of sleepwalkers. A secondary aim was to describe the time course of observed changes in slow-wave activity and slow oscillations during the 3 min immediately preceding the occurrence of somnambulistic episodes. Twelve adult sleepwalkers were investigated polysomnographically during the course of one night. Slow-wave activity and slow oscillation density were significantly greater prior to patients' somnambulistic episodes as compared with non-behavioral awakenings. However, there was no evidence for a gradual increase over the 3 min preceding the episodes. Increased slow-wave activity and slow oscillation density appear to be specific to sleepwalking episodes rather than generalized to all sleep-wake transitions in sleepwalkers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Generation and evolution of interplanetary slow shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Wu

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that most MHD shocks observed within 1 AU are MHD fast shocks. Only a very limited number of MHD slow shocks are observed within 1 AU. In order to understand why there are only a few MHD slow shocks observed within 1 AU, we use a one-dimensional, time-dependent MHD code with an adaptive grid to study the generation and evolution of interplanetary slow shocks (ISS in the solar wind. Results show that a negative, nearly square-wave perturbation will generate a pair of slow shocks (a forward and a reverse slow shock. In addition, the forward and the reverse slow shocks can pass through each other without destroying their characteristics, but the propagating speeds for both shocks are decreased. A positive, square-wave perturbation will generate both slow and fast shocks. When a forward slow shock (FSS propagates behind a forward fast shock (FFS, the former experiences a decreasing Mach number. In addition, the FSS always disappears within a distance of 150R⊙ (where R⊙ is one solar radius from the Sun when there is a forward fast shock (with Mach number ≥1.7 propagating in front of the FSS. In all tests that we have performed, we have not discovered that the FSS (or reverse slow shock evolves into a FFS (or reverse fast shock. Thus, we do not confirm the FSS-FFS evolution as suggested by Whang (1987.

  12. One Size Fits All? Slow Cortical Potentials Neurofeedback: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Kerstin; Wyckoff, Sarah N.; Strehl, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The intent of this manuscript was to review all published studies on slow cortical potentials (SCP) neurofeedback for the treatment of ADHD, with emphasis on neurophysiological rationale, study design, protocol, outcomes, and limitations. Method: For review, PubMed, MEDLINE, ERIC, and Google Scholar searches identified six studies and…

  13. Topology optimization of slow light coupling to photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lirong; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2007-01-01

    The slow light coupling efficiency in photonic crystal waveguides is enhanced by using the topology optimisation method. As much as 5 dB improvement in transmission can be achieved in the proximity of the spectrum cutoff. Moreover, the resemblance of the resulting two optimised spectra from...

  14. Slow Drift-Oscillations of a Ship in Irregular Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odd M. Faltinsen

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available A procedure to calculate horizontal slow drift excitation forces on an infinitely long horizontal cylinder in irregular beam sea waves is presented. The hydrodynamic boundary-value problem is solved correctly to second order in wave amplitude. Results in the form of second order transfer functions are presented for different, two-dimensional shapes. It is concluded that Newman's approximative method is a practical way to calculate slow drift excitation forces on a ship in beam sea and it is suggested that it may be used in a more general case. Applications of the results for moored ships are discussed.

  15. Wide-band slow-wave systems simulation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Staras, Stanislovas

    2012-01-01

    The field of electromagnetics has seen considerable advances in recent years, based on the wide applications of numerical methods for investigating electromagnetic fields, microwaves, and other devices. Wide-Band Slow-Wave Systems: Simulation and Applications presents new technical solutions and research results for the analysis, synthesis, and design of slow-wave structures for modern electronic devices with super-wide pass-bands. It makes available, for the first time in English, significant research from the past 20 years that was previously published only in Russian and Lithuanian. The aut

  16. Sustained eye closure slows saccades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Aasef G.; Wong, Aaron L.; Optican, Lance M.; Miura, Kenichiro; Solomon, David; Zee, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Saccadic eye movements rapidly orient the line of sight towards the object of interest. Pre-motor burst neurons (BNs) controlling saccades receive excitation from superior colliculus and cerebellum, but inhibition by omnipause neurons (OPNs) prevents saccades. When the OPNs pause, BNs begin to fire. It has been presumed that part of the BN burst comes from post-inhibitory rebound (PIR). We hypothesized that in the absence of prior inhibition from OPNs there would be no PIR, and thus the increase in initial firing rate of BNs would be reduced. Consequently, saccade acceleration would be reduced. We measured eye movements and showed that sustained eye closure, which inhibits the activity of OPNs and thus hypothetically should weaken PIR, reduced the peak velocity, acceleration, and deceleration of saccades in healthy human subjects. Saccades under closed eyelids also had irregular trajectories; the frequency of the oscillations underlying this irregularity was similar to that of high-frequency ocular flutter (back-to-back saccades) often seen in normal subjects during attempted fixation at straight ahead while eyes are closed. Saccades and quick phases of nystagmus are generated by the same pre-motor neurons, and we found that the quick-phase velocity of nystagmus was also reduced by lid closure. These changes were not due to a mechanical hindrance to the eyes, because lid closure did not affect the peak velocities or accelerations of the eyes in the “slow-phase” response to rapid head movements of comparable speeds to those of saccades. These results indicate a role for OPNs in generating the abrupt onset and high velocities of saccades. We hypothesize that the mechanism involved is PIR in pre-motor burst neurons. PMID:20573593

  17. Slow light with a swept-frequency source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhu, Yunhui; Wang, Jing; Gauthier, Daniel J

    2010-12-20

    ct: We introduce a new concept for stimulated-Brillouin-scattering-based slow light in optical fibers that is applicable for broadly-tunable frequency-swept sources. It allows slow light to be achieved, in principle, over the entire transparency window of the optical fiber. We demonstrate a slow light delay of 10 ns at 1.55 μm using a 10-m-long photonic crystal fiber with a source sweep rate of 400 MHz/μs and a pump power of 200 mW. We also show that there exists a maximal delay obtainable by this method, which is set by the SBS threshold, independent of sweep rate. For our fiber with optimum length, this maximum delay is ~38 ns, obtained for a pump power of 760 mW.

  18. Modeling fast and slow earthquakes at various scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake sources represent dynamic rupture within rocky materials at depth and often can be modeled as propagating shear slip controlled by friction laws. These laws provide boundary conditions on fault planes embedded in elastic media. Recent developments in observation networks, laboratory experiments, and methods of data analysis have expanded our knowledge of the physics of earthquakes. Newly discovered slow earthquakes are qualitatively different phenomena from ordinary fast earthquakes and provide independent information on slow deformation at depth. Many numerical simulations have been carried out to model both fast and slow earthquakes, but problems remain, especially with scaling laws. Some mechanisms are required to explain the power-law nature of earthquake rupture and the lack of characteristic length. Conceptual models that include a hierarchical structure over a wide range of scales would be helpful for characterizing diverse behavior in different seismic regions and for improving probabilistic forecasts of earthquakes.

  19. Multileaf collimator leaf position verification and analysis for adaptive radiation therapy using a video-optical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, Sohrab B.

    External beam radiation therapy is commonly used to eliminate and control cancerous tumors. High-energy beams are shaped to match the patient's specific tumor volume, whereby maximizing radiation dose to malignant cells and limiting dose to normal tissue. A multileaf collimator (MLC) consisting of multiple pairs of tungsten leaves is used to conform the radiation beam to the desired treatment field. Advanced treatment methods utilize dynamic MLC settings to conform to multiple treatment fields and provide intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Future methods would further increase conformity by actively tracking tumor motion caused by patient cardiac and respiratory motion. Leaf position quality assurance for a dynamic MLC is critical as variation between the planned and actual leaf positions could induce significant errors in radiation dose. The goal of this research project is to prototype a video-optical quality assurance system for MLC leaf positions. The system captures light-field images of MLC leaf sequences during dynamic therapy. Image acquisition and analysis software was developed to determine leaf edge positions. The mean absolute difference between QA prototype predicted and caliper measured leaf positions was found to be 0.6 mm with an uncertainty of +/- 0.3 mm. Maximum errors in predicted positions were below 1.0 mm for static fields. The prototype served as a proof of concept for quality assurance of future tumor tracking methods. Specifically, a lung tumor phantom was created to mimic a lung tumor's motion from respiration. The lung tumor video images were superimposed on MLC field video images for visualization and analysis. The toolbox is capable of displaying leaf position, leaf velocity, tumor position, and determining errors between planned and actual treatment fields for dynamic radiation therapy.

  20. Accurate reporting of adherence to inhaled therapies in adults with cystic fibrosis: methods to calculate normative adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoo ZH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zhe Hui Hoo,1,2 Rachael Curley,1,2 Michael J Campbell,1 Stephen J Walters,1 Daniel Hind,3 Martin J Wildman1,2 1School of Health and Related Research (ScHARR, University of Sheffield, 2Sheffield Adult Cystic Fibrosis Centre, Northern General Hospital, 3Sheffield Clinical Trials Research Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK Background: Preventative inhaled treatments in cystic fibrosis will only be effective in maintaining lung health if used appropriately. An accurate adherence index should therefore reflect treatment effectiveness, but the standard method of reporting adherence, that is, as a percentage of the agreed regimen between clinicians and people with cystic fibrosis, does not account for the appropriateness of the treatment regimen. We describe two different indices of inhaled therapy adherence for adults with cystic fibrosis which take into account effectiveness, that is, “simple” and “sophisticated” normative adherence. Methods to calculate normative adherence: Denominator adjustment involves fixing a minimum appropriate value based on the recommended therapy given a person’s characteristics. For simple normative adherence, the denominator is determined by the person’s Pseudomonas status. For sophisticated normative adherence, the denominator is determined by the person’s Pseudomonas status and history of pulmonary exacerbations over the previous year. Numerator adjustment involves capping the daily maximum inhaled therapy use at 100% so that medication overuse does not artificially inflate the adherence level. Three illustrative cases: Case A is an example of inhaled therapy under prescription based on Pseudomonas status resulting in lower simple normative adherence compared to unadjusted adherence. Case B is an example of inhaled therapy under-prescription based on previous exacerbation history resulting in lower sophisticated normative adherence compared to unadjusted adherence and simple normative adherence

  1. Elimination of Cigarette Smoke-derived Acetaldehyde in Saliva by Slow-release L-Cysteine Lozenge Is a Potential New Method to Assist Smoking Cessation. A Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrjänen, Kari; Salminen, Johanna; Aresvuo, Ulla; Hendolin, Panu; Paloheimo, Lea; Eklund, Carita; Salaspuro, Mikko; Suovaniemi, Osmo

    2016-05-01

    Harmans are condensation products of acetaldehyde and biogenic amines in saliva. Like other monoamine oxidase inhibitors, harmans help maintain behavioral sensitization to nicotine and mediate the addictive potential of cigarette smoke-derived acetaldehyde. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that effective elimination of acetaldehyde in saliva by slow-release L-cysteine (Acetium™ lozenge; Biohit Oyj, Helsinki, Finland) blocks the formation of harmans and eliminates acetaldehyde-enhanced nicotine addiction in smokers. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing Acetium lozenges and placebo in smoking intervention was undertaken. A cohort of 423 cigarette smokers were randomly allocated to intervention (n=212) and placebo arms (n=211). Smoking-related data were recorded by questionnaires, together with nicotine dependence testing by Fagerström scale. The participants used a smoking diary to record the daily number of cigarettes, test lozenges and sensations of smoking. The data were analyzed separately for point prevalence of abstinence and prolonged abstinence endpoints. Altogether, 110 study participants completed the trial per protocol, 234 had minor violations, and the rest (n=79) were lost to follow-up. During the 6-month trial, 65 participants quit smoking; 38 (17.9%) in the intervention arm and 27 (12.8%) in the placebo arm [odds ratio (OR)=1.48; 95% confidence intervals (CI)=0.87-2.54; p=0.143]. Success in the per protocol group was better (42.9% vs. 31.1%, respectively; OR=1.65, 95% CI=0.75-3.62; p=0.205) than in the modified intention-to-treat group: 13.5% vs. 7.4% (p=0.128). If the efficacy of Acetium lozenge can be confirmed in an adequately powered study, this new approach would represent a major breakthrough in smoking quit intervention because slow-release L-cysteine is non-toxic with no side-effects or limitations of use. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All

  2. Therapies with pharmaceuticals in Sweden - a survey of the methods applied

    CERN Document Server

    Joensson, H

    2003-01-01

    A study has been performed to see how the treatment with radiopharmaceuticals varies between various hospitals in the country. At the same time a compilation is achieved to what extent the regulations issued by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority are followed. Information about the most common treatments was asked for: sup 1 sup 3 sup 1 I for thyrotoxicosis, sup 1 sup 3 sup 1 I for thyroid cancer, sup 3 sup 2 P for policytemi vera, sup 8 sup 9 Sr and sup 1 sup 5 sup 3 Sm for palliative treatments. There are differences between the hospitals how the treatments with radiopharmaceuticals are performed and how the activity for the therapy is determined. Mostly, the hospitals are complying with SSI's regulations. Exceptions from this concerns individual dose planning, measurement of the activity administrated for therapy and written information for the patient

  3. Revision of Calibration Method of CT-Number to Stopping-Power-Ratio Conversion for Treatment Planning of Particle Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Mori, Shinichiro; Inaniwa, Taku

    A calibration method for CT-number to stopping-power-ratio conversion was recently proposed as a revision of the Japanese de facto standard method that has been used at particle therapy centers in Japan for over a decade. The revised method deals with 11 representative tissues of specific elemental composition and density, based on a latest compilation of standard tissue data. We report here how the revision was actually implemented into clinical practice. We applied the revised method to 7 CT-scanning conditions currently in use for treatment planning. For each condition, we derived CT numbers and stopping-power ratios of the representative tissues to constitute a polyline conversion function. We analyzed the change of target water-equivalent depth by the revision for 38 beams in treatment plans for 13 randomly sampled patients. The revision caused a mean change of +0.3 mm with a standard deviation of 0.4 mm. The maximum change was +1.2 mm or +0.5% of the depth, which may be clinically insignificant. The transition to the revised method was straightforward and would slightly improve the accuracy of the beam range in particle therapy.

  4. Study and analysis on slow light in photonic crystal waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Shuzhen; Shu, Jing

    2017-02-01

    Slow light is to reduce the light propagation speed in the medium. In recent years, because slow light technology is the key to achieving all-optical network technologies constitute optics, it attracted people's attention. Compared with other methods, photonic crystal waveguides provide slow light with many adventages, especially we can fine tune the structure to control the performance of the slow-light. Because the two-dimensional triangular lattice photonic crystal is easier to form band gaps than two-dimensional cubic lattice photonic crystal, the circular dielectric rod is easier to form band gaps than square dielectric cylinder, when the photonic crystal lattice vector angle is greater than 60 degrees, it can make the performance of slow light more excellent. So in this paper,we will rotate the cubic lattice 45 degrees counterclockwise. By reducing the radius of middle row of medium column to form the line defect; Additionly, we design a coupled cavity waveguide. Using the plane wave expansion method (PWE), we have analyzed the dispersion curves of the guided mode, the corresponding group refractive index and group velocity dispersion of slow light. For the line defected waveguide, we have realized the group refractive index changing from 8.1 to 84.8 by fine tuning the radius of the defective rod, the position and radius of the first row of the dielectric cylinder close to the waveguide. For the coupled cavity waveguide, we have realized the group refractive index changing from 16 to 79 by fine tuning the radius of the defective rod.

  5. Renal Replacement Therapy in Acute Kidney Injury: Which Method to Use in the Intensive Care Unit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davenport Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades the treatment options for patients with acute kidney injury (AKI requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT have expanded from basic acute peritoneal dialysis and intermittent hemodialysis (IHD, to now include a variety of continuous modalities (CRRT, ranging from hemofiltration, dialysis and/or hemodiafiltration, and a variety of hybrid therapies, variously described as extended daily dialysis and/or hemodiafiltration, with the possibility of additional adjunct therapies encompassing plasma separation and adsorption techniques. Current evidence does not support that one modality is superior to any other in terms of patients′ survival in the intensive care unit, or at discharge. There have been two prospective audits, which have reported improved renal recovery in the survivors who were treated by CRRT rather than IHD, but this has not been confirmed in randomized controlled trials. Thus the choice of RRT modality should be guided by the individual patients′ clinical status, the medical and nursing expertise in the local intensive care unit, and the availability of RRT modality.

  6. Slow Movement/Slow University: Critical Engagements. Introduction to the Thematic Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie O'Neill

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This thematic section emerged from two seminars that took place at Durham University in England in November 2013 and March 2014 on the possibilities for thinking through what a change movement towards slow might mean for the University. Slow movements have emerged in relation to a number of topics: Slow food, Citta slow and more recently, slow science. What motivated us in the seminars was to explore how far these movements could help us address the acceleration and intensification of work within our own and other universities, and indeed, what new learning, research, philosophies, practices, structures and governance might emerge. This editorial introduction presents the concept of the "slow university" and introduces our critical engagements with slow. The articles presented here interrogate the potentialities, challenges, problems and pitfalls of the slow university in an era of corporate culture and management rationality. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1403166

  7. Perceptions of the Slow Food Cultural Trend among the Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelia Voinea

    2016-11-01

    nutritional imbalance they generate. Comparative analysis of nutrition was produced by using the coverage degree method and the results have shown that the Slow Food type menu is a balanced food option. Given the issues that we highlighted, this paper can be a reference point in our endeavor to increase the awareness of the Romanian young people regarding the need to create a sustainable food system, in economic, environmental and socio-cultural point of view, as well as their orienting towards natural and healthy food options.

  8. Cognitive rehabilitation therapies for Alzheimer's disease: a review of methods to improve treatment engagement and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jimmy; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2013-03-01

    Cognitive rehabilitation therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are becoming more readily available to the geriatric population in an attempt to curb the insidious decline in cognitive and functional performance. However, people with AD may have difficulty adhering to these cognitive treatments due to denial of memory deficits, compromised brain systems, cognitive incapacity for self-awareness, general difficulty following through on daily tasks, lack of motivation, hopelessness, and apathy, all of which may be either due to the illness or be secondary to depression. Cognitive rehabilitation training exercises are also labor intensive and, unfortunately, serve as a repeated reminder about the memory impairments and attendant functional consequences. In order for cognitive rehabilitation methods to be effective, patients must be adequately engaged and motivated to not only begin a rehabilitation program but also to remain involved in the intervention until a therapeutic dosage can be attained. We review approaches to cognitive rehabilitation in AD, neuropsychological as well as psychological obstacles to effective treatment in this population, and methods that target adherence to treatment and may therefore be applicable to cognitive rehabilitation therapies for AD. The goal is to stimulate discussion among researchers and clinicians alike on how treatment effects may be mediated by engagement in treatment, and what can be done to enhance patient adherence for cognitive rehabilitation therapies in order to obtain greater cognitive and functional benefits from the treatment itself.

  9. Distribution of stress on TMJ disc induced by use of chincup therapy: assessment by the finite element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calçada, Flávio Siqueira; Guimarães, Antônio Sérgio; Teixeira, Marcelo Lucchesi; Takamatsu, Flávio Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    To assess the distribution of stress produced on TMJ disc by chincup therapy, by means of the finite element method. a simplified three-dimensional TMJ disc model was developed by using Rhinoceros 3D software, and exported to ANSYS software. A 4.9N load was applied on the inferior surface of the model at inclinations of 30, 40, and 50 degrees to the mandibular plane (GoMe). ANSYS was used to analyze stress distribution on the TMJ disc for the different angulations, by means of finite element method. The results showed that the tensile and compressive stresses concentrations were higher on the inferior surface of the model. More presence of tensile stress was found in the middle-anterior region of the model and its location was not altered in the three directions of load application. There was more presence of compressive stress in the middle and mid-posterior regions, but when a 50o inclined load was applied, concentration in the middle region was prevalent. Tensile and compressive stresses intensities progressively diminished as the load was more vertically applied. stress induced by the chincup therapy is mainly located on the inferior surface of the model. Loads at greater angles to the mandibular plane produced distribution of stresses with lower intensity and a concentration of compressive stresses in the middle region. The simplified three-dimensional model proved useful for assessing the distribution of stresses on the TMJ disc induced by the chincup therapy.

  10. Obsessional Slowness in College Students: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aleta

    2014-01-01

    Cases of obsessional slowness, a variant of obsessive compulsive disorder, have been documented in case literature regarding relatively low functioning populations. However, obsessional slowness can also present in higher functioning populations, including college and graduate students, as illustrated here by three case examples from a competitive…

  11. Slow-light vortices in periodic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Ha, Sangwoo; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2009-01-01

    We reveal that the reduction of the group velocity of light in periodic waveguides is generically associated with the presence of vortex energy flows. We show that the energy flows are gradually frozen for slow-light at the Brillouin zone edge, whereas vortices persist for slow-light states havin...

  12. The Slow Learner and the Reading Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John F.; And Others

    The purpose of this book is to provide the special educator and the general educator with a basic reference tool concerning the slow learner and the reading problem. The text is divided into two sections. The first section, "An Overview of Selected Factors Relative to Reading and the Slow Learner," includes six chapters that discuss selected…

  13. Staff Development for Teaching Slow Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Rhona

    2008-01-01

    If you have noticed that your teachers need more "tricks up their sleeves" for working with slow learners, you can initiate a staff-development plan for changing that. Here are some suggestions for using the time, resources, and staff that you already have to improve the teaching of slow learners.

  14. Slow Learners' Attitudes toward Fundamental Freedoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Charles K.

    1981-01-01

    This article reports a study that compared slow learners' attitudes toward the freedoms described in the Canadian Bill of Rights with those of vocational and academic students. As a group, slow learners in Canada scored significantly below vocational and academic students, and the scores for each group suggested only a slight libertarian bias.…

  15. VERY SLOW SPEED AXIAL MOTION RELUCTANCE MOTOR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1984-09-01

    Sep 1, 1984 ... VERY SLOW SPEED AXIAL MOTION RELUCTANCE MOTOR by. L. A. Agu. Electrical Engineering Department. University of Nigeria, Nsukka. ABSTRACT. This paper presents the scheme for a very slow speed linear machine which uses conventional laminations and with which speeds of the same low.

  16. Tandem queue with server slow-down

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miretskiy, D.I.; Scheinhardt, W.R.W.; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2007-01-01

    We study how rare events happen in the standard two-node tandem Jackson queue and in a generalization, the socalled slow-down network, see [2]. In the latter model the service rate of the first server depends on the number of jobs in the second queue: the first server slows down if the amount of

  17. Vocal Music Therapy for Chronic Pain Management in Inner-City African Americans: A Mixed Methods Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Norris, Marisol; Shim, Minjung; Gracely, Edward J; Gerrity, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    To date, research on music for pain management has focused primarily on listening to prerecorded music for acute pain. Research is needed on the impact of active music therapy interventions on chronic pain management. The aim of this mixed methods research study was to determine feasibility and estimates of effect of vocal music therapy for chronic pain management. Fifty-five inner-city adults, predominantly African Americans, with chronic pain were randomized to an 8-week vocal music therapy treatment group or waitlist control group. Consent and attrition rates, treatment compliance, and instrument appropriateness/burden were tracked. Physical functioning (pain interference and general activities), self-efficacy, emotional functioning, pain intensity, pain coping, and participant perception of change were measured at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Focus groups were conducted at the 12-week follow-up. The consent rate was 77%. The attrition rate was 27% at follow-up. We established acceptability of the intervention. Large effect sizes were obtained for self-efficacy at weeks 8 and 12; a moderate effect size was found for pain interference at week 8; no improvements were found for general activities and emotional functioning. Moderate effect sizes were obtained for pain intensity and small effect sizes for coping, albeit not statistically significant. Qualitative findings suggested that the treatment resulted in enhanced self-management, motivation, empowerment, a sense of belonging, and reduced isolation. This study suggests that vocal music therapy may be effective in building essential stepping-stones for effective chronic pain management, namely enhanced self-efficacy, motivation, empowerment, and social engagement. © the American Music Therapy Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Contribution to the study of the interaction of slow neutrons with {sup 235}U using the time-of-flight method; Contribution a l'etude par la methode du temps de vol de l'interaction de neutrons lents avec l'U{sup 235}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaudon, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-05-15

    This study concerns the properties of the excited levels of uranium 236 obtained by interaction of slow neutron with uranium 235. The experiments have been carried out at the Saclay linear electron accelerator by use of the time of flight method. In the first part of this paper, we examine the technical and physical conditions which rule the experiments: compromise between resolution and counting rate, time dispersion due to the slowing down of the neutrons and crystalline binding effects. In a second part the experimental results i.e. total, fission and ternary fission cross sections are given. The third part deals with the analysis of these results: the resonance parameters determination ({tau}{sub n}, {tau}{sub {gamma}}, {tau}{sub f}), the study of their statistical distribution and of their correlations. We tried some classifications of the resonances according to their parameters and compared these classifications to each other and to other results. At least the evidence of a cross section correlation with a range smaller than 100 eV seems to be confirmed. (author) [French] Cette etude porte sur les proprietes des niveaux excites de l'Uranium-236 obtenus par l'interaction de neutrons lents avec le {sup 235}U. La technique experimentale est celle de la spectrometrie par temps de vol, les experiences ayant ete realisees aupres de l'accelerateur lineaire d'electrons de Saclay, Dans une premiere partie nous examinons les donnees techniques et physiques conditionnant les experiences: compromis entre resolution et taux de comptage, dispersion en temps due au ralentissement des neutrons, effet des liaisons cristallines. Dans une deuxieme partie sont exposes les resultats experimentaux: sections efficaces totales, de fission et de fission ternaire du {sup 235}U. Une troisieme partie porte sur l'analyse de ces resultats: determination des parametres ({tau}{sub n}, {tau}{sub {gamma}}, {tau}{sub f}), etude de leurs distributions statistiques et

  19. Slow Rotating Trojans: Tidally Synchronized Binaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Keith

    2017-08-01

    We propose HST observations of six slow-rotating Trojans to search for tidally synchronous binaries similar to the Patroclus binary system. A significant excess of slow rotators over Maxwellian suggests that additional binaries may be present. If any of the targets are binary, they can be resolved by HST. This target selection strategy has recently yielded the third known resolved Trojan binary, detected in a sample of seven slow-rotating Trojans. We wish to extend this successful strategy with another similarly selected sample. Even one additional resolved binary in the Trojans, which would become the fourth, would be of extreme interest. The discovery of no binaries among this group of slow rotators would challenge the understanding of the source of the excess slow rotators in the Trojans.

  20. Connecting slow earthquakes to huge earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Kazushige; Kato, Aitaro

    2016-07-15

    Slow earthquakes are characterized by a wide spectrum of fault slip behaviors and seismic radiation patterns that differ from those of traditional earthquakes. However, slow earthquakes and huge megathrust earthquakes can have common slip mechanisms and are located in neighboring regions of the seismogenic zone. The frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Slow earthquakes may function as stress meters because of their high sensitivity to stress changes in the seismogenic zone. Episodic stress transfer to megathrust source faults leads to an increased probability of triggering huge earthquakes if the adjacent locked region is critically loaded. Careful and precise monitoring of slow earthquakes may provide new information on the likelihood of impending huge earthquakes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Vocal Music Therapy for Chronic Pain Management in Inner City African Americans: A Mixed Methods Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Norris, Marisol; Shim, Minjung; Gracely, Edward J.; Gerrity, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Background To date, research on music for pain management has focused primarily on listening to pre-recorded music for acute pain. Research is needed on the impact of active music therapy interventions on chronic pain management. Objective The aim of this mixed methods research study was to determine feasibility and estimates of effect of vocal music therapy for chronic pain management. Methods Fifty-five inner city adults, predominantly African-Americans, with chronic pain were randomized to an 8-week vocal music therapy treatment group or waitlist control group. Consent and attrition rates, treatment compliance, and instrument appropriateness/burden were tracked. Physical functioning (pain interference and general activities), self-efficacy, emotional functioning, pain intensity, pain coping, and participant perception of change were measured at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Focus groups were conducted at the 12-week follow-up. Results The consent rate was 77%. The attrition rate was 27% at follow-up. We established acceptability of the intervention. Large effect sizes were obtained for self-efficacy at weeks 8 and 12; a moderate effect size was found for pain interference at week 8; no improvements were found for general activities and emotional functioning. Moderate effect sizes were obtained for pain intensity and small effect sizes for coping, albeit not statistically significant. Qualitative findings suggested that the treatment resulted in enhanced self-management, motivation, empowerment, a sense of belonging, and reduced isolation. Conclusions This study suggests that vocal music therapy may be effective in building essential stepping stones for effective chronic pain management namely enhanced self-efficacy, motivation, empowerment, and social engagement. PMID:27090149

  2. Social, Cultural, and Environmental Challenges Faced by Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe: a Mixed Method Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Macherera, MSc

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART, many children, particularly in the rural communities of Zimbabwe, remain vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors and challenges facing children on antiretroviral therapy (ART in Brunapeg area of Mangwe District, Zimbabwe.Methods:A mixed-method approach involving interviewer-guided focus group discussions and piloted semi-structured questionnaires was utilized to collect data from different key population groups. The data obtained were analyzed through content coding procedures based on a set of predetermined themes of interest.Results:A number of challenges emerged as barriers to the success of antiretroviral therapy for children. Primary care givers were less informed about HIV and AIDS issues for people having direct impact on the success of antiretroviral therapy in children whilst some were found to be taking the antiretroviral drugs meant for the children. It also emerged that some primary care givers were either too young or too old to care for the children while others had failed to disclose to the children why they frequently visited the Opportunistic Infections (OI clinic. Most primary care givers were not the biological parents of the affected children. Other challenges included inadequate access to health services, inadequate food and nutrition and lack of access to clean water, good hygiene and sanitation. The lack of community support and stigma and discrimination affected their school attendance and hospital visits. All these factors contributed to non-adherence to antiretroviral drugs.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:Children on ART in rural communities in Zimbabwe remain severely compromised and have unique problems that need multi-intervention strategies both at policy and programmatic levels. Effective mitigating measures must be fully established and implemented in rural communities of developing countries in the fight for

  3. Method for estimating optimal spectral and energy parameters of laser irradiation in photodynamic therapy of biological tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisenko, S A; Kugeiko, M M [Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)

    2015-04-30

    We have solved the problem of layer-by-layer laser-light dosimetry in biological tissues and of selecting an individual therapeutic dose in laser therapy. A method is proposed for real-time monitoring of the radiation density in tissue layers in vivo, concentrations of its endogenous (natural) and exogenous (specially administered) chromophores, as well as in-depth distributions of the spectrum of light action on these chromophores. As the background information use is made of the spectrum of diffuse light reflected from a patient's tissue, measured by a fibre-optic spectrophotometer. The measured spectrum is quantitatively analysed by the method of approximating functions for fluxes of light multiply scattered in tissue and by a semi-analytical method for calculating the in-depth distribution of the light flux in a multi-layered medium. We have shown the possibility of employing the developed method for monitoring photosensitizer and oxyhaemoglobin concentrations in tissue, light power absorbed by chromophores in tissue layers at different depths and laser-induced changes in the tissue morphology (vascular volume content and ratios of various forms of haemoglobin) during photodynamic therapy. (biophotonics)

  4. Group music therapy for severe mental illness: a randomized embedded-experimental mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grocke, D; Bloch, S; Castle, D; Thompson, G; Newton, R; Stewart, S; Gold, C

    2014-08-01

    Music therapy is an innovative approach to support people with severe mental illness (SMI). The aim of the study was to determine whether group music therapy (GMT) positively impacted on quality of life (QoL), social enrichment, self-esteem, spirituality and psychiatric symptoms of participants with SMI and how they experienced the intervention. The primary outcome was QoL; secondary measures assessed social enrichment, self-esteem, spirituality and psychiatric symptoms. The 13-week intervention comprised singing familiar songs and composing original songs recorded in a professional studio. Qualitative data were generated from focus group interviews and song lyric analysis. Ninety-nine adults (57 female) were recruited, with an initial cohort (n = 75) randomized to either: weekly GMT followed by standard care (SC) or SC followed by GMT. Crossover occurred after 13 weeks. Measures were conducted at baseline, 13, 26 and 39 weeks. A second cohort (n = 24) could not be randomized and were assigned to GMT followed by SC. Intention-to-treat analysis showed a significant difference between GMT and SC on QoL and spirituality. This was robust to different assumptions about missing data (listwise deletion, last observation carried forward or multiple imputation). Per-protocol analysis suggested greater benefit for those receiving more sessions. Focus group interview and song lyric analyses suggested that GMT was enjoyable; self-esteem was enhanced; participants appreciated therapists and peers; and although challenges were experienced, the programme was recommended to others. Group music therapy may enhance QoL and spirituality of persons with SMI. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Fear of flying treatment methods: virtual reality exposure vs. cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijn, Merel; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Olafsson, Ragnar P; Bouwman, Manon; van Gerwen, Lucas J; Spinhoven, Philip; Schuemie, Martijn J; van der Mast, Charles A P G

    2007-02-01

    Fear of flying (FOF) can be a serious problem for individuals who develop this condition and for military and civilian organizations that operate aircraft. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three treatments: bibliotherapy (BIB) without therapist contact; individualized virtual reality exposure therapy (VRE); and cognitive behavior therapy (CB). In addition, we evaluated the effect of following up VRE and CB with 2 d of group cognitive-behavioral training (GrCB). There were 86 subjects suffering from FOF who entered the study; 19 BIB, 29 VRE, and 16 CB subjects completed the treatment protocols. The BIB subjects were then treated with VRE (n = 7) or CB (n = 12). There were 59 subjects who were then trained with GrCB. Treatment with VRE or CB was more effective than BIB. Both VRE and CB showed a decline in FOF on the two main outcome measures. There was no statistically significant difference between those two therapies. However, effect sizes were lower for VRE (small to moderate) than for CB (moderate) and the addition of GrCB had less effect for VRE than for CB. VRE holds promise as treatment for FOF, but in this trial CB followed by GrCB showed the largest decrease in subjective anxiety. The results suggest that future research should focus on comparing the effectiveness of VRE vs. VRE plus cognitive techniques or measure the effectiveness of each component of treatment. Moreover, the effectiveness of the GrCB as stand-alone treatment should be investigated, which might even be superior in cost-effectiveness.

  6. A New Method to Directly Observe Tuberculosis Treatment: Skype Observed Therapy, a Patient-Centered Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, Tavora; Cabello, Celina

    Tuberculosis (TB) treatment completion is in part determined by patient's adherence to long-term drug regimens. To best ensure compliance, directly observed therapy (DOT) is considered the standard of practice. Nassau County Department of Health TB Control is responsible for providing DOT to patients with TB. Tuberculosis Control sought to use and evaluate Skype Observed Therapy (SOT) as an alternative to DOT for eligible patients. The evaluation included analysis of patient's acceptance and adherence to drug regimen using SOT. Tuberculosis Control assessed staff efficiency and cost savings for this program. Percentages of SOT of patients and successful SOT visits, mileage, and travel time savings. Twenty percent of the caseload used SOT and 100% of patients who were eligible opted in. Average SOT success was 79%. Total mileage savings and time saved were $9,929.07 and 614 hours. Because SOT saves cost and time and is a suitable alternative to DOT for patients, it should be considered as part of new policies and practices in TB control programs.

  7. [The venous ulcer therapy in use of the selected physical methods (Part 2)--The comparison analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franek, Andrzej; Król, Piotr; Chmielewska, Daria; Błaszczak, Edward; Polak, Anna; Kucharzewski, Marek; Taradaj, Jakub

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of a high voltage stimulation, sonotherapy and laser biostimulation on the process of healing of venous leg ulcers. Four comparative groups--A, B, C and D--were made at a random from 92 patients with venous leg ulcers. The group A consisted of 26 patients, the group B--21 patients, the group C--21 patients, and the group D--24 patients. The patients in all comparative groups were treated pharmacologically. Ulcerations at the patients in the group A were additionally treated with the high voltage stimulation. However, ulcerations at the patients in the group B were treated with the sonotherapy. Ulcerations at the patients in the group C were treated with the laser biostimulation. Changes of the area, length, width and volume of the tissue defekt after above physical therapies were assessed. Changes of the pus decontamination and granulation processes were observed too. After treatment concluded, high voltage stimulation and ultrasound therapy had been more efficient at enhancing healing of venous leg ulcers than topical pharmacology. No significant effect of laser biostimulation on healing process was observed.

  8. SPEECH THERAPY INTERVENTION IN MORBIDLY OBESE UNDERGOING FOBI-CAPELL GASTROPLASTY METHOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rosa de Fátima Marques; Zimberg, Ethel

    2016-03-01

    The rehabilitation of complications related to oral feeding, resulting from gastroplasty is the competence of the speech therapist, to intervene in mastication and swallowing functions, aiming at quality of life. Check in the postoperative period the efficiency of stimulation, independent judges in readiness for re-introduction of solid food in morbidly obese undergoing gastroplasty. Cross-sectional study of descriptive and quantitative evaluated mastication and quality of life of 70 morbidly obese patients undergoing gastroplasty, and a group of 35 obese suffered speech therapy. In the evaluation of mastication for group 1 (pre and post speech therapy), the results show that, except for the lack of chewing, the other variables, such as food court, type of mastication, mastication rhythm, jaw movements, bolus size, excessive mastication and fluid intake, demonstrate statistical insignificance. In evaluating the quality of life when compared groups 1 and 2, the results from the questionnaire on quality of life in dysphagia (SWAL-QoL - Quality of Life in Swallowing) total and 11 domains assessed in the questionnaire, were statistically significant. With these results, the group 2 presented unfavorable conditions for quality of life. The stimulation protocol, independent judges in readiness for re-introduction of solid food of these patients in the postoperative period, applied in these conditions of the study, was not the distinguishing factor of the rehabilitation process for the observed period.

  9. KEK-IMSS Slow Positron Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyodo, T; Wada, K; Yagishita, A; Kosuge, T; Saito, Y; Kurihara, T; Kikuchi, T; Shirakawa, A; Sanami, T; Ikeda, M; Ohsawa, S; Kakihara, K; Shidara, T, E-mail: toshio.hyodo@kek.jp [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan)

    2011-12-01

    The Slow Positron Facility at the Institute of Material Structure Science (IMSS) of High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) is a user dedicated facility with an energy tunable (0.1 - 35 keV) slow positron beam produced by a dedicated 55MeV linac. The present beam line branches have been used for the positronium time-of-flight (Ps-TOF) measurements, the transmission positron microscope (TPM) and the photo-detachment of Ps negative ions (Ps{sup -}). During the year 2010, a reflection high-energy positron diffraction (RHEPD) measurement station is going to be installed. The slow positron generator (converter/ moderator) system will be modified to get a higher slow positron intensity, and a new user-friendly beam line power-supply control and vacuum monitoring system is being developed. Another plan for this year is the transfer of a {sup 22}Na-based slow positron beam from RIKEN. This machine will be used for the continuous slow positron beam applications and for the orientation training of those who are interested in beginning researches with a slow positron beam.

  10. KEK-IMSS Slow Positron Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, T.; Wada, K.; Yagishita, A.; Kosuge, T.; Saito, Y.; Kurihara, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Shirakawa, A.; Sanami, T.; Ikeda, M.; Ohsawa, S.; Kakihara, K.; Shidara, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Slow Positron Facility at the Institute of Material Structure Science (IMSS) of High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) is a user dedicated facility with an energy tunable (0.1 - 35 keV) slow positron beam produced by a dedicated 55MeV linac. The present beam line branches have been used for the positronium time-of-flight (Ps-TOF) measurements, the transmission positron microscope (TPM) and the photo-detachment of Ps negative ions (Ps-). During the year 2010, a reflection high-energy positron diffraction (RHEPD) measurement station is going to be installed. The slow positron generator (converter/ moderator) system will be modified to get a higher slow positron intensity, and a new user-friendly beam line power-supply control and vacuum monitoring system is being developed. Another plan for this year is the transfer of a 22Na-based slow positron beam from RIKEN. This machine will be used for the continuous slow positron beam applications and for the orientation training of those who are interested in beginning researches with a slow positron beam.

  11. Generation and evolution of interplanetary slow shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Wu

    Full Text Available It is well known that most MHD shocks observed within 1 AU are MHD fast shocks. Only a very limited number of MHD slow shocks are observed within 1 AU. In order to understand why there are only a few MHD slow shocks observed within 1 AU, we use a one-dimensional, time-dependent MHD code with an adaptive grid to study the generation and evolution of interplanetary slow shocks (ISS in the solar wind. Results show that a negative, nearly square-wave perturbation will generate a pair of slow shocks (a forward and a reverse slow shock. In addition, the forward and the reverse slow shocks can pass through each other without destroying their characteristics, but the propagating speeds for both shocks are decreased. A positive, square-wave perturbation will generate both slow and fast shocks. When a forward slow shock (FSS propagates behind a forward fast shock (FFS, the former experiences a decreasing Mach number. In addition, the FSS always disappears within a distance of 150R (where R is one solar radius from the Sun when there is a forward fast shock (with Mach number ≥1.7 propagating in front of the FSS. In all tests that we have performed, we have not discovered that the FSS (or reverse slow shock evolves into a FFS (or reverse fast shock. Thus, we do not confirm the FSS-FFS evolution as suggested by Whang (1987.

  12. Distribution of stress on TMJ disc induced by use of chincup therapy: assessment by the finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Siqueira Calçada

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the distribution of stress produced on TMJ disc by chincup therapy, by means of the finite element method. Methods: a simplified three-dimensional TMJ disc model was developed by using Rhinoceros 3D software, and exported to ANSYS software. A 4.9N load was applied on the inferior surface of the model at inclinations of 30, 40, and 50 degrees to the mandibular plane (GoMe. ANSYS was used to analyze stress distribution on the TMJ disc for the different angulations, by means of finite element method. Results: The results showed that the tensile and compressive stresses concentrations were higher on the inferior surface of the model. More presence of tensile stress was found in the middle-anterior region of the model and its location was not altered in the three directions of load application. There was more presence of compressive stress in the middle and mid-posterior regions, but when a 50o inclined load was applied, concentration in the middle region was prevalent. Tensile and compressive stresses intensities progressively diminished as the load was more vertically applied. Conclusions: stress induced by the chincup therapy is mainly located on the inferior surface of the model. Loads at greater angles to the mandibular plane produced distribution of stresses with lower intensity and a concentration of compressive stresses in the middle region. The simplified three-dimensional model proved useful for assessing the distribution of stresses on the TMJ disc induced by the chincup therapy.

  13. EFFECT OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY BASED ON NEW METHOD OF INDIVIDUAL CHOICE OF DRUGS ON LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY IN ELDERLY PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Pshenichkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effects of antihypertensive therapy based on consideration of individual heart rhythm variability (HRV on left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH in hypertensive elderly patients.Material and methods. 60 hypertensive elderly patients with LVH were included in the study. They were split in two groups (30 people in each one. Patients of the group-I had common antihypertensive therapy. Patients of group-II received medications prescribed with consideration of individual heart rate variability. Holter monitoring with analysis of HRV, 24-hour blood pressure monitoring and ultrasonography were conducted initially and 18 months after treatment beginning.Results. BP control was reached in the majority of patients of both groups. The patients of group-II in comparison with patients of group-I had reduction of low- high frequency power ratio (LF/HF and higher rate of LVH reduction. Relationship between LVH dynamics and ratio LF/HF was found.Conclusion. Arterial hypertension therapy considering individual HRV contributes in LVH reduction in elderly patients.

  14. Perceived value of spinal manipulative therapy and exercise among seniors with chronic neck pain: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiers, Michele; Vihstadt, Corrie; Hanson, Linda; Evans, Roni

    2014-11-01

    To explore perceptions of spinal manipulative therapy and exercise among adults aged 65 years and older with chronic neck pain. Mixed methods study embedded within a randomized clinical trial. Interviews were conducted with 222 of 241 randomized clinical trial participants. They had a mean age of 72.2 years and they had neck pain of moderate severity and of 6 years mean duration. Semi-structured interviews were conducted at the completion of the 12 week intervention phase, during which participants received spinal manipulative therapy and exercise interventions. Interviews explored determinants of satisfaction with care, whether or not therapy was worthwhile, and what was liked and disliked about treatment. Interviews were recorded and transcribed; content analysis was used to identify themes within responses. Participants placed high value on their relationships with health care team members, supervision, individualized care, and the exercises and information provided as treatment. Change in symptoms did not figure as prominently as social and process-related themes. Percpetions of age, activities, and co-morbities influenced some seniors' expectations of treatment results, and comorbidities impacted perceptions of their ability to participate in active care. Relationship dynamics should be leveraged in clinical encounters to enhance patient satisfaction and perceived value of care.

  15. Slow light vortices in periodic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Ha, Sangwoo; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2009-01-01

    We reveal that the reduction of the group velocity of light in periodic waveguides is generically associated with the presence of vortex energy flows. We show that the energy flows are gradually frozen for slow-light at the Brillouin zone edge, whereas vortices persist for slow-light states having...... non-vanishing phase velocity inside the Brillouin zone. We also demonstrate that presence of vortices can be linked to the absence of slow-light at the zone edge, and present calculations illustrating these general results....

  16. Dystonia Associated with Idiopathic Slow Orthostatic Tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kobylecki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to characterize the clinical and electrophysiological features of patients with slow orthostatic tremor.Case Report: The clinical and neurophysiological data of patients referred for lower limb tremor on standing were reviewed. Patients with symptomatic or primary orthostatic tremor were excluded. Eight patients were identified with idiopathic slow 4–8 Hz orthostatic tremor, which was associated with tremor and dystonia in cervical and upper limb musculature. Coherence analysis in two patients showed findings different to those seen in primary orthostatic tremor.Discussion: Slow orthostatic tremor may be associated with dystonia and dystonic tremor.

  17. Downstream processing and chromatography based analytical methods for production of vaccines, gene therapy vectors, and bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramberger, Petra; Urbas, Lidija; Štrancar, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Downstream processing of nanoplexes (viruses, virus-like particles, bacteriophages) is characterized by complexity of the starting material, number of purification methods to choose from, regulations that are setting the frame for the final product and analytical methods for upstream and downstream monitoring. This review gives an overview on the nanoplex downstream challenges and chromatography based analytical methods for efficient monitoring of the nanoplex production. PMID:25751122

  18. Incidence and clinical relevance of slow ventricular tachycardia in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator recipients: an international multicenter prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoul, Nicolas; Mletzko, Ralph; Anselme, Frédéric; Bowes, Robert; Schöls, Wolfgang; Kouakam, Claude; Casteigneau, Gaëlle; Luise, Raffaele; Iscolo, Nicolas; Aliot, Etienne

    2005-08-16

    This study aims to assess the incidence and clinical relevance of slow ventricular tachycardia (VT) and the effectiveness and/or deleterious effects of antitachycardia pacing in slow VT in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator recipients. This multicenter prospective randomized study included 374 patients (326 men) without prior history of slow VT (148 bpm), and a ventricular fibrillation zone. Patients were randomized to a treatment group (n=183) with therapy activated in the slow VT zone or a monitoring group (n=191) with no therapy in the slow VT zone. During follow-up (11 months), 449 slow VTs occurred in 114 patients (30.5% slow VT incidence); 181 VTs (54 patients) occurred in the monitoring group; 3 were readmitted to the hospital; and lightheadedness and palpitations occurred in 4 and 250 (60 patients) in the treatment group treated by antitachycardia pacing (89.8% success rate) and shock delivery (n=2). There were 10 crossovers from the monitoring to treatment group and 3 crossovers from the treatment to monitoring group (P=0.09). Quality of life scores were not different between groups. Slow VT incidence (<150 bpm) is high (30%) in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator recipients without prior history of slow VT, has limited clinical relevance, and is efficiently and safely terminated by antitachycardia pacing.

  19. Alternatives to hormone replacement therapy: a multi-method study of women's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathen, C Nadine

    2006-09-01

    To explore women's decision-making regarding use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) during menopause. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 20 women who were currently or had previously used hormone replacement therapy (HRT), including questions about their experiences with alternatives to HRT. This was followed by a non-random questionnaire survey of 285 demographically representative Canadian women aged 45-65 who were current or former HRT users. Fifty-seven percent (57%, n = 162) of women reported either having used or considered a CAM approach for menopause. Women who had tried or considered CAM were significantly younger (mean age = 54.9 years versus 56.8 years; t(280) = 3.4, p menopause-specific symptoms than those who had not, and these women also reported a worse experience of menopause overall. : A majority of menopausal women in the current study considered or tried CAM alternatives to HRT.

  20. Allergy to monoclonal antibodies: cutting-edge desensitization methods for cutting-edge therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, David I; Bankova, Lora; Cahill, Katherine N; Kyin, Timothy; Castells, Mariana C

    2012-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are important therapeutic tools, but their usefulness is limited in patients who experience acute infusion reactions, most of which are consistent with type I hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis. Patients who experience acute infusion reactions face the prospect of stopping treatment or switching to an alternative, and potentially more toxic or inferior treatment. Another option that overcomes the treatment hurdle of these reactions is rapid desensitization, a procedure in which the offending agent is re-administered in a step-wise, highly controlled fashion. While the risk of reactions is not completely eliminated, desensitization has proven to be a highly effective re-administration strategy for most patients who otherwise would not be able to tolerate their monoclonal antibody therapy owing to drug-induced anaphylaxis. This article reviews the current literature on desensitization and other readministration protocols to monoclonal antibodies with an emphasis on four agents: rituximab, infliximab, cetuximab and trastuzumab.

  1. Methods for reducing patient radiation exposure during proton therapy for eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A. Bakaev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to techniques for reduction of background radiation in the room for conducting proton eye radiotherapy. The necessity of this reduction stems from the health risk of low-dose effect on the personnel and patients. We have touched the aspects of background reduction both at the cost of secondary particles, produced in beam-forming systems, and the dose reduction for the patient's healthy tissue (when carrying out beam therapy owing to correct assessment of the biological effects of protons with energies up to 60MeV. The obtained calculation results prove that an increase in the proton beam diameter provides the possibility of reducing the background radiation by more than a factor of three in the room and of correspondingly decreasing the body's radiation exposure. It is necessary to take correct account of RBE to reduce the radiation exposure of adjacent organs.

  2. [Improvement of gynecologic radium therapy through the afterloading method using cesium 137].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, D V; Senf, W; Kuttig, H; Kubli, F

    1976-03-01

    For all centers performing gynecological contact irradiation the use of afterloading techniques is urgently required, since they eliminate any radiation exposure to the personnel. The radio-therapist may position and control the empty applicators still free from radiation withoug haste. This procedure diminishes the occurrence of overdosages and underdosages. The care for the patients is possible without radiation exposure, and the morbidity of contact therapy can be reduced by occasional mobilization of the patient, the applicator without sources remaining at its place. The fully automatic apparatus "Curietron" using cesium-137 sources (0.662 MeV gamma emission, half-life period 26.6 years) with an equivalent source activity (factor 2.6) yields the dose distribution demanded in the gynecologic field which in practice is identical to that of Ra-226 (medium gamma emission 1 MeV, half-life period 1620 years). With similar dose distribution, a biological and therapeutical effect alike to Ra-226 may be expected from Cs-137. In comparison with Ra-226, the following advantages of Cs-137 may be mentioned: Lower half-value thickness of 5.5 mm lead (low expenses for radioprotection), less danger with handling (no emanation of radioactive gases), and lower contamination risks in case of breaking. The measured dose distributions at equivalent source activity and similar geometry of the applicators revealed the possibility with regard of all techniques of gynecologic irradiation utilized in our field of arriving at similar relative and absolute dose distributions by means of the Cs-137 afterloading technique. Whilst short-term afterloading irradiation with highly active sources, their radiobiological effectiveness being not yet ascertained, has to be tested at appropriate scientific centers, it is necessary to demand afterloading techniques with dosages and duration of irradiations approved over decades for all centers of gynecological contact therapy because of radiation

  3. Aphasia: A mixed methods investigation into the impact of semantic activation therapy with and without word finding: preliminary results from a single therapy trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Bixley, Morag; Jin, Lixian; Williamson, I.R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract introduction Aphasia is a multimodality language difficulty experienced by people who have a left sided stroke. Speech and Language Therapists (SLTs) who work with People with Aphasia (PWA) often provide word finding therapy because wfd are one of the most debilitating effects of aphasic language loss. The majority of published word finding research uses mixed therapy techniques in which PWA practise accessing, using and combining sounds and words. This therapy trial is one of on...

  4. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy integrated with systematic desensitization, cognitive behavioral therapy combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocess­ing therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy combined with virtual reality exposure therapy methods in the treatment of flight anxiety: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triscari MT

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Maria Teresa Triscari,1 Palmira Faraci,2 Dario Catalisano,3 Valerio D’Angelo,1 Viviana Urso1 1Laboratory for Psychosomatic Disorders, Local Health Trust, Palermo, Italy; 2Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, University of Enna “Kore”, Enna, Italy; 3Italian Flight Safety Committee, Aeroporto di Fiumicino, Fiumicino (RM, Italy Abstract: The purpose of the research was to compare the effectiveness of the following treatment methods for fear of flying: cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT integrated with systematic desensitization, CBT combined with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy, and CBT combined with virtual reality exposure therapy. Overall, our findings have proven the efficacy of all interventions in reducing fear of flying in a pre- to post-treatment comparison. All groups showed a decrease in flight anxiety, suggesting the efficiency of all three treatments in reducing self-report measures of fear of flying. In particular, our results indicated significant improvements for the treated patients using all the treatment programs, as shown not only by test scores but also by participation in the post-treatment flight. Nevertheless, outcome measures maintained a significant effect at a 1-year follow-up. In conclusion, combining CBT with both the application of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing treatment and the virtual stimuli used to expose patients with aerophobia seemed as efficient as traditional cognitive behavioral treatments integrated with systematic desensitization. Keywords: flight anxiety, fear of flying, aerophobia, cognitive behavioral therapy, EMDR, VRET 

  5. Which is best method for instillation of topical therapy to the upper urinary tract? An in vivo porcine study to evaluate three delivery methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenbang Liu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the staining intensity of the upper urinary tract (UUT urothelium among three UUT delivery methods in an in vivo porcine model. Materials and methods: A fluorescent dye solution (indigo carmine was delivered to the UUT via three different methods: antegrade perfusion, vesico-ureteral reflux via in-dwelling ureteric stent and retrograde perfusion via a 5F open-ended ureteral catheter. Twelve renal units were tested with 4 in each method. After a 2-hour delivery time, the renal-ureter units were harvested en bloc. Time from harvesting to analysis was also standardised to be 2 hours in each arm. Three urothelium samples of the same weight and size were taken from each of the 6 pre-defined points (upper pole, mid pole, lower pole, renal pelvis, mid ureter and distal ureter and the amount of fluorescence was measured with a spectrometer. Results: The mean fluorescence detected at all 6 predefined points of the UUT urothelium was the highest for the retrograde method. This was statistically significant with p-value less than <0.05 at all 6 points. Conclusions: Retrograde infusion of UUT by an open ended ureteral catheter resulted in highest mean fluorescence detected at all 6 pre-defined points of the UUT urothelium compared to antegrade infusion and vesico-ureteral reflux via indwelling ureteric stents indicating retrograde method ideal for topical therapy throughout the UUT urothelium. More clinical studies are needed to demonstrate if retrograde method could lead to better clinical outcomes compared to the other two methods.

  6. Helping Parents Help the Slow Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnemuende, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Parents of struggling learners are often unsure of how to assist their children at home. The author provides useful strategies and tips for principals to help parents support and encourage their children who are slow learners.

  7. Development of slowed down beams at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutachkov, Plamen; Farinon, Fabio; Gorska, Magdalena; Gerl, Juergen; Kojouharov, Ivan; Naqvi, Farheen; Nociforo, Chiara; Prokopowicz, Wawrzyniec; Pietri, Stephane; Prochazka, Andrej; Schaffner, Henning; Weick, Helmut [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Hadynska, Katarzyna; Napiorkowski, Pawel; Pietak, Daniel [Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland); Janik, Rudo; Strmen, Peter [Komenskeho University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kondratyev, Nikolai A. [FLNR, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Alvarez, Marcos A.G. [CNA, Seville (Spain); Mukha, Ivan [Seville University, Seville (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    The NUSTAR/HISPEC slowed down beam project at GSI/FAIR is dedicated to rare isotopes with energies of upto 10 MeV/u. These radioactive beams will be used for spectroscopy and reactions studies. The setup for slowing down will utilize a thick degrader positioned after the FRS/Super-FRS separators at GSI/FAIR, followed by transmission detectors for energy and trajectory reconstruction. As a test, Coulomb excitation of a slowed down {sup 64}Ni beam on a gold target was performed in Sep-Oct 2008 at GSI. TPC and MCP detectors were used for the tracking of the beam before and after slowing it down. The gold target, placed after the tracking setup, was surrounded partially with two DSSSDs and NaI {gamma}-detectors. The results from the test experiment and a comparison to simulations are presented.

  8. Slow-Scan TV Bibliography, 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Video, Inc., Boulder.

    This 175-item bibliography on slow-scan television lists journal articles, monographs, research reports, and conference proceedings under the following headings: (1) Instructional Applications; (2) Medical Applications; and (3) General Applications. (MES)

  9. A vertebrate slow skeletal muscle actin isoform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mudalige, Wasana A. K. A; Jackman, Donna M; Waddleton, Deena M; Heeley, David H

    2007-01-01

    Salmonids utilize a unique, class II isoactin in slow skeletal muscle. This actin contains 12 replacements when compared with those from salmonid fast skeletal muscle, salmonid cardiac muscle and rabbit skeletal muscle...

  10. Slow living and the green economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Eugenia Ioncică

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current paper explores the relationship between some relatively new concepts in the field of economics – slow living, slow food, slow writing and the green economy. The goal of the paper is twofold – discussing the possibilities opened by these exciting new concepts, in terms of an increase in the quality of life combined with an environmentally sustainable lifestyle, as well as ascertaining what the concepts may entail in the context in which the effects of the recent economic crisis may make green and slow living seem like a distant dream. It is this holistic view that we shall attempt to enlarge upon in the paper, with the avowed purpose of weighing out the possibilities presented in the complicated, crisis-fraught global context.

  11. Depression Can Slow Hospital Patients' Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166427.html Depression Can Slow Hospital Patients' Recovery: Study Screening for ... 9, 2017 FRIDAY, June 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Depression affects about one-third of hospital patients and ...

  12. Factors Contributing Decreased Performance Of Slow Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. L. Kannan; Dr. P. V. Vijayaragavan.; Dr. Pankaj. B. Shah; Dr. Suganathan. S; Dr. Praveena .P

    2015-01-01

    Back ground Even experienced teaching faculty and administrators can be challenged by learners who have not able to perform up to expected need in their annual performance of their students these students are called as slow learnersStruggle learners. There should be a designed study to foster discussion about diagnosing particular problems that contribute with meeting objectives of slow learners. Methodology The study was performed on the entire current first year of Medical students were all...

  13. Blinks slow memory-guided saccades

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, Alice S.; Basso, Michele A.; Evinger, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Memory-guided saccades are slower than visually guided saccades. The usual explanation for this slowing is that the absence of a visual drive reduces the discharge of neurons in the superior colliculus. We tested a related hypothesis: that the slowing of memory-guided saccades was due also to the more frequent occurrence of gaze-evoked blinks with memory-guided saccades compared with visually guided saccades. We recorded gaze-evoked blinks in three monkeys while they performed visually guided...

  14. Suppression of displacement in severely slowed saccades

    OpenAIRE

    MacAskill, Michael R; Tim J. Anderson; Jones, Richard D

    2000-01-01

    Severely slowed saccades in spinocerebellar ataxia have previously been shown to be at least partially closed-loop in nature: their long duration means that they can be modified in-flight in response to intrasaccadic target movements. In this study, a woman with these pathologically slowed saccades could modify them in-flight in response to target movements, even when saccadic suppression of displacement prevented conscious awareness of those movements. Thus saccadic suppression of displace...

  15. Empirically supported methods of short-term psychodynamic therapy in depression - towards an evidence-based unified protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichsenring, Falk; Schauenburg, Henning

    2014-12-01

    There is evidence that psychotherapy is helpful in depressive disorders, with no significant differences between psychotherapies. For psychodynamic therapy (PDT) various models prove to be efficacious. Thus, the evidence for PDT is "scattered" between different forms of PDT, also implying problems in training of psychotherapy and in transferring research to clinical practice. A unified protocol based on empirically-supported methods of PDT in depression may contribute to solve these problems Systematic search for randomized controlled trials fulfilling the following criteria: (a) individual psychodynamic therapy (PDT) of depressive disorders, (b) treatment manuals or manual-like guidelines, (c) PDT proved to be efficacious compared to control conditions, (d) reliable measures for diagnosis and outcome, and (f) adult patients. Fourteen RCTs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. By a systematic review of the applied methods of PDT seven treatment components were identified. A high consistency between components was found. The components were conceptualized in the form of seven interrelated treatment modules. A unified psychodynamic protocol for depression may enhance the empirical status of PDT, facilitate both the training in psychotherapy and the transfer of research to clinical practice and may have an impact on the health care system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of parameter identification methods on drug therapy control in an intensive care unit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hann, CE; Chase, JG; Ypma, MF; Elfring, J Jos; Nor, NHM; Lawrence, P; Shaw, GM

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of fast parameter identification methods, which do not require any forward simulations, on model-based glucose control, using retrospective data in the Christchurch...

  17. Treatment planning for internal emitter therapy: Methods, applications and clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgouros, G. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Treatment planning involves three basic steps: (1) a procedure must be devised that will provide the most relevant information, (2) the procedure must be applied and (3) the resulting information must be translated into a definition of the optimum implementation. There are varying degrees of treatment planning that may be implemented in internal emitter therapy. As in chemotherapy, the information from a Phase 1 study may be used to treat patients based upon body surface area. If treatment planning is included on a patient-specific basis, a pretherapy, trace-labeled, administration of the radiopharmaceutical is generally required. The data collected following the tracer dose may range from time-activity curves of blood and whole-body for use in blood, marrow or total body absorbed dose estimation to patient imaging for three-dimensional internal emitter dosimetry. The most ambitious approach requires a three-dimensional set of images representing radionuclide distribution (SPECT or PET) and a corresponding set of images representing anatomy (CT or MRI). The absorbed dose (or dose-rate) distribution may be obtained by convolution of a point kernel with the radioactivity distribution or by direct Monte Carlo calculation. A critical requirement for both techniques is the development of an overall structure that makes it possible, in a routine manner, to input the images, to identify the structures of interest and to display the results of the dose calculations in a clinically relevant manner. 52 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. First-in-human trial of nanoelectroablation therapy for basal cell carcinoma: proof of method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccitelli, Richard; Wood, Ryan; Kreis, Mark; Athos, Brian; Huynh, Joanne; Lui, Kaying; Nuccitelli, Pamela; Epstein, Ervin H

    2014-02-01

    This nanoelectroablation therapy effectively treats subdermal murine allograft tumors, autochthonous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) tumors in Ptch1+/-K14-Cre-ER p53 fl/fl mice, and UV-induced melanomas in C57/BL6 HGF/SF mice. Here, we described the first human trial of this modality. We treated 10 BCCs on three subjects with 100-1000 electric pulses 100 ns in duration, 30 kV/cm in amplitude, applied at 2 pulses per second. Seven of the 10 treated lesions were completely free of basaloid cells when biopsied and two partially regressed. Two of the 7 exhibited seborrheic keratosis in the absence of basaloid cells. One of the 10 treated lesions recurred by week 10 and histologically had the appearance of a squamous cell carcinoma. No scars were visible at the healed sites of any of the successfully ablated lesions. One hundred pulses were sufficient for complete ablation of BCCs with a single, 1-min nanoelectroablation treatment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Woo Y.; Jones, James L.; Nigg, David W.; Harker, Yale D.

    1999-01-01

    A source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) comprises a body of photoneutron emitter that includes heavy water and is closely surrounded in heat-imparting relationship by target material; one or more electron linear accelerators for supplying electron radiation having energy of substantially 2 to 10 MeV and for impinging such radiation on the target material, whereby photoneutrons are produced and heat is absorbed from the target material by the body of photoneutron emitter. The heavy water is circulated through a cooling arrangement to remove heat. A tank, desirably cylindrical or spherical, contains the heavy water, and a desired number of the electron accelerators circumferentially surround the tank and the target material as preferably made up of thin plates of metallic tungsten. Neutrons generated within the tank are passed through a surrounding region containing neutron filtering and moderating materials and through neutron delimiting structure to produce a beam or beams of epithermal neutrons normally having a minimum flux intensity level of 1.0.times.10.sup.9 neutrons per square centimeter per second. Such beam or beams of epithermal neutrons are passed through gamma ray attenuating material to provide the required epithermal neutrons for BNCT use.

  20. Controlled evaluation of a neurofeedback training of slow cortical potentials in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Hartmut

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several promising studies on neurofeedback training in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD have been performed in recent years, the specificity of positive treatment effects continues to be challenged. Methods To evaluate the specificity of a neurofeedback training of slow cortical potentials, a twofold strategy was pursued: First, the efficacy of neurofeedback training was compared to a group training program for children with ADHD. Secondly, the extent of improvements observed in the neurofeedback group in relation to successful regulation of cortical activation was examined. Parents and teachers rated children's behaviour and executive functions before and after treatment. In addition, children underwent neuropsychological testing before and after training. Results According to parents' and teachers' ratings, children of the neurofeedback training group improved more than children who had participated in a group therapy program, particularly in attention and cognition related domains. On neuropsychological measures children of both groups showed similar improvements. However, only about half of the neurofeedback group learned to regulate cortical activation during a transfer condition without direct feedback. Behavioural improvements of this subgroup were moderately related to neurofeedback training performance, whereas effective parental support accounted better for some advantages of neurofeedback training compared to group therapy according to parents' and teachers' ratings. Conclusion There is a specific training effect of neurofeedback of slow cortical potentials due to enhanced cortical control. However, non-specific factors, such as parental support, may also contribute to the positive behavioural effects induced by the neurofeedback training.

  1. Simple Method to Estimate Mean Heart Dose From Hodgkin Lymphoma Radiation Therapy According to Simulation X-Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nimwegen, Frederika A. van [Department of Psychosocial Research, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cutter, David J. [Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Oxford Cancer Centre, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford (United Kingdom); Schaapveld, Michael [Department of Psychosocial Research, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rutten, Annemarieke [Department of Radiology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kooijman, Karen [Department of Psychosocial Research, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Krol, Augustinus D.G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Janus, Cécile P.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Darby, Sarah C. [Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Leeuwen, Flora E. van [Department of Psychosocial Research, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aleman, Berthe M.P., E-mail: b.aleman@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: To describe a new method to estimate the mean heart dose for Hodgkin lymphoma patients treated several decades ago, using delineation of the heart on radiation therapy simulation X-rays. Mean heart dose is an important predictor for late cardiovascular complications after Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treatment. For patients treated before the era of computed tomography (CT)-based radiotherapy planning, retrospective estimation of radiation dose to the heart can be labor intensive. Methods and Materials: Patients for whom cardiac radiation doses had previously been estimated by reconstruction of individual treatments on representative CT data sets were selected at random from a case–control study of 5-year Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (n=289). For 42 patients, cardiac contours were outlined on each patient's simulation X-ray by 4 different raters, and the mean heart dose was estimated as the percentage of the cardiac contour within the radiation field multiplied by the prescribed mediastinal dose and divided by a correction factor obtained by comparison with individual CT-based dosimetry. Results: According to the simulation X-ray method, the medians of the mean heart doses obtained from the cardiac contours outlined by the 4 raters were 30 Gy, 30 Gy, 31 Gy, and 31 Gy, respectively, following prescribed mediastinal doses of 25-42 Gy. The absolute-agreement intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.85-0.97), indicating excellent agreement. Mean heart dose was 30.4 Gy with the simulation X-ray method, versus 30.2 Gy with the representative CT-based dosimetry, and the between-method absolute-agreement intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.80-0.95), indicating good agreement between the two methods. Conclusion: Estimating mean heart dose from radiation therapy simulation X-rays is reproducible and fast, takes individual anatomy into account, and yields results comparable to the labor

  2. Slow light and pulse propagation in semiconductor waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Lunnemann

    This thesis concerns the propagation of optical pulses in semiconductor waveguide structures with particular focus on methods for achieving slow light or signal delays. Experimental pulse propagation measurements of pulses with a duration of 180 fs, transmitted through quantum well based waveguide...... structures, are presented. Simultaneous measurements of the pulse transmission and delay are measured as a function of input pulse energy for various applied electrical potentials. Electrically controlled pulse delay and advancement are demonstrated and compared with a theoretical model. The limits...... of the model as well as the underlying physical mechanisms are analysed and discussed. A method to achieve slow light by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in an inhomogeneously broadened quantum dot medium is proposed. The basic principles of EIT are assessed and the main dissimilarities between...

  3. [The venous ulcer therapy in use of the selected physical methods--circumstances for clinical application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franek, Andrzej; Król, Piotr; Chmielewska, Daria; Błaszczak, Edward; Polak, Anna; Kucharzewski, Marek; Taradaj, Jakub

    2006-05-01

    Venous ulcers are significant both surgical and dermatological problem. The chronic and recurrent natures of the disease require a search for new methods to improve treatment efficiency. Therefore, the attempts at using some physical methods are needed. The authors review the current literature on characteristics and biological effects of high voltage stimulation (HVS), ultrasound (sonotherapy) and laser biostimulation. Modern hypotheses (skin battery theory, cavitation, acoustic streaming, fotobiostimulation effect) explaining the mechanisms of applied physical factors arising in soft tissue healing process are presented too.

  4. Quantification of uncertainties in conventional plan evaluation methods in Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbumani, Surega; Arunai Nambi Raj, N; S Prabhakar, Girish; Anchineyan, Pichandi; Bilimagga, Ramesh S; Palled, Siddanna R; Chairmadhurai, Arun

    2014-01-01

    In Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) dose distributions tend to be more complex and heterogeneous because of the modulated fluences in each beamlet of every single beam. These dose-volume (DV) parameters derived from the dose volume histogram (DVH) are physical quantities, thought to correlate with the biological response of the tissues. The aim of this study was to quantify the uncertainty of physical dose metrics to predict clinical outcomes of radiotherapy. The radiobiological estimates such as tumor control probability (TCP) and Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) were made for a cohort of 40 cancer patients (10 brain;19 head & neck;11 cervix) using the DV parameters. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the correlation of physical plan quality indicators with radiobiological estimates. The correlation between conformity index (CI) and TCP was found to be good and the dosimetric parameters for optic nerves, optic chiasm, brain stem, normal brain and parotids correlated well with the NTCP estimates. A follow up study (median duration 18 months) was also performed. There was no grade 3 or 4 normal tissue complications observed. Local tumor control was found to be higher in brain (90%) and pelvic cases (95%), whereas a decline of 70% was noted with head & neck cancer cases. The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) concept of radiobiological model used in the software determines TCP and NTCP values which can predict outcomes precisely using DV data in the voxel level. The uncertainty of using physical dose metrics for plan evaluation is quantified with the statistical analysis. Radiobiological evaluation is helpful in ranking the rival treatment plans also.

  5. Photodynamic therapy: development of methods and clinical applications in FCI MRCC MOH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kaplan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to clinical experience of photodynamic therapy (PDT in Medical Radiological Research Center. Authors represent the results of treatment in 156 patients with primary untreated tumors of different localizations as follows: basal cell skin cancer (BCSC in 156 patients, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (SCCS in 24 patients, cancer of upper and lower lips in 30 patients. The other group of patients included recurrent and metastatic diseases: recurrent BCSC were in 127 patients, recurrent or continued growth of SCCS – in 27, recurrent or continued growth of lip cancer – in 13, intracutaneous metastases of skin melanoma (62 patients and breast cancer (46 – in 108. PDT was performed with photosensitizers Photosense (2.0 mg/kg, Photolon (0.9–2.5 mg/kg, and Photoditazine (0.7–0.8 mg/kg. The light irradiation dose was 100–600 J/cm2. After PDT of previously untreated BCSC the complete regression (CR of tumor lesions was in 96.8% of patients, partial regression (PR – in 3.2% of patients; for PDT of recurrent BCSC in 76.4% and 23.6%, respectively. After PDT treatment in patients with previously untreated SCCS CR of tumor lesions was achieved in 91.7% of patients, PR – in 8.3% of patients. For treatment of relapses in SCCS CR was achieved in 59.3% of cases, PR – in 33.3%, absence of regression was reported in 7.4% of cases. PDT of intracutaneous metastases of skin melanoma and breast cancer provided positive treatment effect (CR + PR + stabilizing in 95 and 98% of cases, respectively. CR in primary lip cancer after PDT was reported in 86.0% of patients, PR – in 14.0%. For PDT of recurrent lip cancer CR accounted for 69.2%, PR – 30.8%. 

  6. Complexity and accuracy of image registration methods in SPECT-guided radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, L S; Duzenli, C; Moiseenko, V [Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Tang, L; Hamarneh, G [Computing Science, Simon Fraser University, 9400 TASC1, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Gill, B [Medical Physics, Vancouver Cancer Centre, BC Cancer Agency, 600 West 10th Ave, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4E6 (Canada); Celler, A; Shcherbinin, S [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, 828 West 10th Ave, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1L8 (Canada); Fua, T F; Thompson, A; Sheehan, F [Radiation Oncology, Vancouver Cancer Centre, BC Cancer Agency, 600 West 10th Ave, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4E6 (Canada); Liu, M [Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Cancer Centre, BC Cancer Agency, 13750 9th Ave, Surrey, BC, V3V 1Z2 (Canada)], E-mail: lyin@bccancer.bc.ca

    2010-01-07

    The use of functional imaging in radiotherapy treatment (RT) planning requires accurate co-registration of functional imaging scans to CT scans. We evaluated six methods of image registration for use in SPECT-guided radiotherapy treatment planning. Methods varied in complexity from 3D affine transform based on control points to diffeomorphic demons and level set non-rigid registration. Ten lung cancer patients underwent perfusion SPECT-scans prior to their radiotherapy. CT images from a hybrid SPECT/CT scanner were registered to a planning CT, and then the same transformation was applied to the SPECT images. According to registration evaluation measures computed based on the intensity difference between the registered CT images or based on target registration error, non-rigid registrations provided a higher degree of accuracy than rigid methods. However, due to the irregularities in some of the obtained deformation fields, warping the SPECT using these fields may result in unacceptable changes to the SPECT intensity distribution that would preclude use in RT planning. Moreover, the differences between intensity histograms in the original and registered SPECT image sets were the largest for diffeomorphic demons and level set methods. In conclusion, the use of intensity-based validation measures alone is not sufficient for SPECT/CT registration for RTTP. It was also found that the proper evaluation of image registration requires the use of several accuracy metrics.

  7. Imaging method and system for verification of a treatment plan in hadron therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevastyuk, Oksana; van Goethem, Marc-Jan; Brandenburg, Sijtze

    2016-01-01

    An imaging method and system for verification of a treatment plan (A). A phantom volume (V) is provided consisting of a material (10m) having dose absorbing properties similar to a biological tissue according to the treatment plan (A). Dose parameters (Q) of a hadron beam (B) are set according to

  8. MO-FG-BRA-03: A Novel Method for Characterizing Gating Response Time in Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, R; McCabe, B; Belcher, A; Jenson, P [The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Smith, B [University Illinois at Chicago, Orland Park, IL (United States); Aydogan, B [The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); University Illinois at Chicago, Orland Park, IL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Low temporal latency between a gating ON/OFF signal and the LINAC beam ON/OFF during respiratory gating is critical for patient safety. Current film based methods to assess gating response have poor temporal resolution and are highly qualitative. We describe a novel method to precisely measure gating lag times at high temporal resolutions and use it to characterize the temporal response of several gating systems. Methods: A respiratory gating simulator with an oscillating platform was modified to include a linear potentiometer for position measurement. A photon diode was placed at linear accelerator isocenter for beam output measurement. The output signals of the potentiometer and diode were recorded simultaneously at 2500 Hz (0.4 millisecond (ms) sampling interval) with an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC). The techniques was used on three commercial respiratory gating systems. The ON and OFF of the beam signal were located and compared to the expected gating window for both phase and position based gating and the temporal lag times extracted using a polynomial fit method. Results: A Varian RPM system with a monoscopic IR camera was measured to have mean beam ON and OFF lag times of 98.2 ms and 89.6 ms, respectively. A Varian RPM system with a stereoscopic IR camera was measured to have mean beam ON and OFF lag times of 86.0 ms and 44.0 ms, respectively. A Calypso magnetic fiducial tracking system was measured to have mean beam ON and OFF lag times of 209.0 ms and 60.0 ms, respectively. Conclusions: A novel method allowed for quantitative determination of gating timing accuracy for several clinically used gating systems. All gating systems met the 100 ms TG-142 criteria for mean beam OFF times. For beam ON response, the Calypso system exceeded the recommended response time.

  9. The report of Task Group 100 of the AAPM: Application of risk analysis methods to radiation therapy quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, M Saiful; Fraass, Benedick A; Dunscombe, Peter B; Gibbons, John P; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Mundt, Arno J; Mutic, Sasa; Palta, Jatinder R; Rath, Frank; Thomadsen, Bruce R; Williamson, Jeffrey F; Yorke, Ellen D

    2016-07-01

    The increasing complexity of modern radiation therapy planning and delivery challenges traditional prescriptive quality management (QM) methods, such as many of those included in guidelines published by organizations such as the AAPM, ASTRO, ACR, ESTRO, and IAEA. These prescriptive guidelines have traditionally focused on monitoring all aspects of the functional performance of radiotherapy (RT) equipment by comparing parameters against tolerances set at strict but achievable values. Many errors that occur in radiation oncology are not due to failures in devices and software; rather they are failures in workflow and process. A systematic understanding of the likelihood and clinical impact of possible failures throughout a course of radiotherapy is needed to direct limit QM resources efficiently to produce maximum safety and quality of patient care. Task Group 100 of the AAPM has taken a broad view of these issues and has developed a framework for designing QM activities, based on estimates of the probability of identified failures and their clinical outcome through the RT planning and delivery process. The Task Group has chosen a specific radiotherapy process required for "intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)" as a case study. The goal of this work is to apply modern risk-based analysis techniques to this complex RT process in order to demonstrate to the RT community that such techniques may help identify more effective and efficient ways to enhance the safety and quality of our treatment processes. The task group generated by consensus an example quality management program strategy for the IMRT process performed at the institution of one of the authors. This report describes the methodology and nomenclature developed, presents the process maps, FMEAs, fault trees, and QM programs developed, and makes suggestions on how this information could be used in the clinic. The development and implementation of risk-assessment techniques will make radiation therapy

  10. The report of Task Group 100 of the AAPM: Application of risk analysis methods to radiation therapy quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, M. Saiful; Fraass, Benedick A.; Dunscombe, Peter B.; Gibbons, John P.; Mundt, Arno J.; Mutic, Sasa; Palta, Jatinder R.; Rath, Frank; Thomadsen, Bruce R.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Yorke, Ellen D.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing complexity of modern radiation therapy planning and delivery challenges traditional prescriptive quality management (QM) methods, such as many of those included in guidelines published by organizations such as the AAPM, ASTRO, ACR, ESTRO, and IAEA. These prescriptive guidelines have traditionally focused on monitoring all aspects of the functional performance of radiotherapy (RT) equipment by comparing parameters against tolerances set at strict but achievable values. Many errors that occur in radiation oncology are not due to failures in devices and software; rather they are failures in workflow and process. A systematic understanding of the likelihood and clinical impact of possible failures throughout a course of radiotherapy is needed to direct limit QM resources efficiently to produce maximum safety and quality of patient care. Task Group 100 of the AAPM has taken a broad view of these issues and has developed a framework for designing QM activities, based on estimates of the probability of identified failures and their clinical outcome through the RT planning and delivery process. The Task Group has chosen a specific radiotherapy process required for “intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)” as a case study. The goal of this work is to apply modern risk-based analysis techniques to this complex RT process in order to demonstrate to the RT community that such techniques may help identify more effective and efficient ways to enhance the safety and quality of our treatment processes. The task group generated by consensus an example quality management program strategy for the IMRT process performed at the institution of one of the authors. This report describes the methodology and nomenclature developed, presents the process maps, FMEAs, fault trees, and QM programs developed, and makes suggestions on how this information could be used in the clinic. The development and implementation of risk-assessment techniques will make radiation

  11. Two monitoring methods of oral anticoagulant therapy in patients with mechanical heart valve prothesis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhe; Wang, Zhiping; Ou, Jingsong; Xu, Yingqi; Yang, Song; Zhang, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) with warfarin has become the standard therapy for the patients with mechanical heart valve prothesis. The monitoring method of self-monitoring or self-management was promising to optimize the use of warfarin, but most of previous studies have included patients with various indications of OAT, which made it difficult to extrapolate the results to the specific patient population with mechanical heart valve prostheses. This study was intended to evaluate the new and traditional monitoring methods in patients with mechanical heart valve prostheses. Relevant literature finished before Dec. 2010 were searched through a number of digital databases. And then they were pooled by RevMan 4.2 and R 2.13.0 in three fields: rate within the target range, test frequency and occurrence rate of poor events. Five randomized control trials with a total of 2,219 patients were identified. Pooled estimates showed reductions in thromboembolic events (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.35-0.77; P = 0.0012) and all-cause mortality (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.29-0.86; P = 0.0115). No difference was noted in major and minor haemorrhage. All trials reported improvements in the mean proportion of international normalized ratios in range. Self-monitoring and self-management can improve the quality of OAT in the patients with mechanical heart valve prostheses. The patients spend more time within the therapeutic range resulting in decreases in thromboembolic events and mortality, with no increase in haemorrhage. However, self-monitoring and self-management was not feasible for all patients, and require identification and education of suitable candidates. The success of self-monitoring and self-management method depends on consistent, regular, and frequent testing.

  12. Analisis Proses Pembelajaran Matematika pada Anak Berkebutuhan Khusus (ABK Slow Learner di Kelas Inklusif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfian Nur Aziz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui bagaimana proses pembelajaran matematika pada anak berkebutuhan khusus (ABK slow learner di kelas inklusif SMP Negeri 7 Salatiga dalam mencapai keberhasilan belajar. Data penelitian ini adalah mengenai proses pembelajaran matemetika pada anak berkebutuhan khusus slow learner di kelas inklusif. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif. Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan metode observasi, wawancara, dan studi dokumentasi. Teknik analisis data meliputi pengumpulan data,reduksi data, penyajian data, penarikan kesimpulan dan verifikasi. Berdasarkan hasil analisis diperoleh hasil : (1 Guru mata pelajaran matematika sudah memahami karakterstik siswa slow learner secara umum. Tidak Terdapat perbedaan dalam Rencana Pelaksanan Pembelajaran (RPP namun perencanaan tetap memperhatikan karakteristik siswa slow learner.(2 Dalam pelaksanaan pembelajaran guru melakukan pengkondisian dengan mempersiapkan siswa secara fisik dan psikis. Penggunaan model, metode, media pembelajaran disamakan antara siswa reguler dan slow learner. Dalam pelaksanaan ada metode yang sudah dapat mengakomodir siswa reguler dan siswa slow learner, namun masih ada metode yang membuat siswa slow learner semakin mengalami kesulitan dalam belajar.(3 Kegiatan evaluasi dilakukan ketika satu materi bahasan selesai dan dilakukan denga tes tertulis maupun tes lisan. Hasil evaluasi digunakan sebagai acuan kegiatan tidak lanjut yang dilaksanakan di bimbingan khusus oleh Guru Pendamping Khusus (GPK.This study intends to unveil how mathematics-learning process in disabilities of slow learners in inclusive class of SMP Negeri 7 Salatiga achieves the learning goals. The data of this study is related to mathematics-learning process in disabilities of slow learners in inclusive class. This study employs qualitative method. The techniques of collecting the data are observation, interview, and documentation. The techniques of analysis vary on collecting

  13. Intensive medical nutrition therapy: methods to improve nutrition provision in the critical care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheean, Patricia M; Peterson, Sarah J; Zhao, Weihan; Gurka, David P; Braunschweig, Carol A

    2012-07-01

    Patients requiring mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit commonly fail to attain enteral nutrition (EN) infusion goals. We conducted a cohort study to quantify and compare the percentage of energy and protein received between standard care (n=24) and intensive medical nutrition therapy (MNT) (n=25) participants; to assess the percentage of energy and protein received varied by nutritional status, and to identify barriers to EN provision. Intensive MNT entailed providing energy at 150% of estimated needs, using only 2.0 kcal/cc enteral formula and 24-hour infusions. Estimated energy and protein needs were calculated using 30 kcal/kg and 1.2 g protein/kg actual or obesity-adjusted admission body weight. Subjective global assessment was completed to ascertain admission intensive care unit nutritional status. Descriptive statistics and survival analyses were conducted to examine time until attaining 100% of feeding targets. Patients had similar estimated energy and protein needs, and 51% were admitted with both respiratory failure and classified as normally nourished (n=25/49). Intensive MNT recipients achieved a greater percentage of daily estimated energy and protein needs than standard care recipients (1,198±493 vs 475±480 kcal, respectively, Pintensive care unit stays. Cox proportional hazards models showed that intensive MNT patients were 6.5 (95% confidence interval 2.1 to 29.0) and 3.6 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 15.9) times more likely to achieve 100% of estimated energy and protein needs, respectively, controlling for confounders. Malnourished patients (n=13) received significantly less energy (P=0.003) and protein (P=0.004) compared with normally nourished (n=11) patients receiving standard care. Nutritional status did not affect feeding intakes in the intensive MNT group. Clinical management, lack of physician orders, and gastrointestinal issues involving ileus, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and EN delivery were the most frequent clinical

  14. Motion-based equilibrium reprocessing therapy a novel treatment method for chronic peripheral vestibulopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Hondebrink, Mirke S.; Mert, Agali; van der Lint, Roos; de Ru, J. Alexander; van der Wurff, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rehabilitation for vestibular disease is a safe method to partially alleviate symptoms of vertigo. It was hypothesized that principles of military aviation vestibular desensitization procedures that have a success rate of more than 80% can be extrapolated to chronic vestibular disease as well. The virtual reality motion base computer-assisted rehabilitation environment was used as treatment modality in 17 patients. They were exposed to sinusoidal vertical passive whole body motion in...

  15. SPEECH THERAPY INTERVENTION IN MORBIDLY OBESE UNDERGOING FOBI-CAPELL GASTROPLASTY METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    GONÇALVES, Rosa de Fátima Marques; ZIMBERG, Ethel

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rehabilitation of complications related to oral feeding, resulting from gastroplasty is the competence of the speech therapist, to intervene in mastication and swallowing functions, aiming at quality of life. Aim: Check in the postoperative period the efficiency of stimulation, independent judges in readiness for re-introduction of solid food in morbidly obese undergoing gastroplasty. Method: Cross-sectional study of descriptive and quantitative evaluated mastication and qu...

  16. SPEECH THERAPY INTERVENTION IN MORBIDLY OBESE UNDERGOING FOBI-CAPELL GASTROPLASTY METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    GON?ALVES, Rosa de F?tima Marques; ZIMBERG, Ethel

    2016-01-01

    Background : The rehabilitation of complications related to oral feeding, resulting from gastroplasty is the competence of the speech therapist, to intervene in mastication and swallowing functions, aiming at quality of life. Aim : Check in the postoperative period the efficiency of stimulation, independent judges in readiness for re-introduction of solid food in morbidly obese undergoing gastroplasty. Method : Cross-sectional study of descriptive and quantitative evaluated mastication and qu...

  17. Clinical Studies of Nonpharmacological Methods to Minimize Salivary Gland Damage after Radioiodine Therapy of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Christou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To systematically review clinical studies examining the effectiveness of nonpharmacological methods to prevent/minimize salivary gland damage due to radioiodine treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC. Methods. Reports on relevant trials were identified by searching the PubMed, CINHAL, Cochrane, and Scopus electronic databases covering the period 01/2000–10/2015. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were prespecified. Search yielded eight studies that were reviewed by four of the present authors. Results. Nonpharmacological methods used in trials may reduce salivary gland damage induced by radioiodine. Sialogogues such as lemon candy, vitamin E, lemon juice, and lemon slice reduced such damage significantly (p<0.0001, p<0.05, p<0.10, and p<0.05, resp.. Parotid gland massage also reduced the salivary damage significantly (p<0.001. Additionally, vitamin C had some limited effect (p=0.37, whereas no effect was present in the case of chewing gum (p=0.99. Conclusion. The review showed that, among nonpharmacological interventions, sialogogues and parotid gland massage had the greatest impact on reducing salivary damage induced by radioiodine therapy of DTC. However, the studies retrieved were limited in number, sample size, strength of evidence, and generalizability. More randomized controlled trials of these methods with multicenter scope and larger sample sizes will provide more systematic and reliable results allowing more definitive conclusions.

  18. Filter Size Not the Anticoagulation Method is the Decisive Factor in Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Circuit Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Miklaszewska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: As continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT has emerged as a standard therapy in pediatric intensive care units (PICU, many related issues that may have an impact on circuit survival have gained in importance. Objective of the study was an evaluation of factors associated with circuit survival, including anticoagulation (ACG. Methods: Retrospective study that included 40 patients, who in total received 7636 hours of CRRT during 150 sessions (84 filters, 4260 hours with heparin anticoagulation (Hep-ACG; 66 filters, 3376 hours with regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA. Results: The Kaplan-Meier analysis of the total circuit survival time depending on the type of ACG did not demonstrate a significant difference between Hep-ACG and RCA. The percentage of clotted filters was significantly higher in case of smaller filters (HF20: 58.8%; ST60: 29.5%; ST100: 15.8%, and their lifetime was significantly lower regardless of ACG (the mean and median lifetime for HF20: 38.7/27.0 h; for ST60: 54.1/72.0 h., for ST100: 62.1/72.0 h, respectively. Conclusions: Irrespectively of filter size, filter clotting occurs within the first 24 hours after the initiation of CRRT. Most commonly, clotting affects small filters, and their lifetime is significantly shorter as compared to larger filters regardless of the type of the ACG.

  19. Art in Occupational Therapy Education: An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Study of an ArtsBased Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Coppola

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Art-based learning experiences have demonstrated a range of benefits, including improved observation skills and perspective taking. This article describes the effects of an art-based module in an entry-level curriculum for occupational therapy (OT students. An exploratory pilot study investigated the feasibility of a groupadministered visual art-based module for 20 first-year OT graduate students. Outcomes were evaluated using a mixed-methods approach that combined pre-post quantitative results from survey questionnaires and qualitative reflective essays. Pre- and post-surveys revealed significant changes in the students’ perception regarding the benefits of art in OT curricula. The students’ reflective essays on their learning described artbased sessions as: (a opportunities to practice perspective shifting, (b tapping into emotion, (c exemplars of the therapeutic encounter, (d integrative and “out of the box,” and (e impacting student roles and the classroom environment. Findings support art-based pedagogies to complement coursework to build an understanding of clients, creative thinking, and valued learning experiences. Learning partnerships between occupational therapy faculty, art museum educators, and artists can offer fruitful interdisciplinary learning experiences.

  20. New method for sternal closure after vacuum-assisted therapy in deep sternal infections after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Nils; Schuett, Ulrich; Kemper, Michael; Bairaktaris, Andreas; Koerfer, Reiner

    2007-06-01

    The treatment of nonhealing and infected sternotomies after cardiac surgery is a challenging task with increased rates of mortality and morbidity, as well as high costs. A local vacuum therapy (ie, the vacuum-assisted closure system) permits the treatment of deep sternal infections due to continuous aspiration and a sealed dressing that stimulates granulation tissue formation. Aggressive vacuum-assisted closure treatment of the sternum in postoperative deep wound infection enhances sternal preservation and the speed of potential rewiring. After some weeks of vacuum-assisted closure therapy, a complete preparation of the substernal structures is necessary. In this context, laceration of the right ventricle is a rare but life-threatening complication. We describe a new technique for sternal closure after vacuum-assisted wound treatment using Nitinol clips (Praesidia, Bologna, Italy), which can prevent these severe complications. Without any preparation of the substernal tissue the clips can be inserted in the parasternal space with consecutive proper stabilization of the sternum. This new method represents an easy, low-cost and complication-free procedure.

  1. Magnon Inflation: Slow Roll with Steep Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Adshead, Peter; Burgess, C P; Hayman, Peter; Patil, Subodh P

    2016-01-01

    We find multi-scalar effective field theories (EFTs) that can achieve a slow inflationary roll despite having a scalar potential that does not satisfy the usual slow-roll condition (d V)^2 << V^2/Mp^2. They evade the usual slow-roll conditions on $V$ because their kinetic energies are dominated by single-derivative terms rather than the usual two-derivative terms. Single derivatives dominate during slow roll and so do not require a breakdown of the usual derivative expansion that underpins calculational control in much of cosmology. The presence of such terms requires some sort of UV Lorentz-symmetry breaking during inflation (besides the usual cosmological breaking). Chromo-natural inflation provides an example of a UV theory that can generate the multi-field single-derivative terms we consider, and we argue that the EFT we find indeed captures the slow-roll conditions for the background evolution for Chromo-natural inflation. We also show that our EFT can be understood as a multi-field generalization ...

  2. Human gamma oscillations during slow wave sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Valderrama

    Full Text Available Neocortical local field potentials have shown that gamma oscillations occur spontaneously during slow-wave sleep (SWS. At the macroscopic EEG level in the human brain, no evidences were reported so far. In this study, by using simultaneous scalp and intracranial EEG recordings in 20 epileptic subjects, we examined gamma oscillations in cerebral cortex during SWS. We report that gamma oscillations in low (30-50 Hz and high (60-120 Hz frequency bands recurrently emerged in all investigated regions and their amplitudes coincided with specific phases of the cortical slow wave. In most of the cases, multiple oscillatory bursts in different frequency bands from 30 to 120 Hz were correlated with positive peaks of scalp slow waves ("IN-phase" pattern, confirming previous animal findings. In addition, we report another gamma pattern that appears preferentially during the negative phase of the slow wave ("ANTI-phase" pattern. This new pattern presented dominant peaks in the high gamma range and was preferentially expressed in the temporal cortex. Finally, we found that the spatial coherence between cortical sites exhibiting gamma activities was local and fell off quickly when computed between distant sites. Overall, these results provide the first human evidences that gamma oscillations can be observed in macroscopic EEG recordings during sleep. They support the concept that these high-frequency activities might be associated with phasic increases of neural activity during slow oscillations. Such patterned activity in the sleeping brain could play a role in off-line processing of cortical networks.

  3. Laboratory Studies of Fault Stability and Slow Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, John R.

    Fault zones are areas of localized deformation that accommodate strain in the Earth's crust accumulated over time due to tectonic motion or stress transfer from adjacent areas. Faults are traditionally considered to accommodate this strain by either constant slow movement (creep), or by rapid catastrophic failure events (earthquakes). The behavior of faults which produce earthquakes has been extensively studied, including characterization of the time and slip predictability of earthquakes, frequency-magnitude distributions, aftershock decay patterns, dynamic triggering, and frictional processes. Chance observations in global positioning system (GPS) data from the Vancouver Island area in 2001 revealed a new kind of fault slip that had not been considered before, slowslip events. Since those early observations, slow-slip events have been observed at most major subduction interfaces and even in glacial systems. In this dissertation, I strive to answer some of the fundamental questions about slow-slip systems. Little is known about the dynamics of these systems and how they operate. Scattered laboratory observations have provided clues, but this study is the first systematic examination of slow-slip earthquakes and their frictional behavior in the laboratory. I examine questions such as what controls how a fault zone will fail and what the velocity and normal stress sensitives are, then connect those mechanisms to observations from a natural slow-slip system beneath Whillans Ice Stream in western Antarctica. In chapter 1, I demonstrate how to modify the stiffness of the testing machine to create slow-slip events in the laboratory inartificial granular material. I also present a method to automatically calculate the stiffness of each slip event in a given experiment. Chapter 2 extends this work into a synthetic fault gouge material and carefully examines the sensitivity of the system to the stiffness of the testing apparatus. Chapter 3 introduces the new parameter of

  4. EEG slow waves in traumatic brain injury: Convergent findings in mouse and man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarres, Mo; Kuzma, Nicholas N; Kretzmer, Tracy; Pack, Allan I; Lim, Miranda M

    2016-07-01

    Evidence from previous studies suggests that greater sleep pressure, in the form of EEG-based slow waves, accumulates in specific brain regions that are more active during prior waking experience. We sought to quantify the number and coherence of EEG slow waves in subjects with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We developed a method to automatically detect individual slow waves in each EEG channel, and validated this method using simulated EEG data. We then used this method to quantify EEG-based slow waves during sleep and wake states in both mouse and human subjects with mTBI. A modified coherence index that accounts for information from multiple channels was calculated as a measure of slow wave synchrony. Brain-injured mice showed significantly higher theta:alpha amplitude ratios and significantly more slow waves during spontaneous wakefulness and during prolonged sleep deprivation, compared to sham-injured control mice. Human subjects with mTBI showed significantly higher theta:beta amplitude ratios and significantly more EEG slow waves while awake compared to age-matched control subjects. We then quantified the global coherence index of slow waves across several EEG channels in human subjects. Individuals with mTBI showed significantly less EEG global coherence compared to control subjects while awake, but not during sleep. EEG global coherence was significantly correlated with severity of post-concussive symptoms (as assessed by the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory scale). Taken together, our data from both mouse and human studies suggest that EEG slow wave quantity and the global coherence index of slow waves may represent a sensitive marker for the diagnosis and prognosis of mTBI and post-concussive symptoms.

  5. Dose computation in conformal radiation therapy including geometric uncertainties: Methods and clinical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, Mihaela

    The aim of any radiotherapy is to tailor the tumoricidal radiation dose to the target volume and to deliver as little radiation dose as possible to all other normal tissues. However, the motion and deformation induced in human tissue by ventilatory motion is a major issue, as standard practice usually uses only one computed tomography (CT) scan (and hence one instance of the patient's anatomy) for treatment planning. The interfraction movement that occurs due to physiological processes over time scales shorter than the delivery of one treatment fraction leads to differences between the planned and delivered dose distributions. Due to the influence of these differences on tumors and normal tissues, the tumor control probabilities and normal tissue complication probabilities are likely to be impacted upon in the face of organ motion. In this thesis we apply several methods to compute dose distributions that include the effects of the treatment geometric uncertainties by using the time-varying anatomical information as an alternative to the conventional Planning Target Volume (PTV) approach. The proposed methods depend on the model used to describe the patient's anatomy. The dose and fluence convolution approaches for rigid organ motion are discussed first, with application to liver tumors and the rigid component of the lung tumor movements. For non-rigid behavior a dose reconstruction method that allows the accumulation of the dose to the deforming anatomy is introduced, and applied for lung tumor treatments. Furthermore, we apply the cumulative dose approach to investigate how much information regarding the deforming patient anatomy is needed at the time of treatment planning for tumors located in thorax. The results are evaluated from a clinical perspective. All dose calculations are performed using a Monte Carlo based algorithm to ensure more realistic and more accurate handling of tissue heterogeneities---of particular importance in lung cancer treatment planning.

  6. Physiotherapeutic methods of rehabilitation and reconstruction therapy of children to infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Kuznetsov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The review represents the analysis of data on physiotherapeutic methods of treatment that can be used in rehabilitation of children with long duration of frequent infections, children after acute intestinal diseases, children with chronic viral hepatitis, children with complications following some acute neuroinfections. Immune status disturbances play a valuable role in the development of chronic forms of infections in children. The possibility of immune problems correction by physical factors is underlined.

  7. Rapid identification of slow healing wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kenneth; Covington, Scott; Sen, Chandan K; Januszyk, Michael; Kirsner, Robert S; Gurtner, Geoffrey C; Shah, Nigam H

    2016-01-01

    Chronic nonhealing wounds have a prevalence of 2% in the United States, and cost an estimated $50 billion annually. Accurate stratification of wounds for risk of slow healing may help guide treatment and referral decisions. We have applied modern machine learning methods and feature engineering to develop a predictive model for delayed wound healing that uses information collected during routine care in outpatient wound care centers. Patient and wound data was collected at 68 outpatient wound care centers operated by Healogics Inc. in 26 states between 2009 and 2013. The dataset included basic demographic information on 59,953 patients, as well as both quantitative and categorical information on 180,696 wounds. Wounds were split into training and test sets by randomly assigning patients to training and test sets. Wounds were considered delayed with respect to healing time if they took more than 15 weeks to heal after presentation at a wound care center. Eleven percent of wounds in this dataset met this criterion. Prognostic models were developed on training data available in the first week of care to predict delayed healing wounds. A held out subset of the training set was used for model selection, and the final model was evaluated on the test set to evaluate discriminative power and calibration. The model achieved an area under the curve of 0.842 (95% confidence interval 0.834-0.847) for the delayed healing outcome and a Brier reliability score of 0.00018. Early, accurate prediction of delayed healing wounds can improve patient care by allowing clinicians to increase the aggressiveness of intervention in patients most at risk. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  8. On the reliability of the holographic method for measurement of soft tissue modifications during periodontal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratul, Stefan-Ioan; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda; de Sabata, Aldo; Rominu, Mihai; Ogodescu, Alexandru; Rusu, Darian

    2014-01-01

    Holographic evaluations count among recent measurement tools in orthodontics and prosthodontics. This research introduces holography as an assessment method of 3D variations of gingival retractions. The retraction of gingiva on frontal regions of 5 patients with periodontitis was measured in six points and was evaluated by holographic methods using a He-Ne laser device (1mV, Superlum, Carrigtwohill, Ireland) inside a holographic bank of 200 x 100cm. Impressions were taken during first visit and cast models were manufactured. Six months after the end of periodontal treatment, clinical measurements were repeated and the hologram of the first model was superimposed on a final model cast, by using reference points, while maintaining the optical geometric perimeters. The retractions were evaluated 3D in every point using a dedicated software (Sigma Scan Pro,Systat Software, SanJose, CA, USA). The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the mean recession changes between baseline and six months after treatment, and between values in vivo and the values on hologram. No statistically significant differences between values in vivo and on the hologram were found. In conclusion, holography provides a valuable tool for assessing gingival retractions on virtual models. The data can be stored, reproduced, transmitted and compared at a later time point with accuracy.

  9. Systematic Design of Slow Light Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen

    Light can propagate much slower in photonic crystal waveguides and plasmonic waveguides than in vacuum. Slow light propagation in waveguides shows broad prospects in the terabit communication systems. However, it causes severe signal distortions and displays large propagation loss. Moreover......, an optimization formulation is presented to tailor the slope of the dispersion curve. The design robustness is enforced by considering different manufacturing realizations in the optimization procedure. Both free- and fixed-topology (circular-hole based) slow light photonic crystal waveguides are obtained using...... two different parameterizations. Detailed comparisons show that the bandwidth of slow light propagation can be significantly enhanced by allowing irregular geometries in the waveguides. To mitigate the propagation loss due to scattering in the photonic crystal waveg- uides, an optimization problem...

  10. Slow and Fast Light in Coupled Microresonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hongrok; Smith, David D.; Fuller, Kirk A.; Dimmock, John O.; Gregory, Don A.; Frazier, Donald O.

    2005-01-01

    We predict the propagation of slow and fast light in two co-resonant coupled optical resonators. In coupled resonators, slow light can propagate without attenuation by a cancellation of absorption as a result of mode splitting and destructive interference, whereas transparent fast light propagation can be achieved by the assistance of gain and splitting of the intracavity resonances, which consequently change the dispersion from normal to anomalous. The effective steady-state response of coupled-resonators is derived using the temporal coupled-mode formalism, and the absorptive and dispersive responses are described. Specifically, the occurrence of slow light via coupled-resonator-induced transparency and gain-assisted fast light are discussed.

  11. Kinetic slow mode-type solitons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Baumgärtel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional hybrid code simulations are presented, carried out in order both to study solitary waves of the slow mode branch in an isotropic, collisionless, medium-β plasma (βi=0.25 and to test the fluid based soliton interpretation of Cluster observed strong magnetic depressions (Stasiewicz et al., 2003; Stasiewicz, 2004 against kinetic theory. In the simulations, a variety of strongly oblique, large amplitude, solitons are seen, including solitons with Alfvenic polarization, similar to those predicted by the Hall-MHD theory, and robust, almost non-propagating, solitary structures of slow magnetosonic type with strong magnetic field depressions and perpendicular ion heating, which have no counterpart in fluid theory. The results support the soliton-based interpretation of the Cluster observations, but reveal substantial deficiencies of Hall-MHD theory in describing slow mode-type solitons in a plasma of moderate beta.

  12. Accuracy of Rhenium-188 SPECT/CT activity quantification for applications in radionuclide therapy using clinical reconstruction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquinas, Pedro L.; Uribe, Carlos F.; Gonzalez, M.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Cristina; Häfeli, Urs O.; Celler, Anna

    2017-08-01

    The main applications of 188Re in radionuclide therapies include trans-arterial liver radioembolization and palliation of painful bone-metastases. In order to optimize 188Re therapies, the accurate determination of radiation dose delivered to tumors and organs at risk is required. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be used to perform such dosimetry calculations. However, the accuracy of dosimetry estimates strongly depends on the accuracy of activity quantification in 188Re images. In this study, we performed a series of phantom experiments aiming to investigate the accuracy of activity quantification for 188Re SPECT using high-energy and medium-energy collimators. Objects of different shapes and sizes were scanned in Air, non-radioactive water (Cold-water) and water with activity (Hot-water). The ordered subset expectation maximization algorithm with clinically available corrections (CT-based attenuation, triple-energy window (TEW) scatter and resolution recovery was used). For high activities, the dead-time corrections were applied. The accuracy of activity quantification was evaluated using the ratio of the reconstructed activity in each object to this object’s true activity. Each object’s activity was determined with three segmentation methods: a 1% fixed threshold (for cold background), a 40% fixed threshold and a CT-based segmentation. Additionally, the activity recovered in the entire phantom, as well as the average activity concentration of the phantom background were compared to their true values. Finally, Monte-Carlo simulations of a commercial γ -camera were performed to investigate the accuracy of the TEW method. Good quantification accuracy (errors  15%), mostly due to partial-volume effects. The Monte-Carlo simulations confirmed that TEW-scatter correction applied to 188Re, although practical, yields only approximate estimates of the true scatter.

  13. Cost-minimisation analysis of oral anticoagulant therapy monitoring methods: the case for prothrombin time self-monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geitona, Mary; Hollandezos, Mark; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Athanasakis, Kostas; Kyriopoulos, John

    2008-01-01

    Anticoagulant therapy is usually chronic and is indicated for the treatment of several medical conditions. The most common of these include patients with mechanical heart valves and those suffering from atrial fibrillation. This study compares two methods of oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) monitoring: traditional prothrombin time measurement and self-measuring or self-regulation by the patient. As numerous published studies indicate that the two methods are equally effective (while underlining significant deviations in the frequency of complications), a cost-minimisation analysis was applied. The methodology was based on the consensus of experts from different geographical regions and health service sets. All costs and benefits attributable to patient treatment were examined and analysed from the perspective of the Greek National Health System (NHS). From the analysis it was estimated that the savings from the use of self-monitoring could reach Euro 6,132,750 at market prices for a five-year period. The potential economic benefit from the expansion of self-monitoring to all eligible patients was equal to approximately 10% of the total treatment cost of the entire patient population under OAT in Greece. In addition, the social benefits resulting from higher prevention rates of possible complications, as well as the improvement in patients' quality of life should not be underestimated. The total reduction in private expenditure deriving from the expansion of self-monitoring was estimated at Euro 3,096,000, while savings for the NHS were estimated at Euro 2,473,317 over a five-year period. The benefit to the healthcare system from the use of self-monitoring is significant, and the further use of this technology could contribute to the rational allocation of healthcare resources.

  14. Combining garden therapy and supported employment - a method for preparing women on long-term sick leave for working life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidén, Eva; Alstersjö, Karin; Gurné, Frida L; Fransson, Sandra; Bergbom, Ingegerd

    2016-06-01

    Women are overrepresented among the group people suffering from long-term illness. In addition to their illness, suffering long-term sick leave leads to economical restraints as well social distress. There are gaps in our understanding of the challenges these women face. There is also lack of knowledge about how these challenges can be effectively addressed in rehabilitation. This deficiency is problematic from an ethical, justice and a caring perspective. In this study, changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among women on long-term sick leave were investigated during and after participating in a rehabilitation programme combining two validated methods, Garden Therapy and Supported Employment (SE). The study also discusses difficulties in realising research related to vulnerable under-privileged people. From a population of 329 women who had reported their interest to participate, 245 were randomised to the programme. Of these 144 accepted participation in the research project and of these 123 women accepted to answer the SF-36 questionnaire. The participants were between 21 and 62 years with poor physical and mental health. They had received public financial support from 10 years. The SF-36 measurement was carried out at baseline, after completion of Garden Therapy and after completion of SE. The results are based on data of respondents who participated at all the three occasions (n = 52). When comparing HRQoL baseline with the following occasions, the participants' General Health (GH), Vitality (VT), Social Functioning (SF) and mental health had improved significantly. The Four Leaf Clover (FLC) programme could be an appropriate method for reducing socially induced suffering. However, to conduct intervention studies where vulnerable persons are involved, it is off vital importance to consider whether the participants have the strength to complete the intervention. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  15. High-dose biotin therapy leading to false biochemical endocrine profiles: validation of a simple method to overcome biotin interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, Marie-Liesse; Prie, Dominique; Sedel, Frederic; Bernard, Delphine; Hercend, Claude; Chanson, Philippe; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2017-05-01

    High-dose biotin therapy is beneficial in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) and is expected to be adopted by a large number of patients. Biotin therapy leads to analytical interference in many immunoassays that utilize streptavidin-biotin capture techniques, yielding skewed results that can mimic various endocrine disorders. We aimed at exploring this interference, to be able to remove biotin and avoid misleading results. We measured free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), parathyroid homrone (PTH), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, C-peptide, cortisol (Roche Diagnostics assays), biotin and its main metabolites (liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) in 23 plasmas from MS patients and healthy volunteers receiving high-dose biotin, and in 39 biotin-unsupplemented patients, before and after a simple procedure (designated N5) designed to remove biotin by means of streptavidin-coated microparticles. We also assayed fT4, TSH and PTH in the 23 high-biotin plasmas using assays not employing streptavidin-biotin binding. The biotin concentration ranged from 31.7 to 1160 µg/L in the 23 high-biotin plasmas samples. After the N5 protocol, the biotin concentration was below the detection limit in all but two samples (8.3 and 27.6 μg/L). Most hormones results were abnormal, but normalized after N5. All results with the alternative methods were normal except two slight PTH elevations. In the 39 biotin-unsupplemented patients, the N5 protocol did not affect the results for any of the hormones, apart from an 8.4% decrease in PTH. We confirm that most streptavidin-biotin hormone immunoassays are affected by high biotin concentrations, leading to a risk of misdiagnosis. Our simple neutralization method efficiently suppresses biotin interference.

  16. A practical cone-beam CT scatter correction method with optimized Monte Carlo simulations for image-guided radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Bai, Ti; Yan, Hao; Ouyang, Luo; Pompos, Arnold; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Linghong; Jiang, Steve B.; Jia, Xun

    2015-05-01

    Cone-beam CT (CBCT) has become the standard image guidance tool for patient setup in image-guided radiation therapy. However, due to its large illumination field, scattered photons severely degrade its image quality. While kernel-based scatter correction methods have been used routinely in the clinic, it is still desirable to develop Monte Carlo (MC) simulation-based methods due to their accuracy. However, the high computational burden of the MC method has prevented routine clinical application. This paper reports our recent development of a practical method of MC-based scatter estimation and removal for CBCT. In contrast with conventional MC approaches that estimate scatter signals using a scatter-contaminated CBCT image, our method used a planning CT image for MC simulation, which has the advantages of accurate image intensity and absence of image truncation. In our method, the planning CT was first rigidly registered with the CBCT. Scatter signals were then estimated via MC simulation. After scatter signals were removed from the raw CBCT projections, a corrected CBCT image was reconstructed. The entire workflow was implemented on a GPU platform for high computational efficiency. Strategies such as projection denoising, CT image downsampling, and interpolation along the angular direction were employed to further enhance the calculation speed. We studied the impact of key parameters in the workflow on the resulting accuracy and efficiency, based on which the optimal parameter values were determined. Our method was evaluated in numerical simulation, phantom, and real patient cases. In the simulation cases, our method reduced mean HU errors from 44 to 3 HU and from 78 to 9 HU in the full-fan and the half-fan cases, respectively. In both the phantom and the patient cases, image artifacts caused by scatter, such as ring artifacts around the bowtie area, were reduced. With all the techniques employed, we achieved computation time of less than 30 s including the

  17. Optimal control for mathematical models of cancer therapies an application of geometric methods

    CERN Document Server

    Schättler, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This book presents applications of geometric optimal control to real life biomedical problems with an emphasis on cancer treatments. A number of mathematical models for both classical and novel cancer treatments are presented as optimal control problems with the goal of constructing optimal protocols. The power of geometric methods is illustrated with fully worked out complete global solutions to these mathematically challenging problems. Elaborate constructions of optimal controls and corresponding system responses provide great examples of applications of the tools of geometric optimal control and the outcomes aid the design of simpler, practically realizable suboptimal protocols. The book blends mathematical rigor with practically important topics in an easily readable tutorial style. Graduate students and researchers in science and engineering, particularly biomathematics and more mathematical aspects of biomedical engineering, would find this book particularly useful.

  18. Slow Cooling Cryopreservation Optimized to Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takamichi; Suemori, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have the potential for unlimited expansion and differentiation into cells that form all three germ layers. Cryopreservation is one of the key processes for successful applications of hPSCs, because it allows semi-permanent preservation of cells and their easy transportation. Most animal cell lines, including mouse embryonic stem cells, are standardly cryopreserved by slow cooling; however, hPSCs have been difficult to preserve and their cell viability has been extremely low whenever cryopreservation has been attempted.Here, we investigate the reasons for failure of slow cooling in hPSC cryopreservation. Cryopreservation involves a series of steps and is not a straightforward process. Cells may die due to various reasons during cryopreservation. Indeed, hPSCs preserved by traditional methods often suffer necrosis during the freeze-thawing stages, and the colony state of hPSCs prior to cryopreservation is a major factor contributing to cell death.It has now become possible to cryopreserve hPSCs using conventional cryopreservation methods without any specific equipment. This review summarizes the advances in this area and discusses the optimization of slow cooling cryopreservation for hPSC storage.

  19. The antiarrhythmic peptide analog ZP123 prevents atrial conduction slowing during metabolic stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugan, Ketil; Olsen, Kristine Boisen; Hartvig, Line

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: As atrial conduction slowing is important in the pathogenesis of atrial reentry arrhythmias, a drug that increases atrial conduction or prevents atrial conduction slowing could serve to prevent atrial reentry arrhythmias. In this study, we investigated whether the novel stable antiarrh......OBJECTIVE: As atrial conduction slowing is important in the pathogenesis of atrial reentry arrhythmias, a drug that increases atrial conduction or prevents atrial conduction slowing could serve to prevent atrial reentry arrhythmias. In this study, we investigated whether the novel stable...... antiarrhythmic peptide analog, ZP123, was able to prevent atrial conduction slowing. METHODS: We examined the effect of ZP123 on metabolic stress-induced changes in conduction velocity (CV) and on dynamic CV restitution in isolated left atria from male Sprague-Dawley rats. We performed binding of ZP123...

  20. Slow and fast light in semiconductor waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Xue, Weiqi

    2010-01-01

    transparency and coherent population oscillations. While electromagnetically induced transparency has been the most important effect in realizing slowdown effects in atomic gasses, progress has been comparatively slow in semiconductors due to inherent problems of fast dephasing times and inhomogeneous......Investigations of slow and fast light effects in semiconductor waveguides entail interesting physics and point to a number of promising applications. In this review we give an overview of recent progress in the field, in particular focusing on the physical mechanisms of electromagnetically induced...

  1. Critical slowing down of topological modes

    CERN Document Server

    Del Debbio, L; Vicari, E; Debbio, Luigi Del; Manca, Gian Mario; Vicari, Ettore

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the critical slowing down of the topological modes using local updating algorithms in lattice 2-d CP^(N-1) models. We show that the topological modes experience a critical slowing down that is much more severe than the one of the quasi-Gaussian modes relevant to the magnetic susceptibility, which is characterized by $\\tau_{\\rm mag} \\sim \\xi^z$ with $z\\approx 2$. We argue that this may be a general feature of Monte Carlo simulations of lattice theories with non-trivial topological properties, such as QCD, as also suggested by recent Monte Carlo simulations of 4-d SU(N) lattice gauge theories.

  2. First test of the prompt gamma ray timing method with heterogeneous targets at a clinical proton therapy facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso-González, Fernando; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Fiedler, Fine; Golnik, Christian; Janssens, Guillaume; Petzoldt, Johannes; Prieels, Damien; Priegnitz, Marlen; Römer, Katja E; Smeets, Julien; Vander Stappen, François; Wagner, Andreas; Pausch, Guntram

    2015-08-21

    Ion beam therapy promises enhanced tumour coverage compared to conventional radiotherapy, but particle range uncertainties significantly blunt the achievable precision. Experimental tools for range verification in real-time are not yet available in clinical routine. The prompt gamma ray timing method has been recently proposed as an alternative to collimated imaging systems. The detection times of prompt gamma rays encode essential information about the depth-dose profile thanks to the measurable transit time of ions through matter. In a collaboration between OncoRay, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and IBA, the first test at a clinical proton accelerator (Westdeutsches Protonentherapiezentrum Essen, Germany) with several detectors and phantoms is performed. The robustness of the method against background and stability of the beam bunch time profile is explored, and the bunch time spread is characterized for different proton energies. For a beam spot with a hundred million protons and a single detector, range differences of 5 mm in defined heterogeneous targets are identified by numerical comparison of the spectrum shape. For higher statistics, range shifts down to 2 mm are detectable. A proton bunch monitor, higher detector throughput and quantitative range retrieval are the upcoming steps towards a clinically applicable prototype. In conclusion, the experimental results highlight the prospects of this straightforward verification method at a clinical pencil beam and settle this novel approach as a promising alternative in the field of in vivo dosimetry.

  3. [Patient-specific dose verification method using ArcCHECK for total marrow irradiation with intensity modulated arc therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chuanbin; Xu, Shouping; Xu, Wei; Cong, Xiaohu; Ge, Ruigang; Gong, Hanshun; Ju, Zhongjian; Dai, Xiangkun

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the patient-specific dose verification method using ArcCHECK for total marrow irradiation (TMI) with Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) and Helical Tomotherapy (HT). The kVCT images collected from 8 patients were respectively designed for RapidArc and Tomotherapy plans in total marrow irradiation. ArcCHECK was used for dose verification for the head-neck, chest-abdomen and pelvic. The merging function of ArcCHECK was used in VMAT and the method of double plans (reference and delivery plans) were used in HT. The γ-analysis passing rates for the head-neck, chest-abdomen, pelvic were 98.9% ± 1.9%, 98.4% ± 1.8%, 97.4% ± 2.1% for VMAT plans and 94.3% ± 1.5%, 96.5 ± 1.2%, 94.1% ± 1.9% for HT plans. The results show that using the merging function of ArcCHECK can achieve the dose verification well for VMAT plans with TMI. The method of double plans was done for the dose verification of HT plans with TMI as well as the plans with the targets keeping away from the set-up center.

  4. Enhancement of Coupling to the Slow Light Regime in Photonic Crystal Waveguides using Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Têtu, Amélie; Yang, Lirong; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2006-01-01

    The topology optimization method has been used to improve the coupling into the slow light wavelength regime in planar photonic crystal waveguides. The coupling efficiency has been enhanced by more than 5dB.......The topology optimization method has been used to improve the coupling into the slow light wavelength regime in planar photonic crystal waveguides. The coupling efficiency has been enhanced by more than 5dB....

  5. Exercise therapy in oncology rehabilitation in Australia: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Amy M; Peiris, Casey L; Shields, Nora; Morgan, Delwyn; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2017-10-01

    Oncology rehabilitation improves outcomes for cancer survivors but little is known about program availability in Australia. The aims of this study were: to describe oncology rehabilitation programs in Australia: determine whether the exercise component of programs is consistent with guidelines: and to explore barriers and facilitators to program implementation. A sequential, explanatory mixed-methods study was completed in two phases: (1) a survey of Australian oncology rehabilitation programs; and (2) purposively sampled follow-up semistructured interviews with senior clinicians working in oncology rehabilitation who were involved with exercise prescription. Hospitals and/or cancer centers from 42 public hospital health networks (representing 163 hospitals) and 39 private hospitals were contacted to identify 31 oncology rehabilitation programs. All 31 surveys were returned (100% response rate). Programs were typically multidisciplinary, ran twice weekly, provided education and exercise and included self-management strategies. Exercise prescription and progression was patient centered and included a combination of resistance and aerobic training supplemented by balance, pelvic floor, and core stability exercises. Challenges to implementation included a lack of awareness of programs in the community and organizational barriers such as funding. Strong links with oncologists facilitated program referrals. Despite evidence to support oncology rehabilitation, there are few programs in Australia and there are challenges that limit it becoming part of standard practice. Programs that exist are multidisciplinary with a focus on exercise with the majority of programs following a cardiac rehabilitation model of care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Methods of the physical medicine therapy in prevention of heterotopic ossification after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojović Zoran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aim: In the prevention of periarticular heterotopic ossification (HO, a common complication after total hip arthroplasty (THA, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID and irradiation are used. Some theories presume that local hypoxia of the soft tissue causes HO. The aim of this study was to investigate if the early use of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF could prevent this ossification since it accelerates the circulation and oxigenation of soft tissue. Methods. The study included three groups of the patients with primary THA. The group C consisted of 66 patients/79 hips who had only kinesitherapy in postoperative rehabilitation. The group B consisted of 117 patients/ 131 hips who had PEMF and interferential current (IC which, on average, started on the 14th day after the surgery combined with the standard kinesitherapy. The group A consisted of 117 patients/131 hips who had PEMF from the third postoperative day and IC from, on average, the 14th postoperative day with the standard kinesitherapy. The classification of HO was done on a standard AP roentgenograms of the hips, taken at least one year after the surgery. Results. The overall HO was seen in 50.63% of the group C patients, in 43.51% of the B group and in 16.67% of the group A. Severe HO (III and IV class according to Brooker was seen in 26.58% of the group C patients and in 6.10% of the group B, but none in the group A. Conclusion. According to the obtained results an early treatment with PEMF could prevent severe HO and reduce the overall HO.

  7. SU-F-BRCD-03: Dose Calculation of Electron Therapy Using Improved Lateral Buildup Ratio Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreamlak, W; Tedeschi, D; Alkhatib, H

    2012-06-01

    To calculate the percentage depth dose of any irregular shape electron beam using modified lateral build-up-ratio method. Percentage depth dose (PDD) curves were measured using 6, 9, 12, and 15MeV electron beam energies for applicator cone sizes of 6×6, 10×10, 14×14, and 14×14cm2 . Circular cutouts for each cone were prepared from 2.0cm diameter to the maximum possible size for each cone. In addition, three irregular cutouts were prepared. The scanning was done using a water tank and two diodes - one for the signal and the other a stationary reference outside the tank. The water surface was determined by scanning the signal diode slowly from water to air and by noting the sharp change of the percentage depth dose curve at the water/air interface. The lateral build-up-ratio (LBR) for each circular cutout was calculated from the measured PDD curve using the open field of the 14×14 cm2 cone as the reference field. Using the LBR values and the radius of the circular cutouts, the corresponding lateral spread parameter (sigma) of the electron shower was calculated. Unlike the commonly accepted assumption that sigma is independent of cutout size, it is shown that the sigma value increases linearly with circular cutout size. Using this characteristic of sigma, the PDD curves of irregularly shaped cutouts were calculated. Finally, the calculated PDD curves were compared with measured PDD curves. In this research, it is shown that sigma increases with cutout size. For radius of circular cutout sizes up to the equilibrium range of the electron beam, the increase of sigma with the cutout size is linear. The percentage difference of the calculated PDD from the measured PDD for irregularly shaped cutouts was under 1.0%. Similar Result was obtained for four electron beam energies (6, 9, 12, and 15MeV). © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  8. Appropriate customization of radiation therapy for stage II and III rectal cancer: Executive summary of an ASTRO Clinical Practice Statement using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Karyn A; Patton, Caroline E; Fisher, George A; Hoffe, Sarah E; Haddock, Michael G; Parikh, Parag J; Kim, John; Baxter, Nancy N; Czito, Brian G; Hong, Theodore S; Herman, Joseph M; Crane, Christopher H; Hoffman, Karen E

    2016-01-01

    To summarize results of a Clinical Practice Statement on radiation therapy for stage II-III rectal cancer, which addressed appropriate customization of (neo)adjuvant radiation therapy and use of non-surgical therapy for patients who are inoperable or refuse abdominoperineal resection. The RAND/University of California, Los Angeles, Appropriateness Method was applied to combine current evidence with multidisciplinary expert opinion. A systematic literature review was conducted and used by the expert panel to rate appropriateness of radiation therapy options for different clinical scenarios. Treatments were categorized by median rating as Appropriate, May Be Appropriate, or Rarely Appropriate. In the neoadjuvant setting, chemoradiation was rated Appropriate and the ratings indicated short-course radiation therapy, chemotherapy alone, and no neoadjuvant therapy are potential options in selected patients. However, neoadjuvant endorectal brachytherapy was rated Rarely Appropriate. For adjuvant therapy, chemoradiation (plus ≥4 months of chemotherapy) was rated Appropriate and chemotherapy alone May Be Appropriate for most scenarios. For medically inoperable patients, definitive external beam radiation therapy and chemotherapy alone were rated May Be Appropriate, whereas endorectal brachytherapy and chemoradiation plus endorectal brachytherapy were possible approaches for some scenarios. The last option, definitive chemoradiation, was rated Appropriate to May Be Appropriate based on performance status. Finally, for patients with low-lying tumors refusing abdominoperineal resection, definitive chemoradiation alone, chemoradiation plus endorectal brachytherapy, and chemoradiation plus external beam radiation therapy were all rated Appropriate. This Clinical Practice Statement demonstrated the central role of radiation therapy in stage II-III rectal cancer management and evaluated ways to better individualize its use in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant, and definitive settings

  9. Slow Reading: Reading along "Lectio" Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, K. Jo-Ann; Badley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The medieval monastic movement preserved and developed reading practices--lectio--from ancient Greek pedagogy as a slow, mindful approach to reading for formation. This ancient way of reading, now better known as lectio divina, challenges the fast, pragmatic reading so characteristic of our time. We propose that the present moment may be ripe for…

  10. Holographic Gratings for Slow-Neutron Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepp, Juergen; Pruner, Christian; Tomita, Yasuo; Geltenbort, Peter; Drevenšek-Olenik, Irena; Gyergyek, Saso; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Fally, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of holographic gratings for neutron-optics applications is reviewed. We summarize the properties of gratings recorded in deuterated (poly)methylmethacrylate, holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals and nanoparticle-polymer composites revealed by diffraction experiments with slow neutrons. Existing and anticipated neutron-optical instrumentations based on holographic gratings are discussed.

  11. Rescuing Students from the Slow Learner Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Slow learners, such as students with borderline intellectual functioning, represent one of the most challenging student populations for administrators and teachers. Standard systems and supports are often ineffective--even counterproductive--because they fail to meet students' specific learning needs and instead create a cycle of failure. This…

  12. Visual evoked potential study in slow learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Farah; Anjana, Yumnam; Vaney, Neelam

    2009-01-01

    Slow learners are individuals with low achievement and comparably low IQ scores. It may be a symptom reflecting a larger underlying problem in them. Sensory neural processing of visual information can be one of the contributory factors for their underachievement. The present study was undertaken to examine the integrity and function of visual pathway by means of Visual Evoked Potential (VEP). Pattern reversal VEP was performed on seventeen slow learners. Fifteen age and sex matched children with good school performance and normal IQ were taken as controls. There was significant prolongation of N75 component of VEP in slow learners. The latencies of P100 and N145 were also increased but could not reach the level of significance. Our findings are suggestive of the presence of a weaker VEP response in slow learners indicative of a deficit early in the visual processing. There is some abnormality in the geniculate afferents to V1 which is consistent with a defect in the magnocellular pathway at the level of Visual Area 1 or earlier.

  13. Visual-Motor Abilities of Slow Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetrick, Ethel W.

    The Bender Gestalt protocols of 134 rural and 140 children (6-18 years old) found to have IQ scores in the slow learner range (IQ 70-84) were compared. The Bender Gestalt Test, used in psychoeducational evaluation to determine eligibility for special education placement, was administered to determine Ss' level of visual motor skills. Rural slow…

  14. Retention by "Fast" and "Slow" Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, J. Ronald; And Others

    1982-01-01

    In four experiments to replicate and extend the findings of Shuell and Keppel (EJ 016 150), "fast" and "slow" learners were brought to a similar learning criterion, with the result that their forgetting curves were parallel. The experiments involved American and Nigerian students in learning word lists and poems. (Author/CM)

  15. Limits of slow light in photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2008-01-01

    While ideal photonic crystals would support modes with a vanishing group velocity, state-of-the-art structures have still only provided a slow down by roughly two orders of magnitude. We find that the induced density of states caused by lifetime broadening of the electromagnetic modes results in ...

  16. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we did some preliminary characterization of six slow growing rhizobial strains, isolated from Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. root nodules sampled from 3 sites along the coast of Oran (CapeFalcon, Bousfer and MersElHadjadj) in Northwestern Algeria. Results of this study showed that all strains had a very ...

  17. Probabilistic Slow Features for Behavior Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafeiriou, Lazaros; Nicolaou, Mihalis A.; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Nikitidis, Symeon; Pantic, Maja

    A recently introduced latent feature learning technique for time-varying dynamic phenomena analysis is the so-called slow feature analysis (SFA). SFA is a deterministic component analysis technique for multidimensional sequences that, by minimizing the variance of the first-order time derivative

  18. Slowed ageing, welfare, and population problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareham, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Biological studies have demonstrated that it is possible to slow the ageing process and extend lifespan in a wide variety of organisms, perhaps including humans. Making use of the findings of these studies, this article examines two problems concerning the effect of life extension on population size and welfare. The first--the problem of overpopulation--is that as a result of life extension too many people will co-exist at the same time, resulting in decreases in average welfare. The second--the problem of underpopulation--is that life extension will result in too few people existing across time, resulting in decreases in total welfare. I argue that overpopulation is highly unlikely to result from technologies that slow ageing. Moreover, I claim that the problem of underpopulation relies on claims about life extension that are false in the case of life extension by slowed ageing. The upshot of these arguments is that the population problems discussed provide scant reason to oppose life extension by slowed ageing.

  19. Results of clinical approbation of new local treatment method in the complex therapy of inflammatory parodontium diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. G. Romanova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases of parodontium are one of the most difficult problems in stomatology today. Purpose of research: estimation of clinical efficiency of local combined application of developed agent apigel for oral cavity care and low-frequency electromagnetic field magnetotherapy at treatment of inflammatory diseases of parodontium. Materials and methods: 46 patients with chronic generalized catarrhal gingivitis and chronic generalized periodontitis of 1st degree were included into the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups depending on treatment management: basic (n = 23 and control (n = 23. Conventional treatment with the local use of the dental gel with camomile was used in the control group. Patients of the basic group were treated with local combined application of apigel and magnetotherapy. Efficiency was estimated with clinical, laboratory, microbiological and functional (ultrasonic Doppler examination methods of examination. Results: The application of the apigel and pulsating electromagnetic field in the complex medical treatment of patients with chronic generalized periodontitis (GhGP caused positive changes in clinical symptom and condition of parodontal tissues, that was accompanied by decline of hygienic and parodontal indexes. As compared with patients who had traditional anti-inflammatory therapy, patients who were treated with local application of apigel and magnetoterapy had decline of edema incidence. It was revealed that decrease of the pain correlated with improvement of hygienic condition of oral cavity and promoted prevention of bacterial contamination of damaged mucous membranes. Estimation of microvasculatory blood stream with the method of ultrasonic doppler flowmetry revealed more rapid normalization of volume and linear high systole, speed of blood stream in the parodontal tissues in case of use of new complex local method. Conclusions: Effect of the developed local agent in patients

  20. Does the imaging method have an influence on the measured tumor height in ruthenium plaque therapy of uveal melanoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueller, P.; Dogan, A.; Micke, O.; Willich, N. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Muenster (Germany); Panke, J.E. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Luebeck (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Background and purpose: for ruthenium plaque therapy of uveal melanoma the precise knowledge of the tumor height is necessary. The purpose of this analysis is to examine systematic differences between ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of tumor height in uveal melanoma. Material and methods: from 1993 to 2000, 208 patients with uveal melanoma were treated with ruthenium therapy. US was done in 190/208 patients, CT in 147/208 patients, and MRI in 81/208 patients. The measurements from the imaging modalities were compared to each other. Separate comparisons were carried out for tumor size and localization and between two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) measurements in reconstructed planes. Results: in direct comparison, CT measurements (median: 4.5 mm; range: 1.6-10.5 mm) were nearly identical to MRI measurements (median: 4.5 mm; range: 2.0-11.4 mm), while US yielded the highest values (median: 5.2 mm; range: 2.5-13.4 mm). Linear regression yielded the following values: CT versus US (R{sup 2} = 0.88, correlation coefficient = 1.04), MRI versus US (R{sup 2} = 0.79, correlation coefficient = 0.92), MRI versus CT (R{sup 2} = 0.84, correlation coefficient = 0.90), and ''2-D'' versus reconstructed ''3-D'' (R{sup 2} = 0.93, correlation coefficient = 0.98). Conclusion: differences between the measurements from all three modalities were generally acceptable, except for small tumors ({<=} 4 mm; limited spatial resolution of CT/MRI) and temporal or peripheral lesions (angular distortion in US). In special anatomic situations, CT/MRI measurements can also result in distortions. ''3-D'' measurements can sometimes help in these situations. (orig.)

  1. Treatment in patients with osteoarthritis at different sites: Place of slow-acting drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Chichasova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of osteoarthritis (OA treatment is to perform rational analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapy, to slow down the progression of the disease, and to preserve quality of life in patients. The performance of analgesic therapy in the elderly is impeded by the presence of a concomitant disease, primarily that of the cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract. A group of experts has elaborated the algorithm for managing OA patients, which tracks a careful approach to using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and confirms the efficacy of slow-acting agents (chondroitin sulfate (CS and glucosamine and intraarticular hyaluronate. The experts have concluded that the use of symptomatic slow-acting drugs for the treatment of OA (SYSADOA, if need be, in combination with short-term paracetanol cycles as basic therapy for this condition is safer and more effective. The 2003 EULAR guidelines identify CS and glucosamine as chondroprotectors. Many studies have shown that CS and glucosamine have a moderate or significant effect on joint pain syndrome and functional mobility in OA; they are safe and characterized by minimal side effects. Long-term qualitative randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that CS and glucosamine are able to slow down the progression of joint space narrowing in OA. It is also shown that the use of a combination of glucosamine and CS allows cartilage loss to be prevented.

  2. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Anti-Retroviral Therapy (Art) for HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) means treating retroviral infections like HIV with drugs. These drugs though do not kill the virus but slowed down the growth of the virus. When the virus is slowed down, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease is also slowed down. ART drugs are referred to as ARV and ARV therapy is ...

  3. The Bagautdinov dressing method: negative pressure wound therapy in a patient with an allergy to acrylate adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, David A; Wirth, Garrett A; Evans, Gregory Rd; Carmean, Melissa; Gordon, Ian L

    2017-02-01

    Current embodiments of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) create a hermetically sealed chamber at the surface of the body using polyurethane foam connected to a vacuum pump, which is then covered by a flexible adhesive drape. Commercially available NPWT systems routinely use flexible polyethylene films that have a sticky side, coated with the same acrylate adhesives used in other medical devices such as ECG leads and grounding pads. Severe reactions to the acrylate adhesives in these other devices, although uncommon, have been reported. We describe the case of a 63-year-old woman with an intractable leg ulcer resulting from external-beam radiotherapy (XRT). Treatment with a standard commercial NPWT system induced severe inflammation of the skin in direct contact with drape adhesive. We successfully administered prolonged, outpatient NPWT to the patient using an alternative method (first described by Bagautdinov in 1986), using plain polyethylene film and petrolatum. The necessary hermetic seal is achieved by smearing the skin with petrolatum before applying the polyethylene film and activating the vacuum pump. The Bagautdinov method is a practical solution to the problem of adapting NPWT to patients with contact sensitivity or skin tears related to the adhesive compounds in the flexible drapes. Its use of a circumferential elastic wrap to maintain constant pressure on the seal probably limits the Bagautdinov technique to the extremities. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. T2 corrected quantification method of L-p-boronophenylalanine using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yohei [Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Graduated School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Isobe, Tomonori [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Graduated School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Yamamoto, Tetsuya [Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Graduated School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)], E-mail: tetsu-ya@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Shibata, Yasushi [Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Graduated School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Anno, Izumi [Department of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences (Japan); Nakai, Kei; Shirakawa, Makoto; Matsushita, Akira [Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Graduated School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sato, Eisuke [School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University (Japan); Matsumura, Akira [Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Graduated School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    In the present study, we aimed to evaluate a T2 corrected quantification method of L-p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) concentration using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). We used five phantoms containing BPA (1.5, 3.0, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mmol/kg=15, 30, 50, 75, and 100 {mu}g{sup 10}B/g), N-acetyl-aspartic acid (NAA: 3.0 mmol/kg), creatine (Cr: 5.0 mmol/kg), and choline (Cho: 3.0 mmol/kg). The signal intensities of BPA and internal water were corrected by T2 relaxation time. The absolute concentrations of BPA were calculated by proton MRS using an internal water signal as a standard. The major BPA peaks were detected between 7.1 and 7.6 ppm. Mean T2 relaxation time was 314.3{+-}10.8 ms in BPA, 885.1{+-}39.7 ms in internal water. The calculated BPA concentrations were almost same as the actual concentration of BPA and the correlation coefficient was 0.99. Our BPA quantification method was very simple and non-invasive, also it had high accuracy. Therefore, our results indicate that proton MRS can be potentially useful technique for in vivo BPA quantification in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT)

  5. Poetry Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ronald V.

    Poetry therapy is the method of therapy based on the principle that a poem is a special medium for expressing emotions and that this expression can have psychotherapeutic value. A survey taken in 1973 showed there were over 400 therapists treating 3,500 drug addicts, alcoholics, and mental retardates around the country. Poetry therapists…

  6. Blinks slow memory-guided saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Alice S; Basso, Michele A; Evinger, Craig

    2013-02-01

    Memory-guided saccades are slower than visually guided saccades. The usual explanation for this slowing is that the absence of a visual drive reduces the discharge of neurons in the superior colliculus. We tested a related hypothesis: that the slowing of memory-guided saccades was due also to the more frequent occurrence of gaze-evoked blinks with memory-guided saccades compared with visually guided saccades. We recorded gaze-evoked blinks in three monkeys while they performed visually guided and memory-guided saccades and compared the kinematics of the different saccade types with and without blinks. Gaze-evoked blinks were more common during memory-guided saccades than during visually guided saccades, and the well-established relationship between peak and average velocity for saccades was disrupted by blinking. The occurrence of gaze-evoked blinks was associated with a greater slowing of memory-guided saccades compared with visually guided saccades. Likewise, when blinks were absent, the peak velocity of visually guided saccades was only slightly higher than that of memory-guided saccades. Our results reveal interactions between circuits generating saccades and blink-evoked eye movements. The interaction leads to increased curvature of saccade trajectories and a corresponding decrease in saccade velocity. Consistent with this interpretation, the amount of saccade curvature and slowing increased with gaze-evoked blink amplitude. Thus, although the absence of vision decreases the velocity of memory-guided saccades relative to visually guided saccades somewhat, the cooccurrence of gaze-evoked blinks produces the majority of slowing for memory-guided saccades.

  7. Blinks slow memory-guided saccades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Michele A.; Evinger, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Memory-guided saccades are slower than visually guided saccades. The usual explanation for this slowing is that the absence of a visual drive reduces the discharge of neurons in the superior colliculus. We tested a related hypothesis: that the slowing of memory-guided saccades was due also to the more frequent occurrence of gaze-evoked blinks with memory-guided saccades compared with visually guided saccades. We recorded gaze-evoked blinks in three monkeys while they performed visually guided and memory-guided saccades and compared the kinematics of the different saccade types with and without blinks. Gaze-evoked blinks were more common during memory-guided saccades than during visually guided saccades, and the well-established relationship between peak and average velocity for saccades was disrupted by blinking. The occurrence of gaze-evoked blinks was associated with a greater slowing of memory-guided saccades compared with visually guided saccades. Likewise, when blinks were absent, the peak velocity of visually guided saccades was only slightly higher than that of memory-guided saccades. Our results reveal interactions between circuits generating saccades and blink-evoked eye movements. The interaction leads to increased curvature of saccade trajectories and a corresponding decrease in saccade velocity. Consistent with this interpretation, the amount of saccade curvature and slowing increased with gaze-evoked blink amplitude. Thus, although the absence of vision decreases the velocity of memory-guided saccades relative to visually guided saccades somewhat, the cooccurrence of gaze-evoked blinks produces the majority of slowing for memory-guided saccades. PMID:23155174

  8. Implementing music therapy on an adolescent inpatient unit: a mixed-methods evaluation of acceptability, experience of participation and perceived impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Sue; Duhig, Michael; Darbyshire, Chris; Counsel, Robin; Higgins, Niall; Williams, Ian

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to assess the feasibility of delivering a music therapy program on adolescent psychiatric wards. We undertook a mixed-methods evaluation of a pilot program. Various active and receptive techniques were employed in group music therapy sessions delivered as part of a structured clinical program. Data collected in interviews with participants and staff and feedback questionnaires were thematically and descriptively analysed and triangulated. Data from 62 questionnaires returned by 43 patients who took part in 16 music therapy sessions, and seven staff, evidenced strong support for music therapy. Patients typically reported experiencing sessions as relaxing, comforting, uplifting, and empowering; >90% would participate by choice and use music therapeutically in the future. Staff endorsed music therapy as valuable therapeutically, reporting that patients engaged enthusiastically and identified sessions as improving their own moods and ward milieu. Integration of music therapy in inpatient treatment of adolescents is feasible and acceptable, and is valued by staff and patients as a complement to 'talking therapies'. Participation is enjoyed and associated with outcomes including improvement in mood, expression of feelings and social engagement consistent with recovery. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  9. Analysis of slow-wave activity and slow-wave oscillations prior to somnambulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaar, Olivier; Pilon, Mathieu; Carrier, Julie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Zadra, Antonio

    2010-11-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVIES: several studies have investigated slow wave sleep EEG parameters, including slow-wave activity (SWA) in relation to somnambulism, but results have been both inconsistent and contradictory. The first goal of the present study was to conduct a quantitative analysis of sleepwalkers' sleep EEG by studying fluctuations in spectral power for delta (1-4 Hz) and slow delta (0.5-1 Hz) before the onset of somnambulistic episodes. A secondary aim was to detect slow-wave oscillations to examine changes in their amplitude and density prior to behavioral episodes. twenty-two adult sleepwalkers were investigated polysomnographically following 25 h of sleep deprivation. analysis of patients' sleep EEG over the 200 sec prior to the episodes' onset revealed that the episodes were not preceded by a gradual increase in spectral power for either delta or slow delta over frontal, central, or parietal leads. However, time course comparisons revealed significant changes in the density of slow-wave oscillations as well as in very slow oscillations with significant increases occurring during the final 20 sec immediately preceding episode onset. the specificity of these sleep EEG parameters for the occurrence and diagnosis of NREM parasomnias remains to be determined.

  10. Effects of Low-frequency Current Sacral Dermatome Stimulation on Idiopathic Slow Transit Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Seop; Yi, Seung-Ju

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine whether low-frequency current therapy can be used to reduce the symptoms of idiopathic slow transit constipation (ISTC). [Subjects] Fifteen patients (ten male and five female) with idiopathic slow transit constipation were enrolled in the present study. [Results] Bowel movements per day, bowel movements per week, and constipation assessment scale scores significantly improved after low-frequency current simulation of S2-S3. [Conclusion] Our results show that stimulation with low-frequency current of the sacral dermatomes may offer therapeutic benefits for a subject of patients with ISTC. PMID:25013277

  11. Multisteps Global Kinetic Analysis of MSW Slow Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Aries Himawanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to find relationships between single components slow pyrolysis characteristics and mixed component slow pyrolysis characteristics of segregated municipal solid wastes (MSW. The material of this research consists of organic wastes (bamboo wastes and banana leaves wastes and inorganic wastes (styrofoam wastes and snack wrapping wastes. The materials which used to study were the unprosessing waste. The samples were collected, dried and crushed until passing 20 mesh shieves then characterized in self manufactured macro balance. The thermogravimetry analyses were done to find the MSW slow pyrolysis characteristics. The 20 gram sample was placed in the furnace whose temperature is increased with 10 0C/min heating rate until reached 400 0 final temperature and held for 30 minutes before the sample is cooled into room temperature. One hundred ml/min nitrogen introduced from the bottom of furnace as a swept gas. The results of the research show that the global kinetic method could be used to predict the MSW single component activation energy but it should be modified to calculate the mixed sample activation energy . The predictive activation energy values which calculated based on weighed sum of single component have 18.5 % deviations if compared with experimental result.

  12. Exploring the role of music therapy in cardiac rehabilitation after cardiothoracic surgery: a qualitative study using the Bonny method of guided imagery and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Alison; Gibb, Heather; Fildes, Jennifer; Holmes, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation integrates physical, psychological, and vocational strategies to restore and sustain optimal health. An innovative study using music therapy (Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music [BMGIM]) explored the experiences of cardiac rehabilitation participants in an outpatient setting at 2 major metropolitan teaching hospitals. Commencing 6 to 15 weeks after cardiothoracic surgery, 6 study participants were recruited for 6 weekly music therapy (BMGIM) sessions. Qualitative analysis of the patient narrative within a semiotic framework demonstrated that patients used music therapy to spontaneously explore their recovery process. Five grand themes emerged: (1) looking through the frame, (2) feeling the impact, (3) spiralling into the unexpected, (4) sublime plateau, and (5) rehearsing new steps. The themes related to physical changes, adjustment after surgery, and anticipated lifestyle. This study demonstrates that music therapy (BMGIM) may be used to access and understand the internal recovery process of postcardiothoracic surgical patients, providing an additional clinical tool to augment the external rehabilitation process.

  13. Escape for the Slow Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-05-01

    Plasma from the Sun known as the slow solar wind has been observed far away from where scientists thought it was produced. Now new simulations may have resolved the puzzle of where the slow solar wind comes from and how it escapes the Sun to travel through our solar system.An Origin PuzzleA full view of a coronal hole (dark portion) from SDO. The edges of the coronal hole mark the boundary between open and closed magnetic field lines. [SDO; adapted from Higginson et al. 2017]The Suns atmosphere, known as the corona, is divided into two types of regions based on the behavior of magnetic field lines. In closed-field regions, the magnetic field is firmly anchored in the photosphere at both ends of field lines, so traveling plasma is confined to coronal loops and must return to the Suns surface. In open-field regions, only one end of each magnetic field line is anchored in the photosphere, so plasma is able to stream from the Suns surface out into the solar system.This second type of region known as a coronal hole is thought to be the origin of fast-moving plasma measured in our solar system and known as the fast solar wind. But we also observe a slow solar wind: plasma that moves at speeds of less than 500 km/s.The slow solar wind presents a conundrum. Its observational properties strongly suggest it originates in the hot, closed corona rather than the cooler, open regions. But if the slow solar wind plasma originates in closed-field regions of the Suns atmosphere, then how does it escape from the Sun?Slow Wind from Closed FieldsA team of scientists led by Aleida Higginson (University of Michigan) has now used high-resolution, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations to show how the slow solar wind can be generated from plasma that starts outin closed-field parts of the Sun.A simulated heliospheric arc, composed of open magnetic field lines. [Higginson et al. 2017]Motions on the Suns surface near the boundary between open and closed-field regions the boundary

  14. Enhanced spectral sensitivity of a chip-scale photonic-crystal slow-light interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña-Loaiza, Omar S; Gao, Boshen; Schulz, Sebastian A; Awan, Kashif M; Upham, Jeremy; Dolgaleva, Ksenia; Boyd, Robert W

    2016-04-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that the spectral sensitivity of a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer can be enhanced through structural slow light. We observe a 20-fold resolution enhancement by placing a dispersion-engineered, slow-light, photonic-crystal waveguide in one arm of a fiber-based MZ interferometer. The spectral sensitivity of the interferometer increases roughly linearly with the group index, and we have quantified the resolution in terms of the spectral density of interference fringes. These results show promise for the use of slow-light methods for developing novel tools for optical metrology and, specifically, for compact high-resolution spectrometers.

  15. The GLUT4 density in slow fibres is not increased in athletes. How does training increase the GLUT4 pool originating from slow fibres?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Franch, J; Beck-Nielsen, H

    2001-01-01

    The influence of training on GLUT4 expression in slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibres was studied in male endurance-trained athletes and control subjects. The trained state was ensured by elevated maximal oxygen uptake (29%), as well as citrate synthase (60%) and 3-hydroxy-acyl-CoA dehydr......The influence of training on GLUT4 expression in slow- and fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibres was studied in male endurance-trained athletes and control subjects. The trained state was ensured by elevated maximal oxygen uptake (29%), as well as citrate synthase (60%) and 3-hydroxy......-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (38%) activities in muscle biopsy samples of the vastus lateralis. GLUT4 densities in slow- and fast-twitch fibres were measured by the use of a newly developed, sensitive method combining immunohistochemistry with morphometry, and no effect of training was found. GLUT4 density was higher in slow......-twitch fibres compared to fast-twitch fibres (PGLUT4 density was identical in slow- and fast-twitch fibres. Slow-twitch fibre diameters were 10% larger in the athletes (P

  16. The Humanistic Approach: An Experiment in the Teaching of Biology to Slow Learners in High School--An Experiment in Classroom Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellough, Richard D.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the procedures, results, and conclusion of a study designed to determine if (1) a teacher using perceptual field learning theory can exert effective influences on slow learners toward a significant self adjustment and (2) the slow learners can learn as much biology as students taught by conventional methods. Subjects were 52 slow learners…

  17. The Slow Learner in Mathematics: Characteristics and Needs of the Slow Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Richard W.

    1973-01-01

    Strengths and weaknesses of students classified as slow learners'' are presented with emphasis on affective concerns. The teacher, as strategic change-agent, is given suggestions for managing instruction. (LS)

  18. Ionization of atoms by slow heavy particles

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, B M; Gribakin, G F

    2016-01-01

    Atoms and molecules can become ionized during the scattering of a slow, heavy particle off a bound electron. Such an interaction involving leptophilic weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) is a promising possible explanation for the anomalous 9 sigma annual modulation in the DAMA dark matter direct detection experiment [R. Bernabei et al., Eur. Phys. J. C 73, 2648 (2013)]. We demonstrate the applicability of the Born approximation for such an interaction by showing its equivalence to the semiclassical adiabatic treatment of atomic ionization by slow-moving WIMPs. Conventional wisdom has it that the ionization probability for such a process should be exponentially small. We show, however, that due to nonanalytic, cusp-like behaviour of Coulomb functions close to the nucleus this suppression is removed, leading to an effective atomic structure enhancement. We also show that electron relativistic effects actually give the dominant contribution to such a process, meaning that nonrelativistic calculations m...

  19. Critical slowing down in a dynamic duopoly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobido, M. G. O.; Hatano, N.

    2015-01-01

    Anticipating critical transitions is very important in economic systems as it can mean survival or demise of firms under stressful competition. As such identifying indicators that can provide early warning to these transitions are very crucial. In other complex systems, critical slowing down has been shown to anticipate critical transitions. In this paper, we investigate the applicability of the concept in the heterogeneous quantity competition between two firms. We develop a dynamic model where the duopoly can adjust their production in a logistic process. We show that the resulting dynamics is formally equivalent to a competitive Lotka-Volterra system. We investigate the behavior of the dominant eigenvalues and identify conditions that critical slowing down can provide early warning to the critical transitions in the dynamic duopoly.

  20. NPK Fertilizer with Slow Release Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadhira Izzatur Silmi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash is the solid of the remaining coal combustion carried along with the exhaust gas and captured by the air controller. Fluids in fly ash are Al2O3, SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2, and SO3 which are similar to zeolites. So that fly ash can be used as a substitute for zeolite for various carrier of fertilizer. The result of slow release test is known that N element has higher release level. The NPK fertilizer activity test of Fly Ash Slow Release was done on chilli plant with parameter of variation of fertilizer composition and plant height. Based on research result, fly ash-TSP 2: 1 fertilizer has the best result.

  1. A tilted transversely isotropic slowness surface approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, A.

    2012-05-09

    The relation between vertical and horizontal slownesses, better known as the dispersion relation, for transversely isotropic media with a tilted symmetry axis (TTI) requires solving a quartic polynomial equation, which does not admit a practical explicit solution to be used, for example, in downward continuation. Using a combination of the perturbation theory with respect to the anelliptic parameter and Shanks transform to improve the accuracy of the expansion, we develop an explicit formula for the vertical slowness that is highly accurate for all practical purposes. It also reveals some insights into the anisotropy parameter dependency of the dispersion relation including the low impact that the anelliptic parameter has on the vertical placement of reflectors for a small tilt in the symmetry angle. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  2. Why are HIV-infected people not started on antiretroviral therapy? A mixed-methods study from Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, S; Shringarpure, K; Modi, B; Sharma, R; Rewari, B B; Shah, A N; Verma, P B; Dongre, A R; Kumar, A M V

    2017-09-21

    Setting: Five purposively selected antiretroviral therapy (ART) centres in Gujarat, India. Objectives: To assess the proportion of ART-eligible people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) who were not initiated on ART within 2 months of being recorded as eligible, to identify factors associated with non-initiation and to explore reasons from the provider's perspective. Design: We used a mixed-methods design (triangulation) of 1) a quantitative phase involving record reviews and cohort analysis (Poisson regression) of PLHIV registered during April 2014-March 2015, and 2) a qualitative phase involving one-to-one interviews with 25 providers. Results: Of 2079 ART-eligible PLHIV, 339 (16%) were not started on ART within 2 months. PLHIV with CD4 counts of <350 cells/μl and patients who were labourers, hospitalised, bedridden or registered with certain ART centres were more likely not to be initiated on ART. Qualitative results were categorised into two broad themes: government health system- and patient-related challenges, which validated and complemented the quantitative findings. Conclusion: Several patient subgroups at greater risk of ART non-initiation were identified, along with reasons for risk; this has important programme implications for achieving the UNAIDS 90-90-90 goal, and particularly the second 90 component of having 90% of diagnosed PLHIV start ART.

  3. Motion-based equilibrium reprocessing therapy a novel treatment method for chronic peripheral vestibulopathies: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondebrink, Mirke S; Mert, Agali; van der Lint, Roos; de Ru, J Alexander; van der Wurff, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Rehabilitation for vestibular disease is a safe method to partially alleviate symptoms of vertigo. It was hypothesized that principles of military aviation vestibular desensitization procedures that have a success rate of more than 80% can be extrapolated to chronic vestibular disease as well.The virtual reality motion base computer-assisted rehabilitation environment was used as treatment modality in 17 patients. They were exposed to sinusoidal vertical passive whole body motion in increasing intensity for a maximum of 12 sessions. The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) was used for assessment of the subjective complaints of vertigo.The median DHI scores of 50 points at baseline dropped to 22 points (P <.001) at follow-up. Post hoc analysis showed significant differences in outcome between measurements at baseline and at the end of the treatment, between baseline and follow-up, but not between end of treatment and follow-up.This pilot study concerning motion-based equilibrium reprocessing therapy (MERT) shows that it is a simple, quick, and well-tolerated treatment option to alleviate symptoms in patients with chronic peripheral vestibulopathies.

  4. SOFTWARE Manual for VMM3 Slow Control

    CERN Document Server

    Guth, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    For the New Small Wheel upgrade of the ATLAS detector a new readout chip, called VMM3(a), was developed. In order to provide this new technology to a larger community, the RD51 collaboration is integrating the VMM3 in their scalable readout system (SRS). For this purpose, a new slow control and calibration tool is necessary. This new software was developed and improved within a CERN Summer Student project.

  5. Treatment of electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep with high-dose corticosteroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyaz, Cetin; Aydin, Kürşad; Gücüyener, Kivilcim; Serdaroğlu, Ayşe

    2005-01-01

    A 4-year-old female patient with epilepsy with continuous spike-and-waves during slow-wave sleep not classified as Landau-Klefner syndrome, refractory to antiepileptic drugs including valproate, benzodiazepines, and lamotrigine, was treated successfully with high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone therapy. Valproate, clobazam, and lamotrigine were continued at the same dose during and after high-dose intravenous corticosteroid therapy. During corticosteroid therapy, awake and sleep electroencephalogram was recorded every day. On day 7, a dramatic clinical and electroencephalographic response was observed. After high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone, prednisolone was administered orally (2 mg/kg daily) for 2 months, then gradually withdrawn. After the withdrawal of corticosteroid therapy, the patient maintained the clinical improvement in behavior, and no continuous spike-and-wave electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep occurred on routine monthly sleep electroencephalogram performed for the last 6 months. In the present case, an add-on high-dose intravenous corticosteroid seems to be effective in the treatment of patients with electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep syndrome, especially when antiepileptic drugs fail.

  6. Critical slowing down and error analysis in lattice QCD simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virotta, Francesco

    2012-02-21

    In this work we investigate the critical slowing down of lattice QCD simulations. We perform a preliminary study in the quenched approximation where we find that our estimate of the exponential auto-correlation time scales as {tau}{sub exp}(a){proportional_to}a{sup -5}, where a is the lattice spacing. In unquenched simulations with O(a) improved Wilson fermions we do not obtain a scaling law but find results compatible with the behavior that we find in the pure gauge theory. The discussion is supported by a large set of ensembles both in pure gauge and in the theory with two degenerate sea quarks. We have moreover investigated the effect of slow algorithmic modes in the error analysis of the expectation value of typical lattice QCD observables (hadronic matrix elements and masses). In the context of simulations affected by slow modes we propose and test a method to obtain reliable estimates of statistical errors. The method is supposed to help in the typical algorithmic setup of lattice QCD, namely when the total statistics collected is of O(10){tau}{sub exp}. This is the typical case when simulating close to the continuum limit where the computational costs for producing two independent data points can be extremely large. We finally discuss the scale setting in N{sub f}=2 simulations using the Kaon decay constant f{sub K} as physical input. The method is explained together with a thorough discussion of the error analysis employed. A description of the publicly available code used for the error analysis is included.

  7. Clustering of Slow Learners Behavior for Discovery of Optimal Patterns of Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Thakaa Z. Mohammad; Mahmoud, Abeer M.

    2014-01-01

    with the increased rates of the slow learners (SL) enrolled in schools nowadays; the schools realized that the traditional academic curriculum is inadequate. Some schools have developed a special curricula that are particularly suited a slow learner while others are focusing their efforts on the devising of better and more effective methods and techniques in teaching. In the other hand, knowledge discovery and data mining techniques certainly can help to understand more about these students a...

  8. Identification of slow magnetosonic wave trains and their evolution in 3-D compressible turbulence simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In solar wind, dissipation of slow-mode magnetosonic waves may play a significant role in heating the solar wind, and these modes contribute essentially to the solar wind compressible turbulence. Most previous identifications of slow waves utilized the characteristic negative correlation between δ|B| and δρ. However, that criterion does not well identify quasi-parallel slow waves, for which δ|B| is negligible compared to δρ. Here we present a new method of identification, which will be used in 3-D compressible simulation. It is based on two criteria: (1 that VpB0 (phase speed projected along B0 is around ± cs, and that (2 there exists a clear correlation of δv|| and δρ. Our research demonstrates that if vA > cs, slow waves possess correlation between δv|| and δρ, with δρ / δv|| ≈ ± ρ0 / cs. This method helps us to distinguish slow-mode waves from fast and Alfvén waves, both of which do not have this polarity relation. The criteria are insensitive to the propagation angle θk B, defined as the angle between wave vector k and B0; they can be applied with a wide range of β if only vA > cs. In our numerical simulation, we have identified four cases of slow wave trains with this method. The slow wave trains seem to deform, probably caused by interaction with other waves; as a result, fast or Alfvén waves may be produced during the interaction and seem to propagate bidirectionally away. Our identification and analysis of the wave trains provide useful methods for investigations of compressible turbulence in the solar wind or in similar environments, and will thus deepen understandings of slow waves in the turbulence.

  9. Antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy in carious lesions in vivo, using culture and real-time PCR methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Patricia Valente; Correia-Silva, Jeane de Fátima; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Massara, Maria de Lourdes de Andrade; Cortes, Maria Esperanza; Poletto, Luiz Thadeu de Abreu

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in carious lesions in vivo by culture and real-time PCR methods. Ten teeth with deep active carious lesions were selected and five portions of carious dentin were removed for each tooth. Two increments were used as control, to represent the superficial and deep dentin, respectively. Methylene blue at 100mg/L was placed in contact with the cavity for 5min, before being irradiated with a halogen light source for 1min. Then, after PDT, other three portions were removed. The samples were processed in laboratory and the number of viable cfu was obtained. The real-time PCR analyses were performed in two increments of carious dentin, removed before and after PDT. The Streptococcus mutans DNA was isolated from carious dentin samples and amplification and detection of DNA were performed with real-time PCR. The cavities were then restored with glass-ionomer cement. Using conventional culture methods, the results demonstrated that viable bacteria were significantly reduced in all of the agar plates following photosensitization. No difference was found between both groups regarding S. mutans DNA quantification by real-time PCR. Although PDT may not affect the number of S. mutans DNA copies immediately after the treatment, clear reduction of the number of cfu was found. Despite its promising use for eliminating bacteria in dental caries treatment, further studies are necessary to establish an effective clinical protocol for the PDT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. TOBACCO DEPENDENCE TREATMENT WITH NICOTINE REPLACEMENT THERAPY AS ONE OF THE METHODS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Vikhireva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate efficacy and safety of nicotine chewing gum and inhaler in individuals trying to quit smoking. To assess expected reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD and total mortality relative risks (RR.Material and methods. In this open, parallel study, 169 relatively healthy male smokers aged 18-60 years were randomly assigned to free choice vs admission of Nicorette gum (2/4 mg or inhaler (10 mg. At baseline, all participants smoked ≥15 cig/d, for ≥3 years. The intervention phase lasted 3 months; follow-up evaluations were made at 3, 6 and 12 months after nicotine replacement therapy (NRT initiation.Results. Twelve-month results were obtained for 152 subjects (response rate 89.9%. Point prevalence abstinence and reduction (smoking ≤50% of basic daily cigarette amount rates were 19.7% and 35.5%, respectively. Neither abstinence, nor reduction rates depended on Nicorette form (gum vs inhaler, or on choice vs admission factor. The main predictors of long-term efficacy were nicotine dependence severity and contacts with other smokers.NRT was not associated with negative dynamics in objective health parameters (blood pressure, heart rate, ECG parameters, body weight, and body mass index or self-evaluation of health. Both Nicorette forms seemed to be safe and well-tolerated.At 12 months, the expected mean RR reduction for CVD mortality reached 19%, for total mortality – 21%.Conclusion. In Russian clinical settings, NRT efficacy and safety are similar to that demonstrated in numerous international trials. NRT can be recommended as one of the methods of assistance to quit smoking and, therefore, for CVD risk reduction.

  11. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: the efficacy of nonantimony treatment in the austere environment. Using cryotherapy, thermotherapy, and photodynamic therapy as an alternative method of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzler, Brent

    2013-01-01

    The author provides a retrospective review of clinical trials evaluating cryotherapy, photodynamic therapy (PDT), and thermotherapy in the treatment of cutaneous Leishmania infestations. Current cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) treatment is based primarily on antimony compounds such as meglumine antimoniate, sodium stibogluconate, ketaconozole, amphotericin B, and other similar compounds. All have potentially severe sideeffects and relatively narrow therapeutic windows (i.e., the minimum doses that are therapeutic and do not cause harm). Investigational modalities using heat and cold therapies were shown to have similar results compared with current treatment regimens. Combination therapies have also been investigated and are the standard of treatment in the United States. Although the current therapies are effective in the treatment of the trypanosomatid protozoan Leishmania parasite, some effective alternative modalities have been shown to have fewer serious side-effects compared with current medications. Investigational studies that were reviewed showed that whether used individually or as an adjunct to traditional therapies, alternative treatment methods proved to be equally efficacious in treating CL. Some investigational therapies, such as cryotherapy as the sole modality, approached 92% cure rate. Any of the three investigated alternatives (i.e., heat, cold, or photodynamic) are techniques that could be readily used by Special Operations Forces (SOF) medics during their operations in remote and/or austere regions of the world. 2013.

  12. A method for evaluating treatment quality using in vivo EPID dosimetry and statistical process control in radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuangrod, Todsaporn; Greer, Peter B; Simpson, John; Zwan, Benjamin J; Middleton, Richard H

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Due to increasing complexity, modern radiotherapy techniques require comprehensive quality assurance (QA) programmes, that to date generally focus on the pre-treatment stage. The purpose of this paper is to provide a method for an individual patient treatment QA evaluation and identification of a "quality gap" for continuous quality improvement. Design/methodology/approach A statistical process control (SPC) was applied to evaluate treatment delivery using in vivo electronic portal imaging device (EPID) dosimetry. A moving range control chart was constructed to monitor the individual patient treatment performance based on a control limit generated from initial data of 90 intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and ten volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) patient deliveries. A process capability index was used to evaluate the continuing treatment quality based on three quality classes: treatment type-specific, treatment linac-specific, and body site-specific. Findings The determined control limits were 62.5 and 70.0 per cent of the χ pass-rate for IMRT and VMAT deliveries, respectively. In total, 14 patients were selected for a pilot study the results of which showed that about 1 per cent of all treatments contained errors relating to unexpected anatomical changes between treatment fractions. Both rectum and pelvis cancer treatments demonstrated process capability indices were less than 1, indicating the potential for quality improvement and hence may benefit from further assessment. Research limitations/implications The study relied on the application of in vivo EPID dosimetry for patients treated at the specific centre. Sampling patients for generating the control limits were limited to 100 patients. Whilst the quantitative results are specific to the clinical techniques and equipment used, the described method is generally applicable to IMRT and VMAT treatment QA. Whilst more work is required to determine the level of clinical significance, the

  13. The occurrence of individual slow waves in sleep is predicted by heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensen, Armand; Zhang, Zhongxing; Qi, Ming; Khatami, Ramin

    2016-07-22

    The integration of near-infrared spectroscopy and electroencephalography measures presents an ideal method to study the haemodynamics of sleep. While the cortical dynamics and neuro-modulating influences affecting the transition from wakefulness to sleep is well researched, the assumption has been that individual slow waves, the hallmark of deep sleep, are spontaneously occurring cortical events. By creating event-related potentials from the NIRS recording, time-locked to the onset of thousands of individual slow waves, we show the onset of slow waves is phase-locked to an ongoing oscillation in the NIRS recording. This oscillation stems from the moment to moment fluctuations of light absorption caused by arterial pulsations driven by the heart beat. The same oscillating signal can be detected if the electrocardiogram is time-locked to the onset of the slow wave. The ongoing NIRS oscillation suggests that individual slow wave initiation is dependent on that signal, and not the other way round. However, the precise causal links remain speculative. We propose several potential mechanisms: that the heart-beat or arterial pulsation acts as a stimulus which evokes a down-state; local fluctuations in energy supply may lead to a network effect of hyperpolarization; that the arterial pulsations lead to corresponding changes in the cerebral-spinal-fluid which evokes the slow wave; or that a third neural generator, regulating heart rate and slow waves may be involved.

  14. [Measurements of vancomycin concentrations in the blood - a method of personalization the antibiotic therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondel, Joanna; Krajewski, Piotr; Królikowska, Natalia; Tobiasz, Aleksandra; Augustyniak-Bartosik, Hanna; Hurkacz, Magdalena

    2017-04-21

    Therapeutic Drug Monitoring is a recognized method of personalizing treatment, having particular application in patients with chronic kidney disease who have frequent infections, requiring administration of vancomycin. International guidelines indicate the need to adjust the dose of the drug to the state of renal function. The recommended therapeutic ranges of minimum and maximum levels should be achieved in order to increase the effectiveness and safety of treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of measuring the concentration of vancomycin in patients with chronic kidney disease due to bacterial infection. The study included 96 adult patients with chronic kidney disease of varying severity treated with vancomycin Patients were divided into 3 groups: treated by haemodialysis (hd), after renal transplantations (ktx), do not require renal replacement therapy (nef). In subjects were examined the minimum and maximum concentrations of vancomycin in steady-state and were compared with recommended therapeutic ranges. Statistically significant decrease of inflammatory markers was observed only in patients treated with dialysis. In the other groups not significant changes in values of inflammatory parameters were confirmed. Trough concentrations of vancomycin marked in patients were consistent with the recommendation of EUCAST, but exceeded the value recommended by the manufacturers of the drug. Considering absolute values of the minimum concentrations, only about 50% of patients achieved the therapeutic range (58% for recommendation EUCAST and 36% for the manufacturer's instructions). Peak concentration values indicated in dialyzed patients were below the prescribed range of 20-50 mg/l and averaged 17.7 mg / l. In the other subgroups they were correct. The rating of the absolute values of the peak concentrations of vancomycin also showed that only 46% (64% in the ktx, 30% - hd and 53% - nef) was within the recommended range, while 50% were

  15. Response to Nadler's Commentary on Arch and Craske's (2011) "Addressing Relapse in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Panic Disorder: Methods for Optimizing Long-Term Treatment Outcomes"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, Joanna J.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2012-01-01

    Nadler (this issue), in his commentary of our article, "Addressing Relapse in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Panic Disorder: Methods for Optimizing Long-Term Treatment Outcomes" (Arch & Craske, 2011), argues that we misrepresent the role of panic attacks within learning theory and overlook cognitive treatment targets. He presents several case…

  16. Nonlinear dynamical triggering of slow slip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knuth, Matthew W [WISCONSIN; Kaproth, Bryan M [PENN STATE; Carpenter, Brett [PENN STATE; Guyer, Robert A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Le Bas, Pierre - Yves [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daub, Eric G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marone, Chris [PENN STATE

    2010-12-10

    Among the most fascinating, recent discoveries in seismology have been the phenomena of triggered slip, including triggered earthquakes and triggered-tremor, as well as triggered slow, silent-slip during which no seismic energy is radiated. Because fault nucleation depths cannot be probed directly, the physical regimes in which these phenomena occur are poorly understood. Thus determining physical properties that control diverse types of triggered fault sliding and what frictional constitutive laws govern triggered faulting variability is challenging. We are characterizing the physical controls of triggered faulting with the goal of developing constitutive relations by conducting laboratory and numerical modeling experiments in sheared granular media at varying load conditions. In order to simulate granular fault zone gouge in the laboratory, glass beads are sheared in a double-direct configuration under constant normal stress, while subject to transient perturbation by acoustic waves. We find that triggered, slow, silent-slip occurs at very small confining loads ({approx}1-3 MPa) that are smaller than those where dynamic earthquake triggering takes place (4-7 MPa), and that triggered slow-slip is associated with bursts of LFE-like acoustic emission. Experimental evidence suggests that the nonlinear dynamical response of the gouge material induced by dynamic waves may be responsible for the triggered slip behavior: the slip-duration, stress-drop and along-strike slip displacement are proportional to the triggering wave amplitude. Further, we observe a shear-modulus decrease corresponding to dynamic-wave triggering relative to the shear modulus of stick-slips. Modulus decrease in response to dynamical wave amplitudes of roughly a microstrain and above is a hallmark of elastic nonlinear behavior. We believe that the dynamical waves increase the material non-affine elastic deformation during shearing, simultaneously leading to instability and slow-slip. The inferred

  17. Data assimilation on the exponentially accurate slow manifold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Colin

    2013-05-28

    I describe an approach to data assimilation making use of an explicit map that defines a coordinate system on the slow manifold in the semi-geostrophic scaling in Lagrangian coordinates, and apply the approach to a simple toy system that has previously been proposed as a low-dimensional model for the semi-geostrophic scaling. The method can be extended to Lagrangian particle methods such as Hamiltonian particle-mesh and smooth-particle hydrodynamics applied to the rotating shallow-water equations, and many of the properties will remain for more general Eulerian methods. Making use of Hamiltonian normal-form theory, it has previously been shown that, if initial conditions for the system are chosen as image points of the map, then the fast components of the system have exponentially small magnitude for exponentially long times as ε→0, and this property is preserved if one uses a symplectic integrator for the numerical time stepping. The map may then be used to parametrize initial conditions near the slow manifold, allowing data assimilation to be performed without introducing any fast degrees of motion (more generally, the precise amount of fast motion can be selected).

  18. Bender visual-motor abilities of slow learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetrick, E W

    1979-08-01

    The Bender-Gestalt protocols of 134 rural and 140 urban slow learners (IQ 70 to 84) are compared. Rural slow learners performed significantly below their mental ages more frequently than urban slow learners. Rural and urban slow learners performed developmentally below chronological ages, but as expected for mental ages until CA 10 (MA 8). At this point urban slow learners appeared to perform as expected from MAs, but a significant number of rural slow learners performed below expectations. After CA 14 (MA 11-0) the differences between the urban and rural groups, however, were not significant.

  19. Nanoparticle labeling identifies slow cycling human endometrial stromal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Evidence suggests that the human endometrium contains stem or progenitor cells that are responsible for its remarkable regenerative capability. A common property of somatic stem cells is their quiescent state. It remains unclear whether slow-cycling cells exist in the human endometrium. We hypothesized that the human endometrium contains a subset of slow-cycling cells with somatic stem cell properties. Here, we established an in vitro stem cell assay to isolate human endometrial-derived mesenchymal stem-like cells (eMSC). Methods Single-cell stromal cultures were initially labeled with fluorescent nanoparticles and a small population of fluorescent persistent cells (FPC) remained after culture of 21 days. Two populations of stromal cells, namely FPC and non-FPC were sorted. Results Quantitative analysis of functional assays demonstrated that the FPC had higher colony forming ability, underwent more rounds of self-renewal and had greater enrichment of phenotypically defined prospective eMSC markers: CD146+/CD140b+ and W5C5+ than the non-FPC. They also differentiate into multiple mesenchymal lineages and the expression of lineage specific markers was lower than that of non-FPC. The FPC exhibit low proliferation activities. A proliferation dynamics study revealed that more FPC had a prolonged G1 phase. Conclusions With this study we present an efficient method to label and isolate slow-proliferating cells obtained from human endometrial stromal cultures without genetic modifications. The FPC population could be easily maintained in vitro and are of interest for tissue-repair and engineering perspectives. In summary, nanoparticle labeling is a promising tool for the identification of putative somatic stem or progenitor cells when their surface markers are undefined. PMID:24996487

  20. SU-C-207B-06: Comparison of Registration Methods for Modeling Pathologic Response of Esophageal Cancer to Chemoradiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riyahi, S; Choi, W; Bhooshan, N; Tan, S; Zhang, H; Lu, W [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To compare linear and deformable registration methods for evaluation of tumor response to Chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in patients with esophageal cancer. Methods: Linear and multi-resolution BSpline deformable registration were performed on Pre-Post-CRT CT/PET images of 20 patients with esophageal cancer. For both registration methods, we registered CT using Mean Square Error (MSE) metric, however to register PET we used transformation obtained using Mutual Information (MI) from the same CT due to being multi-modality. Similarity of Warped-CT/PET was quantitatively evaluated using Normalized Mutual Information and plausibility of DF was assessed using inverse consistency Error. To evaluate tumor response four groups of tumor features were examined: (1) Conventional PET/CT e.g. SUV, diameter (2) Clinical parameters e.g. TNM stage, histology (3)spatial-temporal PET features that describe intensity, texture and geometry of tumor (4)all features combined. Dominant features were identified using 10-fold cross-validation and Support Vector Machine (SVM) was deployed for tumor response prediction while the accuracy was evaluated by ROC Area Under Curve (AUC). Results: Average and standard deviation of Normalized mutual information for deformable registration using MSE was 0.2±0.054 and for linear registration was 0.1±0.026, showing higher NMI for deformable registration. Likewise for MI metric, deformable registration had 0.13±0.035 comparing to linear counterpart with 0.12±0.037. Inverse consistency error for deformable registration for MSE metric was 4.65±2.49 and for linear was 1.32±2.3 showing smaller value for linear registration. The same conclusion was obtained for MI in terms of inverse consistency error. AUC for both linear and deformable registration was 1 showing no absolute difference in terms of response evaluation. Conclusion: Deformable registration showed better NMI comparing to linear registration, however inverse consistency of

  1. Sleep spindle and slow wave frequency reflect motor skill performance in primary school-age children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astill, Rebecca G.; Piantoni, Giovanni; Raymann, Roy J. E. M.; Vis, Jose C.; Coppens, Joris E.; Walker, Matthew P.; Stickgold, Robert; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: The role of sleep in the enhancement of motor skills has been studied extensively in adults. We aimed to determine involvement of sleep and characteristics of spindles and slow waves in a motor skill in children. Hypothesis: We hypothesized sleep-dependence of skill enhancement and an association of interindividual differences in skill and sleep characteristics. Methods: 30 children (19 females, 10.7 ± 0.8 years of age; mean ± SD) performed finger sequence tapping tasks in a repeated-measures design spanning 4 days including 1 polysomnography (PSG) night. Initial and delayed performance were assessed over 12 h of wake; 12 h with sleep; and 24 h with wake and sleep. For the 12 h with sleep, children were assigned to one of three conditions: modulation of slow waves and spindles was attempted using acoustic perturbation, and compared to yoked and no-sound control conditions. Analyses: Mixed effect regression models evaluated the association of sleep, its macrostructure and spindles and slow wave parameters with initial and delayed speed and accuracy. Results and Conclusions: Children enhance their accuracy only over an interval with sleep. Unlike previously reported in adults, children enhance their speed independent of sleep, a capacity that may to be lost in adulthood. Individual differences in the dominant frequency of spindles and slow waves were predictive for performance: children performed better if they had less slow spindles, more fast spindles and faster slow waves. On the other hand, overnight enhancement of accuracy was most pronounced in children with more slow spindles and slower slow waves, i.e., the ones with an initial lower performance. Associations of spindle and slow wave characteristics with initial performance may confound interpretation of their involvement in overnight enhancement. Slower frequencies of characteristic sleep events may mark slower learning and immaturity of networks involved in motor skills. PMID:25426055

  2. Sleep spindle and slow wave frequency reflect motor skill performance in primary school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca G Astill

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. The role of sleep in the enhancement of motor skills has been been studied extensively in adults. We aimed to determine involvement of sleep and characteristics of spindles and slow waves in a motor skill in children. Hypothesis. We hypothesized sleep-dependence of skill enhancement and an association of interindividual differences in skill and sleep characteristics. Methods. 30 children (19 females, 10.7±0.8 years of age; mean±SD performed finger sequence tapping tasks in a repeated-measures design spanning 4 days including 1 polysomnography night. Initial and delayed performance were assessed over 12 hours of wake; 12 hours with sleep; and 24 hours with wake and sleep. For the 12 hours with sleep, children were assigned to one of three conditions: modulation of slow waves and spindles was attempted using acoustic perturbation, and compared to yoked and no-sound control conditions. Analyses. Mixed effect regression models evaluated the association of sleep, its macrostructure and spindles and slow wave parameters with initial and delayed speed and accuracy.Results and Conclusions. Children enhance their accuracy only over an interval with sleep. Unlike previously reported in adults, children enhance their speed independent of sleep, a capacity that may to be lost in adulthood. Individual differences in the dominant frequency of spindles and slow waves were predictive for performance: children performed better if they had less slow spindles, more fast spindles and faster slow waves. On the other hand, overnight enhancement of accuracy was most pronounced in children with more slow spindles and slower slow waves, i.e. the ones with an initial lower performance. Associations of spindle and slow wave characteristics with initial performance may confound interpretation of their involvement in overnight enhancement. Slower frequencies of characteristic sleep events may mark slower learning and immaturity of networks involved in

  3. A comparison of errorless and errorful therapies for dysgraphia after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Lindsey; Conroy, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Despite the increasing significance of written communication, there is limited research into spelling therapy for adults with acquired dysgraphia. Existing studies have typically measured spelling accuracy as an outcome, although speed may also be important for functional writing. As spelling is relatively slow, effortful and prone to errors in people with dysgraphia, minimising errors within therapy could be a factor in therapy success. This within-participant case-series study investigated whether errorless and errorful therapies would differ in their effects on spelling speed and accuracy for four participants with acquired dysgraphia. Matched sets of words were treated with errorless or errorful therapy or left untreated. Results were collated one week and five weeks after therapy. Both therapy approaches were successful in improving spelling accuracy. For three participants, equivalent gains were demonstrated following errorless and errorful therapy. One participant made significantly greater improvements in spelling accuracy following errorless therapy. The effects were maintained five weeks later. There was no significant difference in post-therapy spelling speed between the two therapy conditions. The results of this study suggest that both errorful and errorless therapies can be effective methods with which to treat spelling in adults with acquired dysgraphia.

  4. Adlerian Play Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottman, Terry; Warlick, Jayne

    1990-01-01

    Describes Adlerian method of play therapy. Claims Adlerian therapy represents an integration of the concepts and techniques of individual psychology into a method of using play to help troubled children. (Author/ABL)

  5. Neuroendokrine Tumore (NET des Gastrointestinaltraktes: Nuklearmedizinische Optionen in Diagnose und Therapie // Neuroendocrine Tumours (NET of the Gastrointestinal Tract: Nuclear Medicine Methods in Diagnosis and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the diagnosis of tumours of neuroendocrine origin PET-CT plays a central role using 68Ga-DOTA-conjugated peptides. In addition to primary diagnosis with clinical and biochemical suspicion, this diagnostic procedure also is essential for staging and further therapy decision, showing in many cases better diagnostic performance than radiological cross-sectional imaging. The detection of unexpected lesions changes therapy management in about one-third of cases. In addition, the 18F-FDG, which is mainly used in non-neuroendocrine tumours, can be an option in poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (NET and, to a certain extent, for estimation of prognosis.br New findings in a prospective randomized multicentre study (NETTER-1 Phase III study strongly confirm the efficacy and safety of radionuclide peptide therapy (PRRT using 177Lu-DOTATATE (Lutathera®. It has been used in several European and US centers including a total of 230 patients with a grade 1–2 midgut tumours. It is evident from the data so far that patients with advanced midgut NETs who are treated with Lutathera have a statistically significantly longer PFS and the OS might be also positively influenced. Although no comparable prospective ranomized study is available for 90Y-DOTA-TOC so far, a comparable therapy efficiency and also good tolerability can be assumed for this compound as indicated by numerous monocentric studies with an overall high number of patients being treated.br In patients with preferential hepatic involvement, the selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT, also called radioembolisation, represents a possible alternative for the local intrahepatic radiation treatment of liver metastases.br bKurzfassung:/b Bei der Diagnose von Tumoren neuroendokrinen Ursprungs spielt die PET-CT mittels 68Ga-DOTA-konjugierter Peptide eine zentrale Rolle. Neben der Primärdiagnose bei klinischem und biochemischem Verdacht erweist sich dieses Diagnoseverfahren auch bei der

  6. The impact of music therapy versus music medicine on psychological outcomes and pain in cancer patients: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Potvin, Noah; Kesslick, Amy; Shim, Minjung; Radl, Donna; Schriver, Emily; Gracely, Edward J; Komarnicky-Kocher, Lydia T

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of music therapy (MT) versus music medicine (MM) interventions on psychological outcomes and pain in cancer patients and to enhance understanding of patients' experiences of these two types of music interventions. This study employed a mixed methods intervention design in which qualitative data were embedded within a randomized cross-over trial. Thirty-one adult cancer patients participated in two sessions that involved interactive music making with a music therapist (MT) and two sessions in which they listened to pre-recorded music without the presence of a therapist (MM). Before and after each session, participants reported on their mood, anxiety, relaxation, and pain by means of visual analogue and numeric rating scales. Thirty participants completed an exit interview. The quantitative data suggest that both interventions were equally effective in enhancing target outcomes. However, 77.4 % of participants expressed a preference for MT sessions. The qualitative data indicate that music improves symptom management, embodies hope for survival, and helps connect to a pre-illness self, but may also access memories of loss and trauma. MT sessions helped participants tap into inner resources such as playfulness and creativity. Interactive music making also allowed for emotional expression. Some participants preferred the familiarity and predictability of listening to pre-recorded music. The findings of this study advocate for the use of music in cancer care. Treatment benefits may depend on patient characteristics such as outlook on life and readiness to explore emotions related to the cancer experience.

  7. 'Recover quicker, train harder, and increase flexibility': massage therapy for elite paracyclists, a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann Blair; Patil, Nirav; Trilk, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    Massage therapy (MT) enhances recovery by reducing pain and fatigue in able-bodied endurance athletes. In athletes with disabilities, no studies have examined similar MT outcomes, yet participation in sport has increased by >1000 athletes from 1996 to 2016 Olympic games. We examined the effect of MT on pain, sleep, stress, function and performance goals on the bike, as well as quality of life off the bike, in elite paracycling athletes. This is a quasi-experimental, convergent, parallel, mixed-methods design study of one team, with nine paracycling participants, in years 2015 and 2016. One-hour MT sessions were scheduled one time per week for 4 weeks, and then every other week for the duration of the time the athlete was on the team and/or in the study. Closed and open-ended survey questions investigating athlete goals, stress, sleep, pain and muscle tightness were gathered pre and post each MT session, and every 6 months for health-related quality of life. Quantitative analysis timepoints include baseline, 4-6 months of intervention and final visit. Additional qualitative data were derived from therapists' treatment notes, exit surveys, and follow-up emails from the athletes and therapists. Significant improvement was found for sleep and muscle tightness; quantitative results were reinforced by athlete comments indicating MT assisted in their recovery while in training. There were no improvements in dimensions measuring quality of life; qualitative comments from athletes suggest reasons for lack of improvement. This real-world study provides new information to support MT for recovery in elite paracyclists.

  8. Fluctuation-Response Relation and modeling in systems with fast and slow dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lacorata

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We show how a general formulation of the Fluctuation-Response Relation is able to describe in detail the connection between response properties to external perturbations and spontaneous fluctuations in systems with fast and slow variables. The method is tested by using the 360-variable Lorenz-96 model, where slow and fast variables are coupled to one another with reciprocal feedback, and a simplified low dimensional system. In the Fluctuation-Response context, the influence of the fast dynamics on the slow dynamics relies in a non trivial behavior of a suitable quadratic response function. This has important consequences for the modeling of the slow dynamics in terms of a Langevin equation: beyond a certain intrinsic time interval even the optimal model can give just statistical prediction.

  9. Gel mesh as ``brake'' to slow down DNA translocation through solid-state nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhipeng; Liang, Zexi; Lu, Bo; Li, Ji; Hu, Rui; Zhao, Qing; Yu, Dapeng

    2015-07-01

    Agarose gel is introduced onto the cis side of silicon nitride nanopores by a simple and low-cost method to slow down the speed of DNA translocation. DNA translocation speed is slowed by roughly an order of magnitude without losing signal to noise ratio for different DNA lengths and applied voltages in gel-meshed nanopores. The existence of the gel moves the center-of-mass position of the DNA conformation further from the nanopore center, contributing to the observed slowing of translocation speed. A reduced velocity fluctuation is also noted, which is beneficial for further applications of gel-meshed nanopores. The reptation model is considered in simulation and agrees well with the experimental results.Agarose gel is introduced onto the cis side of silicon nitride nanopores by a simple and low-cost method to slow down the speed of DNA translocation. DNA translocation speed is slowed by roughly an order of magnitude without losing signal to noise ratio for different DNA lengths and applied voltages in gel-meshed nanopores. The existence of the gel moves the center-of-mass position of the DNA conformation further from the nanopore center, contributing to the observed slowing of translocation speed. A reduced velocity fluctuation is also noted, which is beneficial for further applications of gel-meshed nanopores. The reptation model is considered in simulation and agrees well with the experimental results. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03084f

  10. Slow Wave Sleep and Long Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Orr, Martin; Arias, Diana; Rueger, Melanie; Johnston, Smith; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    While ground research has clearly shown that preserving adequate quantities of sleep is essential for optimal health and performance, changes in the progression, order and /or duration of specific stages of sleep is also associated with deleterious outcomes. As seen in Figure 1, in healthy individuals, REM and Non-REM sleep alternate cyclically, with stages of Non-REM sleep structured chronologically. In the early parts of the night, for instance, Non-REM stages 3 and 4 (Slow Wave Sleep, or SWS) last longer while REM sleep spans shorter; as night progresses, the length of SWS is reduced as REM sleep lengthens. This process allows for SWS to establish precedence , with increases in SWS seen when recovering from sleep deprivation. SWS is indeed regarded as the most restorative portion of sleep. During SWS, physiological activities such as hormone secretion, muscle recovery, and immune responses are underway, while neurological processes required for long term learning and memory consolidation, also occur. The structure and duration of specific sleep stages may vary independent of total sleep duration, and changes in the structure and duration have been shown to be associated with deleterious outcomes. Individuals with narcolepsy enter sleep through REM as opposed to stage 1 of NREM. Disrupting slow wave sleep for several consecutive nights without reducing total sleep duration or sleep efficiency is associated with decreased pain threshold, increased discomfort, fatigue, and the inflammatory flare response in skin. Depression has been shown to be associated with a reduction of slow wave sleep and increased REM sleep. Given research that shows deleterious outcomes are associated with changes in sleep structure, it is essential to characterize and mitigate not only total sleep duration, but also changes in sleep stages.

  11. Contact lenses to slow progression of myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaridurg, Padmaja

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of myopia has been steadily rising, with 28 per cent of the global population said to be affected in 2010 and to rise to affect nearly 50 per cent by 2050. Increasing levels of myopia increase the risk of vision impairment and in particular, high myopia is associated with the risk of serious and permanent visual disability due to associated sight-threatening complications. To stem the burden associated with higher levels of myopia, there are efforts to slow the progression of myopia, and several optical and pharmaceutical strategies have been found useful in slowing myopia to varying degrees. More recently, numerous multifocal soft contact lenses and extended depth of focus soft contact lenses (collectively referred to as myopia control contact lenses) were found effective in slowing myopia. As opposed to overnight orthokeratology, myopia control contact lenses are worn during the day and the hypotheses proposed to explain the efficacy of these lenses are generally based on the premise that the stimulus for eye growth is a defocused retinal image with hyperopic blur either centrally or peripherally. Although the individual power profiles of the lenses vary, the contact lens generally incorporates 'positive power' to reduce the hyperopic blur and/or impose myopic defocus or in the case of the extended depth of focus lens, has a power profile designed to optimise retinal image quality for points on or in front of the retina. The use of soft contact lenses as a platform for myopia control offers an exciting and effective avenue to manage myopia but there is a need for further research on issues such as the mechanism underlying control of myopia, improving efficacy with lenses, and understanding rebound on discontinuation. More significantly, although contact lenses are generally safe and improve quality of life in older children, one of the major challenges for improved uptake and acceptance of contact lenses centres on the perceived risk of

  12. Appropriateness of clinical and organizational criteria for intra-articular injection therapies in osteoarthritis: A Delphi method consensus initiative among experts in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Paoloni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify the main aspects involved in patient selection, the choice of therapeutic agents and the safety profile, as well as the medico-legal and organizational aspects of intra-articular injection therapies for osteoarthritis. METHODS: A committee of 10 experts from Italian universities, public hospitals, territorial services, research institutes and patient associations was set up. Fifty-two clinicians from a large number of Italian medical centers specialized in intra-articular injection therapy took part in a Delphi process aimed at obtaining consensus statements among the participants. RESULTS: Large consensus was obtained for statements grouped under the following main themes: treatment indications; drug/medical device choice; treatment efficacy; and appropriate setting. CONCLUSIONS: The consensus statements developed by a large number of experts may be used as a practical reference tool to help physicians treat osteoarthritis patients by means of intra-articular injection therapies.

  13. Counting graphene layers with very slow electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Ludĕk; Mikmeková, Eliška; Müllerová, Ilona [Institute of Scientific Instruments AS CR, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, 61264 Brno (Czech Republic); Lejeune, Michaël [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Faculté des Sciences d' Amiens, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-01-05

    The study aimed at collection of data regarding the transmissivity of freestanding graphene for electrons across their full energy scale down to the lowest energies. Here, we show that the electron transmissivity of graphene drops with the decreasing energy of the electrons and remains below 10% for energies below 30 eV, and that the slow electron transmissivity value is suitable for reliable determination of the number of graphene layers. Moreover, electrons incident below 50 eV release adsorbed hydrocarbon molecules and effectively clean graphene in contrast to faster electrons that decompose these molecules and create carbonaceous contamination.

  14. Atom slowing via dispersive optical interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamda, M.; Boustimi, M.; Correia, F.; Baudon, J.; Taillandier-Loize, T.; Dutier, G.; Perales, F.; Ducloy, M.

    2012-02-01

    A promising technique of atom slowing is proposed. It is based upon the dispersive interaction of atoms with optical potential pulses generated by a far-off-resonance standing wave modulated in time. Each pulse reduces the velocity by a small amount. By repeating the process thousands of times, the velocity can be lowered from several hundreds of meters per second down to almost zero, over a path as short as 20cm. In the absence of any random recoil process, the initial characteristics of the beam are preserved.

  15. Application of slow positrons to coating degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, H.; Zhang, R.; Chen, H.M.; Mallon, P.; Huang, C.-M.; He, Y.; Sandreczki, T.C.; Jean, Y.C. E-mail: jeany@umkc.edu; Nielsen, B.; Friessnegg, T.; Suzuki, R.; Ohdaira, T

    2000-06-01

    Photodegradation of a polyurethane-based topcoat induced by accelerated UV irradiation is studied using Doppler broadened energy spectra (DBES) and positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopies coupled with slow positron technique. Significant and similar variations of S-parameter and ortho-positronium intensity (I{sub 3}) in coatings are observed as functions of depth and of exposure time. The decrease of S is interpreted as a result of an increase of crosslink density and a reduction of free-volume and hole fraction during the degradation process.

  16. Not slowing down | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine and-a-half-year-old Travis Carpenter gets a lot of speeding tickets. (He stresses that “and-a-half” part, too). These speeding tickets don’t come from a law enforcement officer but Jesse, one of his nurses at the NIH Clinical Center. Travis uses a power chair that he’s adorned with racing stickers, and his speeding tickets come from him zooming down the Clinical Center’s hallways, dodging the steady traffic of doctors, nurses, patients and families. He loves all things racing, NASCAR and pit crews. Neurofibromatosis type 1 isn’t slowing him down. Read more...

  17. Slow update stochastic simulation algorithms for modeling complex biochemical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debraj; De, Rajat K

    2017-10-30

    The stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA) based modeling is a well recognized approach to predict the stochastic behavior of biological networks. The stochastic simulation of large complex biochemical networks is a challenge as it takes a large amount of time for simulation due to high update cost. In order to reduce the propensity update cost, we proposed two algorithms: slow update exact stochastic simulation algorithm (SUESSA) and slow update exact sorting stochastic simulation algorithm (SUESSSA). We applied cache-based linear search (CBLS) in these two algorithms for improving the search operation for finding reactions to be executed. Data structure used for incorporating CBLS is very simple and the cost of maintaining this during propensity update operation is very low. Hence, time taken during propensity updates, for simulating strongly coupled networks, is very fast; which leads to reduction of total simulation time. SUESSA and SUESSSA are not only restricted to elementary reactions, they support higher order reactions too. We used linear chain model and colloidal aggregation model to perform a comparative analysis of the performances of our methods with the existing algorithms. We also compared the performances of our methods with the existing ones, for large biochemical networks including B cell receptor and FcϵRI signaling networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Improved Slow Light Capacity In Graphene-based Waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ran; Peng, Xi-Liang; Li, Er-Ping; Xu, Yang; Jin, Jia-Min; Zhang, Xian-Min; Chen, Hong-Sheng

    2015-10-19

    We have systematically investigated the wideband slow light in two-dimensional material graphene, revealing that graphene exhibits much larger slow light capability than other materials. The slow light performances including material dispersion, bandwidth, dynamic control ability, delay-bandwidth product, propagation loss, and group-velocity dispersion are studied, proving graphene exhibits significant advantages in these performances. A large delay-bandwidth product has been obtained in a simple yet functional grating waveguide with slow down factor c/v(g) at 163 and slow light bandwidth Δω at 94.4 nm centered at 10.38 μm, which is several orders of magnitude larger than previous results. Physical explanation of the enhanced slow light in graphene is given. Our results indicate graphene is an excellent platform for slow light applications, promoting various future slow light devices based on graphene.

  19. Slow and Fast Light in Optical Fibers: Review and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Thévenaz, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Fiber slow light systems are at a turning point moving from a laboratory research to real applications. The possibility to shape the spectral resonance in Brillouin slow light leads to optimized configurations and innovative solutions.

  20. Slow-plasmon resonant nano-strip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Beermann, Jonas; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Resonant scattering by gold nanostrip antennas due to constructive interference of counterpropagating slow surface plasmon polaritons SPPs is analyzed, including the quasistatic limit of ultrasmall antennas, and experimentally demonstrated. The phase of slow SPP reflection by strip ends is found...

  1. Sustainable Development of Slow Fashion Businesses: Customer Value Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sojin Jung

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative to the prevalent fast fashion model, slow fashion has emerged as a way of enhancing sustainability in the fashion industry, yet how slow fashion can enhance profitability is still largely unknown. Based on a customer value creation framework, this study empirically tested a structural model that specified the slow fashion attributes that contribute to creating perceived customer value, which subsequently increases a consumer’s intention to buy and pay a price premium for slow fashion products. An analysis of 221 U.S. consumer data revealed that delivering exclusive product value is significantly critical in creating customer value for slow fashion, and customer value, in turn, positively affects consumers’ purchase intentions. Further analysis also revealed that different slow fashion attributes distinctively affect customer value. This provides potential strategies on which slow fashion businesses can focus to secure an economically sustainable business model, thereby continuously improving environmental and social sustainability with the slow fashion ideal.

  2. Group music therapy for patients with persistent post-traumatic stress disorder--an exploratory randomized controlled trial with mixed methods evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Catherine; d'Ardenne, Patricia; Sloboda, Ann; Scott, Carleen; Wang, Duolao; Priebe, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Not all patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) respond to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Literature suggests group music therapy might be beneficial in treating PTSD. However, feasibility and effectiveness have not been assessed. The study objectives were to assess whether group music therapy was feasible for patients who did not respond to CBT, and whether it has an effect on PTSD symptoms and depression. The study employed mixed methods comprising of an exploratory randomized controlled trial, qualitative content analysis of therapy, and patient interviews. Patients with significant PTSD symptoms (n = 17) following completion of CBT were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 9) or control groups (n = 8). The treatment group received 10 weeks of group music therapy after which exit interviews were conducted. Control group patients were offered the intervention at the end of the study. Symptoms were assessed on the Impact of Events Scale-Revised and Beck Depression Inventory II at the beginning and end of treatment. Treatment-group patients experienced a significant reduction in severity of PTSD symptoms (-20.18; 95% confidence interval [CI]: [-31.23, -9.12]) and a marginally significant reduction in depression (-11.92; 95%CI: [-24.05, 0.21]) at 10 weeks from baseline compared to the control. Patients viewed music therapy as helpful and reported experiences concur with current literature. Group music therapy appears feasible and effective for PTSD patients who have not sufficiently responded to CBT. Limitations include the small sample size and lack of blinding. Further research should address these limitations, test sustainability, and identify specific factors that address symptoms in treatment. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Gene expression profiling of fast- and slow- growing gonadotroph non-functioning pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Camilla Maria; Sundaram, Arvind Y M; Øystese, Kristin Astrid

    2018-01-01

    Objective Reliable biomarkers associated with aggressiveness of non-functioning gonadotroph adenomas (GAs) are lacking. As the growth of tumor remnants is highly variable, molecular markers for growth potential prediction are necessary. We hypothesized that fast- and slow - growing GAs present di...... expression in fast-growing tumors. In addition to MTDH, identified as an important contributor to aggressiveness, the other genes might represent markers for tumor growth potential and possible targets for drug therapy. ....

  4. Modified constraint-induced movement therapy or bimanual occupational therapy following injection of Botulinum toxin-A to improve bimanual performance in young children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a randomised controlled trial methods paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Use of Botulinum toxin-A (BoNT-A) for treatment of upper limb spasticity in children with cerebral palsy has become routine clinical practice in many paediatric treatment centres worldwide. There is now high-level evidence that upper limb BoNT-A injection, in combination with occupational therapy, improves outcomes in children with cerebral palsy at both the body function/structure and activity level domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Investigation is now required to establish what amount and specific type of occupational therapy will further enhance functional outcomes and prolong the beneficial effects of BoNT-A. Methods/Design A randomised, controlled, evaluator blinded, prospective parallel-group trial. Eligible participants were children aged 18 months to 6 years, diagnosed with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy and who were able to demonstrate selective motor control of the affected upper limb. Both groups received upper limb injections of BoNT-A. Children were randomised to either the modified constraint-induced movement therapy group (experimental) or bimanual occupational therapy group (control). Outcome assessments were undertaken at pre-injection and 1, 3 and 6 months following injection of BoNT-A. The primary outcome measure was the Assisting Hand Assessment. Secondary outcomes included: the Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test; Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory; Canadian Occupational Performance Measure; Goal Attainment Scaling; Pediatric Motor Activity Log; modified Ashworth Scale and; the modified Tardieu Scale. Discussion The aim of this paper is to describe the methodology of a randomised controlled trial comparing the effects of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (a uni-manual therapy) versus bimanual occupational therapy (a bimanual therapy) on improving bimanual upper limb performance of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy following upper limb injection of Bo

  5. Slow-light dynamics in nonlinear periodic waveguides couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukhorukov, A.A.; Ha, S.; Powell, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    We predict pulse switching and reshaping through nonlinear mixing of two slow-light states with different phase velocities in the same frequency range, and report on the first experimental observation of slow-light tunneling between coupled periodic waveguides.......We predict pulse switching and reshaping through nonlinear mixing of two slow-light states with different phase velocities in the same frequency range, and report on the first experimental observation of slow-light tunneling between coupled periodic waveguides....

  6. Nonlinear Gain Saturation in Active Slow Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated.......We present a quantitative three-dimensional analysis of slow-light enhanced traveling wave amplification in an active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. The impact of slow-light propagation on the nonlinear gain saturation of the device is investigated....

  7. Slow-light effects in photonic crystal membrane lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Yu, Yi; Ottaviano, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a systematic investigation of photonic crystal cavity laser operating in the slow-light regime. The dependence of lasing threshold on the effect of slow-light will be particularly highlighted.......In this paper, we present a systematic investigation of photonic crystal cavity laser operating in the slow-light regime. The dependence of lasing threshold on the effect of slow-light will be particularly highlighted....

  8. [Use of drug-free methods of treatment in comprehensive therapy of patients with stage II chronic lower limb ischaemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, I V; Lukashova, A V

    2016-01-01

    Analysed herein are the results of treating a total of 139 patients presenting with stage II chronic lower limb ischaemia. The patients were subdivided into three groups, depending on the variant of treatment performed. Group One patients (n=57) received standard conservative therapy combined with ozone therapy, with the Group being further subdivided into two subgroups: patients of subgroup 1a (n=28) were subjected to intravenous administration of ozonated physiological solution (OPS), subgroup 1b patients (n=29) were given big autohemoozonetherapy (BAT). Group Two patients (n=62) underwent complex treatment including beside medical ozone gravitation therapy (GT). Group Two patients were also subdivided into two subgroups: subgroup 2a patients (n=31) received standard conservative therapy combined with OPS and GT, subgroup 2b patients (n=31) received standard conservative therapy in combination with BAT and GT. Group Three (Control Group) was composed of 20 patients receiving standard conservative therapy alone. The highest efficacy was observed in the subgroup of patients receiving OPS and GT, with the patients of this subgroup showing a statistically significant increase in the pain-free walking distance by 116.5% and in the ankle-brachial index by 49.2%, also demonstrating the most pronounced positive dynamics of lipid metabolism parameters: a decrease in total cholesterol by 21.3%, low density lipoproteins by 25.4%, very low density lipoproteins by 24.2% and triglycerides by 18.5%. Besides, a tendency was observed towards normalization of the haemostasis system indices: fibrinogen decreased by 21.8%, prothrombin index by 13%, fibrin monomer complexes retraction by 18.2%, and the clotting time increased by 20.7%. Hence, combined use of ozonated physiological solution and gravitation therapy in treatment of patients with stage II chronic lower limb ischaemia promotes a considerable increase in the pain-free walking distance and ankle-brachial index, as well as

  9. Excitation of surface plasma waves over corrugated slow-wave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A microwave propagating along vacuum–dielectric–plasma interface excites surface plasma wave (SPW). A periodic slow-wave structure placed over dielectric slows down the SPW. The phase velocity of slow SPW is sensitive to height, periodicity, number of periods, thickness and the separation between dielectric and ...

  10. Slow features nonnegative matrix factorization for temporal data decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zafeiriou, Lazaros; Nikitidis, Symeon; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the principles of temporal slowness and nonnegative parts-based learning into a single framework that aims to learn slow varying parts-based representations of time varying sequences. We demonstrate that the proposed algorithm arises naturally by embedding the Slow Features

  11. Good, Clean, Fair: The Rhetoric of the Slow Food Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines the origins of the Slow Food movement before examining the ways in which Slow Food rhetoric seeks to redefine gastronomy and combat the more deleterious effects of globalization. In articulating a new gastronomy, Slow Food founder Carlo Petrini attempts to reconstruct the gastronomy of Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, at once…

  12. Threshold Characteristics of Slow-Light Photonic Crystal Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Yu, Yi; Ottaviano, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    results are explained by an analytical theory for the laser threshold that takes into account the effects of slow light and random disorder due to unavoidable fabrication imperfections. Longer lasers are found to operate deeper into the slow-light region, leading to a trade-off between slow-light induced...

  13. Teaching Slow Learners in the Social Studies Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Dr. Tony; Cline, Dr, Paul C.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies the characteristics of a slow learner and gives a basic philosophy and techniques for teaching the slow learners in social studies. Includes a list of 11 tips for teaching slow learners and offers a lesson format designed for their instruction. (AEM)

  14. Excitation of surface plasma waves over corrugated slow-wave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A microwave propagating along vacuum–dielectric–plasma interface excites surface plasma wave (SPW). A periodic slow-wave structure placed over dielectric slows down the SPW. The phase velocity of slow SPW is sensitive to height, periodicity, number of periods, thickness and the separation between ...

  15. MIND diet slows cognitive decline with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Martha Clare; Tangney, Christy C; Wang, Yamin; Sacks, Frank M; Barnes, Lisa L; Bennett, David A; Aggarwal, Neelum T

    2015-09-01

    The Mediterranean and dash diets have been shown to slow cognitive decline; however, neither diet is specific to the nutrition literature on dementia prevention. We devised the Mediterranean-Dietary Approach to Systolic Hypertension (DASH) diet intervention for neurodegenerative delay (MIND) diet score that specifically captures dietary components shown to be neuroprotective and related it to change in cognition over an average 4.7 years among 960 participants of the Memory and Aging Project. In adjusted mixed models, the MIND score was positively associated with slower decline in global cognitive score (β = 0.0092; P diet scores versus the lowest was equivalent to being 7.5 years younger in age. The study findings suggest that the MIND diet substantially slows cognitive decline with age. Replication of these findings in a dietary intervention trial would be required to verify its relevance to brain health. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Maxwell Equations for Slow-Moving Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozov, Andrey

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, the Minkowski equations obtained on the basis of theory of relativity are used to describe electromagnetic fields in moving media. But important electromagnetic processes run under non-relativistic conditions of slow-moving media. Therefore, one should carry out its description in terms of classical mechanics. Hertz derived electrodynamic equations for moving media within the frame of classical mechanics on the basis of the Maxwell theory. His equations disagree with the experimental data concerned with the moving dielectrics. In the paper, a way of description of electromagnetic fields in slow-moving media on the basis of the Maxwell theory within the frame of classical mechanics is offered by combining the Hertz approach and the experimental data concerned with the movement of dielectrics in electromagnetic fields. Received Maxwell equations lack asymmetry in the description of the reciprocal electrodynamic action of a magnet and a conductor and conform to known experimental data. Comparative analysis of the Minkowski and Maxwell models is carried out.

  17. Factors Contributing Decreased Performance Of Slow Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. L. Kannan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Back ground Even experienced teaching faculty and administrators can be challenged by learners who have not able to perform up to expected need in their annual performance of their students these students are called as slow learnersStruggle learners. There should be a designed study to foster discussion about diagnosing particular problems that contribute with meeting objectives of slow learners. Methodology The study was performed on the entire current first year of Medical students were all the three internal assessments of 250 students performance is taken in to consideration for the study. This study is of cross section type.After obtaining the list of all students marks in internal examination from medical education unit supporting mentors are contacted to meet the students and confidentiality is maintained throughout the study. After obtaining informed consent a questionnaire was administered to the students by the investigator. The questionnaire contains the following sections. Section I will be on the background characteristics of the student name age sex type of family. Section II will be on the details of their learning capabilities. Section III will focus on the awareness of the slow learners in which the precipitating factors contributing to them. Results The prevalence of slow learners as low achievers were contributed to be 32.4 percentages.The performance of the students is based on combination of all three internal assessment marks including theory and practical performance. In this the students age ranges from 17 to 21 years the mean age of student was contributed to be 17.81 and majority of the students were in the age group of 18 years which contributed to be 16867.2.In the present study majority were males 13252.8 compared to females 11847.2.but when study is compared to percentage of attendance majority of the individual 15177 scored more than 50 percentage of marks have more than 80 percentage of attendance but when

  18. Progress in gene therapy for neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonato, Michele; Bennett, Jean; Boulis, Nicholas M; Castro, Maria G; Fink, David J; Goins, William F; Gray, Steven J; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Wilson, Thomas J; Wolfe, John H; Glorioso, Joseph C

    2013-05-01

    Diseases of the nervous system have devastating effects and are widely distributed among the population, being especially prevalent in the elderly. These diseases are often caused by inherited genetic mutations that result in abnormal nervous system development, neurodegeneration, or impaired neuronal function. Other causes of neurological diseases include genetic and epigenetic changes induced by environmental insults, injury, disease-related events or inflammatory processes. Standard medical and surgical practice has not proved effective in curing or treating these diseases, and appropriate pharmaceuticals do not exist or are insufficient to slow disease progression. Gene therapy is emerging as a powerful approach with potential to treat and even cure some of the most common diseases of the nervous system. Gene therapy for neurological diseases has been made possible through progress in understanding the underlying disease mechanisms, particularly those involving sensory neurons, and also by improvement of gene vector design, therapeutic gene selection, and methods of delivery. Progress in the field has renewed our optimism for gene therapy as a treatment modality that can be used by neurologists, ophthalmologists and neurosurgeons. In this Review, we describe the promising gene therapy strategies that have the potential to treat patients with neurological diseases and discuss prospects for future development of gene therapy.

  19. Anaphylactic shock following the bite of a wild Kayan slow loris (Nycticebus kayan): implications for slow loris conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, George; Nekaris, K Anne-Isola

    2014-01-01

    Asian slow lorises (Nycticebus spp.) are one of few known venomous mammals, yet until now only one published case report has documented the impact of their venomous bite on humans. We describe the reaction of a patient to the bite of a subadult Nycticebus kayan, which occurred in the Mulu District of Sarawak in 2012. Within minutes of the bite, the patient experienced paraesthesia in the right side of the jaw, ear and right foot. By 40 minutes, swelling of the face was pronounced. The patient was admitted to Mulu National Park Health Clinic/Klinik Kesihatan Taman Mulu Tarikh, at which time he was experiencing: swollen mouth, chest pain, mild abdominal pain, nausea, numbness of the lips and mouth, shortness of breath, weakness, agitation and the sensation of pressure in the ears due to swelling. The blood pressure was 110/76, the heart ratio was 116 and oxygen saturation was 96%. The patient was treated intramuscularly with adrenaline (0.5 mL), followed by intravenous injection of hydrocortisone (400 mg) and then intravenous fluid therapy of normal saline (500 mg). By 8 h10 the next day, the patient's condition had significantly improved with no nausea, and with blood pressure and pulse rate stable. A handful of anecdotes further support the real danger that slow loris bites pose to humans. As the illegal pet trade is a major factor in the decline of these threatened species, we hope that by reporting on the danger of handling these animals it may help to reduce their desirability as a pet.

  20. Effects of stretching the scalene muscles on slow vital capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juncheol; Hwang, Sehee; Han, Seungim; Han, Dongwook

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine whether stretching of the scalene muscles would improve slow vital capacity (SVC). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 20 healthy female students to whom the study's methods and purpose were explained and their agreement for participation was obtained. The SVC was measured using spirometry (Pony FX, COSMED Inc., Italy). The intervention used was stretching of the scalene muscles. Stretching was carried out for 15 min, 10 times at per each portion of scalene muscles: the anterior, middle, and posterior parts. [Results] Expiratory vital capacity (EVC) and tidal volume (Vt) noticeably increased after stretching. However, there were no changes in any of the SVC items in the control group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that stretching of the scalene muscles can effectively improve SVC. In particular, we confirmed that stretching of the scalene muscles was effective in increasing EVC and Vt, which are items of SVC.

  1. [Italy's Slow Medicine: a new paradigm in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaldi, Antonio; Vernero, Sandra

    2015-02-01

    Italy's Slow Medicine was founded in 2011 as a movement aimed to promote processes of care based on appropriateness, but within a relation of listening, dialogue and decision sharing with the patient. The mission of Slow Medicine is synthetized by three key words: measured, because it acts with moderation, gradually and without waste; respectful, because it is careful in preserving the dignity and values of each person; and equitable, because it is committed to ensuring access to appropriate care for all. In a short time, the association spreads at national and international level, gathering the needs of change of a growing number of health professionals, patients and citizens, committed to manage health problems with a new cultural and methodological paradigm. Medicine is soaked with inappropriateness, wastes, conflicts of interest, and many clichés induce professionals and patients to consume more and more healthcare services in the illusion that it is always better doing more for improving health. Moreover, the dominant reductionist cultural model, on which the concept of health and disease is based today, considers man as a machine, investigated by a growing number of specialists, particularly interested in the pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases. The interest is mainly focused on technologies, while the person along with the relations with his/her family and the social environment are completely neglected. The systemic approach adopted by Slow Medicine, on the contrary, teaches us that health and disease are complex phenomena and the life of a person is more than the sum of the chemical reactions that occur in its cells. At different levels of complexity, in fact, new and unexpected properties appear, such as thinking, emotions, pleasure, health. These properties are not detectable in the individual elements and can only be studied using methods of analysis and knowledge belonging to other domains of knowledge, such as humanity sciences: philosophy

  2. Why peer assessment helps to improve clinical performance in undergraduate physical therapy education: a mixed methods design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Peer Assessment (PA) in health professions education encourages students to develop a critical attitude towards their own and their peers’ performance. We designed a PA task to assess students’ clinical skills (including reasoning, communication, physical examination and treatment skills) in a role-play that simulated physical therapy (PT) practice. Students alternately performed in the role of PT, assessor, and patient. Oral face-to-face feedback was provided as well as written feedback and scores. This study aims to explore the impact of PA on the improvement of clinical performance of undergraduate PT students. Methods The PA task was analyzed and decomposed into task elements. A qualitative approach was used to explore students’ perceptions of the task and the task elements. Semi-structured interviews with second year students were conducted to explore the perceived impact of these task elements on performance improvement. Students were asked to select the elements perceived valuable, to rank them from highest to lowest learning value, and to motivate their choices. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed, using a phenomenographical approach and following template analysis guidelines. A quantitative approach was used to describe the ranking results. Results Quantitative analyses showed that the perceived impact on learning varied widely. Performing the clinical task in the PT role, was assigned to the first place (1), followed by receiving expert feedback (2), and observing peer performance (3). Receiving peer feedback was not perceived the most powerful task element. Qualitative analyses resulted in three emerging themes: pre-performance, true-performance, and post-performance triggers for improvement. Each theme contained three categories: learning activities, outcomes, and conditions for learning. Intended learning activities were reported, such as transferring prior learning to a new application context and unintended learning

  3. Response surface method optimization of a novel Hypericin formulation in P123 micelles for colorectal cancer and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanha, Maiara Camotti; Silva, Larissa Lachi; Pangoni, Fernanda Belincanta Borghi; Cesar, Gabriel Batista; Gonçalves, Renato Sonchini; Caetano, Wilker; Hioka, Noboru; Tominaga, Tania Toyomi; Consolaro, Márcia Edilaine Lopes; Diniz, Andréa; Kimura, Elza

    2017-05-01

    The photodynamic properties of Hypericin (Hyp) may be used as an alternative treatment for malignancies of the lower gastrointestinal tract and for the prevention of surgical-site infection; however, its use in photodynamic therapy has been limited because of its poor hydrosolubility. Therefore, in order to improve its water solubility and its photodynamic effect, Hyp was encapsulated in Pluronic P123 (P123) and the photodynamic effects against intestinal and epidermal bacteria and against two lineages of intestinal colon carcinoma cells were investigated. Two response surface methods (RSM) were used to achieve the best in vitro photodynamic activity against Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus: in the first (full 2 3 RSM), Hyp concentration (HC*), incubation time (IT*) and LED-light time (LT*) were considered as the independent variables and E. faecalis inhibition as the dependent variable. In the second (full 3 2 RSM), Hyp concentration (HC*) and P123 concentration (CC*) were considered as independent variables and E. faecalis, E. coli and S. aureus inhibition as dependent variables. The optimized experimental conditions achieved were: Hyp concentration=37.5μmol/L; P123 concentration=21.5 μmol/L and 6.3J/cm 2 , which resulted in 2.86±0.12 and 2.30±0.31CFU log-reductions of E. faecalis and S. aureus. No effect was seen against E. coli. The cytotoxic effects of Hyp/P123 were also investigated for Caco-2 and HT-29 intestinal colon carcinoma cells at Hyp/P123 concentrations of 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.1μmol/L for Caco-2 cells and 4, 3, 2 and 1μmol/L for HT-29 cells. The cytotoxic concentrations for 50% (CC 50 ) and 90% (CC 90 ) of Hyp/P123 were 0.443 and 0.870μmol/L for Caco-2 cells and 1.4 and 2.84μmol/L for HT-29 cells. The P123 nanocarrier played a significant role in the permeation of Hyp through the cell membrane leading to significant cell death, and showed itself to be a promising photosensitizer for PDT that could be suitable

  4. The slow oscillation in cortical and thalamic networks: mechanisms and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett T. Neske

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During even the most quiescent behavioral periods, the cortex and thalamus express rich spontaneous activity in the form of slow (<1 Hz, synchronous network state transitions. Throughout this so-called slow oscillation, cortical and thalamic neurons fluctuate between periods of intense synaptic activity (Up states and almost complete silence (Down states. The two decades since the original characterization of the slow oscillation in the cortex and thalamus have seen considerable advances in deciphering the cellular and network mechanisms associated with this pervasive phenomenon. There are, nevertheless, many questions regarding the slow oscillation that await more thorough illumination, particularly the mechanisms by which Up states initiate and terminate, the functional role of the rhythmic activity cycles in unconscious or minimally conscious states, and the precise relation between Up states and the activated states associated with waking behavior. Given the substantial advances in multineuronal recording and imaging methods in both in vivo and in vitro preparations, the time is ripe to take stock of our current understanding of the slow oscillation and pave the way for future investigations of its mechanisms and functions. My aim in this Review is to provide a comprehensive account of the mechanisms and functions of the slow oscillation, and to suggest avenues for further exploration.

  5. Threshold Characteristics of Slow-Light Photonic Crystal Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Weiqi; Yu, Yi; Ottaviano, Luisa; Chen, Yaohui; Semenova, Elizaveta; Yvind, Kresten; Mork, Jesper

    2016-02-12

    The threshold properties of photonic crystal quantum dot lasers operating in the slow-light regime are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Measurements show that, in contrast to conventional lasers, the threshold gain attains a minimum value for a specific cavity length. The experimental results are explained by an analytical theory for the laser threshold that takes into account the effects of slow light and random disorder due to unavoidable fabrication imperfections. Longer lasers are found to operate deeper into the slow-light region, leading to a trade-off between slow-light induced reduction of the mirror loss and slow-light enhancement of disorder-induced losses.

  6. Transcriptomic difference in bovine blastocysts following vitrification and slow freezing at morula stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisha Gupta

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation is known for its marked deleterious effects on embryonic health. Bovine compact morulae were vitrified or slow-frozen, and post-warm morulae were cultured to the expanded blastocyst stage. Blastocysts developed from vitrified and slow-frozen morulae were subjected to microarray analysis and compared with blastocysts developed from unfrozen control morulae for differential gene expression. Morula to blastocyst conversion rate was higher (P < 0.05 in control (72% and vitrified (77% than in slow-frozen (34% morulae. Total 20 genes were upregulated and 44 genes were downregulated in blastocysts developed from vitrified morulae (fold change ≥ ± 2, P < 0.05 in comparison with blastocysts developed from control morulae. In blastocysts developed from slow-frozen morulae, 102 genes were upregulated and 63 genes were downregulated (fold change ≥ ± 1.5, P < 0.05. Blastocysts developed from vitrified morulae exhibited significant changes in gene expression mainly involving embryo implantation (PTGS2, CALB1, lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species generation (HSD3B1, AKR1B1, APOA1 and cell differentiation (KRT19, CLDN23. However, blastocysts developed from slow-frozen morulae showed changes in the expression of genes related to cell signaling (SPP1, cell structure and differentiation (DCLK2, JAM2 and VIM, and lipid metabolism (PLA2R1 and SMPD3. In silico comparison between blastocysts developed form vitrified and slow-frozen morulae revealed similar changes in gene expression as between blastocysts developed from vitrified and control morulae. In conclusion, blastocysts developed form vitrified morulae demonstrated better post-warming survival than blastocysts developed from slow-frozen morulae but their gene expression related to lipid metabolism, steroidogenesis, cell differentiation and placentation changed significantly (≥ 2 fold. Slow freezing method killed more morulae than vitrification but those which survived up to

  7. Great earthquakes hazard in slow subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcaillou, B.; Gutscher, M.; Westbrook, G. K.

    2008-12-01

    Research on the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 2004 has challenged two popular paradigms; that the strongest subduction earthquakes strike in regions of rapid plate convergence and that rupture occurs primarily along the contact between the basement of the overriding plate and the downgoing plate. Subduction zones presenting similar structural and geodynamic characteristics (slow convergence and thick wedges of accreted sediment) may be capable of generating great megathrust earthquakes (M>8.5) despite an absence of thrust type earthquakes over the past 40 years. Existing deep seismic sounding data and hypocenters are used to constrain the geometry of several key slow subduction zones (Antilles, Hellenic, Sumatra). This geometry forms the basis for numerical modelling of fore-arc thermal structure, which is applied to calculate the estimated width of the seismogenic portion of the subduction fault plane. The margins with the thickest accretionary wedges are commonly found to have the widest (predicted) seismogenic zone. Furthermore, for these margins there exists a substantial (20-60 km wide) region above the up-dip limit for which the contribution to tsunami generation is poorly understood. As the rigidity (mu) of these high-porosity sediments is low, co-seismic slip here can be expected to be slow. Accordingly, the contribution to seismic moment will be low, but the contribution to tsunami generation may be very high. Indeed, recent seismological data from Nankai indicate very low frequency shallow-thrust earthquakes beneath this portion of the accretionary wedge, long-considered to be "aseismic". We propose that thick accumulations of sediment on the downgoing plate and the presence of a thick accretionary wedge can increase the maximum size of the potential rupture fault plane in two ways; 1) by thermally insulating the downgoing plate and thereby increasing the total downdip length of the fault which can rupture seismically and 2) by "smoothing out" the

  8. Medical management with diazepam for electrical status epilepticus during slow wave sleep in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Densley; Roberts, Jessica; Hess, Stephany; Probst, Luke; Eksioglu, Yaman

    2014-03-01

    Oral diazepam, administered in varying doses, is among the few proposed treatment options for electrical status epilepticus during slow wave sleep in children. We sought to retrospectively evaluate the long-term efficacy of high-dose oral diazepam in reducing electrographic and clinical evidence of electrical status epilepticus during slow wave sleep in children. Additionally, we surveyed caregivers to assess safety and behavioral outcomes related to ongoing therapy. We collected demographic and clinical data on children treated for electrical status epilepticus during slow wave sleep between October 2010 and March 2013. We sought to identify the number of patients who achieved at least a 50% reduction in spike wave index on electroencephalograph after receiving high-dose oral diazepam. We also administered a questionnaire to caregivers to assess for behavioral problems and side effects. We identified 42 evaluable patients who received high-dose diazepam (range 0.23-2.02 mg/kg per day) to treat electrical status epilepticus during slow wave sleep. Twenty-six patients had spike reduction data and 18/26 (69.2%) children achieved a greater than 50% reduction in spike wave count from an average of 15.54 to 5.05 (P = 0.001). We received 28 responses to the questionnaire. Some patients experienced new onset of difficulties with problem-solving and speech and writing development. Sleep disturbances (50%) and irritability (57.1%) were the most frequent side effects reported. There did not appear to be a dose-related effect with electroencephalograph changes, behavioral effects, or side effects. High-dose oral diazepam significantly reduces the spike wave count on electroencephalograph in children with electrical status epilepticus during slow wave sleep. Although this therapy improves electroencephalograph-related findings, it can be associated with concerning neurological and behavioral side effects in some individuals, so further study is warranted. Copyright © 2014

  9. The Tree Theme Method® (TTM), an occupational therapy intervention for treating depression and anxiety : Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson, Birgitta; Wagman, Petra; Håkansson, Carita; Hedin, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety disorders are increasing among the general population in the Western world. Individuals may need several kinds of treatment in order to maintain health, such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and drug treatment. However, having an everyday life that ?works? is also important, suggesting a need for interventions based on activities that facilitate a satisfying everyday life. There is still lack of such evidence-based interventions. The Tree Theme Method? ...

  10. Joint Attention is Slowed in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroche, Thomas; Castanier, Carole; Perrot, Alexandra; Hartley, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The automatic propensity to orient to the location where other people are looking is the main way of establishing joint attention with others. Whereas joint attention has been mostly investigated with young adults, the present study examines age-related differences in the magnitude and time course of joint attention. Forty-three community-dwelling seniors and 43 younger adults performed a visuospatial task. The procedures closely follow those of gaze-cueing tasks commonly used to investigate joint attention. The findings revealed that a gaze-cueing effect occurs for both younger and older adults, with an equivalent average magnitude but with different time courses. The effect peaks later in older adults. Age-related differences in joint attention could be linked to a more general cognitive slowing rather than to poorer basic social skills. The present study adds to the growing interest in gerontological research regarding social attention.

  11. Selective attention in fast and slow learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, D; Randhawa, B S; Fitzgerald, D

    1977-06-01

    64 children aged 8 yr. were trained on a tactile simultaneous discrimination task. Selective attention was measured in terms of percentage contact time per trial to the relevant dimension. Inter- and intra-couplings per trial were also recorded. Multivariate analyses were carried out to examine the role of component factor scores, obtained from a component curve analysis of the percentage touching time per trial, and selected cognitive variables in differentiating between the fast and slow learner groups. Percentage touching time factor scores and a memory factor were significant, but there was no significant difference between the groups in the number of couplings made. As learning progressed the number of inter- and intra-couplings decreased.

  12. Environmentally friendly slow-release nitrogen fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2011-09-28

    To sustain the further world population, more fertilizers are required, which may become an environmental hazard, unless adequate technical and socioeconomic impacts are addressed. In the current study, slow-release formulations of nitrogen fertilizer were developed on the basis of natural attapulgite (APT) clay, ethylcellulose (EC) film, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose/hydroxyethylcellulose (CMC/HEC) hydrogel. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product were examined. The release profiles of urea, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium chloride as nitrogen fertilizer substrates were determined in soil. To further compare the release profiles of nitrogen from different fertilizer substrates, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the coated fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D. The influence of the product on water-holding and water-retention capacities of soil was determined. The experimental data indicated that the product can effectively reduce nutrient loss, improve use efficiency of water, and prolong irrigation cycles in drought-prone environments.

  13. Student Opinions and Preferences Regarding Personal Response Systems in the Graduate Physical Therapy Classroom: A Mixed-Methods Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincer, Andi Beth; Thompson, Anne W.

    2012-01-01

    Little investigation has been conducted on the use of Personal Response Systems (PRS) in either graduatelevel courses or health professions education. Through anonymous participation in focus groups, graduate physical therapy students described specific aspects of PRS that they felt facilitated their learning, as well as aspects that hindered…

  14. Identifying Mechanisms of Change in a Conversation Therapy for Aphasia Using Behaviour Change Theory and Qualitative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fiona M.; Best, Wendy; Beckley, Firle Christina; Maxim, Jane; Beeke, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Background: Conversation therapy for aphasia is a complex intervention comprising multiple components and targeting multiple outcomes. UK Medical Research Council (MRC) guidelines published in 2008 recommend that in addition to measuring the outcomes of complex interventions, evaluation should seek to clarify how such outcomes are produced,…

  15. Addressing Relapse in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Panic Disorder: Methods for Optimizing Long-Term Treatment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, Joanna J.; Craske, Michelle G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a client with panic disorder and agoraphobia who relapses following a full course of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). To frame the client's treatment, the major components of CBT for panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A) are reviewed. Likely reasons for the treatment's failure and strategies for improving…

  16. [Features of fluor intoxication development in patients with nondifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia and physical therapy methods for these patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereshina, L G; Budkar', L N; Obukhova, T Iu; Bugaeva, I V; Karpova, E A

    2013-01-01

    The article covers results of studies concerning time of fluorosis development in patients with signs of connective tissue dysplasia syndrome (CTDS). if compared with patients without CTDS, and of studies concerning hyperostosis coefficient in accordance with presence or absence of CTDS. Efficiency of physical therapy and balneotherapy for these patients are also reported by the authors.

  17. Enhancement of Intermittent Androgen Ablation Therapy by Finasteride Administration in Animal Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhou

    2003-01-01

    .... Intermittent androgen ablation therapy may slow down the development of androgen refractory tumors because intermittent recovery of androgens can induce differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells...

  18. Proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proton beam therapy; Cancer - proton therapy; Radiation therapy - proton therapy; Prostate cancer - proton therapy ... that use x-rays to destroy cancer cells, proton therapy uses a beam of special particles called ...

  19. Orthopaedic manual therapy, McKenzie method or advice only for low back pain in working adults: a randomized controlled trial with one year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paatelma, Markku; Kilpikoski, Sinikka; Simonen, Riitta; Heinonen, Ari; Alen, Markku; Videman, Tapio

    2008-11-01

    To examine the effects of 2 manual therapy methods compared with one counselling session with a physiotherapist with "advice-only to stay active" for treating low back pain/leg pain and disability. A randomized, controlled trial with a 1-year follow-up. A total of 134 subjects with low back disorders. Participants with acute to chronic first or recurrent low back pain, excluding those with "red flag" criteria, were assigned randomly to one of the 3 intervention groups: an orthopaedic manual therapy group (n=45), a McKenzie method group (n=52), and an "advice only to be active" group (advice-only) (n=37). Data on leg and low back pain intensity and disability (Roland-Morris Disability questionnaire) were collected at baseline, and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up points. At the 3-month follow-up point, significant improvements had occurred in all groups in leg and low back pain and in the disability index, but with no significant differences between the groups. At the 6-month follow-up, leg pain (-15 mm; 95% confidence interval (CI) -30 to -1), back pain (effect: -15 mm; -27 to -4), and disability index (-4 points; -7 to -1) improved (p McKenzie method group than in the advice-only group. At the 1-year follow-up, the McKenzie method group had (p=0.028) a better disability index (-3 points; -6 to 0) than did the advice-only group. In the orthopaedic manual therapy group at the 6-month and 1-year follow-up visits, improvements in the pain and disability index were somewhat better than in the advice-only group (p=0.067 and 0.068, respectively). No differences emerged between the orthopaedic manual therapy and McKenzie method groups in pain- and disability-score changes at any follow-up. The orthopaedic manual therapy and McKenzie methods seemed to be only marginally more effective than was one session of assessment and advice-only.

  20. Evaluation of conventional therapeutic methods versus maggot therapy in the evolution of healing of tegumental injuries in Wistar rats with and without diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiero, Franciéle Souza; Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline

    2016-06-01

    Larval therapy consists on the application of sterilized carrion flies larvae, reared in laboratory, on acute, chronic, and/or infected wounds in order to promote healing. Conventional methods for treating injuries include mechanical debridement or silver-based dressings; however, they are not always effective for wound healing. Larval therapy is a feasible and safe treatment for therapeutic application and, in many cases, the only and the most recommended alternative for difficult healing injuries. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the competence of Cochliomyia macellaria F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as a suitable species for therapeutic application and evaluate time and effectiveness of the types of treatments most commonly used to treat integumental injuries. C. macellaria eggs were obtained from colonies established in laboratory and sterilized prior to application. Twenty-five larvae were applied for each centimeter squared of lesion. Lesions were induced in 24 Wistar rats; type 1 diabetes mellitus was induced in 12 of them. Animals were divided in four groups with three individuals each, being denominated: larval therapy, larval therapy associated with foam dressing with silver release, mechanical debridement with foam dressing silver and control group, without treatment. All treatments were applied once and held for 24 h. Medical application of larvae was found to be safe, as only dead tissue was removed, and efficient to accelerate healing process when compared to other treatments.