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Sample records for therapy jaeri computational

  1. Development of the JAERI computational dosimetry system (JCDS) for boron neutron capture therapy. Cooperative research

    CERN Document Server

    Kumada, H; Matsumura, A; Nakagawa, Y; Nose, T; Torii, Y; Uchiyama, J; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, T

    2003-01-01

    The Neutron Beam Facility at JRR-4 enables us to carry out boron neutron capture therapy with epithermal neutron beam. In order to make treatment plans for performing the epithermal neutron beam BNCT, it is necessary to estimate radiation doses in a patient's head in advance. The JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS), which can estimate distributions of radiation doses in a patient's head by simulating in order to support the treatment planning for epithermal neutron beam BNCT, was developed. JCDS is a software that creates a 3-dimentional head model of a patient by using CT and MRI images, and that generates a input data file automatically for calculation of neutron flux and gamma-ray dose distributions in the brain with the Monte Carlo code MCNP, and that displays these dose distributions on the head model for dosimetry by using the MCNP calculation results. JCDS has any advantages as follows; By using CT data and MRI data which are medical images, a detail three-dimensional model of patient's head is...

  2. Development of the JAERI computational dosimetry system (JCDS) for boron neutron capture therapy. Cooperative research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumada, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Torii, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Junzo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Matsumura, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Nose, Tadao [Tsukuba Univ., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakagawa, Yoshinobu [National Sanatorium Kagawa-Children' s Hospital, Kagawa (Japan); Kageji, Teruyoshi [Tokushima Univ., Tokushima (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The Neutron Beam Facility at JRR-4 enables us to carry out boron neutron capture therapy with epithermal neutron beam. In order to make treatment plans for performing the epithermal neutron beam BNCT, it is necessary to estimate radiation doses in a patient's head in advance. The JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS), which can estimate distributions of radiation doses in a patient's head by simulating in order to support the treatment planning for epithermal neutron beam BNCT, was developed. JCDS is a software that creates a 3-dimentional head model of a patient by using CT and MRI images, and that generates a input data file automatically for calculation of neutron flux and gamma-ray dose distributions in the brain with the Monte Carlo code MCNP, and that displays these dose distributions on the head model for dosimetry by using the MCNP calculation results. JCDS has any advantages as follows; By using CT data and MRI data which are medical images, a detail three-dimensional model of patient's head is able to be made easily. The three-dimensional head image is editable to simulate the state of a head after its surgical processes such as skin flap opening and bone removal in the BNCT with craniotomy that are being performed in Japan. JCDS can provide information for the Patient Setting System which can support to set the patient to an actual irradiation position swiftly and accurately. This report describes basic design of JCDS and functions in several processing, calculation methods, characteristics and performance of JCDS. (author)

  3. User's manual of a supporting system for treatment planning in boron neutron capture therapy. JAERI computational dosimetry system

    CERN Document Server

    Kumada, H

    2002-01-01

    A boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with epithermal neutron beam is expected to treat effectively for malignant tumor that is located deeply in the brain. It is indispensable to estimate preliminarily the irradiation dose in the brain of a patient in order to perform the epithermal neutron beam BNCT. Thus, the JAERI Computational Dosimetry System (JCDS), which can calculate the dose distributions in the brain, has been developed. JCDS is a software that creates a 3-dimensional head model of a patient by using CT and MRI images and that generates a input data file automatically for calculation neutron flux and gamma-ray dose distribution in the brain by the Monte Carlo code: MCNP, and that displays the dose distribution on the head model for dosimetry by using the MCNP calculation results. JCDS has any advantages as follows; By treating CT data and MRI data which are medical images, a detail three-dimensional model of patient's head is able to be made easily. The three-dimensional head image is editable to ...

  4. Status of JAERI tandem accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Kanda, Susumu; Takeuchi, Suehiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] (and others)

    2001-02-01

    JAERI Tandem Accelerator had been operated approximately 230 days in fiscal year of 1999. Meanwhile, we had three times of maintenance period with vent. Total operation-times were 5273 hours. We could not carry out the experiment using rare gas, due to malfunction of the RF power supply for the ECR ion source. The type of the RF power supply is peculiar and it is impossible to get spare parts for repair. We are now investigating the backup RF power supply. The power supply for the magnet became unstable due to degradation of insulation in the shunt resistance, which is used for feedback stabilization. Stability was recovered after cleaning. The acrylic resin shaft was cracked. This cracks have a potential for severe accidents. So far bearing of the shaft has no problem. The reason of cracks may be self-destruction by charge accumulation in the shaft. JAERI Tandem Accelerator is approximately 20 years old. There appear requirements on the higher ion currents for additional ion species. Therefore, authors are investigating cost effective improvement plans of RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadra-pole) and IH type accelerator based on KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization) R and D. As a whole, maintenance services for the control system are increasing due to some changes of computer programs. There are some difficulties to keep skilled personnel for facilities operation. Authors are gradually increasing hired personnel with contract from 1993. However, loads for JAERI permanent staffs are still heavy. It takes much longer time to educate skilled persons especially for safety. (Y. Tanaka)

  5. Neutron protein crystallography in JAERI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. I Tanaka1 2. Neutron Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195, Japan; Faculty of Engineering, Ibaraki University, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511, Japan ...

  6. Neutron protein crystallography in JAERI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    crystals and a database of hydrogen and hydration have also been developed. In the near future, a pulsed neutron diffractometer for biological macromolecules has been proposed at J-PARC in JAERI. Keywords. Crystallization macromolecules; crystallographic databases; crystal struc- ture neutron diffraction and scattering ...

  7. Neutron Science Project at JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, JAERI, is proposing the Neutron Science Project which aims at bringing about scientific and technological innovation in the fields of basic science and nuclear technology for the 21st century, using high intense spallation neutron source. The research areas to be promoted by the project are neutron structural biology, material science, nuclear physics and various technology developments for accelerator-driven transmutation of long-lived radionuclides which are associated with nuclear power generation. JAERI has been carrying out a R and D program for the partitioning and transmutation with the intention to solve the problem of nuclear fuel cycle backend. The accelerator-driven transmutation study is also covered with this program. In the present stage of the project, a conceptual design is being prepared for a research complex utilizing spallation neutrons, including a high intensity pulsed and steady spallation neutron source with 1.5 GeV and 8 MW superconducting proton linac. The idea and facility plan of the project is described, including the status of technological development of the accelerator, target and facilities. (author)

  8. Negative ion beam programs at JAERI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Y.

    1990-08-01

    Three negative ion beam programs for nuclear fusion research are proposed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI): a 500 keV, 10 MW deuterium neutral beam injection (NBI) for heating and current drive in the JT-60U tokamak, a 0.5/1 MeV, 50 MW deuterium beam injection for the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER), and a 2 MeV, 20 mA lithium beam injection for ion temperature measurement in the JT-60U. The 500 keV negative-ion-based NBI system for the JT-60U will be developed in the first step, followed by the development of the reactor relevant 0.5/1 MeV NBI system. This two step development mitigates the risk in developing a MeV class NBI system.

  9. Progress report on neutron scattering at JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morii, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    In the first half of fiscal year 1997, JRR-3M was operated for 97 days followed by a long term shut down for its annual maintenance. Three days were lost out of 100 scheduled operation days, due to a trouble in irradiation facility. Neutron scattering research activities at the JRR-3M have been extended from that of fiscal year 1996. In the Research Group for Quantum Condensed Matter System, experimental study under high pressures, low temperatures and high fields as well as coupling of these conditions were planned to find new quantum condensed matter systems. And, obtained experimental results were immediately provided to theorists for their investigations. In cooperation with new group, Research Group for Neutron Scattering of Strongly Correlated Electron Systems and Research Group for Neutron Scattering at Ultralow Temperatures were carrying neutron scattering experiments at JRR-3M. Research Group for Neutron Crystallography in Biology had opened a way for investigating biomatter neutron diffraction research with high experimental accuracy by growing a millimeter-class large single crystal. In fiscal year 1997, 39 research projects were conducted by these four groups and other staffs in JAERI, 27 projects collaborated with university researchers and 3 projects collaborated with private enterprises were also conducted as complementary researches. 2117 days of machine times were requested to use 8 neutron scattering instruments this year, which corresponded to 1.51 times larger than those planned at its beginning. (G.K.)

  10. Current status of research on emergency response measures at JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishigami, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Kensuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    If an accident occurs at a nuclear power plant and if it affects, or is anticipated to affect, the environment by radioactive material release, it is important to minimize consequences to the public by conducting appropriate protective measures, in evaluating source terms (an amount of fission products released to the environment), environmental radiological consequences, effects of the protective measures, and so on. It is also important to give necessary information on the protective measures to the public so as to conduct the measures effectively. In order to support radiological emergency response measures and to contribute to improve emergency plans, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is developing a computerized support system for the Emergency Technical Advisory Body and a computerized system for optimizing off-site emergency protective measures, and is studying appropriate information transmission methods in an emergency. This report describes current status of research on emergency response measures performed at JAERI. (author)

  11. Generation of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation from JAERI-ERL

    CERN Document Server

    Hajima, R; Kikuzawa, N; Minehara, E J; Nagai, R; Nishitani, T; Sawamura, M

    2005-01-01

    An electron beam with high-average current and short bunch length can be accelerated by energy-recovery linac. Coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) from such an electron beam will be a useful light source around millimeter wavelength. We report results from a preliminary measurement of CSR emitted from a bending magnet of JAERI-ERL. Possible enhancement of CSR power by FEL micro-bunching is also discussed.

  12. Publish literature on the research activities using the JMRT (II). Publication as JAERI research reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yoshiharu; Ishii, Tadahiko; Niimi, Motoji; Fujiki, Kazuo; Takahashi, Hidetake (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    The published reports on the research and development activities using the JMTR since 1971 to date have been surveyed by the search of literature database and questionnaire survey. This report compiles the title lists and abstracts of reports published by JAERI and survey the trend of the research and development in JAERI using the JMTR. (author)

  13. Outline of application plans of accelerator beams in JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yasuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has various application plans of accelerators such as; Neutron Science Research Complex (NSRC), Positron Factory, International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), and Spring-8 Project. Each application plan has its own research program and its own core accelerator. The NSRC is a multi-purpose research complex composed of seven research facilities: slow neutron scattering facility for material science, the nuclear energy research facility like nuclear transmutation and so on. The Positron Factory will be applied to the research of precise analysis of material structure by novel method of positron probing. The IFMIF aims at simulating the wall loading of a demo fusion reactor by producing high intense neutron flux. The SPring-8 is the largest synchrotron radiation source in the world. More than 60 X-ray beam lines will be equipped for the various researches. (author)

  14. Radioactive waste generated from JAERI partitioning-transmutation cycle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinichi, Nakayama; Yasuji, Morita; Kenji, Nishihara [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Production of lower-level radioactive wastes, as well as the reduction in radioactivity of HLW, is an important performance indicator in assessing the viability of a partitioning-transmutation system. We have begun to identify the chemical compositions and to quantify the amounts of radioactive wastes that may be generated by JAERI processes. Long-lived radionuclides such as {sup 14}C and {sup 59}Ni and spallation products of Pb-Bi coolants are added to the existing inventory of these nuclides that are generated in the current fuel cycle. Spent salts of KCl-LiCl, which is not generated from the current fuel cycle, will be introduced as a waste. (author)

  15. Investigation of environmental radioactivity in waste dumping areas of the far eastern seas. JAERI`s activities in the 1st Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expedition 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Hikaru; Matsunaga, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yabuuchi, Noriaki

    1996-10-01

    Large quantities of radioactive waste have been dumped in the Far Eastern Sea by the former USSR and Russia. In order to survey marine radioactive contamination in the Far Eastern Sea, the first Japanese-Korean-Russian joint expedition was conducted according to the governmental agreement. The joint expedition was conducted at the areas of the Russian radioactive waste dumping site from March 18 1994 to April 6, 1994. JAERI participated in this expedition according to the request from STA Japan, and conducted mainly on-board measurement of marine radioactivities. The results showed that the radionuclides concentrations in seawater and seabed sediment samples from the study site were not different from those in the western North Pacific. This report summarises JAERI`s activities in the expedition. Final report by Japanese-Korean-Russian government and IAEA is annexed. (author)

  16. Proceedings of the third JAERI-KAERI joint seminar on post irradiation examination technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    Between the Department of JMTR of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research Group of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), it has been periodically carried out the collaboration on technical information exchange by specialists and scientists, under the Arrangement of the Implementation of Cooperative Research Program in the Field of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear between JAERI and KAERI. And JAERI-KAERI joint seminar has been held every three years. The 1st and 2nd JAERI-KAERI Joint Seminars were held in November 1992 at JAERI and in September 1995 at KAERI, respectively. The 3rd JAERI-KAERI Joint Seminar was held on 25 and 26 March, 1999 at the Oarai Research Establishment of JAERI. In this seminar, total participants of 84 were joined from JAERI, KAERI, Hanyang University, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Oarai Branch of Institute for Materials Research (IMR) of Tohoku University, Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd., Nuclear Development Corporation and others. Contributed presentations were in three sessions; Current status and future perspectives on PIE, PIE techniques and Evaluation of PIE data. Re-assembling technique for JOYO fuel, Nd-YAG laser welding technique, grain boundary analysis using FEG-TEM, lift time estimation of PWR Rod Cluster Control Assembly (RCCA) rodlet and failure analysis of Korea Nuclear Power Plant (KNP) fuel have been widely noticed as topic items on PIE. And some comments from PIE user, were pointed out that the nano-PIE technique, the flexibility to ad-hoc demands on testing space or utilization, and the international collaboration were very important for the next generation's PIE. The 34 of the present papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  17. Advanced volume reduction program for LLW at JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, H.; Sato, M.; Hirabayashi, T.; Tanaka, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Dept. of Decommissioning and Waste Management, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has recently decided to adopt an advanced volume reduction program and started the construction of facilities, in which volume reduction techniques will be applied and achieved high volume reduction ratio and stabilization by means of melting or super compaction processes. It will be able to produce waste packages for final disposal and to reduce the amount of the wastes by operating the advanced volume reduction facilities. These facilities consist of Waste Size Reduction and Storage Facilities and Waste Volume Reduction Facilities; the former have cutting installations for large size wastes and the latter have melting units and a super compactor. The waste volume reduction will be carried out by a super compactor, a metal melting unit and a non-metal melting unit equipped plasma torch, and an annual processing capacity is around 10,000 drums of 200-liter size. The volume reduction ratio of waste is around 1/3 to 1/6. Molten metal is cast to receptacles for receiving molten slag from non-metal melting unit. Thus the amount of secondary wastes are reduced by utilizing the metallic wastes as receptacles. (authors)

  18. JAERI tandem-accelerator and tandem-booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Tadashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In 1982, aiming at the new development of atomic energy research, the tandem accelerator of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was installed. In fiscal year 1993, the superconducting boosters which can increase the ion energy by up to 4 times were added, and the research in the region below 1000 MeV became possible. Those are electrostatic type accelerators which are easy to be used especially in basic research field, and are useful for future research. The tandem accelerator has been operated while maintaining the first class performance as the accelerator for various kinds of heavy ion beam. It has the special shape among electrostatic type accelerators, and is excellent in the easiness of control and stability. The main particulars of the tandem accelerator are shown. As for the ion sources of the tandem accelerator, three cesium sputter type ion sources are installed on two high voltage stands. The kinds of the ions which can be accelerated are mainly negative ions. As the improvement, electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are expected to be adopted. As for the tandem boosters, the 1/4 wavelength type resonance hollow cylinder was adopted. The constitution of the tandem boosters is explained. The way of utilizing the tandem accelerator system and the aim for hereafter are reported. (K.I.)

  19. PRODUCTION OF 11 C-METHIONINE BY CYCLOTRON AVF JAERI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hastini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available At the Takasaki-site of JAERI, an AVF cyclotron has been constructed for advanced radiation technology research. The cyclotron produces extracted beams particularly light and heavy ions of proton as well as deutron. Target chamber is available for production of 11CO2 a positron emitter radioisotope, by bombardment of proton from nitrogen gas as a target, by 14 N (p,a 11C reaction. The use of incident energy on target was estimated to be 11 MeV for primary proton energy of 20 MeV and the beam current was 0,1 m A and the irradiation time was 10 minutes for production of 11CO2 and the yield was about 30 MBq (EOBand for irradiation time 15 minutes and the beam current was 1 mA for production of 11C-Methionine, the yield was about 70 MBq (EOB. Remotely operated automatic and semiautomatic processing systems are used for the production of the 11 C-Methionine agent and the radiochemical purity of the product obtained was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC with cation exchange column was LC 10 AD MERCK LICHROSPHER 100 RP-18 and the mobile phase was 10 mM ammonium phormmate, the mean of retention time was 1,815 minutes and the radiochemical purity to be more than 90 %. The product was used for plant studies and visualized by PETIS (Positron Emission Tracer Imaging System   Keywords: cyclotron, Positron emitter, 11C-Methionine.

  20. Results from the Argonne, Los Alamos, JAERI collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meadows, J.; Smith, D.; Greenwood, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Haight, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ikeda, Y.; Konno, C. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-07-01

    Four sample packets containing elemental Ti, Fe, Ni, Cu, Nb, Ag, Eu, Tb and Hf have been irradiated in three distinct accelerator neutron fields, at Argonne National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA, and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Japan. The acquired experimental data include differential cross sections and integral cross sections for the continuum neutron spectrum produced by 7-MeV deuterons incident on thick Be-metal target. The U-238(n,f) cross section was also measured at 10.3 MeV as a consistency check on the experimental technique. This the third progress report on a project which has been carried out under the auspices of an IAEA Coordinated Research Program entitled ``Activation Cross Sections for the Generation Of Long-lived Radionuclides of Importance in Fusion Reactor Technology``. The present report provides the latest results from this work. Comparison is made between the 14.7-MeV cross-section values obtained from the separate investigations at Argonne and JAERI. Generally, good agreement observed within the experimental errors when consistent sample parameters, radioactivity decay data and reference cross values are employed. A comparison is also made between the experimental results and those derived from calculations using a nuclear model. Experimental neutron information on the Be(d,n) neutron spectrum was incorporated in the comparisons for the integral results. The agreement is satisfactory considering the various uncertainties that are involved.

  1. On the compressor ring for the JAERI neutron science project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Isao [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    (1), As long as a 1.5 GeV-8 MW linear accelerator is constructed in the JAERI neutron science center, it is quite reasonable to construct a 5 MW compressor ring as a driver of a high intensity spallation neutron source to generate pulsed neutron beams. (2), Suppression of beam loss around the compressor ring to an acceptable level is the most crucial subject to be coped with in designing a MW-class compressor ring. This subject should be successfully cleared by carefully studying and designing the overall system of accelerator and tunnel. (3), The `PSR instability` was comprehensively discussed in the NSNS workshop held at Santa Fe in March, 1997, as a remaining problem of a high intensity proton compressor ring. People of Los Alamos attributed it to an e-p instability. But some questions like the cause that makes some part of protons leak away from a beam bunch to a bunch gap are yet left open. (4), A new scheme of two step H{sup 0} injection is proposed to remove defects of the conventional one of Los Alamos PSR. (author)

  2. An optical resonator with insertable scraper output coupler for the JAERI far-infrared free-electron laser

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, R; Nishimori, N; Sawamura, M; Kikuzawa, N; Shizuma, T; Minehara, E J

    2001-01-01

    The performance of an optical resonator featuring an insertable scraper output coupler was evaluated for the JAERI far-infrared free-electron laser. An efficiency factor of the resonator was introduced for evaluation. The efficiency factor was derived from the amount of the output coupling and diffractive loss of the optical resonator, which were calculated by using an optical mode calculation code, using the iterative computation called Fox-Li procedure. As a result of the evaluation, it was found that the insertable scraper coupler was the most suitable for the far-infrared free-electron lasers.Dependencies of insertion direction and scraper radius were also investigated to find out the optimum geometry of the insertable scraper coupler. It was found that the optimum direction of the scraper was parallel to the wiggling plane of the electron beam and the efficiency of the optical resonator increased with the enlargement of the scraper radius.

  3. Computer-based speech therapy for childhood speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Lisa; Erickson, Shane; Morris, Meg E

    2017-07-01

    With the current worldwide workforce shortage of Speech-Language Pathologists, new and innovative ways of delivering therapy to children with speech sound disorders are needed. Computer-based speech therapy may be an effective and viable means of addressing service access issues for children with speech sound disorders. To evaluate the efficacy of computer-based speech therapy programs for children with speech sound disorders. Studies reporting the efficacy of computer-based speech therapy programs were identified via a systematic, computerised database search. Key study characteristics, results, main findings and details of computer-based speech therapy programs were extracted. The methodological quality was evaluated using a structured critical appraisal tool. 14 studies were identified and a total of 11 computer-based speech therapy programs were evaluated. The results showed that computer-based speech therapy is associated with positive clinical changes for some children with speech sound disorders. There is a need for collaborative research between computer engineers and clinicians, particularly during the design and development of computer-based speech therapy programs. Evaluation using rigorous experimental designs is required to understand the benefits of computer-based speech therapy. The reader will be able to 1) discuss how computerbased speech therapy has the potential to improve service access for children with speech sound disorders, 2) explain the ways in which computer-based speech therapy programs may enhance traditional tabletop therapy and 3) compare the features of computer-based speech therapy programs designed for different client populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Extended abstracts of the 12th JAERI workshop on high-Tc superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojou, Kiichi; Okayasu, Satoru; Sasase, Masato [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ishida, Takekazu [Osaka Prefectual Univ., Sakai (JP)] (eds.)

    2001-03-01

    This workshop was held on December 7-8, 2000 at JAERI (Tokai). The research group at JAERI shares a responsibility for material modification of high-Tc superconductors by irradiation in 'the multi-core project II of the high temperature superconducting material research' organized by STA (Science and Technology Agency) of Japan. This report contains the extended abstracts of workshop presentations covering basic theories, various experimental results and material improvement studies of the superconductivity by high energy ion irradiation. The twelve presentations of the workshop were devoted to a mini symposium where the direct observations of vortices were discussed in view of the various sophisticated techniques. (author)

  5. 10 CFR 35.457 - Therapy-related computer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Therapy-related computer systems. 35.457 Section 35.457 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Manual Brachytherapy § 35.457 Therapy-related computer systems. The licensee shall perform acceptance testing on the treatment planning...

  6. Historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI. Fission, fusion, accelerator utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tone, Tatsuzo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Overview of the historical evolution of nuclear energy systems development and related activities in JAERI is given in the report. This report reviews the research and development for light water reactor, fast breeder reactor, high temperature gas reactor, fusion reactor and utilization of accelerator-based neutron source. (author)

  7. JAERI TANDEM and V.D.G. annual report 1995. April 1, 1995 - March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Suehiro; Ikezoe, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Akira; Sataka, Masao; Nagame, Yuichiro; Shoji, Tokio; Okabe, Takashi; Maekawa, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [eds.

    1996-08-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI Tandem accelerator and the Van de Graaff accelerator from April 1, 1995 to March 31, 1996. Summary reports of 59 papers, and list of publications, personnel and cooperative researches with universities are contained. (author)

  8. JAERI TANDEM annual report 2000. April 1, 2000 - March 31, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Suehiro; Ikezoe, Hiroshi; Chiba, Satoshi; Nagame, Yuichiro; Sataka, Masao; Iwamoto, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] (eds.)

    2001-11-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI tandem accelerator and the Van de Graaff accelerator from April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2001. Summary reports of 46 papers, and lists of publication, personnel and cooperative research with universities are contained. (author)

  9. JAERI tandem annual report 2001. April 1, 2001 - March 31, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Suehiro; Ikezoe, Hiroshi; Chiba, Satoshi; Nagame, Yuichiro; Sataka, Masao; Iwamoto, Akira (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI tandem accelerator and the Van de Graaff accelerator from April 1, 2001 to March 31, 2002. Summary reports of 48 papers, and lists of publication, personnel and cooperative research with universities are contained. (author)

  10. JAERI tandem and V.D.G. annual report 1998. April 1, 1998 - March 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI tandem accelerator and the Van de Graaff accelerator from April 1, 1998 to March 31, 1999. Summary reports of 38 papers, and lists of publication, personnel and cooperative research with universities and contained. (author)

  11. JAERI tandem and V.D.G. annual report 1997. April 1, 1997 - March 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Suehiro; Ikezoe, Hiroshi; Chiba, Satoshi; Sataka, Masao; Nagame, Yuichiro; Takemori, Satoshi; Iwamoto, Akira [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI tandem accelerator and the Van de Graaff accelerator from April 1, 1997 to March 31, 1998. Summary reports of 40 papers, and lists of publication, personnel and cooperative researches with universities are contained. (author)

  12. JAERI TANDEM and V.D.G. annual report 1994. April 1, 1994 - March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yasuo; Ikezoe, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Akira; Sataka, Masao; Shinohara, Nobuo; Takeuchi, Suehiro; Shoji, Tokio; Okabe, Takashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [eds.

    1995-10-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI tandem accelerator and the Van de Graaff accelerator from April 1, 1994 to March 31, 1995. Summary reports of 47 papers, and list of publications, personnel and cooperative researches with universities are contained. (author).

  13. JAERI tandem annual report 1999. April 1, 1999 - March 31, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI tandem accelerator and the Van de Graaff accelerator from April 1, 1999 to March 31, 2000. Summary reports of 49 papers, and lists of publication, personnel and cooperative research with universities are contained. (author)

  14. JAERI TANDEM and V.D.G. annual report 1996. April 1, 1996 - March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Suehiro; Ikezoe, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Akira; Sataka, Masao; Nagame, Yuichiro; Shoji, Tokio; Okabe, Takashi; Maekawa, Hiroshi [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-09-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI tandem accelerator and the Van de Graaf accelerator from April 1, 1996 to March 31, 1997. Summary reports of 48 papers, and list of publications, personnel and cooperative researches with universities are contained. (author)

  15. The JAERI and Universities joint project research reports on the 4th joint research project between JAERI and Universities on backend chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    In the Joint Research Project between JAERI and Universities on Backend Chemistry, the 4th-term researches of it were performed on sixteen themes from April of 1999 to March of 2001 under the four categories, i.e. Nuclear-chemistry and physical-chemistry properties of actinides', 'Solid state chemistry and nuclear fuel engineering of actinides', 'Solution chemistry and technologies for separation and analysis of actinides' and Treatment of radioactive waste and environmental chemistry'. The present report compiled the papers contributed to the Joint Research Project. (author)

  16. Ion source development for the JAERI on-line isotope separator

    CERN Document Server

    Ichikawa, S; Matsuda, M; Tsukada, K; Asai, M; Nagame, Y; Jeong, S C; Katayama, I

    2003-01-01

    In accordance with the JAERI-KEK joint radioactive nuclear beam (RNB) project, we have installed a forced electron beam induced arc discharge (FEBIAD) type integrated-target-ion source in the JAERI-ISOL to produce heavy neutron-rich RNBs with particle-induced fission of sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U. In the present ion source, a 2.6-g sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 UC sub 2 target is directly attached to a plasma chamber. RNBs of sup 8 Li, sup 1 sup 8 F and sup 2 sup 0 F are also planned to be used for the study of thermal diffusion in materials in the joint project. Release profiles of sup 7 Li have been studied using a cavity type thermal ion source. For mass-separation of F atoms, the molecular ion formations have been examined using the FEBIAD ion source.

  17. HRB-22 capsule irradiation test for HTGR fuel. JAERI/USDOE collaborative irradiation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minato, Kazuo; Sawa, Kazuhiro; Fukuda, Kousaku [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-03-01

    As a JAERI/USDOE collaborative irradiation test for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel, JAERI fuel compacts were irradiated in the HRB-22 irradiation capsule in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Postirradiation examinations also were performed at ORNL. This report describes 1) the preirradiation characterization of the irradiation samples of annular-shaped fuel compacts containing the Triso-coated fuel particles, 2) the irradiation conditions and fission gas releases during the irradiation to measure the performance of the coated particle fuel, 3) the postirradiation examinations of the disassembled capsule involving visual inspection, metrology, ceramography and gamma-ray spectrometry of the samples, and 4) the accident condition tests on the irradiated fuels at 1600 to 1800degC to obtain information about fuel performance and fission product release behavior under accident conditions. (author)

  18. JAERI 200 kV Electron Gun with an NEA-GaAs Photocathode

    CERN Document Server

    Nishitani, Tomohiro; Kikuzawa, Nobuhiro; John Minehara, Eisuke; Nagai, Ryoji; Nishimori, Nobuyuki; Sawamura, Masaru; Yamauchi, T

    2004-01-01

    The GaAs photocathode with negative electron affinity surface (NEA-GaAs) has been expected to be low emittance (<0.5 πmm・mrad) electron beam source. In order to generate low emittance electron beam required from ERL-FEL, we have started the developmental program of a 200keV electron gun with the NEA-GaAs photocathode for the first time in JAERI. An NEA surface has the problem that lifetime is limited by gun vacuum condition and by ion back bombardment between anode- and cathode-electrode. In order to long an NEA surface lifetime, the JAERI 200keV electron gun system consists of a 200kV DC-gun chamber on extreme high vacuum condition and an NEA activation chamber with load-lock system.

  19. Proceedings of the first JAERI-Kansai international workshop on ultrashort-pulse ultrahigh-power lasers and simulation for laser-plasma interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Records of the First JAERI-Kansai International Workshop, which focused on the subject of `Ultrashort-Pulse Ultrahigh-Power Lasers and Simulation for Laser-Plasma Interactions`, are contained in this issue. The First JAERI-Kansai International Workshop was held as Joint ICFA/JAERI-Kansai International Workshop `97 with International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA). This report consists of 24 contributed papers. (J.P.N.)

  20. JAERI TIARA annual report 1994. V.4. April 1994 - March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Ryuichi; Seguchi, Tadao; Nashiyama, Isamu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [eds.] [and others

    1995-10-01

    This annual report describes research activities which have been performed with the JAERI TIARA (Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application) facilities from April 1, 1994 to March 31, 1995. Summary reports of 86 papers and briaf descriptions on status of TIARA in the period are contained. A list of publications, the type of research collaborations and organization of TIARA are also given as appendices. (author).

  1. Transport calculation of thermal and cold neutrons using NMTC/JAERI-MCNP4A code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iga, Kiminori [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Takada, Hiroshi; Nagao, Tadashi

    1998-01-01

    In order to investigate the applicability of the NMTC/JAERI-MCNP4A code system to the neutronics design study in the neutron science research project of JAERI, transport calculations of thermal and cold neutrons are performed with the code system on a spallation neutron source composed of light water cooled tantalum target with a moderator and a reflector system. The following neutronic characteristics are studied in the calculation : the variation of the intensity of neutrons emitted from a light water moderator or a liquid hydrogen with/without the B{sub 4}C decoupler, which are installed to produce sharp pulse, and that dependent on the position of external source neutrons in the tantalum target. The calculated neutron energy spectra are reproduced well by the semi-empirical formula with the parameter values reliable in physical meanings. It is found to be necessary to employ proper importance sampling technique in the statistics. It is confirmed from this work that the NMTC/JAERI-MCNP4A code system is applicable to the neutronics design study of spallation neutron sources proposed for the neutron science research project. (author)

  2. Computer Aided in situ Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongtay, Rocio A.; Hansen, John Paulin; Decker, Lone

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the development of a system intended to aid the treatment of certain phobic conditions by the use of computer telephony integration (CTI).A phobia is an irrational fear to some situations or things and interferes with the functioning of the individual that suffers from it...

  3. Computer-assisted cognitive-behavior therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eells, Tracy D; Barrett, Marna S; Wright, Jesse H; Thase, Michael

    2014-06-01

    This article reviews the use of computer technology in treating depression as a substitute or adjunct for standard therapy. It discusses advantages and disadvantages of introducing computer technology as a treatment option, problems and barriers to expanded use, the varieties of computer-assisted psychotherapy for major depression, and relevant research. Three specific Internet-based programs are described, assessed and compared: Good Days Ahead, Beating the Blues, and MoodGYM. The authors conclude that these and similar programs are promising. Preliminary outcome studies suggest that these programs produce outcome similar to standard therapy, although methodological shortcomings limit confidence in these findings. Suggestions are offered for practitioners considering the addition of computer assistance to their treatment of depression. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. GPU-based high-performance computing for radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xun; Ziegenhein, Peter; Jiang, Steve B

    2014-02-21

    Recent developments in radiotherapy therapy demand high computation powers to solve challenging problems in a timely fashion in a clinical environment. The graphics processing unit (GPU), as an emerging high-performance computing platform, has been introduced to radiotherapy. It is particularly attractive due to its high computational power, small size, and low cost for facility deployment and maintenance. Over the past few years, GPU-based high-performance computing in radiotherapy has experienced rapid developments. A tremendous amount of study has been conducted, in which large acceleration factors compared with the conventional CPU platform have been observed. In this paper, we will first give a brief introduction to the GPU hardware structure and programming model. We will then review the current applications of GPU in major imaging-related and therapy-related problems encountered in radiotherapy. A comparison of GPU with other platforms will also be presented.

  5. Ethical and Professional Issues in Computer-Assisted Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, B. Douglas

    1993-01-01

    Discusses ethical and professional issues in psychology regarding computer-assisted therapy (CAT). Topics addressed include an explanation of CAT; whether CAT is psychotherapy; software, including independent use, validation of effectiveness, and restricted access; clinician resistance; client acceptance; the impact on ethical standards; and a…

  6. Renal Diet Therapy--A Computer-Assisted Instruction Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Lois; Thiele, Victoria F.

    1981-01-01

    A computer-assisted instruction (CAI) unit was designed to teach renal diet therapy. Utilizing this unit, differences in performance and attitudes between traditionally taught and CAI taught students (N=34), and differences in achievement between students in two nutrition fields were assessed. (DS)

  7. Computer Supported Decision Making in Therapy of Arterial Hypertension

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peleška, Jan; Švejda, David; Zvárová, Jana

    1997-01-01

    Roč. 45, 1/2 (1997), s. 25-29 ISSN 1386-5056 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA313/93/0616 Grant - others:COPERNICUS(XE) JRP-10053 Keywords : computer supported decision making * microsoft access language * therapy of arterial hypertension

  8. Computer Games as Therapy for Persons with Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Sarah A; Foreman, Matt H; Engsberg, Jack R

    2013-02-01

    Stroke affects approximately 800,000 individuals each year, with 65% having residual impairments. Studies have demonstrated that mass practice leads to regaining motor function in affected extremities; however, traditional therapy does not include the repetitions needed for this recovery. Videogames have been shown to be good motivators to complete repetitions. Advances in technology and low-cost hardware bring new opportunities to use computer games during stroke therapy. This study examined the use of the Microsoft (Redmond, WA) Kinect™ and Flexible Action and Articulated Skeleton Toolkit (FAAST) software as a therapy tool to play existing free computer games on the Internet. Three participants attended a 1-hour session where they played two games with upper extremity movements as game controls. Video was taken for analysis of movement repetitions, and questions were answered about participant history and their perceptions of the games. Participants remained engaged through both games; regardless of previous computer use all participants successfully played two games. Five minutes of game play averaged 34 repetitions of the affected extremity. The Intrinsic Motivation Inventory showed a high level of satisfaction in two of the three participants. The Kinect Sensor with the FAAST software has the potential to be an economical tool to be used alongside traditional therapy to increase the number of repetitions completed in a motivating and engaging way for clients.

  9. Vestibular physical therapy intervention: utilizing a computer assisted rehabilitation environment in lieu of traditional physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottshall, Kim R; Sessoms, Pinata H; Bartlett, Jamie L

    2012-01-01

    Advanced technology such as virtual reality or immersive environments increases the complexities and challenges therapists can impose on their patients. In this study, four patients with mild traumatic brain injury utilized a Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment (CAREN) in place of traditional vestibular physical therapy. Patients visited the CAREN twice weekly for 6 weeks. Therapy sessions included a variety of applications that tasked the cognitive and physical capabilities of individual patients. After the 6 weeks, all patients showed improvement on balance, gait and visual measures. Virtual reality based therapy is an engaging and effective tool to treat patients with deficiencies related to a prior brain injury.

  10. Developing plan and pre-conceptual design of target system for JAERI`s high intensity neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Ryutaro; Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Ishikura, Syuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nakamura, Fumito; Uchida, Shoji

    1997-11-01

    This paper presents an outline of developing plan of a target system and topics obtained by a pre-conceptual design, which aims to establish a technology base of the target system and to make clear a system concept. In the plan, two types of target - solid and mercury targets - are to be developed for a neutron scattering facility. Information obtained through the development shall be applied to designs of an irradiation and a transmutation facilities. Through the pre-conceptual design, system arrangement, scale etc. were made clear: total weight will be 12000 ton, and 26 beam lines with beam shutters will be equipped for 4 moderators. Engineering problems were also made clear through the design; high flux heat removal, dynamic stress caused by thermal shock and pressure wave, loop technology for the mercury target and a slurry moderator consisting of methane pellets and liquefied hydrogen. We are now constructing new test apparatuses and arranging computer codes for solving these problems. (author)

  11. Computer games supporting cognitive behaviour therapy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinka, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic computer games might enhance children's motivation for psychotherapy, facilitate their understanding of important therapeutic concepts, structure therapy sessions, enhance treatment of migrant children and disseminate evidence-based treatment approaches. The game Treasure Hunt was developed to support cognitive behaviour therapy with children who come into treatment for various mental health problems. To evaluate the applicability and appropriateness of the game, 124 therapists answered a questionnaire on their impression of Treasure Hunt three months after download. Of these, 42 consented to participate in the further evaluation and sent questionnaires of 218 children in whose therapy Treasure Hunt had been used. A limitation of these data is an eventual positive bias, as therapists with a positive attitude towards therapeutic computer games may have been more likely to participate. Data show that the vast majority of children were satisfied their therapist had used the game during treatment. Therapists used Treasure Hunt for a broad range of diagnoses. They judged the game as helpful in the explanation of cognitive-behavioural concepts, used it as reinforcement and reported it enhanced child motivation for psychotherapy and strengthened the therapeutic relationship with the child.

  12. Medical image computing for computer-supported diagnostics and therapy. Advances and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handels, H; Ehrhardt, J

    2009-01-01

    Medical image computing has become one of the most challenging fields in medical informatics. In image-based diagnostics of the future software assistance will become more and more important, and image analysis systems integrating advanced image computing methods are needed to extract quantitative image parameters to characterize the state and changes of image structures of interest (e.g. tumors, organs, vessels, bones etc.) in a reproducible and objective way. Furthermore, in the field of software-assisted and navigated surgery medical image computing methods play a key role and have opened up new perspectives for patient treatment. However, further developments are needed to increase the grade of automation, accuracy, reproducibility and robustness. Moreover, the systems developed have to be integrated into the clinical workflow. For the development of advanced image computing systems methods of different scientific fields have to be adapted and used in combination. The principal methodologies in medical image computing are the following: image segmentation, image registration, image analysis for quantification and computer assisted image interpretation, modeling and simulation as well as visualization and virtual reality. Especially, model-based image computing techniques open up new perspectives for prediction of organ changes and risk analysis of patients and will gain importance in diagnostic and therapy of the future. From a methodical point of view the authors identify the following future trends and perspectives in medical image computing: development of optimized application-specific systems and integration into the clinical workflow, enhanced computational models for image analysis and virtual reality training systems, integration of different image computing methods, further integration of multimodal image data and biosignals and advanced methods for 4D medical image computing. The development of image analysis systems for diagnostic support or

  13. Effects of computer-assisted oral anticoagulant therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Corell, Pernille; Madsen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    the therapeutic target range compared to traditional oral anticoagulant therapy by physicians. METHODS: 54 patients were randomized equally into 3 groups. Patients in two groups used CoaguChek® systems to measure international normalized ratio (INR) values and had dosages of anticoagulation treatment calculated...... in a computer system by an algorithm specific to each group. The third group received traditional anticoagulation treatment by physicians. The obtained INR values were compared regarding the time to reach, and the time spent within, the therapeutic target range, corresponding to INR values from 2 to 3. RESULTS......: Patients randomized to computer-assisted anticoagulation and the CoaguChek® system reached the therapeutic target range after 8 days compared to 14 days by prescriptions from physicians (p = 0.04). Time spent in the therapeutic target range did not differ between groups. The median INR value measured...

  14. The development of an ECR charge breeder for KEK-JAERI joint RNB project

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, S C; Tojyo, E; Kawakami, H; Ishiyama, H; Miyatake, H; Enomoto, K; Watanabe, Y; Katayama, I; Nomura, T; Matsuda, M; Osa, A; Ichikawa, S

    2003-01-01

    For the construction of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) charge breeder (CB) at KEK-JAERI radioactive nuclear beam facility, we have made a pilot charge breeding system consisting of two compact-sized ECR ion sources. In order to find the necessary conditions for an ECRCB with high efficiency, the charge breeding efficiency for Ar ions in nitrogen plasma has been measured and compared with the results from the simulation of the trajectories of the ions in the plasma. By explicitly taking into account the cumulative small angle scattering of charged ions as well as the confinement magnetic field of the pilot CB, the simulation predicts the stopping efficiency. This is defined as a probability that the injected ions are still within the plasma volume when their initial directional motions have become randomized. Incorporating the ionization efficiency for the ions, the overall breeding efficiency has been estimated. Finally, the characteristics of the ECRCB recently installed for tests at KEK is described.

  15. Electron beam flue gas treatment. Research cooperation among JAERI, IAEA and INCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The research co-operation is conducted among Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Poland (INCT) on Electron Beam Flue Gas Treatment from January 1993 to March 1997. The first phase of the cooperation was carried out for 3 years from January 1993 to March 1995. This cooperation was performed through information exchange meetings (Coordination Meetings), held in Takasaki and Warsaw, and experiments and discussions by exchange scientists. Many useful results were obtained on electron beam treatment of flue gas from coal-combustion heat generation plant in Kaweczyn within the frame work of the research co-operation. This report includes the main results of the tripartite research cooperation. (author)

  16. Computational Models of HIV-1 Resistance to Gene Therapy Elucidate Therapy Design Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviran, Sharon; Shah, Priya S.; Schaffer, David V.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy is an emerging alternative to conventional anti-HIV-1 drugs, and can potentially control the virus while alleviating major limitations of current approaches. Yet, HIV-1's ability to rapidly acquire mutations and escape therapy presents a critical challenge to any novel treatment paradigm. Viral escape is thus a key consideration in the design of any gene-based technique. We develop a computational model of HIV's evolutionary dynamics in vivo in the presence of a genetic therapy to explore the impact of therapy parameters and strategies on the development of resistance. Our model is generic and captures the properties of a broad class of gene-based agents that inhibit early stages of the viral life cycle. We highlight the differences in viral resistance dynamics between gene and standard antiretroviral therapies, and identify key factors that impact long-term viral suppression. In particular, we underscore the importance of mutationally-induced viral fitness losses in cells that are not genetically modified, as these can severely constrain the replication of resistant virus. We also propose and investigate a novel treatment strategy that leverages upon gene therapy's unique capacity to deliver different genes to distinct cell populations, and we find that such a strategy can dramatically improve efficacy when used judiciously within a certain parametric regime. Finally, we revisit a previously-suggested idea of improving clinical outcomes by boosting the proliferation of the genetically-modified cells, but we find that such an approach has mixed effects on resistance dynamics. Our results provide insights into the short- and long-term effects of gene therapy and the role of its key properties in the evolution of resistance, which can serve as guidelines for the choice and optimization of effective therapeutic agents. PMID:20711350

  17. Computational models of HIV-1 resistance to gene therapy elucidate therapy design principles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Aviran

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy is an emerging alternative to conventional anti-HIV-1 drugs, and can potentially control the virus while alleviating major limitations of current approaches. Yet, HIV-1's ability to rapidly acquire mutations and escape therapy presents a critical challenge to any novel treatment paradigm. Viral escape is thus a key consideration in the design of any gene-based technique. We develop a computational model of HIV's evolutionary dynamics in vivo in the presence of a genetic therapy to explore the impact of therapy parameters and strategies on the development of resistance. Our model is generic and captures the properties of a broad class of gene-based agents that inhibit early stages of the viral life cycle. We highlight the differences in viral resistance dynamics between gene and standard antiretroviral therapies, and identify key factors that impact long-term viral suppression. In particular, we underscore the importance of mutationally-induced viral fitness losses in cells that are not genetically modified, as these can severely constrain the replication of resistant virus. We also propose and investigate a novel treatment strategy that leverages upon gene therapy's unique capacity to deliver different genes to distinct cell populations, and we find that such a strategy can dramatically improve efficacy when used judiciously within a certain parametric regime. Finally, we revisit a previously-suggested idea of improving clinical outcomes by boosting the proliferation of the genetically-modified cells, but we find that such an approach has mixed effects on resistance dynamics. Our results provide insights into the short- and long-term effects of gene therapy and the role of its key properties in the evolution of resistance, which can serve as guidelines for the choice and optimization of effective therapeutic agents.

  18. Mobile phone computing for in-situ cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Magnus; Timpka, Toomas; Eriksson, Henrik; Holm, Einar; Nordin, Conny

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for psychological disorders is becoming increasingly popular on the Internet. However, when using this workstation approach, components such as training and learning relaxation skills, problem solving, exposure exercises, and sleep management guidance must be done in the domestic environment. This paper describes design concepts for providing spatially explicit CBT with mobile phones. We reviewed and analyzed a set of treatment manuals to distinguish elements of CBT that can be improved and supported using mobile phone applications. The key advantage of mobile computing support in CBT is that multimedia can be applied to record, scale, and label anxiety-provoking situations where the need arises, which helps the CBT clients formulate and convey their thoughts and feelings to relatives and friends, as well as to therapists at subsequent treatment sessions.

  19. A conceptual design of the DTL-SDTL for the JAERI high intensity proton accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ino, Hiroshi; Kabeya, Zenzaburo [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Chishiro, Etsuji; Ouchi, Nobuo; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Mizumoto, Motoharu

    1998-08-01

    A high intensity proton linear accelerator with an energy of 1.5 GeV and an average beam power of 8 MW has been proposed for the Neutron Science Project (NSP) at JAERI. This linac starts with radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, which is followed by a drift-tube linac (DTL), separated-type DTL (SDTL), and a superconducting structure. In this report, we focus on the DTL and SDTL part of the accelerator. The DTL accelerates the beam from 2 to 51 MeV, and SDTL accelerates the beam from 51 to 10 MeV. Since the main features of the requirement for the DTL-SDTL are high peak current ({approx}30 mA) and a high-duty factor ({approx}CW), the conceptual design should be determined not only based on the result of a beam-dynamics calculation, but by careful study of the cooling problems. The design processes of the DTL-SDTL and the matching sections (RFQ to DTL, CW-Pulse merge section, and SDTL to SCC) and the result of a heat transfer analysis of DTL are described. (author)

  20. Establishment of a clean chemistry laboratory at JAERI. Clean laboratory for environmental analysis and research (CLEAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzawa, Yukiko; Magara, Masaaki; Watanabe, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2003-02-01

    The JAERI has established a facility with a cleanroom: the Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research (CLEAR). This report is an overview of the design, construction and performance evaluation of the CLEAR in the initial stage of the laboratory operation in June 2001. The CLEAR is a facility to be used for analyses of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials in environmental samples for the safeguards, for the CTBT verification and for researches on environmental sciences. One of the special features of the CLEAR is that it meets double requirements of a cleanroom and for handling of nuclear materials. As another feature of the CLEAR, much attention was paid to the construction materials of the cleanroom for trace analysis of metal elements using considerable amounts of corrosive acids. The air conditioning and purification system, specially designed experimental equipment to provide clean work surfaces, utilities and safety systems are also demonstrated. The potential contamination from the completed cleanroom atmosphere during the analytical procedure was evaluated. It can be concluded that the CLEAR has provided a suitable condition for reliable analysis of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials and other heavy elements in environmental samples. (author)

  1. Computer-based self-help therapy: A qualitative analysis of attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Eric DA; Merrel, Jeremy; Clayton, Ashley; Morris, Christa; Rowe, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The impact of computer-based cognitive-behavioral self-help therapy programs is limited by high attrition. This study explored reactions to computer-based cognitive-behavioral self-help therapy use among individuals not completing a full treatment course. Individuals receiving outpatient substance use disorder treatment at a Veterans Health Administration clinic who enrolled in a study implementing a computer-based cognitive-behavioral self-help therapy for insomnia, but subsequently dropped out prior to completion, were interviewed. Reactions to use and reasons for attrition were explored through thematic analysis of interviews. Among barriers to use, themes of competing demands, personal attributes, the computer-based format of computer-based cognitive-behavioral self-help therapies, and negative experiences with the specific program used were identified. Among facilitators of use, themes of personal support, the computer-based cognitive-behavioral self-help therapy format, and personal attributes were identified. Recommendations for future implementation efforts to include additional person-to-person contact during computer-based cognitive-behavioral self-help therapy participation were made. These themes may be employed to develop strategies for computer-based cognitive-behavioral self-help therapy implementation in order to maximize program engagement and completion.

  2. JAERI 10kW High Power ERL-FEL and Its Applications in Nuclear Energy Industries

    CERN Document Server

    Minehara, E J; Iijima, H; Kikuzawa, N; Nagai, R; Nishimori, N; Nishitani, T; Sawamura, M; Yamauchi, T

    2005-01-01

    The JAERI high power ERL-FEL has been extended to the more powerful and efficient free-electron laser (FEL) than 10kW for nuclear energy industries, and other heavy industries like defense, shipbuilding, chemical industries, environmental sciences, space-debris, and power beaming and so on. In order to realize such a tunable, highly-efficient, high average power, high peak power and ultra-short pulse FEL, we need the efficient and powerful FEL driven by the JAERI compact, stand-alone and zero boil-off super-conducting RF linac with an energy-recovery geometry. Our discussions on the ERL-FEL will cover the current status of the 10kW upgrading and its applications of non-thermal peeling, cutting, and drilling to decommission the nuclear power plants, and to demonstrate successfully the proof of principle prevention of cold-worked stress-corrosion cracking failures in nuclear power reactors under routine operation using small cubic low-Carbon stainless steel samples.

  3. Present status of the radioactive nuclear beam facility at KEK-Tanashi and the E-arena in the KEK-JAERI joint project

    CERN Document Server

    Miyatake, H; Ishiyama, H; Ishida, Y; Kawakami, H; Yoshikawa, N; Katayama, I; Tanaka, M H; Tojyo, E; Oyaizu, M; Arai, S; Tomizawa, S; Niki, K; Arakaki, Y; Okada, M; Takeda, Y; Wada, M; Strasser, P; Kubono, S; Nomura, T

    2002-01-01

    The performance of the RNB facility at KEK-Tanashi, which is a pilot facility for the E-arena in the KEK-JAERI joint project, is presented. The muonic X-ray spectroscopy of unstable nuclei by combining the RNB with muon-beam from the M-arena in the joint project is introduced.

  4. Indirect versus direct feedback in computer-based Prism Adaptation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda; Rytter, Hana Malá

    2010-01-01

    Prism Adaptation Therapy (PAT) is an intervention method in the treatment of the attention disorder neglect (Frassinetti, Angeli, Meneghello, Avanzi, & Ladavas, 2002; Rossetti, et al., 1998). The aim of this study was to investigate whether one session of PAT using a computer-attached touchscreen...... in the aftereffect. The findings have direct implications for future implementations of computer-based methods of treatment of visuospatial disorders and computer-assisted rehabilitation in general....

  5.   Indirect versus direct feedback in computer-based Prism Adaptation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda; Rytter, Hana Malá

    2010-01-01

      Prism Adaptation Therapy (PAT) is an intervention method in the treatment of the attention disorder neglect (Frassinetti, Angeli, Meneghello, Avanzi, & Ladavas, 2002; Rossetti, et al., 1998). The aim of this study was to investigate whether one session of PAT using a computer-attached touchscreen...... have direct implications for future implementations of computer-based methods of treatment of visuospatial disorders and computer-assisted rehabilitation in general....

  6. Computer-based Programs in Speech Therapy of Dyslalia and Dyslexia- Dysgraphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Danubianu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, the researchers and therapists in speech therapy have been more and more concerned with the elaboration and use of computer programs in speech disorders therapy. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of computer-based programs for the Romanian language in speech therapy. Along the study, we will present the experimental research through assessing the effectiveness of computer programs in the speech therapy for speech disorders: dyslalia, dyslexia and dysgraphia. Methodologically, the use of the computer in the therapeutic phases was carried out with the help of some computer-based programs (Logomon, Dislex-Test etc. that we elaborated and we experimented with during several years of therapeutic activity. The sample used in our experiments was composed of 120 subjects; two groups of 60 children with speech disorders were selected for both speech disorders: 30 for the experimental ('computer-based' group and 30 for the control ('classical method' group. The study hypotheses verified whether the results, obtained by the subjects within the experimental group, improved significantly after using the computer-based program, compared to the subjects within the control group, who did not use this program but got a classical therapy. The hypotheses were confirmed for the speech disorders included in this research; the conclusions of the study confirm the advantages of using computer-based programs within speech therapy by correcting these disorders, as well as due to the positive influence these programs have on the development of children’s personality.

  7. Intricacies of Feedback in Computer-based Prism Adaptation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda; Rytter, Hana Malá

    Prism Adaptation Therapy (PAT) is an intervention method for treatment of attentional disorders, such as neglect e.g. 1,2. The method involves repeated pointing at specified targets with or without prism glasses using a specifically designed wooden box. The aim of this study was to ascertain...... of visuospatial disorders.     1. Rossetti et al. Nature 1998, 395: 166-169 2. Frassinetti et al. Brain 2002, 125: 608-623...

  8. Computational anatomy based on whole body imaging basic principles of computer-assisted diagnosis and therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Masutani, Yoshitaka

    2017-01-01

    This book deals with computational anatomy, an emerging discipline recognized in medical science as a derivative of conventional anatomy. It is also a completely new research area on the boundaries of several sciences and technologies, such as medical imaging, computer vision, and applied mathematics. Computational Anatomy Based on Whole Body Imaging highlights the underlying principles, basic theories, and fundamental techniques in computational anatomy, which are derived from conventional anatomy, medical imaging, computer vision, and applied mathematics, in addition to various examples of applications in clinical data. The book will cover topics on the basics and applications of the new discipline. Drawing from areas in multidisciplinary fields, it provides comprehensive, integrated coverage of innovative approaches to computational anatomy. As well,Computational Anatomy Based on Whole Body Imaging serves as a valuable resource for researchers including graduate students in the field and a connection with ...

  9. Research on radionuclide migration under subsurface geochemical conditions. JAERI/AECL Phase II Collaborative Program Year 1 (joint research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    A radionuclide migration experiment program for fractured rocks was performed under the JAERI/AECL Phase-II Collaborative Program on research and development in radioactive waste management. The program started in the fiscal year 1993, as a five-year program consists of Quarried block radionuclide migration program, Speciation of long-lived radionuclides in groundwater, Isotopic hydrogeology and Groundwater flow model development. During the first year of the program (Program Year 1: March 18, 1994 - September 30, 1994), a plan was developed to take out granite blocks containing part of natural water-bearing fracture from the wall of the experimental gallery at the depth of 240 m, and literature reviews were done in the area of the speciation of long-lived radionuclides in groundwater, isotopic hydrogeology and the groundwater flow model development to proceed further work for the Program Year 2. (author)

  10. Studies on groundwater flow and radionuclide migration at underground environments. Final report of collaboration research between JAERI and AECL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Hiromichi; Nagao, Seiya; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) conducted a collaboration program Phase II with the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) from 1994 to 1998. The program was started to contribute the establishment of safety assessment methodology for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes on the basis of the results from the Phase I program (1987-1993). The Phase II program consisted of following experimental items: (1) radionuclide migration experiments for quarried blocks (1m x 1m x 1m) of granite with natural fracture under in-situ geochemical conditions at 240 m level of Underground Research Laboratory of AECL; (2) study on the effects of dissolved organic materials extracted from natural groundwaters on radionuclide migration; (3) study on groundwater flow using environmental isotopes at two different geologic environments; (4) development of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model for heterogeneous geological media. The mobility of radionuclides was retarded in the fracture by the deep geological conditions and the fracture paths. The groundwater humic substances with high molecular size were enhanced for the mobility of radionuclides in the sand and granitic media due to the complexation. The application of {sup 36}Cl and {sup 129}I for the analysis on the long-term groundwater flow can be validated on the basis of investigation at the URL site. Moreover, the geostatistical model for the analysis on groundwater flow and radionuclide migration was developed, and was able to describe the groundwater flow and the migration of environmental tracers at AECL sites. This report summaries the results of the Phase II program between JAERI and AECL. (author)

  11. Computer animated relaxation therapy in children between 7 and 13 years with tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornoe, Birte; Skov, Liselotte

    2012-01-01

    assisted by computer animated surface EMG provided from the trapezius muscles and with the physiotherapist as a participant observer. Outcome measures were (a) headache frequency and intensity, (b) pericranial tenderness, (c) tension patterns, and (d) evaluations assessed at baseline and at 3 months follow......This pilot study evaluated the effect of computer animated relaxation therapy in children between 7 and 13 years with tension-type headache and the children's experiences with the therapy. The therapy consisted of an uncontrolled nine-session course in modified progressive relaxation therapy...... up. Nine children, mean age 10.9 (SD 1.7) years, diagnosed with frequent episodic or chronic tension-type headache completed the course. The results showed a mean improvement of 45% for headache frequency at 3 months follow up versus baseline and a significant reduction in headache frequency for all...

  12. Computer modelling for better diagnosis and therapy of patients by cardiac resynchronisation therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijmert, Marieke; Lumens, Joost; Potse, Mark; Delhaas, Tammo; Auricchio, Angelo; Prinzen, Frits W

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical or computer models have become increasingly popular in biomedical science. Although they are a simplification of reality, computer models are able to link a multitude of processes to each other. In the fields of cardiac physiology and cardiology, models can be used to describe the

  13. Computer-assisted cognitive remediation therapy: cognition, self-esteem and quality of life in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Gemma; Barrios, Maite; Penadés, Rafael; Enríquez, Maria; Garolera, Maite; Aragay, Núria; Pajares, Marta; Vallès, Vicenç; Delgado, Luis; Alberni, Joan; Faixa, Carlota; Vendrell, Josep M

    2013-11-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is an important outcome in the treatment of schizophrenia. Cognitive deficits have an impact on functional outcomes. Cognitive remediation therapy is emerging as a psychological intervention that targets cognitive impairment, but the effect of computer-assisted cognitive remediation on neuropsychology and social functioning and wellbeing remains unclear. The aim of the current study is to investigate the neurocognitive outcomes of computer-assisted cognitive remediation (CACR) therapy in a sample of schizophrenia patients, and to measure the quality of life and self-esteem as secondary outcomes. Sixty-seven people with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to computer-assisted cognitive remediation or an active control condition. The main outcomes were neuropsychological measures and secondary outcomes (self-esteem and quality of life). Measurements were recorded at baseline and post-treatment. The CACR therapy group improved in speed of processing, working memory and reasoning and problem-solving cognitive domains. QoL and self-esteem measures also showed significant improvements over time in this group. Computer-assisted cognitive remediation therapy for people with schizophrenia achieved improvements in neuropsychological performance and in QoL and self-esteem measurements. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of Tablet Computers to Promote Physical Therapy Students' Engagement in Knowledge Translation During Clinical Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Kathryn; Barbosa, Sabrina; Jiang, Fei; Lee, Karin T.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Physical therapists strive to integrate research into daily practice. The tablet computer is a potentially transformational tool for accessing information within the clinical practice environment. The purpose of this study was to measure and describe patterns of tablet computer use among physical therapy students during clinical rotation experiences. Methods: Doctor of physical therapy students (n = 13 users) tracked their use of tablet computers (iPad), loaded with commercially available apps, during 16 clinical experiences (6-16 weeks in duration). Results: The tablets were used on 70% of 691 clinic days, averaging 1.3 uses per day. Information seeking represented 48% of uses; 33% of those were foreground searches for research articles and syntheses and 66% were for background medical information. Other common uses included patient education (19%), medical record documentation (13%), and professional communication (9%). The most frequently used app was Safari, the preloaded web browser (representing 281 [36.5%] incidents of use). Users accessed 56 total apps to support clinical practice. Discussion and Conclusions: Physical therapy students successfully integrated use of a tablet computer into their clinical experiences including regular activities of information seeking. Our findings suggest that the tablet computer represents a potentially transformational tool for promoting knowledge translation in the clinical practice environment. Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A127). PMID:26945431

  15. Management of Liver Cancer Argon-helium Knife Therapy with Functional Computer Tomography Perfusion Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Shu, Shengjie; Li, Jinping; Jiang, Huijie

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the change in blood perfusion of liver cancer following argon-helium knife treatment with functional computer tomography perfusion imaging. Twenty-seven patients with primary liver cancer treated with argon-helium knife and were included in this study. Plain computer tomography (CT) and computer tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging were conducted in all patients before and after treatment. Perfusion parameters including blood flows, blood volume, hepatic artery perfusion fraction, hepatic artery perfusion, and hepatic portal venous perfusion were used for evaluating therapeutic effect. All parameters in liver cancer were significantly decreased after argon-helium knife treatment (p liver tissue, but other parameters kept constant. CT perfusion imaging is able to detect decrease in blood perfusion of liver cancer post-argon-helium knife therapy. Therefore, CTP imaging would play an important role for liver cancer management followed argon-helium knife therapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Ambulatory Computer-Assisted Therapy for Obesity: A New Frontier for Behavior Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Kent F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Implemented a behavioral treatment program for obesity using an interactive microcomputer system small enough to be carried by subjects. Subjects receiving the computer-assisted treatment lost approximately 2.5 times as much weight as controls and their rate of weight loss equaled that for more elaborate behavioral treatments. (MCF)

  17. Radiation therapy calculations using an on-demand virtual cluster via cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Keyes, Roy W; Arnold, Dorian; Luan, Shuang

    2010-01-01

    Computer hardware costs are the limiting factor in producing highly accurate radiation dose calculations on convenient time scales. Because of this, large-scale, full Monte Carlo simulations and other resource intensive algorithms are often considered infeasible for clinical settings. The emerging cloud computing paradigm promises to fundamentally alter the economics of such calculations by providing relatively cheap, on-demand, pay-as-you-go computing resources over the Internet. We believe that cloud computing will usher in a new era, in which very large scale calculations will be routinely performed by clinics and researchers using cloud-based resources. In this research, several proof-of-concept radiation therapy calculations were successfully performed on a cloud-based virtual Monte Carlo cluster. Performance evaluations were made of a distributed processing framework developed specifically for this project. The expected 1/n performance was observed with some caveats. The economics of cloud-based virtual...

  18. Annual report of the activities of health physics in JAERI in 2000. April 1, 2000 - March 31, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    This annual report summarizes the activities in fiscal year 2000 concerned with radiation protection which cover environmental monitoring of the facilities, radiation protection of workplace and workers, individual monitoring, maintenance of monitoring instruments, and their technical development, carried out at the establishments of Tokai, Naka, Takasaki, Oarai, Kansai and Mutsu of JAERI. The report also covers the research activities of 4 research laboratories, i.e., Radiation Risk analysis, Internal Dosimetry, External Dosimetry and Calibration Standards and Measurement, in Department of Health Physics in Tokai Research Establishment. There are no occupational exposure and effluent release recorded exceeding the prescribed limits for effective dose equivalent and radioactive concentrations for gaseous release and liquid waste. 10th International Conference of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) was held in May in 2000, and lots of cooperative activities for supporting the conference, such as presentations, attending the organizing or executive committees, etc. were made. Cooperative works concerning measurement of radiation dose and air concentration of large amount of monazite found in Saitama and Nagano prefectures were carried out and also for advice for the measures. The data such as radioactive air concentration or shielding factors obtained by the research and development for internal dosimetry and external dosimetry was adopted in the prescriptions of the regulations concerning prevention from radiation hazard in Japan. (author)

  19. Annual report of the activities of health physics in JAERI in 2001. April 1, 2001 - March 31, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    This annual report summarizes the activities in fiscal year 2001 concerned with radiation protection which cover environmental monitoring of the facilities, radiation protection of workplace and workers, individual monitoring, maintenance of monitoring instruments, and their technical development, carried out at the establishments of Tokai, Naka, Takasaki, Oarai, Kansai and Mutsu of JAERI. The report also covers the research activities of 4 research laboratories, i.e., Radiation Risk Analysis, Internal Dosimetry, External Dosimetry and Calibration Standards and Measurement, in the Department of Health Physics in Tokai Research Establishment. There are no occupational exposure and effluent release recorded exceeding the prescribed limits for effective dose and radioactivity concentrations for gaseous release and liquid waste. As for the R and D activities at the Department of Health Physics in Tokai Research Establishment, studies were conducted focusing mainly on the themes concerning elucidation of low-dose radiation effect and radiation risk assessment, dose estimations and radiation protection on external and internal exposures for high-energy accelerator utilization, and establishment of neutron calibration fields using an accelerator and the measurement techniques related to their traceability. (author)

  20. Annual report of the activities of health physics in JAERI in 1999. April 1, 1999 - March 31, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This annual report summarizes the activities in fiscal year 1999 concerned with radiation protection which cover environmental monitoring of the facilities, radiation protection of workplace and workers, individual monitoring, maintenance of monitoring instruments, and their technical development, carried out at the establishments of Tokai, Naka, Takasaki, Oarai, Kansai and Mutsu of JAERI. The report also covers the research activities of 4 research laboratories for Radiation Risk Analysis, Internal Dosimetry, External Dosimetry and Calibration Standards and Measurement which were authorized in Department of Health Physics in Tokai Establishment in April 1999. There are no occupational exposure and effluent release recorded exceeding the prescribed limits for effective dose equivalent and radioactive concentrations for gaseous release and liquid waste. In September 30 in 1999, the JCO criticality accident occurred in Tokai village and the Department of Health Physics of Tokai Establishment, Radiation Protection Division of Oarai Establishment and Safety Division of Naka Establishment took cooperative activities for surveying the level of radiation and radioactivity in the environment, radiation protection in terminating the criticality, sending specialists for the consultant of radiation protection to local government and others, surveying the radioactive contamination of the evacuated public, play ground of schools and others. The estimations of dose for the public and total fissions from the measurement of neutron activated samples collected near JCO were carried out at External Dosimetry Laboratory and Calibration Standards and Measurement Division respectively in Department of Health Physics of Tokai Establishment. (author)

  1. Computed tomography assessment of early response to neoadjuvant therapy in colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Claus; Lund-Rasmussen, Vera; Pløen, John

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Using multidetector computed tomography, we aimed to assess the early response of neoadjuvant drug therapy for locally advanced colon cancer. METHODS: Computed tomography with IV contrast was acquired from 67 patients before and after up to three cycles of preoperative treatment. All...... patients had histologically confirmed colon cancer, a T4 or T3 tumour with extramural invasion ≥ 5 mm and no distant metastases or peritoneal nodules. The patients were treated with oxaliplatin and capecitabine. In addition, those with no mutations in the KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA genes were also treated...

  2. Quality assurance for computed-tomography simulators and the computed-tomography-simulation process: report of the AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group No. 66.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutic, Sasa; Palta, Jatinder R; Butker, Elizabeth K; Das, Indra J; Huq, M Saiful; Loo, Leh-Nien Dick; Salter, Bill J; McCollough, Cynthia H; Van Dyk, Jacob

    2003-10-01

    This document presents recommendations of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) for quality assurance of computed-tomography- (CT) simulators and CT-simulation process. This report was prepared by Task Group No. 66 of the AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee. It was approved by the Radiation Therapy Committee and by the AAPM Science Council.

  3. Benefits and limitations of computer gesture therapy for the rehabilitation of severe aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abi Roper

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aphasia intervention has made increasing use of technology in recent years. The evidence base, which is largely limited to the investigation of spoken language outcomes, indicates positive treatment effects for people with mild to moderate levels of aphasia. Outcomes for those with severe aphasia however, are less well documented and - where reported - present less consistent gains for measures of spoken output. This study investigates the effects of a purpose-built gesture therapy technology for people with severe aphasia: GeST+. Study outcomes show significant improvement in gesture production abilities for adults with severe aphasia following computer intervention. They indicate no transfer of effects into naming gains or interactive gesture. Outcomes offer encouraging results for computer therapy methods within this hitherto under-researched population but indicate a need for further refinement of interventions in order to maximize persistence of effects and generalization into everyday communication.

  4. Current status of the production and research of radioisotopes in JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hidetake [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Sekine, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-10-01

    Status of the radioisotope production and application in Japan is described, emphasizing that of reactor-produced radioisotopes for medicine. Some new application of reactor-produced radioisotopes to therapy are discussed together with those of positron emitters for medicine and plant physiology. (author)

  5. HapHop-Physio: a computer game to support cognitive therapies in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico-Olarte C

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Rico-Olarte,1 Diego M López,1 Santiago Narváez,1 Charic D Farinango,1 Peter S Pharow2 1Faculty of Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering, Universidad del Cauca, Telematics Engineering Research Group, Popayán, Colombia; 2Fraunhofer Institute of Digital Media and Technology IDMT, Ilmenau, Germany Background: Care and support of children with physical or mental disabilities are accompanied with serious concerns for parents, families, healthcare institutions, schools, and their communities. Recent studies and technological innovations have demonstrated the feasibility of providing therapy and rehabilitation services to children supported by computer games. Objective: The aim of this paper is to present HapHop-Physio, an innovative computer game that combines exercise with fun and learning, developed to support cognitive therapies in children. Methods: Conventional software engineering methods such as the Scrum methodology, a functionality test and a related usability test, were part of the comprehensive methodology adapted to develop HapHop-Physio. Results: The game supports visual and auditory attention therapies, as well as visual and auditory memory activities. The game was developed by a multidisciplinary team, which was based on the Hopscotch® platform provided by Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology IDMT Institute in Germany, and designed in collaboration with a rehabilitation clinic in Colombia. HapHop-Physio was tested and evaluated to probe its functionality and user satisfaction. Conclusion: The results show the development of an easy-to-use and funny game by a multidisciplinary team using state-of-the-art videogame technologies and software methodologies. Children testing the game concluded that they would like to play again while undergoing rehabilitation therapies. Keywords: computer game, exer-games, cognitive therapies, rehabilitation

  6. Computer games for user engagement in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) monitoring and therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Craven, Michael P.; Groom, Madeleine J.

    2015-01-01

    State-of-the-art computer games and psychological tests for symptom monitoring and therapy in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are explored and reviewed. Three foci for research studies are identified: task (human performance) focus; educational focus; medical/clinical focus. \\ud \\ud It is found that game designs in the literature include a variety of tests of cognition mostly dependent on attention and executive functions (inhibitory motor control, working memory, interference...

  7. Computed Tomography Density Change in the Thyroid Gland Before and After Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Naoya; Maebayashi, Toshiya; Aizawa, Takuya; Sakaguchi, Masakuni; Okada, Masahiro; Matsushita, Junichi

    2018-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is an established adverse effect of radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, and computed tomography (CT) density of the thyroid gland is lower in hypothyroid than euthyroid individuals. No previous studies have evaluated changes in CT densities of the thyroid gland caused by radiation therapy. The aim was to investigate the relationship between the change in CT density of the thyroid gland before and after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer and hypothyroidism. This retrospective study analyzed data of 24 patients treated by radiation therapy for head and neck cancers. After dosimetric analysis of received radiation therapy, a Picture Archiving and Communication System was used to manually contour the thyroid on pre-treatment CT images to enable determination of mean thyroid gland CT densities and received radiation doses. Pre- and post-treatment thyroid function was assessed on the basis of serum TSH concentrations. Multivariate and univariate analyses were used to determine what clinical factors are associated with post-radiation therapy decrease in CT density of the thyroid and Pearson's χ 2 test was used to assess correlations between these densities and TSH concentrations. Mean CT densities of the thyroid gland decreased from before to after radiation therapy in 73.9% of our patients (median decrease 16.8 HU). Serum TSH concentrations were significantly higher in patients with greater then median decreases in CT density than in those with lesser or no decreases. Post-radiation therapy hypothyroidism may be predicted by significant decreases in CT density of the thyroid gland. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. HapHop-Physio: a computer game to support cognitive therapies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Olarte, Carolina; López, Diego M; Narváez, Santiago; Farinango, Charic D; Pharow, Peter S

    2017-01-01

    Care and support of children with physical or mental disabilities are accompanied with serious concerns for parents, families, healthcare institutions, schools, and their communities. Recent studies and technological innovations have demonstrated the feasibility of providing therapy and rehabilitation services to children supported by computer games. The aim of this paper is to present HapHop-Physio, an innovative computer game that combines exercise with fun and learning, developed to support cognitive therapies in children. Conventional software engineering methods such as the Scrum methodology, a functionality test and a related usability test, were part of the comprehensive methodology adapted to develop HapHop-Physio. The game supports visual and auditory attention therapies, as well as visual and auditory memory activities. The game was developed by a multidisciplinary team, which was based on the Hopscotch(®) platform provided by Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Media Technology IDMT Institute in Germany, and designed in collaboration with a rehabilitation clinic in Colombia. HapHop-Physio was tested and evaluated to probe its functionality and user satisfaction. The results show the development of an easy-to-use and funny game by a multidisciplinary team using state-of-the-art videogame technologies and software methodologies. Children testing the game concluded that they would like to play again while undergoing rehabilitation therapies.

  9. Feature rich, but user-friendly: Speech pathologists' preferences for computer-based aphasia therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swales, Megan A; Hill, Anne J; Finch, Emma

    2016-08-01

    High-intensity language therapy has been shown to provide greater outcomes for people with aphasia (PWA). Unfortunately, a number of issues including the ageing population and a lack of rurally-based clinicians prevent high-intensity interventions. Computer-based therapies are a potential solution to the issues of intensity and accessibility; however, this service delivery model is not commonly used. A possible reason behind the poor uptake is that current computer-based aphasia therapy (CBAT) programs may not meet the needs of speech-language pathologists (SLPs). This study investigated the preferences of SLPs with regard to the features desired in their ideal CBAT program. Phenomenological research methodology was used to explore the preferences of 10 SLPs. Data were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis. Desired features were grouped into five themes: therapy activities, stimuli, cues, access and progress data. A range of sub-themes were also identified. The wide range of desirable features found in this study may reflect the extent to which current CBAT programs are considered to be useful, but perhaps do not meet the needs of users. The study's findings provide useful information for future CBAT developers to create programs with high clinician usability.

  10. The role and effectiveness of computer-assisted learning in physical therapy education: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneri, Diana

    2011-05-01

    Physical therapy educators seek teaching methodologies to efficiently educate students. The purpose of this article was to perform a systematic review of the literature pertaining to the use and effectiveness of computer-assisted learning (CAL) in physical therapy education. Criteria were established for article selection. Articles related to use included those reporting at least a 30% survey response return and a sample of at least 50. Articles regarding effectiveness included only randomized control studies related to use in physical therapy and physical therapy assistant education. Six articles related to the use and 17 articles related to the effectiveness were identified. Early published investigations were focused in the area of anatomy. The survey studies related to use indicated that educators highly valued CAL, but they reported initial use to be low due to cost. Expanding software development has resulted in higher contemporary use. CAL can effectively convey content material compared to traditional methods of instruction. CAL is largely underresearched in the field of physical therapy compared to other health professions. Recommendations for future research include larger studies, broader representation of the practice field, and development of interactive programming.

  11. Proceeding of the workshop on the results of the cooperative research between JAERI and CHESCIR concerning the study on assessment and analysis of environmental radiological consequences and verification of an assessment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Hikaru; Saito, Kimiaki (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    This workshop was organized and sponsored by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Chernobyl Science and Technology Center for International Research (CHESCIR). JAERI and CHESCIR have conducted 8 years research cooperation from 1992 to 1999 concerning the study on assessment and analysis of environmental radiological consequences and verification of an assessment system, focusing on the Chernobyl contaminated area. It contained 3 research subjects. Subject-1 initiated at 1992 and focused the study on measurements and evaluation of environmental external exposure after nuclear accident. Subject-2 initiated at 1992 and focused the study on the validation of assessment models in an environmental consequence assessment methodology for nuclear accidents. Subject-3 initiated at 1995 and focused on the study on migration of radionuclides released into terrestrial and aquatic environment after nuclear accidents. This workshop was held to summarize the research cooperation between JAERI and CHESCIR, and to discuss future research needs in this field. (author)

  12. Environmental monitoring data around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant used in the cooperative research project between JAERI and CHESCIR (Ukraine). Cooperative research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Takashi; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Amano, Hikaru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Tkachenko, Yuri; Kovalyov, Alexandr; Sukhoruchkin, Andrei; Derevets, Varely [The State Enterprise for Region Monitoring of Environment and Dosimetric Control (Ukraine)

    2003-01-01

    This report is a compilation of the shared data derived from the environmental monitoring by RADEK (The state Enterprise for Region Monitoring of Environment and Dosimetric Control of Ukraine) and the record of environmental characteristics derived from field observations during a research project (1992-1999) between JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) and CHESCIR (Chernobyl Science and Technology Centre for International Research). The compiled data in this report are especially related to one particular research subject (Subject-3) of the project on the migration of radionuclides released into the terrestrial and aquatic environments after a nuclear accident. The present report shows the basis of published works concerning Subject-3. (author)

  13. Does hyrax expansion therapy affect maxillary sinus volume? A cone-beam computed tomography report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darsey, Drew M.; English, Jeryl D.; Ellis, Randy K.; Akyalcin, Sercan [School of Dentistry, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston (United States); Kau, Chung H [School of Dentistry, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the initial effects of maxillary expansion therapy with Hyrax appliance and to evaluate the related changes in maxillary sinus volume. Thirty patients (20 females, 10 males; 13.8 years) requiring maxillary expansion therapy, as part of their comprehensive orthodontic treatment, were examined. Each patient had cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images taken before (T1) and after (T2) maxillary expansion therapy with a banded Hyrax appliance. Multiplanar slices were used to measure linear dimensions and palatal vault angle. Volumetric analysis was used to measure maxillary sinus volumes. Student t tests were used to compare the pre- and post-treatment measurements. Additionally, differences between two age groups were compared with Mann-Whitney U test. The level of significance was set at p=0.05. Comparison of pre-treatment to post-treatment variables revealed significant changes in the transverse dimension related to both maxillary skeletal and dental structures and palatal vault angle, resulting in a widened palatal vault (p<0.05). Hard palate showed no significant movement in the vertical and anteroposterior planes. Nasal cavity width increased on a mean value of 0.93 mm(SD=0.23, p<0.05). Maxillary sinus volume remained virtually stable. No significant age differences were observed in the sample. Hyrax expansion therapy did not have a significant impact on maxillary sinus volume.

  14. Development of proton computed tomography detectors for applications in hadron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkirov, Vladimir A; Johnson, Robert P; Sadrozinski, Hartmut F-W; Schulte, Reinhard W

    2016-02-11

    Radiation therapy with protons and heavier ions is an attractive form of cancer treatment that could enhance local control and survival of cancers that are currently difficult to cure and lead to less side effects due to sparing of normal tissues. However, particle therapy faces a significant technical challenge because one cannot accurately predict the particle range in the patient using data provided by existing imaging technologies. Proton computed tomography (pCT) is an emerging imaging modality capable of improving the accuracy of range prediction. In this paper, we describe the successive pCT scanners designed and built by our group with the goal to support particle therapy treatment planning and image guidance by reconstructing an accurate 3D map of the stopping power relative to water in patient tissues. The pCT scanners we have built to date consist of silicon telescopes, which track the proton before and after the object to be reconstructed, and an energy or range detector, which measures the residual energy and/or range of the protons used to evaluate the water equivalent path length (WEPL) of each proton in the object. An overview of a decade-long evolution of the conceptual design of pCT scanners and their calibration is given. Results of scanner performance tests are presented, which demonstrate that the latest pCT scanner approaches readiness for clinical applications in hadron therapy.

  15. Wireless Technologies, Ubiquitous Computing and Mobile Health: Application to Drug Abuse Treatment and Compliance with HIV Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Edward W; Smelson, David; Fletcher, Richard; Ziedonis, Douglas; Picard, Rosalind W

    2010-06-01

    Beneficial advances in the treatment of substance abuse and compliance with medical therapies, including HAART, are possible with new mobile technologies related to personal physiological sensing and computational methods. When incorporated into mobile platforms that allow for ubiquitous computing, these technologies have great potential for extending the reach of behavioral interventions from clinical settings where they are learned into natural environments.

  16. Has the use of computers in radiation therapy improved the accuracy in radiation dose delivery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyk, J.; Battista, J.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: It is well recognized that computer technology has had a major impact on the practice of radiation oncology. This paper addresses the question as to how these computer advances have specifically impacted the accuracy of radiation dose delivery to the patient. Methods: A review was undertaken of all the key steps in the radiation treatment process ranging from machine calibration to patient treatment verification and irradiation. Using a semi-quantitative scale, each stage in the process was analysed from the point of view of gains in treatment accuracy. Results: Our critical review indicated that computerization related to digital medical imaging (ranging from target volume localization, to treatment planning, to image-guided treatment) has had the most significant impact on the accuracy of radiation treatment. Conversely, the premature adoption of intensity-modulated radiation therapy has actually degraded the accuracy of dose delivery compared to 3-D conformal radiation therapy. While computational power has improved dose calibration accuracy through Monte Carlo simulations of dosimeter response parameters, the overall impact in terms of percent improvement is relatively small compared to the improvements accrued from 3-D/4-D imaging. Conclusions: As a result of computer applications, we are better able to see and track the internal anatomy of the patient before, during and after treatment. This has yielded the most significant enhancement to the knowledge of "in vivo" dose distributions in the patient. Furthermore, a much richer set of 3-D/4-D co-registered dose-image data is thus becoming available for retrospective analysis of radiobiological and clinical responses.

  17. Fuel irradiation research of Japan at OECD Halden Reactor Project. Achievement of joint researches between JAERI and other organizations in the period from 1994 to 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Jinichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kinoshita, Motoyasu [and others

    1998-01-01

    JAERI has performed cooperative researches with many Japanese agencies and companies by means of the Halden Boiling Heavy Water Reactor (HBWR) which is located at Halden in Norway. These cooperative researches are carried out based on the contracts of the cooperative researches, which are revised every three years, in accordance with the renewal of the participation of JAERI to the OECD Halden Reactor Project. This report summaries the objectives, contents and the outlines of the achievements of the cooperative researches during the three years from 1994 January to 1996 December. During the period, ten cooperative researches had been carried out, and two of them had finished during the period and other eight researches has been continued to the next three year period. There are many research items, and most of them are irradiation test researches of advanced fuel and cladding concerned with the high burnup utilization of LWR fuel or MOX fuel irradiation researches to prepare for the introduction of Plutonium utilization in LWRs. The researches of fuel irradiation usually take long time because of the characteristics of these kind of research work, and three years are usually not enough to obtain some achievements from the irradiation tests. Therefore, eight tests have been continued after the three year period. In this report, the achievements of the continued researches to the next three year period are not final one but a kind of progress report. (author)

  18. Effects of dialysate flow configurations in continuous renal replacement therapy on solute removal: computational modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Chul; Cruz, Dinna; Garzotto, Francesco; Kaushik, Manish; Teixeria, Catarina; Baldwin, Marie; Baldwin, Ian; Nalesso, Federico; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kang, Eungtaek; Kim, Hee Chan; Ronco, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is commonly used for critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. During treatment, a slow dialysate flow rate can be applied to enhance diffusive solute removal. However, due to the lack of the rationale of the dialysate flow configuration (countercurrent or concurrent to blood flow), in clinical practice, the connection settings of a hemodiafilter are done depending on nurse preference or at random. In this study, we investigated the effects of flow configurations in a hemodiafilter during continuous venovenous hemodialysis on solute removal and fluid transport using computational fluid dynamic modeling. We solved the momentum equation coupling solute transport to predict quantitative diffusion and convection phenomena in a simplified hemodiafilter model. Computational modeling results showed superior solute removal (clearance of urea: 67.8 vs. 45.1 ml/min) and convection (filtration volume: 29.0 vs. 25.7 ml/min) performances for the countercurrent flow configuration. Countercurrent flow configuration enhances convection and diffusion compared to concurrent flow configuration by increasing filtration volume and equilibrium concentration in the proximal part of a hemodiafilter and backfiltration of pure dialysate in the distal part. In clinical practice, the countercurrent dialysate flow configuration of a hemodiafilter could increase solute removal in CRRT. Nevertheless, while this configuration may become mandatory for high-efficiency treatments, the impact of differences in solute removal observed in slow continuous therapies may be less important. Under these circumstances, if continuous therapies are prescribed, some of the advantages of the concurrent configuration in terms of simpler circuit layout and simpler machine design may overcome the advantages in terms of solute clearance. Different dialysate flow configurations influence solute clearance and change major solute removal mechanisms in the proximal and

  19. Proceedings of the seminar on the joint research project between JAERI and Universities. 'Actinide researches for 21st century - fusion between chemistry and engineering'. August 20-21, 1999, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    The Seminar on the Joint Research Project between JAERI and Universities was held in Tokai, August 20-21, 1999, to discuss future perspectives of the actinide researches for the nuclear fuel cycle. The papers related to the Joint Research Project on the Backend Chemistry were presented and discussed. The present report complies the papers contributed to the Seminar. (author)

  20. Computer-aided analysis of star shot films for high-accuracy radiation therapy treatment units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depuydt, Tom; Penne, Rudi; Verellen, Dirk; Hrbacek, Jan; Lang, Stephanie; Leysen, Katrien; Vandevondel, Iwein; Poels, Kenneth; Reynders, Truus; Gevaert, Thierry; Duchateau, Michael; Tournel, Koen; Boussaer, Marlies; Cosentino, Dorian; Garibaldi, Cristina; Solberg, Timothy; De Ridder, Mark

    2012-05-21

    As mechanical stability of radiation therapy treatment devices has gone beyond sub-millimeter levels, there is a rising demand for simple yet highly accurate measurement techniques to support the routine quality control of these devices. A combination of using high-resolution radiosensitive film and computer-aided analysis could provide an answer. One generally known technique is the acquisition of star shot films to determine the mechanical stability of rotations of gantries and the therapeutic beam. With computer-aided analysis, mechanical performance can be quantified as a radiation isocenter radius size. In this work, computer-aided analysis of star shot film is further refined by applying an analytical solution for the smallest intersecting circle problem, in contrast to the gradient optimization approaches used until today. An algorithm is presented and subjected to a performance test using two different types of radiosensitive film, the Kodak EDR2 radiographic film and the ISP EBT2 radiochromic film. Artificial star shots with a priori known radiation isocenter size are used to determine the systematic errors introduced by the digitization of the film and the computer analysis. The estimated uncertainty on the isocenter size measurement with the presented technique was 0.04 mm (2σ) and 0.06 mm (2σ) for radiographic and radiochromic films, respectively. As an application of the technique, a study was conducted to compare the mechanical stability of O-ring gantry systems with C-arm-based gantries. In total ten systems of five different institutions were included in this study and star shots were acquired for gantry, collimator, ring, couch rotations and gantry wobble. It was not possible to draw general conclusions about differences in mechanical performance between O-ring and C-arm gantry systems, mainly due to differences in the beam-MLC alignment procedure accuracy. Nevertheless, the best performing O-ring system in this study, a BrainLab/MHI Vero system

  1. Proceedings of the workshop on molten salts technology and computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Hirokazu; Minato, Kazuo (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    Applications of molten salts technology to separation and synthesis of materials have been studied eagerly, which would develop new fields of materials science. Research Group for Actinides Science, Department of Materials Science, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), together with Reprocessing and Recycle Technology Division, Atomic Energy Society of Japan, organized the Workshop on Molten Salts Technology and Computer Simulation at Tokai Research Establishment, JAERI on July 18, 2001. In the workshop eleven lectures were made and lively discussions were there on the fundamentals and applications of the molten salts technology that covered the structure and basic properties of molten salts, the pyrochemical reprocessing technology and the relevant computer simulation. The 10 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  2. Computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy for pregnant women with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deborah R; Hantsoo, Liisa; Thase, Michael E; Sammel, Mary; Epperson, C Neill

    2014-10-01

    Pregnant women with major depressive disorder (MDD) report that psychotherapy is a more acceptable treatment than pharmacotherapy. However, although results of several studies suggest that psychotherapy is an effective treatment for pregnant women, logistical barriers-including cost and traveling for weekly visits-can limit real-world utility. We hypothesized that computer-assisted cognitive behavior therapy (CCBT) would be both acceptable and would significantly decrease depressive symptoms in pregnant women with MDD. As a preliminary test of this hypothesis, we treated 10 pregnant women with MDD using a standardized CCBT protocol. The pilot results were very promising, with 80% of participants showing treatment response and 60% showing remission after only eight sessions of CCBT. A larger, randomized controlled trial of CCBT in pregnant women with MDD is warranted.

  3. Imaging-therapy computed tomography with quasi-monochromatic X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, Gregor [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Contrast Media Research, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: gregor.jost@bayerhealthcare.com; Golfier, Sven [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Contrast Media Research, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: sven.golfier@bayerhealthcare.com; Lawaczeck, Ruediger [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Contrast Media Research, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: ruediger.lawaczeck@bayerhealthcare.com; Weinmann, Hanns-Joachim [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Contrast Media Research, Muellerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: hanns-joachim.weinmann@bayerhealthcare.com; Gerlach, Martin [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: martin.gerlach@ptb.de; Cibik, Levent [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: levent.cibik@ptb.de; Krumrey, Michael [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestrasse 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: michael.krumrey@ptb.de; Fratzscher, Daniel [Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, Rudower Chaussee 29/31, 12489 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: Fratzscher@ifg-adlershof.de; Rabe, Johannis [Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, Rudower Chaussee 29/31, 12489 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: Rabe@ifg-adlershof.de; Arkadiev, Vladimir [Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, Rudower Chaussee 29/31, 12489 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: Arkadiev@ifg-adlershof.de; Haschke, Michael [Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, Rudower Chaussee 29/31, 12489 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: Haschke@ifg-adlershof.de; Langhoff, Norbert [Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, Rudower Chaussee 29/31, 12489 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: Langhoff@ifg-adlershof.de; Wedell, Reiner [Institut fuer angewandte Photonik e.V., Rudower Chaussee 29/31, 12489 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: wedell-iap@ifg-adlershof.de (and others)

    2008-12-15

    Introduction: Computed tomography (CT) is a widespread and highly precise technique working in the energy range around 50-100 keV. For radiotherapy, however, the MeV energy range enables a better dose distribution. This gap between diagnosis and therapy can be overcome by the use of a modified CT machine in combination with heavy elements targeted to the tumour and used as photoelectric radiation enhancer. Materials and methods: The experimental setup consists of an X-ray optical module mounted at the exit of the X-ray tube of a clinical CT. The module converts the standard fan-shaped beam into a high intensity, monochromatized and focused beam. The radiation was characterized using an energy-dispersive detection system calibrated by synchrotron radiation and gel dosimetry. The photoelectric radiation enhancement for different elements was calculated and experimentally verified. Results: The X-ray optical module filters selectively the energy of the tungsten K{alpha}-emission line (59.3 keV) with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 5 keV and focused the radiation onto a focal spot which coincides with the isocentre of the gantry. This results in a steep dose gradient at the centre of rotation qualified for locoregional radiation therapy. The photon energy of the quasi-monochromatic radiation agrees with the energy range of maximal photoelectric dose enhancement for gadolinium and iodine. Conclusion: An additional X-ray optical module optimized for targeted therapy and photoelectric dose enhancement allows the combination of diagnosis and radiotherapy on a clinical CT.

  4. Changes in functional brain organization and behavioral correlations after rehabilitative therapy using a brain-computer interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Mei Young

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the changes in task-related brain activity induced by rehabilitative therapy using brain-computer interface (BCI technologies and whether these changes are relevant to functional gains achieved through the use of these therapies. Stroke patients with persistent upper-extremity motor deficits received interventional rehabilitation therapy using a closed-loop neurofeedback BCI device (n=8 or no therapy (n=6. Behavioral assessments using the Stroke Impact Scale, the Action Research Arm Test, and the Nine-Hole Peg Test as well as task-based fMRI scans were conducted before, during, after, and one month after therapy administration or at analogous intervals in the absence of therapy. Laterality Index (LI during finger tapping of each hand were calculated for each time point and assessed for correlation with behavioral outcomes. Brain activity during finger tapping of each hand shifted over the course of BCI therapy but not in the absence of therapy to greater involvement of the non-lesioned hemisphere (and lesser involvement of the stroke-lesioned hemisphere as measured by LI. Moreover, changes from baseline LI values during finger tapping of the impaired hand were correlated with gains in both objective and subjective behavioral measures. These findings suggest that the administration of interventional BCI therapy can induce differential changes in brain activity patterns between the lesioned and nonlesioned hemisphere and that these brain changes are associated with changes in specific motor functions.

  5. Computer-assisted cognitive remediation therapy in schizophrenia: Durability of the effects and cost-utility analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Gemma; Penadés, Rafael; Barrios, Maite; Aragay, Núria; Ramos, Irene; Vallès, Vicenç; Faixa, Carlota; Vendrell, Josep M

    2017-08-01

    The durability of computer-assisted cognitive remediation (CACR) therapy over time and the cost-effectiveness of treatment remains unclear. The aim of the current study is to investigate the effectiveness of CACR and to examine the use and cost of acute psychiatric admissions before and after of CACR. Sixty-seven participants were initially recruited. For the follow-up study a total of 33 participants were enrolled, 20 to the CACR condition group and 13 to the active control condition group. All participants were assessed at baseline, post-therapy and 12 months post-therapy on neuropsychology, QoL and self-esteem measurements. The use and cost of acute psychiatric admissions were collected retrospectively at four assessment points: baseline, 12 months post-therapy, 24 months post-therapy, and 36 months post-therapy. The results indicated that treatment effectiveness persisted in the CACR group one year post-therapy on neuropsychological and well-being outcomes. The CACR group showed a clear decrease in the use of acute psychiatric admissions at 12, 24 and 36 months post-therapy, which lowered the global costs the acute psychiatric admissions at 12, 24 and 36 months post-therapy. The CACR is durable over at least a 12-month period, and CACR may be helping to reduce health care costs for schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Using Artificial Intelligence to Control and Adapt Level of Difficulty in Computer Based, Cognitive Therapy – an Explorative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilms, Inge Linda

    2011-01-01

    Prism Adaptation Therapy (PAT) is an intervention method in the treatment of the attention disorder neglect (Frassinetti, Angeli, Meneghello, Avanzi, & Ladavas, 2002; Rossetti, et al., 1998). The aim of this study was to investigate whether one session of PAT using a computer-attached touchscreen...

  7. XVII International Conference on the Use of Computers in Radiation Therapy (ICCR 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Editorial Dear colleagues, From a professional perspective there is nothing quite as enjoyable as attending a good conference with colleagues that share not only interest for the same topic but also a similar vision for their field of work. Proceedings cannot replace the direct contact and lively conversations between participants who are at the same time at the same place sharing ideas and discussion. However, proceedings complement the actual conference by 1. giving the ideas, research findings and debates which characterise the conference lasting presence 2. giving participants an opportunity to refresh their memory about issues they would like to follow up on and 3. providing an opportunity for others who were not able to attend the meeting to share in the thoughts and issues discussed at the conference. For the proceedings of the International Conferences on the Use of Computers in Radiation Therapy (ICCR) all this has been important in the past as the high citation rates for ICCR proceedings show. We hope that also the present proceedings will appeal to participants and others who are interested in cancer and ways to treat patients affected by it. It is exciting to note that what sounded like a small niche field (''Computers in Radiation Therapy'') has become a very broad forum to discuss all aspects of cancer diagnosis and therapy. Of particular interest for the 17th ICCR have been data and how to collect, organise and use it effectively. This is relevant for most areas in medicine and we believe that radiation therapy with its focus on evidence based practice and measurable and standardised activities has an important and possibly leading role to play. The 100 manuscripts combined in the present proceedings can hopefully contribute to this. The proceedings are organised into five different streams which reflect the foci of the conference: • Dose Calculation • Imaging for treatment planning and Motion Management • Treatment planning and optimisation

  8. Geometrical splitting technique to improve the computational efficiency in Monte Carlo calculations for proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Méndez, José; Perl, Joseph; Faddegon, Bruce; Schümann, Jan; Paganetti, Harald

    2013-04-01

    To present the implementation and validation of a geometrical based variance reduction technique for the calculation of phase space data for proton therapy dose calculation. The treatment heads at the Francis H Burr Proton Therapy Center were modeled with a new Monte Carlo tool (TOPAS based on Geant4). For variance reduction purposes, two particle-splitting planes were implemented. First, the particles were split upstream of the second scatterer or at the second ionization chamber. Then, particles reaching another plane immediately upstream of the field specific aperture were split again. In each case, particles were split by a factor of 8. At the second ionization chamber and at the latter plane, the cylindrical symmetry of the proton beam was exploited to position the split particles at randomly spaced locations rotated around the beam axis. Phase space data in IAEA format were recorded at the treatment head exit and the computational efficiency was calculated. Depth-dose curves and beam profiles were analyzed. Dose distributions were compared for a voxelized water phantom for different treatment fields for both the reference and optimized simulations. In addition, dose in two patients was simulated with and without particle splitting to compare the efficiency and accuracy of the technique. A normalized computational efficiency gain of a factor of 10-20.3 was reached for phase space calculations for the different treatment head options simulated. Depth-dose curves and beam profiles were in reasonable agreement with the simulation done without splitting: within 1% for depth-dose with an average difference of (0.2 ± 0.4)%, 1 standard deviation, and a 0.3% statistical uncertainty of the simulations in the high dose region; 1.6% for planar fluence with an average difference of (0.4 ± 0.5)% and a statistical uncertainty of 0.3% in the high fluence region. The percentage differences between dose distributions in water for simulations done with and without particle

  9. Optimizing Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) System for Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chun Joo

    Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) system is the most widely used imaging device in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), where set of 3D volumetric image of patient can be reconstructed to identify and correct position setup errors prior to the radiation treatment. This CBCT system can significantly improve precision of on-line setup errors of patient position and tumor target localization prior to the treatment. However, there are still a number of issues that needs to be investigated with CBCT system such as 1) progressively increasing defective pixels in imaging detectors by its frequent usage, 2) hazardous radiation exposure to patients during the CBCT imaging, 3) degradation of image quality due to patients' respiratory motion when CBCT is acquired and 4) unknown knowledge of certain anatomical features such as liver, due to lack of soft-tissue contrast which makes tumor motion verification challenging. In this dissertation, we explore on optimizing the use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system under such circumstances. We begin by introducing general concept of IGRT. We then present the development of automated defective pixel detection algorithm for X-ray imagers that is used for CBCT imaging using wavelet analysis. We next investigate on developing fast and efficient low-dose volumetric reconstruction techniques which includes 1) fast digital tomosynthesis reconstruction using general-purpose graphics processing unit (GPGPU) programming and 2) fast low-dose CBCT image reconstruction based on the Gradient-Projection-Barzilai-Borwein formulation (GP-BB). We further developed two efficient approaches that could reduce the degradation of CBCT images from respiratory motion. First, we propose reconstructing four dimensional (4D) CBCT and DTS using respiratory signal extracted from fiducial markers implanted in liver. Second, novel motion-map constrained image reconstruction (MCIR) is proposed that allows reconstruction of high quality and high phase

  10. Adult Stem Cell Therapies for Wound Healing: Biomaterials and Computational Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartarini, Daniele; Mele, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    The increased incidence of diabetes and tumors, associated with global demographic issues (aging and life styles), has pointed out the importance to develop new strategies for the effective management of skin wounds. Individuals affected by these diseases are in fact highly exposed to the risk of delayed healing of the injured tissue that typically leads to a pathological inflammatory state and consequently to chronic wounds. Therapies based on stem cells (SCs) have been proposed for the treatment of these wounds, thanks to the ability of SCs to self-renew and specifically differentiate in response to the target bimolecular environment. Here, we discuss how advanced biomedical devices can be developed by combining SCs with properly engineered biomaterials and computational models. Examples include composite skin substitutes and bioactive dressings with controlled porosity and surface topography for controlling the infiltration and differentiation of the cells. In this scenario, mathematical frameworks for the simulation of cell population growth can provide support for the design of bioconstructs, reducing the need of expensive, time-consuming, and ethically controversial animal experimentation.

  11. SU-F-J-178: A Computer Simulation Model Observer for Task-Based Image Quality Assessment in Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolly, S; Mutic, S; Anastasio, M; Li, H [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Yu, L [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Traditionally, image quality in radiation therapy is assessed subjectively or by utilizing physically-based metrics. Some model observers exist for task-based medical image quality assessment, but almost exclusively for diagnostic imaging tasks. As opposed to disease diagnosis, the task for image observers in radiation therapy is to utilize the available images to design and deliver a radiation dose which maximizes patient disease control while minimizing normal tissue damage. The purpose of this study was to design and implement a new computer simulation model observer to enable task-based image quality assessment in radiation therapy. Methods: A modular computer simulation framework was developed to resemble the radiotherapy observer by simulating an end-to-end radiation therapy treatment. Given images and the ground-truth organ boundaries from a numerical phantom as inputs, the framework simulates an external beam radiation therapy treatment and quantifies patient treatment outcomes using the previously defined therapeutic operating characteristic (TOC) curve. As a preliminary demonstration, TOC curves were calculated for various CT acquisition and reconstruction parameters, with the goal of assessing and optimizing simulation CT image quality for radiation therapy. Sources of randomness and bias within the system were analyzed. Results: The relationship between CT imaging dose and patient treatment outcome was objectively quantified in terms of a singular value, the area under the TOC (AUTOC) curve. The AUTOC decreases more rapidly for low-dose imaging protocols. AUTOC variation introduced by the dose optimization algorithm was approximately 0.02%, at the 95% confidence interval. Conclusion: A model observer has been developed and implemented to assess image quality based on radiation therapy treatment efficacy. It enables objective determination of appropriate imaging parameter values (e.g. imaging dose). Framework flexibility allows for incorporation

  12. Development of computational small animal models and their applications in preclinical imaging and therapy research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    The development of multimodality preclinical imaging techniques and the rapid growth of realistic computer simulation tools have promoted the construction and application of computational laboratory animal models in preclinical research. Since the early 1990s, over 120 realistic computational animal

  13. Radiation therapy for intracranial germ cell tumors. Predictive value of tumor response as evaluated by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Toita, Takafumi; Kakinohana, Yasumasa; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Miyagi, Koichi; Kinjo, Toshihiko; Yamashiro, Katsumi; Sawada, Satoshi [Ryukyu Univ., Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-07-01

    This retrospective study analyzed the outcome in patients with intracranial germ-cell tumors to determine whether tumor response during radiation therapy can predict achievement of primary local with radiation therapy alone. Between 1983 and 1993, 22 patients with untreated primary intracranial germ cell tumors received a total whole brain radiation dose of between 18 Gy and 45 Gy (mean 31.3 Gy) with or without a localized field of 10 to 36.4 Gy (mean, 22.4 Gy), or local irradiation only (1 patient). In 10 patients with pineal tumor only, who were treated first with radiation therapy, tumor response to radiation therapy was evaluated using computed tomography (CT) (at baseline, and approximately 20 Gy and 50 Gy). Areas of calcification in the tumor were subtracted from total tumor volume. Follow-up time ranged from 2 to 12 years. Five-year actuarial survival rates for patients with germinoma were 71%, 100% for patients with a teratoma component, and 100% for patients without histologic verification. Patients with germinomas or tumors suspected of being germinomas who were given more than 50 Gy had no local relapse. There was no correlation between primary local control by radiation therapy alone and initial tumor volume. The rate of tumor volume response to irradiation assessed by CT was significantly different in those patients who relapsed compared to those who did not relapse. Tumor response during radiation therapy using CT was considered to be predictive of primary local control with radiation therapy alone. (author)

  14. Clinical Implementation of Intrafraction Cone Beam Computed Tomography Imaging During Lung Tumor Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijiang; Han, Bin; Meng, Bowen; Maxim, Peter G.; Xing, Lei; Koong, Albert C.; Diehn, Maximilian; Loo, Billy W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To develop and clinically evaluate a volumetric imaging technique for assessing intrafraction geometric and dosimetric accuracy of stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR). Methods and Materials Twenty patients received SABR for lung tumors using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). At the beginning of each fraction, pretreatment cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to align the soft-tissue tumor position with that in the planning CT. Concurrent with dose delivery, we acquired fluoroscopic radiograph projections during VMAT using the Varian on-board imaging system. Those kilovolt projections acquired during megavolt beam-on were automatically extracted, and intrafraction CBCT images were reconstructed using the filtered backprojection technique. We determined the time-averaged target shift during VMAT by calculating the center of mass of the tumor target in the intrafraction CBCT relative to the planning CT. To estimate the dosimetric impact of the target shift during treatment, we recalculated the dose to the GTV after shifting the entire patient anatomy according to the time-averaged target shift determined earlier. Results The mean target shift from intrafraction CBCT to planning CT was 1.6, 1.0, and 1.5 mm; the 95th percentile shift was 5.2, 3.1, 3.6 mm; and the maximum shift was 5.7, 3.6, and 4.9 mm along the anterior-posterior, left-right, and superior-inferior directions. Thus, the time-averaged intrafraction gross tumor volume (GTV) position was always within the planning target volume. We observed some degree of target blurring in the intrafraction CBCT, indicating imperfect breath-hold reproducibility or residual motion of the GTV during treatment. By our estimated dose recalculation, the GTV was consistently covered by the prescription dose (PD), that is, V100% above 0.97 for all patients, and minimum dose to GTV >100% PD for 18 patients and >95% PD for all patients. Conclusions Intrafraction CBCT during VMAT can provide

  15. Application of fluence field modulation to proton computed tomography for proton therapy imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedes, G.; De Angelis, L.; Rit, S.; Hansen, D.; Belka, C.; Bashkirov, V.; Johnson, R. P.; Coutrakon, G.; Schubert, K. E.; Schulte, R. W.; Parodi, K.; Landry, G.

    2017-08-01

    This simulation study presents the application of fluence field modulated computed tomography, initially developed for x-ray CT, to proton computed tomography (pCT). By using pencil beam (PB) scanning, fluence modulated pCT (FMpCT) may achieve variable image quality in a pCT image and imaging dose reduction. Three virtual phantoms, a uniform cylinder and two patients, were studied using Monte Carlo simulations of an ideal list-mode pCT scanner. Regions of interest (ROI) were selected for high image quality and only PBs intercepting them preserved full fluence (FF). Image quality was investigated in terms of accuracy (mean) and noise (standard deviation) of the reconstructed proton relative stopping power compared to reference values. Dose calculation accuracy on FMpCT images was evaluated in terms of dose volume histograms (DVH), range difference (RD) for beam-eye-view (BEV) dose profiles and gamma evaluation. Pseudo FMpCT scans were created from broad beam experimental data acquired with a list-mode pCT prototype. FMpCT noise in ROIs was equivalent to FF images and accuracy better than  -1.3%(-0.7%) by using 1% of FF for the cylinder (patients). Integral imaging dose reduction of 37% and 56% was achieved for the two patients for that level of modulation. Corresponding DVHs from proton dose calculation on FMpCT images agreed to those from reference images and 96% of BEV profiles had RD below 2 mm, compared to only 1% for uniform 1% of FF. Gamma pass rates (2%, 2 mm) were 98% for FMpCT while for uniform 1% of FF they were as low as 59%. Applying FMpCT to preliminary experimental data showed that low noise levels and accuracy could be preserved in a ROI, down to 30% modulation. We have shown, using both virtual and experimental pCT scans, that FMpCT is potentially feasible and may allow a means of imaging dose reduction for a pCT scanner operating in PB scanning mode. This may be of particular importance to proton therapy given the low integral dose found

  16. Cognitive function and treatment response in a randomized clinical trial of computer-based training in cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kathleen M; Kiluk, Brian D; Nich, Charla; Babuscio, Theresa A; Brewer, Judson A; Potenza, Marc N; Ball, Samuel A; Martino, Steve; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Lejuez, Carl W

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), because of its comparatively high level of cognitive demand, is likely to be challenging for substance users with limitations in cognitive function. However, it is not known whether computer-assisted versions of CBT will be particularly helpful (e.g., allowing individualized pace and repetition) or difficult (e.g., via complexity of computerized delivery) for such patients. In this secondary analysis of data collected from a randomized clinical trial evaluating computer-assisted CBT, four aspects of cognitive functioning were evaluated among 77 participants. Those with higher levels of risk taking completed fewer sessions and homework assignments and had poorer substance use outcomes.

  17. Developing a Peer Support Protocol for Improving Veterans' Engagement to Computer-Delivered Cognitive Behavioural Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, John M; Kemp, Lakiesha L; Hubbard, Amanda; Cucciare, Michael A

    2017-05-01

    Computer-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (cCBT) is an effective alternative to provider-delivered treatment for depression and anxiety, but high attrition poses a significant challenge to its use. Peer support is a feasible approach to improving cCBT engagement, but less is known about its acceptability among Veterans. To obtain feedback from Veterans (n = 24) with depression and/or anxiety on their preferences for (a) activities of Veterans Administration Peer Support Specialists (VA PSS) in helping Veterans use Moving Forward, a cCBT-based protocol developed by VA, and (b) methods for delivering support to Veterans using this programme. Four focus groups (5-7 Veterans per group) provided feedback to be used in the development of a peer-supported engagement intervention to help Veterans with depression and anxiety use Moving Forward. Content areas included roles that a VA PSS might play in supporting the use of and engagement in Moving Forward, as well as methods of delivering that support. Veteran preferences for PSS activity focused on practical aspects of using Moving Forward, including orientation to the programme, technical support, and monitoring progress. Feedback also suggested that Veterans preferred more personal roles for the PSS, including emotional support, as well as application of Moving Forward to 'real life' problems. The findings extend the literature on online, patient-facing mental health protocols by identifying emotional support and 'real life' skills application as Veteran-preferred components of a peer-support protocol designed to enhance use of and engagement in cCBT for depression and anxiety.

  18. A computational hypothesis for allostasis: delineation of substance dependence, conventional therapies, and alternative treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yariv Z. Levy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The allostatic theory of drug abuse describes the brain's reward system alterations as substance misuse progresses. Neural adaptations arising from the reward system itself and from the antireward system provide the subject with functional stability, while affecting the person's mood. We propose a computational hypothesis describing how a virtual subject's drug consumption, cognitive substrate, and mood interface with reward and antireward systems. Reward system adaptations are assumed interrelated with the ongoing neural activity defining behavior towards drug intake, including activity in the nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area, and prefrontal cortex (PFC. Antireward system adaptations are assumed to mutually connect with higher-order cognitive processes occurring within PFC, orbitofrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex. The subject's mood estimation is a provisional function of reward components.The presented knowledge repository model incorporates pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, neuropsychological, cognitive, and behavioral components. Patterns of tobacco smoking exemplify the framework's predictive properties: escalation of cigarette consumption, conventional treatments similar to nicotine patches, and alternative medical practices comparable to meditation. The primary outcomes include an estimate of the virtual subject's mood and the daily account of drug intakes. The main limitation of this study resides in the 21 time-dependent processes which partially describe the complex phenomena of drug addiction and involve a large number of parameters which may underconstrain the framework.Our model predicts that reward system adaptations account for mood stabilization, whereas antireward system adaptations delineate mood improvement and reduction in drug consumption. This investigation provides formal arguments encouraging current rehabilitation therapies to include meditation-like practices along with pharmaceutical drugs and

  19. Cognitive Function and Treatment Response in a Randomized Clinical Trial of Computer-Based Training in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Kathleen M.; Kiluk, Brian D.; Nich, Charla; Babuscio, Theresa A.; Brewer, Judson A.; Marc N. Potenza; Ball, Samuel A.; Martino, Steve; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Lejuez, Carl W.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), because of its comparatively high level of cognitive demand, is likely to be challenging for substance users with limitations in cognitive function. However, it is not known whether computer-assisted versions of CBT will be particularly helpful (e.g., allowing individualized pace and repetition) or difficult (e.g., via complexity of computerized delivery) for such patients. In this secondary analysis of data collected from a randomized clinical trial evalua...

  20. Therapeutic factors and language patterns in group therapy application of computer-assisted text analysis to the examination of microprocesses in group therapy: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontao, Maria Isabel; Mergenthaler, Erhard

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this single-case-design study was to examine the relationships between therapeutic factors in group therapy and the language features of the group dialogue. Forty-two transcripts from a group treatment were investigated. Emotion-abstraction patterns (EAPs) were identified for the group as a whole using computer-assisted text analysis, and therapeutic factors were rated by external judges using the Kiel Group Psychotherapy Process Scale. Significant positive relationships were found between insight and the EAP connecting and between catharsis and the EAP experiencing. Interpersonal learning-output, catharsis, and self-disclosure showed higher scores in connection with the therapeutic cycle, which, according to the therapeutic cycle model, represents a sequence of EAP related to a successful therapeutic process. The current findings show that the use of EAPs allows the identification of key moments in a group therapy process.

  1. Effectiveness of speech language therapy either alone or with add-on computer-based language therapy software (Malayalam version) for early post stroke aphasia: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesav, Praveen; Vrinda, S L; Sukumaran, Sajith; Sarma, P S; Sylaja, P N

    2017-09-15

    This study aimed to assess the feasibility of professional based conventional speech language therapy (SLT) either alone (Group A/less intensive) or assisted by novel computer based local language software (Group B/more intensive) for rehabilitation in early post stroke aphasia. Comprehensive Stroke Care Center of a tertiary health care institute situated in South India, with the study design being prospective open randomised controlled trial with blinded endpoint evaluation. This study recruited 24 right handed first ever acute ischemic stroke patients above 15years of age affecting middle cerebral artery territory within 90days of stroke onset with baseline Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) Aphasia Quotient (AQ) score of computer based language therapy in Group B over 4weeks on a thrice weekly basis, with a follow up WAB performed at four and twelve weeks after baseline assessment. The trial was registered with Clinical trials registry India [2016/08/0120121]. All the statistical analysis was carried out with IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows version 21. 20 subjects [14 (70%) Males; Mean age: 52.8years±SD12.04] completed the study (9 in the less intensive and 11 in the more intensive arm). The mean four weeks follow up AQ showed a significant improvement from the baseline in the total group (p value: 0.01). The rate of rise of AQ from the baseline to four weeks follow up (ΔAQ %) showed a significantly greater value for the less intensive treatment group as against the more intensive treatment group [155% (SD: 150; 95% CI: 34-275) versus 52% (SD: 42%; 95% CI: 24-80) respectively: p value: 0.053]. Even though the more intensive treatment arm incorporating combined professional based SLT and computer software based training fared poorer than the less intensive therapy group, this study nevertheless reinforces the feasibility of SLT in augmenting recovery of early post stroke aphasia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Proceedings of the symposium on the joint research project between JAERI and Universities. Status and perspective of the advanced radiation technology project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the Proceedings of the Symposium on the Joint Research Project between JAERI and Universities -Status and Perspective of the Advanced Radiation Technology Project-, held at Tokyo on January 27, 1999. After a series of conferences which had been held at the second or third year to present the main activities of this unique collaborative project system, the symposium was particularly focused on critical reviewing of the project and on its future. The scientific papers presented were the recent achievements in the themes: 1) nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear materials science with an isotope separator on-line; 2) radiation shielding and nuclear data for use of accelerators; 3) materials analysis methods using ion beams; 4) microstructure in polymer materials irradiated with ions; 5) effects of transmutation products in fusion-reactor materials; 6) physiological study of plants using positron-emitting isotopes. The new theme titled 'Development and application of micro PIXE analysis in the atmospheric pressure' was proposed. Eight panelists discussed the future of the project. The 17 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  3. Accounting and Control of Tritium at the Tritium Process Laboratory (TPL) of JAERI - Results of 15-year Operation and Research Activity -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Masataka; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Hayashi, Takumi; Yamada, Masayuki; Suzuki, Takumi

    Research and development work of fuel processing technology and tritium safe-handling technology necessary for fusion reactors has been performed at the Tritium Process Laboratory (TPL) of JAERI. TPL is the first facility in Japan permitted to handle tritium of more than 1g (about 0.36PBq), and its operation itself is also important for the development of fusion reactor facility in the viewpoint of tritium control. Various experiments have been carried out at TPL safely since 1988 controlling 22PBq of tritium as the maximum observing regulations. In addition to the regulatory accounting and control, detailed independent control in TPL was planned and was established throughits15-yearsafe-operation. For future fusion fuel facility where kilograms of tritium will be handled, method of tritium accounting has been researched and some new technologies have been developed at TPL. Results of TPL operation and of the research activity in it contributed the completion of the engineering design of ITER. Further research activity on tritium accounting and control is in progress in TPL for the future fusion reactors.

  4. Evaluating the Toxicity Reduction With Computed Tomographic Ventilation Functional Avoidance Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Austin M; Miyasaka, Yuya; Kadoya, Noriyuki; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Yamamoto, Tokihiro

    2017-10-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) ventilation imaging is a new modality that uses 4-dimensional (4D) CT information to calculate lung ventilation. Although retrospective studies have reported on the reduction in dose to functional lung, no work to our knowledge has been published in which the dosimetric improvements have been translated to a reduction in the probability of pulmonary toxicity. Our work estimates the reduction in toxicity for CT ventilation-based functional avoidance planning. Seventy previously treated lung cancer patients who underwent 4DCT imaging were used for the study. CT ventilation maps were calculated with 4DCT deformable image registration and a density change-based algorithm. Pneumonitis was graded on the basis of imaging and clinical presentation. Maximum likelihood methods were used to generate normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models predicting grade 2 or higher (2+) and grade 3+ pneumonitis as a function of dose (V5 Gy, V10 Gy, V20 Gy, V30 Gy, and mean dose) to functional lung. For 30 patients a functional plan was generated with the goal of reducing dose to the functional lung while meeting Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0617 constraints. The NTCP models were applied to the functional plans and the clinically used plans to calculate toxicity reduction. By the use of functional avoidance planning, absolute reductions in grade 2+ NTCP of 6.3%, 7.8%, and 4.8% were achieved based on the mean fV20 Gy, fV30 Gy, and mean dose to functional lung metrics, respectively. Absolute grade 3+ NTCP reductions of 3.6%, 4.8%, and 2.4% were achieved with fV20 Gy, fV30 Gy, and mean dose to functional lung. Maximum absolute reductions of 52.3% and 16.4% were seen for grade 2+ and grade 3+ pneumonitis for individual patients. Our study quantifies the possible toxicity reduction from CT ventilation-based functional avoidance planning. Reductions in grades 2+ and 3+ pneumonitis were 7.1% and 4.7% based on mean dose-function metrics, with

  5. [Can we do therapy without a therapist? Active components of computer-based CBT for depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakimova, G; Dimitrova, S; Burté, T

    2016-10-10

    Computer-delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapies (C-CBT) are emerging as therapeutic techniques which contribute to overcome the barriers of health care access in adult populations with depression. The C-CBTs provide CBT techniques in a highly structured format comprising a number of educational lessons, homework, multimedia illustrations and supplementary materials via interactive computer interfaces. Programs are often administrated with a minimal or regular support provided by a clinician or a technician via email, telephone, online forums, or during face-to-face consultations. However, a lot of C-CBT is provided without any therapeutic support. Several reports showed that C-CBTs, both guided or unguided by a therapist, may be reliable and effective for patients with depression, and their use was recommended as part of the first step of the clinical care. The aim of the present qualitative review is to describe the operational format and functioning of five of the most cited unguided C-CBT programs for depression, to analyze their characteristics according to the CBT's principles, and to discuss the results of the randomized clinical trials (RCT) conducted to evaluate its effectiveness, adherence and user's experience. We analyzed five C-CBTs: Beating The Blues (BTB), MoodGYM, Sadness, Deprexis and Overcoming Depression on the Internet (ODIN) and 22 randomized controlled studies according to 5 dimensions: General characteristics; Methodology, structure and organization; Specific modules, themes and techniques: Clinical indications, recruitment mode, type of users with depression, type and mode of therapist's support, overall therapeutic effects, adherence and user's experience. The C-CBT have a secured free or pay-to-use access in different languages (English, German, Dutch, and Chinese) but not in French. The programs may be accessed at a medical center or at home via a CD-ROM or via an Internet connection. Some C-CBTs are very close to textual self

  6. Development of computational small animal models and their applications in preclinical imaging and therapy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Tianwu [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva 4 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Zaidi, Habib, E-mail: habib.zaidi@hcuge.ch [Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva 4 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Geneva Neuroscience Center, Geneva University, Geneva CH-1205 (Switzerland); Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen 9700 RB (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    The development of multimodality preclinical imaging techniques and the rapid growth of realistic computer simulation tools have promoted the construction and application of computational laboratory animal models in preclinical research. Since the early 1990s, over 120 realistic computational animal models have been reported in the literature and used as surrogates to characterize the anatomy of actual animals for the simulation of preclinical studies involving the use of bioluminescence tomography, fluorescence molecular tomography, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, microcomputed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and optical imaging. Other applications include electromagnetic field simulation, ionizing and nonionizing radiation dosimetry, and the development and evaluation of new methodologies for multimodality image coregistration, segmentation, and reconstruction of small animal images. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the history and fundamental technologies used for the development of computational small animal models with a particular focus on their application in preclinical imaging as well as nonionizing and ionizing radiation dosimetry calculations. An overview of the overall process involved in the design of these models, including the fundamental elements used for the construction of different types of computational models, the identification of original anatomical data, the simulation tools used for solving various computational problems, and the applications of computational animal models in preclinical research. The authors also analyze the characteristics of categories of computational models (stylized, voxel-based, and boundary representation) and discuss the technical challenges faced at the present time as well as research needs in the future.

  7. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview In autumn the main focus was to process and handle CRAFT data and to perform the Summer08 MC production. The operational aspects were well covered by regular Computing Shifts, experts on duty and Computing Run Coordination. At the Computing Resource Board (CRB) in October a model to account for service work at Tier 2s was approved. The computing resources for 2009 were reviewed for presentation at the C-RRB. The quarterly resource monitoring is continuing. Facilities/Infrastructure operations Operations during CRAFT data taking ran fine. This proved to be a very valuable experience for T0 workflows and operations. The transfers of custodial data to most T1s went smoothly. A first round of reprocessing started at the Tier-1 centers end of November; it will take about two weeks. The Computing Shifts procedure was tested full scale during this period and proved to be very efficient: 30 Computing Shifts Persons (CSP) and 10 Computing Resources Coordinators (CRC). The shift program for the shut down w...

  8. Phase 1-2 Study of Dual-Energy Computed Tomography for Assessment of Pulmonary Function in Radiation Therapy Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahig, Houda; Campeau, Marie-Pierre; Lapointe, Andréanne; Bedwani, Stephane; Roberge, David; de Guise, Jacques; Blais, Danis; Vu, Toni; Lambert, Louise; Chartrand-Lefebvre, Carl; Lord, Martin; Filion, Edith

    2017-10-01

    To quantify lung function according to a dual-energy computed tomography (DECT)-derived iodine map in patients treated with radiation therapy for lung cancer, and to assess the dosimetric impact of its integration in radiation therapy planning. Patients treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy for early-stage or intensity modulated radiation therapy for locally advanced lung cancer were prospectively enrolled in this study. A DECT in treatment position was obtained at time of treatment planning. The relative contribution of each voxel to the total lung function was based on iodine distribution. The composition of each voxel was determined on the basis of a 2-material decomposition. The DECT-derived lobar function was compared with single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). A functional map was integrated in the treatment planning system using 6 subvolumes of increasing iodine distribution levels. Percent lung volume receiving 5 Gy (V5), V20, and mean dose (MLD) to whole lungs (anatomic) versus functional lungs were compared. Twenty-five patients with lung cancer, including 18 patients treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy and 7 patients with intensity modulated radiation therapy (locally advanced), were included. Eighty-four percent had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Median (range) forced expiratory volume in 1 second was 62% of predicted (29%-113%), and median diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide was 56% (39%-91%). There was a strong linear correlation between DECT- and SPECT/CT-derived lobar function (Pearson coefficient correlation r=0.89, P<.00001). Mean (range) differences in V5, V20, and MLD between anatomic and functional lung volumes were 16% (0%-48%, P=.03), 5% (1%-15%, P=.12), and 15% (1%-43%, P=.047), respectively. Lobar function derived from a DECT iodine map correlates well with SPECT/CT, and its integration in lung treatment planning is associated with significant

  9. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview During the past three months activities were focused on data operations, testing and re-enforcing shift and operational procedures for data production and transfer, MC production and on user support. Planning of the computing resources in view of the new LHC calendar in ongoing. Two new task forces were created for supporting the integration work: Site Commissioning, which develops tools helping distributed sites to monitor job and data workflows, and Analysis Support, collecting the user experience and feedback during analysis activities and developing tools to increase efficiency. The development plan for DMWM for 2009/2011 was developed at the beginning of the year, based on the requirements from the Physics, Computing and Offline groups (see Offline section). The Computing management meeting at FermiLab on February 19th and 20th was an excellent opportunity discussing the impact and for addressing issues and solutions to the main challenges facing CMS computing. The lack of manpower is particul...

  10. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction CMS distributed computing system performed well during the 2011 start-up. The events in 2011 have more pile-up and are more complex than last year; this results in longer reconstruction times and harder events to simulate. Significant increases in computing capacity were delivered in April for all computing tiers, and the utilisation and load is close to the planning predictions. All computing centre tiers performed their expected functionalities. Heavy-Ion Programme The CMS Heavy-Ion Programme had a very strong showing at the Quark Matter conference. A large number of analyses were shown. The dedicated heavy-ion reconstruction facility at the Vanderbilt Tier-2 is still involved in some commissioning activities, but is available for processing and analysis. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Facility and Infrastructure operations have been active with operations and several important deployment tasks. Facilities participated in the testing and deployment of WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request...

  11. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    The Computing Project is preparing for a busy year where the primary emphasis of the project moves towards steady operations. Following the very successful completion of Computing Software and Analysis challenge, CSA06, last fall, we have reorganized and established four groups in computing area: Commissioning, User Support, Facility/Infrastructure Operations and Data Operations. These groups work closely together with groups from the Offline Project in planning for data processing and operations. Monte Carlo production has continued since CSA06, with about 30M events produced each month to be used for HLT studies and physics validation. Monte Carlo production will continue throughout the year in the preparation of large samples for physics and detector studies ramping to 50 M events/month for CSA07. Commissioning of the full CMS computing system is a major goal for 2007. Site monitoring is an important commissioning component and work is ongoing to devise CMS specific tests to be included in Service Availa...

  12. Metal artifacts in computed tomography for radiation therapy planning: dosimetric effects and impact of metal artifact reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giantsoudi, Drosoula; De Man, Bruno; Verburg, Joost; Trofimov, Alexei; Jin, Yannan; Wang, Ge; Gjesteby, Lars; Paganetti, Harald

    2017-04-01

    A significant and increasing number of patients receiving radiation therapy present with metal objects close to, or even within, the treatment area, resulting in artifacts in computed tomography (CT) imaging, which is the most commonly used imaging method for treatment planning in radiation therapy. In the presence of metal implants, such as dental fillings in treatment of head-and-neck tumors, spinal stabilization implants in spinal or paraspinal treatment or hip replacements in prostate cancer treatments, the extreme photon absorption by the metal object leads to prominent image artifacts. Although current CT scanners include a series of correction steps for beam hardening, scattered radiation and noisy measurements, when metal implants exist within or close to the treatment area, these corrections do not suffice. CT metal artifacts affect negatively the treatment planning of radiation therapy either by causing difficulties to delineate the target volume or by reducing the dose calculation accuracy. Various metal artifact reduction (MAR) methods have been explored in terms of improvement of organ delineation and dose calculation in radiation therapy treatment planning, depending on the type of radiation treatment and location of the metal implant and treatment site. Including a brief description of the available CT MAR methods that have been applied in radiation therapy, this article attempts to provide a comprehensive review on the dosimetric effect of the presence of CT metal artifacts in treatment planning, as reported in the literature, and the potential improvement suggested by different MAR approaches. The impact of artifacts on the treatment planning and delivery accuracy is discussed in the context of different modalities, such as photon external beam, brachytherapy and particle therapy, as well as by type and location of metal implants.

  13. Metal artifacts in computed tomography for radiation therapy planning: dosimetric effects and impact of metal artifact reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giantsoudi, Drosoula; De Man, Bruno; Verburg, Joost; Trofimov, Alexei; Jin, Yannan; Wang, Ge; Gjesteby, Lars; Paganetti, Harald

    2017-04-21

    A significant and increasing number of patients receiving radiation therapy present with metal objects close to, or even within, the treatment area, resulting in artifacts in computed tomography (CT) imaging, which is the most commonly used imaging method for treatment planning in radiation therapy. In the presence of metal implants, such as dental fillings in treatment of head-and-neck tumors, spinal stabilization implants in spinal or paraspinal treatment or hip replacements in prostate cancer treatments, the extreme photon absorption by the metal object leads to prominent image artifacts. Although current CT scanners include a series of correction steps for beam hardening, scattered radiation and noisy measurements, when metal implants exist within or close to the treatment area, these corrections do not suffice. CT metal artifacts affect negatively the treatment planning of radiation therapy either by causing difficulties to delineate the target volume or by reducing the dose calculation accuracy. Various metal artifact reduction (MAR) methods have been explored in terms of improvement of organ delineation and dose calculation in radiation therapy treatment planning, depending on the type of radiation treatment and location of the metal implant and treatment site. Including a brief description of the available CT MAR methods that have been applied in radiation therapy, this article attempts to provide a comprehensive review on the dosimetric effect of the presence of CT metal artifacts in treatment planning, as reported in the literature, and the potential improvement suggested by different MAR approaches. The impact of artifacts on the treatment planning and delivery accuracy is discussed in the context of different modalities, such as photon external beam, brachytherapy and particle therapy, as well as by type and location of metal implants.

  14. CARL: a LabVIEW 3 computer program for conducting exposure therapy for the treatment of dental injection fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, S E; Getz, T; Milgrom, P; Prall, C W; Spadafora, A; Ramsay, D S

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes CARL (Computer Assisted Relaxation Learning), a computerized, exposure-based therapy program for the treatment of dental injection fear. The CARL program operates primarily in two different modes; in vitro, which presents a video-taped exposure hierarchy, and in vivo, which presents scripts for a dentist or hygienist to use while working with a subject. Two additional modes are used to train subjects to use the program and to administer behavioral assessment tests. The program contains five different modules, which function to register a subject, train subjects to use physical and cognitive relaxation techniques, deliver an exposure hierarchy, question subjects about the helpfulness of each of the therapy components, and test for memory effects of anxiolytic medication. Nine subjects have completed the CARL therapy program and 1-yr follow-up as participants in a placebo-controlled clinical trial examining the effects of alprazolam on exposure therapy for dental injection phobia. All nine subjects were able to receive two dental injections, and all reduced their general fear of dental injections. Initial results therefore indicate that the CARL program successfully reduces dental injection fear.

  15. A computational tool for the efficient analysis of dose-volume histograms for radiation therapy treatment plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyakuryal, Anil; Myint, W. Kenji; Gopalakrishnan, Mahesh; Jang, Sunyoung; Logemann, Jerilyn A.; Mittal, Bharat B.

    2010-01-01

    A Histogram Analysis in Radiation Therapy (HART) program was primarily developed to increase the efficiency and accuracy of dose–volume histogram (DVH) analysis of large quantities of patient data in radiation therapy research. The program was written in MATLAB to analyze patient plans exported from the treatment planning system (Pinnacle3) in the American Association of Physicists in Medicine/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (AAPM/RTOG) format. HART-computed DVH data was validated against manually extracted data from the planning system for five head and neck cancer patients treated with the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique. HART calculated over 4000 parameters from the differential DVH (dDVH) curves for each patient in approximately 10–15 minutes. Manual extraction of this amount of data required 5 to 6 hours. The normalized root mean square deviation (NRMSD) for the HART–extracted DVH outcomes was less than 1%, or within 0.5% distance-to-agreement (DTA). This tool is supported with various user-friendly options and graphical displays. Additional features include optimal polynomial modeling of DVH curves for organs, treatment plan indices (TPI) evaluation, plan-specific outcome analysis (POA), and spatial DVH (zDVH) and dose surface histogram (DSH) analyses, respectively. HART is freely available to the radiation oncology community. PMID:20160690

  16. The relative role of patient physiology and device optimisation in cardiac resynchronisation therapy: A computational modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Andrew; Blazevic, Bojan; Lamata, Pablo; Plank, Gernot; Ginks, Matthew; Duckett, Simon; Sohal, Manav; Shetty, Anoop; Rinaldi, Christopher A; Razavi, Reza; Smith, Nicolas P; Niederer, Steven A

    2016-07-01

    Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) is an established treatment for heart failure, however the effective selection of patients and optimisation of therapy remain controversial. While extensive research is ongoing, it remains unclear whether improvements in patient selection or therapy planning offers a greater opportunity for the improvement of clinical outcomes. This computational study investigates the impact of both physiological conditions that guide patient selection and the optimisation of pacing lead placement on CRT outcomes. A multi-scale biophysical model of cardiac electromechanics was developed and personalised to patient data in three patients. These models were separated into components representing cardiac anatomy, pacing lead location, myocardial conductivity and stiffness, afterload, active contraction and conduction block for each individual, and recombined to generate a cohort of 648 virtual patients. The effect of these components on the change in total activation time of the ventricles (ΔTAT) and acute haemodynamic response (AHR) was analysed. The pacing site location was found to have the largest effect on ΔTAT and AHR. Secondary effects on ΔTAT and AHR were found for functional conduction block and cardiac anatomy. The simulation results highlight a need for a greater emphasis on therapy optimisation in order to achieve the best outcomes for patients. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Image Guided Radiation Therapy Using Synthetic Computed Tomography Images in Brain Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Ryan G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Kim, Joshua P.; Zheng, Weili [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Chetty, Indrin J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Glide-Hurst, Carri, E-mail: churst2@hfhs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: The development of synthetic computed tomography (CT) (synCT) derived from magnetic resonance (MR) images supports MR-only treatment planning. We evaluated the accuracy of synCT and synCT-generated digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) relative to CT and determined their performance for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Methods and Materials: Magnetic resonance simulation (MR-SIM) and CT simulation (CT-SIM) images were acquired of an anthropomorphic skull phantom and 12 patient brain cancer cases. SynCTs were generated using fluid attenuation inversion recovery, ultrashort echo time, and Dixon data sets through a voxel-based weighted summation of 5 tissue classifications. The DRRs were generated from the phantom synCT, and geometric fidelity was assessed relative to CT-generated DRRs through bounding box and landmark analysis. An offline retrospective analysis was conducted to register cone beam CTs (n=34) to synCTs and CTs using automated rigid registration in the treatment planning system. Planar MV and KV images (n=37) were rigidly registered to synCT and CT DRRs using an in-house script. Planar and volumetric registration reproducibility was assessed and margin differences were characterized by the van Herk formalism. Results: Bounding box and landmark analysis of phantom synCT DRRs were within 1 mm of CT DRRs. Absolute planar registration shift differences ranged from 0.0 to 0.7 mm for phantom DRRs on all treatment platforms and from 0.0 to 0.4 mm for volumetric registrations. For patient planar registrations, the mean shift differences were 0.4 ± 0.5 mm (range, −0.6 to 1.6 mm), 0.0 ± 0.5 mm (range, −0.9 to 1.2 mm), and 0.1 ± 0.3 mm (range, −0.7 to 0.6 mm) for the superior-inferior (S-I), left-right (L-R), and anterior-posterior (A-P) axes, respectively. The mean shift differences in volumetric registrations were 0.6 ± 0.4 mm (range, −0.2 to 1.6 mm), 0.2 ± 0.4 mm (range, −0.3 to 1.2 mm), and 0.2 ± 0

  18. Computer-Aided Optimization of Combined Anti-Retroviral Therapy for HIV: New Drugs, New Drug Targets and Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazzi, Maurizio; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Prosperi, Mattia C F

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to antiretroviral drugs is a complex and evolving area with relevant implications in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Several rules, algorithms and full-fledged computer programs have been developed to assist the HIV specialist in the choice of the best patient-tailored therapy. Experts' rules and statistical/machine learning algorithms for interpreting HIV drug resistance, along with their program implementations, were retrieved from PubMed and other on-line resources to be critically reviewed in terms of technical approach, performance, usability, update, and evolution (i.e. inclusion of novel drugs or expansion to other viral agents). Several drug resistance prediction algorithms for the nucleotide/nucleoside/non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase, protease and integrase inhibitors as well as coreceptor antagonists are currently available, routinely used, and have been validated thoroughly in independent studies. Computer tools that combine single-drug genotypic/phenotypic resistance interpretation and optimize combination antiretroviral therapy have been also developed and implemented as web applications. Most of the systems have been updated timely to incorporate new drugs and few have recently been expanded to meet a similar need in the Hepatitis C area. Prototype systems aiming at predicting virological response from both virus and patient indicators have been recently developed but they are not yet being routinely used. Computing HIV genotype to predict drug susceptibility in vitro or response to combination antiretroviral therapy in vivo is a continuous and productive research field, translating into successful treatment decision support tools, an essential component of the management of HIV patients.

  19. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing activity had ramped down after the completion of the reprocessing of the 2012 data and parked data, but is increasing with new simulation samples for analysis and upgrade studies. Much of the Computing effort is currently involved in activities to improve the computing system in preparation for 2015. Operations Office Since the beginning of 2013, the Computing Operations team successfully re-processed the 2012 data in record time, not only by using opportunistic resources like the San Diego Supercomputer Center which was accessible, to re-process the primary datasets HTMHT and MultiJet in Run2012D much earlier than planned. The Heavy-Ion data-taking period was successfully concluded in February collecting almost 500 T. Figure 3: Number of events per month (data) In LS1, our emphasis is to increase efficiency and flexibility of the infrastructure and operation. Computing Operations is working on separating disk and tape at the Tier-1 sites and the full implementation of the xrootd federation ...

  20. Changes in functional connectivity correlate with behavioral gains in stroke patients after therapy using a brain-computer interface device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Mei Young

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interface (BCI technology is being incorporated into new stroke rehabilitation devices, but little is known about brain changes associated with its use. We collected anatomical and functional MRI of 9 stroke patients with persistent upper extremity motor impairment before, during, and after therapy using a BCI system. Subjects were asked to perform finger tapping of the impaired hand during fMRI. Action Research Arm Test (ARAT, 9-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT, and Stroke Impact Scale (SIS domains of Hand Function (HF and Activities of Daily Living (ADL were also assessed. Group-level analyses examined changes in whole-brain task-based functional connectivity (FC to seed regions in the motor network observed during and after BCI therapy. Whole-brain FC analyses seeded in each thalamus showed FC increases from baseline at mid-therapy and post-therapy (p< 0.05. Changes in FC between seeds at both the network and the connection levels were examined for correlations with changes in behavioral measures. Average motor network FC was increased post-therapy, and changes in average network FC correlated (p < 0.05 with changes in performance on ARAT (R2=0.21, 9-HPT (R2=0.41, SIS HF (R2=0.27, and SIS ADL (R2=0.40. Multiple individual connections within the motor network were found to correlate in change from baseline with changes in behavioral measures. Many of these connections involved the thalamus, with change in each of four behavioral measures significantly correlating with change from baseline FC of at least one thalamic connection. These preliminary results show changes in FC that occur with the administration of rehabilitative therapy using a BCI system. The correlations noted between changes in FC measures and changes in behavioral outcomes indicate that both adaptive and maladaptive changes in FC may develop with this therapy and also suggest a brain-behavior relationship that may be stimulated by the neuromodulatory component of BCI therapy.

  1. Physics study of microbeam radiation therapy with PSI-version of Monte Carlo code GEANT as a new computational tool

    CERN Document Server

    Stepanek, J; Laissue, J A; Lyubimova, N; Di Michiel, F; Slatkin, D N

    2000-01-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a currently experimental method of radiotherapy which is mediated by an array of parallel microbeams of synchrotron-wiggler-generated X-rays. Suitably selected, nominally supralethal doses of X-rays delivered to parallel microslices of tumor-bearing tissues in rats can be either palliative or curative while causing little or no serious damage to contiguous normal tissues. Although the pathogenesis of MRT-mediated tumor regression is not understood, as in all radiotherapy such understanding will be based ultimately on our understanding of the relationships among the following three factors: (1) microdosimetry, (2) damage to normal tissues, and (3) therapeutic efficacy. Although physical microdosimetry is feasible, published information on MRT microdosimetry to date is computational. This report describes Monte Carlo-based computational MRT microdosimetry using photon and/or electron scattering and photoionization cross-section data in the 1 e V through 100 GeV range distrib...

  2. Prediction of the thickness of the compensator filter in radiation therapy using computational intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehlaghi, Vahab; Taghipour, Mostafa; Haghparast, Abbas [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roshani, Gholam Hossein [School of Energy, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei, Abbas [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shayesteh, Sajjad Pashootan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Adineh-Vand, Ayoub [Department of Computer Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Electrical Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, Gholam Reza, E-mail: ghkarimi@razi.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) are investigated to predict the thickness of the compensator filter in radiation therapy. In the proposed models, the input parameters are field size (S), off-axis distance, and relative dose (D/D{sub 0}), and the output is the thickness of the compensator. The obtained results show that the proposed ANN and ANFIS models are useful, reliable, and cheap tools to predict the thickness of the compensator filter in intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

  3. Computational Modeling of Medical Images of Brain Tumor Patients for Optimized Radiation Therapy Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agn, Mikael

    In brain tumor radiation therapy, the aim is to maximize the delivered radiation dose to the targeted tumor and at the same time minimize the dose to sensitive healthy structures – so-called organs-at-risk (OARs). When planning a radiation therapy session, the tumor and the OARs therefore need...... to be delineated on medical images of the patient’s head, to be able to optimize a radiation dose plan. In clinical practice, the delineation is performed manually with limited assistance from automatic procedures, which is both time-consuming and typically suffers from poor reproducibility. There is, therefore...

  4. Assessing lung function using contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography for potential applications in radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Andréanne; Bahig, Houda; Blais, Danis; Bouchard, Hugo; Filion, Édith; Carrier, Jean-François; Bedwani, Stéphane

    2017-10-01

    There is an increasing interest in the evaluation of lung function from physiological images in radiation therapy treatment planning to reduce the extent of postradiation toxicities. The purpose of this work was to retrieve reliable functional information from contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) for new applications in radiation therapy. The functional information obtained by DECT is also compared with other methods using single-energy CT (SECT) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with CT. The differential function between left and right lung, as well as between lobes is computed for all methods. Five lung cancer patients were retrospectively selected for this study; each underwent a SPECT/CT scan and a contrast-injected DECT scan, using 100 and 140 Sn kVp. The DECT images are postprocessed into iodine concentration maps, which are further used to determine the perfused blood volume. These maps are calculated in two steps: (a) a DECT stoichiometric calibration adapted to the presence of iodine and followed by (b) a two-material decomposition technique. The functional information from SECT is assumed proportional to the HU numbers from a mixed CT image. The functional data from SPECT/CT are considered proportional to the number of counts. A radiation oncologist segmented the entire lung volume into five lobes on both mixed CT images and low-dose CT images from SPECT/CT to allow a regional comparison. The differential function for each subvolume is computed relative to the entire lung volume. The differential function per lobe derived from SPECT/CT correlates strongly with DECT (Pearson's coefficient r = 0.91) and moderately with SECT (r = 0.46). The differential function for the left lung shows a mean difference of 7% between SPECT/CT and DECT; and 17% between SPECT/CT and SECT. The presence of nonfunctional areas, such as localized emphysema or a lung tumor, is reflected by an intensity drop in the iodine concentration maps

  5. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion An activity that is still in progress is computing for the heavy-ion program. The heavy-ion events are collected without zero suppression, so the event size is much large at roughly 11 MB per event of RAW. The central collisions are more complex and...

  6. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann P. McBride Edited by M-C. Sawley with contributions from: P. Kreuzer D. Bonacorsi S. Belforte F. Wuerthwein L. Bauerdick K. Lassila-Perini M-C. Sawley

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the comput...

  7. The influence of Positional Release Therapy on the myofascial trigger points of the upper trapezius muscle in computer users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Kojidi, M; Okhovatian, F; Rahimi, A; Baghban, A A; Azimi, H

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Positional Release Therapy (PRT) in computer users via latent trigger points (LTrPs) of the upper trapezius muscle. Twenty-eight women with the upper trapezius MTrPs participated in this study. Subjects were randomly classified into two groups (14 in each group): the subjects in the Group 1 received PRT in shortened position while those in the group 2 received sham control in the neutral position of the upper trapezius muscle. They received three therapy sessions every other day for one week. The local pain intensity and Pressure pain threshold (PPT) were measured via Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and algometry, respectively, before interventions and repeated 5 min after the first and third treatment sessions in each group. One-way ANOVA was used for data analysis. After treatment, between groups comparison revealed that for PPT and VAS, there were significant differences between the two groups (VAS and PPT; P < 0.05). Both groups (PRT and sham control) showed alleviation of pain and increase in PPT during three sessions of therapy although PRT showed to be more effective in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Computer-assisted instruction as a learning resource for applied anatomy and kinesiology in the occupational therapy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth-Cohen, S

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of these studies was to examine the learning outcomes of a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) tutorial in applied anatomy and kinesiology for occupational therapy students and to determine its applicability for use in two university settings. Two separate pilot studies were conducted at two universities. In each study, the learning outcomes of an experimental group of occupational therapy students using a CAI program and a control group using books to study the same material were compared. Learning outcomes were assessed with post-test achievement test scores on an applied anatomy and kinesiology test and responses to an attitude questionnaire with Likert-scale items and open-ended questions. There was no significant difference in the means on achievement test scores for the experimental and control groups in the first pilot study. In the second study, the CAI group scored significantly higher on the achievement test than the control group. In both pilot studies, subjects displayed significantly more positive attitudes toward the CAI program as a learning tool than they did toward traditional self-study with books. A CAI program in applied anatomy and kinesiology can be an effective supplemental resource for occupational therapy students and can offer a learning experience that students value and perceive as helpful. Establishment of clear learning objectives, use of a theoretical base to design instruction, and development and testing in different educational settings can help improve the quality of CAI programs and ensure their relevance to other curricula.

  9. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography in the diagnostic evaluation of smoldering multiple myeloma: identification of patients needing therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siontis, B; Kumar, S; Dispenzieri, A; Drake, M T; Lacy, M Q; Buadi, F; Dingli, D; Kapoor, P; Gonsalves, W; Gertz, M A; Rajkumar, S V

    2015-10-23

    We studied 188 patients with a suspected smoldering multiple myeloma (MM) who had undergone a positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan as part of their clinical evaluation. PET-CT was positive (clinical radiologist interpretation of increased bone uptake and/or evidence of lytic bone destruction) in 74 patients and negative in 114 patients. Of these, 25 patients with a positive PET-CT and 97 patients with a negative PET-CT were observed without therapy and formed the study cohort (n=122). The probability of progression to MM within 2 years was 75% in patients with a positive PET-CT observed without therapy compared with 30% in patients with a negative PET-CT; median time to progression was 21 months versus 60 months, respectively, P=0.0008. Of 25 patients with a positive PET-CT, the probability of progression was 87% at 2 years in those with evidence of underlying osteolysis (n=16) and 61% in patients with abnormal PET-CT uptake but no evidence of osteolysis (n=9). Patients with positive PET-CT and evidence of underlying osteolysis have a high risk of progression to MM within 2 years when observed without therapy. These observations support recent changes to imaging requirements in the International Myeloma Working Group updated diagnostic criteria for MM.

  10. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    It has been a very active year for the computing project with strong contributions from members of the global community. The project has focused on site preparation and Monte Carlo production. The operations group has begun processing data from P5 as part of the global data commissioning. Improvements in transfer rates and site availability have been seen as computing sites across the globe prepare for large scale production and analysis as part of CSA07. Preparations for the upcoming Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 are progressing. Ian Fisk and Neil Geddes have been appointed as coordinators for the challenge. CSA07 will include production tests of the Tier-0 production system, reprocessing at the Tier-1 sites and Monte Carlo production at the Tier-2 sites. At the same time there will be a large analysis exercise at the Tier-2 centres. Pre-production simulation of the Monte Carlo events for the challenge is beginning. Scale tests of the Tier-0 will begin in mid-July and the challenge it...

  11. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Computing continued with a high level of activity over the winter in preparation for conferences and the start of the 2012 run. 2012 brings new challenges with a new energy, more complex events, and the need to make the best use of the available time before the Long Shutdown. We expect to be resource constrained on all tiers of the computing system in 2012 and are working to ensure the high-priority goals of CMS are not impacted. Heavy ions After a successful 2011 heavy-ion run, the programme is moving to analysis. During the run, the CAF resources were well used for prompt analysis. Since then in 2012 on average 200 job slots have been used continuously at Vanderbilt for analysis workflows. Operations Office As of 2012, the Computing Project emphasis has moved from commissioning to operation of the various systems. This is reflected in the new organisation structure where the Facilities and Data Operations tasks have been merged into a common Operations Office, which now covers everything ...

  12. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion The Tier 0 infrastructure was able to repack and promptly reconstruct heavy-ion collision data. Two copies were made of the data at CERN using a large CASTOR disk pool, and the core physics sample was replicated ...

  13. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the co...

  14. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CCRC’08 challenges and CSA08 During the February campaign of the Common Computing readiness challenges (CCRC’08), the CMS computing team had achieved very good results. The link between the detector site and the Tier0 was tested by gradually increasing the number of parallel transfer streams well beyond the target. Tests covered the global robustness at the Tier0, processing a massive number of very large files and with a high writing speed to tapes.  Other tests covered the links between the different Tiers of the distributed infrastructure and the pre-staging and reprocessing capacity of the Tier1’s: response time, data transfer rate and success rate for Tape to Buffer staging of files kept exclusively on Tape were measured. In all cases, coordination with the sites was efficient and no serious problem was found. These successful preparations prepared the ground for the second phase of the CCRC’08 campaign, in May. The Computing Software and Analysis challen...

  15. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The first data taking period of November produced a first scientific paper, and this is a very satisfactory step for Computing. It also gave the invaluable opportunity to learn and debrief from this first, intense period, and make the necessary adaptations. The alarm procedures between different groups (DAQ, Physics, T0 processing, Alignment/calibration, T1 and T2 communications) have been reinforced. A major effort has also been invested into remodeling and optimizing operator tasks in all activities in Computing, in parallel with the recruitment of new Cat A operators. The teams are being completed and by mid year the new tasks will have been assigned. CRB (Computing Resource Board) The Board met twice since last CMS week. In December it reviewed the experience of the November data-taking period and could measure the positive improvements made for the site readiness. It also reviewed the policy under which Tier-2 are associated with Physics Groups. Such associations are decided twice per ye...

  16. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction During the past six months, Computing participated in the STEP09 exercise, had a major involvement in the October exercise and has been working with CMS sites on improving open issues relevant for data taking. At the same time operations for MC production, real data reconstruction and re-reconstructions and data transfers at large scales were performed. STEP09 was successfully conducted in June as a joint exercise with ATLAS and the other experiments. It gave good indication about the readiness of the WLCG infrastructure with the two major LHC experiments stressing the reading, writing and processing of physics data. The October Exercise, in contrast, was conducted as an all-CMS exercise, where Physics, Computing and Offline worked on a common plan to exercise all steps to efficiently access and analyze data. As one of the major results, the CMS Tier-2s demonstrated to be fully capable for performing data analysis. In recent weeks, efforts were devoted to CMS Computing readiness. All th...

  17. Computed tomographic findings in pelvic cavity after radiation therapy for carcinoma of cervix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Young Hoon; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee [Kosin Medical College, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Soo Jhi [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-02-15

    From July 1, 1981 to August 31, 1984, 59 patients who had radiation therapy for carcinoma of cervix had CT scanning at Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kosin Medical College. The authors analysed the CT findings of the patients in regard to the recurrence of the disease and postradiation changes. The results are as followings; 1. The incidence of recurrence was most common in advanced stage over llb. 77% 2. Changes in pelvic cavity were as followings; Widening of presacral space 78%; Increased perirectal fat space 81%; Symmetrical thickening of perirectal fascia 97%; Fibrous connection between sacrum and retum 92%; Anterior connection between rectum and perirectal fascia 47%; Increased bowel wall thickness 44%; Increased bladder wall thickness with trabeculations 51% 3. In most patients who had CT scanning within 3 months after radiation therapy, CT did not demonstrate postradiation changes characterized by an increased pelvic fibrous and fatty tissue. 4. In 10 patients who had postoperative radiation therapy, 8 patients show increased bowel wall thickness. 5. 30 patients with recurrent carcinoma of cervix were as followings; Pelvic tumor recurrence 90%; Parametrial and side wall extension 53%; Pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenopathy 40%; Hydronephrosis 23%; Bladder involvement 23%; Lumbar spine involvement 10% And 1 patients shows distant metastasis to paraaortic lymph node, 1 patients to lumbar spine, and 1 patient to liver without recurrent tumor mass in pelvic cavity. 6. 2 patients showing mass without other sign in the pelvic cavity were unable to be differentiated between irradiated uterus and recurrent tumor.

  18. Computational Study to Determine When to Initiate and Alternate Therapy in HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Haering

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV is a widespread viral infection without cure. Drug treatment has transformed HIV disease into a treatable long-term infection. However, the appearance of mutations within the viral genome reduces the susceptibility of HIV to drugs. Therefore, a key goal is to extend the time until patients exhibit resistance to all existing drugs. Current HIV treatment guidelines seem poorly supported as practitioners have not achieved a consensus on the optimal time to initiate and to switch antiretroviral treatments. We contribute to this discussion with predictions derived from a mathematical model of HIV dynamics. Our results indicate that early therapy initiation (within 2 years postinfection is critical to delay AIDS progression. For patients who have not received any therapy during the first 3 years postinfection, switch in response to virological failure may outperform proactive switching strategies. In case that proactive switching is opted, the switching time between therapies should not be larger than 100 days. Further clinical trials are needed to either confirm or falsify these predictions.

  19. A computer based learning program for radiation therapy; Ein Computerlernprogramm fuer Strahlentherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenzel, T.; Kruell, A.; Schmidt, R. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie; Dobrucki, W.; Malys, B.; Box, W. [MultiMedia Lab., Inst. Hochschule-Wirtschaft Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-06-01

    Many textbooks about radiation therapy for the education of medical, technical and scientific staff are available. But they are restricted to transfer of knowledge via text and figures. On the other hand movies and animated pictures can give you a more realistic impression of the procedures and technical equipment of a radiation therapy department. Therefore, an interactive multimedia teaching program was developed at the Universitaets-Krankenhaus Eppendorf for the department of radiation therapy. The electronic textbook runs under `MS Windows 3.1 {sup trademark} ` (with multimedia extensions) and `MS Windows 95 {sup trademark} `, contains eight chapters and can be used without any preliminary knowledge. The program has been tested by medical personnel, nurses, physicists and physicians and was generally welcome. The program was designed for people with different levels of education to reach as many users as possible. It was not created to replace textbooks but was designed for their supplement. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Ausbildung von medizinischem technischem und wissenschaftlichem Personal im Bereich der Strahlentherapie steht eine Vielzahl von Lehrbuechern zur Verfuegung. Sie vermitteln Wissen nur in Form von Texten und Abbildungen. Filme und Animationen koennen hingegen die Arbeitsablaeufe und die Funktionsweise der Apparaturen einer Strahlentherapieabteilung anschaulich zeigen. Aus diesem Grund wurde am Universitaets-Krankenhaus Eppendorf ein interaktives multimedials Lernprogramm fuer die Abteilung fuer Strahlentherapie entwickelt. Das elektronische Buch ist unter `MS Windows 3.1 {sup trademark} ` (mit Multimedia-Erweiterungen) und `MS Windows 95 {sup trademark} ` lauffaehig, umfasst insgesamt acht Kapitel und kann ohne Vorkenntnisse benutzt werden. Das Programm ist von vielen MTA, Schwesternschuelerinnen, Krankenschwestern, Physikern und Aerzten getestet und durchweg positiv aufgenommen worden. Es wurde bewusst eine breit gefaechterte Zielgruppe gewaehlt, um

  20. Computational genes: a tool for molecular diagnosis and therapy of aberrant mutational phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatova Zoya

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A finite state machine manipulating information-carrying DNA strands can be used to perform autonomous molecular-scale computations at the cellular level. Results We propose a new finite state machine able to detect and correct aberrant molecular phenotype given by mutated genetic transcripts. The aberrant mutations trigger a cascade reaction: specific molecular markers as input are released and induce a spontaneous self-assembly of a wild type protein or peptide, while the mutational disease phenotype is silenced. We experimentally demostrated in in vitro translation system that a viable protein can be autonomously assembled. Conclusion Our work demostrates the basic principles of computational genes and particularly, their potential to detect mutations, and as a response thereafter administer an output that suppresses the aberrant disease phenotype and/or restores the lost physiological function.

  1. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing operation has been lower as the Run 1 samples are completing and smaller samples for upgrades and preparations are ramping up. Much of the computing activity is focusing on preparations for Run 2 and improvements in data access and flexibility of using resources. Operations Office Data processing was slow in the second half of 2013 with only the legacy re-reconstruction pass of 2011 data being processed at the sites.   Figure 1: MC production and processing was more in demand with a peak of over 750 Million GEN-SIM events in a single month.   Figure 2: The transfer system worked reliably and efficiently and transferred on average close to 520 TB per week with peaks at close to 1.2 PB.   Figure 3: The volume of data moved between CMS sites in the last six months   The tape utilisation was a focus for the operation teams with frequent deletion campaigns from deprecated 7 TeV MC GEN-SIM samples to INVALID datasets, which could be cleaned up...

  2. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

      Introduction Computing activity has been running at a sustained, high rate as we collect data at high luminosity, process simulation, and begin to process the parked data. The system is functional, though a number of improvements are planned during LS1. Many of the changes will impact users, we hope only in positive ways. We are trying to improve the distributed analysis tools as well as the ability to access more data samples more transparently.  Operations Office Figure 2: Number of events per month, for 2012 Since the June CMS Week, Computing Operations teams successfully completed data re-reconstruction passes and finished the CMSSW_53X MC campaign with over three billion events available in AOD format. Recorded data was successfully processed in parallel, exceeding 1.2 billion raw physics events per month for the first time in October 2012 due to the increase in data-parking rate. In parallel, large efforts were dedicated to WMAgent development and integrati...

  3. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Just two months after the “LHC First Physics” event of 30th March, the analysis of the O(200) million 7 TeV collision events in CMS accumulated during the first 60 days is well under way. The consistency of the CMS computing model has been confirmed during these first weeks of data taking. This model is based on a hierarchy of use-cases deployed between the different tiers and, in particular, the distribution of RECO data to T1s, who then serve data on request to T2s, along a topology known as “fat tree”. Indeed, during this period this model was further extended by almost full “mesh” commissioning, meaning that RECO data were shipped to T2s whenever possible, enabling additional physics analyses compared with the “fat tree” model. Computing activities at the CMS Analysis Facility (CAF) have been marked by a good time response for a load almost evenly shared between ALCA (Alignment and Calibration tasks - highest p...

  4. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Matthias Kasemann

    Overview The main focus during the summer was to handle data coming from the detector and to perform Monte Carlo production. The lessons learned during the CCRC and CSA08 challenges in May were addressed by dedicated PADA campaigns lead by the Integration team. Big improvements were achieved in the stability and reliability of the CMS Tier1 and Tier2 centres by regular and systematic follow-up of faults and errors with the help of the Savannah bug tracking system. In preparation for data taking the roles of a Computing Run Coordinator and regular computing shifts monitoring the services and infrastructure as well as interfacing to the data operations tasks are being defined. The shift plan until the end of 2008 is being put together. User support worked on documentation and organized several training sessions. The ECoM task force delivered the report on “Use Cases for Start-up of pp Data-Taking” with recommendations and a set of tests to be performed for trigger rates much higher than the ...

  5. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction A large fraction of the effort was focused during the last period into the preparation and monitoring of the February tests of Common VO Computing Readiness Challenge 08. CCRC08 is being run by the WLCG collaboration in two phases, between the centres and all experiments. The February test is dedicated to functionality tests, while the May challenge will consist of running at all centres and with full workflows. For this first period, a number of functionality checks of the computing power, data repositories and archives as well as network links are planned. This will help assess the reliability of the systems under a variety of loads, and identifying possible bottlenecks. Many tests are scheduled together with other VOs, allowing the full scale stress test. The data rates (writing, accessing and transfer¬ring) are being checked under a variety of loads and operating conditions, as well as the reliability and transfer rates of the links between Tier-0 and Tier-1s. In addition, the capa...

  6. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Contributions from I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The start of the 2012 run has been busy for Computing. We have reconstructed, archived, and served a larger sample of new data than in 2011, and we are in the process of producing an even larger new sample of simulations at 8 TeV. The running conditions and system performance are largely what was anticipated in the plan, thanks to the hard work and preparation of many people. Heavy ions Heavy Ions has been actively analysing data and preparing for conferences.  Operations Office Figure 6: Transfers from all sites in the last 90 days For ICHEP and the Upgrade efforts, we needed to produce and process record amounts of MC samples while supporting the very successful data-taking. This was a large burden, especially on the team members. Nevertheless the last three months were very successful and the total output was phenomenal, thanks to our dedicated site admins who keep the sites operational and the computing project members who spend countless hours nursing the...

  7. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. MacBride

    The Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 has been the main focus of the Computing Project for the past few months. Activities began over the summer with the preparation of the Monte Carlo data sets for the challenge and tests of the new production system at the Tier-0 at CERN. The pre-challenge Monte Carlo production was done in several steps: physics generation, detector simulation, digitization, conversion to RAW format and the samples were run through the High Level Trigger (HLT). The data was then merged into three "Soups": Chowder (ALPGEN), Stew (Filtered Pythia) and Gumbo (Pythia). The challenge officially started when the first Chowder events were reconstructed on the Tier-0 on October 3rd. The data operations teams were very busy during the the challenge period. The MC production teams continued with signal production and processing while the Tier-0 and Tier-1 teams worked on splitting the Soups into Primary Data Sets (PDS), reconstruction and skimming. The storage sys...

  8. Towards incorporating affective computing to virtual rehabilitation; surrogating attributed attention from posture for boosting therapy adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Jesús J.; Heyer, Patrick; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Sucar, Luis Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Virtual rehabilitation (VR) is a novel motor rehabilitation therapy in which the rehabilitation exercises occurs through interaction with bespoken virtual environments. These virtual environments dynamically adapt their activity to match the therapy progress. Adaptation should be guided by the cognitive and emotional state of the patient, none of which are directly observable. Here, we present our first steps towards inferring non-observable attentional state from unobtrusively observable seated posture, so that this knowledge can later be exploited by a VR platform to modulate its behaviour. The space of seated postures was discretized and 648 pictures of acted representations were exposed to crowd-evaluation to determine attributed state of attention. A semi-supervised classifier based on Na¨ıve Bayes with structural improvement was learnt to unfold a predictive relation between posture and attributed attention. Internal validity was established following a 2×5 cross-fold strategy. Following 4959 votes from crowd, classification accuracy reached a promissory 96.29% (µ±σ = 87.59±6.59) and F-measure reached 82.35% (µ ± σ = 69.72 ± 10.50). With the afforded rate of classification, we believe it is safe to claim posture as a reliable proxy for attributed attentional state. It follows that unobtrusively monitoring posture can be exploited for guiding an intelligent adaptation in a virtual rehabilitation platform. This study further helps to identify critical aspects of posture permitting inference of attention.

  9. Optimization of beam angles for intensity modulated radiation therapy treatment planning using genetic algorithm on a distributed computing platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareth, Daryl P; Brunner, Stephen; Jones, Matthew D; Malhotra, Harish K; Bakhtiari, Mohammad

    2009-07-01

    Planning intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment involves selection of several angle parameters as well as specification of structures and constraints employed in the optimization process. Including these parameters in the combinatorial search space vastly increases the computational burden, and therefore the parameter selection is normally performed manually by a clinician, based on clinical experience. We have investigated the use of a genetic algorithm (GA) and distributed-computing platform to optimize the gantry angle parameters and provide insight into additional structures, which may be necessary, in the dose optimization process to produce optimal IMRT treatment plans. For an IMRT prostate patient, we produced the first generation of 40 samples, each of five gantry angles, by selecting from a uniform random distribution, subject to certain adjacency and opposition constraints. Dose optimization was performed by distributing the 40-plan workload over several machines running a commercial treatment planning system. A score was assigned to each resulting plan, based on how well it satisfied clinically-relevant constraints. The second generation of 40 samples was produced by combining the highest-scoring samples using techniques of crossover and mutation. The process was repeated until the sixth generation, and the results compared with a clinical (equally-spaced) gantry angle configuration. In the sixth generation, 34 of the 40 GA samples achieved better scores than the clinical plan, with the best plan showing an improvement of 84%. Moreover, the resulting configuration of beam angles tended to cluster toward the patient's sides, indicating where the inclusion of additional structures in the dose optimization process may avoid dose hot spots. Additional parameter selection in IMRT leads to a large-scale computational problem. We have demonstrated that the GA combined with a distributed-computing platform can be applied to optimize gantry angle

  10. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The Computing Team successfully completed the storage, initial processing, and distribution for analysis of proton-proton data in 2011. There are still a variety of activities ongoing to support winter conference activities and preparations for 2012. Heavy ions The heavy-ion run for 2011 started in early November and has already demonstrated good machine performance and success of some of the more advanced workflows planned for 2011. Data collection will continue until early December. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Operational and deployment support for WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request Manager components, routinely used in production by Data Operations, are provided. The GlideInWMS and components installation are now deployed at CERN, which is added to the GlideInWMS factory placed in the US. There has been new operational collaboration between the CERN team and the UCSD GlideIn factory operators, covering each others time zones by monitoring/debugging pilot jobs sent from the facto...

  11. WE-AB-303-09: Rapid Projection Computations for On-Board Digital Tomosynthesis in Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliopoulos, AS; Sun, X [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Pitsianis, N [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece); Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Yin, FF; Ren, L [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To facilitate fast and accurate iterative volumetric image reconstruction from limited-angle on-board projections. Methods: Intrafraction motion hinders the clinical applicability of modern radiotherapy techniques, such as lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The LIVE system may impact clinical practice by recovering volumetric information via Digital Tomosynthesis (DTS), thus entailing low time and radiation dose for image acquisition during treatment. The DTS is estimated as a deformation of prior CT via iterative registration with on-board images; this shifts the challenge to the computational domain, owing largely to repeated projection computations across iterations. We address this issue by composing efficient digital projection operators from their constituent parts. This allows us to separate the static (projection geometry) and dynamic (volume/image data) parts of projection operations by means of pre-computations, enabling fast on-board processing, while also relaxing constraints on underlying numerical models (e.g. regridding interpolation kernels). Further decoupling the projectors into simpler ones ensures the incurred memory overhead remains low, within the capacity of a single GPU. These operators depend only on the treatment plan and may be reused across iterations and patients. The dynamic processing load is kept to a minimum and maps well to the GPU computational model. Results: We have integrated efficient, pre-computable modules for volumetric ray-casting and FDK-based back-projection with the LIVE processing pipeline. Our results show a 60x acceleration of the DTS computations, compared to the previous version, using a single GPU; presently, reconstruction is attained within a couple of minutes. The present implementation allows for significant flexibility in terms of the numerical and operational projection model; we are investigating the benefit of further optimizations and accurate digital projection sub

  12. Computational characterization and experimental validation of the thermal neutron source for neutron capture therapy research at the University of Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekman, J. D. [University of Missouri, Research Reactor Center, 1513 Research Park Drive, Columbia, MO 65211-3400 (United States); Nigg, D. W. [Idaho National Laboratory, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Hawthorne, M. F. [University of Missouri, International Institute of Nano and Molecular Medicine, 1514 Research Park Dr., Columbia, MO 65211-3450 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Parameter studies, design calculations and neutronic performance measurements have been completed for a new thermal neutron beamline constructed for neutron capture therapy cell and small-animal radiobiology studies at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. The beamline features the use of single-crystal silicon and bismuth sections for neutron filtering and for reduction of incident gamma radiation. The computational models used for the final beam design and performance evaluation are based on coupled discrete-ordinates and Monte Carlo techniques that permit detailed modeling of the neutron transmission properties of the filtering crystals with very few approximations. Validation protocols based on neutron activation spectrometry measurements and rigorous least-square adjustment techniques show that the beam produces a neutron spectrum that has the anticipated level of thermal neutron flux and a somewhat higher than expected, but radio-biologically insignificant, epithermal neutron flux component. (authors)

  13. IMPROVED COMPUTATIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE THERMAL NEUTRON SOURCE FOR NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY RESEARCH AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart R. Slattery; David W. Nigg; John D. Brockman; M. Frederick Hawthorne

    2010-05-01

    Parameter studies, design calculations and initial neutronic performance measurements have been completed for a new thermal neutron beamline to be used for neutron capture therapy cell and small-animal radiobiology studies at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. The beamline features the use of single-crystal silicon and bismuth sections for neutron filtering and for reduction of incident gamma radiation. The computational models used for the final beam design and performance evaluation are based on coupled discrete-ordinates and Monte Carlo techniques that permit detailed modeling of the neutron transmission properties of the filtering crystals with very few approximations. This is essential for detailed dosimetric studies required for the anticipated research program.

  14. New perspectives on the computational characterization of the kinetics of binding-unbinding in drug design: implications for novel therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana M. Moreno-Vargas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency and the propensity of a drug to be bound to its target protein have been inseparable concepts for decades now. The correlation between the pharmacological activity and the binding affinity has been the first rule to design and optimize a new drug rationally. However, this argument does not prove to be infallible when the results of in vivo assays have to be confronted. Only recently, we understand that other magnitudes as the kinetic rates of binding and unbinding, or the mean residence time of the complex drug-protein, are equally relevant to draw a more accurate model of the mechanism of action of a drug. It is in this scenario where new computational techniques to simulate the all-atom dynamics of the biomolecular system find its valuable place on the challenge of designing new molecules for more effective and less toxic therapies.

  15. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CMS relies on a well functioning, distributed computing infrastructure. The Site Availability Monitoring (SAM) and the Job Robot submission have been very instrumental for site commissioning in order to increase availability of more sites such that they are available to participate in CSA07 and are ready to be used for analysis. The commissioning process has been further developed, including "lessons learned" documentation via the CMS twiki. Recently the visualization, presentation and summarizing of SAM tests for sites has been redesigned, it is now developed by the central ARDA project of WLCG. Work to test the new gLite Workload Management System was performed; a 4 times increase in throughput with respect to LCG Resource Broker is observed. CMS has designed and launched a new-generation traffic load generator called "LoadTest" to commission and to keep exercised all data transfer routes in the CMS PhE-DEx topology. Since mid-February, a transfer volume of about 12 P...

  16. Cone-beam computed tomography in lung stereotactic ablative radiation therapy: predictive parameters of early response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Rosario; Fiorentino, Alba; Ricchetti, Francesco; Giaj Levra, Niccolò; Fersino, Sergio; Di Paola, Gioacchino; Lo Casto, Antonio; Ruggieri, Ruggero; Alongi, Filippo

    2016-06-20

    To analyze lung lesion volume variations by contouring on cone-beam CT (CBCT) images to evaluate the early predictive parameters of stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) treatment response. The prescribed dose of SABR was varied according to the tumour site (central or peripheral) and maximum diameter of the lesions by using a strategy of risk-adapted dose prescription with a dose range between 48 and 70 Gy in 3-10 consecutive fractions. For the purpose of the analysis, the gross tumour volume (GTV) was recontoured for each patient at first and last CBCT using two lung levels/windows: (a) -600/1000 HU and (b) -1000/250 HU. Univariate analysis was performed to evaluate a correlation between lung lesion variations on CBCT using the two levels/windows and treatment response 6 months after SABR. Independent variables were the number of fractions, time between initial and final fraction, biologically effective dose and pre-SABR GTV. Cut points of lesion volume reduction were evaluated to determine the correlation with complete response 6 months after SABR. 41 lung lesions were evaluated. 82 lung lesions were recontoured for each CBCT level/window. A lung lesion shrinkage of at least 20% was revealed to be statistically related to complete response 6 months after SABR for both the CBCT levels/windows used. The probability of complete response ranged between six and eight times higher in respect to CBCT levels/windows -600/1000 HU and -1000/250 HU, respectively, compared with patients without a lesion shrinkage of 20% at the last session of SABR. According to current findings, a lung lesion shrinkage of at least 20% at the last session of SABR could be predictable of complete response 6 months thereafter. Further investigations about this topic are needed. Prediction of the early tumour response could be useful to personalize imaging restaging after the completion of SABR or to incorporate additional therapies in case of poor responders to improve

  17. Dose computation in conformal radiation therapy including geometric uncertainties: Methods and clinical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosu, Mihaela

    The aim of any radiotherapy is to tailor the tumoricidal radiation dose to the target volume and to deliver as little radiation dose as possible to all other normal tissues. However, the motion and deformation induced in human tissue by ventilatory motion is a major issue, as standard practice usually uses only one computed tomography (CT) scan (and hence one instance of the patient's anatomy) for treatment planning. The interfraction movement that occurs due to physiological processes over time scales shorter than the delivery of one treatment fraction leads to differences between the planned and delivered dose distributions. Due to the influence of these differences on tumors and normal tissues, the tumor control probabilities and normal tissue complication probabilities are likely to be impacted upon in the face of organ motion. In this thesis we apply several methods to compute dose distributions that include the effects of the treatment geometric uncertainties by using the time-varying anatomical information as an alternative to the conventional Planning Target Volume (PTV) approach. The proposed methods depend on the model used to describe the patient's anatomy. The dose and fluence convolution approaches for rigid organ motion are discussed first, with application to liver tumors and the rigid component of the lung tumor movements. For non-rigid behavior a dose reconstruction method that allows the accumulation of the dose to the deforming anatomy is introduced, and applied for lung tumor treatments. Furthermore, we apply the cumulative dose approach to investigate how much information regarding the deforming patient anatomy is needed at the time of treatment planning for tumors located in thorax. The results are evaluated from a clinical perspective. All dose calculations are performed using a Monte Carlo based algorithm to ensure more realistic and more accurate handling of tissue heterogeneities---of particular importance in lung cancer treatment planning.

  18. Cognitive behavior therapy versus interpersonal psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder delivered via smartphone and computer: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagöö, Jesper; Asplund, Robert Persson; Bsenko, Helene Andersson; Hjerling, Sofia; Holmberg, Anna; Westh, Susanne; Öberg, Louise; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Carlbring, Per; Furmark, Tomas; Andersson, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    In this study, a previously evaluated guided Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD) was adapted for mobile phone administration (mCBT). The treatment was compared with a guided self-help treatment based on interpersonal psychotherapy (mIPT). The treatment platform could be accessed through smartphones, tablet computers, and standard computers. A total of 52 participants were diagnosed with SAD and randomized to either mCBT (n=27) or mIPT (n=25). Measures were collected at pre-treatment, during the treatment, post-treatment and 3-month follow-up. On the primary outcome measure, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale - self-rated, both groups showed statistically significant improvements. However, mCBT performed significantly better than mIPT (between group Cohen's d=0.64 in favor of mCBT). A larger proportion of the mCBT group was classified as responders at post-treatment (55.6% versus 8.0% in the mIPT group). We conclude that CBT for SAD can be delivered using modern information technology. IPT delivered as a guided self-help treatment may be less effective in this format. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Computer-assisted delivery of cognitive-behavioral therapy for addiction: a randomized trial of CBT4CBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kathleen M; Ball, Samuel A; Martino, Steve; Nich, Charla; Babuscio, Theresa A; Nuro, Kathryn F; Gordon, Melissa A; Portnoy, Galina A; Rounsaville, Bruce J

    2008-07-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a computer-based version of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance dependence. This was a randomized clinical trial in which 77 individuals seeking treatment for substance dependence at an outpatient community setting were randomly assigned to standard treatment or standard treatment with biweekly access to computer-based training in CBT (CBT4CBT) skills. Treatment retention and data availability were comparable across the treatment conditions. Participants assigned to the CBT4CBT condition submitted significantly more urine specimens that were negative for any type of drugs and tended to have longer continuous periods of abstinence during treatment. The CBT4CBT program was positively evaluated by participants. In the CBT4CBT condition, outcome was more strongly associated with treatment engagement than in treatment as usual; furthermore, completion of homework assignments in CBT4CBT was significantly correlated with outcome and a significant predictor of treatment involvement. These data suggest that CBT4CBT is an effective adjunct to standard outpatient treatment for substance dependence and may provide an important means of making CBT, an empirically validated treatment, more broadly available.

  20. Longitudinal assessment of carotid atherosclerosis after Radiation Therapy using Computed Tomography: A case control Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzidei, Michele [Rome Univ. ' ' La Sapienza' ' (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Suri, Jasjit S.; Piga, Mario [AtheroPoint TM LLC, Roseville, CA (United States). Monitoring and Diagnostic Div.; Global Biomedical Technologies, Inc., CA (United States). Point of Care Devices; Idaho Univ., Moscow, ID (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.; Saba, Luca [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Cagliari (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Sanfilippo, Roberto; Montisci, Roberto [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Cagliari (Italy). Dept. of Vascular Surgery; Laddeo, Giancarlo [New York Univ. Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Argiolas, Giovanni Maria [Azienda Ospedaliera Brotzu, Cagliari (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Raz, Eytan [Rome Univ. ' ' La Sapienza' ' (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; New York Univ. Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-01-15

    To study the carotid artery plaque composition and its volume changes in a group of patients at baseline and 2 years after head and neck radiation therapy treatment (HNXRT). In this retrospective study, 62 patients (41 males; mean age 63 years; range 52-81) who underwent HNXRT and 40 patients (24 males; mean age 65) who underwent surgical resection of neoplasm and did not undergo HNXRT were assessed, with 2-year follow-up. The carotid artery plaque volumes, as well as the volume of the sub-components (fatty-mixed-calcified), were semiautomatically quantified. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests were used to test the hypothesis. In the HNXRT group, there was a statistically significant increase in the total volume of the carotid artery plaques (from 533 to 746 mm{sup 3}; p = 0.001), in the fatty plaques (103 vs. 202 mm{sup 3}; p = 0.001) and mixed plaque component volume (328 vs. 419 mm{sup 3}; p = 0.034). A statistically significant variation (from 21.8 % to 27.6 %) in the percentage of the fatty tissue was found. of this preliminary study suggest that HNXRT promotes increased carotid artery plaque volume, particularly the fatty plaque component. (orig.)

  1. Prediction of infarction development after endovascular stroke therapy with dual-energy computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djurdjevic, Tanja; Gizewski, Elke Ruth; Grams, Astrid Ellen [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Neuroradiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Rehwald, Rafael; Glodny, Bernhard [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Knoflach, Michael; Matosevic, Benjamin; Kiechl, Stefan [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Neurology, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2017-03-15

    After intraarterial recanalisation (IAR), the haemorrhage and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption can be distinguished using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether future infarction development can be predicted from DECT. DECT scans of 20 patients showing 45 BBB disrupted areas after IAR were assessed and compared with follow-up examinations. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses using densities from the iodine map (IM) and virtual non-contrast (VNC) were performed. Future infarction areas are denser than future non-infarction areas on IM series (23.44 ± 24.86 vs. 5.77 ± 2.77; p < 0.0001) and more hypodense on VNC series (29.71 ± 3.33 vs. 35.33 ± 3.50; p < 0.0001). ROC analyses for the IM series showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.99 (cut-off: <9.97 HU; p < 0.05; sensitivity 91.18 %; specificity 100.00 %; accuracy 0.93) for the prediction of future infarctions. The AUC for the prediction of haemorrhagic infarctions was 0.78 (cut-off >17.13 HU; p < 0.05; sensitivity 90.00 %; specificity 62.86 %; accuracy 0.69). The VNC series allowed prediction of infarction volume. Future infarction development after IAR can be reliably predicted with the IM series. The prediction of haemorrhages and of infarction size is less reliable. (orig.)

  2. Use of a Diagnostic Score to Prioritize Computed Tomographic (CT) Imaging for Patients Suspected of Ischemic Stroke Who May Benefit from Thrombolytic Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hwong, Wen Yea; Bots, Michiel L; Selvarajah, Sharmini; Kappelle, L Jaap; Abdul Aziz, Zariah; Sidek, Norsima Nazifah; Vaartjes, Ilonca

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A shortage of computed tomographic (CT) machines in low and middle income countries often results in delayed CT imaging for patients suspected of a stroke. Yet, time constraint is one of the most important aspects for patients with an ischemic stroke to benefit from thrombolytic therapy.

  3. Laser thermal therapy: real-time MRI-guided and computer-controlled procedures for metastatic brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Alexandre; McNichols, Roger J; Stafford, R Jason; Guichard, Jean-Pierre; Reizine, Daniel; Delaloge, Suzette; Vicaut, Eric; Payen, Didier; Gowda, Ashok; George, Bernard

    2011-12-01

    We report the final results of a pilot clinical trial exploring the safety and feasibility of real-time magnetic resonance-guided laser-induced thermal therapy (MRgLITT) for treatment of resistant focal metastatic intracranial tumors. In patients with chemotherapy, whole-brain radiation, and radiosurgery resistant metastatic intracranial tumors, minimally invasive stereotaxic placement of a saline-cooled interstitial fiberoptic laser applicator under local anesthesia was followed by laser irradiation during continuous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning. A computer workstation extracted real-time temperature-sensitive information for feedback control over laser delivery. A total of 15 metastatic tumors were treated in 7 patients. Patients were followed with physical exam and imaging for 30 months. In all cases, the procedure was well tolerated, and patients were discharged home within 24 hours. Follow-up imaging at up to 30 months showed an acute increase in apparent lesion volume followed by a gradual and steady decrease. No tumor recurrence within thermal ablation zones was noted. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that the median survival was 19.8 months. Real-time magnetic resonance (MR) guidance of laser-induced thermal therapy (LITT) offers a high level of control. This tool therefore enables a minimally invasive option for destruction and treatment of resistant focal metastatic intracranial tumors. MR-guided LITT appears to provide a safe and potentially effective treatment for recurrent focal metastatic brain disease. A larger phase II and III series would be of interest to quantify potential median survival advantage. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Teaching medical students exposure therapy for phobia/panic - randomized, controlled comparison of face-to-face tutorial in small groups vs. solo computer instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Michael; Marks, Isaac M

    2002-05-01

    To compare the teaching value of one session of computer-guided solo instruction in exposure therapy for phobias with that of one face-to-face small-group tutorial. Non-blind, randomized, controlled study. King's College Hospital Medical School, London. Thirty-seven third-year medical students and 11 behaviour therapists. Seventy-five true/false multiple choice questions relating to (b) below answered at pre- and post-teaching by students and just once by behaviour therapists to obtain 'expert' scores; pre- and post-teaching ratings of interest in behaviour therapy and post-teaching ratings of educational and enjoyment value. EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTIONS: (a) All students had a 20-minute group lecture on basic concepts and historical aspects just before randomization to: (b) 90 min of either solo computer or group face-to-face tutorial teaching. Computer instruction used a short version of 'FearFighter'- a self-help computer system for people suffering from phobias. Solo computer instruction taught exposure therapy principles effectively but improved multiple choice question scores marginally less than did small-group tutorial teaching. Tutorial teaching required 5 times more teacher time but led to knowledge scores that did not differ significantly from those of behaviour therapists. Students clearly rated face-to-face small-group tutorial teaching as more enjoyable. The knowledge gain from a solo computer session resembled that from a small-group face-to-face tutorial, and required far less teacher time, but was less enjoyable. Enjoyment might rise if the computer session was group-oriented and aimed at students rather than patients. In general computer teaching might be best used to complement rather than replace conventional teaching.

  5. Combination of brain-computer interface training and goal-directed physical therapy in chronic stroke: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broetz, Doris; Braun, Christoph; Weber, Cornelia; Soekadar, Surjo R; Caria, Andrea; Birbaumer, Niels

    2010-09-01

    There is no accepted and efficient rehabilitation strategy to reduce focal impairments for patients with chronic stroke who lack residual movements. A 67-year-old hemiplegic patient with no active finger extension was trained with a brain-computer interface (BCI) combined with a specific daily life-oriented physiotherapy. The BCI used electrical brain activity (EEG) and magnetic brain activity (MEG) to drive an orthosis and a robot affixed to the patient's affected upper extremity, which enabled him to move the paralyzed arm and hand driven by voluntary modulation of micro-rhythm activity. In addition, the patient practiced goal-directed physiotherapy training. Over 1 year, he completed 3 training blocks. Arm motor function, gait capacities (using Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Wolf Motor Function Test, Modified Ashworth Scale, 10-m walk speed, and goal attainment score), and brain reorganization (functional MRI, MEG) were repeatedly assessed. The ability of hand and arm movements as well as speed and safety of gait improved significantly (mean 46.6%). Improvement of motor function was associated with increased micro-oscillations in the ipsilesional motor cortex. This proof-of-principle study suggests that the combination of BCI training with goal-directed, active physical therapy may improve the motor abilities of chronic stroke patients despite apparent initial paralysis.

  6. First Clinical Investigation of Cone Beam Computed Tomography and Deformable Registration for Adaptive Proton Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, Catarina [Proton and Advanced RadioTherapy Group, Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Janssens, Guillaume [Ion Beam Applications SA, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Teng, Ching-Ling [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Baudier, Thomas; Hotoiu, Lucian [iMagX Project, ICTEAM Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); McClelland, Jamie R. [Centre for Medical Image Computing, Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Royle, Gary [Proton and Advanced RadioTherapy Group, Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Lin, Liyong; Yin, Lingshu; Metz, James; Solberg, Timothy D.; Tochner, Zelig; Simone, Charles B.; McDonough, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Kevin Teo, Boon-Keng, E-mail: teok@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: An adaptive proton therapy workflow using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is proposed. It consists of an online evaluation of a fast range-corrected dose distribution based on a virtual CT (vCT) scan. This can be followed by more accurate offline dose recalculation on the vCT scan, which can trigger a rescan CT (rCT) for replanning. Methods and Materials: The workflow was tested retrospectively for 20 consecutive lung cancer patients. A diffeomorphic Morphon algorithm was used to generate the lung vCT by deforming the average planning CT onto the CBCT scan. An additional correction step was applied to account for anatomic modifications that cannot be modeled by deformation alone. A set of clinical indicators for replanning were generated according to the water equivalent thickness (WET) and dose statistics and compared with those obtained on the rCT scan. The fast dose approximation consisted of warping the initial planned dose onto the vCT scan according to the changes in WET. The potential under- and over-ranges were assessed as a variation in WET at the target's distal surface. Results: The range-corrected dose from the vCT scan reproduced clinical indicators similar to those of the rCT scan. The workflow performed well under different clinical scenarios, including atelectasis, lung reinflation, and different types of tumor response. Between the vCT and rCT scans, we found a difference in the measured 95% percentile of the over-range distribution of 3.4 ± 2.7 mm. The limitations of the technique consisted of inherent uncertainties in deformable registration and the drawbacks of CBCT imaging. The correction step was adequate when gross errors occurred but could not recover subtle anatomic or density changes in tumors with complex topology. Conclusions: A proton therapy workflow based on CBCT provided clinical indicators similar to those using rCT for patients with lung cancer with considerable anatomic changes.

  7. Predicting oropharyngeal tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy from pretreatment computed tomography data using general linear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yock, Adam D.; Rao, Arvind; Dong, Lei; Beadle, Beth M.; Garden, Adam S.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Court, Laurence E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of several predictive models of variation in tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy. Methods: Nineteen patients with oropharyngeal cancers were imaged daily with CT-on-rails for image-guided alignment per an institutional protocol. The daily volumes of 35 tumors in these 19 patients were determined and used to generate (1) a linear model in which tumor volume changed at a constant rate, (2) a general linear model that utilized the power fit relationship between the daily and initial tumor volumes, and (3) a functional general linear model that identified and exploited the primary modes of variation between time series describing the changing tumor volumes. Primary and nodal tumor volumes were examined separately. The accuracy of these models in predicting daily tumor volumes were compared with those of static and linear reference models using leave-one-out cross-validation. Results: In predicting the daily volume of primary tumors, the general linear model and the functional general linear model were more accurate than the static reference model by 9.9% (range: −11.6%–23.8%) and 14.6% (range: −7.3%–27.5%), respectively, and were more accurate than the linear reference model by 14.2% (range: −6.8%–40.3%) and 13.1% (range: −1.5%–52.5%), respectively. In predicting the daily volume of nodal tumors, only the 14.4% (range: −11.1%–20.5%) improvement in accuracy of the functional general linear model compared to the static reference model was statistically significant. Conclusions: A general linear model and a functional general linear model trained on data from a small population of patients can predict the primary tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy with greater accuracy than standard reference models. These more accurate models may increase the prognostic value of information about the tumor garnered from pretreatment computed tomography

  8. Predicting oropharyngeal tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy from pretreatment computed tomography data using general linear models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yock, Adam D., E-mail: ADYock@mdanderson.org; Kudchadker, Rajat J. [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Rao, Arvind [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Dong, Lei [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, California 92121 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Beadle, Beth M.; Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Court, Laurence E. [Department of Radiation Physics and Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and The Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate the accuracy of several predictive models of variation in tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy. Methods: Nineteen patients with oropharyngeal cancers were imaged daily with CT-on-rails for image-guided alignment per an institutional protocol. The daily volumes of 35 tumors in these 19 patients were determined and used to generate (1) a linear model in which tumor volume changed at a constant rate, (2) a general linear model that utilized the power fit relationship between the daily and initial tumor volumes, and (3) a functional general linear model that identified and exploited the primary modes of variation between time series describing the changing tumor volumes. Primary and nodal tumor volumes were examined separately. The accuracy of these models in predicting daily tumor volumes were compared with those of static and linear reference models using leave-one-out cross-validation. Results: In predicting the daily volume of primary tumors, the general linear model and the functional general linear model were more accurate than the static reference model by 9.9% (range: −11.6%–23.8%) and 14.6% (range: −7.3%–27.5%), respectively, and were more accurate than the linear reference model by 14.2% (range: −6.8%–40.3%) and 13.1% (range: −1.5%–52.5%), respectively. In predicting the daily volume of nodal tumors, only the 14.4% (range: −11.1%–20.5%) improvement in accuracy of the functional general linear model compared to the static reference model was statistically significant. Conclusions: A general linear model and a functional general linear model trained on data from a small population of patients can predict the primary tumor volume throughout the course of radiation therapy with greater accuracy than standard reference models. These more accurate models may increase the prognostic value of information about the tumor garnered from pretreatment computed tomography

  9. Multidetector-computed tomography attenuation values between the tumor and aortic wall in response to induction therapy for esophageal cancer and its predictive value for aortic invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Hironori; Ichikura, Takashi; Aiko, Satoshi; Yaguchi, Yoshihisa; Kumano, Isao; Takahata, Risa; Matsumoto, Yusuke; Yoshida, Kazumichi; Ono, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Junji; Hase, Kazuo

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) attenuation value between the tumor and aorta in response to the induction therapy for esophageal cancer. In advanced esophageal cancer, the main reason for unresectability is the local invasion of the tumor into the aorta or trachea. Despite remarkable advances in diagnostic modalities, pre-operative assessment of pathological response and local tumor extent in esophageal cancer remains difficult. MDCT attenuation values between the tumor and aorta, and the contact angle of the tumor to the aorta (Picus' angle) were retrospectively evaluated in patients with esophageal cancer who underwent induction therapy in terms of predicting the pathological response, aortic invasion and prognosis of esophageal cancer. The induction therapy may increase the tumor-to-aorta distance and decrease the maximum tumor size and Picus' angle. When the tumor-to-aorta cut-off value was set at 1.3 mm following therapy and underwent curative resection. The assessment of the MDCT attenuation value between the esophageal tumor and the aorta is simple and objectively assesses the response to the induction therapy and aortic invasion in esophageal cancer. This method should be applied to predict the response to the induction therapy and to prevent unnecessary surgery in patients with tumors involving the aorta.

  10. New urate depositions on dual-energy computed tomography in gouty arthritis during urate-lowering therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuojun; Zhang, Xiaojie; Sun, Ying; Chen, Huiyong; Kong, Xiufang; Zhou, Jianjun; Zhou, Yi; Ma, Lili; Jiang, Lindi

    2017-08-01

    Reduction of urate depositions in the joints, on dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), in patients with gout during urate-lowering therapy (ULT) was demonstrated in previous studies. The aim of this study was to further investigate the changes in distribution of urate deposits during ULT. This randomized controlled trial enrolled 46 patients diagnosed with gout from Zhongshan Hospital, China, between October 2013 and June 2014. Epidemiological data, serum uric acid level, and arthritis attacks were recorded at monthly follow-up visits. DECT of bilateral feet and ankles was performed at baseline and after 6 months of ULT. Overall, 163 areas of urate deposition were found in the 46 patients; of these, 133/163 (81.6%) areas were associated with former arthritis attacks. On DECT at 6 months, the number of urate deposits decreased to 126, with 68 areas disappearing and 31 new deposits areas. The mean volume of urate deposits at baseline was 1.3 ± 3.8 cm 3 , decreasing to 0.6 ± 2.1 cm 3 at the end of 6 months (P = 0.01), with 3/46 (6.5%) patients showing complete disappearance of urate deposits. New urate depositions were found in 21/46 (45.7%) patients, while urate depositions in some joints disappeared in some joints in 31/46 (67.4%) patients. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein was significantly lower in patients with new deposits (4.6 ± 9.3 vs. 7.1 ± 7.6 mg/dL; P = 0.01). There is dynamic redistribution of urate depositions in gout patients receiving ULT.

  11. Computer Enabled Neuroplasticity Treatment: A Clinical Trial of a Novel Design for Neurofeedback Therapy in Adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Benjamin; Holmström, Édua; Juurmaa, Kristiina; Kovarskis, Levas; Krause, Christina M

    2016-01-01

    We report a randomized controlled clinical trial of neurofeedback therapy intervention for ADHD/ADD in adults. We focus on internal mechanics of neurofeedback learning, to elucidate the primary role of cortical self-regulation in neurofeedback. We report initial results; more extensive analysis will follow. Trial has two phases: intervention and follow-up. The intervention consisted of neurofeedback treatment, including intake and outtake measurements, using a waiting-list control group. Treatment involved ~40 h-long sessions 2-5 times per week. Training involved either theta/beta or sensorimotor-rhythm regimes, adapted by adding a novel "inverse-training" condition to promote self-regulation. Follow-up (ongoing) will consist of self-report and executive function tests. Intake and outtake measurements were conducted at University of Helsinki. Treatment was administered at partner clinic Mental Capital Care, Helsinki. We randomly allocated half the sample then adaptively allocated the remainder to minimize baseline differences in prognostic variables. Waiting-list control design meant trial was not blinded. Fifty-four adult Finnish participants (mean age 36 years; 29 females) were recruited after screening by psychiatric review. Forty-four had ADHD diagnoses, 10 had ADD. Symptoms were assessed by computerized attention test (T.O.V.A.) and self-report scales, at intake and outtake. Performance during neurofeedback trials was recorded. PARTICIPANTS were recruited and completed intake measurements during summer 2012, before assignment to treatment and control, September 2012. Outtake measurements ran April-August 2013. After dropouts, 23 treatment and 21 waiting-list participants remained for analysis. Initial analysis showed that, compared to waiting-list control, neurofeedback promoted improvement of self-reported ADHD symptoms, but did not show transfer of learning to T.O.V.A. Comprehensive analysis will be reported elsewhere. "Computer Enabled Neuroplasticity

  12. Comparison of computer- and human-derived coronary angiographic end-point measures for controlled therapy trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, W. J.; Selzer, R. H.; Pogoda, J. M.; Lee, P. L.; Shircore, A. M.; Azen, S. P.; Blankenhorn, D. H.

    1992-01-01

    The Cholesterol Lowering Atherosclerosis Study, a randomized angiographic clinical trial, demonstrated the beneficial effect of niacin/colestipol plus diet therapy on coronary atherosclerosis. Outcome was determined by panel-based estimates (viewed in both still and cine modes) of percent stenosis severity and change in native artery and bypass graft lesions. Computer-based quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) was also used to measure lesion and bypass graft stenosis severity and change in individual frames closely matched in orientation, opacification, and cardiac phase. Both methods jointly evaluated 350 nonoccluded lesions. The correlation between QCA and panel estimates of lesion size was 0.70 (p less than 0.0001) and for change in lesion size was 0.28 (p = 0.002). Agreement between the two methods in classifying lesion changes (i.e., regression, unchanged, or progression) occurred for 60% (210 of 350) of the lesions kappa +/- SEM = 0.20 +/- 0.05, p less than 0.001). The panel identified 442 nonoccluded lesions for which QCA stenosis measurements could not be obtained. Lesions not measurable by QCA included those with stenosis greater than 85% that could not be reliably edge tracked, segments with diffuse or ecstatic disease that had no reliable reference diameter, and segments for which matched frames could not be located. Seventy-nine lesions, the majority between 21% and 40% stenosis, were identified and measured by QCA but were not identified by the panel. This comparison study demonstrates the need to consider available angiographic measurement methods in relation to the goals of their use.

  13. Impact of Computed Tomography Image Quality on Image-Guided Radiation Therapy Based on Soft Tissue Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Natalya V.; Lawton, Colleen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Qi, X. Sharon [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado (United States); Li, X. Allen, E-mail: ali@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: In image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), different computed tomography (CT) modalities with varying image quality are being used to correct for interfractional variations in patient set-up and anatomy changes, thereby reducing clinical target volume to the planning target volume (CTV-to-PTV) margins. We explore how CT image quality affects patient repositioning and CTV-to-PTV margins in soft tissue registration-based IGRT for prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Four CT-based IGRT modalities used for prostate RT were considered in this study: MV fan beam CT (MVFBCT) (Tomotherapy), MV cone beam CT (MVCBCT) (MVision; Siemens), kV fan beam CT (kVFBCT) (CTVision, Siemens), and kV cone beam CT (kVCBCT) (Synergy; Elekta). Daily shifts were determined by manual registration to achieve the best soft tissue agreement. Effect of image quality on patient repositioning was determined by statistical analysis of daily shifts for 136 patients (34 per modality). Inter- and intraobserver variability of soft tissue registration was evaluated based on the registration of a representative scan for each CT modality with its corresponding planning scan. Results: Superior image quality with the kVFBCT resulted in reduced uncertainty in soft tissue registration during IGRT compared with other image modalities for IGRT. The largest interobserver variations of soft tissue registration were 1.1 mm, 2.5 mm, 2.6 mm, and 3.2 mm for kVFBCT, kVCBCT, MVFBCT, and MVCBCT, respectively. Conclusions: Image quality adversely affects the reproducibility of soft tissue-based registration for IGRT and necessitates a careful consideration of residual uncertainties in determining different CTV-to-PTV margins for IGRT using different image modalities.

  14. Excitation energies, singlet-triplet energy gaps, spin-orbit matrix elements and heavy atom effects in BOIMPYs as possible photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy: a computational investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Bruna Clara; Mazzone, Gloria; Russo, Nino; Sicilia, Emilia; Toscano, Marirosa

    2018-01-24

    Bis(borondifluoride)-8-imidazodipyrromethene (BOIMPY) based molecules show interesting photophysical properties. We have undertaken a computational study at DFT and TDDFT levels of theory with the aim of verifying if the non-fluorescent BOIMPYs meet those properties necessary to be proposed as potential photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT). In particular, we have computed the absorption wavelengths, the singlet-triplet energy gaps and the spin-orbit matrix elements. The effect of halogen atom substitution (Br, I), in different amounts and positions in the BOIMPY skeleton, on the photophysical properties, has been elucidated. Some possible pathways for the population of the lowest triplet state have been examined and rationalized on the basis of Kasha rules. The results indicate that many of the studied systems can be indicated as potential photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy.

  15. Diabetes Patients' Experiences With the Implementation of Insulin Therapy and Their Perceptions of Computer-Assisted Self-Management Systems for Insulin Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Airin Cr; Gude, Wouter T.; Holleman, Frits; Hoekstra, Joost Bl; Peek, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Background: Computer-assisted decision support is an emerging modality to assist patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in insulin self-titration (ie, self-adjusting insulin dose according to daily blood glucose levels). Computer-assisted insulin self-titration systems mainly focus on helping

  16. Using Computers to Enable Self-Management of Aphasia Therapy Exercises for Word Finding: The Patient and Carer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Rebecca; Enderby, Pam; Paterson, Gail

    2013-01-01

    Background: Speech and language therapy (SLT) for aphasia can be difficult to access in the later stages of stroke recovery, despite evidence of continued improvement with sufficient therapeutic intensity. Computerized aphasia therapy has been reported to be useful for independent language practice, providing new opportunities for continued…

  17. On the use of computed radiography plates for quality assurance of intensity modulated radiation therapy dose distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, R. A.; Sankar, A. P.; Nailon, W. H.; MacLeod, A. S. [Department of Oncology Physics, Edinburgh Cancer Centre, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road South, Edinburgh EH4 2XU (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: As traditional film is phased out in most radiotherapy centers, computed radiography (CR) systems are increasingly being purchased as a replacement. CR plates can be used for patient imaging, but may also be used for a variety of quality assurance (QA) purposes and can be calibrated in terms of dose. This study looks at their suitability for verification of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose distributions. Methods: A CR plate was calibrated in terms of the relative dose and the stability of response over 1 year was studied. The effect of exposing the CR plate to ambient light and of using different time delays before scanning was quantified. The CR plate was used to verify the relative dose distributions for ten IMRT patients and the results were compared to those obtained using a two dimensional (2D) diode array. Results: Exposing the CR plate to 10 s of ambient light between irradiation (174 cGy) and scanning erased approximately 80% of the signal. Changes in delay time between irradiation and scanning also affected the measurement results. The signal on the plate was found to decay at a rate of approximately 3.6 cGy/min in the first 10 min after irradiation. The use of a CR plate for IMRT patient-specific QA resulted in a significantly lower distance to agreement (DTA) and gamma pass rate than when using a 2D diode array for the measurement. This was primarily due to the over-response of the CR phosphor to low energy scattered radiation. For the IMRT QA using the CR plate, the average gamma pass rate was 97.3%. For the same IMRT QA using a diode array, the average gamma pass rate was 99.7%. The gamma criteria used were 4% dose difference and 4 mm DTA for head and neck treatments and 3% dose difference and 3 mm DTA for prostate treatments. The gamma index tolerance was 1. The lowest 10% of the dose distribution was excluded from all gamma and DTA analyses. Conclusions: Although the authors showed that CR plates can be used for patient

  18. Computer Enabled Neuroplasticity Treatment: a Clinical Trial of a Novel Design for Neurofeedback Therapy in Adult ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eCowley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe report a randomised controlled clinical trial of neurofeedback therapy intervention for ADHD/ADD in adults. We focus on internal mechanics of neurofeedback learning, to elucidate the primary role of cortical self-regulation in neurofeedback. We report initial results; more extensive analysis will follow.MethodsTrial has two phases: intervention and follow-up. The intervention consisted of neurofeedback treatment, including intake and outtake measurements, using a waiting-list control group. Treatment involved $sim$40 hour-long sessions 2-5 times per week. Training involved either theta/beta or sensorimotor-rhythm regimes, adapted by adding a novel 'inverse-training' condition to promote self-regulation. Follow-up (ongoing will consist of self-report and executive function tests.SettingIntake and outtake measurements were conducted at University of Helsinki. Treatment was administered at partner clinic Mental Capital Care, Helsinki.RandomisationWe randomly allocated half the sample then adaptively allocated the remainder to minimise baseline differences in prognostic variables.BlindingWaiting-list control design meant trial was not blinded.Participants54 adult Finnish participants (mean age 36 years; 29 females were recruited after screening by psychiatric review. 44 had ADHD diagnoses, 10 had ADD.MeasurementsSymptoms were assessed by computerised attention test (T.O.V.A. and self-report scales, at intake and outtake. Performance during neurofeedback trials was recorded.ResultsParticipants were recruited and completed intake measurements during summer 2012, before assignment to treatment and control, September 2012. Outtake measurements ran April-August 2013. After dropouts, 23 treatment and 21 waiting-list participants remained for analysis.Initial analysis showed that, compared to waiting-list control, neurofeedback promoted improvement of self-reported ADHD symptoms, but did not show transfer of learning to T.O.V.A. Comprehensive

  19. Early Assessment of Treatment Responses During Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer Using Quantitative Analysis of Daily Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Jijo; Yang, Cungeng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Wu, Hui [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Tai, An [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Dalah, Entesar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Department of Medical Diagnostic Imaging, College of Health Science, University of Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Zheng, Cheng [Biostatistics, Joseph. J. Zilber School of Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Johnstone, Candice [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Kong, Feng-Ming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Gore, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Li, X. Allen, E-mail: ali@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate early tumor and normal tissue responses during the course of radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer using quantitative analysis of daily computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods and Materials: Daily diagnostic-quality CT scans acquired using CT-on-rails during CT-guided RT for 20 lung cancer patients were quantitatively analyzed. On each daily CT set, the contours of the gross tumor volume (GTV) and lungs were generated and the radiation dose delivered was reconstructed. The changes in CT image intensity (Hounsfield unit [HU]) features in the GTV and the multiple normal lung tissue shells around the GTV were extracted from the daily CT scans. The associations between the changes in the mean HUs, GTV, accumulated dose during RT delivery, and patient survival rate were analyzed. Results: During the RT course, radiation can induce substantial changes in the HU histogram features on the daily CT scans, with reductions in the GTV mean HUs (dH) observed in the range of 11 to 48 HU (median 30). The dH is statistically related to the accumulated GTV dose (R{sup 2} > 0.99) and correlates weakly with the change in GTV (R{sup 2} = 0.3481). Statistically significant increases in patient survival rates (P=.038) were observed for patients with a higher dH in the GTV. In the normal lung, the 4 regions proximal to the GTV showed statistically significant (P<.001) HU reductions from the first to last fraction. Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of the daily CT scans indicated that the mean HUs in lung tumor and surrounding normal tissue were reduced during RT delivery. This reduction was observed in the early phase of the treatment, is patient specific, and correlated with the delivered dose. A larger HU reduction in the GTV correlated significantly with greater patient survival. The changes in daily CT features, such as the mean HU, can be used for early assessment of the radiation response during RT delivery for lung cancer.

  20. Positron Emission Tomography—Computer Tomography Scan Used as a Monitoring Tool Following Cellular Therapy in Cerebral Palsy and Mental Retardation—A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP is one of the non-progressive neurological diseases caused by damage to the brain tissue at birth, which leads to physical, cognitive and perceptive symptoms. Even after lifelong medical and therapeutic management there are residual deficits which affect the quality of life of the patients and their families. We examined a maximally rehabilitated, 20 year old male suffering from CP and Mental Retardation (MR. He had diplegic gait and Intelligence Quotient (IQ score of 44 with affected fine motor activities, balance, speech and higher functions. Positron Emission Tomography—Computer Tomography (PET-CT scan identified frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital, left cerebellar lobes, amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampus as the affected areas. He was treated with cellular therapy of Autologous Bone Marrow Derived Mono-Nuclear Cells (MNCs transplantation followed by multidisciplinary rehabilitation. Six months following therapy, PET-CT scan showed significant increase in metabolic activity in all four lobes, mesial temporal structures and left cerebellar hemisphere, also supported by clinical improvement in IQ, social behavior, speech, balance and daily functioning. These findings provide preliminary evidence to support the efficacy of cellular therapy for the treatment of CP with MR. PET-CT scan can also be viewed as an impressive tool to monitor the effects of cellular therapy.

  1. Positron emission tomography-computer tomography scan used as a monitoring tool following cellular therapy in cerebral palsy and mental retardation-a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alok; Sane, Hemangi; Paranjape, Amruta; Gokulchandran, Nandini; Kulkarni, Pooja; Nagrajan, Anjana; Badhe, Prerna

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the non-progressive neurological diseases caused by damage to the brain tissue at birth, which leads to physical, cognitive and perceptive symptoms. Even after lifelong medical and therapeutic management there are residual deficits which affect the quality of life of the patients and their families. We examined a maximally rehabilitated, 20 year old male suffering from CP and Mental Retardation (MR). He had diplegic gait and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) score of 44 with affected fine motor activities, balance, speech and higher functions. Positron Emission Tomography-Computer Tomography (PET-CT) scan identified frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital, left cerebellar lobes, amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampus as the affected areas. He was treated with cellular therapy of Autologous Bone Marrow Derived Mono-Nuclear Cells (MNCs) transplantation followed by multidisciplinary rehabilitation. Six months following therapy, PET-CT scan showed significant increase in metabolic activity in all four lobes, mesial temporal structures and left cerebellar hemisphere, also supported by clinical improvement in IQ, social behavior, speech, balance and daily functioning. These findings provide preliminary evidence to support the efficacy of cellular therapy for the treatment of CP with MR. PET-CT scan can also be viewed as an impressive tool to monitor the effects of cellular therapy.

  2. Terapia fonológica com uso de computador: relato de caso Phonological therapy with the use of computers: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Llaguno Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O tema desse artigo aborda as mudanças fonológicas a partir da terapia fonológica com o uso de computador em casos de desvio fonológico. Realizou-se estudo de caso de quatro sujeitos (S1, S2, S3 e S4 com idade entre 4:7 e 5:3, de ambos os gêneros, com desvio fonológico. Realizou-se a Avaliação Fonológica da Criança, Exame Articulatório Repetitivo, Avaliação do Sistema Estomatognático, Teste de Figuras para Discriminação Fonêmica, Prova de Estimulabilidade e avaliação audiológica. Os sujeitos foram divididos em duplas de acordo com a semelhança dos sistemas fonológicos, sendo que um sujeito de cada dupla foi tratado com terapia fonológica padrão e outro com uso de computador como principal recurso terapêutico (terapia experimental. Os dados das avaliações dos sujeitos foram analisados e, após, foram comparados os resultados dos submetidos à terapia padrão (S1 e S2, com os pareados submetidos à terapia experimental, com auxílio do computador, (S3 e S4 por meio do teste Exato de Fisher, considerando significância estatística de 5% (pThe purpose of this study is the phonological changes through phonological therapy with the use of computers in cases of phonological disorders. We carried out a case study on four subjects (S1, S2, S3 and S4 with ages between 4:7 and 5:3 year old, male and female, with phonological disorders, that took part in this research. The subjects were submitted to the Phonological Evaluation of the Child, Repetitive-Articulator Test, Stomatognatic System Evaluation, Phoneme Discrimination Picture Test, Stimulability Test, and audiological evaluation. The subjects were organized in pairs according to the similarities of their phonological systems. One subject of each pair was treated with traditional phonological therapy and the other with a computer as the main therapeutic resource (experimental therapy. The evaluation data were analyzed, and after that, the results of the subjects submitted to

  3. [The estimation of the efficacy of manual therapy included in the combined treatment of cochlear-vestibular disorders based on the results of computed stabilography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shempeleva, A É; Lopatin, A S; Morozova, S V; Gridin, L A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the efficacy of the combined treatment of spondylogenic cochlear-vestibular disorders with the use of both medicamental and non-medicamental modalities. Computed static stabilometry was applied for diagnostics of postural disbalance and evaluation of the treatment outcomes. It was shown that the application of manual therapy for the management of 56 patients presenting with spondylogenic cochlear-vestibular disorders resulted in the decrease of tinnitus and the improvement of vestibular and cochlear functions.

  4. Computer-Aided Prediction of Long-Term Prognosis of Patients with Ulcerative Colitis after Cytoapheresis Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Takayama

    Full Text Available Cytoapheresis (CAP therapy is widely used in ulcerative colitis (UC patients with moderate to severe activity in Japan. The aim of this study is to predict the need of operation after CAP therapy of UC patients on an individual level using an artificial neural network system (ANN. Ninety UC patients with moderate to severe activity were treated with CAP. Data on the patients' demographics, medication, clinical activity index (CAI and efficacy of CAP were collected. Clinical data were divided into training data group and validation data group and analyzed using ANN to predict individual outcomes. The sensitivity and specificity of predictive expression by ANN were 0.96 and 0.97, respectively. Events of admission, operation, and use of immunomodulator, and efficacy of CAP were significantly correlated to the outcome. Requirement of operation after CAP therapy was successfully predicted by using ANN. This newly established ANN strategy would be used as powerful support of physicians in the clinical practice.

  5. Parallel assessment of the impact of different hormone replacement therapies on breast density by radiologist-and computer-based analyses of mammograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersen, P.C.; Raundahl, Jakob; Loog, M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: First, to compare the impact of nasally and orally dosed estradiol on breast density; second, to investigate the utility of computer-based automated approaches to the assessment of breast density with reference to traditional methods. METHODS: Digitized images from two 2-year, randomi......OBJECTIVES: First, to compare the impact of nasally and orally dosed estradiol on breast density; second, to investigate the utility of computer-based automated approaches to the assessment of breast density with reference to traditional methods. METHODS: Digitized images from two 2-year......, randomized, placebo-controlled trials formed the basis of the present post hoc analysis. Active treatments were 1 mg estradiol continuously combined with 0.125 mg trimegestone (oral hormone replacement therapy, HRT) or low-dose (150 or 300 microg estradiol) nasal estradiol cyclically combined with 200 mg...

  6. The Pharmaco –, Population and Evolutionary Dynamics of Multi-drug Therapy: Experiments with S. aureus and E. coli and Computer Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankomah, Peter; Johnson, Paul J. T.; Levin, Bruce R.

    2013-01-01

    There are both pharmacodynamic and evolutionary reasons to use multiple rather than single antibiotics to treat bacterial infections; in combination antibiotics can be more effective in killing target bacteria as well as in preventing the emergence of resistance. Nevertheless, with few exceptions like tuberculosis, combination therapy is rarely used for bacterial infections. One reason for this is a relative dearth of the pharmaco-, population- and evolutionary dynamic information needed for the rational design of multi-drug treatment protocols. Here, we use in vitro pharmacodynamic experiments, mathematical models and computer simulations to explore the relative efficacies of different two-drug regimens in clearing bacterial infections and the conditions under which multi-drug therapy will prevent the ascent of resistance. We estimate the parameters and explore the fit of Hill functions to compare the pharmacodynamics of antibiotics of four different classes individually and in pairs during cidal experiments with pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. We also consider the relative efficacy of these antibiotics and antibiotic pairs in reducing the level of phenotypically resistant but genetically susceptible, persister, subpopulations. Our results provide compelling support for the proposition that the nature and form of the interactions between drugs of different classes, synergy, antagonism, suppression and additivity, has to be determined empirically and cannot be inferred from what is known about the pharmacodynamics or mode of action of these drugs individually. Monte Carlo simulations of within-host treatment incorporating these pharmacodynamic results and clinically relevant refuge subpopulations of bacteria indicate that: (i) the form of drug-drug interactions can profoundly affect the rate at which infections are cleared, (ii) two-drug therapy can prevent treatment failure even when bacteria resistant to single drugs are present

  7. Computational dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebert, B.R.L.; Thomas, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents a definition of the term ``Computational Dosimetry`` that is interpreted as the sub-discipline of computational physics which is devoted to radiation metrology. It is shown that computational dosimetry is more than a mere collection of computational methods. Computational simulations directed at basic understanding and modelling are important tools provided by computational dosimetry, while another very important application is the support that it can give to the design, optimization and analysis of experiments. However, the primary task of computational dosimetry is to reduce the variance in the determination of absorbed dose (and its related quantities), for example in the disciplines of radiological protection and radiation therapy. In this paper emphasis is given to the discussion of potential pitfalls in the applications of computational dosimetry and recommendations are given for their avoidance. The need for comparison of calculated and experimental data whenever possible is strongly stressed.

  8. Brain effects of computer-assisted cognitive remediation therapy in anorexia nervosa: A pilot fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Walther, Stephan; Ingenerf, Katrin; Wild, Beate; Hartmann, Mechthild; Weisbrod, Matthias; Weber, Marc-André; Eckhardt-Henn, Annegret; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2016-03-30

    Poor cognitive-behavioral flexibility is considered a trait marker in anorexia nervosa (AN) that can be improved by cognitive remediation therapy (CRT). The present pilot study aimed at identifying changes in brain function potentially associated with CRT in AN. Data was obtained from a randomized, controlled trial. Twenty-four patients were assessed before and after 30 sessions of either CRT or a non-specific neurocognitive therapy. Voxel-wise analysis of whole brain functional magnetic resonance imaging was applied. Brain activation was measured during response inhibition and task switching. Although results did not reach significance, we found tentative support for CRT-related increases in brain activation in the dorsal putamen during task switching and in the dorsolateral prefrontal, sensorimotor and temporal cortex during response inhibition. These pilot findings provide viable pathways for future research on brain changes underlying CRT in AN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of Palm computer as an adjunct to cognitive-behavioural therapy with an ultra-high-risk patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimhy, David; Corcoran, Cheryl

    2008-11-01

    Recently, attempts have been made to develop cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) treatment models to target negative symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia, as well as individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis. Successful CBT treatment is founded on active patient participation including completion of homework assignments such as daily logs of activities and experiences. However, these very negative symptoms may themselves hinder the rate of homework assignment completion. We describe a case report of using experience sampling method with a Palm computer as an adjunct to CBT with a female patient at UHR status with predominantly negative symptoms. Our aim was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of this methodology to improve homework completion and overcome treatment barriers associated with negative symptoms. Over the course of treatment, the patient was provided with a Palm computer to carry with her throughout her daily activities. The Palm computer was pre-programmed to beep randomly 10 times per day (10 a.m.-12 a.m.) over each three-day assessment period to elicit information on daily functioning. The use of the Palm computer was acceptable to the patient and resulted in a substantial increase in homework completion. This methodology resulted in rich information about the patients' daily functioning and patterns of improvement during treatment. The experience sampling method data were also successfully used in the application of treatment interventions. The findings support the feasibility and effectiveness of using Palm computers as adjunct to CBT with UHR individuals with predominantly negative symptoms. The implications for treatment and future research directions are discussed.

  10. Computer-guided implant therapy and soft- and hard-tissue aspects: the Third EAO Consensus Conference 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sicilia, A.; Botticelli, D.; Cordaro, L.; de Bruyn, H.; Derks, J.; Hultin, M.; Lang, N.P.; Linkevicius, T.; Palarie, V.; Petersson, A.; Quirynen, M.; Rompen, E.; Trulsson, M.; van Assche, N.; Wismeijer, D.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The objectives of this working group were to update the existing knowledge base in computer-guided implant treatment (accuracy and clinical advantages), to search for scientific evidence on the need for keratinized tissue around implants, and to review recent literature in the search

  11. Impact of Pretreatment Combined {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Staging on Radiation Therapy Treatment Decisions in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Sweet Ping, E-mail: sweet.ng@petermac.org [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); David, Steven [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Alamgeer, Muhammad; Ganju, Vinod [Monash Cancer Centre, Melbourne (Australia)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To assess the diagnostic performance of pretreatment {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) and its impact on radiation therapy treatment decisions in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Methods and Materials: Patients with LABC with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status <2 and no contraindication to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant radiation therapy were enrolled on a prospective trial. All patients had pretreatment conventional imaging (CI) performed, including bilateral breast mammography and ultrasound, bone scan, and CT chest, abdomen, and pelvis scans performed. Informed consent was obtained before enrolment. Pretreatment whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans were performed on all patients, and results were compared with CI findings. Results: A total of 154 patients with LABC with no clinical or radiologic evidence of distant metastases on CI were enrolled. Median age was 49 years (range, 26-70 years). Imaging with PET/CT detected distant metastatic disease and/or locoregional disease not visualized on CI in 32 patients (20.8%). Distant metastatic disease was detected in 17 patients (11.0%): 6 had bony metastases, 5 had intrathoracic metastases (pulmonary/mediastinal), 2 had distant nodal metastases, 2 had liver metastases, 1 had pulmonary and bony metastases, and 1 had mediastinal and distant nodal metastases. Of the remaining 139 patients, nodal disease outside conventional radiation therapy fields was detected on PET/CT in 15 patients (10.8%), with involvement of ipsilateral internal mammary nodes in 13 and ipsilateral level 5 cervical nodes in 2. Conclusions: Imaging with PET/CT provides superior diagnostic and staging information in patients with LABC compared with CI, which has significant therapeutic implications with respect to radiation therapy management. Imaging with PET/CT should be considered in all patients undergoing primary

  12. Computer therapy for the anxiety and depressive disorders is effective, acceptable and practical health care: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Andrews

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety disorders are common and treatable with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT, but access to this therapy is limited. OBJECTIVE: Review evidence that computerized CBT for the anxiety and depressive disorders is acceptable to patients and effective in the short and longer term. METHOD: Systematic reviews and data bases were searched for randomized controlled trials of computerized cognitive behavior therapy versus a treatment or control condition in people who met diagnostic criteria for major depression, panic disorder, social phobia or generalized anxiety disorder. Number randomized, superiority of treatment versus control (Hedges g on primary outcome measure, risk of bias, length of follow up, patient adherence and satisfaction were extracted. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 22 studies of comparisons with a control group were identified. The mean effect size superiority was 0.88 (NNT 2.13, and the benefit was evident across all four disorders. Improvement from computerized CBT was maintained for a median of 26 weeks follow-up. Acceptability, as indicated by adherence and satisfaction, was good. Research probity was good and bias risk low. Effect sizes were non-significantly higher in comparisons with waitlist than with active treatment control conditions. Five studies comparing computerized CBT with traditional face-to-face CBT were identified, and both modes of treatment appeared equally beneficial. CONCLUSIONS: Computerized CBT for anxiety and depressive disorders, especially via the internet, has the capacity to provide effective acceptable and practical health care for those who might otherwise remain untreated. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000030077.

  13. Acute effect of electroconvulsive therapy on brain perfusion assessed by Tc99m-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxim and single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajc, M.; Basic, M.; Topuzovic, N.; Babic, D.; Ivancevic, D. (Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Rebro, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)); Medved, V. (Psychiatric Clinic, University Hospital Rebro, Zagreb (Yugoslavia))

    1989-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in relative terms with Tc99m-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxim and single photon emission computed tomography in 11 patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The patients suffered from major depressive disorder (n=8) or schizoaffective disorders (n=3). rCBF was measured under general anesthesia 3 days prior to the ECT treatment and coinciding with the ECT stimualtion. ECT caused a redistribution of the tracers uptake. The uptake became more pronounced in frontal parts of the brain and in the basal ganglia than in posterior parts of the cortex, and the thalamus. This selective effect of ECT on rCBF may be related to catecholaminergic projections to anterior parts of the brain. (author).

  14. Dose measurements on cone beam computed tomography for trilogy and truebeam STx for image-guided radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kwon; Ye, Sung Joon [Dept. of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hyuck Jun; Sung, Won Mo [Interdisciplinary program in Radiation applied Life Science, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Min [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital,Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    The number of use of the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with the kV cone beam CT for the image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) has increased. With the increased frequency in use of IGRT, the patient absorbed radiation dose during the treatment procedure has increased and become the major concern that there have been studies about these issue. The purpose of this study is to confirm the patient dose from the daily CBCT scan during the IGRT using the On-Board Imager(OBI) of Trilogy and Truebeam STx (Varian Medical Systems, CA, USA). These two linear accelerators are newly set up in SNUH that the patient dose from CBCT scan is needed to be verified before the start of IGRT. Daily CBCT scans can provide better patient localizing but increase the patient absorbed dose slightly. Considering the beneficial advantage on the localizing patient, CT dose during IGRT would be a reasonable cost.

  15. Alexithymia level and response to computer-based training in cognitive behavioral therapy among cocaine-dependent methadone maintained individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morie, Kristen P; Nich, Charla; Hunkele, Karen; Potenza, Marc N; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2015-07-01

    Alexithymia, a characteristic marked by poor ability to identify, define and communicate emotions, has been associated with poorer treatment outcome, including traditional clinician delivered CBT. Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT4CBT), an effective adjunct to treatment, may provide a means of conveying skills without requiring interaction with a clinician. Seventy-three methadone maintained, cocaine dependent individuals participating in an 8-week randomized clinical trial comparing standard methadone maintenance to methadone maintenance plus CBT4CBT completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) at pretreatment, post-treatment, and follow-ups conducted one, two, and 6 months after treatment. There were no statistically significant differences on baseline TAS-20 scores by multiple demographic and substance use variables including gender and substance use severity. Higher TAS-20 scores were associated with somewhat higher levels of distress as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory and multiple Brief Severity Index scales. TAS-20 scores remained relatively stable throughout the duration of treatment and follow-up. Indicators of treatment process, including treatment retention, adherence and therapeutic alliance, were not significantly correlated with TAS-20 scores. There was a significant interaction of alexithymia and treatment condition, such that individuals with higher baseline scores on the TAS-20 submitted significantly higher percentages of cocaine-negative urine toxicology specimens and reported a higher percentage of abstinence days, and longer periods of consecutive abstinence within treatment when assigned to CBT4CBT compared with treatment as usual. These findings suggest that individuals with increased alexithymia may benefit from computerized CBT; possibly via reduced demands on interpersonal skills and interactions associated with computerized therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SU-E-I-107: Suitability of Various Radiation Detectors Used in Radiation Therapy for X-Ray Dosimetry in Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, M; Poppe, B; von Boetticher, H

    2012-06-01

    Assessment of suitability for X-ray dosimetry in computed tomography of various ionization chambers, diodes and two-dimensional detector arrays primarily used in radiation therapy. An Oldelft X-ray simulation unit was used to irradiate PTW 60008, 60012 dosimetry diodes, PTW 23332, 31013, 31010, 31006 axial symmetrical ionization chambers, PTW 23343, 34001 plane parallel ionization chambers and PTW Starcheck and 2D-Array seven29 as well as a prototype Farmer chamber with a copper wall. Peak potential was varied from 50 kV up to 125 kV and beam qualities were quantified through half-value-layer measurements. Energy response was investigated free in air as well as in 2 cm depth in a solid water phantom and refers to a manufacturer calibrated PTW 60004 diode for kV-dosimetry. The thimble ionization chambers PTW 31010, 31013, the uncapsuled diode PTW 60012 and the PTW 2D-Array seven29 exhibit an energy response deviation in the investigated energy region of approximately 10% or lower thus proving good usability in X-ray dosimetry if higher spatial resolution is needed or rotational irradiations occur. It could be shown that in radiation therapy routinely used detectors are usable in a much lower energy region. The rotational symmetry is of advantage in computed tomography dosimetry and enables dose profile as well as point dose measurements in a suitable phantom for estimation of organ doses. Additional the PTW 2D-Array seven29 can give a quick overview of radiation fields in non-rotating tasks. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  17. Influence of estrogen deficiency and tibolone therapy on trabecular and cortical bone evaluated by computed radiography system in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ana Carolina Bergmann de; Henriques, Helene Nara [Postgraduate Program in Pathology, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Fernandes, Gustavo Vieira Oliveira [Postgraduate Program in Medical Sciences, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Inaya; Oliveira, Davi Ferreira de; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Nuclear Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Pantaleao, Jose Augusto Soares [Maternal and Child Department, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Granjeiro, Jose Mauro [Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Maria Angelica Guzman [Department of Pathology, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To verify the effects of tibolone administration on trabecular and cortical bone of ovariectomized female rats by computed radiography system (CRS). Methods: The experiment was performed on two groups of rats previously ovariectomized, one received tibolone (OVX+T) while the other did not (OVX), those groups were compared to a control group (C) not ovariectomized. Tibolone administration (1 mg/day) began thirty days after the ovariectomy and the treatment remained for five months. At last, the animals were euthanized and femurs and tibias collected. Computed radiographs of the bones were obtained and the digital images were used to determine the bone optical density and cortical thickness on every group. All results were statistically evaluated with significance set at P<0.05%. Results: Tibolone administration was shown to be beneficial only in the densitometric analysis of the femoral head, performing higher optical density compared to OVX. No difference was found in cortical bone thickness. Conclusion: Ovariectomy caused bone loss in the analyzed regions and tibolone administered in high doses over a long period showed not to be fully beneficial, but preserved bone mass in the femoral head. (author)

  18. Concept of a selective tumour therapy and its evaluation by near-infrared fluorescence imaging and flat-panel volume computed tomography in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Frauke [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center, 37099 Goettingen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institute for Experimental Medicine, Hermann-Rein-Str. 3, 37075 Goettingen (Germany)], E-mail: falves@gwdg.de; Dullin, Christian [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Medical Center, 37099 Goettingen (Germany); Napp, Joanna [Max-Planck-Institute for Experimental Medicine, Hermann-Rein-Str. 3, 37075 Goettingen (Germany); Missbach-Guentner, Jeannine [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center, 37099 Goettingen (Germany); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Medical Center, 37099 Goettingen (Germany); Jannasch, Katharina [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center, 37099 Goettingen (Germany); Mathejczyk, Julia; Pardo, Luis A.; Stuehmer, Walter [Max-Planck-Institute for Experimental Medicine, Hermann-Rein-Str. 3, 37075 Goettingen (Germany); Tietze, Lutz-F. [Institute of Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, Georg-August-University, 37075 Goettingen (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    Conventional chemotherapy of cancer has its limitations, especially in advanced and disseminated disease and suffers from lack of specificity. This results in a poor therapeutic index and considerable toxicity to normal organs. Therefore, many efforts are made to develop novel therapeutic tools against cancer with the aim of selectively targeting the drug to the tumour site. Drug delivery strategies fundamentally rely on the identification of good-quality biomarkers, allowing unequivocal discrimination between cancer and healthy tissue. At present, antibodies or antibody fragments have clearly proven their value as carrier molecules specific for a tumour-associated molecular marker. This present review draws attention to the use of near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging to investigate binding specificity and kinetics of carrier molecules such as monoclonal antibodies. In addition, flat-panel volume computed tomography (fpVCT) will be presented to monitor anatomical structures in tumour mouse models over time in a non-invasive manner. Each imaging device sheds light on a different aspect; functional imaging is applied to optimise the dose schedule and the concept of selective tumour therapies, whereas anatomical imaging assesses preclinically the efficacy of novel tumour therapies. Both imaging techniques in combination allow the visualisation of functional information obtained by NIRF imaging within an adequate anatomic framework.

  19. ALTERACIONES OCULOMOTORAS EN EL SÍNDROME DE BALINT: TERAPIA OCUPACIONAL ASISTIDA POR ORDENADOR Optic and motor alteration in Balint syndrome: computer assisted occupational therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Rodríguez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    El Síndrome de Balint, descrito en 1909, es un trastorno producido por las lesiones bilaterales de ambos lóbulos parieto-occipitales, que afecta a la conexión entre las regiones corticales de la visión y las áreas motrices prerrolándicas y caracterizado por la presencia de ataxia visual, incapacidad para ver y coger objetos e inatención visual. Amén de los métodos tradicionales de evaluación y tratamiento desde Terapia Ocupacional de los trastornos motrices producidos por el Síndrome, proponemos aquí una nueva vía de realización de ambas utilizando las nuevas tecnologías, haciendo realidad la Terapia Ocupacional Asistida por Ordenador.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Terapia Ocupacional, ataxia óptica, atención visual, movimientos sacádicos.

    Balint Syndrome, which was reported in 1909, is an affection produced by bilateral parieto-occipital lesions affecting the connections between the visual cortical regions and the prerolandic motor areas and caracterized by visual ataxia, failure to grasp or touch objects, and visual inatention. Beyond traditional evaluation and treatment methods applied from Occupational Therapy to the motor diseases produced by syndrome, we propose a new way to do them using new technologies, doing reality Computer Assisted Occupational Therapy.
    KEY WORDS: Occupational Therapy, optic ataxia, visual attention, saccades movements

  20. Simplified response monitoring criteria for multiple myeloma in patients undergoing therapy with novel agents using computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schabel, Christoph; Horger, Marius; Kum, Sara [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Weisel, Katja [Department of Internal Medicine II – Hematology & Oncology, Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Otfried-Müller-Str. 5, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Fritz, Jan [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Ioanoviciu, Sorin D. [Department of Internal Medicine, Clinical Municipal Hospital Timisoara, Gheorghe Dima Str. 5, 300079 Timisoara (Romania); Bier, Georg, E-mail: georg.bier@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Neuroradiology, Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A simplified method for response monitoring of multiple myeloma is proposed. • Medullary bone lesions of all limbs were included and analysed. • Diameters of ≥2 medullary bone lesions are sufficient for therapy monitoring. - Abstract: Introduction: Multiple myeloma is a malignant hematological disorder of the mature B-cell lymphocytes originating in the bone marrow. While therapy monitoring is still mainly based on laboratory biomarkers, the additional use of imaging has been advocated due to inaccuracies of serological biomarkers or in a-secretory myelomas. Non-enhanced CT and MRI have similar sensitivities for lesions in yellow marrow-rich bone marrow cavities with a favourable risk and cost-effectiveness profile of CT. Nevertheless, these methods are still limited by frequently high numbers of medullary lesions and its time consumption for proper evaluation. Objective: To establish simplified response criteria by correlating size and CT attenuation changes of medullary multiple myeloma lesions in the appendicular skeleton with the course of lytic bone lesions in the entire skeleton. Furthermore to evaluate these criteria with respect to established hematological myeloma-specific parameters for the prediction of treatment response to bortezomib or lenalidomide. Materials and methods: Non-enhanced reduced-dose whole-body CT examinations of 78 consecutive patients (43 male, 35 female, mean age 63.69 ± 9.2 years) with stage III multiple myeloma were retrospectively re-evaluated. On per patient basis, size and mean CT attenuation of 2–4 representative lesions in the limbs were measured at baseline and at a follow-up after a mean of 8 months. Results were compared with the course of lytical bone lesions as well with that of specific hematological biomarkers. Myeloma response was assessed according to the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) uniform response criteria. Testing for correlation between response of medullary lesions (Resp

  1. Exploring the use of computer games and virtual reality in exposure therapy for fear of driving following a motor vehicle accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, David G; Lewis, Elizabeth J; Kim, Sun I; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Wiederhold, Brenda K

    2003-06-01

    Specific phobia, situational type-driving, induced by accident (accident phobia) occurs in 18-38% of those involved in a vehicular accident of sufficient severity to warrant referral to the emergency departments of a general hospital. The objective is to investigate, in an open study, the effectiveness of the combined use of computer generated environments involving driving games (game reality [GR]) and a virtual reality (VR) driving environment in exposure therapy for the treatment of driving phobia following a motor vehicle accident (MVA) program. Fourteen subjects who met DSM-IV criteria for Simple Phobia/Accident Phobia and were referred from the emergency department of a general hospital were exposed to a Virtual Driving Environment (Hanyang University Driving Phobia Environment) and computer driving games (London Racer/Midtown Madness/Rally Championship). Patients who experienced "immersion" (i.e., a sense of presence with heightened anxiety) in one of the driving simulations (defined as an increase in SUD ratings of 3 and/or an increase of heart rate > 15 BPM in a 1-h trial session of computer simulation driving) were exposed to a cognitive behavioral program of up to 12 1-h sessions involving graded driving simulation tasks with self-monitoring, physiological feedback, diaphragmatic breathing and cognitive reappraisal. Subjects were assessed at the beginning and end of therapy with measurements of: physiological responsivity (heart rate), subjective ratings of distress (SUD), rating scales for severity of fear of driving (FDI), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CAPS) and depression (HAM-D) and achievement of target behaviors. Of all patients 7/14 (50%) became immersed in the driving environments. This immersed group (n = 7) completed the exposure program. Pre- and post-treatment comparisons showed significant post treatment reductions on all measures SUDS (p = 0.008), FDI (p = 0.008), CAPS (p = 0.008), HR (p = 0.008), CAPS (p = 0.008), HAM-D (p = 0

  2. Ventricular pacing site separation by cardiac computed tomography: validation for the prediction of clinical response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, S; Yee, Raymond; Scholl, David; Stirrat, John; Wong, Jorge A; Lydell, Carmen; Kotha, Vamshi; Gula, Lorne J; Skanes, Allan C; Leong-Sit, Peter; McCarty, David; Drangova, Maria; White, James A

    2017-09-01

    Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) fails to provide benefit in up to one-third of patients. Maximizing the geographic separation of right and left ventricular pacing lead sites has been suggested as one way to improve response. Cardiac CT provides an opportunity to explore 3-dimensional inter-lead distance (ILD) measures for the prediction of CRT response. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between standardized measures of ILD by cardiac CT and echocardiographic response to CRT. Forty-two consecutive patients undergoing CRT had serial clinical and echocardiographic evaluations performed in addition to a post-procedural cardiac-gated CT with blinded measurement of direct and circumferential (via the myocardium) ILD measures. Clinical response to CRT, the primary clinical outcome, was defined as a ≥15% reduction in LVESV using echocardiography at 6-months. The mean age and ejection fraction was 63.6 ± 8.9 years and 25.2 ± 7.8%, respectively. The primary outcome occurred in 35 of 42 patients (83%). Both direct and circumferential CT-based ILD measures were associated with the primary outcome by univariate analysis. Receiver Operator Characteristic analysis identified Circumferential ILD to have the strongest predictive accuracy (AUC 0.78). Inter- and intra-observer reproducibility of CT-derived ILD measures was excellent. Circumferential ILD measures on cardiac CT are predictive of clinical response to CRT. Incorporation of these measures into the selection of optimal pacing targets, particularly from pre-procedural CT coronary vein imaging may be of therapeutic benefit and warrants further investigation.

  3. More powerful biomolecular computers

    OpenAIRE

    Blasiak, Janusz; Krasinski, Tadeusz; Poplawski, Tomasz; Sakowski, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Biomolecular computers, along with quantum computers, may be a future alternative for traditional, silicon-based computers. Main advantages of biomolecular computers are massive parallel processing of data, expanded capacity of storing information and compatibility with living organisms (first attempts of using biomolecular computers in cancer therapy through blocking of improper genetic information are described in Benenson et al.(2004). However, biomolecular computers have several drawbacks...

  4. Risk of postoperative hypoglycemia in cardiovascular surgical patients receiving computer-based versus paper-based insulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Samuel E; Suarez-Cavelier, Jorge; Accola, Kevin D; Hadas, Lori A; Harnage, Darcey L; Garrett, Paul R; Butler, Kathy A; Mulla, Zuber D

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of replacing a paper-based protocol with a computer-guided glucose management system (CGMS) for the treatment of postoperative hyperglycemia in the cardiovascular intensive care unit (CVICU). With use of a before-and-after analysis, adult patients (≥18 years) discharged from the CVICU and treated with the paper protocol were compared with patients discharged from the CVICU and treated with the CGMS. Of the 1,648 patients analyzed, 991 were in the CGMS group. Clinical end points were evaluated by using the Wilcoxon test. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for each hypoglycemic end point were calculated from Cox models with use of the proportional hazards regression procedure, and clinical end points were adjusted for potential confounders. Patients treated with the paper protocol were 6 times as likely to experience clinical hypoglycemia (blood glucose ≤70 mg/dL) as patients treated with the CGMS (adjusted HR = 6.06; Prisk of hypoglycemia, no significant difference in length of stay or mortality was observed between the groups. CGMS treatment of postoperative hyperglycemia in CVICU patients can successfully attain goal glucose levels with a significant reduction in hypoglycemia in comparison with a paper protocol. This association persists after controlling for covariates.

  5. Computational fluid dynamics: a suitable assessment tool for demonstrating the antiobstructive effect of drugs in the therapy of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, N; Pasch, N; Lintermann, A; Schröder, W; Mösges, R

    2013-02-01

    This systematic review aims first to summarize the previous areas of application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and then to demonstrate that CFD is also a suitable instrument for generating three-dimensional images that depict drug effects on nasal mucosa. Special emphasis is placed on the three-dimensional visualization of the antiobstructive effect of nasal steroids and antihistamines in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. In the beginning, CFD technology was only used to demonstrate physiological and pathophysiological airflow conditions in the nose and to aid in preoperative planning and postoperative monitoring of surgical outcome in the field of rhinosurgery. The first studies using CFD examined nasal respiratory physiology, important functions of the nose, such as conditioning and warming of inspired air, and the influence of pathophysiological changes on nasal breathing. Also, postoperative outcome of surgical procedures could be "predicted" using the nasal airflow model. Later studies focused on the three-dimensional visualization of the effect of nasal sprays in healthy subjects and postoperative patients. A completely new approach, however, was the use of CFD in the area of allergic rhinitis and the treatment of its cardinal symptom of nasal obstruction. In two clinical trials, a suitable patient with a positive history of allergic rhinitis was enrolled during a symptom-free period after the pollen season. The patient developed typical allergic rhinitis symptoms after provocation with birch pollen. The 3-D visualization showed that the antiallergic treatment successfully counteracted the effects of nasal allergen provocation on nasal airflow. These observations were attributed to the antiobstructive effect of a nasal steroid (mometasone furoate) and a systemic antihistamine (levocetirizine), respectively. CFD therefore constitutes a non-invasive, precise, reliable and objective examination procedure for generating three-dimensional images that

  6. Incorporating quantitative single photon emission computed tomography into radiation therapy treatment planning for lung cancer: impact of attenuation and scatter correction on the single photon emission computed tomography-weighted mean dose and functional lung segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lingshu; Shcherbinin, Sergey; Celler, Anna; Thompson, Anna; Fua, Tsien-Fei; Liu, Mitchell; Duzenli, Cheryl; Gill, Brad; Sheehan, Finbar; Powe, John; Worsley, Daniel; Marks, Lawrence; Moiseenko, Vitali

    2010-10-01

    To assess the impact of attenuation and scatter corrections on the calculation of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-weighted mean dose (SWMD) and functional volume segmentation as applied to radiation therapy treatment planning for lung cancer. Nine patients with lung cancer underwent a SPECT lung perfusion scan. For each scan, four image sets were reconstructed using the ordered subsets expectation maximization method with attenuation and scatter corrections ranging from none to a most comprehensive combination of attenuation corrections and direct scatter modeling. Functional volumes were segmented in each reconstructed image using 10%, 20%, …, 90% of maximum SPECT intensity as a threshold. Systematic effects of SPECT reconstruction methods on treatment planning using functional volume were studied by calculating size and spatial agreements of functional volumes, and V(20) for functional volume from actual treatment plans. The SWMD was calculated for radiation beams with a variety of possible gantry angles and field sizes. Functional volume segmentation is sensitive to the particular method of SPECT reconstruction used. Large variations in functional volumes, as high as >50%, were observed in SPECT images reconstructed with different attenuation/scatter corrections. However, SWMD was less sensitive to the type of scatter corrections. SWMD was consistent within 2% for all reconstructions as long as computed tomography-based attenuation correction was used. When using perfusion SPECT images during treatment planning optimization/evaluation, the SWMD may be the preferred figure of merit, as it is less affected by reconstruction technique, compared with threshold-based functional volume segmentation. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The electric field distribution in the brain during TTFields therapy and its dependence on tissue dielectric properties and anatomy: a computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Cornelia; Salvador, Ricardo; Basser, Peter J.; Miranda, Pedro C.

    2015-09-01

    Tumor treating fields (TTFields) are a non-invasive, anti-mitotic and approved treatment for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. In vitro studies have shown that inhibition of cell division in glioma is achieved when the applied alternating electric field has a frequency in the range of 200 kHz and an amplitude of 1-3 V cm-1. Our aim is to calculate the electric field distribution in the brain during TTFields therapy and to investigate the dependence of these predictions on the heterogeneous, anisotropic dielectric properties used in the computational model. A realistic head model was developed by segmenting MR images and by incorporating anisotropic conductivity values for the brain tissues. The finite element method (FEM) was used to solve for the electric potential within a volume mesh that consisted of the head tissues, a virtual lesion with an active tumour shell surrounding a necrotic core, and the transducer arrays. The induced electric field distribution is highly non-uniform. Average field strength values are slightly higher in the tumour when incorporating anisotropy, by about 10% or less. A sensitivity analysis with respect to the conductivity and permittivity of head tissues shows a variation in field strength of less than 42% in brain parenchyma and in the tumour, for values within the ranges reported in the literature. Comparing results to a previously developed head model suggests significant inter-subject variability. This modelling study predicts that during treatment with TTFields the electric field in the tumour exceeds 1 V cm-1, independent of modelling assumptions. In the future, computational models may be useful to optimize delivery of TTFields.

  8. The Time Course of Dynamic Computed Tomographic Appearance of Radiation Injury to the Cirrhotic Liver Following Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tomoki; Takahashi, Shigeo; Takahashi, Ippei; Nishibuchi, Ikuno; Doi, Yoshiko; Kenjo, Masahiro; Murakami, Yuji; Honda, Yohji; Aikata, Hiroshi; Chayama, Kazuaki; Nagata, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the dynamic computed tomographic (CT) appearance of focal radiation injury to cirrhotic liver tissue around the tumor following stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Seventy-seven patients with 92 HCCs were observed for >6 months. Sixty-four and 13 patients belonged to Child–Pugh class A and B, respectively. The median SBRT dose was 48 Gy/4fr. Dynamic CT scans were performed in non–enhanced, arterial, portal, and venous phases. The median follow-up period was 18 months. Dynamic CT appearances were classified into 3 types: type 1, hyperdensity in all enhanced phases; type 2, hypodensity in arterial and portal phases; type 3, isodensity in all enhanced phases. Half of the type 2 or 3 appearances significantly changed to type 1, particularly in patients belonging to Child–Pugh class A. After 3–6 months, Child–Pugh class B was a significant factor in type 3 patients. Thus, dynamic CT appearances were classified into 3 patterns and significantly changed over time into the enhancement group (type 1) in most patients belonging to Child–Pugh class A. Child–Pugh class B was a significant factor in the non–enhancement group (type 3). PMID:26067065

  9. The use of in vivo, ex vivo, in vitro, computational models and volunteer studies in vision research and therapy, and their contribution to the Three Rs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Robert D; Shah, Atul B

    2016-07-01

    Much is known about mammalian vision, and considerable progress has been achieved in treating many vision disorders, especially those due to changes in the eye, by using various therapeutic methods, including stem cell and gene therapy. While cells and tissues from the main parts of the eye and the visual cortex (VC) can be maintained in culture, and many computer models exist, the current non-animal approaches are severely limiting in the study of visual perception and retinotopic imaging. Some of the early studies with cats and non-human primates (NHPs) are controversial for animal welfare reasons and are of questionable clinical relevance, particularly with respect to the treatment of amblyopia. More recently, the UK Home Office records have shown that attention is now more focused on rodents, especially the mouse. This is likely to be due to the perceived need for genetically-altered animals, rather than to knowledge of the similarities and differences of vision in cats, NHPs and rodents, and the fact that the same techniques can be used for all of the species. We discuss the advantages and limitations of animal and non-animal methods for vision research, and assess their relative contributions to basic knowledge and clinical practice, as well as outlining the opportunities they offer for implementing the principles of the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement). 2016 FRAME.

  10. COMPUTERS HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Augustynek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2006, over 12.6 million Polish users of the Web registered. On the average, each of them spent 21 hours and 37 minutes monthly browsing the Web. That is why the problems of the psychological aspects of computer utilization have become an urgent research subject. The results of research into the development of Polish information society carried out in AGH University of Science and Technology, under the leadership of Leslaw H. Haber, in the period from 2000 until present time, indicate the emergence dynamic changes in the ways of computer utilization and their circumstances. One of the interesting regularities has been the inverse proportional relation between the level of computer skills and the frequency of the Web utilization.It has been found that in 2005, compared to 2000, the following changes occurred:- A significant drop in the number of students who never used computers and the Web;- Remarkable increase in computer knowledge and skills (particularly pronounced in the case of first years student- Decreasing gap in computer skills between students of the first and the third year; between male and female students;- Declining popularity of computer games.It has been demonstrated also that the hazard of computer screen addiction was the highest in he case of unemployed youth outside school system. As much as 12% of this group of young people were addicted to computer. A lot of leisure time that these youths enjoyed inducted them to excessive utilization of the Web. Polish housewives are another population group in risk of addiction to the Web. The duration of long Web charts carried out by younger and younger youths has been another matter of concern. Since the phenomenon of computer addiction is relatively new, no specific therapy methods has been developed. In general, the applied therapy in relation to computer addition syndrome is similar to the techniques applied in the cases of alcohol or gambling addiction. Individual and group

  11. Reduction in Tumor Volume by Cone Beam Computed Tomography Predicts Overall Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Chemoradiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabbour, Salma K., E-mail: jabbousk@cinj.rutgers.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Kim, Sinae [Division of Biometrics, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Haider, Syed A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Xu, Xiaoting [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Soochow (China); Wu, Alson [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Surakanti, Sujani; Aisner, Joseph [Division of Medical Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Langenfeld, John [Division of Surgery, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Yue, Ning J.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Zou, Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: We sought to evaluate whether tumor response using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) performed as part of the routine care during chemoradiation therapy (CRT) could forecast the outcome of unresectable, locally advanced, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: We manually delineated primary tumor volumes (TV) of patients with NSCLC who were treated with radical CRT on days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, and 43 on CBCTs obtained as part of the standard radiation treatment course. Percentage reductions in TV were calculated and then correlated to survival and pattern of recurrence using Cox proportional hazard models. Clinical information including histologic subtype was also considered in the study of such associations. Results: We evaluated 38 patients with a median follow-up time of 23.4 months. The median TV reduction was 39.3% (range, 7.3%-69.3%) from day 1 (D1) to day 43 (D43) CBCTs. Overall survival was associated with TV reduction from D1 to D43 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.557, 95% CI 0.39-0.79, P=.0009). For every 10% decrease in TV from D1 to D43, the risk of death decreased by 44.3%. For patients whose TV decreased ≥39.3 or <39.3%, log-rank test demonstrated a separation in survival (P=.02), with median survivals of 31 months versus 10 months, respectively. Neither local recurrence (HR 0.791, 95% CI 0.51-1.23, P=.29), nor distant recurrence (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.57-1.08, P=.137) correlated with TV decrease from D1 to D43. Histologic subtype showed no impact on our findings. Conclusions: TV reduction as determined by CBCT during CRT as part of routine care predicts post-CRT survival. Such knowledge may justify intensification of RT or application of additional therapies. Assessment of genomic characteristics of these tumors may permit a better understanding of behavior or prediction of therapeutic outcomes.

  12. Automatic Substitute Computed Tomography Generation and Contouring for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-Alone External Beam Radiation Therapy From Standard MRI Sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowling, Jason A., E-mail: jason.dowling@csiro.au [CSIRO Australian e-Health Research Centre, Herston, Queensland (Australia); University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales (Australia); Sun, Jidi [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales (Australia); Pichler, Peter [Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Waratah, New South Wales (Australia); Rivest-Hénault, David; Ghose, Soumya [CSIRO Australian e-Health Research Centre, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Richardson, Haylea [Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Waratah, New South Wales (Australia); Wratten, Chris; Martin, Jarad [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales (Australia); Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Waratah, New South Wales (Australia); Arm, Jameen [Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Waratah, New South Wales (Australia); Best, Leah [Department of Radiology, Hunter New England Health, New Lambton, New South Wales (Australia); Chandra, Shekhar S. [School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Fripp, Jurgen [CSIRO Australian e-Health Research Centre, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Menk, Frederick W. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales (Australia); Greer, Peter B. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales (Australia); Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Waratah, New South Wales (Australia)

    2015-12-01

    Purpose: To validate automatic substitute computed tomography CT (sCT) scans generated from standard T2-weighted (T2w) magnetic resonance (MR) pelvic scans for MR-Sim prostate treatment planning. Patients and Methods: A Siemens Skyra 3T MR imaging (MRI) scanner with laser bridge, flat couch, and pelvic coil mounts was used to scan 39 patients scheduled for external beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer. For sCT generation a whole-pelvis MRI scan (1.6 mm 3-dimensional isotropic T2w SPACE [Sampling Perfection with Application optimized Contrasts using different flip angle Evolution] sequence) was acquired. Three additional small field of view scans were acquired: T2w, T2*w, and T1w flip angle 80° for gold fiducials. Patients received a routine planning CT scan. Manual contouring of the prostate, rectum, bladder, and bones was performed independently on the CT and MR scans. Three experienced observers contoured each organ on MRI, allowing interobserver quantification. To generate a training database, each patient CT scan was coregistered to their whole-pelvis T2w using symmetric rigid registration and structure-guided deformable registration. A new multi-atlas local weighted voting method was used to generate automatic contours and sCT results. Results: The mean error in Hounsfield units between the sCT and corresponding patient CT (within the body contour) was 0.6 ± 14.7 (mean ± 1 SD), with a mean absolute error of 40.5 ± 8.2 Hounsfield units. Automatic contouring results were very close to the expert interobserver level (Dice similarity coefficient): prostate 0.80 ± 0.08, bladder 0.86 ± 0.12, rectum 0.84 ± 0.06, bones 0.91 ± 0.03, and body 1.00 ± 0.003. The change in monitor units between the sCT-based plans relative to the gold standard CT plan for the same dose prescription was found to be 0.3% ± 0.8%. The 3-dimensional γ pass rate was 1.00 ± 0.00 (2 mm/2%). Conclusions: The MR-Sim setup and automatic s

  13. Validation of High-Risk Computed Tomography Features for Detection of Local Recurrence After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peulen, Heike [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mantel, Frederick [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Guckenberger, Matthias [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Belderbos, José [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Werner-Wasik, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Hope, Andrew; Giuliani, Meredith [Department of Radiation Oncology University of Toronto and Princess Margaret Cancer Center, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Grills, Inga [Department of Radiation Oncology Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Sonke, Jan-Jakob, E-mail: j.sonke@nki.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: Fibrotic changes after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are difficult to distinguish from local recurrences (LR), hampering proper patient selection for salvage therapy. This study validates previously reported high-risk computed tomography (CT) features (HRFs) for detection of LR in an independent patient cohort. Methods and Materials: From a multicenter database, 13 patients with biopsy-proven LR were matched 1:2 to 26 non-LR control patients based on dose, planning target volume (PTV), follow-up time, and lung lobe. Tested HRFs were enlarging opacity, sequential enlarging opacity, enlarging opacity after 12 months, bulging margin, linear margin disappearance, loss of air bronchogram, and craniocaudal growth. Additionally, 2 new features were analyzed: the occurrence of new unilateral pleural effusion, and growth based on relative volume, assessed by manual delineation. Results: All HRFs were significantly associated with LR except for loss of air bronchogram. The best performing HRFs were bulging margin, linear margin disappearance, and craniocaudal growth. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of the number of HRFs to detect LR had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9-1.0), which was identical to the performance described in the original report. The best compromise (closest to 100% sensitivity and specificity) was found at ≥4 HRFs, with a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 85%. A model consisting of only 2 HRFs, bulging margin and craniocaudal growth, resulted in a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 100%, with an AUC of 0.96 (95% CI 0.9-1.0) (HRFs ≥2). Pleural effusion and relative growth did not significantly improve the model. Conclusion: We successfully validated CT-based HRFs for detection of LR after SBRT for early-stage NSCLC. As an alternative to number of HRFs, we propose a simplified model with the combination of the 2 best HRFs

  14. Status of ECR ion sources at JAERI

    CERN Document Server

    Yokota, W; Nara, T; Ishi, Y; Arakawa, K; Ohkoshi, K

    1999-01-01

    At the Takasaki site of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, four ECR ion sources were purchased or developed so far. This paper will report their performance, modification and status. The outlines for each source are as follows; 1. OCTOPUS purchased from IBA s.a. has been in use with a cyclotron since 1990. The gas feed system was modified to change gas species within 10 minutes to avoid impurity ions in the cocktail beam acceleration technique of the cyclotron. 2. ECR-18 with 18-GHz microwave has a solenoid coil between a pair of mirror coils to change mirror ratio in a wide range. A bump between mirror peaks in the original axial field distribution was removed by halving the solenoid length. The performance in generating high charge state ions was significantly improved as a result. 3. HYPERNANOGAN was purchased from PANTECHNIK s.a. and installed in the cyclotron system this year. Test operation was successfully made with generation of Ar, Pb and Ta ions. 4. MINI ECR is a full permanent magnet source wi...

  15. Target R and D at JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    We proposed a solid and a mercury target concepts through the preliminary conceptual design. To feasible these concepts, analysis and experimental works are being carried out. This paper introduces an outline of present status of target R and D such as heat transfer augmentation experiments for the solid target, mercury flow tests with a loop of maximum flow rate of 15L/min, flow pattern measurements for a cold source moderator etc. as well as preliminary conceptual design works. (author)

  16. Volume of Lytic Vertebral Body Metastatic Disease Quantified Using Computed Tomography-Based Image Segmentation Predicts Fracture Risk After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Isabelle; Whyne, Cari M; Zhou, Stephanie; Campbell, Mikki; Atenafu, Eshetu G; Myrehaug, Sten; Soliman, Hany; Lee, Young K; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Yee, Albert J M; Sahgal, Arjun

    2017-01-01

    To determine a threshold of vertebral body (VB) osteolytic or osteoblastic tumor involvement that would predict vertebral compression fracture (VCF) risk after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), using volumetric image-segmentation software. A computational semiautomated skeletal metastasis segmentation process refined in our laboratory was applied to the pretreatment planning CT scan of 100 vertebral segments in 55 patients treated with spine SBRT. Each VB was segmented and the percentage of lytic and/or blastic disease by volume determined. The cumulative incidence of VCF at 3 and 12 months was 14.1% and 17.3%, respectively. The median follow-up was 7.3 months (range, 0.6-67.6 months). In all, 56% of segments were determined lytic, 23% blastic, and 21% mixed, according to clinical radiologic determination. Within these 3 clinical cohorts, the segmentation-determined mean percentages of lytic and blastic tumor were 8.9% and 6.0%, 0.2% and 26.9%, and 3.4% and 15.8% by volume, respectively. On the basis of the entire cohort (n=100), a significant association was observed for the osteolytic percentage measures and the occurrence of VCF (Pconfidence interval 9.4-148.9). On multivariable analysis, ≥11.6% lytic disease (P<.001), baseline VCF (P<.001), and SBRT with ≥20 Gy per fraction (P=.014) were predictive. Pretreatment lytic VB disease volumetric measures, independent of the blastic component, predict for SBRT-induced VCF. Larger-scale trials evaluating our software are planned to validate the results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensitivity of post treatment positron emission tomography/computed tomography to detect inter-fractional range variations in scanned ion beam therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handrack, Josefine; Tessonnier, Thomas; Chen, Wenjing; Liebl, Jakob; Debus, Jürgen; Bauer, Julia; Parodi, Katia

    2017-11-01

    Ion therapy, especially with modern scanning beam delivery, offers very sharp dose gradients for highly conformal cancer treatment. However, it is very sensitive to uncertainties of tissue stopping properties as well as to anatomical changes and setup errors, making range verification highly desirable. To this end, positron emission tomography (PET) can be used to measure decay products of β + -emitters created in interactions inside the patient. This work investigates the sensitivity of post treatment PET/CT (computed tomography) to detect inter-fractional range variations. Fourteen patients of different indication underwent PET/CT monitoring after selected treatment fractions with scanned proton or carbon ion beams. In addition to PET/CT measurements, PET and dose distributions were simulated on different co-registered CT data. Pairs of PET data were then analyzed in terms of longitudinal shifts along the beam path, as surrogate of inter-fractional range deviations. These findings were compared to changes of dose-volume-histogram indexes and corresponding dose as well as CT shifts to disentangle the origin of possible PET shifts. Biological washout modeling (PET simulations) and low (ions) were the main limitations for clinical treatment verification. For two selected cases, the benefit of improved washout modeling based on organ segmentation could be demonstrated. Overall, inter-fractional range shifts up to ±3 mm could be deduced from both PET measurements and simulations, and found well correlated (typically within 1.8 mm) to anatomical changes derived from CT scans, in agreement with dose data. Despite known limitations of post treatment PET/CT imaging, this work indicates its potential for assessing inter-fractional changes and points to future developments for improved PET-based treatment verification.

  18. Use of a Diagnostic Score to Prioritize Computed Tomographic (CT) Imaging for Patients Suspected of Ischemic Stroke Who May Benefit from Thrombolytic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bots, Michiel L.; Selvarajah, Sharmini; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Abdul Aziz, Zariah; Sidek, Norsima Nazifah; Vaartjes, Ilonca

    2016-01-01

    Background A shortage of computed tomographic (CT) machines in low and middle income countries often results in delayed CT imaging for patients suspected of a stroke. Yet, time constraint is one of the most important aspects for patients with an ischemic stroke to benefit from thrombolytic therapy. We set out to assess whether application of the Siriraj Stroke Score is able to assist physicians in prioritizing patients with a high probability of having an ischemic stroke for urgent CT imaging. Methods From the Malaysian National Neurology Registry, we selected patients aged 18 years and over with clinical features suggesting of a stroke, who arrived in the hospital 4.5 hours or less from ictus. The prioritization of receiving CT imaging was left to the discretion of the treating physician. We applied the Siriraj Stroke Score to all patients, refitted the score and defined a cut-off value to best distinguish an ischemic stroke from a hemorrhagic stroke. Results Of the 2176 patients included, 73% had an ischemic stroke. Only 33% of the ischemic stroke patients had CT imaging within 4.5 hours. The median door-to-scan time for these patients was 4 hours (IQR: 1;16). With the recalibrated score, it would have been possible to prioritize 95% (95% CI: 94%–96%) of patients with an ischemic stroke for urgent CT imaging. Conclusions In settings where CT imaging capacity is limited, we propose the use of the Siriraj Stroke Score to prioritize patients with a probable ischemic stroke for urgent CT imaging. PMID:27768752

  19. Use of a Diagnostic Score to Prioritize Computed Tomographic (CT Imaging for Patients Suspected of Ischemic Stroke Who May Benefit from Thrombolytic Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Yea Hwong

    Full Text Available A shortage of computed tomographic (CT machines in low and middle income countries often results in delayed CT imaging for patients suspected of a stroke. Yet, time constraint is one of the most important aspects for patients with an ischemic stroke to benefit from thrombolytic therapy. We set out to assess whether application of the Siriraj Stroke Score is able to assist physicians in prioritizing patients with a high probability of having an ischemic stroke for urgent CT imaging.From the Malaysian National Neurology Registry, we selected patients aged 18 years and over with clinical features suggesting of a stroke, who arrived in the hospital 4.5 hours or less from ictus. The prioritization of receiving CT imaging was left to the discretion of the treating physician. We applied the Siriraj Stroke Score to all patients, refitted the score and defined a cut-off value to best distinguish an ischemic stroke from a hemorrhagic stroke.Of the 2176 patients included, 73% had an ischemic stroke. Only 33% of the ischemic stroke patients had CT imaging within 4.5 hours. The median door-to-scan time for these patients was 4 hours (IQR: 1;16. With the recalibrated score, it would have been possible to prioritize 95% (95% CI: 94%-96% of patients with an ischemic stroke for urgent CT imaging.In settings where CT imaging capacity is limited, we propose the use of the Siriraj Stroke Score to prioritize patients with a probable ischemic stroke for urgent CT imaging.

  20. The paced electrocardiogram cannot be used to identify left and right ventricular pacing sites in cardiac resynchronization therapy: validation by cardiac computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Anders; Kronborg, Mads Brix; Witt, Christoffer Tobias; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis

    2015-03-01

    Paced electrocardiogram characteristics to confirm left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) pacing sites in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) have not been validated with accurate knowledge of pacing lead positions. We aimed to evaluate the ability of the paced QRS morphology to differentiate between various LV and RV lead positions using cardiac computed tomography (CT) as the reference for LV and RV pacing site. Ninety-seven CRT patients were included. The QRS morphology was evaluated during forced LV-only and RV-only pacing. Pacing lead positions were assessed in a standard LV 16-segment model and a simplistic RV 6-segment model using cardiac CT. Ten patients with LV lead displacement or a LV pacing site outside the non-apical free wall were excluded from the analysis of the LV paced QRS complex. Pacing within the LV free wall was associated with a superior and a right-axis deviation (P = 0.02 and 0.04, respectively). Pacing from basal LV segments mainly produced a late (V5 or later) precordial QRS transition as compared with mid-LV pacing (P = 0.001). No significant associations were found between RV pacing site and QRS axis or precordial transition. Different QRS morphologies were observed during single-chamber pacing from identical LV or RV myocardial segments. Weak associations exist between LV and RV pacing sites and the paced QRS axis. None of the paced QRS characteristics can be used to reliably confirm specific LV and RV pacing sites in CRT patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Volume of Lytic Vertebral Body Metastatic Disease Quantified Using Computed Tomography–Based Image Segmentation Predicts Fracture Risk After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibault, Isabelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de L' Universite de Québec–Université Laval, Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Whyne, Cari M. [Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Zhou, Stephanie; Campbell, Mikki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Atenafu, Eshetu G. [Department of Biostatistics, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Myrehaug, Sten; Soliman, Hany; Lee, Young K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ebrahimi, Hamid [Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Yee, Albert J.M. [Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: arjun.sahgal@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine a threshold of vertebral body (VB) osteolytic or osteoblastic tumor involvement that would predict vertebral compression fracture (VCF) risk after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), using volumetric image-segmentation software. Methods and Materials: A computational semiautomated skeletal metastasis segmentation process refined in our laboratory was applied to the pretreatment planning CT scan of 100 vertebral segments in 55 patients treated with spine SBRT. Each VB was segmented and the percentage of lytic and/or blastic disease by volume determined. Results: The cumulative incidence of VCF at 3 and 12 months was 14.1% and 17.3%, respectively. The median follow-up was 7.3 months (range, 0.6-67.6 months). In all, 56% of segments were determined lytic, 23% blastic, and 21% mixed, according to clinical radiologic determination. Within these 3 clinical cohorts, the segmentation-determined mean percentages of lytic and blastic tumor were 8.9% and 6.0%, 0.2% and 26.9%, and 3.4% and 15.8% by volume, respectively. On the basis of the entire cohort (n=100), a significant association was observed for the osteolytic percentage measures and the occurrence of VCF (P<.001) but not for the osteoblastic measures. The most significant lytic disease threshold was observed at ≥11.6% (odds ratio 37.4, 95% confidence interval 9.4-148.9). On multivariable analysis, ≥11.6% lytic disease (P<.001), baseline VCF (P<.001), and SBRT with ≥20 Gy per fraction (P=.014) were predictive. Conclusions: Pretreatment lytic VB disease volumetric measures, independent of the blastic component, predict for SBRT-induced VCF. Larger-scale trials evaluating our software are planned to validate the results.

  2. Cardiac computed tomography assessment of the near term impact of percutaneous ventricular restoration therapy (parachute(®) ) on mitral valve geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Chor Cheung; Fares, Anas; Alaiti, Amer; Shaikh, Kashif; Ince, Hüseyin; Erglis, Andrejs; Bezerra, Hiram G; Abraham, William T; Costa, Marco A; Attizzani, Guilherme F

    2016-08-01

    The aim of current study is to assess the near term impact of percutaneous ventricular restoration therapy (PVR), Parachute(®) on mitral valve (MV) geometry by cardiac computed tomography (CCT). Recent data demonstrates the feasibility of PVR for treatment of post anterior myocardial infarction (MI) heart failure. Little is known, however, about the interaction of the device and left ventricular structures, particularly the MV apparatus. This is a retrospective Core Laboratory analysis of Parachute Trials' CCT data. Patients with paired (before and after Parachute implant) CCT acquisitions were included into analysis. MV geometric parameters were measured. Thirty-three patients were included in the analysis. The mean time of follow-up CCT post procedure was 188 ± 52 days. There were significant reduction in tenting height (A1P1: -1.70 ± 1.89 mm, -17.40 ± 20.20%; A2P2: -1.43 ± 1.89 mm, -12.10 ± 15.00%; A3P3: -1.54 ± 1.58 mm, -15.50 ± 15.20%, P < 0.001), tenting volume (-0.93 ± 0.60 mm3, -22.00 ± 11.40%, P < 0.001), systolic interpapillary muscle distance (-2.22 ± 2.11 mm, -7.51 ± 7.23%, P < 0.001) and diastolic interpapillary muscle distance (-3.14 ± 2.20 mm, -8.46 ± 5.73%, P < 0.001) post PVR. In post anterior MI heart failure patients, PVR has favorable near term impact on MV geometry as assessed by CCT. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Prognostic Significance of Tumor Response as Assessed by Sequential {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography During Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy for Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Dongryul [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Eun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Seung Jae, E-mail: sj5201.huh@samsung.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won [Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Heerim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Byung-Tae [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic role of metabolic response by the use of serial sets of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with cervical cancer who were treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 60 patients who were treated with CCRT between February 2009 and December 2010 were analyzed. Three sequential PET/CT images were acquired for each patient: pre-CCRT, during-CCRT at 4 weeks of CCRT, and 1 month post-CCRT PET/CT. Metabolic responses were assessed qualitatively. The percentage changes in the maximum values of standardized uptake value (ΔSUV{sub max}%) from the PET/CT images acquired pre-CCRT and during-CCRT were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate whether ΔSUV{sub max}% could predict complete response (CR) on the post-CCRT PET/CT and to identify the best cutoff value. Prognostic factors of progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed. Results: During-CCRT PET/CT showed that 8 patients (13%) had CR, and the other 52 patients (87%) had partial response (PR). On the post-CCRT PET/CT, 43 patients (73%) had CR, 12 patients (20%) had PR, and 4 patients (7%) had progressive disease. The average SUV{sub max} in primary tumors was 16.3 (range, 6.4-53.0) on the pre-CCRT PET/CT images and 5.3 (range, 0-19.4) on the during-CCRT PET/CT images. According to ROC curve analysis, ΔSUV{sub max}% could predict CR response on post-CCRT PET/CT (P<.001, cutoff value of 59.7%). In all patients, the PFS rate was 71.9% at 2 years. Multivariate analysis showed that ΔSUV{sub max}% ≥60% (P=.045) and CR response on the post-CCRT PET/CT (P=.012) were statistically significant predictors of PFS. Conclusion: Metabolic responses on the during-CCRT images at 4 weeks of treatment and 1-month post-CCRT PET/CT images may predict treatment outcomes in patients with cervical cancer. ΔSUV{sub max}% ≥60% at 4 weeks of CCRT may predict CR response

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  5. Proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proton beam therapy; Cancer - proton therapy; Radiation therapy - proton therapy; Prostate cancer - proton therapy ... that use x-rays to destroy cancer cells, proton therapy uses a beam of special particles called ...

  6. Art Therapy: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Linda, Comp.; Schmal, Marilyn Strauss, Comp.

    The bibliography on art therapy presents 1175 citations (1940-1973) drawn from searches of the medical indexes, computer systems of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institute of Mental Health, other bibliographies, Centre International de Documentation Concernant les Expressions Plastiques, and the American Journal of Art Therapy.…

  7. {sup 18}F-Choline Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography–Driven High-Dose Salvage Radiation Therapy in Patients With Biochemical Progression After Radical Prostatectomy: Feasibility Study in 60 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Angelillo, Rolando M., E-mail: r.dangelillo@unicampus.it [Radiation Oncology, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome (Italy); Sciuto, Rosa [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Ramella, Sara [Radiation Oncology, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome (Italy); Papalia, Rocco [Department of Urology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, Milan (Italy); Trodella, Luca E.; Fiore, Michele [Radiation Oncology, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome (Italy); Gallucci, Michele [Department of Urology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Maini, Carlo L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Trodella, Lucio [Radiation Oncology, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively review data of a cohort of patients with biochemical progression after radical prostatectomy, treated according to a uniform institutional treatment policy, to evaluate toxicity and feasibility of high-dose salvage radiation therapy (80 Gy). Methods and Materials: Data on 60 patients with biochemical progression after radical prostatectomy between January 2009 and September 2011 were reviewed. The median value of prostate-specific antigen before radiation therapy was 0.9 ng/mL. All patients at time of diagnosis of biochemical recurrence underwent dynamic {sup 18}F-choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), which revealed in all cases a local recurrence. High-dose salvage radiation therapy was delivered up to total dose of 80 Gy to 18F-choline PET/CT-positive area. Toxicity was recorded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, scale. Results: Treatment was generally well tolerated: 54 patients (90%) completed salvage radiation therapy without any interruption. Gastrointestinal grade ≥2 acute toxicity was recorded in 6 patients (10%), whereas no patient experienced a grade ≥2 genitourinary toxicity. No grade 4 acute toxicity events were recorded. Only 1 patient (1.7%) experienced a grade 2 gastrointestinal late toxicity. With a mean follow-up of 31.2 months, 46 of 60 patients (76.6%) were free of recurrence. The 3-year biochemical progression-free survival rate was 72.5%. Conclusions: At early follow-up, {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT-driven high-dose salvage radiation therapy seems to be feasible and well tolerated, with a low rate of toxicity.

  8. Limited short-term effect of palliative radiation therapy on quantitative computed tomography-derived bone mineral density in femora with metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florieke Eggermont, MSc

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Ten weeks after palliative radiation therapy in patients with femoral metastatic lesions, a limited increase in BMD was seen with no beneficial effect of MF over SF RT. BMD in lytic lesions was unchanged but slightly increased in mixed and blastic lesions.

  9. Limited short-term effect of palliative radiation therapy on quantitative computed tomography-derived bone mineral density in femora with metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, F.E.; Derikx, L.C.; Verdonschot, N.J.; Hannink, G.J.; Kaatee, R.; Tanck, E.J.; Linden, Y.M. van der

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of single fraction (SF) and multiple fraction (MF) radiation therapy (RT) on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with cancer and bone metastases in the proximal femur. We studied this effect in the radiation field and within metastatic

  10. Computational study of incidence of secondary neoplasms in cancer therapy of uterine cervix; Estudo computacional da incidencia de tumores secundarios em tratamentos de cancer de colo uterino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, W.S.; Valeriano, C.C.S.; Caldas, L.V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Neves, L.P.; Perini, A.P., E-mail: lucio.neves@ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Belinato, W. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil); Silva, R.M.V. [Instituto do Cancer do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    There is a serious, and growing, concern about the increased risk of the emergence of a second cancer, induced by radiation associated with the radiation treatment. To assess the radiation doses to organs outside the target volume, in this work, we modeled several computational exposure scenarios, based on Monte Carlo simulation (MCNPX code). We used a VARIAN 2100c accelerator, and a female virtual anthropomorphic phantom to simulate a treatment of uterine cancer. The results presented show that the computational exposure scenario provides a versatile and accurate tool to assess the risk of secondary cancer. (author)

  11. Patient study of in vivo verification of beam delivery and range, using positron emission tomography and computed tomography imaging after proton therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parodi, Katia; Paganetti, Harald; Shih, Helen A; Michaud, Susan; Loeffler, Jay S; DeLaney, Thomas F; Liebsch, Norbert J; Munzenrider, John E; Fischman, Alan J; Knopf, Antje; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility and value of positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) for treatment verification after proton radiotherapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This study included 9 patients with tumors in the cranial base, spine, orbit, and eye. Total doses of 1.8-3

  12. Metabolic and clinical assessment of efficacy of cryoablation therapy on skeletal masses by {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and visual analogue scale (VAS): initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Bartolucci, Alberto D.; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [University Hospital Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, Rome (Italy); Schillaci, Orazio; Calabria, Ferdinando [University Hospital Tor Vergata, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, Rome (Italy); I.R.C.C.S. Neuromed, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Neuroradiology, Pozzilli (Italy); Policlinico Tor Vegata, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy, Rome (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    Various therapy modalities have been proposed as standard treatments in management of bone metastases. Radiation therapy remains the standard of care for patients with localized bone pain, but up to 30% of them do not experience notable pain relief. Percutaneous cryoablation is a minimally invasive technique that induces necrosis by alternately freezing and thawing a target tissue. This technique is successfully used to treat a variety of malignant and benign diseases in different sites. {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) is a single technique of imaging that provides in a ''single step'' both morphological and metabolic features of neoplastic lesions of the bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the cryosurgical technique on secondary musculoskeletal masses according to semi-quantitative PET analysis and clinical-test evaluation with the visual analogue scale (VAS). We enrolled 20 patients with painful bone lesions (score pain that exceeded 4 on the VAS) that were non-responsive to treatment; one lesion per patient was treated. All patients underwent a PET-CT evaluation before and 8 weeks after cryotherapy; maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) was measured before and after treatment for metabolic assessment of response to therapy. After treatment, 18 patients (90%) showed considerable reduction in SUV{sub max} value (>50%) suggestive of response to treatment; only 2 patients did not show meaningful reduction in metabolic activity. Our preliminary study demonstrates that quantitative analysis provided by PET correlates with response to cryoablation therapy as assessed by CT data and clinical VAS evaluation. (orig.)

  13. Ga-68 DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computer tomography in initial staging and therapy response evaluation in a rare case of primary neuroblastoma in neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Kumar, Ritesh; Shukla, Jaya; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2014-07-01

    Gallium-68 (Ga-68) DOTA-peptide positron emission tomography/computer tomography (PET/CT) has higher sensitivity and improved spatial resolution for the detection of somatostatin receptor expressing tumors than conventional somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. We present the findings of Ga-68 DOTATATE PET/CT in a rare case of primary neuroblastoma of the neck in a 12-year-old female child and its role in the evaluation of the treatment response.

  14. Ga-68 DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computer tomography in initial staging and therapy response evaluation in a rare case of primary neuroblastoma in neck

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Kumar, Ritesh; Shukla, Jaya; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2014-01-01

    Gallium-68 (Ga-68) DOTA-peptide positron emission tomography/computer tomography (PET/CT) has higher sensitivity and improved spatial resolution for the detection of somatostatin receptor expressing tumors than conventional somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. We present the findings of Ga-68 DOTATATE PET/CT in a rare case of primary neuroblastoma of the neck in a 12-year-old female child and its role in the evaluation of the treatment response.

  15. Computer-based image analysis in radiological diagnostics and image-guided therapy 3D-Reconstruction, contrast medium dynamics, surface analysis, radiation therapy and multi-modal image fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Beier, J

    2001-01-01

    This book deals with substantial subjects of postprocessing and analysis of radiological image data, a particular emphasis was put on pulmonary themes. For a multitude of purposes the developed methods and procedures can directly be transferred to other non-pulmonary applications. The work presented here is structured in 14 chapters, each describing a selected complex of research. The chapter order reflects the sequence of the processing steps starting from artefact reduction, segmentation, visualization, analysis, therapy planning and image fusion up to multimedia archiving. In particular, this includes virtual endoscopy with three different scene viewers (Chap. 6), visualizations of the lung disease bronchiectasis (Chap. 7), surface structure analysis of pulmonary tumors (Chap. 8), quantification of contrast medium dynamics from temporal 2D and 3D image sequences (Chap. 9) as well as multimodality image fusion of arbitrary tomographical data using several visualization techniques (Chap. 12). Thus, the softw...

  16. ARCHERRT - a GPU-based and photon-electron coupled Monte Carlo dose computing engine for radiation therapy: software development and application to helical tomotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lin; Yang, Youming; Bednarz, Bryan; Sterpin, Edmond; Du, Xining; Liu, Tianyu; Ji, Wei; Xu, X George

    2014-07-01

    Using the graphical processing units (GPU) hardware technology, an extremely fast Monte Carlo (MC) code ARCHERRT is developed for radiation dose calculations in radiation therapy. This paper describes the detailed software development and testing for three clinical TomoTherapy® cases: the prostate, lung, and head & neck. To obtain clinically relevant dose distributions, phase space files (PSFs) created from optimized radiation therapy treatment plan fluence maps were used as the input to ARCHERRT. Patient-specific phantoms were constructed from patient CT images. Batch simulations were employed to facilitate the time-consuming task of loading large PSFs, and to improve the estimation of statistical uncertainty. Furthermore, two different Woodcock tracking algorithms were implemented and their relative performance was compared. The dose curves of an Elekta accelerator PSF incident on a homogeneous water phantom were benchmarked against DOSXYZnrc. For each of the treatment cases, dose volume histograms and isodose maps were produced from ARCHERRT and the general-purpose code, GEANT4. The gamma index analysis was performed to evaluate the similarity of voxel doses obtained from these two codes. The hardware accelerators used in this study are one NVIDIA K20 GPU, one NVIDIA K40 GPU, and six NVIDIA M2090 GPUs. In addition, to make a fairer comparison of the CPU and GPU performance, a multithreaded CPU code was developed using OpenMP and tested on an Intel E5-2620 CPU. For the water phantom, the depth dose curve and dose profiles from ARCHERRT agree well with DOSXYZnrc. For clinical cases, results from ARCHERRT are compared with those from GEANT4 and good agreement is observed. Gamma index test is performed for voxels whose dose is greater than 10% of maximum dose. For 2%/2mm criteria, the passing rates for the prostate, lung case, and head & neck cases are 99.7%, 98.5%, and 97.2%, respectively. Due to specific architecture of GPU, modified Woodcock tracking algorithm

  17. ARCHERRT – A GPU-based and photon-electron coupled Monte Carlo dose computing engine for radiation therapy: Software development and application to helical tomotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lin; Yang, Youming; Bednarz, Bryan; Sterpin, Edmond; Du, Xining; Liu, Tianyu; Ji, Wei; Xu, X. George

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Using the graphical processing units (GPU) hardware technology, an extremely fast Monte Carlo (MC) code ARCHERRT is developed for radiation dose calculations in radiation therapy. This paper describes the detailed software development and testing for three clinical TomoTherapy® cases: the prostate, lung, and head & neck. Methods: To obtain clinically relevant dose distributions, phase space files (PSFs) created from optimized radiation therapy treatment plan fluence maps were used as the input to ARCHERRT. Patient-specific phantoms were constructed from patient CT images. Batch simulations were employed to facilitate the time-consuming task of loading large PSFs, and to improve the estimation of statistical uncertainty. Furthermore, two different Woodcock tracking algorithms were implemented and their relative performance was compared. The dose curves of an Elekta accelerator PSF incident on a homogeneous water phantom were benchmarked against DOSXYZnrc. For each of the treatment cases, dose volume histograms and isodose maps were produced from ARCHERRT and the general-purpose code, GEANT4. The gamma index analysis was performed to evaluate the similarity of voxel doses obtained from these two codes. The hardware accelerators used in this study are one NVIDIA K20 GPU, one NVIDIA K40 GPU, and six NVIDIA M2090 GPUs. In addition, to make a fairer comparison of the CPU and GPU performance, a multithreaded CPU code was developed using OpenMP and tested on an Intel E5-2620 CPU. Results: For the water phantom, the depth dose curve and dose profiles from ARCHERRT agree well with DOSXYZnrc. For clinical cases, results from ARCHERRT are compared with those from GEANT4 and good agreement is observed. Gamma index test is performed for voxels whose dose is greater than 10% of maximum dose. For 2%/2mm criteria, the passing rates for the prostate, lung case, and head & neck cases are 99.7%, 98.5%, and 97.2%, respectively. Due to specific architecture of GPU, modified

  18. [Integration of modern technologies in therapy of sarcomas of the pelvis. Computer-assisted hemipelvectomy and implantation of a "custom-made" Bonit gentamycin coated partial pelvic prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, L; Hüfner, T; Mössinger, E; Geerling, J; Goesling, T; Busche, M; Kendoff, D; Bading, S; Rosenthal, H; Krettek, C

    2003-11-01

    The resection of primary malignancies in the pelvis is technically demanding as organs and structures are to be preserved and reconstruction of the defect as well as the postoperative function and rehabilitation are dependent on an optimal prosthesis. We present two patients with a sarcoma of the pelvis where for the first time a structured concept of technology integration led to a press-fit implantation of a hemipelvic prosthesis. This concept includes the design and production of a "custom-made" prosthesis as a hemipelvic substitute and the coating of this prosthesis with Bonit, a second-generation calcium phosphate, and gentamycin in watery solution. The tumor resection was done with computer-assisted surgery based on computed tomographies (CT) of the pelvis model done by rapid prototyping rather than on the CT of the patients' pelvis. With this procedure the presurgically simulated resection could be executed precisely with complete resection of the tumors and an accuracy which allowed an exact implantation of the prosthesis. The course was uneventful with primary healing and no sign of an infection or loosening after 6 months.

  19. Coronary revascularization vs. medical therapy following coronary-computed tomographic angiography in patients with low-, intermediate- and high-risk coronary artery disease: results from the CONFIRM long-term registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Lin, Fay Y; Gransar, Heidi; Berman, Daniel; Callister, Tracy; DeLago, Augustin; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Budoff, Matthew; Kaufmann, Philipp; Achenbach, Stephan; Raff, Gilbert; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Cademartiri, Filippo; Maffei, Erica; Villines, Todd; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Pontone, Gianluca; Andreini, Daniele; Marques, Hugo; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chow, Benjamin J W; Cury, Ricardo C; Dunning, Allison; Shaw, Leslee; Min, James K

    2017-05-01

    To identify the effect of early revascularization on 5-year survival in patients with CAD diagnosed by coronary-computed tomographic angiography (CCTA). We examined 5544 stable patients with suspected CAD undergoing CCTA who were followed a median of 5.5 years in a large international registry. Patients were categorized as having low-, intermediate-, or high-risk CAD based on CCTA findings. Two treatment groups were defined: early revascularization within 90 days of CCTA (n = 1171) and medical therapy (n = 4373). To account for the non-randomized referral to revascularization, we developed a propensity score by logistic regression. This score was incorporated into Cox proportional hazard models to calculate the effect of revascularization on all-cause mortality. Death occurred in 363 (6.6%) patients and was more frequent in medical therapy. In multivariable models, when compared with medical therapy, the mortality benefit of revascularization varied significantly over time and by CAD risk (P for interaction 0.04). In high-risk CAD, revascularization was significantly associated with lower mortality at 1 year (hazard ratio [HR] 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.47) and 5 years (HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.18-0.54). For intermediate-risk CAD, revascularization was associated with reduced mortality at 1 year (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.22-0.93) but not 5 years (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.33-1.20). For low-risk CAD, there was no survival benefit at either time point. Early revascularization was associated with reduced 1-year mortality in intermediate- and high-risk CAD detected by CCTA, but this association only persisted for 5-year mortality in high-risk CAD.

  20. Effects of standard and explicit cognitive bias modification and computer-administered cognitive-behaviour therapy on cognitive biases and social anxiety☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobini, Sirous; Mackintosh, Bundy; Illingworth, Jo; Gega, Lina; Langdon, Peter; Hoppitt, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives This study examines the effects of a single session of Cognitive Bias Modification to induce positive Interpretative bias (CBM-I) using standard or explicit instructions and an analogue of computer-administered CBT (c-CBT) program on modifying cognitive biases and social anxiety. Methods A sample of 76 volunteers with social anxiety attended a research site. At both pre- and post-test, participants completed two computer-administered tests of interpretative and attentional biases and a self-report measure of social anxiety. Participants in the training conditions completed a single session of either standard or explicit CBM-I positive training and a c-CBT program. Participants in the Control (no training) condition completed a CBM-I neutral task matched the active CBM-I intervention in format and duration but did not encourage positive disambiguation of socially ambiguous or threatening scenarios. Results Participants in both CBM-I programs (either standard or explicit instructions) and the c-CBT condition exhibited more positive interpretations of ambiguous social scenarios at post-test and one-week follow-up as compared to the Control condition. Moreover, the results showed that CBM-I and c-CBT, to some extent, changed negative attention biases in a positive direction. Furthermore, the results showed that both CBM-I training conditions and c-CBT reduced social anxiety symptoms at one-week follow-up. Limitations This study used a single session of CBM-I training, however multi-sessions intervention might result in more endurable positive CBM-I changes. Conclusions A computerised single session of CBM-I and an analogue of c-CBT program reduced negative interpretative biases and social anxiety. PMID:24412966

  1. Margins of tolerance and reference values for the formant vowels for use in voice therapy for the deaf in commercial computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, André Luis Maciel; Marcelino, Márcio Abud; Prado, Pedro Paulo Leite do

    This study presents the margins of minimum and maximum tolerances for the frequencies of the first three formants (F1, F2, and F3) in the pronunciation of vowels of Brazilian Portuguese for use in voice therapy for the deaf. The frequencies were obtained from the voluntary collaboration of 53 adults who had their voices recorded and converted into digital signals during the phonation of each of the seven vowels (/a/, /e/, /Ɛ/, /i/, /o/, /ᴐ/, /u/) sustained for approximately one second. The samples were divided into two groups: male and female. The recording and extraction of the formants were conducted by software developed exclusively for this purpose in MATLAB platform using the eight-coefficient LPC (Linear Predictive Coding) algorithm. The results showed that a consistent reference for the mean values of the F1, F2, and F3 frequencies can be obtained through graphical and statistical analysis of the samples collected from the voice signals. The reference values obtained were analyzed and can be used for the calibration of devices and serve as a basis for training oralization for the deaf.

  2. Internet and computer-based cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety and depression in youth: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled outcome trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Daniel Ebert

    Full Text Available Anxiety and depression in children and adolescents are undertreated. Computer- and Internet-based cognitive behavioral treatments (cCBT may be an attractive treatment alternative to regular face-to-face treatment.This meta-analysis aims to evaluate whether cCBT is effective for treating symptoms of anxiety and depression in youth.We conducted systematic searches in bibliographical databases (Pubmed, Cochrane controlled trial register, PsychInfo up to December 4, 2013. Only randomized controlled trials in which a computer-, Internet- or mobile-based cognitive behavioral intervention targeting either depression, anxiety or both in children or adolescents up to the age of 25 were compared to a control condition were selected. We employed a random-effects pooling model in overall effect analyses and a mixed effect model for sub-group analyses. Searches resulted in identifying 13 randomized trials, including 796 children and adolescents that met inclusion criteria. Seven studies were directed at treating anxiety, four studies at depression, and two were of a transdiagnostic nature, targeting both anxiety and depression. The overall mean effect size (Hedges' g of cCBT on symptoms of anxiety or depression at post-test was g=0.72 (95% CI:0.55-0.90, numbers needed to be treated (NNT=2.56. Heterogeneity was low (I²=20.14%, 95% CI: 0-58%. The superiority of cCBT over controls was evident for interventions targeting anxiety (g=0.68; 95% CI: 0.45-0.92; p < .001; NNT=2.70 and for interventions targeting depression (g=0.76; 95% CI: 0.41-0.12; p < .001; NNT=2.44 as well as for transdiagnostic interventions (g=0.94; 95% CI: 0.23-2.66; p < .001; NNT=2.60.Results provide evidence for the efficacy of cCBT in the treatment of anxiety and depressive symptoms in youth. Hence, such interventions may be a promising treatment alternative when evidence based face-to-face treatment is not feasible. Future studies should examine long-term effects of treatments and should

  3. Virtual reality exposure therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rothbaum, BO; Hodges, L; Kooper, R

    1997-01-01

    It has been proposed that virtual reality (VR) exposure may be an alternative to standard in vivo exposure. Virtual reality integrates real-time computer graphics, body tracking devices, visual displays, and other sensory input devices to immerse a participant in a computer- generated virtual environment. Virtual reality exposure is potentially an efficient and cost-effective treatment of anxiety disorders. VR exposure therapy reduced the fear of heights in the first control...

  4. Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Family therapy Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Family therapy is a type of psychological counseling (psychotherapy) that can help family members improve communication and resolve conflicts. Family therapy is usually provided ...

  5. Computers and Computer Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papert, Seymour

    1981-01-01

    Instruction using computers is viewed as different from most other approaches to education, by allowing more than right or wrong answers, by providing models for systematic procedures, by shifting the boundary between formal and concrete processes, and by influencing the development of thinking in many new ways. (MP)

  6. A computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for pretreatment prediction of pathological response to neoadjuvant therapy using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI texture features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Valentina; Mazzetti, Simone; Marmo, Agnese; Montemurro, Filippo; Regge, Daniele; Martincich, Laura

    2017-08-01

    To assess whether a computer-aided, diagnosis (CAD) system can predict pathological Complete Response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) prior to treatment using texture features. Response to treatment of 44 patients was defined according to the histopatology of resected tumour and extracted axillary nodes in two ways: (a) pCR+ (Smith's Grade = 5) vs pCR- (Smith's Grade < 5); (b) pCRN+ (pCR+ and absence of residual lymph node metastases) vs pCRN - . A CAD system was developed to: (i) segment the breasts; (ii) register the DCE-MRI sequence; (iii) detect the lesion and (iv) extract 27 3D texture features. The role of individual texture features, multiparametric models and Bayesian classifiers in predicting patients' response to NAC were evaluated. A cross-validated Bayesian classifier fed with 6 features was able to predict pCR with a specificity of 72% and a sensitivity of 67%. Conversely, 2 features were used by the Bayesian classifier to predict pCRN, obtaining a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 61%. A CAD scheme, that extracts texture features from an automatically segmented 3D mask of the tumour, could predict pathological response to NAC. Additional research should be performed to validate these promising results on a larger cohort of patients and using different classification strategies. Advances in knowledge: This is the first study assessing the role of an automatic CAD system in predicting the pathological response to NAC before treatment. Fully automatic methods represent the backbone of standardized analysis and may help in timely managing patients candidate to NAC.

  7. Salvage interstitial brachytherapy based on computed tomography for recurrent cervical cancer after radical hysterectomy and adjuvant radiation therapy: case presentations and introduction of the technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Shan Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Locally recurring cervical cancer after surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy remains a major therapeutic challenge. This paper presents a new therapeutic technique for such patients: interstitial brachytherapy (BT guided by real-time three-dimensional (3D computed tomography (CT. Material and methods : Sixteen patients with recurrent cervical cancer after radical surgery and adjuvant external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT were included in this study. These patients underwent high-dose-rate (HDR interstitial BT with free-hand placement of metal needles guided by real-time 3D-CT. Six Gy in 6 fractions were prescribed for the high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV. D 90 and D 100 for HR-CTV of BT, and the cumulative D 2cc for the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid, including previous EBRT and present BT were analyzed. Treatment-related complications and 3-month tumor-response rates were investigated. Results: The mean D 90 value for HR-CTV was 52.5 ± 3.3 Gy. The cumulative D 2cc for the bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were 85.6 ± 5.8, 71.6 ± 6.4, and 69.6 ± 5.9 Gy, respectively. The mean number of needles was 6.1 ± 1.5, with an average depth of 3.5 ± 0.9 cm for each application. Interstitial BT was associated with minor complications and passable tumor-response rate. Conclusions : Interstitial BT guided by real-time 3D-CT for recurrent cervical cancer results in good dose-volume histogram (DVH parameters. The current technique may be clinically feasible. However, long-term clinical outcomes should be further investigated.

  8. Prior to the Oral Therapy, What Do We Know About HCV-4 in Egypt: A Randomized Survey of Prevalence and Risks Using Data Mining Computed Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Elrazek, Abd Elrazek; Bilasy, Shymaa E.; Elbanna, Abduh E. M.; Elsherif, Abd Elhalim A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects over 180 million people worldwide and it's the leading cause of chronic liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV is classified into seven major genotypes and a series of subtypes. In general, HCV genotype 4 (HCV-4) is common in the Middle East and Africa, where it is responsible for more than 80% of HCV infections. Although HCV-4 is the cause of approximately 20% of the 180 million cases of chronic hepatitis C worldwide, it has not been a major subject of research yet. The aim of the current study is to survey the morbidities and disease complications among Egyptian population infected with HCV-4 using data mining advanced computing methods mainly and other complementary statistical analysis. Six thousand six hundred sixty subjects, aged between 17 and 58 years old, from different Egyptian Governorates were screened for HCV infection by ELISA and qualitative PCR. HCV-positive patients were further investigated for the incidence of liver cirrhosis and esophageal varices. Obtained data were analyzed by data mining approach. Among 6660 subjects enrolled in this survey, 1018 patients (15.28%) were HCV-positive. Proportion of infected-males was significantly higher than females; 61.6% versus 38.4% (P = 0.0052). Around two-third of infected-patients (635/1018; 62.4%) were presented with liver cirrhosis. Additionally, approximately half of the cirrhotic patients (301/635; 47.4%) showed degrees of large esophageal varices (LEVs), with higher variceal grade observed in males. Age for esophageal variceal development was 47 ± 1. Data mining analysis yielded esophageal wall thickness (>6.5 mm), determined by conventional U/S, as the only independent predictor for esophageal varices. This study emphasizes the high prevalence of HCV infection among Egyptian population, in particular among males. Egyptians with HCV-4 infection are at a higher risk to develop cirrhotic liver and esophageal varices. Data mining, a new

  9. Volumetric and dosimetric assessment by cone-beam computed tomography scans in head and neck radiation therapy: a monitoring in four phases of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, M; Fiorentino, A; Oliviero, C; Pedicini, P; Clemente, S; Califano, G; Caivano, R; Chiumento, C; Fusco, V

    2014-08-01

    Due to the anatomical changes frequently occurring during the course of head and neck (H&N) cancer radiotherapy, the dose distribution, which was actually delivered to the patient, might significantly differ from that planned. The aim of this paper is to investigate these volumetric changes and the resulting dosimetric implications on organs at risk (OARs) and clinical target volumes (CTVs) by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans throughout the treatment. Ten H&N patients, treated by Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy, were analyzed. CTVs and OARs were delineated on four CBCT, acquired at the 10(th), 15(th), 20(th) and 25(th) treatment session, and then compared with the ones at planning CT. The planned beams were applied to each CBCT to recalculate the dose distribution and the corresponding dose volume histograms were compared with those generated on planning CT. To evaluate the HU discrepancies between the conventional CT and CBCT images we used a Catphan(r) 504, observing a maximum discrepancy of about 30 HU. We evaluated the impact of this HU difference in dose calculation and a not clinically relevant error, within 2.8%, was estimated. No inhomogeneity correction was used. The results showed an increased CTV mean dose (Dmean) of about 3% was found, without significant reduction in volume. Due to the parotids' shrinkage (up to 42%), significant dosimetric increases were observed: ipsilateral gland at 15th CBCT (Dmean by 18%; V30 by 31%); controlateral gland at the 10(th) CBCT (Dmean by 12.2%; V30 by 18.7%). For the larynx, a significant increase of volume was found at the 20th (15.7%) and 25th CBCT (13.3%) but it complied with dose constraint. The differences observed for the spinal cord and mandible maximum doses were not clinically relevant. In conclusion, the dosimetric analysis on CBCT can help clinicians to monitor treatment progress and to evaluate whether and when a new plan is necessary. The main benefit of replanning could be to preserve the

  10. Cloud Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... group of computers connected to the Internet in a cloud-like boundary (Box 1)). In essence computing is transitioning from an era of users owning computers to one in which users do not own computers but have access to computing hardware and software maintained by providers. Users access the ...

  11. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Interdisciplinary Dentofacial Therapy: An American Academy of Periodontology Best Evidence Review Focusing on Risk Assessment of the Dentoalveolar Bone Changes Influenced by Tooth Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelaris, George A; Neiva, Rodrigo; Chambrone, Leandro

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate whether cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging can be used to assess dentoalveolar anatomy critical to the periodontist when determining risk assessment for patients undergoing orthodontic therapy using fixed or removable appliances. Both observational and interventional trials reporting on the use of CBCT imaging assessing the impact of orthodontic/dentofacial orthopedic treatment on periodontal tissues (i.e., alveolar bone) were included. Changes in the alveolar bone thickness and height around natural teeth as well as treatment costs were evaluated. MEDLINE (via PubMed) and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published in the English language, up to and including July 2016, and extracted data were organized into evidence tables. Thirteen studies were included in this systematic review describing the positive or deleterious changes on the alveolar bone surrounding natural teeth undergoing orthodontic tooth movement or influenced by orthopedic forces through fixed appliances. Clinical recommendation summaries presenting the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence in terms of benefits and harms were generated. CBCT imaging can improve the periodontal diagnostic acumen regarding alveolar bone alterations influenced by orthodontic tooth movement and can help determine risk assessment prior to such intervention. Clinicians are also better informed to determine risk assessment and develop preventative or plan interceptive periodontal augmentation (soft tissue and/or bone augmentation) therapies for patients undergoing orthodontic tooth movement. These considerations are recognized as being especially critical for treatment approaches in patients where buccal tooth movement (expansion) is planned in the anterior mandible or involving the maxillary premolars.

  12. {sup 18}F-Choline Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Detection of Early Local Recurrence of Prostate Cancer Initially Treated by Radiation Therapy: Comparison With Systematic 3-Dimensional Transperineal Mapping Biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoun, Salim, E-mail: Salim.kanoun@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, Dijon (France); LE2I UMR6306, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Arts et Métiers, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Dijon (France); MRI Unit, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire, Hôpital François Mitterrand, Dijon (France); Walker, Paul [LE2I UMR6306, Centre national de la recherche scientifique, Arts et Métiers, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Dijon (France); MRI Unit, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire, Hôpital François Mitterrand, Dijon (France); Vrigneaud, Jean-Marc; Depardon, Edouard [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, Dijon (France); Barbier, Vincent [Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire, Hôpital François Mitterrand, Dijon (France); Humbert, Olivier [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, Dijon (France); Moulin, Morgan [Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire, Hôpital François Mitterrand, Dijon (France); and others

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of {sup 18}F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FCH-PET/CT), multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI), and a combination of both techniques for the detection of local recurrence of prostate cancer initially treated by radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective, single-institution study of 32 patients with suspected prostate cancer recurrence who underwent both FCH-PET/CT and 3T mpMRI within 3 months of one another for the detection of recurrence. All included patients had to be cleared for metastatic recurrence. The reference procedure was systematic 3-dimensional (3D)-transperineal prostate biopsy for the final assessment of local recurrence. Both imaging modalities were analyzed by 2 experienced readers blinded to clinical data. The analysis was made per-patient and per-segment using a 4-segment model. Results: The median prostate-specific antigen value at the time of imaging was 2.92 ng/mL. The mean prostate-specific antigen doubling time was 14 months. Of the 32 patients, 31 had a positive 3D-transperineal mapping biopsy for a local relapse. On a patient-based analysis, the detection rate was 71% (22 of 31) for mpMRI and 74% (23 of 31) for FCH-PET/CT. On a segment-based analysis, the sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 32% and 87% for mpMRI, 34% and 87% for FCH-PET/CT, and 43% and 83% for the combined analysis of both techniques. Accuracy was 64%, 65%, and 66%, respectively. The interobserver agreement was κ = 0.92 for FCH-PET/CT and κ = 0.74 for mpMRI. Conclusions: Both mpMRI and FCH-PET/CT show limited sensitivity but good specificity for the detection of local cancer recurrence after radiation therapy, when compared with 3D-transperineal mapping biopsy. Prostate biopsy still seems to be mandatory to diagnose local relapse and select patients who could benefit from local salvage therapy.

  13. Quantum Computation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 9. Quantum Computation - Particle and Wave Aspects of Algorithms. Apoorva Patel. General Article Volume 16 ... Keywords. Boolean logic; computation; computational complexity; digital language; Hilbert space; qubit; superposition; Feynman.

  14. Computer Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Perry R.

    This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and the study of perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.).

  15. The role of baseline Ga-68 DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the prediction of response to fixed-dose peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with Lu-177 DOTATATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydal, Çiğdem; Peker, Ahmet; Özkan, Elgin; Küçük, Özlem Nuriye; Kir, Metin Kemal

    2016-02-17

    To describe the role of baseline gallium (Ga)-68 DOTATATE positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in the prediction of the response to peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using lutetium (Lu)-177 DOTATATE. Analysis was made of baseline Ga-68 DOTATATE PET/CT images of 29 patients (17 females and 12 males; mean age: 50.7 ± 14.6 years) with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors who received PRRT with Lu-177 DOTATATE. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of reference lesions and their ratios to physiological uptake organs were calculated. The relationship between these values and the radiological response was analyzed. Partial response was observed in 8 (28%) patients, stable disease in 18 (62%) patients, and progressive disease in 3 (10%) patients. Mean SUVmax of reference lesions was calculated as 23.8 ± 20.5 (min-max: 5.1-87.3). There was no significant correlation between radiological responses and SUVmax of reference lesions and their ratios to other organs. Baseline Ga-68 DOTATATE PET/CT helps to show somatostatin receptor expression status and disease stage in patients who are candidates for PRRT. However, SUVs do not have a role in the prediction of treatment response.

  16. Inter-scan and inter-observer tumour volume delineation variability on cone beam computed tomography in patients treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ying; Lee, Stephanie; Agrawal, Vishesh; Romano, John; Baldini, Elizabeth H; Chen, Aileen B; Kozono, David E; Killoran, Joseph H; Wagar, Matthew; Hacker, Fred L; Aerts, Hugo Jwl; Lewis, John H; Mak, Raymond H

    2017-02-01

    Quantification of volume changes on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) during lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may provide a useful radiological marker for radiation response and for adaptive treatment planning. This study quantifies inter-scan and inter-observer variability in tumour volume delineation on CBCT. Three clinicians independently contoured the primary gross tumour volume (GTV) manually on CBCTs taken immediately before SBRT treatment (pre) and after the same SBRT treatment (post) for 19 NSCLC patients. Relative volume differences (RVD) were calculated between the pre- and post-CBCTs for a given treatment and between any two of three observers for a given CBCT. Coefficient of variation (CV) was used to quantitatively measure and compare the extent of variability. Inter-observer variability had a significantly higher CV of 0.15 ± 0.13 compared to inter-scan CV of 0.03 ± 0.04 with P volume delineation on CBCT with greatest variability for small tumours (volume change during SBRT treatment for tumours with diameter greater than 2 cm, with larger thresholds needed for smaller tumours. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  17. Analog computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ulmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive introduction to analog computing. As most textbooks about this powerful computing paradigm date back to the 1960s and 1970s, it fills a void and forges a bridge from the early days of analog computing to future applications. The idea of analog computing is not new. In fact, this computing paradigm is nearly forgotten, although it offers a path to both high-speed and low-power computing, which are in even more demand now than they were back in the heyday of electronic analog computers.

  18. Computational composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna K. A.; Redström, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Computational composite is introduced as a new type of composite material. Arguing that this is not just a metaphorical maneuver, we provide an analysis of computational technology as material in design, which shows how computers share important characteristics with other materials used in design...... and architecture. We argue that the notion of computational composites provides a precise understanding of the computer as material, and of how computations need to be combined with other materials to come to expression as material. Besides working as an analysis of computers from a designer’s point of view......, the notion of computational composites may also provide a link for computer science and human-computer interaction to an increasingly rapid development and use of new materials in design and architecture....

  19. Quantum computing

    OpenAIRE

    Traub, Joseph F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to explain what quantum computing is. The information for the thesis was gathered from books, scientific publications, and news articles. The analysis of the information revealed that quantum computing can be broken down to three areas: theories behind quantum computing explaining the structure of a quantum computer, known quantum algorithms, and the actual physical realizations of a quantum computer. The thesis reveals that moving from classical memor...

  20. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaginal lining gets thinner, dryer, and less elas- tic. Vaginal dryness may cause pain during sexual intercourse . ... when a woman starts taking hormone therapy. Some research suggests that for women who start combined therapy ...

  1. Insulin Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Resources Drugs, Procedures & Devices Prescription Medicines Insulin Therapy Insulin Therapy Share Print When you digest food, your ... you eat into glucose (a form of sugar). Insulin allows this glucose to enter all the cells ...

  2. Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene therapy Overview Gene therapy involves altering the genes inside your body's cells in an effort to treat or stop disease. Genes contain your ... that don't work properly can cause disease. Gene therapy replaces a faulty gene or adds a new ...

  3. Computed Tomography–Guided Interstitial High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy in Combination With Regional Positive Lymph Node Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy in Locally Advanced Peripheral Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Phase 1 Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Li; Zhang, Jian-wen; Lin, Sheng; Luo, Hui-Qun; Wen, Qing-Lian; He, Li-Jia; Shang, Chang-Ling; Ren, Pei-Rong; Yang, Hong-Ru; Pang, Hao-Wen; Yang, Bo; He, Huai-Lin [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou (China); Chen, Yue, E-mail: chenyue5523@126.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou (China); Wu, Jing-Bo, E-mail: wjb6147@163.com [Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou (China)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the technical safety, adverse events, and efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-guided interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy in combination with regional positive lymph node intensity modulated radiation therapy in patients with locally advanced peripheral non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Twenty-six patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC were enrolled in a prospective, officially approved phase 1 trial. Primary tumors were treated with HDR brachytherapy. A single 30-Gy dose was delivered to the 90% isodose line of the gross lung tumor volume. A total dose of at least 70 Gy was administered to the 95% isodose line of the planning target volume of malignant lymph nodes using 6-MV X-rays. The patients received concurrent or sequential chemotherapy. We assessed treatment efficacy, adverse events, and radiation toxicity. Results: The median follow-up time was 28 months (range, 7-44 months). There were 3 cases of mild pneumothorax but no cases of hemothorax, dyspnea, or pyothorax after the procedure. Grade 3 or 4 acute hematologic toxicity was observed in 5 patients. During follow-up, mild fibrosis around the puncture point was observed on the CT scans of 2 patients, but both patients were asymptomatic. The overall response rates (complete and partial) for the primary mass and positive lymph nodes were 100% and 92.3%, respectively. The 1-year and 2-year overall survival (OS) rates were 90.9% and 67%, respectively, with a median OS of 22.5 months. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that HDR brachytherapy is safe and feasible for peripheral locally advanced NSCLC, justifying a phase 2 clinical trial.

  4. RTOG Sarcoma Radiation Oncologists Reach Consensus on Gross Tumor Volume and Clinical Target Volume on Computed Tomographic Images for Preoperative Radiotherapy of Primary Soft Tissue Sarcoma of Extremity in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dian, E-mail: dwang@mcw.edu [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Bosch, Walter [Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Roberge, David [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Finkelstein, Steven E. [Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Petersen, Ivy; Haddock, Michael [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Chen, Yen-Lin E.; Saito, Naoyuki G. [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Kirsch, David G. [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Hitchcock, Ying J. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wolfson, Aaron H. [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); DeLaney, Thomas F. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To develop a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) atlas delineating gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) to be used for preoperative radiotherapy of primary extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Methods and Materials: A consensus meeting was held during the RTOG meeting in January 2010 to reach agreement about GTV and CTV delineation on computed tomography (CT) images for preoperative radiotherapy of high-grade large extremity STS. Data were presented to address the local extension of STS. Extensive discussion ensued to develop optimal criteria for GTV and CTV delineation on CT images. Results: A consensus was reached on appropriate CT-based GTV and CTV. The GTV is gross tumor defined by T1 contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images. Fusion of magnetic resonance and images is recommended to delineate the GTV. The CTV for high-grade large STS typically includes the GTV plus 3-cm margins in the longitudinal directions. If this causes the field to extend beyond the compartment, the field can be shortened to include the end of a compartment. The radial margin from the lesion should be 1.5 cm, including any portion of the tumor not confined by an intact fascial barrier, bone, or skin surface. Conclusion: The consensus on GTV and CTV for preoperative radiotherapy of high-grade large extremity STS is available as web-based images and in a descriptive format through the RTOG. This is expected to improve target volume consistency and allow for rigorous evaluation of the benefits and risks of such treatment.

  5. Distribution of Functional Liver Volume in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients with Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus in the 1st Branch and Main Trunk Using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography—Application to Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ikoma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the distribution of functional liver volume (FLV in the margin volume (MV surrounding hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT before radiation therapy (RT and to verify the safety of single photon emission computed tomography-based three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (SPECT-B3DCRT by exploring the relation of FLV in MV to radiation-induced liver disease (RILD. Methods and Materials: Clinical target volume (CTV included main tumor and PVTT, and planning target volume (PTV included CTV with a 10 mm margin. MV was defined as PTV–CTV. FLV ratio in MV was calculated as FLV in MV/MV × 100 (%. The two high-dose beams were planned to irradiate FLV as little as possible. Fifty-seven cases of HCC (26/57, 46%; Child–Pugh grade B with PVTT underwent SPECT-B3DCRT which targeted the CTV to a total dose of 45 Gy/18 fractions. The destructive ratio was defined as radiation induced dysfunctional volume/FLV × 100 (%. Results: We observed a significant negative correlation between FLV ratio in MV and CTV (p < 0.001. Three cases with CTVs of 287, 587 and 1184 cm3 experienced transient RILD. The FLV ratio in MV was highest in patients with RILD: nine patients with CTV of 200–300 cm3, three with CTV of 500–600 cm3, and two with CTV of 1100–1200 cm3. The destructive ratio yielded a mean value of 24.2 ± 1.5%. Conclusions: Radiation planning that takes into account the distribution of FLV appears to result in the least possible RILD.

  6. Quantum computing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shu-shen; Long, Gui-Lu; Bai, Feng-Shan; Feng, Song-Lin; Zheng, Hou-Zhi

    2001-01-01

    Quantum computing is a quickly growing research field. This article introduces the basic concepts of quantum computing, recent developments in quantum searching, and decoherence in a possible quantum dot realization.

  7. Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is all about using computers in a smarter and eco-friendly way. It is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources which includes the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units, servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste .Computers certainly make up a large part of many people lives and traditionally are extremely damaging to the environment. Manufacturers of computer and its parts have been espousing the green cause to help protect environment from computers and electronic waste in any way.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as Possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

  8. Phenomenological Computation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Open peer commentary on the article “Info-computational Constructivism and Cognition” by Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic. Upshot: The main problems with info-computationalism are: (1) Its basic concept of natural computing has neither been defined theoretically or implemented practically. (2. It cannot en...... cybernetics and Maturana and Varela’s theory of autopoiesis, which are both erroneously taken to support info-computationalism....

  9. Cognitive Computing

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    "Cognitive Computing" has initiated a new era in computer science. Cognitive computers are not rigidly programmed computers anymore, but they learn from their interactions with humans, from the environment and from information. They are thus able to perform amazing tasks on their own, such as driving a car in dense traffic, piloting an aircraft in difficult conditions, taking complex financial investment decisions, analysing medical-imaging data, and assist medical doctors in diagnosis and th...

  10. Computable models

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Computational models can be found everywhere in present day science and engineering. In providing a logical framework and foundation for the specification and design of specification languages, Raymond Turner uses this framework to introduce and study computable models. In doing so he presents the first systematic attempt to provide computational models with a logical foundation. Computable models have wide-ranging applications from programming language semantics and specification languages, through to knowledge representation languages and formalism for natural language semantics. They are al

  11. Quantum Computing for Computer Architects

    CERN Document Server

    Metodi, Tzvetan

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computers can (in theory) solve certain problems far faster than a classical computer running any known classical algorithm. While existing technologies for building quantum computers are in their infancy, it is not too early to consider their scalability and reliability in the context of the design of large-scale quantum computers. To architect such systems, one must understand what it takes to design and model a balanced, fault-tolerant quantum computer architecture. The goal of this lecture is to provide architectural abstractions for the design of a quantum computer and to explore

  12. Computing fundamentals introduction to computers

    CERN Document Server

    Wempen, Faithe

    2014-01-01

    The absolute beginner's guide to learning basic computer skills Computing Fundamentals, Introduction to Computers gets you up to speed on basic computing skills, showing you everything you need to know to conquer entry-level computing courses. Written by a Microsoft Office Master Instructor, this useful guide walks you step-by-step through the most important concepts and skills you need to be proficient on the computer, using nontechnical, easy-to-understand language. You'll start at the very beginning, getting acquainted with the actual, physical machine, then progress through the most common

  13. Computational Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems (CS involve many elements that interact at different scales in time and space. The challenges in modeling CS led to the development of novel computational tools with applications in a wide range of scientific areas. The computational problems posed by CS exhibit intrinsic difficulties that are a major concern in Computational Complexity Theory. [...

  14. Optical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tal computers are still some years away, however a number of devices that can ultimately lead to real optical computers have already been manufactured, including optical logic gates, optical switches, optical interconnections, and opti- cal memory. The most likely near-term optical computer will really be a hybrid composed ...

  15. Quantum Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the early 1980s Richard Feynman noted that quan- tum systems cannot be efficiently simulated on a clas- sical computer. Till then the accepted view was that any reasonable !{lodel of computation can be efficiently simulated on a classical computer. Hence, this observa- tion led to a lot of rethinking about the basic ...

  16. Pervasive Computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis-Cividjian, N.

    This book provides a concise introduction to Pervasive Computing, otherwise known as Internet of Things (IoT) and Ubiquitous Computing (Ubicomp) which addresses the seamless integration of computing systems within everyday objects. By introducing the core topics and exploring assistive pervasive

  17. Cloud Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cloud computing; services on a cloud; cloud types; computing utility; risks in using cloud computing. Author Affiliations. V Rajaraman1. Supercomputer Education and Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India. Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 22, Issue 11. Current ...

  18. Computational vision

    CERN Document Server

    Wechsler, Harry

    1990-01-01

    The book is suitable for advanced courses in computer vision and image processing. In addition to providing an overall view of computational vision, it contains extensive material on topics that are not usually covered in computer vision texts (including parallel distributed processing and neural networks) and considers many real applications.

  19. What Is Music Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is ...

  20. Human Computation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    What if people could play computer games and accomplish work without even realizing it? What if billions of people collaborated to solve important problems for humanity or generate training data for computers? My work aims at a general paradigm for doing exactly that: utilizing human processing power to solve computational problems in a distributed manner. In particular, I focus on harnessing human time and energy for addressing problems that computers cannot yet solve. Although computers have advanced dramatically in many respects over the last 50 years, they still do not possess the basic conceptual intelligence or perceptual capabilities...

  1. Parallel computations

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    Parallel Computations focuses on parallel computation, with emphasis on algorithms used in a variety of numerical and physical applications and for many different types of parallel computers. Topics covered range from vectorization of fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) and of the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient (ICCG) algorithm on the Cray-1 to calculation of table lookups and piecewise functions. Single tridiagonal linear systems and vectorized computation of reactive flow are also discussed.Comprised of 13 chapters, this volume begins by classifying parallel computers and describing techn

  2. Computer sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul H.

    1988-01-01

    The Computer Science Program provides advanced concepts, techniques, system architectures, algorithms, and software for both space and aeronautics information sciences and computer systems. The overall goal is to provide the technical foundation within NASA for the advancement of computing technology in aerospace applications. The research program is improving the state of knowledge of fundamental aerospace computing principles and advancing computing technology in space applications such as software engineering and information extraction from data collected by scientific instruments in space. The program includes the development of special algorithms and techniques to exploit the computing power provided by high performance parallel processors and special purpose architectures. Research is being conducted in the fundamentals of data base logic and improvement techniques for producing reliable computing systems.

  3. Radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide a uniquely comprehensive source of information on the entire field of radiation therapy physics. The very significant advances in imaging, computational, and accelerator technologies receive full consideration, as do such topics as the dosimetry of radiolabeled antibodies and dose calculation models. The scope of the book and the expertise of the authors make it essential reading for interested physicians and physicists and for radiation dosimetrists.

  4. Computer programming and computer systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hassitt, Anthony

    1966-01-01

    Computer Programming and Computer Systems imparts a "reading knowledge? of computer systems.This book describes the aspects of machine-language programming, monitor systems, computer hardware, and advanced programming that every thorough programmer should be acquainted with. This text discusses the automatic electronic digital computers, symbolic language, Reverse Polish Notation, and Fortran into assembly language. The routine for reading blocked tapes, dimension statements in subroutines, general-purpose input routine, and efficient use of memory are also elaborated.This publication is inten

  5. Gamification in physical therapy: More than using games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J; Verschuren, O.; Renger, W.J.; Ermers, J.; Ketelaar, M.; Ee, R. van

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of computer games in physical therapy is motivated by characteristics such as attractiveness, motivation, and engagement, but these do not guarantee the intended therapeutic effect of the interventions. Yet, these characteristics are important variables in physical therapy

  6. Gamification in Physical Therapy : More Than Using Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Joep; Verschuren, Olaf; Renger, Willem Jan; Ermers, Jose; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; van Ee, Raymond

    The implementation of computer games in physical therapy is motivated by characteristics such as attractiveness, motivation, and engagement, but these do not guarantee the intended therapeutic effect of the interventions. Yet, these characteristics are important variables in physical therapy

  7. Development of beam instruments at JAERI cyclotron facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, Susumu; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Ishibori, Ikuo; Agematsu, Takashi; Yokota, Watalu; Nara, Takayuki; Nakamura, Yoshiteru; Arakawa, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    A beam phase monitor and two kinds of fluence distribution monitors have been developed for measuring characteristics of cyclotron beams. The beam phase monitor provides a beam phase signal for tuning a beam chopping system and a beam phase selection system. A two-dimensional fluence distribution on a large area is measured with fluence distribution monitors. (author)

  8. Study on premixing phase of steam explosion at JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamano, Norihiro; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Maruyama, Yu; Park, H.; Yang, Y.; Sugimoto, Jun [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-01-01

    Melt jet breakup (MJB) and fragmentation has been studied in the frame of ALPHA program. In the first two experiments of MJB series, jet of molten lead-bismuth eutectic alloy was released into a deep pool of saturated water. Steam generation rate was measured and correlated with the jet behavior observed by a high-speed camera. The jet breakup length and debris size distribution were also evaluated. In parallel with the experimental study, JASMINE code has been developed for the simulation of steam explosion. The melt jet breakup model and the particle breakup model in the code were tested by analyzing FARO-L14 and ALPHA MJB experiments. (author)

  9. Water chemistry management of research reactor in JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshijima, Tetsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    The JRR-3M cooling system consists of four systems, namely; (1) primary cooling system, (2) heavy water cooling system, (3) helium system and (4) secondary cooling system. The heavy water is used for reflector and pressurized with helium gas. Water chemistry management of the JRR-3M cooling systems is one of the important subject for the safety operation. The main objects are to prevent the corrosion of cooling system and fuel elements, to suppress the plant radiation build-up and to minimize the generation of radioactive waste. All measured values were within the limits of specifications and JRR-3M reactor was operated with safety in 1996. Spent fuels of JRR-3M reactor are stored in the spent fuel pool. This pool water has been analyzed to prevent corrosion of aluminum cladding of spent fuels. Water chemistry of spent fuel pool water is applied to the prevention of corrosion of aluminum alloys including fuel cladding. The JRR-2 reactor was eternally stopped in December 1996 and is now under decommissioning. The JRR-2 reactor is composed of heavy water tank, fuel guide tube and horizontal experimental hole. These are constructed of aluminum alloy and biological shield and upper shield are constructed of concrete. Three types of corrosion of aluminum alloy were observed in the JRR-2. The Alkaline corrosion of aluminum tube occurred in 1972 because of the mechanical damage of the aluminum fuel guide tube which is used for fuel handling. Modification of the reactor top shield was started in 1974 and completed in 1975. (author)

  10. Forty years of training program in the JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report is to compile the past training program of researchers, engineers and regulatory members at the NuTEC (Nuclear Technology and Education Center) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the past basic seminars for the public, in addition to advice and perspective on the future program from relevant experts, in commemoration of the forty years of the NuTEC. It covers the past five years of educational courses and seminars in utilization of radioisotopes and nuclear energy for domestic and for international training provided at Tokyo and Tokai Education Centers and covers the activity of the Asia-Pacific nuclear technology transfer, including the activity of various committees and meetings. Especially, fifty six experts and authorities have contributed to the report with positive advice and perspective on the training program in the 21st century based on their reminiscences. (author)

  11. Computational intelligence in biomedical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art computational intelligence research and technologies in biomedical images with emphasis on biomedical decision making. Biomedical imaging offers useful information on patients’ medical conditions and clues to causes of their symptoms and diseases. Biomedical images, however, provide a large number of images which physicians must interpret. Therefore, computer aids are demanded and become indispensable in physicians’ decision making. This book discusses major technical advancements and research findings in the field of computational intelligence in biomedical imaging, for example, computational intelligence in computer-aided diagnosis for breast cancer, prostate cancer, and brain disease, in lung function analysis, and in radiation therapy. The book examines technologies and studies that have reached the practical level, and those technologies that are becoming available in clinical practices in hospitals rapidly such as computational inte...

  12. Organic Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Würtz, Rolf P

    2008-01-01

    Organic Computing is a research field emerging around the conviction that problems of organization in complex systems in computer science, telecommunications, neurobiology, molecular biology, ethology, and possibly even sociology can be tackled scientifically in a unified way. From the computer science point of view, the apparent ease in which living systems solve computationally difficult problems makes it inevitable to adopt strategies observed in nature for creating information processing machinery. In this book, the major ideas behind Organic Computing are delineated, together with a sparse sample of computational projects undertaken in this new field. Biological metaphors include evolution, neural networks, gene-regulatory networks, networks of brain modules, hormone system, insect swarms, and ant colonies. Applications are as diverse as system design, optimization, artificial growth, task allocation, clustering, routing, face recognition, and sign language understanding.

  13. Cervical Gross Tumor Volume Dose Predicts Local Control Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Diffusion-Weighted Imaging—Guided High-Dose-Rate and Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography—Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyk, Pawel; Jiang, Naomi; Sun, Baozhou; DeWees, Todd A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Fowler, Kathryn J.; Narra, Vamsi [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Garcia-Ramirez, Jose L.; Schwarz, Julie K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Grigsby, Perry W., E-mail: pgrigsby@wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Division of Nuclear Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging/diffusion weighted-imaging (MRI/DWI)-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) — positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the definitive treatment of cervical cancer is a novel treatment technique. The purpose of this study was to report our analysis of dose-volume parameters predicting gross tumor volume (GTV) control. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the records of 134 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages IB1-IVB cervical cancer treated with combined MRI-guided HDR and IMRT from July 2009 to July 2011. IMRT was targeted to the metabolic tumor volume and lymph nodes by use of FDG-PET/CT simulation. The GTV for each HDR fraction was delineated by use of T2-weighted or apparent diffusion coefficient maps from diffusion-weighted sequences. The D100, D90, and Dmean delivered to the GTV from HDR and IMRT were summed to EQD2. Results: One hundred twenty-five patients received all irradiation treatment as planned, and 9 did not complete treatment. All 134 patients are included in this analysis. Treatment failure in the cervix occurred in 24 patients (18.0%). Patients with cervix failures had a lower D100, D90, and Dmean than those who did not experience failure in the cervix. The respective doses to the GTV were 41, 58, and 136 Gy for failures compared with 67, 99, and 236 Gy for those who did not experience failure (P<.001). Probit analysis estimated the minimum D100, D90, and Dmean doses required for ≥90% local control to be 69, 98, and 260 Gy (P<.001). Conclusions: Total dose delivered to the GTV from combined MRI-guided HDR and PET/CT-guided IMRT is highly correlated with local tumor control. The findings can be directly applied in the clinic for dose adaptation to maximize local control.

  14. Extended Field Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Concomitant Boost for Lymph Node–Positive Cervical Cancer: Analysis of Regional Control and Recurrence Patterns in the Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, John A.; Kim, Hayeon; Choi, Serah [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Sukumvanich, Paniti; Olawaiye, Alexander B.; Kelley, Joseph L.; Edwards, Robert P.; Comerci, John T. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Beriwal, Sushil, E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is commonly used for nodal staging in locally advanced cervical cancer; however the false negative rate for para-aortic disease are 20% to 25% in PET-positive pelvic nodal disease. Unless surgically staged, pelvis-only treatment may undertreat para-aortic disease. We have treated patients with PET-positive nodes with extended field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to address the para-aortic region prophylactically with concomitant boost to involved nodes. The purpose of this study was to assess regional control rates and recurrence patterns. Methods and Materials: Sixty-one patients with cervical cancer (stage IBI-IVA) diagnosed from 2003 to 2012 with PET-avid pelvic nodes treated with extended field IMRT (45 Gy in 25 fractions with concomitant boost to involved nodes to a median of 55 Gy in 25 fractions) with concurrent cisplatin and brachytherapy were retrospectively analyzed. The nodal location was pelvis-only in 41 patients (67%) and pelvis + para-aortic in 20 patients (33%). There were a total of 179 nodes, with a median number of positive nodes of 2 (range, 1-16 nodes) per patient and a median nodal size of 1.8 cm (range, 0.7-4.5 cm). Response was assessed by PET/CT at 12 to 16 weeks. Results: Complete clinical and imaging response at the first follow-up visit was seen in 77% of patients. At a mean follow-up time of 29 months (range, 3-116 months), 8 patients experienced recurrence. The sites of persistent/recurrent disease were as follows: cervix 10 (16.3%), regional nodes 3 (4.9%), and distant 14 (23%). The rate of para-aortic failure in patients with pelvic-only nodes was 2.5%. There were no significant differences in recurrence patterns by the number/location of nodes, largest node size, or maximum node standardized uptake value. The rate of late grade 3+ adverse events was 4%. Conclusions: Extended field IMRT was well tolerated and resulted in low regional recurrence

  15. Quantum Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Matthias

    Solving computational problems require resources such as time, memory, and space. In the classical model of computation, computational complexity theory has categorized problems according to how difficult it is to solve them as the problem size increases. Remarkably, a quantum computer could solve certain problems using fundamentally fewer resources compared to a conventional computer, and therefore has garnered significant attention. Yet because of the delicate nature of entangled quantum states, the construction of a quantum computer poses an enormous challenge for experimental and theoretical scientists across multi-disciplinary areas including physics, engineering, materials science, and mathematics. While the field of quantum computing still has a long way to grow before reaching full maturity, state-of-the-art experiments on the order of 10 qubits are beginning to reach a fascinating stage at which they can no longer be emulated using even the fastest supercomputer. This raises the hope that small quantum computer demonstrations could be capable of approximately simulating or solving problems that also have practical applications. In this talk I will review the concepts behind quantum computing, and focus on the status of superconducting qubits which includes steps towards quantum error correction and quantum simulations.

  16. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  17. Computational Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    to understand the computer as a material like any other material we would use for design, like wood, aluminum, or plastic. That as soon as the computer forms a composition with other materials it becomes just as approachable and inspiring as other smart materials. I present a series of investigations of what...... Computational Composite, and Telltale). Through the investigations, I show how the computer can be understood as a material and how it partakes in a new strand of materials whose expressions come to be in context. I uncover some of their essential material properties and potential expressions. I develop a way...

  18. Sweat Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmant, Stephen A.; Merta, Rod J.

    2000-01-01

    A study combined group sweating and group counseling. Four adolescent boys with disruptive behavior disorders participated in 12 sweat therapy sessions. They reported the sessions useful for sharing personal concerns and receiving assistance with problem solving. Three boys showed improvement in self-esteem. Advantages of sweat therapy over other…

  19. Intravenous Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliart, Barbara

    Intended for teaching licensed practical nurses, this curriculum guide provides information related to the equipment and skills required for nursing care of patients needing intravenous (IV) therapy. It also explains the roles and responsibilities of the licensed practical nurse with regard to intravenous therapy. Each of the 15 instructional…

  20. Poetry Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ronald V.

    Poetry therapy is the method of therapy based on the principle that a poem is a special medium for expressing emotions and that this expression can have psychotherapeutic value. A survey taken in 1973 showed there were over 400 therapists treating 3,500 drug addicts, alcoholics, and mental retardates around the country. Poetry therapists…

  1. Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy is one of the most precise and advanced forms of radiation treatment available. How Proton Therapy is Delivered The patient is positioned on a table with a head frame or face mask covering the head. As the cyclotron smashes atoms, the protons released are directed toward ...

  2. Platform computing

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Platform Computing releases first grid-enabled workload management solution for IBM eServer Intel and UNIX high performance computing clusters. This Out-of-the-box solution maximizes the performance and capability of applications on IBM HPC clusters" (1/2 page) .

  3. Cloud Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Simon

    2013-01-01

    with technological changes, the paradigmatic pendulum has swung between increased centralization on one side and a focus on distributed computing that pushes IT power out to end users on the other. With the introduction of outsourcing and cloud computing, centralization in large data centers is again dominating...

  4. Computational Deception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Acosta, P.S.; Cravo, P.

    2010-01-01

    In the future our daily life interactions with other people, with computers, robots and smart environments will be recorded and interpreted by computers or embedded intelligence in environments, furniture, robots, displays, and wearables. These sensors record our activities, our behaviour, and our

  5. Computational astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard H.

    1987-01-01

    Astronomy is an area of applied physics in which unusually beautiful objects challenge the imagination to explain observed phenomena in terms of known laws of physics. It is a field that has stimulated the development of physical laws and of mathematical and computational methods. Current computational applications are discussed in terms of stellar and galactic evolution, galactic dynamics, and particle motions.

  6. Computational Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, David N.; Feldman, Michael; Carter, Alexis B.; Dighe, Anand S.; Pfeifer, John D.; Bry, Lynn; Almeida, Jonas S.; Saltz, Joel; Braun, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John E.; Gilbertson, John R.; Sinard, John H.; Gerber, Georg K.; Galli, Stephen J.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Becich, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Context We define the scope and needs within the new discipline of computational pathology, a discipline critical to the future of both the practice of pathology and, more broadly, medical practice in general. Objective To define the scope and needs of computational pathology. Data Sources A meeting was convened in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 2014 prior to the annual Association of Pathology Chairs meeting, and it was attended by a variety of pathologists, including individuals highly invested in pathology informatics as well as chairs of pathology departments. Conclusions The meeting made recommendations to promote computational pathology, including clearly defining the field and articulating its value propositions; asserting that the value propositions for health care systems must include means to incorporate robust computational approaches to implement data-driven methods that aid in guiding individual and population health care; leveraging computational pathology as a center for data interpretation in modern health care systems; stating that realizing the value proposition will require working with institutional administrations, other departments, and pathology colleagues; declaring that a robust pipeline should be fostered that trains and develops future computational pathologists, for those with both pathology and non-pathology backgrounds; and deciding that computational pathology should serve as a hub for data-related research in health care systems. The dissemination of these recommendations to pathology and bioinformatics departments should help facilitate the development of computational pathology. PMID:26098131

  7. Computational Streetscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Torrens

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Streetscapes have presented a long-standing interest in many fields. Recently, there has been a resurgence of attention on streetscape issues, catalyzed in large part by computing. Because of computing, there is more understanding, vistas, data, and analysis of and on streetscape phenomena than ever before. This diversity of lenses trained on streetscapes permits us to address long-standing questions, such as how people use information while mobile, how interactions with people and things occur on streets, how we might safeguard crowds, how we can design services to assist pedestrians, and how we could better support special populations as they traverse cities. Amid each of these avenues of inquiry, computing is facilitating new ways of posing these questions, particularly by expanding the scope of what-if exploration that is possible. With assistance from computing, consideration of streetscapes now reaches across scales, from the neurological interactions that form among place cells in the brain up to informatics that afford real-time views of activity over whole urban spaces. For some streetscape phenomena, computing allows us to build realistic but synthetic facsimiles in computation, which can function as artificial laboratories for testing ideas. In this paper, I review the domain science for studying streetscapes from vantages in physics, urban studies, animation and the visual arts, psychology, biology, and behavioral geography. I also review the computational developments shaping streetscape science, with particular emphasis on modeling and simulation as informed by data acquisition and generation, data models, path-planning heuristics, artificial intelligence for navigation and way-finding, timing, synthetic vision, steering routines, kinematics, and geometrical treatment of collision detection and avoidance. I also discuss the implications that the advances in computing streetscapes might have on emerging developments in cyber

  8. Chromatin computation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bryant

    Full Text Available In living cells, DNA is packaged along with protein and RNA into chromatin. Chemical modifications to nucleotides and histone proteins are added, removed and recognized by multi-functional molecular complexes. Here I define a new computational model, in which chromatin modifications are information units that can be written onto a one-dimensional string of nucleosomes, analogous to the symbols written onto cells of a Turing machine tape, and chromatin-modifying complexes are modeled as read-write rules that operate on a finite set of adjacent nucleosomes. I illustrate the use of this "chromatin computer" to solve an instance of the Hamiltonian path problem. I prove that chromatin computers are computationally universal--and therefore more powerful than the logic circuits often used to model transcription factor control of gene expression. Features of biological chromatin provide a rich instruction set for efficient computation of nontrivial algorithms in biological time scales. Modeling chromatin as a computer shifts how we think about chromatin function, suggests new approaches to medical intervention, and lays the groundwork for the engineering of a new class of biological computing machines.

  9. Compute Canada: Advancing Computational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Susan

    2012-02-01

    High Performance Computing (HPC) is redefining the way that research is done. Compute Canada's HPC infrastructure provides a national platform that enables Canadian researchers to compete on an international scale, attracts top talent to Canadian universities and broadens the scope of research.

  10. Research Advances: DNA Computing Targets West Nile Virus, Other Deadly Diseases, and Tic-Tac-Toe; Marijuana Component May Offer Hope for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment; New Wound Dressing May Lead to Maggot Therapy--Without the Maggots

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents three reports of research advances. The first report describes a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based computer that could lead to faster, more accurate tests for diagnosing West Nile Virus and bird flu. Representing the first "medium-scale integrated molecular circuit," it is the most powerful computing device of its type to…

  11. Computational physics

    CERN Document Server

    Newman, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A complete introduction to the field of computational physics, with examples and exercises in the Python programming language. Computers play a central role in virtually every major physics discovery today, from astrophysics and particle physics to biophysics and condensed matter. This book explains the fundamentals of computational physics and describes in simple terms the techniques that every physicist should know, such as finite difference methods, numerical quadrature, and the fast Fourier transform. The book offers a complete introduction to the topic at the undergraduate level, and is also suitable for the advanced student or researcher who wants to learn the foundational elements of this important field.

  12. Computer interfacing

    CERN Document Server

    Dixey, Graham

    1994-01-01

    This book explains how computers interact with the world around them and therefore how to make them a useful tool. Topics covered include descriptions of all the components that make up a computer, principles of data exchange, interaction with peripherals, serial communication, input devices, recording methods, computer-controlled motors, and printers.In an informative and straightforward manner, Graham Dixey describes how to turn what might seem an incomprehensible 'black box' PC into a powerful and enjoyable tool that can help you in all areas of your work and leisure. With plenty of handy

  13. Computing methods

    CERN Document Server

    Berezin, I S

    1965-01-01

    Computing Methods, Volume 2 is a five-chapter text that presents the numerical methods of solving sets of several mathematical equations. This volume includes computation sets of linear algebraic equations, high degree equations and transcendental equations, numerical methods of finding eigenvalues, and approximate methods of solving ordinary differential equations, partial differential equations and integral equations.The book is intended as a text-book for students in mechanical mathematical and physics-mathematical faculties specializing in computer mathematics and persons interested in the

  14. Computational Viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Marques, Severino P C

    2012-01-01

    This text is a guide how to solve problems in which viscoelasticity is present using existing commercial computational codes. The book gives information on codes’ structure and use, data preparation  and output interpretation and verification. The first part of the book introduces the reader to the subject, and to provide the models, equations and notation to be used in the computational applications. The second part shows the most important Computational techniques: Finite elements formulation, Boundary elements formulation, and presents the solutions of Viscoelastic problems with Abaqus.

  15. Essentials of cloud computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekaran, K

    2014-01-01

    ForewordPrefaceComputing ParadigmsLearning ObjectivesPreambleHigh-Performance ComputingParallel ComputingDistributed ComputingCluster ComputingGrid ComputingCloud ComputingBiocomputingMobile ComputingQuantum ComputingOptical ComputingNanocomputingNetwork ComputingSummaryReview PointsReview QuestionsFurther ReadingCloud Computing FundamentalsLearning ObjectivesPreambleMotivation for Cloud ComputingThe Need for Cloud ComputingDefining Cloud ComputingNIST Definition of Cloud ComputingCloud Computing Is a ServiceCloud Computing Is a Platform5-4-3 Principles of Cloud computingFive Essential Charact

  16. Computational Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongtay, Rocio; Robering, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in and recognition of the importance of Computational Literacy, a skill generally considered to be necessary for success in the 21st century. While much research has concentrated on requirements, tools, and teaching methodologies for the acquisit......In recent years, there has been a growing interest in and recognition of the importance of Computational Literacy, a skill generally considered to be necessary for success in the 21st century. While much research has concentrated on requirements, tools, and teaching methodologies...... for the acquisition of Computational Literacy at basic educational levels, focus on higher levels of education has been much less prominent. The present paper considers the case of courses for higher education programs within the Humanities. A model is proposed which conceives of Computational Literacy as a layered...

  17. Computing Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielbo, Kristoffer Laigaard; Braxton, Donald M.; Upal, Afzal

    2012-01-01

    The computational approach has become an invaluable tool in many fields that are directly relevant to research in religious phenomena. Yet the use of computational tools is almost absent in the study of religion. Given that religion is a cluster of interrelated phenomena and that research...... concerning these phenomena should strive for multilevel analysis, this article argues that the computational approach offers new methodological and theoretical opportunities to the study of religion. We argue that the computational approach offers 1.) an intermediary step between any theoretical construct...... and its targeted empirical space and 2.) a new kind of data which allows the researcher to observe abstract constructs, estimate likely outcomes, and optimize empirical designs. Because sophisticated mulitilevel research is a collaborative project we also seek to introduce to scholars of religion some...

  18. Assessment of three-dimensional set-up errors using megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) during image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for craniospinal irradiation (CSI) on helical tomotherapy (HT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tejpal; Upasani, Maheshkumar; Master, Zubin; Patil, Anita; Phurailatpam, Reena; Nojin, Siji; Kannan, Sadhana; Godasastri, Jayant; Jalali, Rakesh

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess three-dimensional (3D) set-up errors using megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) during image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for supine craniospinal irradiation (CSI) on helical tomotherapy (HT). Patients were immobilized in a customized 4-clamp thermoplastic head mask with or without whole-body vacuum cradle. Set-up was based primarily on a set of cranial fiducial markers. MVCT scans were acquired and co-registered with planning scan separately at three different levels (brain, upper, and lower spine) at every fraction. Only translational displacements were analysed, wherein positive sign denotes deviation in anterior, left, and superior direction; while negative sign denotes deviation in posterior, right, and inferior direction. Mean displacements, systematic, and random errors of the study population were calculated at all three levels separately. Local residual uncertainty of the upper and lower spine was also derived assuming perfect co-registration of the skull. Set-up margins for clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) were derived at these three levels separately using published margin recipes. Data from 1868 co-registrations in 674 fractions on 33 patients was included. The mean displacements in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions were -1.21, -1.36, and 1.38 mm; -1.25, -0.34, and 0.65 mm; and -1.47, -2.78, and 0.22 mm for the brain; upper spine; and lumbar spine respectively. The corresponding 3D vector of displacement was 2.28; 1.45; and 3.15 mm respectively. There was a distinct systematic trend towards increasing inaccuracy from the brain towards the lower spine. Using Stroom's formula, the minimum recommended CTV to PTV margins in absence of daily image-guidance were 6.5; 7.0; and 9.5 mm for the brain; upper spine; and lower spine respectively. This increased to 7.5; 8.5; and 11.5 mm using van Herk's formula. Subset and sensitivity analyses

  19. Hand Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Hand Therapy Email to a friend * required fields From * ... ensure a healthy style of work. Find a Hand Therapist Search for a hand therapist in your ...

  20. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy, including: Fatigue Hair loss Skin changes Swelling/edema Nausea Sexual effects (reduced desire) Blood clots Your ... American Brain Tumor Association 8550 W. Bryn Mawr Ave. Ste 550 Chicago, IL 60631 © 2014 American Brain ...

  1. Sex Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapists have graduate degrees and can demonstrate their competence in sex therapy by becoming credentialed by the ... ways to resolve your concerns and improve your communication and intimacy. Talking about sex and intimacy may ...

  2. Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes colon and rectal changes infertility joint changes lymphedema mouth changes secondary cancer There is a slight risk of developing cancer from radiation therapy. Following radiation treatment for cancer, you should be ...

  3. Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or improve your body's ability to fight disease. Gene therapy holds promise for treating a wide range of diseases, such as cancer, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, hemophilia and AIDS. Researchers are still studying how and ...

  4. Alternative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biofeedback for learning to promote relaxation and increase oxygen flow to muscles (Schwartz & Schwartz, 1993) ; hypnotherapy for relaxation and pain relief (Hammond, 1991); magnet therapy for pain relief (Vallbona et al., 1997) ; and ...

  5. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Be extra careful not to spend time with children or pregnant women. Internal Radiation Therapy Makes You Give Off Radiation With systemic radiation, your body fluids ( urine , sweat, and saliva ) will give off radiation for a while. With ...

  6. Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from ... half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, ...

  7. Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria Information for Families and Caretakers from The Progeria Research Foundation Written ... accelerated aging in children. Children with Progeria need Physical Therapy (PT) and Occupational Therapy (OT) as often as ...

  8. Computational sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Morik, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The book at hand gives an overview of the state of the art research in Computational Sustainability as well as case studies of different application scenarios. This covers topics such as renewable energy supply, energy storage and e-mobility, efficiency in data centers and networks, sustainable food and water supply, sustainable health, industrial production and quality, etc. The book describes computational methods and possible application scenarios.

  9. Computational oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefor, Alan T

    2011-08-01

    Oncology research has traditionally been conducted using techniques from the biological sciences. The new field of computational oncology has forged a new relationship between the physical sciences and oncology to further advance research. By applying physics and mathematics to oncologic problems, new insights will emerge into the pathogenesis and treatment of malignancies. One major area of investigation in computational oncology centers around the acquisition and analysis of data, using improved computing hardware and software. Large databases of cellular pathways are being analyzed to understand the interrelationship among complex biological processes. Computer-aided detection is being applied to the analysis of routine imaging data including mammography and chest imaging to improve the accuracy and detection rate for population screening. The second major area of investigation uses computers to construct sophisticated mathematical models of individual cancer cells as well as larger systems using partial differential equations. These models are further refined with clinically available information to more accurately reflect living systems. One of the major obstacles in the partnership between physical scientists and the oncology community is communications. Standard ways to convey information must be developed. Future progress in computational oncology will depend on close collaboration between clinicians and investigators to further the understanding of cancer using these new approaches.

  10. Computer viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, F.B.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis investigates a recently discovered vulnerability in computer systems which opens the possibility that a single individual with an average user's knowledge could cause widespread damage to information residing in computer networks. This vulnerability is due to a transitive integrity corrupting mechanism called a computer virus which causes corrupted information to spread from program to program. Experiments have shown that a virus can spread at an alarmingly rapid rate from user to user, from system to system, and from network to network, even when the best-availability security techniques are properly used. Formal definitions of self-replication, evolution, viruses, and protection mechanisms are used to prove that any system that allows sharing, general functionality, and transitivity of information flow cannot completely prevent viral attack. Computational aspects of viruses are examined, and several undecidable problems are shown. It is demonstrated that a virus may evolve so as to generate any computable sequence. Protection mechanisms are explored, and the design of computer networks that prevent both illicit modification and dissemination of information are given. Administration and protection of information networks based on partial orderings are examined, and probably correct automated administrative assistance is introduced.

  11. Chromatin Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In living cells, DNA is packaged along with protein and RNA into chromatin. Chemical modifications to nucleotides and histone proteins are added, removed and recognized by multi-functional molecular complexes. Here I define a new computational model, in which chromatin modifications are information units that can be written onto a one-dimensional string of nucleosomes, analogous to the symbols written onto cells of a Turing machine tape, and chromatin-modifying complexes are modeled as read-write rules that operate on a finite set of adjacent nucleosomes. I illustrate the use of this “chromatin computer” to solve an instance of the Hamiltonian path problem. I prove that chromatin computers are computationally universal – and therefore more powerful than the logic circuits often used to model transcription factor control of gene expression. Features of biological chromatin provide a rich instruction set for efficient computation of nontrivial algorithms in biological time scales. Modeling chromatin as a computer shifts how we think about chromatin function, suggests new approaches to medical intervention, and lays the groundwork for the engineering of a new class of biological computing machines. PMID:22567109

  12. Initial findings from a mixed-methods evaluation of computer-assisted therapy for substance misuse in prisoners: Development, implementation and clinical outcomes from the ‘Breaking Free Health & Justice’ treatment and recovery programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Elison

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the United Kingdom’s ‘Transforming Rehabilitation’ agenda, reshaping drug and alcohol interventions in prisons is central to the Government’s approach to addressing substance dependence in the prison population and reduce reoffending. To achieve this, a through-care project to support offenders following release, ‘Gateways’, is taking place providing ‘through the gate’ support to released offenders, including help with organising accommodation, education and employment, and access to a peer supporter. In addition, Gateways is providing access to an evidence-based computer-assisted therapy (CAT programme for substance misuse, Breaking Free Health & Justice (BFHJ. Developed in partnership with the Ministry of Justice (MoJ National Offender Management Services (NOMS, and based on a community version of the programme, Breaking Free Online (BFO, BFHJ provides access to clinically-robust techniques based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT and promotes the role of technology-enhanced approaches in recovery from substance misuse. The BFHJ programme is provided via ‘Virtual Campus’ (VC, a secure, web-based learning environment delivered by NOMS and the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, which has no links to websites not approved by MoJ, and provides prisoners with access to online training courses around work and skills. Providing BFHJ on VC makes the programme the world’s first online healthcare programme to be provided in prisons. Aims: Although here is an emerging evidence-base for the effectiveness of the community version of the BFO programme and its implementation within community treatment settings (Davies, Elison, Ward, & Laudet, 2015; Elison, Davies, & Ward, 2015a, 2015b; Elison, Humphreys, Ward, & Davies, 2013; Elison, Ward, Davies, Lidbetter, et al., 2014; Elison, Ward, Davies, & Moody, 2014, its potential within prison settings requires exploration. This study therefore sought to

  13. Computational creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de Mántaras Badia, Ramon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available New technologies, and in particular artificial intelligence, are drastically changing the nature of creative processes. Computers are playing very significant roles in creative activities such as music, architecture, fine arts, and science. Indeed, the computer is already a canvas, a brush, a musical instrument, and so on. However, we believe that we must aim at more ambitious relations between computers and creativity. Rather than just seeing the computer as a tool to help human creators, we could see it as a creative entity in its own right. This view has triggered a new subfield of Artificial Intelligence called Computational Creativity. This article addresses the question of the possibility of achieving computational creativity through some examples of computer programs capable of replicating some aspects of creative behavior in the fields of music and science.Las nuevas tecnologías y en particular la Inteligencia Artificial están cambiando de forma importante la naturaleza del proceso creativo. Los ordenadores están jugando un papel muy significativo en actividades artísticas tales como la música, la arquitectura, las bellas artes y la ciencia. Efectivamente, el ordenador ya es el lienzo, el pincel, el instrumento musical, etc. Sin embargo creemos que debemos aspirar a relaciones más ambiciosas entre los ordenadores y la creatividad. En lugar de verlos solamente como herramientas de ayuda a la creación, los ordenadores podrían ser considerados agentes creativos. Este punto de vista ha dado lugar a un nuevo subcampo de la Inteligencia Artificial denominado Creatividad Computacional. En este artículo abordamos la cuestión de la posibilidad de alcanzar dicha creatividad computacional mediante algunos ejemplos de programas de ordenador capaces de replicar algunos aspectos relacionados con el comportamiento creativo en los ámbitos de la música y la ciencia.

  14. Computational mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudreau, G.L.

    1993-03-01

    The Computational Mechanics thrust area sponsors research into the underlying solid, structural and fluid mechanics and heat transfer necessary for the development of state-of-the-art general purpose computational software. The scale of computational capability spans office workstations, departmental computer servers, and Cray-class supercomputers. The DYNA, NIKE, and TOPAZ codes have achieved world fame through our broad collaborators program, in addition to their strong support of on-going Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. Several technology transfer initiatives have been based on these established codes, teaming LLNL analysts and researchers with counterparts in industry, extending code capability to specific industrial interests of casting, metalforming, and automobile crash dynamics. The next-generation solid/structural mechanics code, ParaDyn, is targeted toward massively parallel computers, which will extend performance from gigaflop to teraflop power. Our work for FY-92 is described in the following eight articles: (1) Solution Strategies: New Approaches for Strongly Nonlinear Quasistatic Problems Using DYNA3D; (2) Enhanced Enforcement of Mechanical Contact: The Method of Augmented Lagrangians; (3) ParaDyn: New Generation Solid/Structural Mechanics Codes for Massively Parallel Processors; (4) Composite Damage Modeling; (5) HYDRA: A Parallel/Vector Flow Solver for Three-Dimensional, Transient, Incompressible Viscous How; (6) Development and Testing of the TRIM3D Radiation Heat Transfer Code; (7) A Methodology for Calculating the Seismic Response of Critical Structures; and (8) Reinforced Concrete Damage Modeling.

  15. Maintenance Therapy in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Center Home > Resources > Maintenance Therapy Go Back Maintenance Therapy Email Print + Share The term "maintenance therapy" ... are referred to as "maintenance therapies." Why is Maintenance Therapy Needed in IBD? Both Crohn's disease and ...

  16. Family therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Altamash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Another major force not letting us succeed in the treatment of diabetes remains right inside the patients home, their family members. Hence, it is important to know the perception of the close family members about this simple and strong tool in diabetes, ′insulin′. The drug is nearing its century, it has not fully being accepted gracefully even in todays electronic savvy society. So, we need to strongly discover the reason for its non-acceptance, while trials are out inventing new drugs. One vital thing that can change this attitude is increasing the understanding of this drug, insulin in depth to close people around the patient, the ′family′. Underestimating family′s perception about disease and treatment for diabetes is detrimental to both diseased and the doctor. This consists of a biopsychosocial model; biological, psychological and social factors. Family forms the most important part of it. The strategies in family therapy include psychodynamic, structural, strategic, and cognitive-behavioral component. Diabetes has and will continue to rise, so will be the treatment options. From the clinicians side its to fix fasting first but from patients its fix family first. Family therapy demonstrates the importance of insulin initiation and maintenance in insulin naive patients, and continuation for others. The specific needs of such patients and their impact on family life are met with family therapy. Who needs family therapy? Benefits of family therapy and a case based approach is covered.

  17. Quantum computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, T D; Jelezko, F; Laflamme, R; Nakamura, Y; Monroe, C; O'Brien, J L

    2010-03-04

    Over the past several decades, quantum information science has emerged to seek answers to the question: can we gain some advantage by storing, transmitting and processing information encoded in systems that exhibit unique quantum properties? Today it is understood that the answer is yes, and many research groups around the world are working towards the highly ambitious technological goal of building a quantum computer, which would dramatically improve computational power for particular tasks. A number of physical systems, spanning much of modern physics, are being developed for quantum computation. However, it remains unclear which technology, if any, will ultimately prove successful. Here we describe the latest developments for each of the leading approaches and explain the major challenges for the future.

  18. Computational Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Jing; Krystal, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia arise from abnormalities in brain systems that underlie cognitive, emotional and social functions. The brain is enormously complex and its abundant feedback loops on multiple scales preclude intuitive explication of circuit functions. In close interplay with experiments, theory and computational modeling are essential for understanding how, precisely, neural circuits generate flexible behaviors and their impairments give rise to psychiatric symptoms. This Perspective highlights recent progress in applying computational neuroscience to the study of mental disorders. We outline basic approaches, including identification of core deficits that cut across disease categories, biologically-realistic modeling bridging cellular and synaptic mechanisms with behavior, model-aided diagnosis. The need for new research strategies in psychiatry is urgent. Computational psychiatry potentially provides powerful tools for elucidating pathophysiology that may inform both diagnosis and treatment. To achieve this promise will require investment in cross-disciplinary training and research in this nascent field. PMID:25442941

  19. Computational mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raboin, P J

    1998-01-01

    The Computational Mechanics thrust area is a vital and growing facet of the Mechanical Engineering Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This work supports the development of computational analysis tools in the areas of structural mechanics and heat transfer. Over 75 analysts depend on thrust area-supported software running on a variety of computing platforms to meet the demands of LLNL programs. Interactions with the Department of Defense (DOD) High Performance Computing and Modernization Program and the Defense Special Weapons Agency are of special importance as they support our ParaDyn project in its development of new parallel capabilities for DYNA3D. Working with DOD customers has been invaluable to driving this technology in directions mutually beneficial to the Department of Energy. Other projects associated with the Computational Mechanics thrust area include work with the Partnership for a New Generation Vehicle (PNGV) for ''Springback Predictability'' and with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for the ''Development of Methodologies for Evaluating Containment and Mitigation of Uncontained Engine Debris.'' In this report for FY-97, there are five articles detailing three code development activities and two projects that synthesized new code capabilities with new analytic research in damage/failure and biomechanics. The article this year are: (1) Energy- and Momentum-Conserving Rigid-Body Contact for NIKE3D and DYNA3D; (2) Computational Modeling of Prosthetics: A New Approach to Implant Design; (3) Characterization of Laser-Induced Mechanical Failure Damage of Optical Components; (4) Parallel Algorithm Research for Solid Mechanics Applications Using Finite Element Analysis; and (5) An Accurate One-Step Elasto-Plasticity Algorithm for Shell Elements in DYNA3D.

  20. Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomographic Imaging of the Early Time Course of Therapy-Induced Cell Death Using Technetium 99m Tricarbonyl His-Annexin A5 in a Colorectal Cancer Xenograft Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vangestel, Christel; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Mees, Gilles; Mertens, Koen; Staelens, Steven; Reutelingsperger, Chris; Pauwels, Patrick; Van Damme, Nancy; Peeters, Marc

    2012-01-01

    As apoptosis occurs over an interval of time after administration of apoptosis-inducing therapy in tumors, the changes in technetium 99m (Tc-99m)-tricarbonyl (CO)(3) His-annexin A5 (His-ann A5) accumulation over time were examined. Colo205-bearing mice were divided into six treatment groups: (1)

  1. Reconfigurable Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Joao MP

    2011-01-01

    As the complexity of modern embedded systems increases, it becomes less practical to design monolithic processing platforms. As a result, reconfigurable computing is being adopted widely for more flexible design. Reconfigurable Computers offer the spatial parallelism and fine-grained customizability of application-specific circuits with the postfabrication programmability of software. To make the most of this unique combination of performance and flexibility, designers need to be aware of both hardware and software issues. FPGA users must think not only about the gates needed to perform a comp

  2. Computational engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book presents state-of-the-art works in computational engineering. Focus is on mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, experimental validation and visualization in engineering sciences. In particular, the following topics are presented: constitutive models and their implementation into finite element codes, numerical models in nonlinear elasto-dynamics including seismic excitations, multiphase models in structural engineering and multiscale models of materials systems, sensitivity and reliability analysis of engineering structures, the application of scientific computing in urban water management and hydraulic engineering, and the application of genetic algorithms for the registration of laser scanner point clouds.

  3. Computational artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld; Bansler, Jørgen P.

    2016-01-01

    The key concern of CSCW research is that of understanding computing technologies in the social context of their use, that is, as integral features of our practices and our lives, and to think of their design and implementation under that perspective. However, the question of the nature...... of that which is actually integrated in our practices is often discussed in confusing ways, if at all. The article aims to try to clarify the issue and in doing so revisits and reconsiders the notion of ‘computational artifact’....

  4. Computer busses

    CERN Document Server

    Buchanan, William

    2000-01-01

    As more and more equipment is interface or'bus' driven, either by the use of controllers or directly from PCs, the question of which bus to use is becoming increasingly important both in industry and in the office. 'Computer Busses' has been designed to help choose the best type of bus for the particular application.There are several books which cover individual busses, but none which provide a complete guide to computer busses. The author provides a basic theory of busses and draws examples and applications from real bus case studies. Busses are analysed using from a top-down approach, helpin

  5. Computer viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

  6. Computer security

    CERN Document Server

    Gollmann, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    A completely up-to-date resource on computer security Assuming no previous experience in the field of computer security, this must-have book walks you through the many essential aspects of this vast topic, from the newest advances in software and technology to the most recent information on Web applications security. This new edition includes sections on Windows NT, CORBA, and Java and discusses cross-site scripting and JavaScript hacking as well as SQL injection. Serving as a helpful introduction, this self-study guide is a wonderful starting point for examining the variety of competing sec

  7. Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Antonopoulos, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing has recently emerged as a subject of substantial industrial and academic interest, though its meaning and scope is hotly debated. For some researchers, clouds are a natural evolution towards the full commercialisation of grid systems, while others dismiss the term as a mere re-branding of existing pay-per-use technologies. From either perspective, 'cloud' is now the label of choice for accountable pay-per-use access to third party applications and computational resources on a massive scale. Clouds support patterns of less predictable resource use for applications and services a

  8. Art Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibeke; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Based on a Jungian approach, this article will introduce an integrative model to therapeutic change using art therapy methods as practical tools, with the aim of improving quality of life and in the prevention of depression. In a research study involving six participants, painting, clay...... work and drumming were used together with imagination and personal dialogues linked to the artwork. These art therapy processes attempted to combine the participant’s experience of inner and outer reality. The effect of gaining more knowledge about their inner reality using dreams and symbols......, was that participants gained a new understanding about their personal life. In addition, some participants were able to continue to use art therapy experiences as selfdevelopmental tools after the research study terminated. Jung’s description of the interactive relationship between the two living parts of the psyche...

  9. Music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    alternate with clear and lucid mental states. These states are important as it is here that it is possible to meet the person’s psychosocial needs. Ketil Normann’s conceps of periods of lucidity are presented and connected to clinical music therapy practice and how it is possible to use music in order...... as a consequence of person-centred care. Umeå University Medical Dissertations. New Series. Ridder, H.M. (2005). Music therapy as a way to enhance lucidity in persons with dementia in advanced stages. In: Esch, A.; Frohne-Hagemann, I.; Laqua, M.; Schirmer, H.; Seitz, E. (Eds.) Jahrbuch Musicktherapie. Forschung...... und Entwicklung Music Therapy Annual. Research and Development. 2005 (1), pp. 25-40. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden....

  10. Riemannian computing in computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive treatise on Riemannian geometric computations and related statistical inferences in several computer vision problems. This edited volume includes chapter contributions from leading figures in the field of computer vision who are applying Riemannian geometric approaches in problems such as face recognition, activity recognition, object detection, biomedical image analysis, and structure-from-motion. Some of the mathematical entities that necessitate a geometric analysis include rotation matrices (e.g. in modeling camera motion), stick figures (e.g. for activity recognition), subspace comparisons (e.g. in face recognition), symmetric positive-definite matrices (e.g. in diffusion tensor imaging), and function-spaces (e.g. in studying shapes of closed contours).   ·         Illustrates Riemannian computing theory on applications in computer vision, machine learning, and robotics ·         Emphasis on algorithmic advances that will allow re-application in other...

  11. Cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Diane M

    2012-01-01

    In this bimonthly series, the author examines how nurse educators can use Internet and Web-based technologies such as search, communication, and collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. This article describes how cloud computing can be used in nursing education.

  12. Quantum Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    be required. In 2001, a breakthrough known as the KLM (Knill–Laflamme– Milburn13) scheme showed that scalable quantum computing is possible using only...and single-photon detection to induce interactions nondeterministically. In the past five years, the KLM scheme has moved from a mathematical proof

  13. Computational Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacino, Dario; Voss, Stefan; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2013-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computational Logistics, ICCL 2013, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in September 2013. The 19 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the book. They are organized...... in topical sections named: maritime shipping, road transport, vehicle routing problems, aviation applications, and logistics and supply chain management....

  14. Computational Logistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computational Logistics, ICCL 2013, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in September 2013. The 19 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the book. They are organized...... in topical sections named: maritime shipping, road transport, vehicle routing problems, aviation applications, and logistics and supply chain management....

  15. Quantum Computation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    can be represented using only n = log2 N bits, which is an exponential reduction in the required resources com- pared to the situation where every value is represented by a different physical state. Mathematically this struc- ture is known as a `tensor product', and I will refer to a similar break-up of computational algorithms ...

  16. Grid Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    global view and optimize the configuration and the use of all the computers, particularly high performance servers wherever they are. An enterprise grid is ... attributes: business model, architecture, resource management, security model, programming model, and applications [6]. Business Model. Grid is formed by 'not for ...

  17. Computing News

    CERN Multimedia

    McCubbin, N

    2001-01-01

    We are still five years from the first LHC data, so we have plenty of time to get the computing into shape, don't we? Well, yes and no: there is time, but there's an awful lot to do! The recently-completed CERN Review of LHC Computing gives the flavour of the LHC computing challenge. The hardware scale for each of the LHC experiments is millions of 'SpecInt95' (SI95) units of cpu power and tens of PetaBytes of data storage. PCs today are about 20-30SI95, and expected to be about 100 SI95 by 2005, so it's a lot of PCs. This hardware will be distributed across several 'Regional Centres' of various sizes, connected by high-speed networks. How to realise this in an orderly and timely fashion is now being discussed in earnest by CERN, Funding Agencies, and the LHC experiments. Mixed in with this is, of course, the GRID concept...but that's a topic for another day! Of course hardware, networks and the GRID constitute just one part of the computing. Most of the ATLAS effort is spent on software development. What we ...

  18. [Grid computing

    CERN Multimedia

    Wolinsky, H

    2003-01-01

    "Turn on a water spigot, and it's like tapping a bottomless barrel of water. Ditto for electricity: Flip the switch, and the supply is endless. But computing is another matter. Even with the Internet revolution enabling us to connect in new ways, we are still limited to self-contained systems running locally stored software, limited by corporate, institutional and geographic boundaries" (1 page).

  19. Quantum Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    start-up company at liT. Mumbai. Part 1. Building Blocks of Quan- tum Computers, Resonance, ..... by modeling the errors caused by decoherence. The interaction of a quantum system with the environment obstructs the unitary evolution of the system and causes dissipation of information, reducing coherence of information.

  20. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  1. Statistical Computing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 10. Statistical Computing - Understanding Randomness and Random Numbers. Sudhakar Kunte. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 10 October 1999 pp 16-21. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. Duality and Recycling Computing in Quantum Computers

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Gui Lu; Liu, Yang

    2007-01-01

    Quantum computer possesses quantum parallelism and offers great computing power over classical computer \\cite{er1,er2}. As is well-know, a moving quantum object passing through a double-slit exhibits particle wave duality. A quantum computer is static and lacks this duality property. The recently proposed duality computer has exploited this particle wave duality property, and it may offer additional computing power \\cite{r1}. Simply put it, a duality computer is a moving quantum computer pass...

  3. Dance Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Marcia B.

    1980-01-01

    Dance therapy deals with personal growth via body-mind interaction. A change in movement expression is believed to result in a personality or behavior change. The therapist is trained to become sensitive to movement expression as it relates to the psychological, motor, and cognitive development of the child. (JN)

  4. [Corporal therapy in sexual therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonierbale, M

    1977-12-01

    The use of corporal therapy in treating sexual problems is discussed. The erotic zones of the body are established very early in infancy. The central nervous system continues to develop 6 months after birth in human beings. Experiments done with rats show that rats that are stimulated by noise, handling, etc., develop denser and more numerous nerve cells. Touch, rhythm, and facial expression are established as the interface with the self's erotic image (established in infancy) and the world. Corporal therapy can modify the physiological functioning of the libido. It is also necessary that one accept one's sociocultural identity. Relational massage, bioenergy, and relaxation are 3 types of corporal therapy used to ameliorate sexual problems.

  5. Amorphous Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Gerald

    2002-03-01

    Digital computers have always been constructed to behave as precise arrangements of reliable parts, and our techniques for organizing computations depend upon this precision and reliability. Two emerging technologies, however, are begnning to undercut these assumptions about constructing and programming computers. These technologies -- microfabrication and bioengineering -- will make it possible to assemble systems composed of myriad information- processing units at almost no cost, provided: 1) that not all the units need to work correctly; and 2) that there is no need to manufacture precise geometrical arrangements or interconnection patterns among them. Microelectronic mechanical components are becoming so inexpensive to manufacture that we can anticipate combining logic circuits, microsensors, actuators, and communications devices integrated on the same chip to produce particles that could be mixed with bulk materials, such as paints, gels, and concrete. Imagine coating bridges or buildings with smart paint that can sense and report on traffic and wind loads and monitor structural integrity of the bridge. A smart paint coating on a wall could sense vibrations, monitor the premises for intruders, or cancel noise. Even more striking, there has been such astounding progress in understanding the biochemical mechanisms in individual cells, that it appears we'll be able to harness these mechanisms to construct digital- logic circuits. Imagine a discipline of cellular engineering that could tailor-make biological cells that function as sensors and actuators, as programmable delivery vehicles for pharmaceuticals, as chemical factories for the assembly of nanoscale structures. Fabricating such systems seem to be within our reach, even if it is not yet within our grasp Fabrication, however, is only part of the story. We can envision producing vast quantities of individual computing elements, whether microfabricated particles, engineered cells, or macromolecular computing

  6. Computational Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, C K; Mizobuchi, Y; Poinsot, T J; Smith, P J; Warnatz, J

    2004-08-26

    Progress in the field of computational combustion over the past 50 years is reviewed. Particular attention is given to those classes of models that are common to most system modeling efforts, including fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, liquid sprays, and turbulent flame models. The developments in combustion modeling are placed into the time-dependent context of the accompanying exponential growth in computer capabilities and Moore's Law. Superimposed on this steady growth, the occasional sudden advances in modeling capabilities are identified and their impacts are discussed. Integration of submodels into system models for spark ignition, diesel and homogeneous charge, compression ignition engines, surface and catalytic combustion, pulse combustion, and detonations are described. Finally, the current state of combustion modeling is illustrated by descriptions of a very large jet lifted 3D turbulent hydrogen flame with direct numerical simulation and 3D large eddy simulations of practical gas burner combustion devices.

  7. Computational Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Rylander, Thomas; Bondeson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Computational Electromagnetics is a young and growing discipline, expanding as a result of the steadily increasing demand for software for the design and analysis of electrical devices. This book introduces three of the most popular numerical methods for simulating electromagnetic fields: the finite difference method, the finite element method and the method of moments. In particular it focuses on how these methods are used to obtain valid approximations to the solutions of Maxwell's equations, using, for example, "staggered grids" and "edge elements." The main goal of the book is to make the reader aware of different sources of errors in numerical computations, and also to provide the tools for assessing the accuracy of numerical methods and their solutions. To reach this goal, convergence analysis, extrapolation, von Neumann stability analysis, and dispersion analysis are introduced and used frequently throughout the book. Another major goal of the book is to provide students with enough practical understan...

  8. Spatial Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    2001), Las Vegas, June 2001. [BRM+99] Jonathan Babb, Martin Rinard, Csaba Andras Moritz, Walter Lee, Matthew Frank Rajeev Barua, and Saman...Springer Verlag. [CA88] David E. Culler and Arvind. Resource requirements of dataflow programs. In International Symposium on Computer Architecture...Rajeev Barua, Matthew Frank, Devabhaktuni Srikrishna, Jonathan Babb, Vivek Sarkar, and Saman Amarasinghe. Space-time scheduling of instruction-level

  9. Computational Introspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    to a Theory of Formal Reasoning, by Richard Weyhrauch [Weyhrauch, 1978]; A Model for Deliberation, Action and Introspection, by Jon Doyle [Doyle...program’s progress through a "𔄁 task domain was in [Sussman & Stallman , 1975]. In this system, whenever an assumption was made, the supporting facts...Sussman, G. and Stallman , R. (1975) "Heuristic Techniques in Computer-Aided Circuit Analysis," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, CAS-22, 857

  10. Computer Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Using NASA studies of advanced lunar exploration and colonization, KDT Industries, Inc. and Wesson International have developed MOONBASE, a computer game. The player, or team commander, must build and operate a lunar base using NASA technology. He has 10 years to explore the surface, select a site and assemble structures brought from Earth into an efficient base. The game was introduced in 1991 by Texas Space Grant Consortium.

  11. Music Therapy: A Career in Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    About Music Therapy & Music Therapy Training M usic therapy is a healthcare profession that uses music to help individuals of all ages improve physical, cognitive, emotional, and social functioning. Music therapists work with children and adults with developmental ...

  12. Computer Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattani, Nikesh S.

    2017-06-01

    Ideally, the cataloguing of spectroscopic linelists would not demand laborious and expensive experiments. Whatever an experiment might achieve, the same information would be attainable by running a calculation on a computer. Kolos and Wolniewicz were the first to demonstrate that calculations on a computer can outperform even the most sophisticated molecular spectroscopic experiments of the time, when their 1964 calculations of the dissociation energies of H_2 and D_{2} were found to be more than 1 cm^{-1} larger than the best experiments by Gerhard Herzberg, suggesting the experiment violated a strict variational principle. As explained in his Nobel Lecture, it took 5 more years for Herzberg to perform an experiment which caught up to the accuracy of the 1964 calculations. Today, numerical solutions to the Schrödinger equation, supplemented with relativistic and higher-order quantum electrodynamics (QED) corrections can provide ro-vibrational spectra for molecules that we strongly believe to be correct, even in the absence of experimental data. Why do we believe these calculated spectra are correct if we do not have experiments against which to test them? All evidence seen so far suggests that corrections due to gravity or other forces are not needed for a computer simulated QED spectrum of ro-vibrational energy transitions to be correct at the precision of typical spectrometers. Therefore a computer-generated spectrum can be considered to be as good as one coming from a more conventional spectrometer, and this has been shown to be true not just for the H_2 energies back in 1964, but now also for several other molecules. So are we at the stage where we can launch an array of calculations, each with just the atomic number changed in the input file, to reproduce the NIST energy level databases? Not quite. But I will show that for the 6e^- molecule Li_2, we have reproduced the vibrational spacings to within 0.001 cm^{-1} of the experimental spectrum, and I will

  13. Computer assisted radiology and surgery. CARS 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-06-15

    The conference proceedings include contributions to the following topics: (1) CARS Clinical Day: minimally invasive spiral surgery, interventional radiology; (2) CARS - computer assisted radiology and surgery: ophthalmology, stimulation methods, new approaches to diagnosis and therapy; (3) Computer assisted radiology 24th International congress and exhibition: computer tomography and magnetic resonance, digital angiographic imaging, digital radiography, ultrasound, computer assisted radiation therapy, medical workstations, image processing and display; (4) 14th Annual conference of the International Society for computer aided surgery; ENT-CMF head and neck surgery computer-assisted neurosurgery, cardiovascular surgery, image guided liver surgery, abdominal and laparoscopic surgery, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery, image processing and visualization, surgical robotics and instrumentation, surgical modeling, simulation and education; (5) 28th International EuroPACS meeting: image distribution and integration strategies, planning and evaluation, telemedicine and standards, workflow and data flow in radiology; (6) 11th CARS/SPIE/EuroPACS joint workshop on surgical PACS and the digital operating, management and assessment of OR systems and integration; (7) 12th International workshop on computer-aided diagnosis: special session on breast CAD, special session on thoracic CAD, special session on abdominal brain, lumbar spine CAD; (8) 16th computed Maxillofacial imaging congress: computed maxillofacial imaging in dental implantology, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics; approaches to 3D maxillofacial imaging; surgical navigation; (9) 2nd EuroNOTES/CARS workshop on NOTES: an interdisciplinary challenge; (10) 2nd EPMA/CARS workshop on personalized medicine and ICT.; (11)poster sessions.

  14. Narrative therapy, family therapy and history

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This article was inspired by listening to the interesting plenary on the influence of narrative therapy on family therapy at the AFT annual conference in Manchester in September 2008. One of the issues raised concerned the historical connections between narrative therapy and the broader family therapy field. The contributors seemed keen to avoid a split between narrative therapy and the broader family therapy field and, instead, to find connections but this issue seemed difficult to negotiate...

  15. Antiproton therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Knudsen, Helge V; Bassler, Niels; Alsner, Jan; Beyer, Gerd-Jürgen; DeMarco, John J; Doser, Michael; Hajdukovic, Dragan; Hartley, Oliver; Iwamoto, Keisuke S; Jäkel, Oliver; Kovacevic, Sandra; Møller, Søren Pape; Overgaard, Jens; Petersen, Jørgen B; Ratib, Osman; Solberg, Timothy D; Vranjes, Sanja; Wouters, Bradly G

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the most important means we have for the treatment of localised tumours. It is therefore essential to optimize the technique, and a lot of effort goes into this endeavour. Since the proposal by Wilson in 1946 [R.R. Wilson, Radiology use of fast protons, Radiology 47 (1946) 487.] that proton beams might be better than photon beams at inactivating cancer cells, hadron therapy has been developed in parallel with photon therapy and a substantial knowledge has been gained on the effects of pions, protons and heavy ions (mostly carbon ions). Here we discuss the recent measurements by the CERN ACE collaboration of the biological effects of antiprotons, and argue that these particles very likely are the optimal agents for radiotherapy.

  16. [Functional therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lima, G R

    1977-03-01

    This article attempts to present and explain the therapy for the most common gynecological and nongynecological problems caused by oral contraception (OC). Carcinogenic side effects include vulvar and cervical cancer, which can be treated with cryosurgery, breast cancer, usually treated either by termination of OC, or by additional hormonal therapy, endometritis, and endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma, a result of the action of progesterone on tissues continuously stimulated by estrogen. Endocrinal aspects of OC include all menopausal syndromes, most dermatological side effects, such as acne and hirsutism, nonpuerperal galactorrhea, usually due to hyperprolactinemia, and which responds very well to treatment with bromocriptine, and infections such as herpes genitalis, candida albicans, and others. OC can also cause vulvar distrophy, to be treated with testosterone propionate, and anovulation, which responds very well to treatment with clomiphene.

  17. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfi, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    may cause detrimental long-term effects. Three studies have examined the effect of music therapy procedural support (MTPS) under needle procedures. Consequently, this study aims at examining the effects of MTPS in an RCT. Moreover, the study addresses clinical aspects of the applied MT intervention...... and provides research-based clinical tools. Methods 41 children (1 to 10 years) were enrolled and underwent a single PIVA procedure. The children were randomly assigned to either an MT or a comparable control group receiving PIVA. In addition, the music therapy (MT) group received individualised MTPS (i.......e. music alternate engagement) before, during, and after PIVA. The intervention was performed by a trained music therapist and comprised preferred songs, improvised songs/music, and instrument playing. The study was carried out in accordance with the rules in force regarding research ethics and clinical MT...

  18. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondalen, Gro; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2012-01-01

    Music therapy (MT) is most commonly defined as an intervention where “the therapist helps the client to promote health, using music experiences and the relationships developing through them” (Bruscia 1998). Also other definitions of MT agree that a therapeutic relationship is important for a music...... intervention to be considered MT. Other interventions that “use music for health-related goals, but in ways that do not qualify as music therapy” (Gold 2009), may be described as music medicine, or simply as music listening. In this text we elaborate on an overview chapter covering some of the different major...... music therapy orientations/models (Guided Imagery and Music, Nordoff-Robbins, Psychoanalytic, Cognitive-behavioral etc), their theoretical foundations and their practical approaches to health and wellbeing or ‘health musicking’. The relational context – the interplay of (expressive as well as receptive...

  19. The role of computed tomography in evaluation of a white matter edema during postoperative brain radiation therapy; Beobachtung von Oedemen in der weissen Substanz waehrend postoperativer Hirnbestrahlung. Die Rolle computertomographischer Untersuchungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thalacker, U.; Somogyi, A.; Nemeth, G. [Imre-Haynal-Univ. fuer Gesundheitswissenschaften, Strahlentherapeutischer Lehrstuhl, Budapest (Hungary); Liszka, G. [Staatliches Onkologisches Inst., Roentgendiagnostische Abt., Budapest (Hungary)

    1998-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine on CT whether a relation exists between a radiation induced brain edema, treated with diuretics and its corresponding Houndsfield Units (HU). Seventy-five patients (age 20 to 65 years), suffering from headaches but without hypertension, brain tumors or cerebral arteriosclerosis were examined as a reference group. The second group consisted of 20 patients with brain tumors, which underwent brain surgery. HU of the white matter were measured before radiation and after 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy. The third group consisted of 64 patients with brain tumors, that underwent postsurgical radiation therapy. Prior to radiation therapy 40 mg furosemide per os were given. CT-examinations, intensified diuretic therapy and follow-up examinations were performed as in group 2. If, despite therapy, the HU decreased, infusion of mannites was added. The second and third group of patients recieved radiation therapy with telecobalt and/or a linear accelerator (6 and 9 MeV X-ray). In the first group white matter density was >30 HU. In the second group white matter density was between 25 and 29 HU prior to diuretic therapy. Under 25 HU a continuous headache, vertigo and confusion ensued. Diuretic therapy was intensified until the measured values reached 25 to 29 HU. Forty-seven of 64 patients in the third group had 25 to 29 HU prior to radiation therapy. Despite prophylactic diuretic therapy in 28 cases density decreased to 20 to 24 HU. Improvement was achived with an additional glycerine per os. The measured values reached again 25 to 29 HU. In 1 case the values dropped under 20 HU. Additional mannite infusion was necessary. In 17 to 64 patients white matter density was >30 HU prior to radiation therapy, dropping to 25 to 29 HU during radiation. Prophylactic diuretic administration kept the values in this range. A correlation between age of the patient, radiation source, total dose, tumor histology and degree of change in HU was not found. (orig

  20. MUSIC THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Archana Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Music Therapy is an established health profession in which music is used within a therapeutic relationship to address to physical, emotional, cognitive and social needs of individuals. After assessing the strength and needs of each client, the qualified music therapist provides the indicated treatment including creating, singing, moving to and/or listening to music. Through musical involvement in therapeutic context, clients, abilities are strengthened and transfer to other areas of their liv...

  1. Types of hormone therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor for regular checkups when taking HT. Alternative Names HRT- types; Estrogen replacement therapy - types; ERT- types of hormone therapy; Hormone replacement therapy - types; Menopause - types of hormone therapy; HT - types; Menopausal hormone ...

  2. About Occupational Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if}} {{{tweet}}} About Occupational Therapy What Is Occupational Therapy? Occupational therapy practitioners ask, "What matters to you?" not, " ... about our science-driven and evidence-based profession. Occupational Therapy: Improving Function While Controlling Costs 4 4 The ...

  3. Radiation Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Giving Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions Radiation Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Radiation Therapy Print A ... have many questions and concerns about it. About Radiation Therapy In radiation therapy, high-energy radiation from ...

  4. Multiparty Computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziembowski, Stefan

    papers [1,2]. In [1] we assume that the adversary can corrupt any set from a given adversary structure. In this setting we study a problem of doing efficient VSS and MPC given an access to a secret sharing scheme (SS). For all adversary structures where VSS is possible at all, we show that, up...... here and discuss other problems caused by the adaptiveness. All protocols in the thesis are formally specified and the proofs of their security are given. [1]Ronald Cramer, Ivan Damgård, Stefan Dziembowski, Martin Hirt, and Tal Rabin. Efficient multiparty computations with dishonest minority...

  5. Customizable computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yu-Ting; Gill, Michael; Reinman, Glenn; Xiao, Bingjun

    2015-01-01

    Since the end of Dennard scaling in the early 2000s, improving the energy efficiency of computation has been the main concern of the research community and industry. The large energy efficiency gap between general-purpose processors and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) motivates the exploration of customizable architectures, where one can adapt the architecture to the workload. In this Synthesis lecture, we present an overview and introduction of the recent developments on energy-efficient customizable architectures, including customizable cores and accelerators, on-chip memory

  6. Computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennery, D.; Cunningham, R.; Saund, E.; High, J.; Ruoff, C.

    1981-01-01

    The field of computer vision is surveyed and assessed, key research issues are identified, and possibilities for a future vision system are discussed. The problems of descriptions of two and three dimensional worlds are discussed. The representation of such features as texture, edges, curves, and corners are detailed. Recognition methods are described in which cross correlation coefficients are maximized or numerical values for a set of features are measured. Object tracking is discussed in terms of the robust matching algorithms that must be devised. Stereo vision, camera control and calibration, and the hardware and systems architecture are discussed.

  7. Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    campaigning to make it true. Richard   Stallman , founder of the GNU project and the Free  Software Foundation, quoted in The Guardian, September 29,  2008... Richard   Stallman , known for his advocacy of “free software”, thinks cloud computing is  a trap for users—if applications and data are managed “in the cloud

  8. Computational Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lykke

    One of the major challenges in todays post-crisis finance environment is calculating the sensitivities of complex products for hedging and risk management. Historically, these derivatives have been determined using bump-and-revalue, but due to the increasing magnitude of these computations does...... this get increasingly dicult on available hardware. In this paper three alternative methods for evaluating derivatives are compared: the complex-step derivative approximation, the algorithmic forward mode and the algorithmic backward mode. These are applied to the price of the Credit Value Adjustment...

  9. Neutron Therapy in the 21st Century

    CERN Document Server

    Kroc, Thomas K

    2014-01-01

    The question of whether or not neutron therapy works has been answered. It is a qualified yes, as is the case with all of radiation therapy. But, neutron therapy has not kept pace with the rest of radiation therapy in terms of beam delivery techniques. Modern photon and proton based external beam radiotherapy routinely implements image-guidance, beam intensity-modulation and 3-dimensional treatment planning. The current iteration of fast neutron radiotherapy does not. Addressing these deficiencies, however, is not a matter of technology or understanding, but resources. The future of neutron therapy lies in better understanding the interaction processes of radiation with living tissue. A combination of radiobiology and computer simulations is required in order to optimize the use of neutron therapy. The questions that need to be answered are: Can we connect the macroscopic with the microscopic? What is the optimum energy? What is the optimum energy spectrum? Can we map the sensitivity of the various tissues of...

  10. Computational crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Irem; Charbonneau, Patrick; Snell, Edward H

    2016-07-15

    Crystallization is a key step in macromolecular structure determination by crystallography. While a robust theoretical treatment of the process is available, due to the complexity of the system, the experimental process is still largely one of trial and error. In this article, efforts in the field are discussed together with a theoretical underpinning using a solubility phase diagram. Prior knowledge has been used to develop tools that computationally predict the crystallization outcome and define mutational approaches that enhance the likelihood of crystallization. For the most part these tools are based on binary outcomes (crystal or no crystal), and the full information contained in an assembly of crystallization screening experiments is lost. The potential of this additional information is illustrated by examples where new biological knowledge can be obtained and where a target can be sub-categorized to predict which class of reagents provides the crystallization driving force. Computational analysis of crystallization requires complete and correctly formatted data. While massive crystallization screening efforts are under way, the data available from many of these studies are sparse. The potential for this data and the steps needed to realize this potential are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Gestalt therapy.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, J; Poupard, D

    1978-01-01

    The authors describe Gestalt Therapy. They retrace its fundamental theoretical axes. These are psychoanalysis, character analysis, the german Gestalt theory of perception, existentialism, and the Orient. Some principal concepts are then elaborated more fully such as the cycle of awareness, desensitization, excitation anxiety and the five defense mechanisms: retroflection, introjection, projection, deflection, and confluence. The nature and goals of the therapeutic process are also described before the presentation of some techniques specific to this approach such as enactment and role playing. Finally, certain basic Gestalt rules, which aim at facilitating and intensifying the communication process among group members, are enunciated.

  12. Nutritional Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Julie

    2016-03-01

    This article provides the reader with steps needed to accurately assess patient nutrition behaviors that contribute to weight gain, inability to lose weight, or inability to sustain weight loss. Evidence-based approaches in nutrition therapy that can create the daily energy deficit needed to produce 1/2 to 2 pounds of weight loss per week, and the strategies to create the energy deficit, are presented. To optimize health, long-term weight loss maintenance is needed. The benefits of using a multidisciplinary team approach in treating obesity are highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Computational neuroscience

    CERN Document Server

    Blackwell, Kim L

    2014-01-01

    Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science provides a forum for discussion of new discoveries, approaches, and ideas in molecular biology. It contains contributions from leaders in their fields and abundant references. This volume brings together different aspects of, and approaches to, molecular and multi-scale modeling, with applications to a diverse range of neurological diseases. Mathematical and computational modeling offers a powerful approach for examining the interaction between molecular pathways and ionic channels in producing neuron electrical activity. It is well accepted that non-linear interactions among diverse ionic channels can produce unexpected neuron behavior and hinder a deep understanding of how ion channel mutations bring about abnormal behavior and disease. Interactions with the diverse signaling pathways activated by G protein coupled receptors or calcium influx adds an additional level of complexity. Modeling is an approach to integrate myriad data sources into a cohesiv...

  14. Social Computing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a momentous transformation in the way people interact with each other. Content is now co-produced, shared, classified, and rated by millions of people, while attention has become the ephemeral and valuable resource that everyone seeks to acquire. This talk will describe how social attention determines the production and consumption of content within both the scientific community and social media, how its dynamics can be used to predict the future and the role that social media plays in setting the public agenda. About the speaker Bernardo Huberman is a Senior HP Fellow and Director of the Social Computing Lab at Hewlett Packard Laboratories. He received his Ph.D. in Physics from the University of Pennsylvania, and is currently a Consulting Professor in the Department of Applied Physics at Stanford University. He originally worked in condensed matter physics, ranging from superionic conductors to two-dimensional superfluids, and made contributions to the theory of critical p...

  15. Computer Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur AĞAOĞLU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is crucial that gifted and talented students should be supported by different educational methods for their interests and skills. The science and arts centres (gifted centres provide the Supportive Education Program for these students with an interdisciplinary perspective. In line with the program, an ICT lesson entitled “Computer Tree” serves for identifying learner readiness levels, and defining the basic conceptual framework. A language teacher also contributes to the process, since it caters for the creative function of the basic linguistic skills. The teaching technique is applied for 9-11 aged student level. The lesson introduces an evaluation process including basic information, skills, and interests of the target group. Furthermore, it includes an observation process by way of peer assessment. The lesson is considered to be a good sample of planning for any subject, for the unpredicted convergence of visual and technical abilities with linguistic abilities.

  16. computer networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. U. Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we construct a new dynamic model for the Token Bucket (TB algorithm used in computer networks and use systems approach for its analysis. This model is then augmented by adding a dynamic model for a multiplexor at an access node where the TB exercises a policing function. In the model, traffic policing, multiplexing and network utilization are formally defined. Based on the model, we study such issues as (quality of service QoS, traffic sizing and network dimensioning. Also we propose an algorithm using feedback control to improve QoS and network utilization. Applying MPEG video traces as the input traffic to the model, we verify the usefulness and effectiveness of our model.

  17. ELEMENTS OF COMPUTER MATHEMATICS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATHEMATICS , COMPUTERS), (*COMPUTERS, MATHEMATICS ), (*NUMERICAL ANALYSIS, COMPUTERS), TABLES(DATA), FUNCTIONS( MATHEMATICS ), EQUATIONS, INTEGRALS, DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, POLYNOMIALS, LEAST SQUARES METHOD, HARMONIC ANALYSIS, USSR

  18. Recent Advances in Computational Modeling of Thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Yesudasan, Sumith; Averett, Rodney D.

    2018-01-01

    The study of thrombosis is crucial to understand and develop new therapies for diseases like deep vein thrombosis, diabetes related strokes, pulmonary embolism etc. The last two decades have seen an exponential growth in studies related to the blood clot formation using computational tools and through experiments. Despite of this growth, the complete mechanism behind thrombus formation and hemostasis is not known yet. The computational models and methods used in this context are diversified i...

  19. ENVISION, developing SPECT imaging for particle therapy

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Particle therapy is an advanced technique of cancer radiation therapy, using protons or other ions to target the cancerous mass. ENVISION aims at developing medical imaging tools to improve the dose delivery to the patient, to ensure a safer and more effective treatment. The animation illustrates the use of Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) for monitoring the dose during treatment. Produced by: CERN KT/Life Sciences and ENVISION Project Management: Manuela Cirilli 3D animation: Jeroen Huijben, Nymus3d

  20. Task-Driven Computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhenyu

    2000-01-01

    .... They will want to use the resources to perform computing tasks. Today's computing infrastructure does not support this model of computing very well because computers interact with users in terms of low level abstractions...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Sinuses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Sinuses Computed tomography (CT) of the sinuses ... of CT of the Sinuses? What is CT (Computed Tomography) of the Sinuses? Computed tomography, more commonly known ...

  2. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  3. Advances in radiation therapy dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paliwal Bhudatt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, there has been an explosion of new radiation therapy planning and delivery tools. We went through a rapid transition from conventional three-dimensional (3D conformal radiation therapy to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT treatments, and additional new techniques for motion-adaptive radiation therapy are being introduced. These advances push the frontiers in our effort to provide better patient care; and with the addition of IMRT, temporal dimensions are major challenges for the radiotherapy patient dosimetry and delivery verification. Advanced techniques are less tolerant to poor implementation than are standard techniques. Mis-administrations are more difficult to detect and can possibly lead to poor outcomes for some patients. Instead of presenting a manual on quality assurance for radiation therapy, this manuscript provides an overview of dosimetry verification tools and a focused discussion on breath holding, respiratory gating and the applications of four-dimensional computed tomography in motion management. Some of the major challenges in the above areas are discussed.

  4. Computational technologies advanced topics

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses questions of numerical solutions of applied problems on parallel computing systems. Nowadays, engineering and scientific computations are carried out on parallel computing systems, which provide parallel data processing on a few computing nodes. In constructing computational algorithms, mathematical problems are separated in relatively independent subproblems in order to solve them on a single computing node.

  5. Computing handbook computer science and software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Teofilo; Tucker, Allen

    2014-01-01

    Overview of Computer Science Structure and Organization of Computing Peter J. DenningComputational Thinking Valerie BarrAlgorithms and Complexity Data Structures Mark WeissBasic Techniques for Design and Analysis of Algorithms Edward ReingoldGraph and Network Algorithms Samir Khuller and Balaji RaghavachariComputational Geometry Marc van KreveldComplexity Theory Eric Allender, Michael Loui, and Kenneth ReganFormal Models and Computability Tao Jiang, Ming Li, and Bala

  6. Computational assessment of deep-seated tumor treatment capability of the 9Be(d,n)10B reaction for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (AB-BNCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capoulat, M E; Minsky, D M; Kreiner, A J

    2014-03-01

    The 9Be(d,n)10B reaction was studied as an epithermal neutron source for brain tumor treatment through Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In BNCT, neutrons are classified according to their energies as thermal (10 keV). For deep-seated tumors epithermal neutrons are needed. Since a fraction of the neutrons produced by this reaction are quite fast (up to 5-6 MeV, even for low-bombarding energies), an efficient beam shaping design is required. This task was carried out (1) by selecting the combinations of bombarding energy and target thickness that minimize the highest-energy neutron production; and (2) by the appropriate choice of the Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) geometry, for each of the combinations found in (1). The BSA geometry was determined as the configuration that maximized the dose deliverable to the tumor in a 1 h treatment, within the constraints imposed by the healthy tissue dose adopted tolerance. Doses were calculated through the MCNP code. The highest dose deliverable to the tumor was found for an 8 μm target and a deuteron beam of 1.45 MeV. Tumor weighted doses ≥40 Gy can be delivered up to about 5 cm in depth, with a maximum value of 51 Gy at a depth of about 2 cm. This dose performance can be improved by relaxing the treatment time constraint and splitting the treatment into two 1-h sessions. These good treatment capabilities strengthen the prospects for a potential use of this reaction in BNCT. Copyright © 2013 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Image Findings of a Rare Case of Neuroendocrine Tumor Metastatic to Orbital Extraocular Muscle in Gallium-68 DOTANOC Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Therapy with Lutetium-177 DOTATATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Joseph, Jephy; Upadhya, Indra; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2017-01-01

    Metastatic tumor is one of several etiologies of space-occupying masses in the orbit that accounts for 1-13% of all orbital masses. In the adult patient population, breast cancer is the most common tumor to metastasize to the orbit, followed by metastasis from the lung, prostate, and gastrointestinal tract. Carcinoid tumors are rare neuroendocrine neoplasms derived from enterochromaffin cells, which are found primarily in the gastrointestinal tract and bronchial tree. Liver metastases are the classic presentation of distant disease. Although rare, metastatic carcinoid to the extraocular muscles (EOMs) has been relatively well described in both retrospective case reports and clinical series in the ophthalmology literature, but not in nuclear medicine. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) using Ga-68-labeled somatostatin-analogues have shown superiority over other modalities for imaging of Neuroendocrine tumor We describe a case of bilateral EOM metastasis from carcinoid lung in Ga-68 DOTANOC PET/CT and treatment with Lu -177 DOTATATE.

  8. Deciding about hormone therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to continue seeing your doctor for regular checkups. Alternative Names HRT - deciding; Estrogen replacement therapy - deciding; ERT- deciding; Hormone replacement therapy - deciding; Menopause - deciding; HT - deciding; Menopausal hormone therapy - deciding; MHT - ...

  9. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  10. Dystonia: Physical Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Online Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Physical Therapy Physical therapy may be an important component of treating dystonia ... everyday tasks, Since dystonia is a neurological disorder, physical therapy does not treat the dystonia directly but rather ...

  11. Laser therapy for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000905.htm Laser therapy for cancer To use the sharing features on ... Lasers are also used on the skin. How Laser Therapy is Used Laser therapy can be used to: ...

  12. Occupational Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Late for the Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias Occupational Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Occupational Therapy Print A A ... for some kids. continue Kids Who Might Need Occupational Therapy According to the AOTA, kids with these medical ...

  13. Music therapy and depression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Assche, E; De Backer, J; Vermote, R

    2015-01-01

    .... This is the reason why music therapy is also used to treat depression. To examine the efficacy of music therapy and to report on the results of recent research into the value of music therapy as a treatment for depression...

  14. American Music Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  15. Endobronchial ablative therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Joseph C; Musani, Ali I

    2013-09-01

    Endobronchial ablative therapies are used to address a variety of malignant and benign airway lesions. By utilizing endobronchial ablative techniques patients with symptomatic airway lesions may receive significant symptom improvement, improved quality of life, and improved life expectancy. Endobronchial ablative therapies include laser, electrocautery, argon plasma coagulation, cryotherapy, brachytherapy, and photodynamic therapy. The choice to use one therapy versus another depends on technical and patient specific factors. This article reviews indications and contraindications for each therapy, discusses details related to each endobronchial ablative therapy, complications of endobronchial ablative therapies, and briefly discusses practical consideration with endobronchial ablative therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Applied Parallel Computing Industrial Computation and Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; NA NA NA Olesen, Dorte

    Proceedings and the Third International Workshop on Applied Parallel Computing in Industrial Problems and Optimization (PARA96)......Proceedings and the Third International Workshop on Applied Parallel Computing in Industrial Problems and Optimization (PARA96)...

  17. Further computer appreciation

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, T F

    2014-01-01

    Further Computer Appreciation is a comprehensive cover of the principles and aspects in computer appreciation. The book starts by describing the development of computers from the first to the third computer generations, to the development of processors and storage systems, up to the present position of computers and future trends. The text tackles the basic elements, concepts and functions of digital computers, computer arithmetic, input media and devices, and computer output. The basic central processor functions, data storage and the organization of data by classification of computer files,

  18. Computational methods for molecular imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Kuangyu; Li, Shuo

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains original submissions on the development and application of molecular imaging computing. The editors invited authors to submit high-quality contributions on a wide range of topics including, but not limited to: • Image Synthesis & Reconstruction of Emission Tomography (PET, SPECT) and other Molecular Imaging Modalities • Molecular Imaging Enhancement • Data Analysis of Clinical & Pre-clinical Molecular Imaging • Multi-Modal Image Processing (PET/CT, PET/MR, SPECT/CT, etc.) • Machine Learning and Data Mining in Molecular Imaging. Molecular imaging is an evolving clinical and research discipline enabling the visualization, characterization and quantification of biological processes taking place at the cellular and subcellular levels within intact living subjects. Computational methods play an important role in the development of molecular imaging, from image synthesis to data analysis and from clinical diagnosis to therapy individualization. This work will bring readers fro...

  19. Democratizing Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Jane; Goode, Joanna; Ryoo, Jean J.

    2015-01-01

    Computer science programs are too often identified with a narrow stratum of the student population, often white or Asian boys who have access to computers at home. But because computers play such a huge role in our world today, all students can benefit from the study of computer science and the opportunity to build skills related to computing. The…

  20. Information and computation

    OpenAIRE

    Vogler, Walter

    2000-01-01

    In this chapter, concepts related to information and computation are reviewed in the context of human computation. A brief introduction to information theory and different types of computation is given. Two examples of human computation systems, online social networks and Wikipedia, are used to illustrate how these can be described and compared in terms of information and computation.

  1. PET/CT in Radiation Therapy Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil

    2018-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is an important component of the management of lymphoma patients. Most lymphomas are metabolically active and accumulate 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Positron emission tomography with computer tomography (PET/CT) imaging using FDG is used routinely in staging and treatment...

  2. A NEWLY MARRIED COUPLE SEEKING MAR ITAL THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Srivarshini

    2015-01-01

    I conducted a mental Health Assessment and Marital therapy / Couple Therapy of a young newly married couple at my clinic. Husband ( Mr. A ) was 28 years old Computer Engineer and wife ( Mrs. A ) was 23 years old, graduate and a team leader in sports (Football). They were married 3 months ago and it was an arranged ...

  3. Photodynamic therapy: A new light for the developing world ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... In one article, photodynamic therapy (PDT) was commended as the most suitable method for cancer therapy in the Developing World. PDT is cost effective ... No engineer, computerized dosimetry computations, or additional costs for isotope re-treatment are required, as in radiotherapy.

  4. Characterizing Computers And Predicting Computing Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Barrera, Rafael H.

    1991-01-01

    Improved method for evaluation and comparison of computers running same or different FORTRAN programs devised. Enables one to predict time necessary to run given "benchmark" or other standard program on given computer, in scalar mode and without optimization of codes generated by compiler. Such "benchmark" running times are principal measures used to characterize performances of computers; of interest to designers, manufacturers, programmers, and users.

  5. Brain-Computer Interfaces for HCI and Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Tan, Desney; Allison, Brandan; Millán, Jose del R.; Graimann, Bernhard; Jackson, Melody Moore

    2008-01-01

    We study the research themes and the state-of-the-art of brain-computer interaction. Brain-computer interface research has seen much progress in the medical domain, for example for prosthesis control or as biofeedback therapy for the treatment of neurological disorders. Here, however, we look at

  6. Physical Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Physical Therapy KidsHealth / For Parents / Physical Therapy Print en español Terapia física Physical Therapy Basics Doctors often recommend physical therapy (PT) for ...

  7. Art Therapy Verses Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giacco, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of my paper is to identify the difference between psychotherapy and art therapy. Then to introduce a technique within the field of art therapy that is relevant to neuro-plasticity Del Giacco Neuro Art Therapy. The paper identifies the importance of the amygdala and the hippocampus within the role of art therapy. Supporting…

  8. Computers and the landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary H. Elsner

    1979-01-01

    Computers can analyze and help to plan the visual aspects of large wildland landscapes. This paper categorizes and explains current computer methods available. It also contains a futuristic dialogue between a landscape architect and a computer.

  9. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) - Spine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Spine Computed tomography (CT) of the spine is a ... the Spine? What is CT Scanning of the Spine? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT ...

  11. DNA computing models

    CERN Document Server

    Ignatova, Zoya; Zimmermann, Karl-Heinz

    2008-01-01

    In this excellent text, the reader is given a comprehensive introduction to the field of DNA computing. The book emphasizes computational methods to tackle central problems of DNA computing, such as controlling living cells, building patterns, and generating nanomachines.

  12. Computational Intelligence, Cyber Security and Computational Models

    CERN Document Server

    Anitha, R; Lekshmi, R; Kumar, M; Bonato, Anthony; Graña, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This book contains cutting-edge research material presented by researchers, engineers, developers, and practitioners from academia and industry at the International Conference on Computational Intelligence, Cyber Security and Computational Models (ICC3) organized by PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India during December 19–21, 2013. The materials in the book include theory and applications for design, analysis, and modeling of computational intelligence and security. The book will be useful material for students, researchers, professionals, and academicians. It will help in understanding current research trends and findings and future scope of research in computational intelligence, cyber security, and computational models.

  13. Soft computing in computer and information science

    CERN Document Server

    Fray, Imed; Pejaś, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a carefully selected and reviewed collection of papers presented during the 19th Advanced Computer Systems conference ACS-2014. The Advanced Computer Systems conference concentrated from its beginning on methods and algorithms of artificial intelligence. Further future brought new areas of interest concerning technical informatics related to soft computing and some more technological aspects of computer science such as multimedia and computer graphics, software engineering, web systems, information security and safety or project management. These topics are represented in the present book under the categories Artificial Intelligence, Design of Information and Multimedia Systems, Information Technology Security and Software Technologies.

  14. Computer Virus and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Tutut Handayani; Soenarto Usna,Drs.MMSI

    2004-01-01

    Since its appearance the first time in the mid-1980s, computer virus has invited various controversies that still lasts to this day. Along with the development of computer systems technology, viruses komputerpun find new ways to spread itself through a variety of existing communications media. This paper discusses about some things related to computer viruses, namely: the definition and history of computer viruses; the basics of computer viruses; state of computer viruses at this time; and ...

  15. Computing technology in the 1980's. [computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, H. S.

    1978-01-01

    Advances in computing technology have been led by consistently improving semiconductor technology. The semiconductor industry has turned out ever faster, smaller, and less expensive devices since transistorized computers were first introduced 20 years ago. For the next decade, there appear to be new advances possible, with the rate of introduction of improved devices at least equal to the historic trends. The implication of these projections is that computers will enter new markets and will truly be pervasive in business, home, and factory as their cost diminishes and their computational power expands to new levels. The computer industry as we know it today will be greatly altered in the next decade, primarily because the raw computer system will give way to computer-based turn-key information and control systems.

  16. Music therapy in kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Šírová, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    This work deals with the subject of music therapy in a special kindergarten for the children with combined disabilities. In the theoretical part it clarifies the concept and principle of music therapy and characterizes the types of disabilities that occur at researched clients. As a research method were used observation and interviews with three music therapists from the institution. KEYWORDS Music therapy, preschool education, special pedagogy, group music therapy,individual music therapy, p...

  17. Cloud Computing Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Şiclovan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing was and it will be a new way of providing Internet services and computers. This calculation approach is based on many existing services, such as the Internet, grid computing, Web services. Cloud computing as a system aims to provide on demand services more acceptable as price and infrastructure. It is exactly the transition from computer to a service offered to the consumers as a product delivered online. This paper is meant to describe the quality of cloud computing services, analyzing the advantages and characteristics offered by it. It is a theoretical paper.Keywords: Cloud computing, QoS, quality of cloud computing

  18. Computer hardware fault administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  19. Computer jargon explained

    CERN Document Server

    Enticknap, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Computer Jargon Explained is a feature in Computer Weekly publications that discusses 68 of the most commonly used technical computing terms. The book explains what the terms mean and why the terms are important to computer professionals. The text also discusses how the terms relate to the trends and developments that are driving the information technology industry. Computer jargon irritates non-computer people and in turn causes problems for computer people. The technology and the industry are changing so rapidly; it is very hard even for professionals to keep updated. Computer people do not

  20. Quantum computational supremacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrow, Aram W.; Montanaro, Ashley

    2017-09-01

    The field of quantum algorithms aims to find ways to speed up the solution of computational problems by using a quantum computer. A key milestone in this field will be when a universal quantum computer performs a computational task that is beyond the capability of any classical computer, an event known as quantum supremacy. This would be easier to achieve experimentally than full-scale quantum computing, but involves new theoretical challenges. Here we present the leading proposals to achieve quantum supremacy, and discuss how we can reliably compare the power of a classical computer to the power of a quantum computer.

  1. Plasticity: modeling & computation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borja, Ronaldo Israel

    2013-01-01

    .... "Plasticity Modeling & Computation" is a textbook written specifically for students who want to learn the theoretical, mathematical, and computational aspects of inelastic deformation in solids...

  2. Computers and data processing

    CERN Document Server

    Deitel, Harvey M

    1985-01-01

    Computers and Data Processing provides information pertinent to the advances in the computer field. This book covers a variety of topics, including the computer hardware, computer programs or software, and computer applications systems.Organized into five parts encompassing 19 chapters, this book begins with an overview of some of the fundamental computing concepts. This text then explores the evolution of modern computing systems from the earliest mechanical calculating devices to microchips. Other chapters consider how computers present their results and explain the storage and retrieval of

  3. Proton beam therapy control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michael A.; Beloussov, Alexandre V.; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B.; Salem, Dana

    2010-09-21

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  4. Occupational therapy students' perceptions of occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Merrill June; Rodger, Sylvia; Hall, Anna R

    2012-10-01

    An understanding of students' perceptions of occupational therapy on entry is required to recognise how professional socialisation occurs through curriculum. Findings pertain to a qualitative study investigating students' perceptions of occupational therapy upon entry to two occupational therapy programmes in Australia. Students commencing Bachelor of Occupational Therapy and Masters of Occupational Therapy Studies programmes participated in the study (n = 462). A purpose-designed questionnaire was distributed to students in the first lecture of each programme. Preliminary analysis comprised identification of keywords/phrases and coding categories were generated from patterns of keywords. Frequency counts and percentages of keywords/phrases within categories were completed. Students' responses were categorised as 'what' occupational therapists do; 'how' they do it; 'why' they do it; and 'who' they work with. In 'what' occupational therapists do students frequently described 'helping' people. Both undergraduate and graduate entry masters students used the term 'rehabilitation' to describe how occupational therapy is done, with graduate entry students occasionally responding with 'through occupation' and 'modifying the environment'. Students perceived the 'why' of occupational therapy as getting back to 'everyday activities', with some students emphasising returning to 'normal' activities or life. Regarding the 'who' category, students also thought occupational therapists worked with people with an 'injury' or 'disability'. Students entered their occupational therapy programmes with perceptions consistent with the general public's views of occupational therapy. However, graduate entry students exposed to a pre-reading package prior to entry had more advanced occupational therapy concepts than undergraduate students. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2011 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... skull or to plan radiation therapy for brain cancer. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries ... in the paranasal sinuses. plan radiation therapy for cancer of the brain or other tissues. guide the ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scans in children should always be done with low-dose technique. top of page What are the ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and ...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your face, sinuses, and skull or to plan radiation therapy for brain cancer. In emergency cases, it can ... changes are present in the paranasal sinuses. plan radiation therapy for cancer of the brain or other tissues. ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your face, sinuses, and skull or to plan radiation therapy for brain cancer. In emergency cases, it ... changes are present in the paranasal sinuses. plan radiation therapy for cancer of the brain or other ...

  9. Advances in unconventional computing

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The unconventional computing is a niche for interdisciplinary science, cross-bred of computer science, physics, mathematics, chemistry, electronic engineering, biology, material science and nanotechnology. The aims of this book are to uncover and exploit principles and mechanisms of information processing in and functional properties of physical, chemical and living systems to develop efficient algorithms, design optimal architectures and manufacture working prototypes of future and emergent computing devices. This first volume presents theoretical foundations of the future and emergent computing paradigms and architectures. The topics covered are computability, (non-)universality and complexity of computation; physics of computation, analog and quantum computing; reversible and asynchronous devices; cellular automata and other mathematical machines; P-systems and cellular computing; infinity and spatial computation; chemical and reservoir computing. The book is the encyclopedia, the first ever complete autho...

  10. Algorithms for optimizing drug therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lene

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug therapy has become increasingly efficient, with more drugs available for treatment of an ever-growing number of conditions. Yet, drug use is reported to be sub optimal in several aspects, such as dosage, patient's adherence and outcome of therapy. The aim of the current study was to investigate the possibility to optimize drug therapy using computer programs, available on the Internet. Methods One hundred and ten officially endorsed text documents, published between 1996 and 2004, containing guidelines for drug therapy in 246 disorders, were analyzed with regard to information about patient-, disease- and drug-related factors and relationships between these factors. This information was used to construct algorithms for identifying optimum treatment in each of the studied disorders. These algorithms were categorized in order to define as few models as possible that still could accommodate the identified factors and the relationships between them. The resulting program prototypes were implemented in HTML (user interface and JavaScript (program logic. Results Three types of algorithms were sufficient for the intended purpose. The simplest type is a list of factors, each of which implies that the particular patient should or should not receive treatment. This is adequate in situations where only one treatment exists. The second type, a more elaborate model, is required when treatment can by provided using drugs from different pharmacological classes and the selection of drug class is dependent on patient characteristics. An easily implemented set of if-then statements was able to manage the identified information in such instances. The third type was needed in the few situations where the selection and dosage of drugs were depending on the degree to which one or more patient-specific factors were present. In these cases the implementation of an established decision model based on fuzzy sets was required. Computer programs

  11. Music therapy CD creation for initial pediatric radiation therapy: a mixed methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Philippa; O'Callaghan, Clare; Wheeler, Greg; Grocke, Denise

    2010-01-01

    A mixed methods research design was used to investigate the effects of a music therapy CD (MTCD) creation intervention on pediatric oncology patients' distress and coping during their first radiation therapy treatment. The music therapy method involved children creating a music CD using interactive computer-based music software, which was "remixed" by the music therapist-researcher to extend the musical material. Eleven pediatric radiation therapy outpatients aged 6 to 13 years were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, in which they could create a music CD prior to their initial treatment to listen to during radiation therapy, or to a standard care group. Quantitative and qualitative analyses generated multiple perceptions from the pediatric patients, parents, radiation therapy staff, and music therapist-researcher. Ratings of distress during initial radiation therapy treatment were low for all children. The comparison between the two groups found that 67% of the children in the standard care group used social withdrawal as a coping strategy, compared to 0% of the children in the music therapy group; this trend approached significance (p = 0.076). MTCD creation was a fun, engaging, and developmentally appropriate intervention for pediatric patients, which offered a positive experience and aided their use of effective coping strategies to meet the demands of their initial radiation therapy treatment.

  12. Immune control of HIV-1 infection after therapy interruption: immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernaschi Massimo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal stage for initiating antiretroviral therapies in HIV-1 bearing patients is still a matter of debate. Methods We present computer simulations of HIV-1 infection aimed at identifying the pro et contra of immediate as compared to deferred Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART. Results Our simulations highlight that a prompt specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes response is detected when therapy is delayed. Compared to very early initiation of HAART, in deferred treated patients CD8+ T cells manage to mediate the decline of viremia in a shorter time and, at interruption of therapy, the virus experiences a stronger immune pressure. We also observe, however, that the immunological effects of the therapy fade with time in both therapeutic regimens. Thus, within one year from discontinuation, viral burden recovers to the value at which it would level off in the absence of therapy. In summary, simulations show that immediate therapy does not prolong the disease-free period and does not confer a survival benefit when compared to treatment started during the chronic infection phase. Conclusion Our conclusion is that, since there is no therapy to date that guarantees life-long protection, deferral of therapy should be preferred in order to minimize the risk of adverse effects, the occurrence of drug resistances and the costs of treatment.

  13. Proton therapy - Present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Radhe; Grosshans, David

    2017-01-15

    evaluation of PSPT and IMPT require special considerations compared to the processes used for photon treatment planning. The differences in techniques arise from the unique physical properties of protons but are also necessary because of the greater vulnerability of protons to uncertainties, especially from inter- and intra-fractional variations in anatomy. These factors must be considered in designing as well as evaluating treatment plans. In addition to anatomy variations, other sources of uncertainty in dose delivered to the patient include the approximations and assumptions of models used for computing dose distributions for planning of treatments. Furthermore, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons is simplistically assumed to have a constant value of 1.1. In reality, the RBE is variable and a complex function of the energy of protons, dose per fraction, tissue and cell type, end point, etc. These uncertainties, approximations and current technological limitations of proton therapy may limit the achievement of its true potential. Ongoing research is aimed at better understanding the consequences of the various uncertainties on proton therapy and reducing the uncertainties through image-guidance, adaptive radiotherapy, further study of biological properties of protons and the development of novel dose computation and optimization methods. However, residual uncertainties will remain in spite of the best efforts. To increase the resilience of dose distributions in the face of uncertainties and improve our confidence in dose distributions seen on treatment plans, robust optimization techniques are being developed and implemented. We assert that, with such research, proton therapy will be a commonly applied radiotherapy modality for most types of solid cancers in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Precision Medicine and PET/Computed Tomography: Challenges and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Rathan M

    2017-01-01

    Precision Medicine is about selecting the right therapy for the right patient, at the right time, specific to the molecular targets expressed by disease or tumors, in the context of patient's environment and lifestyle. Some of the challenges for delivery of precision medicine in oncology include biomarkers for patient selection for enrichment-precision diagnostics, mapping out tumor heterogeneity that contributes to therapy failures, and early therapy assessment to identify resistance to therapies. PET/computed tomography offers solutions in these important areas of challenges and facilitates implementation of precision medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumović Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. Methods. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice were also obtained by computer analysis. Results. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in all dysphonia parameters after vocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100 of adult patients and 29% (29/100 had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025 in all dysphonia parameters except SD F0 and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD F0, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03. Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (p<0.05. Conclusion. Vocal therapy effectively improves the voice in hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affecting diverse acoustic parameters.

  16. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumović, Gordana; Veselinović, Mila; Arbutina, Tanja; Škrbić, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional) dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice) were also obtained by computer analysis. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (pvocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100) of adult patients and 29% (29/100) had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025) in all dysphonia parameters except SD FO and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD FO, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy) were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03). Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (pVocal therapy effectively improves the voice in hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affectinq diverse acoustic parameters.

  17. Undergraduate computational physics projects on quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, D.

    2015-08-01

    Computational projects on quantum computing suitable for students in a junior-level quantum mechanics course are described. In these projects students write their own programs to simulate quantum computers. Knowledge is assumed of introductory quantum mechanics through the properties of spin 1/2. Initial, more easily programmed projects treat the basics of quantum computation, quantum gates, and Grover's quantum search algorithm. These are followed by more advanced projects to increase the number of qubits and implement Shor's quantum factoring algorithm. The projects can be run on a typical laptop or desktop computer, using most programming languages. Supplementing resources available elsewhere, the projects are presented here in a self-contained format especially suitable for a short computational module for physics students.

  18. Quantum Computer Emulator

    OpenAIRE

    De Raedt, H. A.; Hams, A. H.; Michielsen, K. F. L.; De Raedt, K.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a quantum computer emulator for a generic, general purpose quantum computer. This emulator consists of a simulator of the physical realization of the quantum computer and a graphical user interface to program and control the simulator. We illustrate the use of the quantum computer emulator through various implementations of the Deutsch-Jozsa and Grover's database search algorithm.

  19. Computability and unsolvability

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Martin

    1985-01-01

    ""A clearly written, well-presented survey of an intriguing subject."" - Scientific American. Classic text considers general theory of computability, computable functions, operations on computable functions, Turing machines self-applied, unsolvable decision problems, applications of general theory, mathematical logic, Kleene hierarchy, computable functionals, classification of unsolvable decision problems and more.

  20. Computer Viruses. Technology Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

    This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

  1. Mathematics for computer graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Vince, John

    2006-01-01

    Helps you understand the mathematical ideas used in computer animation, virtual reality, CAD, and other areas of computer graphics. This work also helps you to rediscover the mathematical techniques required to solve problems and design computer programs for computer graphic applications

  2. Marketers increase computer usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    A special study is presented on the use of computers in the fuel oil business. In 1984, 86% of the marketers used a computer and all of them used the computer for the billing. A large portion, 95%, used them to schedule delivery, and 91% used the computer to control credit. All of these percentages were similar to those for 1981.

  3. The Glass Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paesler, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    Digital computers use different kinds of memory, each of which is either volatile or nonvolatile. On most computers only the hard drive memory is nonvolatile, i.e., it retains all information stored on it when the power is off. When a computer is turned on, an operating system stored on the hard drive is loaded into the computer's memory cache and…

  4. Proton computed tomography images with algebraic reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzzi, M. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Civinini, C.; Scaringella, M. [INFN - Florence Division, Florence (Italy); Bonanno, D. [INFN - Catania Division, Catania (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN - Florence Division, Florence (Italy); Carpinelli, M. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Chemistry and Pharmacy Department, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Presti, D. Lo [INFN - Catania Division, Catania (Italy); Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Maccioni, G. [INFN – Cagliari Division, Cagliari (Italy); Pallotta, S. [INFN - Florence Division, Florence (Italy); Department of Biomedical, Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); SOD Fisica Medica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Firenze (Italy); Randazzo, N. [INFN - Catania Division, Catania (Italy); Romano, F. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Sipala, V. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Chemistry and Pharmacy Department, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Talamonti, C. [INFN - Florence Division, Florence (Italy); Department of Biomedical, Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); SOD Fisica Medica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Firenze (Italy); Vanzi, E. [Fisica Sanitaria, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Senese, Siena (Italy)

    2017-02-11

    A prototype of proton Computed Tomography (pCT) system for hadron-therapy has been manufactured and tested in a 175 MeV proton beam with a non-homogeneous phantom designed to simulate high-contrast material. BI-SART reconstruction algorithms have been implemented with GPU parallelism, taking into account of most likely paths of protons in matter. Reconstructed tomography images with density resolutions r.m.s. down to ~1% and spatial resolutions <1 mm, achieved within processing times of ~15′ for a 512×512 pixels image prove that this technique will be beneficial if used instead of X-CT in hadron-therapy.

  5. CARS 2008: Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The proceedings contain contributions to the following topics: digital imaging, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, cardiac and vascular imaging, computer assisted radiation therapy, image processing and display, minimal invasive spinal surgery, computer assisted treatment of the prostate, the interventional radiology suite of the future, interventional oncology, computer assisted neurosurgery, computer assisted head and neck and ENT surgery, cardiovascular surgery, computer assisted orthopedic surgery, image processing and visualization, surgical robotics, instrumentation and navigation, surgical modelling, simulation and education, endoscopy and related techniques, workflow and new concepts in surgery, research training group 1126: intelligent surgery, digital operating room, image distribution and integration strategies, regional PACS and telemedicine, PACS - beyond radiology and E-learning, workflow and standardization, breast CAD, thoracic CAD, abdominal CAD, brain CAD, orthodontics, dentofacial orthopedics and airways, imaging and treating temporomandibular joint conditions, maxillofacial cone beam CT, craniomaxillofacial image fusion and CBCT incidental findings, image guided craniomaxillofacial procedures, imaging as a biomarker for therapy response, computer aided diagnosis. The Poster sessions cover the topics computer aided surgery, Euro PACS meeting, computer assisted radiology, computer aided diagnosis and computer assisted radiology and surgery.

  6. Roadmap to greener computing

    CERN Document Server

    Nguemaleu, Raoul-Abelin Choumin

    2014-01-01

    A concise and accessible introduction to green computing and green IT, this book addresses how computer science and the computer infrastructure affect the environment and presents the main challenges in making computing more environmentally friendly. The authors review the methodologies, designs, frameworks, and software development tools that can be used in computer science to reduce energy consumption and still compute efficiently. They also focus on Computer Aided Design (CAD) and describe what design engineers and CAD software applications can do to support new streamlined business directi

  7. Computer mathematics for programmers

    CERN Document Server

    Abney, Darrell H; Sibrel, Donald W

    1985-01-01

    Computer Mathematics for Programmers presents the Mathematics that is essential to the computer programmer.The book is comprised of 10 chapters. The first chapter introduces several computer number systems. Chapter 2 shows how to perform arithmetic operations using the number systems introduced in Chapter 1. The third chapter covers the way numbers are stored in computers, how the computer performs arithmetic on real numbers and integers, and how round-off errors are generated in computer programs. Chapter 4 details the use of algorithms and flowcharting as problem-solving tools for computer p

  8. Computer security for the computer systems manager

    OpenAIRE

    Helling, William D.

    1982-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis is a primer on the subject of computer security. It is written for the use of computer systems managers and addresses basic concepts of computer security and risk analysis. An example of the techniques employed by a typical military data processing center is included in the form of the written results of an actual on-site survey. Computer security is defined in the context of its scope and an analysis is made of those ...

  9. Study on external beam radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seoung Yul; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Ji, Young Hoon; Lee, Dong Han; Lee, Dong Hoon; Choi, Mun Sik; Yoo, Dae Heon; Lee, Hyo Nam; Kim, Kyeoung Jung

    1999-04-01

    To develop the therapy technique which promote accuracy and convenience in external radiation therapy, to obtain the development of clinical treatment methods for the global competition. The contents of the R and D were 1. structure, process and outcome analysis in radiation therapy department. 2. Development of multimodality treatment in radiation therapy 3. Development of computation using networking techniques 4. Development of quality assurance (QA) system in radiation therapy 5. Development of radiotherapy tools 6. Development of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) tools. The results of the R and D were 1. completion of survey and analysis about Korea radiation therapy status 2. Performing QA analysis about ICR on cervix cancer 3. Trial of multicenter randomized study on lung cancers 4. Setting up inter-departmental LAN using MS NT server and Notes program 5. Development of ionization chamber and dose-rate meter for QA in linear accelerator 6. Development on optimized radiation distribution algorithm for multiple slice 7. Implementation on 3 dimensional volume surface algorithm and 8. Implementation on adaptor and cone for IORT.

  10. Parallel computing works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-23

    An account of the Caltech Concurrent Computation Program (C{sup 3}P), a five year project that focused on answering the question: Can parallel computers be used to do large-scale scientific computations '' As the title indicates, the question is answered in the affirmative, by implementing numerous scientific applications on real parallel computers and doing computations that produced new scientific results. In the process of doing so, C{sup 3}P helped design and build several new computers, designed and implemented basic system software, developed algorithms for frequently used mathematical computations on massively parallel machines, devised performance models and measured the performance of many computers, and created a high performance computing facility based exclusively on parallel computers. While the initial focus of C{sup 3}P was the hypercube architecture developed by C. Seitz, many of the methods developed and lessons learned have been applied successfully on other massively parallel architectures.

  11. Music Therapy and Music Therapy Research. Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This response to Keynote by Prof. Even Ruud (N)"Music Education and Music Therapy seeks to define these two areas with specific focus on tools and methods for analysis of music as these methods are developed in music therapy. This includes that the music therapist, the music and the client create...

  12. Social Volunteer Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Mcmahon; Victor Milenkovic

    2011-01-01

    While both volunteer computing and social networks have proved successful, the merging of these two models is a new field: Social Volunteer Computing. A Social Volunteer Computing system utilizes the relationships within a social network to determine how computational resources flow towards tasks that need to be completed, and the results of these computations are added back into the social network as content. Such a system will provide scientists and artists a new facility to obtain computat...

  13. The digital computer

    CERN Document Server

    Parton, K C

    2014-01-01

    The Digital Computer focuses on the principles, methodologies, and applications of the digital computer. The publication takes a look at the basic concepts involved in using a digital computer, simple autocode examples, and examples of working advanced design programs. Discussions focus on transformer design synthesis program, machine design analysis program, solution of standard quadratic equations, harmonic analysis, elementary wage calculation, and scientific calculations. The manuscript then examines commercial and automatic programming, how computers work, and the components of a computer

  14. Automata and Quantum Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Ambainis, Andris; Yakaryilmaz, Abuzer

    2015-01-01

    Quantum computing is a new model of computation, based on quantum physics. Quantum computers can be exponentially faster than conventional computers for problems such as factoring. Besides full-scale quantum computers, more restricted models such as quantum versions of finite automata have been studied. In this paper, we survey various models of quantum finite automata and their properties. We also provide some open questions and new directions for researchers.

  15. Algorithmically specialized parallel computers

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Lawrence; Gannon, Dennis B

    1985-01-01

    Algorithmically Specialized Parallel Computers focuses on the concept and characteristics of an algorithmically specialized computer.This book discusses the algorithmically specialized computers, algorithmic specialization using VLSI, and innovative architectures. The architectures and algorithms for digital signal, speech, and image processing and specialized architectures for numerical computations are also elaborated. Other topics include the model for analyzing generalized inter-processor, pipelined architecture for search tree maintenance, and specialized computer organization for raster

  16. [Online therapies - what is known about their functionality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Jan-Henry; Joutsenniemi, Kaisla; Holi, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Online therapies are partly automated therapies, in which psychotherapeutic contents have been complemented with computer-aided presentational and educational contents, with a therapist giving support to the progress of the patient. As methods, these therapeutic programs incorporate therapeutic methods that have proven effective, such as remodeling of thoughts, activation of behavior and exposure, empathy, strengthening of cooperative relationship and motivation, and general support for self-reflection. For instance, online therapies already constitute part of the Finnish treatment guidelines on depression. Online therapies are available throughout Finland for the essential psychiatric illnesses.

  17. Brief Therapy: Ronny G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Louis A.

    1983-01-01

    Uses a case study to illustrate brief therapy with a parent and presents some implications for the school psychologist. Brief therapy is an active, focused, incisive intervention especially useful with children referred because of emotional adjustment problems. (Author/JAC)

  18. Virtual particle therapy centre

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Particle therapy is an advanced technique of cancer radiation therapy, using protons or other ions to target the cancerous mass. This advanced technique requires a multi-disciplinary team working in a specialised centre. 3D animation: Nymus3D

  19. Adlerian Play Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottman, Terry; Warlick, Jayne

    1990-01-01

    Describes Adlerian method of play therapy. Claims Adlerian therapy represents an integration of the concepts and techniques of individual psychology into a method of using play to help troubled children. (Author/ABL)

  20. Targeted therapies for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... so they cannot spread. How Does Targeted Therapy Work? Targeted therapy drugs work in a few different ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...