Sample records for therapy bevalac epoch

  1. Heavy ion therapy: Bevalac epoch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, J.R.


    An overview of heavy ion therapy at the Bevelac complex (SuperHILac linear accelerator + Bevatron) is given. Treatment planning, clinical results with helium ions on the skull base and uveal melanoma, clinical results with high-LET charged particles, neon radiotherapy of prostate cancer, heavy charged particle irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma, preliminary results in heavy charged particle irradiation of bone sarcoma, and irradiation of bile duct carcinoma with charged particles and-or photons are all covered. (GHH)

  2. Light-ion therapy in the U.S.: From the Bevalac to ??

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Jose R.; Castro, Joseph R.


    While working with E.O. Lawrence at Berkeley, R.R. Wilson in 1946 noted the potential for using the Bragg-peak of protons (or heavier ions) for radiation therapy. Thus began the long history of contributions from Berkeley to this field. Pioneering work by C.A. Tobias et al at the 184-Inch Synchrocyclotron led ultimately to clinical applications of proton and helium beams, with over 1000 patients treated through 1974 with high-energy plateau radiation; placing the treatment volume (mostly pituitary fields) at the rotational center of a sophisticated patient positioner. In 1974 the SuperHILAC and Bevatron accelerators at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory were joined by the construction of a 250-meter transfer line, forming the Bevalac, a facility capable of accelerating ions of any atomic species to relativistic energies. With the advent of these new beams, and better diagnostic tools capable of more precise definition of tumor volume and determination of the stopping point of charged-particle beams, large-field Bragg-peak therapy with ion beams became a real possibility. A dedicated Biomedical experimental area was developed, ultimately consisting of three distinct irradiation stations; two dedicated to therapy and one to radiobiology and biophysics. These facilities included dedicated support areas for patient setup and staging of animal and cell samples, and a central control area linked to the main Bevatron control room.

  3. The Bevalac Upgrade Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, J.R.; Dwinell, R.D.; Feinberg, B.; Frias, R.; Gough, R.A.; Howard, D.R.; Hunt, D.B.; Krebs, G.F.; Krupnick, J.T.; Lewis, S.A.


    This paper describes a proposed upgrade of the Bevalac accelerator complex in which the present Bevatron is replaced with a modern, strong-focusing 17 T-m synchrotron. This new ring is designed to accelerate all ions throughout the periodic table with intensities 100 to 1000 times higher than the present Bevatron. It will also provide a substantially improved beam spill structure and will reduce operating costs. A fast extraction capability can be used to inject a future heavy ion storage ring. Pulse-to-pulse switching of energy and ion species is an important goal. The existing injectors, shielding, experimental facilities and utilities of the present Bevalac will remain substantially intact.

  4. Bevalac operations update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Bevalac passed the recent Tiger Team assessment with flying colors, thanks to the unremitting effort of countless people over the last several months, pulling miles of cables, sending tons of valuable'' junk to salvage, painting, pushing brooms, writing operating procedures. It is time to look ahead now and plan for doing science again; however, it is not business as usual. The Bevalac survived, but not without changes. There are more procedures to be followed, safety appraisals to be made, training to be gone through. The primary goal is not just to get a task done, but to get it done in a safe manner according to code. If this means a delay in a run because enough time wasn't allotted for making a change in the setup, then the experiment will be delayed. Many of the obvious changes you will find the next time you come to work here are summarized in this newsletter. We will inform you of others as they are forthcoming. Also we will discuss these changes at our We Survived the Tigers, but{hor ellipsis}'' Users' Information Meeting at the Washington APS meeting. Details are inside this report.

  5. Bevalac user's handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report is a users manual on the Bevalac accelerator facility. This paper discuses: general information; the Bevalac and its operation; major facilities and experimental areas; and experimental equipment.

  6. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1974--1977. [Planning for use for radiotherapy and as radiation source for diagnostic radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, S. (ed.)


    The Bevalac, a versatile high-energy heavy-ion accelerator complex, has been in operation for less than two years. A major purpose for which the Bevalac was constructed was to explore the possibility of heavy-ion teams for therapy for certain forms of cancer. Significant progress has been made in this direction. The National Cancer Institute has recognized the advantages that these and other accelerated particles offer, and heavy ions have been included in a long-term plan for particle therapy that will assess by means of controlled therapeutic tests the value of various modalities. Since accelerated heavy ions became available, the possibility of other contributions, not planned, became apparent. We are developig a new diagnostic method known as heavy-ion radiography that has greatly increased sensitivity for soft-tissue detail and that may become a powerful tool for localizing early tumors and metastases. We have discovered that radioactive beams are formed from fragmentation of stable deflected beams. Use of these autoradioactive beams is just beginning; however, we know that these beams will be helpful in localizing the region in the body where therapy is being delivered. In addition, it has been demonstrated that instant implantation of the radioactive beam allows direct measurements of blood perfusion rates in inaccessible parts of the body, and such a technique may become a new tool for the study of fast hot atom reactions in biochemistry, tracer biology and nuclear medicine. The Bevalac will also be useful for the continuation of previously developed methods for the control of acromegaly, Cushing's disease and, on a research basis, advanced diabetes mellitus with vascular disease. The ability to make small bloodless lesions in the brain and elsewhere with heavy-ion beams has great potential for nervous-system studies and perhaps later for radioneurosurgery.

  7. Patient Perspectives on the Choice of Dialysis Modality: Results From the Empowering Patients on Choices for Renal Replacement Therapy (EPOCH-RRT) Study. (United States)

    Dahlerus, Claudia; Quinn, Martha; Messersmith, Emily; Lachance, Laurie; Subramanian, Lalita; Perry, Erica; Cole, Jill; Zhao, Junhui; Lee, Celeste; McCall, Margie; Paulson, Leslie; Tentori, Francesca


    Little is known about factors that are important to patients with advanced kidney disease and their perspectives at the time they choose a dialysis modality. EPOCH-RRT, a study supported in part by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), was designed to assist patients with this choice by identifying such factors and effectively provide relevant information. Cross-sectional study, designed and conducted in collaboration with a multistakeholder advisory panel that included patients, caregivers, and health care professionals. 180 patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD; estimated glomerular filtration rate < 25mL/min/1.73m 2 ), either non-dialysis-dependent (NDD-CKD; n=65) or on dialysis therapy (hemodialysis [HD], n=77; or peritoneal dialysis, n=38), recruited across the United States through social media and in-person contacts. Semistructured telephone interviews including open- and closed-ended questions. Mixed methods, integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches; themes identified through content analysis of interview transcripts by 2 independent coders. Themes most often reported as important were keeping as much independence as possible, quality and quantity of life, and flexibility in daily schedule. Other factors (eg, concern about the way they look) differed across patient subgroups based on age, sex, and NDD-CKD/dialysis modality. Among patients who had initiated dialysis therapy, almost half (47%) the HD patients believed that the decision to be treated by HD had largely not been their choice; this was only reported by 3% of peritoneal dialysis patients. Recruitment through social media and willingness to participate in lengthy telephone interviews resulted in a select sample that may not be representative of the broader advanced CKD population; therefore, generalizability of findings cannot be determined. Incorporation of patient priorities in care improves health outcomes. Given the perceived limited role in the

  8. EOS: A time projection chamber for the study of nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Bevalac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, H.G.; Odyniec, G.; Rai, G.; Seidl, P.


    The conceptual design is presented for a detector to identify and measure ( approx. = 1%) most of the 200 or so mid-rapidity charged particles (p, d, t, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He, ..pi../sup + -/, K/sup + -/) produced in each central nucleus-nucleus collision (Au + Au) at Bevalac energies, as well as K/sub 3//sup 0/ and ..lambda../sup 0/. The beam particles and heavy spectator fragments are excluded from the detection volume by means of a central vacuum pipe. Particle identification is achieved by a combination of dE/dx measurements in the TPC, and of time-of-flight measurements in a scintillator array. The TPC is single-ended and its end cap is entirely covered with cathode pads (about 25,000 pads and about 1000 anode wires). A non-uniform pad distribution is proposed to accommodate the high multiplicity of particles emitted at forward angles. The performance of the detector is assessed with regard to multihit capability, tracking, momentum resolution, particle identification, ..lambda../sup 0/ reconstruction, space charge effects, field non-uniformity, dynamic range, data acquisition rate, and data analysis rate. 72 refs., 48 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Epoch-based analysis of speech signals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Epoch sequence is useful to manipulate prosody in speech synthesis applications. Accurate estimation of epochs helps in characterizing voice quality features. Epoch extraction also helps in speech enhancement and multispeaker separation. In this tutorial article, the importance of epochs for speech analysis is discussed, ...

  10. The quantum epoché. (United States)

    Pylkkänen, Paavo


    The theme of phenomenology and quantum physics is here tackled by examining some basic interpretational issues in quantum physics. One key issue in quantum theory from the very beginning has been whether it is possible to provide a quantum ontology of particles in motion in the same way as in classical physics, or whether we are restricted to stay within a more limited view of quantum systems, in terms of complementary but mutually exclusive phenomena. In phenomenological terms we could describe the situation by saying that according to the usual interpretation of quantum theory (especially Niels Bohr's), quantum phenomena require a kind of epoché (i.e. a suspension of assumptions about reality at the quantum level). However, there are other interpretations (especially David Bohm's) that seem to re-establish the possibility of a mind-independent ontology at the quantum level. We will show that even such ontological interpretations contain novel, non-classical features, which require them to give a special role to "phenomena" or "appearances", a role not encountered in classical physics. We will conclude that while ontological interpretations of quantum theory are possible, quantum theory implies the need of a certain kind of epoché even for this type of interpretations. While different from the epoché connected to phenomenological description, the "quantum epoché" nevertheless points to a potentially interesting parallel between phenomenology and quantum philosophy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The epochs of international law

    CERN Document Server

    Grewe, Wilhelm G


    A theoretical overview and detailed analysis of the history of international law from the Middle Ages through to the end of the twentieth century (updated from the 1984 German language edition). Wilhelm Grewe's "Epochen der Völkerrechtsgeschichte" is widely regarded as one of the classic twentieth century works of international law. This revised translation by Michael Byers of Oxford University makes this important book available to non-German readers for the first time. "The Epochs of International Law" provides a theoretical overview and detailed analysis of the history of international law from the Middle Ages, to the Age of Discovery and the Thirty Years War, from Napoleon Bonaparte to the Treaty of Versailles and the Age of the Single Superpower, and does so in a way that reflects Grewe's own experience as one of Germany's leading diplomats and professors of international law. A new chapter, written by Wilhelm Grewe and Michael Byers, updates the book to 1998, making the revised translation of interest ...

  12. LEDDB : LOFAR Epoch of Reionization Diagnostic Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Rubi, O.; Veligatla, V. K.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Lampropoulos, P.; Offringa, A. R.; Jelic, V.; Yatawatta, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Zaroubi, S.


    One of the key science projects of the Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) is the detection of the cosmological signal coming from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Here we present the LOFAR EoR Diagnostic Database (LEDDB) that is used in the storage, management, processing and analysis of the LOFAR EoR

  13. Epoch-based analysis of speech signals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion in the speech signal involves operations of representation (interms of extracted parameters or features) and ... is represented in the form of sequence of symbols, similar to text as in dictation taking. Thus, speech processing is an .... techniques presented in the literature are reviewed below. 2.2 Epoch extraction from ...

  14. Review of ion beam therapy: Present and Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Jose R.


    First therapy efforts at the Bevalac using neon ions took place in the 70's and 80's. Promising results led to construction of HIMAC in Chiba Japan, and more recently to therapy trials at GSI. Both these facilities are now treating patients with carbon beams. Advances in both accelerator technology and beam delivery have taken place at these two centers. Plans are well along for new facilities in Europe and Japan.

  15. Observing the epoch of galaxy formation. (United States)

    Steidel, C C


    Significant observational progress in addressing the question of the origin and early evolution of galaxies has been made in the past few years, allowing for direct comparison of the epoch when most of the stars in the universe were forming to prevailing theoretical models. There is currently broad consistency between theoretical expectations and the observations, but rapid improvement in the data will provide much more critical tests of theory in the coming years.

  16. Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) (United States)

    DeBoer, David R.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Aguirre, James E.; Alexander, Paul; Ali, Zaki S.; Beardsley, Adam P.; Bernardi, Gianni; Bowman, Judd D.; Bradley, Richard F.; Carilli, Chris L.; Cheng, Carina; de Lera Acedo, Eloy; Dillon, Joshua S.; Ewall-Wice, Aaron; Fadana, Gcobisa; Fagnoni, Nicolas; Fritz, Randall; Furlanetto, Steve R.; Glendenning, Brian; Greig, Bradley; Grobbelaar, Jasper; Hazelton, Bryna J.; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Hickish, Jack; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Julius, Austin; Kariseb, MacCalvin; Kohn, Saul A.; Lekalake, Telalo; Liu, Adrian; Loots, Anita; MacMahon, David; Malan, Lourence; Malgas, Cresshim; Maree, Matthys; Martinot, Zachary; Mathison, Nathan; Matsetela, Eunice; Mesinger, Andrei; Morales, Miguel F.; Neben, Abraham R.; Patra, Nipanjana; Pieterse, Samantha; Pober, Jonathan C.; Razavi-Ghods, Nima; Ringuette, Jon; Robnett, James; Rosie, Kathryn; Sell, Raddwine; Smith, Craig; Syce, Angelo; Tegmark, Max; Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Williams, Peter K. G.; Zheng, Haoxuan


    The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) is a staged experiment to measure 21 cm emission from the primordial intergalactic medium (IGM) throughout cosmic reionization (z = 6-12), and to explore earlier epochs of our Cosmic Dawn (z ˜ 30). During these epochs, early stars and black holes heated and ionized the IGM, introducing fluctuations in 21 cm emission. HERA is designed to characterize the evolution of the 21 cm power spectrum to constrain the timing and morphology of reionization, the properties of the first galaxies, the evolution of large-scale structure, and the early sources of heating. The full HERA instrument will be a 350-element interferometer in South Africa consisting of 14 m parabolic dishes observing from 50 to 250 MHz. Currently, 19 dishes have been deployed on site and the next 18 are under construction. HERA has been designated as an SKA Precursor instrument. In this paper, we summarize HERA’s scientific context and provide forecasts for its key science results. After reviewing the current state of the art in foreground mitigation, we use the delay-spectrum technique to motivate high-level performance requirements for the HERA instrument. Next, we present the HERA instrument design, along with the subsystem specifications that ensure that HERA meets its performance requirements. Finally, we summarize the schedule and status of the project. We conclude by suggesting that, given the realities of foreground contamination, current-generation 21 cm instruments are approaching their sensitivity limits. HERA is designed to bring both the sensitivity and the precision to deliver its primary science on the basis of proven foreground filtering techniques, while developing new subtraction techniques to unlock new capabilities. The result will be a major step toward realizing the widely recognized scientific potential of 21 cm cosmology.

  17. A superposed epoch analysis of geomagnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Taylor


    Full Text Available A superposed epoch analysis of geomagnetic storms has been undertaken. The storms are categorised via their intensity (as defined by the Dst index. Storms have also been classified here as either storm sudden commencements (SSCs or storm gradual commencements (SGCs, that is all storms which did not begin with a sudden commencement. The prevailing solar wind conditions defined by the parameters solar wind speed (vsw, density (ρsw and pressure (Psw and the total field and the components of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF during the storms in each category have been investigated by a superposed epoch analysis. The southward component of the IMF, appears to be the controlling parameter for the generation of small SGCs (-100 nT< minimum Dst ≤ -50 nT for ≥ 4 h, but for SSCs of the same intensity solar wind pressure is dominant. However, for large SSCs (minimum Dst ≤ -100 nT for ≥ 4 h the solar wind speed is the controlling parameter. It is also demonstrated that for larger storms magnetic activity is not solely driven by the accumulation of substorm activity, but substantial energy is directly input via the dayside. Furthermore, there is evidence that SSCs are caused by the passage of a coronal mass ejection, whereas SGCs result from the passage of a high speed/ slow speed coronal stream interface. Storms are also grouped by the sign of Bz during the first hour epoch after the onset. The sign of Bz at t = +1 h is the dominant sign of the Bz for ~24 h before the onset. The total energy released during storms for which Bz was initially positive is, however, of the same order as for storms where Bz was initially negative.

  18. Making moves: Transitioning R-EPOCH to the ambulatory setting. (United States)

    Martin, Allison L; Frank, Joel P; Waggoner, Mindy L


    Purpose Ambulatory administration of chemotherapy provides benefit to patients and institutions alike. We hypothesized that transitioning rituximab, etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (R-EPOCH) from an inpatient to ambulatory setting would reduce inpatient bed days and overall healthcare costs. The purpose of this effort was to create a guideline that would transition R-EPOCH to the ambulatory setting. To assess institutional benefit, we assessed inpatient bed days saved and financial impact. Methods A single center, retrospective analysis of inpatient R-EPOCH administration from January 2013 to December 2015 defined the need for medication use guidelines for ambulatory R-EPOCH administration. While this guideline targeted a reduction in inpatient bed days, it also created desired staff-and-patient education on R-EPOCH. Multidisciplinary collaboration enabled this comprehensive approach to outpatient chemotherapy administration. Results The 42 patients included received 147 cycles of R-EPOCH. Administration was primarily inpatient, amounting to 107 cycles and 799 inpatient days. Concurrently, 40 cycles of R-EPOCH were administered to 11 patients in the ambulatory setting. Only two patients received all cycles as outpatient; the other nine patients received chemotherapy in both settings. Financial analysis showed a 53% reduction in drug acquisition cost and 30% reduction in direct costs with ambulatory R-EPOCH administration. Based on our projection, after guideline implementation, 12 patients will be eligible for ambulatory R-EPOCH annually, resulting in a savings of 360 bed days and approximately $650,000 per year. Conclusion Transitioning R-EPOCH is a viable option to significantly decrease inpatient bed days and overall healthcare costs. Multidisciplinary collaboration is vital to successfully transitioning regimens to the ambulatory setting and to establishing consistent support for ambulatory administration.

  19. Affordability Tradeoffs Under Uncertainty Using Epoch-Era Analysis (United States)


    large numbers of eras can be constructed through combinatorics , probabilistic state transitions, and other means. Process 9 focuses on the analysis ...pmlkploba=obmloq=pbofbp= Affordability Tradeoffs Under Uncertainty Using Epoch-Era Analysis 30 September 2013 Dr. Donna H. Rhodes, Principal...AND SUBTITLE Affordability Tradeoffs Under Uncertainty Using Epoch-Era Analysis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer, Tod R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Postman, Marc [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Strauss, Michael A.; Graves, Genevieve J.; Chisari, Nora E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)


    We have obtained photometry and spectroscopy of 433 z ≤ 0.08 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in a full-sky survey of Abell clusters to construct a BCG sample suitable for probing deviations from the local Hubble flow. The BCG Hubble diagram over 0 < z < 0.08 is consistent to within 2% of the Hubble relation specified by a Ω {sub m} = 0.3, Λ = 0.7 cosmology. This sample allows us to explore the structural and photometric properties of BCGs at the present epoch, their location in their hosting galaxy clusters, and the effects of the cluster environment on their structure and evolution. We revisit the L{sub m} -α relation for BCGs, which uses α, the log-slope of the BCG photometric curve of growth, to predict the metric luminosity in an aperture with 14.3 kpc radius, L{sub m} , for use as a distance indicator. Residuals in the relation are 0.27 mag rms. We measure central stellar velocity dispersions, σ, of the BCGs, finding the Faber-Jackson relation to flatten as the metric aperture grows to include an increasing fraction of the total BCG luminosity. A three-parameter ''metric plane'' relation using α and σ together gives the best prediction of L{sub m} , with 0.21 mag residuals. The distribution of projected spatial offsets, r{sub x} of BCGs from the X-ray-defined cluster center is a steep γ = –2.33 power law over 1 < r{sub x} < 10{sup 3} kpc. The median offset is ∼10 kpc, but ∼15% of the BCGs have r{sub x} > 100 kpc. The absolute cluster-dispersion normalized BCG peculiar velocity |ΔV {sub 1}|/σ {sub c} follows an exponential distribution with scale length 0.39 ± 0.03. Both L{sub m} and α increase with σ {sub c}. The α parameter is further moderated by both the spatial and velocity offset from the cluster center, with larger α correlated with the proximity of the BCG to the cluster mean velocity or potential center. At the same time, position in the cluster has little effect on L{sub m} . Likewise, residuals from

  1. Late Globalization and Evolution, Episodes and Epochs of Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Boujarzadeh, Behnam; Dholakia, Nikhilesh

    While the empirical focus of this paper is the Danish Textile and Fashion Industry (DTFI) – specifically the episodes and epochs in the emergence and evolution of DTFI, in essence the micro and macro time-slices – the theoretical intent is wider. We aim to explore the conceptual terrain of what we...

  2. The LOFAR Epoch of Reionization Data Model : Simulations, Calibration, Inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampropoulos, Panagiotis

    One of the most exciting applications of LOFAR will be the search for redshifted 21-cm line emission from the Epoch of Reionization (EOR). It is currently believed that the Dark Ages, the period after recombination when the Universe turned neutral, lasted until around the Universe was 400,000 years

  3. The Cosmic Dawn and Epoch of Reionisation with SKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Pritchard, J.; Mellema, G.; Aguirre, J.; Ahn, K.; Barkana, R.; van Bemmel, I.; Bernardi, G.; Bonaldi, A.; Briggs, F.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Chang, T. C.; Chapman, E.; Chen, X.; Ciardi, B.; Dayal, P.; Ferrara, A.; Fialkov, A.; Fiore, F.; Ichiki, K.; Illiev, I. T.; Inoue, S.; Jelic, V.; Jones, M.; Lazio, J.; Maio, U.; Majumdar, S.; Mack, K. J.; Mesinger, A.; Morales, M. F.; Parsons, A.; Pen, U. L.; Santos, M.; Schneider, R.; Semelin, B.; de Souza, R. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Takeuchi, T.; Vedantham, H.; Wagg, J.; Webster, R.; Wyithe, S.; Datta, K. K.; Trott, C.


    Concerted effort is currently ongoing to open up the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) ($z\\sim$15-6) for studies with IR and radio telescopes. Whereas IR detections have been made of sources (Lyman-$\\alpha$ emitters, quasars and drop-outs) in this redshift regime in relatively small fields of view, no

  4. The Cosmic Dawn and Epoch of Reionisation with SKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Pritchard, J.; Mellema, G.; Aguirre, J.; Ahn, K.; Barkana, R.; van Bemmel, I.; Bernardi, G.; Bonaldi, A.; Briggs, F.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Chang, T. C.; Chapman, E.; Chen, X.; Ciardi, B.; Dayal, P.; Ferrara, A.; Fialkov, A.; Fiore, F.; Ichiki, K.; Illiev, I. T.; Inoue, S.; Jelic, V.; Jones, M.; Lazio, J.; Maio, U.; Majumdar, S.; Mack, K. J.; Mesinger, A.; Morales, M. F.; Parsons, A.; Pen, U. L.; Santos, M.; Schneider, R.; Semelin, B.; de Souza, R. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Takeuchi, T.; Vedantham, H.; Wagg, J.; Webster, R.; Wyithe, S.; Datta, K. K.; Trott, C.


    Concerted effort is currently ongoing to open up the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) ($z\\sim$15-6) for studies with IR and radio telescopes. Whereas IR detections have been made of sources (Lyman-$\\alpha$ emitters, quasars and drop-outs) in this redshift regime in relatively small fields of view, no

  5. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 121; Issue 6. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China: Constrains from rare earth element, fluid inclusion geochemistry and geochronology. Zhixin Huang Wanming Yuan Changming Wang Xiangwei Liu Xiaotong Xu Liya Yang. Volume ...

  6. A search for changing look quasars in second epoch imaging (United States)

    Findlay, Joseph; Myers, Adam; McGreer, Ian


    Over nearly two decades, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has compiled a catalog of over half a million confirmed quasars. During that period approximately ten percent of these objects have been spectroscopically observed in two or more epochs over baselines of ten or more years. This led recently to the discovery of the largest change in luminosity ever before observed in a quasar. The dimming emission was a reflection of very significant changes in continuum and broad line properties, the source had effectively transitioned from a Type I quasar to a Type II AGN. Since then several more "changing look" quasars have been discovered in multi-epoch SDSS spectroscopy. Among them are objects with rising and falling luminosities, appearing and disappearing broad lines. The origin of this behavior is still very uncertain, currently favored is the scenario in which an accreting black hole is simply starved of fuel. Other plausible scenarios include flaring due to stellar tidal disruption close to the black hole or large changes in accretion flow, which can occur during transitions between radiatively efficient and inefficient accretion regimes. Monitoring of larger numbers of changing look quasars will help to elucidate these ideas.In this poster, we report on the progress of a pilot study in which we hope to learn how to select changing look quasars in multi-epoch imaging. This will allow us to take advantage of the entire SDSS quasar catalog rather than just the ten percent of objects with multi-epoch spectroscopy. Comparing archival SDSS and more recent Legacy Survey imaging over ten-year baselines we select objects whose photometry is consistent with the large changes in luminosity expected in changing look quasars. We aim to build up a catalog of both transitioned and transitioning objects for future monitoring.

  7. The joint US/UK 1990 epoch world magnetic model (United States)

    Quinn, John M.; Coleman, Rachel J.; Peck, Michael R.; Lauber, Stephen E.


    A detailed summary of the data used, analyses performed, modeling techniques employed, and results obtained in the course of the 1990 Epoch World Magnetic Modeling effort are given. Also, use and limitations of the GEOMAG algorithm are presented. Charts and tables related to the 1990 World Magnetic Model (WMM-90) for the Earth's main field and secular variation in Mercator and polar stereographic projections are presented along with useful tables of several magnetic field components and their secular variation on a 5-degree worldwide grid.

  8. Croatian geomagnetic field maps for 2008.5 epoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Brkić


    Full Text Available The status of the Croatian Geomagnetic Repeat Stations Network (CGRSN and Croatian Geomagnetic Network for Field Mapping (CGNFM, completed in 2010, was described. Standard and new survey practices as well as reduction techniques were presented. The CGRSN data reduced in reference to the L'Aquila (AQU, Grocka (GCK and Tihany (THY observatories using weighted averages were given for the epoch 2008.5. Detailed pictures of Dalmatia's geomagnetic field of 2008.5 and the corresponding anomaly, obtained from the CGNFM data were shown.

  9. Precession of the Equinoxes and the Calibration of Astronomical Epochs

    CERN Document Server

    Sidharth, Burra G


    Astronomical observations were used as a marker for time and the Calendar from ancient times. A more subtle calibration of epochs is thrown up by an observation of the position of the solstices and equinoxes, because these points shift in the sky with the years resulting in the gradual shift of celestial longitudes $\\lambda$. Chronology based on such observations however needs to be backed up by hard evidence. We match both to take us back to $10,000$ B.C., the epi-paleolithic period, and the beginning of civilization itself.

  10. 'Anthropocene': An Ethical Crisis, Not a Geological Epoch (United States)

    Cuomo, Chris


    The term 'anthropocene' has gained enormous popularity among scientists who believe we are in a global phase distinguished by the extensive and lasting impacts of social activities on Earth's sedimentary record and vital systems. Beyond its widespread informal use, a working group of the International Union of Geological Sciences seeks to formalize the term to name a new geological epoch, implying that the Holocene epoch has ended. I argue that the move to formalize the 'anthropocene' and to declare the demise of the Holocene is premature and ethically misguided, at best, and that the very name 'anthropocene' obscures rather than illuminates the serious moral and political/economic implications of the dire warnings evident in recent stratigraphic and ecological changes. If human-caused mass extinction and other ecological catastrophes are serious harms, ethical responses are required. Instead, the move to formalize the idea of an 'anthropocene' epoch treats dire ethical warnings as an opportunity to redefine the current dangerous situation as a new status quo. Have we met our responsibilities to protect Holocene Earth? This presentation will focus on the ethical implications of using the power and discourse of geology to demote Holocene ecological states from their role as the foundational benchmarks for guiding and assessing human relationships with nature and other species. Have geoscientists adequately consulted the biological, ecological and social sciences before declaring the end of the Holocene epoch? Upon what do we base environmental ethics if the Holocene is considered past history? I will also examine the ethical dimensions of naming the so-called 'anthropocene', asking: who is the presumed 'anthro' in the 'anthropocene'? Are the phenomena identified with the 'anthropocene' (nuclear fallout, mass species endangerment, ocean acidification, fossil fuel pollution, deforestation, mining) definitive accomplishments of the human species? Should the practices

  11. Is there another coincidence problem at the reionization epoch? (United States)

    Lombriser, Lucas; Smer-Barreto, Vanessa


    The cosmological coincidences between the matter and radiation energy densities at recombination as well as between the densities of matter and the cosmological constant at the present time are well known. We point out that, moreover, the third intersection between the energy densities of radiation and the cosmological constant coincides with the reionization epoch. To quantify the statistical relevance of this concurrence, we compute the Bayes factor between the concordance cosmology with free Thomson scattering optical depth and a model for which this parameter is inferred from imposing a match between the time of density equality and the epoch of reionization. This is to characterize the potential explanatory gain if one were to find a parameter-free physical connection. We find a very strong preference for such a concurrence on the Jeffreys scale from current cosmological observations. We furthermore discuss the effect of the choice of priors, changes in reionization history, and free sum of neutrino masses. We also estimate the impact of adding intermediate polarization data from the Planck High Frequency Instrument and prospects for future 21 cm surveys. In the first case, the preference for the correlation remains substantial, whereas future data may give results more decisive in pro or substantial in contra of it. Finally, we provide a discussion on different interpretations of these findings. In particular, we show how a connection between the star-formation history and the cosmological background dynamics can give rise to this concurrence.

  12. Tomography of the Reionization Epoch with Multifrequency CMB Observations (United States)

    Hernández-Monteagudo, Carlos; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul


    We study the constraints that future multifrequency cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments will be able to set on the metal enrichment history of the intergalactic medium at the epoch of reionization. We forecast the signal-to-noise ratio for the detection of the signal introduced into the CMB by resonant scattering off metals at the end of the cosmic dark ages. We take into account systematics associated with cross-channel calibration, errors in reconstruction of the point-spread function, and inaccurate foreground removal. We develop an algorithm to optimally extract the signal generated by metals during reionization and to accurately remove the contamination due to the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect. Although demanding levels of foreground characterization and control of systematics are required, they are very distinct from those encountered in H I 21 cm studies and CMB polarization, and this fact encourages the study of resonant scattering off metals as an alternative way of conducting tomography of the reionization epoch. A realistic experiment, looking at clean regions of the sky, can detect changes of 3%-12% (95% confidence level) in the O III abundance (with respect to its solar value) in the redshift range z=12-22 for reionization redshift zre>10. However, for zretechnology.

  13. Prognostic impact of CD5 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in patients treated with rituximab-EPOCH. (United States)

    Thakral, Beenu; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Desai, Parth; Lin, Pei; Yin, C Cameron; Tang, Guilin; Khoury, Joseph D; Hu, Shimin; Xu, Jie; Loghavi, Sanam; Hu, Bei; Oki, Yasuhiro; Li, Shaoying


    CD5-positive (CD5+) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) represents 5%-10% of all DLBCL cases, which has been associated with a poorer prognosis in patients treated with R-CHOP. Prognostic impact of CD5 expression in patients with DLBCL treated with R-EPOCH has not been evaluated. We studied 130 patients with de novo DLBCL who received frontline R-EPOCH therapy. The clinicopathologic features and overall survival (OS) were compared between patients with CD5+ and CD5- DLBCL. MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 rearrangements were examined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Sixteen (12.3%) of 130 DLBCLs were CD5+. Most clinicopathologic features including cell of origin and frequency of MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 rearrangements were similar between CD5+ and CD5- groups. Patients with CD5+ DLBCL, however, showed higher rate of central nervous system relapse (33.3% vs 15.6%; PDLBCL, and CD5 expression was still an independent prognostic factor in R-EPOCH-treated patients with DLBCL. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Epochs of intrusion-related copper mineralization in the Andes (United States)

    Sillitoe, R. H.

    Seventy-four copper deposits and prospects related intimately to intrusive activity in the Andes have been dated radiometrically during the last 18 years by many different investigators, most of whom used the KAr method. The results are summarized and some of their local and regional implications are reviewed. A number of copper deposits, mainly of the porphyry type, were emplaced in, or near to, premineral volcanic sequences and (or) equigranular plutons. Such precursor volcanism lasted for as long as 9 Ma, and preceded mineralization by intervals of from less than 1 Ma to as much as 9 Ma. Precursor plutons were emplaced no more than 2 to 3 Ma prior to mineralization at several localities in Chile, but possibly as long as 10 to 30 Ma earlier in parts of Colombia and Peru. The time separating emplacement of progenitor stocks and hydrothermal alteration and accompanying copper mineralization, and the duration of alteration-mineralization sequences generally are both less than the analytical uncertainty of the KAr method. However, on the basis of a detailed study of the Julcani vein system in Peru and less clearcut evidence from elsewhere, it may be concluded that alteration and copper mineralization followed stock or dome emplacement by substantially less than 1 Ma and lasted for 0.5 to 2 Ma and, locally, possibly as long as 3 Ma. At several localities, post-mineral magmatic activity could not be separated by the KAr method from the preceding alteration-mineralization events. As many as nine epochs of copper mineralization, ranging in age from late Paleozoic to late Pliocene-Pleistocene, are recognizable in the central Andes of Chile, Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina, and at least four somewhat different epochs characterize the northern Andes of Colombia. Each epoch coincides with a discrete linear sub-belt, some of which extend for more than 2000 km along the length of the orogen. More than 90% of Andean copper resources, mainly as porphyry deposits, are

  15. Bayesian Single-Epoch Photometric Classification of Supernovae (United States)

    Poznanski, Dovi; Maoz, Dan; Gal-Yam, Avishay


    Ongoing supernova (SN) surveys find hundreds of candidates that require confirmation for their various uses. Traditional classification based on follow-up spectroscopy of all candidates is virtually impossible for these large samples. The use of Type Ia SNe as standard candles is at an evolved stage that requires pure, uncontaminated samples. However, other SN survey applications, such as measuring cosmic SN rates, could benefit from a classification of SNe on a statistical basis, rather than case by case. With this objective in mind, we have developed the SN-ABC, an automatic Bayesian classifying algorithm for supernovae. We rely solely on single-epoch multiband photometry and host-galaxy (photometric) redshift information to sort SN candidates into the two major types, Ia and core-collapse supernovae. We test the SN-ABC performance on published samples of SNe from the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) and GOODS projects that have both broadband photometry and spectroscopic classification (so the true type is known). The SN-ABC correctly classifies up to 97% (85%) of the Type Ia (II-P) SNe in SNLS, and similar fractions of the GOODS SNe, depending on photometric redshift quality. Using simulations with large artificial samples, we find similarly high success fractions for Types Ia and II-P, and reasonable (~75%) success rates in classifying Type Ibc SNe as core-collapse. Type IIn SNe, however, are often misclassified as Type Ia. In deep surveys, SNe Ia are best classified at redshifts z gtrsim 0.6 or when near maximum. Core-collapse SNe (other than Type IIn) are best recognized several weeks after maximum, or at z lesssim 0.6. Assuming the SNe are young, as would be the case for rolling surveys, the success fractions improve by a degree dependent on the type and redshift. The fractional contamination of a single-epoch photometrically selected sample of SNe Ia by core-collapse SNe varies between less than 10% and as much as 30%, depending on the intrinsic fraction and

  16. Systematic Uncertainties in Black Hole Masses Determined from Single Epoch Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, Kelly D.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Dietrich, Matthias


    We explore the nature of systematic errors that can arise in measurement of black hole masses from single-epoch spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by utilizing the many epochs available for NGC 5548 and PG1229+204 from reverberation mapping databases. In particular, we examine systematics due...

  17. Modelling the 21 cm Signal From the Epoch of Reionization and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    would be useful in constraining the properties of the early galaxies using the SKA data. 1 Introduction. One of the ... from the cosmic dawn and the epoch of reionization (Mellema et al., 2013; Koopmans et al., 2015; Carilli,. 2015). The cosmic dawn refers to a period when the first stars formed in the universe, while the epoch.

  18. The “Anthropocene” epoch: Scientific decision or political statement? (United States)

    Finney, Stanley C.; Edwards, Lucy E.


    The proposal for the “Anthropocene” epoch as a formal unit of the geologic time scale has received extensive attention in scientific and public media. However, most articles on the Anthropocene misrepresent the nature of the units of the International Chronostratigraphic Chart, which is produced by the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) and serves as the basis for the geologic time scale. The stratigraphic record of the Anthropocene is minimal, especially with its recently proposed beginning in 1945; it is that of a human lifespan, and that definition relegates considerable anthropogenic change to a “pre-Anthropocene.” The utility of the Anthropocene requires careful consideration by its various potential users. Its concept is fundamentally different from the chronostratigraphic units that are established by ICS in that the documentation and study of the human impact on the Earth system are based more on direct human observation than on a stratigraphic record. The drive to officially recognize the Anthropocene may, in fact, be political rather than scientific.

  19. Stable warm tropical climate through the Eocene Epoch (United States)

    Pearson, Paul N.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Nicholas, Christopher J.; Pancost, Richard D.; Schouten, Stefan; Singano, Joyce M.; Wade, Bridget S.


    Earth's climate cooled from a period of extreme warmth in the early Eocene Epoch (ca. 50 Ma) to the early Oligocene (ca. 33 Ma), when a large ice cap first appeared on Antarctica. Evidence from the planktonic foraminifer oxygen isotope record in deep-sea cores has suggested that tropical sea-surface temperatures declined by 5-10 degrees over this interval, eventually becoming much cooler than modern temperatures. Here we present paleotemperature estimates from foraminifer isotopes and the membrane lipids of marine Crenarcheota from new drill cores in Tanzania that indicate a warm and generally stable tropical climate over this period. We reinterpret the previously published isotope records in the light of comparative textural analysis of the deep-sea foraminifer shells, which shows that in contrast to the Tanzanian material, they have been diagenetically recrystallized. We suggest that increasingly severe alteration of the deep-sea plankton shells through the Eocene produced a diagenetic overprint on their oxygen isotope ratios that imparts the false appearance of a tropical sea-surface cooling trend. This implies that the long-term Eocene climatic cooling trend occurred mainly at the poles and had little effect at lower latitudes.

  20. Thinking social sciences from Latin America at the epochal change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Antonio Preciado Coronado


    Full Text Available From the legacy of an original disciplinary approach, as the Dependence theory and its Marxian critics, or the neo-structural economic theory founded by The Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA, the Latin-American social sciences deny the Anglo-European centered approaches, in the way of reaffirming its own critical thinking, including the neo-colonial practices. The challenge for this critical thinking is to be, simultaneously, cosmopolitan and Latin American’s one. In this process, the Latin-American social thinking is regaining its own originality and its vigorous proposals, thanks to a rich south-south dialogue, that implies a global character of its reflections and the questioning of its universal references. Although neither classical nor western Marxism are hegemonic within critical theory, the (neo Marxism enriched with criticism of the coloniality of power, the theory of World-System, critical geopolitics and political ecology recover the field of critical theory in key founder of an epochal thinking time. Epistemological debates with post-structuralism and postmodern approaches configure various recent developments in critical theory

  1. A dusty, normal galaxy in the epoch of reionization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Darach; Christensen, Lise; Knudsen, Kirsten Kraiberg


    dust and molecules can be found in typical galaxies at this early epoch. Here we report thermal dust emission from an archetypal early universe star-forming galaxy, A1689-zD1. We detect its stellar continuum in spectroscopy and determine its redshift to be $z = 7.5\\pm0.2$ from a spectroscopic detection......Candidates for the modest galaxies that formed most of the stars in the early universe, at redshifts $z > 7$, have been found in large numbers with extremely deep restframe-UV imaging. But it has proved difficult for existing spectrographs to characterise them in the UV. The detailed properties...... of the Ly{\\alpha} break. A1689-zD1 is representative of the star-forming population during reionisation, with a total star-formation rate of about 12M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$. The galaxy is highly evolved: it has a large stellar mass, and is heavily enriched in dust, with a dust-to-gas ratio close...

  2. Revisiting The First Galaxies: The Epoch of Population III Stars (United States)

    Muratov, Alexander; Gnedin, O. Y.; Gnedin, N. Y.; Zemp, M. K.


    We study the formation of the first galaxies using new hydrodynamic cosmological simulations with the ART code. Our simulations feature a recently developed model for dust-based formation of molecular gas. Here, we develop and implement a new recipe for the formation of metal-free Pop III stars. We reach a spatial resolution of 2 pc at z=10 and resolve star-forming galaxies with the masses above 10^6 solar masses. We find the epoch during which Pop III stars dominate the energy and metal budget of the universe to be short-lived. While these stars seed their host galaxies with metals, they cannot drive significant outflows to enrich the IGM in our simulations. Feedback from pair instability supernovae causes Pop III star formation to self-terminate within their host galaxies, but is not strong enough to suppress star formation in external galaxies. Within any individual galaxy, Pop II stars overtake Pop III stars within ~50-150 Myr. A threshold of M = 3 * 10^6 solar masses separates galaxies that lose a significant fraction of their baryons due to Pop III feedback from those that do not. Understanding the nature of the transition between Pop III and Pop II star formation is of key importance for studying the dawn of galaxy formation.

  3. Early epoch stellar positions from the Bordeaux Carte du Ciel (United States)

    Odenkirchen, Michael; Soubiran, Caroline; Le Campion, J. François

    Astrometric measurements made by the satellite Hipparcos have brought forth a homogeneous system of precise proper motions of about 105 stars, which is unprecedented in its combination of quality and quantity. Such proper motions are of great importance in various sorts of kinematic studies. However, the proper motion system needs to be disseminated and extended to stars of fainter magnitudes by means of earth-bound observations. Here, photographic records of star positions from the beginning of the 20th century present a valuable and indispensable source of information. A first important step was made with the construction of the ACT Catalogue (Urban et al. 1997), which incorporates the ancient plate measurements of the so-called Astrographic Catalogue (AC). A second series of plates, the so-called Carte du Ciel (CdC), taken as part of the same survey project as the AC, has not been used systematically for astrometry so far. The advantage of the CdC is that it reaches about 3 mag fainter than the AC. It provides however less redundancy from plate overlap. The Observatoire de Bordeaux has initiated a program for the digitisation and measurement of its collection of CdC plates which covers the zone of +11 to +17 declination and contains positions for about 8 × 105 stars at epochs mostly between 1910 and 1920. As a pilot study for this program, we are currently working on two regions near the galactic anticenter, one surrounding the open cluster NGC 2355, the other intersecting the galactic plane at l 195. These regions were selected for practical as well as for scientific reasons. The plates have been digitised on the MAMA machine at the Observatoire de Paris. Object detection was made using the software SExtractor (Bertin & Arnouts 1996). The plate limit proves to be at B = 15 and a completeness of 80 percent is reached up to 14th magnitude. The plates of the CdC provide three equal exposures with a small angular separation of 10 arc second. A loss of about 20

  4. Atlas Basemaps in Web 2.0 Epoch (United States)

    Chabaniuk, V.; Dyshlyk, O.


    The authors have analyzed their experience of the production of various Electronic Atlases (EA) and Atlas Information Systems (AtIS) of so-called "classical type". These EA/AtIS have been implemented in the past decade in the Web 1.0 architecture (e.g., National Atlas of Ukraine, Atlas of radioactive contamination of Ukraine, and others). One of the main distinguishing features of these atlases was their static nature - the end user could not change the content of EA/AtIS. Base maps are very important element of any EA/AtIS. In classical type EA/AtIS they were static datasets, which consisted of two parts: the topographic data of a fixed scale and data of the administrative-territorial division of Ukraine. It is important to note that the technique of topographic data production was based on the use of direct channels of topographic entity observation (such as aerial photography) for the selected scale. Changes in the information technology of the past half-decade are characterized by the advent of the "Web 2.0 epoch". Due to this, in cartography appeared such phenomena as, for example, "neo-cartography" and various mapping platforms like OpenStreetMap. These changes have forced developers of EA/AtIS to use new atlas basemaps. Our approach is described in the article. The phenomenon of neo-cartography and/or Web 2.0 cartography are analysed by authors using previously developed Conceptual framework of EA/AtIS. This framework logically explains the cartographic phenomena relations of three formations: Web 1.0, Web 1.0x1.0 and Web 2.0. Atlas basemaps of the Web 2.0 epoch are integrated information systems. We use several ways to integrate separate atlas basemaps into the information system - by building: weak integrated information system, structured system and meta-system. This integrated information system consists of several basemaps and falls under the definition of "big data". In real projects it is already used the basemaps of three strata: Conceptual

  5. CD30 expression and prognostic significance in R-EPOCH-treated patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Oki, Yasuhiro; Saksena, Annapurna; Desai, Parth; Lin, Pei; Tang, Guilin; Yin, C Cameron; You, M James; Thakral, Beenu; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Li, Shaoying


    A few recent studies investigated the prognostic impact of CD30 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone. No study has evaluated the significance of CD30 expression in DLBCL patients treated with rituximab, etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin (R-EPOCH). In a group of 97 patients with DLBCL and high-risk features who received R-EPOCH induction therapy, we studied CD30 expression by immunohistochemistry using different cutoff values (>0% and ≥20% of lymphoma cells, respectively) and correlated with prognosis. CD30 expression was detected in 24 (25%) cases using a cutoff greater than 0% and in 12 (12%) cases using a cutoff of 20% or greater. The clinicopathological features were similar between CD30+ and CD30-negative groups. A major difference was that MYC rearrangement was infrequent in the CD30+ group: 2 (9%) of 23 in CD30+ versus 25 (35%) of 72 in CD30-negative group (P=.02). CD30 expression was not associated with germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) or non-GCB type. Overall survival (OS) was not significantly different between patients with CD30+ and patients with CD30-negative DLBCL, either for all patients or for the subset of patients without MYC rearrangement, regardless of cutoff (P>.05). CD30 expression was not associated with OS in either GCB or non-GCB subtype (P>.05, > 0% cutoff). In conclusion, CD30 expression was detected in up to 25% of cases of DLBCL and was more frequent in tumors without MYC rearrangement. CD30 expression was not associated with OS in R-EPOCH-treated de novo DLBCL patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of accelerometer epoch length on physical activity and sedentary behaviour outcomes for preschool-aged children. (United States)

    Colley, Rachel C; Harvey, Alysha; Grattan, Kimberly P; Adamo, Kristi B


    The Canadian Health Measures Survey uses accelerometry to collect physical activity and sedentary behaviour data. Between cycles 2 and 3, a transition was made from 60-second to 15-second epochs in accelerometry data for children aged 3 to 5. This study examines the impact of epoch length on physical activity and sedentary behaviour outcomes. Twenty-nine children aged 3 to 5 wore two accelerometers at the same time, one initialized to collect data in 60-second epochs, and the other, in 15-second epochs. Comparisons between epoch settings were made for several physical activity variables. Compared with the 60-second epoch setting, the 15-second setting captured more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time, but fewer steps and less light and total physical activity. The correlation between epoch settings was high for all variables except steps. The epoch length used in accelerometer data collection affects physical activity and sedentary behaviour data for preschool-aged children.

  7. A Partitioning Algorithm for Extracting Movement Epochs from Robot-Derived Kinematic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander T. Beed


    Full Text Available Point-to-point exercising of the upper-limb, as elicited through the presentation of visual targets on a computer screen, is a ubiquitous paradigm in the robot-assisted rehabilitation of motor-impaired individuals. Kinematic data collected from the robot’s sensors can be used to assess motor function; these data allow objective quantification of motor performance, an approach that shows promise both for guiding therapy and documenting patient progress. It is imperative that these datasets be fully understood and that tools be continually developed to support analysis and proper interpretation of robot-generated data. It is our experience that data collected from kinematic robots and partitioned according to target achievement may be prone to errors in analysis and interpretation because the movements of highly spastic individuals rarely stop within the target. Here, we propose that it is preferable to partition serial movement data based on local minima in velocity rather than target achievement; this design reflects the convention that movement epochs start and end at low or zero velocity, an assumption that is prevalent even in severely impaired individuals. Using a commercially available robot (MIT-Manus, Interactive Motion Technologies, we recorded movements from 16 moderate to severely impaired chronic stroke patients. Data partitioned according to target presentation typically interrupted movements in mid-motion: velocity at file start was 32.6 ± 26.4% of the overall velocity range. By re-apportioning, we obtained velocity at file start of 7.4 ± 9.5% of total range. Across 3,200 movements, 12.4 ± 10.4% of data points were re-allocated on average. Thus, our routine is capable of re-partitioning to more accurately reflect observed behavior. Our study is thus the first to identify and propose a solution to the problem of high relevance to the community of robot-aided rehabilitation specialists, i.e., sub-optimal partitioning

  8. Organic Chemostratigraphic Markers Characteristic of the (Informally Designated) Anthropocene Epoch (United States)

    Kruge, M. A.


    Recognizing the tremendous collective impact of humans on the environment in the industrial age, the proposed designation of the current time period as the Anthropocene Epoch has considerable merit. One of the signature activities during this time continues to be the intensive extraction, processing, and combustion of fossil fuels. While fossil fuels themselves are naturally-occurring, they are most often millions of years old and associated with deeply buried strata. They may be found at the surface, for example, as natural oil seeps or coal seam outcrops, but these are relatively rare occurrences. Fossil fuels and their myriad by- products become the source of distinctive organic chemostratigraphic marker compounds for the Anthropocene when they occur out of their original geological context, i.e., as widespread contaminants in sediments and soils. These persistent compounds have high long-term preservation potential, particularly when deposited under low oxygen conditions. Fossil fuels can occur as environmental contaminants in raw form (e.g., crude petroleum spilled during transport) or as manufactured products (e.g., diesel oil from a leaking storage facility, coal tar from a manufactured gas plant, plastic waste in a landfill, pesticides from petroleum feedstock in agricultural soils). Distinctive assemblages of hydrocarbon marker compounds including acyclic isoprenoids, hopanes, and steranes can be readily detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis of surface sediments and soils. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), along with sulfur-, oxygen-, and nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds, are also characteristic of fossil fuels and are readily detectable as well. More widespread is the airfall deposition of fossil fuel combustion products from vehicular, domestic and industrial sources. These occur in higher concentrations in large urban centers, but are also detected in remote areas. Parent (nonmethylated) PAHs such as phenanthrene

  9. Discovery of a Giant Lya Emitter Near the Reionization Epoch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki; Egami, Eiichi; Saito, Tomoki; Oguri, Masamune; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Farrah, Duncan; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Momcheva, Ivelina; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Furusawa, Hisanori; Akiyama, Masayuki; Dunlop, James S.; Mortier, Angela M.J.; Okamura, Sadanori; Hayashi, Masao; Cirasuolo, Michele; Dressler, Alan; Iye, Masanori; Jarvis, Matt.J.


    We report the discovery of a giant Ly{alpha} emitter (LAE) with a Spitzer/IRAC counterpart near the reionization epoch at z = 6.595. The giant LAE is found from the extensive 1 deg{sup 2} Subaru narrow-band survey for z = 6.6 LAEs in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS) field, and subsequently identified by deep spectroscopy of Keck/DEIMOS and Magellan/IMACS. Among our 207 LAE candidates, this LAE is not only the brightest narrow-band object with L(Ly{alpha}) = 3.9 {+-} 0.2 x 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} in our survey volume of 10{sup 6} Mpc{sup 3}, but also a spatially extended Ly{alpha} nebula with the largest isophotal area whose major axis is at least {approx_equal} 3-inches. This object is more likely to be a large Ly{alpha} nebula with a size of {approx}> 17-kpc than to be a strongly-lensed galaxy by a foreground object. Our Keck spectrum with medium-high spectral and spatial resolutions suggests that the velocity width is v{sub FWHM} = 251 {+-} 21 km s{sup -1}, and that the line-center velocity changes by {approx_equal} 60 km s{sup -1} in a 10-kpc range. The stellar mass and star-formation rate are estimated to be 0.9-5.0 x 10{sup 10}M{sub {circle_dot}} and > 34 M{sub {circle_dot}}yr{sup -1}, respectively, from the combination of deep optical to infrared images of Subaru, UKIDSS-Ultra Deep Survey, and Spitzer/IRAC. Although the nature of this object is not yet clearly understood, this could be an important object for studying cooling clouds accreting onto a massive halo, or forming-massive galaxies with significant outflows contributing to cosmic reionization and metal enrichment of inter-galactic medium.

  10. Joint Estimation of the Epoch of Reionization Power Spectrum and Foregrounds (United States)

    Sims, Peter; Pober, Jonathan


    Bright astrophysical foregrounds present a significant impediment to the detection of redshifted 21-cm emission from the Epoch of Reionization on large spatial scales. In this talk I present a framework for the joint modeling of the power spectral contamination by astrophysical foregrounds and the power spectrum of the Epoch of Reionization. I show how informative priors on the power spectral contamination by astrophysical foregrounds at high redshifts, where emission from both the Epoch of Reionization and its foregrounds is present in the data, can be obtained through analysis of foreground-only emission at lower redshifts. Finally, I demonstrate how, by using such informative foreground priors, joint modeling can be employed to mitigate bias in estimates of the power spectrum of the Epoch of Reionization signal and, in particular, to enable recovery of more robust power spectral estimates on large spatial scales.

  11. Building Models for Extended Radio Sources: Implications for Epoch of Reionisation Science (United States)

    Trott, Cathryn M.; Wayth, Randall B.


    We test the hypothesis that limitations in the sky model used to calibrate an interferometric radio telescope, where the model contains extended radio sources, will generate bias in the Epoch of Reionisation power spectrum. The information contained in a calibration model about the spatial and spectral structure of an extended source is incomplete because a radio telescope cannot sample all Fourier components. Application of an incomplete sky model to calibration of Epoch of Reionisation data will imprint residual error in the data, which propagates forward to the Epoch of Reionisation power spectrum. This limited information is studied in the context of current and future planned instruments and surveys at Epoch of Reionisation frequencies, such as the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1-Low). For the MWA Epoch of Reionisation experiment, we find that both the additional short baseline uv-coverage of the compact Epoch of Reionisation array, and the additional long baselines provided by TGSS and planned MWA expansions, are required to obtain sufficient information on all relevant scales. For SKA1-Low, arrays with maximum baselines of 49 km and 65 km yield comparable performance at 50 MHz and 150 MHz, while 39 km, 14 km, and 4 km arrays yield degraded performance.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Chabaniuk


    Full Text Available The authors have analyzed their experience of the production of various Electronic Atlases (EA and Atlas Information Systems (AtIS of so-called "classical type". These EA/AtIS have been implemented in the past decade in the Web 1.0 architecture (e.g., National Atlas of Ukraine, Atlas of radioactive contamination of Ukraine, and others. One of the main distinguishing features of these atlases was their static nature - the end user could not change the content of EA/AtIS. Base maps are very important element of any EA/AtIS. In classical type EA/AtIS they were static datasets, which consisted of two parts: the topographic data of a fixed scale and data of the administrative-territorial division of Ukraine. It is important to note that the technique of topographic data production was based on the use of direct channels of topographic entity observation (such as aerial photography for the selected scale. Changes in the information technology of the past half-decade are characterized by the advent of the “Web 2.0 epoch”. Due to this, in cartography appeared such phenomena as, for example, "neo-cartography" and various mapping platforms like OpenStreetMap. These changes have forced developers of EA/AtIS to use new atlas basemaps. Our approach is described in the article. The phenomenon of neo-cartography and/or Web 2.0 cartography are analysed by authors using previously developed Conceptual framework of EA/AtIS. This framework logically explains the cartographic phenomena relations of three formations: Web 1.0, Web 1.0x1.0 and Web 2.0. Atlas basemaps of the Web 2.0 epoch are integrated information systems. We use several ways to integrate separate atlas basemaps into the information system – by building: weak integrated information system, structured system and meta-system. This integrated information system consists of several basemaps and falls under the definition of "big data". In real projects it is already used the basemaps of three strata

  13. Faint Object Detection in Multi-Epoch Observations via Catalog Data Fusion (United States)

    Budavári, Tamás; Szalay, Alexander S.; Loredo, Thomas J.


    Astronomy in the time-domain era faces several new challenges. One of them is the efficient use of observations obtained at multiple epochs. The work presented here addresses faint object detection and describes an incremental strategy for separating real objects from artifacts in ongoing surveys. The idea is to produce low-threshold single-epoch catalogs and to accumulate information across epochs. This is in contrast to more conventional strategies based on co-added or stacked images. We adopt a Bayesian approach, addressing object detection by calculating the marginal likelihoods for hypotheses asserting that there is no object or one object in a small image patch containing at most one cataloged source at each epoch. The object-present hypothesis interprets the sources in a patch at different epochs as arising from a genuine object; the no-object hypothesis interprets candidate sources as spurious, arising from noise peaks. We study the detection probability for constant-flux objects in a Gaussian noise setting, comparing results based on single and stacked exposures to results based on a series of single-epoch catalog summaries. Our procedure amounts to generalized cross-matching: it is the product of a factor accounting for the matching of the estimated fluxes of the candidate sources and a factor accounting for the matching of their estimated directions. We find that probabilistic fusion of multi-epoch catalogs can detect sources with similar sensitivity and selectivity compared to stacking. The probabilistic cross-matching framework underlying our approach plays an important role in maintaining detection sensitivity and points toward generalizations that could accommodate variability and complex object structure.

  14. Scientists Debate Whether the Anthropocene Should Be a New Geological Epoch (United States)

    Showstack, Randy


    By about 2017 or 2018, scientists probably will have determined whether or not the Earth has entered into the "Anthropocene" epoch. Although many people are convinced that we are already living in the Anthropocene, that's the estimate for when a scientific review process could culminate in officially designating this potential new epoch of the Quaternary Period (roughly the past 2.6 million years) signified by profound human alteration to geological conditions and processes. The epoch would encompass—for the time being—a sliver of geological time separate rom the Holocene (roughly 12,000 years ago to the present), starting from perhaps the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the end of World War II, or some other date determined to be a good marker to designate the beginning of the Anthropocene.

  15. Mean energy density of photogenerated magnetic fields throughout the Epoch of Reionization (United States)

    Durrive, Jean-Baptiste; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Langer, Mathieu; Sugiyama, Naoshi


    Magnetic fields are ubiquitous in the Universe. They seem to be present at virtually all scales and all epochs. Yet, whether the fields on cosmological scales are of astrophysical or cosmological origin remains an open major problem. Here we focus on an astrophysical mechanism based on the photoionization of the intergalactic medium during the Epoch of Reionization. Building upon previous studies that depicted the physical mechanism around isolated sources of ionization, we present here an analytic model to estimate the level at which this mechanism contributed to the magnetization of the whole Universe, thanks to the distribution of sources, before and alongside early luminous structure formation. This model suggests that the Universe may be globally magnetized to the order of, at least, a few 10-20 G comoving (i.e. several 10-18 G during the Epoch of Reionization) by this mechanism, prior to any amplification process.

  16. On the calculation of the angle J between the mean equators at two different epochs (United States)

    Eichhorn, Heinrich


    Vectors are precessed between the systems of the mean equators at 'epoch' to and 'date' t(o), respectively by xQm(t) = M(t0,t)xQm(t0). One of the arguments of M is the angle J between the mean equators of epoch and date, respectivley. Andoyer (1911) and recent authors approximate J by third-order polynomials in time. For long periods, however, this is inadequate because J varies nonlinearly with time. In this paper, I represent J in the form of a product of an analytical approximation J*, which remains accurate for much larger t - t(o).

  17. Episodes and Epochs in the Evolution of Danish Textile and Fashion Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boujarzadeh, Behnam; Turcan, Romeo V.; Dholakia, Nikhilesh


    In this paper we explore the emergence and evolution of industries. Specifically we investigate the episodes and epochs in the emergence and evolution of Danish Textile and Fashion Industry. We collected historical data on Danish Textile and Fashion Industry between 1945 and 2015. We employ radar...

  18. Cosmic Dawn and Epoch of Reionization Foreground Removal with the SKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapman, E.; Bonaldi, A.; Harker, G.; Jelic, V.; Abdalla, F. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bobin, J.; Dulwich, F.; Mort, B.; Santos, M.; Starck, J. L.


    The exceptional sensitivity of the SKA will allow observations of the Cosmic Dawn and Epoch of Reionization (CD/EoR) in unprecedented detail, both spectrally and spatially. This wealth of information is buried under Galactic and extragalactic foregrounds, which must be removed accurately and

  19. Importance of epoch length and registration time on accelerometer measurements in younger children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Svensson, J; El-Naaman, B


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of epoch length on accumulation of minutes of physical activity per day over a spectrum of intensities, and the effect that selection of number of hours of acceptable registration required per day had on number of days that were considered...

  20. Line-of-Sight Anisotropies in the Cosmic Dawn and Epoch of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Cosmic Dawn (CD) is the period in the history of our Universe when the first sources of light were formed and they gradually warmed up their surrounding Inter-. Galactic Medium (IGM). This period was followed by the Epoch of Reionization. (EoR) when these first and subsequent population of sources produced ...

  1. Simultaneously constraining the astrophysics of reionization and the epoch of heating with 21CMMC (United States)

    Greig, Bradley; Mesinger, Andrei


    The cosmic 21 cm signal is set to revolutionize our understanding of the early Universe, allowing us to probe the 3D temperature and ionization structure of the intergalactic medium (IGM). It will open a window on to the unseen first galaxies, showing us how their UV and X-ray photons drove the cosmic milestones of the epoch of reionization (EoR) and epoch of heating (EoH). To facilitate parameter inference from the 21 cm signal, we previously developed 21CMMC: a Monte Carlo Markov Chain sampler of 3D EoR simulations. Here, we extend 21CMMC to include simultaneous modelling of the EoH, resulting in a complete Bayesian inference framework for the astrophysics dominating the observable epochs of the cosmic 21 cm signal. We demonstrate that second-generation interferometers, the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array and Square Kilometre Array will be able to constrain ionizing and X-ray source properties of the first galaxies with a fractional precision of the order of ∼1-10 per cent (1σ). The ionization history of the Universe can be constrained to within a few percent. Using our extended framework, we quantify the bias in EoR parameter recovery incurred by the common simplification of a saturated spin temperature in the IGM. Depending on the extent of overlap between the EoR and the EoH, the recovered astrophysical parameters can be biased by ∼3σ-10σ.

  2. Modelling the 21-cm Signal from the Epoch of Reionization and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Studying the cosmic dawn and the epoch of reionization through the redshifted 21-cm line are among the major science goals of the SKA1. Their significance lies in the fact that they are closely related to the very first stars in the Universe. Interpreting the upcoming data would require detailed modelling of the relevant ...

  3. Designing Successful Next-Generation Instruments to Detect the Epoch of Reionization (United States)

    Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) team, Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) team


    The Epoch of Reionization (EoR) signifies a period of intense evolution of the Inter-Galactic Medium (IGM) in the early Universe caused by the first generations of stars and galaxies, wherein they turned the neutral IGM to be completely ionized by redshift ≥ 6. This important epoch is poorly explored to date. Measurement of redshifted 21 cm line from neutral Hydrogen during the EoR is promising to provide the most direct constraints of this epoch. Ongoing experiments to detect redshifted 21 cm power spectrum during reionization, including the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER), and the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), appear to be severely affected by bright foregrounds and unaccounted instrumental systematics. For example, the spectral structure introduced by wide-field effects, aperture shapes and angular power patterns of the antennas, electrical and geometrical reflections in the antennas and electrical paths, and antenna position errors can be major limiting factors. These mimic the 21 cm signal and severely degrade the instrument performance. It is imperative for the next-generation of experiments to eliminate these systematics at their source via robust instrument design. I will discuss a generic framework to set cosmologically motivated antenna performance specifications and design strategies using the Precision Radio Interferometry Simulator (PRISim) -- a high-precision tool that I have developed for simulations of foregrounds and the instrument transfer function intended primarily for 21 cm EoR studies, but also broadly applicable to interferometer-based intensity mapping experiments. The Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA), designed in-part based on this framework, is expected to detect the 21 cm signal with high significance. I will present this framework and the simulations, and their potential for designing upcoming radio instruments such as HERA and the Square Kilometre Array (SKA).

  4. trash epoch


    Elena Grigoryeva


    Unconventionally, the editorial of this issue begins with two epigraphs:trash1. foolish ideas or talk; nonsense;2. Chiefly US and Canadian useless or unwanted matter or objects;3. a literary or artistic production of poor quality;4. Chiefly US and Canadian a poor or worthless person or a group of such people.[Collins English Dictionary]You got to make good out of bad. That's all there is to make it with. Robert Penn Warren, “All the King’s Men”.But before talking about the topic of the issue,...

  5. trash epoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva


    Full Text Available Unconventionally, the editorial of this issue begins with two epigraphs:trash1. foolish ideas or talk; nonsense;2. Chiefly US and Canadian useless or unwanted matter or objects;3. a literary or artistic production of poor quality;4. Chiefly US and Canadian a poor or worthless person or a group of such people.[Collins English Dictionary]You got to make good out of bad. That's all there is to make it with. Robert Penn Warren, “All the King’s Men”.But before talking about the topic of the issue, we should pay off the debt. The previous (double issue was completely devoted to Irkutsk’s jubilee. We will fill in the gaps and look back on the events of the past year missed by PB. There are a lot of them: the UIA Congress in Tokyo (5-7, the Zodchestvo Festival and the UAR Plenary Meeting in Moscow (16-29, the review competition of graduation works in Erevan (30–39 and Les Ateliers of Urban Planning and Development in Cergy-Pontoise (48–54.The New Year’s news blends into the topic of the issue. This year in Irkutsk discarded Christmas trees began to be recycled into fertilizer. In the Kemerovo region the old Christmas trees are used as food for cows. So the supercilious attitude toward trash is no longer relevant. In the future we shall eat it; actually, we are already eating it. Artists help us adjust to the idea that we will live in the global dump. Trash Muses inspired Zhenya Kraineva and Konstantin Lidin to a diptych about trash art (66–75.The first essential step in waste recycling is to change our view on waste. In people’s minds the dump is turned into a deposit of valuable resources. The detailed text by Andrei Ivanov (90–99 tells us about a slum district obtaining a new status and turning into a historical heritage.It is very urgent to convert trash into resources. On the Earth, mountains of garbage grow twice as fast as the population. 17% of homes in Sweden are heated with garbage. Japan processes 96% of waste, Germany 95%, Poland 16%, Russia only 5%. At this moment the territory of Russia has accumulated 100 billion tons of garbage – there is scarcely any deposit of such a large scale. Waste recycling plants are a vital task for today’s and tomorrow’s architecture (102–105.The architecture itself is no longer designed for centuries. The green standards contain such an essential item as engineering redesign for dismantled or demolished structures. Instead of the philosophical principle “my house is my fortress”, the impermanence is on the agenda today. A house, like a short-life packing or tomorrow’s garbage, is now under the statement of the problem.This issue returns to its regular sections. In the HERITAGE section there is an article by our American contributor Brian Spencer (124–129; and a debut of Fabio Todeschini, Professor from South Africa (130–136. In the LANDSCAPE section we start publishing a series of articles by Olga Smirnova (142–147, a Krasnoyarsk architect, poet and traveler…

  6. An Alternative Method of Computing Altitude Adjustment Corrected Geomagnetic Coordinates as Applied to IGRF Epoch 2005 (United States)


    geomagnetic field with greater accuracy. In 1839, Carl Friedrich Gauss put forth the idea that the main geomagnetic field of the Earth can be described Geomagnetism by Chapman and Bartels which in turn describes the original work of Gauss , Schmidt, and many others. Ionospheric phenomena near Earth...Dipole Simple first order Earth-centered representation of the geomagnetic field. Calculated by using the first three Gauss coefficients. For Epoch

  7. Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis


    Li, W; Thorne, RM; Bortnik, J; Baker, DN; Reeves, GD; Kanekal, SG; Spence, HE; Green, JC


    ©2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Determining preferential solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration is crucial for predicting radiation belt electron dynamics. Using Van Allen Probes electron observations ( > 1 MeV) from 2012 to 2015, we identify a number of efficient and inefficient acceleration events separately to perform a superposed epoch analysis of the corresponding solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices. By directly c...

  8. Use of Apollo 17 Epoch Neutron Spectrum as a Benchmark in Testing LEND Collimated Sensor (United States)

    Chin, Gordon; Sagdeev, R.; Milikh, G.


    The Apollo 17 neutron experiment LPNE provided a unique set of data on production of neutrons in the Lunar soil bombarded by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). It serves as valuable "ground-truth" in the age of orbital remote sensing. We used the neutron data attributed to Apollo 17 epoch as a benchmark for testing the LEND's collimated sensor, as introduced by the geometry of collimator and efficiency of He3 counters. The latter is defined by the size of gas counter and pressure inside it. The intensity and energy spectrum of neutrons escaping the lunar surface are dependent on incident flux of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) whose variability is associated with Solar Cycle and its peculiarities. We obtain first the share of neutrons entering through the field of view of collimator as a fraction of the total neutron flux by using the angular distribution of neutron exiting the Moon described by our Monte Carlo code. We computed next the count rate of the 3He sensor by using the neutron energy spectrum from McKinney et al. [JGR, 2006] and by consider geometry and gas pressure of the LEND sensor. Finally the neutron count rate obtained for the Apollo 17 epoch characterized by intermediate solar activity was adjusted to the LRO epoch characterized by low solar activity. It has been done by taking into account solar modulation potential, which affects the GCR flux, and in turn changes the neutron albedo flux.

  9. Uniting cosmological epochs through the twister solution in cosmology with non-minimal coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrycyna, Orest [Department of Theoretical Physics, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Al. Racławickie 14, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Szydłowski, Marek, E-mail:, E-mail: [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, Orla 171, 30-244 Kraków (Poland)


    We investigate dynamics of a flat FRW cosmological model with a barotropic matter and a non-minimally coupled scalar field (both canonical and phantom). In our approach we do not assume any specific form of a potential function for the scalar field and we are looking for generic scenarios of evolution. We show that dynamics of universe can be reduced to a 3-dimensional dynamical system. We have found the set of fixed points and established their character. These critical points represent all important epochs in evolution of the universe: (a) a finite scale factor singularity, (b) an inflation (rapid-roll and slow-roll), (c) a radiation domination, (d) a matter domination and (e) a quintessence era. We have shown that the inflation, the radiation and matter domination epochs are transient ones and last for a finite amount of time. The existence of the radiation domination epoch is purely the effect of a non-minimal coupling constant. We show the existence of a twister type solution wandering between all these critical points.

  10. Fossil wood from the Miocene and Oligocene epoch: chemistry and morphology. (United States)

    Bardet, Michel; Pournou, Anastasia


    Fossil wood is the naturally preserved remain of the secondary xylem of plants that lived before the Holocene epoch. Typically, fossil wood is preserved as coalified or petrified and rarely as mummified tissue. The process of fossilization is very complex and it is still unknown why in the same fossil record, wood can be found in different fossilisation forms. In 2007, a fossil forest was found in the Bükkábrány open-pit coal mine in Hungary. The non-petrified forest is estimated to be 7 million years old (Miocene epoch) and its trees were found standing in an upright position. This fossil assemblage is exceptionally rare because wood has been preserved as soft waterlogged tissue. This study aimed to investigate this remarkable way of fossil wood preservation, by examining its chemistry with (13)C CPMAS NMR and its morphology with light and electron microscopy. For comparison reasons, a petrified wood trunk from the Oligocene epoch (30 Myr) found in 2001 at Porrentruy region in Switzerland and two fresh wood samples of the modern equivalents of the Miocene sample were also examined. The results obtained showed that the outstanding preservation state of the Miocene fossil is not owed to petrification or coalification. Mummification is a potential mechanism that could explain Bükkábrány trunks' condition, however this fossilisation process is not well studied and therefore this hypothesis needs to be further investigated. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Will nonlinear peculiar velocity and inhomogeneous reionization spoil 21 cm cosmology from the epoch of reionization? (United States)

    Shapiro, Paul R; Mao, Yi; Iliev, Ilian T; Mellema, Garrelt; Datta, Kanan K; Ahn, Kyungjin; Koda, Jun


    The 21 cm background from the epoch of reionization is a promising cosmological probe: line-of-sight velocity fluctuations distort redshift, so brightness fluctuations in Fourier space depend upon angle, which linear theory shows can separate cosmological from astrophysical information. Nonlinear fluctuations in ionization, density, and velocity change this, however. The validity and accuracy of the separation scheme are tested here for the first time, by detailed reionization simulations. The scheme works reasonably well early in reionization (≲40% ionized), but not late (≳80% ionized).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enikő PÁL


    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the main types of Romanian-Hungarian bilingualism in the old epoch of Romanian language taking into account some of the causes which gave rise to them. Another concern of the paper refers to the consequences of this very biling ualism on the development of Romanian language in terms of its malleability towards the incorporation of Hungarian phonetic properties and lexical elements, on the one hand, and in terms of the borrowings‘ treatment and adaptive mechanisms, on the other hand.

  13. Cosmological constraints on variations of the fine structure constant at the epoch of recombination (United States)

    Menegoni, E.; Galli, S.; Archidiacono, M.; Calabrese, E.; Melchiorri, A.


    In this brief work we investigate any possible variation of the fine structure constant at the epoch of recombination. The recent measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies at arcminute angular scales performed by the ACT and SPT experiments are probing the damping regime of Cosmic Microwave Background fluctuations. We study the role of a mechanism that could affect the shape of the Cosmic Microwave Background angular fluctuations at those scales, namely a change in the recombination process through variations in the fine structure constant α.

  14. The Epoch of IGM heating by early sources of X-rays (United States)

    Eide, Marius B.; Graziani, Luca; Ciardi, Benedetta; Feng, Yu; Kakiichi, Koki; Di Matteo, Tiziana


    Observations of the 21 cm line from neutral hydrogen indicate that an Epoch of Heating (EoH) might have preceded the later Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Here we study the effects on the ionization state and the thermal history of the Intergalactic Medium (IGM) during the EoH induced by different assumptions on ionizing sources in the high redshift Universe: (i) stars, (ii) X-ray binaries (XRBs), (iii) thermal bremsstrahlung of the hot Interstellar Medium (ISM), and (iv) accreting nuclear black holes (BHs). To this aim, we post-process outputs from the (100 h-1 cMpc)3 hydrodynamical simulation MassiveBlack-II with the cosmological 3D radiative transfer code CRASH, which follows the propagation of UV and X-ray photons, computing the thermal and ionization state of hydrogen and helium through the EoH. We find that stars determine the fully ionized morphology of the IGM, while the spectrally hard XRBs pave way for efficient subsequent heating and ionization by the spectrally softer ISM. With the seeding prescription in MassiveBlack-II, BHs do not contribute significantly to either ionization or heating. With only stars, most of the IGM remains in a cold state (with a median T = 11 K at z = 10), however, the presence of more energetic sources raises the temperature of regions around the brightest and more clustered sources above that of the CMB, opening the possibility to observing the 21 cm signal in emission.

  15. Measuring the Epoch of Reionization using [CII] Intensity Mapping with TIME-Pilot (United States)

    Crites, Abigail; Bock, James; Bradford, Matt; Bumble, Bruce; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Cheng, Yun-Ting; Cooray, Asantha R.; Hailey-Dunsheath, Steve; Hunacek, Jonathon; Li, Chao-Te; O'Brient, Roger; Shirokoff, Erik; Staniszewski, Zachary; Shiu, Corwin; Uzgil, Bade; Zemcov, Michael B.; Sun, Guochao


    TIME-Pilot (the Tomographic Ionized carbon Intensity Mapping Experiment) is a new instrument designed to probe the epoch of reionization (EoR) by measuring the 158 um ionized carbon emission line [CII] from redshift 5 - 9. TIME-Pilot will also probe the molecular gas content of the universe during the epoch spanning the peak of star formation (z ~ 1 -3) by making an intensity mapping measurement of the CO transitions in the TIME-Pilot band (CO(3-2), CO(4-3), CO(5-4), and CO(6-5)). I will describe the instrument we are building which is an R of ~100 spectrometer sensitive to the 200-300 GHz radiation. The camera is designed to measure the line emission from galaxies using an intensity mapping technique. This instrument will allow us to detect the [CII] clustering fluctuations from faint galaxies during EoR and compare these measurements to predicted [CII] amplitudes from current models. The CO measurements will allow us to constrain models for galaxies at lower redshift. The [CII] intensity mapping measurements that will be made with TIME-Pilot and detailed measurements made with future more sensitive mm-wavelength spectrometers are complimentary to 21-cm measurements of the EoR and complimentary to direct detections of high redshift galaxies with HST, ALMA, and, in the future, JWST.

  16. Multi-epoch Analysis of Pulse Shapes from the Neutron Star SAX J1808.4-3658 (United States)

    Morsink, Sharon M.; Leahy, Denis A.


    The pulse shapes detected during multiple outbursts of SAX J1808.4-3658 are analyzed in order to constrain the neutron star's mass and radius. We use a hot-spot model with a small scattered-light component to jointly fit data from two different epochs, under the restriction that the star's mass and radius and the binary's inclination do not change from epoch to epoch. All other parameters describing the spot location, emissivity, and relative fractions of blackbody to Comptonized radiation are allowed to vary with time. The joint fit of data from the 1998 "slow decay" and the 2002 "end of outburst maximum" epochs using the constraint i confidence constraint on the neutron star mass 0.8 M sun 1.0 M sun from joint fits of the 1998 data with data from other epochs of the 2002 and 2005 outbursts also fall within the same 3σ confidence region. This 3σ confidence region allows a wide variety of hadronic equations of state, in contrast with an earlier analysis by Leahy et al. of only the 1998 outburst data that only allowed for extremely small stars.

  17. Environmental Profile of a Community's Health (EPOCH: an instrument to measure environmental determinants of cardiovascular health in five countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara K Chow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The environment in which people live is known to be important in influencing diet, physical activity, smoking, psychosocial and other risk factors for cardiovascular (CV disease. However no instrument exists that evaluates communities for these multiple environmental factors and is suitable for use across different communities, regions and countries. This report describes the design and reliability of an instrument to measure environmental determinants of CV risk factors. METHOD/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF COMMUNITY HEALTH (EPOCH INSTRUMENT COMPRISES TWO PARTS: (I an assessment of the physical environment, and (II an interviewer-administered questionnaire to collect residents' perceptions of their community. We examined the inter-rater reliability amongst 3 observers from each region of the direct observation component of the instrument (EPOCH I in 93 rural and urban communities in 5 countries (Canada, Colombia, Brazil, China and India. Data collection using the EPOCH instrument was feasible in all communities. Reliability of the instrument was excellent (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient--ICC>0.75 for 24 of 38 items and fair to good (ICC 0.4-0.75 for 14 of 38 items. CONCLUSION: This report shows data collection with the EPOCH instrument is feasible and direct observation of community measures reliable. The EPOCH instrument will enable further research on environmental determinants of health for population studies from a broad range of settings.

  18. The Mars water cycle at other epochs: History of the polar caps and layered terrain (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Henderson, Bradley G.; Mellon, Michael T.


    The atmospheric water cycle at the present epoch involves summertime sublimation of water from the north polar cap, transport of water through the atmosphere, and condensation on one or both winter CO2 caps. Exchange with the regolith is important seasonally, but the water content of the atmosphere appears to be controlled by the polar caps. The net annual transport through the atmosphere, integrated over long timescales, must be the driving force behind the long-term evolution of the polar caps; clearly, this feeds back into the evolution of the layered terrain. We have investigated the behavior of the seasonal water cycle and the net integrated behavior at the pole for the last 10 exp 7 years. Our model of the water cycle includes the solar input, CO2 condensation and sublimation, and summertime water sublimation through the seasonal cycles, and incorporates the long-term variations in the orbital elements describing the Martian orbit.

  19. A Lyman Break Galaxy in the Epoch of Reionization from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Grism Spectroscopy (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Stern, Daniel K.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Dickinson, Mark; Pirzkal, Norbert; Spinrad, Hyron; Reddy, Naveen; Dey, Arjun; Hathi, Nimish; hide


    Slitless grism spectroscopy from space offers dramatic advantages for studying high redshift galaxies: high spatial resolution to match the compact sizes of the targets, a dark and uniform sky background, and simultaneous observation over fields ranging from five square arcminutes (HST) to over 1000 square arcminutes (Euclid). Here we present observations of a galaxy at z = 6.57 the end of the reioinization epoch identified using slitless HST grism spectra from the PEARS survey (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically) and reconfirmed with Keck + DEIMOS. This high redshift identification is enabled by the depth of the PEARS survey. Substantially higher redshifts are precluded for PEARS data by the declining sensitivity of the ACS grism at greater than lambda 0.95 micrometers. Spectra of Lyman breaks at yet higher redshifts will be possible using comparably deep observations with IR-sensitive grisms.

  20. Detection of a possible superluminous supernova in the epoch of reionization (United States)

    Mould, Jeremy; Abbott, Tim; Cooke, Jeff; Curtin, Chris; Katsiani, Antonios; Koekemoer, Anton; Tescari, Edoardo; Uddin, Syed; Wang, Lifan; Wyithe, Stuaet


    An interesting transient has been detected in one of our three Dark Energy Camera deep fields. Observations of these deep fields take advantage of the high red sensitivity of DECam on the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory Blanco telescope. The survey includes the Y band with rest wavelength 1430{Å} at z = 6. Survey fields (the Prime field 0555-6130, the 16hr field 1600-75 and the SUDSS New Southern Field) are deeper in Y than other infrared surveys. They are circumpolar, allowing all night to be used efficiently, exploiting the moon tolerance of 1 micron observations to minimize conflict with the Dark Energy Survey. As an i-band dropout (meaning that the flux decrement shortward of Lyman alpha is in the i bandpass), the transient we report here is a supernova candidate with z 6, with a luminosity comparable to the brightest known current epoch superluminous supernova (i.e., 2 x 10^11 solar luminosities).

  1. Analysis of Accuracy and Epoch on Back-propagation BFGS Quasi-Newton (United States)

    Silaban, Herlan; Zarlis, Muhammad; Sawaluddin


    Back-propagation is one of the learning algorithms on artificial neural networks that have been widely used to solve various problems, such as pattern recognition, prediction and classification. The Back-propagation architecture will affect the outcome of learning processed. BFGS Quasi-Newton is one of the functions that can be used to change the weight of back-propagation. This research tested some back-propagation architectures using classical back-propagation and back-propagation with BFGS. There are 7 architectures that have been tested on glass dataset with various numbers of neurons, 6 architectures with 1 hidden layer and 1 architecture with 2 hidden layers. BP with BFGS improves the convergence of the learning process. The average improvement convergence is 98.34%. BP with BFGS is more optimal on architectures with smaller number of neurons with decreased epoch number is 94.37% with the increase of accuracy about 0.5%.

  2. Multi-epoch Spectroimaging of the DG Tauri Outflows with NIFS (United States)

    White, Marc; McGregor, Peter; Bicknell, Geoff; Salmeron, Raquel; Sutherland, Ralph; Beck, Tracy; Wagner, Alex


    The outflows driven by young stellar objects provide important clues to the nature of the underlying accretion-ejection mechanism, as well as probing the physical conditions around the object. We present sub-arcsecond-resolution spectroimaging data of the outflows of the young stellar object DG Tauri, obtained from 2005-2013 in four distinct epochs using the Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) on Gemini North. These data allow us to simultaneously probe the kinematics and structure of the outflows. We rigorously separate the two [Fe II] 1.644 μm emission-line components in the approaching outflow for the first time. The high-velocity approaching jet is dominated by moving shock-excited 'knots', which emerge with a period of ~5 years and may be linked to observed bursts of accretion activity (see poster by Chou et al). The presence of a stationary recollimation shock implies a jet terminal velocity of 400-700 km s-1 and a jet launch radius of 0.02-0.07 AU. Jet acceleration is observed well beyond the height where magnetocentrifugal acceleration should cease. This is successfully modeled as a form of magnetic acceleration internal to the jet. No jet rotation is observed. The low-velocity approaching component is successfully modeled as a turbulent entrainment layer along the jet boundary, which requires the presence of a ~20-60 mG magnetic field around the jet. The receding outflow takes the form of a large bubble. We determine that this is due to the receding counter-jet being blocked by ambient material. Further analysis of our multi-epoch data set will allow us to track the evolution of the outflows over multiple accretion-ejection events.

  3. Your Epoch is not for Trying. It's for Living and for Dying... (United States)

    Churilov, Leonid P


    The article is devoted to biographies of three Russian physicians of the Silver Age (a period in the History of Russian culture between 1890 and 1917). They made early, significant and internationally recognized contribution into medical science and became eponymous, although social disasters of the twentieth century caused deep impact on their subsequent lives and careers, so their role was shadowed from global medical community. The article analyzes biographies and academic achievements of A-F.K. Siewert (aka: Zivert, Ziwert, von Siewert) (1872-1922), known for first description of the hereditary dyskinesia of cilia (as a triad of: situs inversus of the viscera, abnormal frontal sinuses producing sinusitis and bronchiectasis); S.S. Abramov (1875-1951), discoverer of primary idiopathic myocarditis, and N.I. Taratynov (1887-1919), who was the first in description of a local form of histiocytosis X (solitary eosinophilic granuloma) and predicted the eosinophilic origin of Charcot-Leyden crystals. The contribution of these scientists into Medicine is reviewed in context of historical epoch, on background of their different individual social choices and the fate of their families. Besides their eponymous descriptions, other medical priorities of these scholars are analyzed. Some previously unpublished materials from their family archives are presented, which witness for possible existence of unknown prototype for the main hero of 'Doctor Zhivago' novel by B.L. Pasternak and for probable priorities of doctor Zivert - in active diastole concept, or doctor Abramov - in description of dilated cardiomyopathy. The factors facilitating rapid development of theoretical and practical Medicine in imperial Russia of late XIX - early XX centuries are discussed. The conclusion of the author is that in any epoch, even the most cruel and unfavorable one, the creative activity is a way to social immortality (19 figs, 68 refs).

  4. Combinations of Epoch Durations and Cut-Points to Estimate Sedentary Time and Physical Activity among Adolescents (United States)

    Fröberg, Andreas; Berg, Christina; Larsson, Christel; Boldemann, Cecilia; Raustorp, Anders


    The purpose of the current study was to investigate how combinations of different epoch durations and cut-points affect the estimations of sedentary time and physical activity in adolescents. Accelerometer data from 101 adolescents were derived and 30 combinations were used to estimate sedentary time, light, moderate, vigorous, and combined…

  5. Initial LOFAR observations of epoch of reionization windows. II. Diffuse polarized emission in the ELAIS-N1 field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelic, V.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Mevius, M.; Abdalla, F. B.; Asad, K. M. B.; Bernardi, G.; Brentjens, M. A.; Bus, S.; Chapman, E.; Ciardi, B.; Daiboo, S.; Fernandez, E. R.; Ghosh, A.; Harker, G.; Jensen, H.; Kazemi, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Labropoulos, P.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Mellema, G.; Offringa, A. R.; Pandey, V. N.; Patil, A. H.; Thomas, R. M.; Vedantham, H. K.; Veligatla, V.; Yatawatta, S.; Zaroubi, S.; Alexov, A.; Anderson, J.; Avruch, I. M.; Beck, R.; Bell, M. E.; Bentum, M. J.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Bregman, J.; Breitling, F.; Broderick, J.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Butcher, H. R.; Conway, J. E.; de Gasperin, F.; de Geus, E.; Deller, A.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Engels, D.; Falcke, H.; Fallows, R. A.; Fender, R.; Ferrari, C.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Hamaker, J. P.; Hassall, T. E.; Haverkorn, M.; Heald, G.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hoeft, M.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; van der Horst, A.; Iacobelli, M.; Juette, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; van Leeuwen, J.; Maat, P.; Mann, G.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; McKean, J. P.; Munk, H.; Nelles, A.; Norden, M. J.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pietka, G.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H.; Rowlinson, A.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Schwarz, D.; Serylak, M.; Smirnov, O.; Steinmetz, M.; Stewart, A.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, C.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wijnholds, S. J.; Wucknitz, O.; Zarka, P.


    Aims: This study aims to characterise the polarized foreground emission in the ELAIS-N1 field and to address its possible implications for extracting of the cosmological 21 cm signal from the LOw-Frequency ARray - Epoch of Reionization (LOFAR-EoR) data. Methods: We used the high band antennas of

  6. Initial deep LOFAR observations of epoch of reionization windows. I. The north celestial pole : I. The north celestial pole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yatawatta, S.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Brentjens, M. A.; Labropoulos, P.; Pandey, V. N.; Kazemi, S.; Zaroubi, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Offringa, A. R.; Jelic, V.; Rubi, O. Martinez; Veligatla, V.; Wijnholds, S. J.; Brouw, W. N.; Bernardi, G.; Ciardi, B.; Daiboo, S.; Harker, G.; Schaye, J.; Thomas, R.; Vedantham, H.; Chapman, E.; Abdalla, F. B.; Alexov, A.; Anderson, J.; Avruch, I. M.; Batejat, F.; Bell, M. E.; Bell, M. R.; Bentum, M.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Bregman, J.; Breitling, F.; van de Brink, R. H.; Broderick, J. W.; Brueggen, M.; Conway, J.; de Gasperin, F.; de Geus, E.; Duscha, S.; Falcke, H.; Fallows, R. A.; Ferrari, C.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Griessmeier, J. M.; Gunst, A. W.; Hassall, T. E.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hoeft, M.; Iacobelli, M.; Juette, E.; Karastergiou, A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kramer, M.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; van Leeuwen, J.; Maat, P.; Mann, G.; McKean, J. P.; Mevius, M.; Mol, J.D.; Munk, H.; Nijboer, R.; Noordam, J. E.; Norden, M. J.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Rottgering, H. J. A.; Sluman, J.; Smirnov, O.; Stappers, B.; Steinmetz, M.; Tagger, M.; Tang, Y.; Tasse, C.; ter Veen, S.; Vermeulen, R.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wise, M.; Wucknitz, O.; Zarka, P.; Mellema, G.

    Aims: The aim of the LOFAR epoch of reionization (EoR) project is to detect the spectral fluctuations of the redshifted HI 21 cm signal. This signal is weaker by several orders of magnitude than the astrophysical foreground signals and hence, in order to achieve this, very long integrations,

  7. The brown dwarf atmosphere monitoring (BAM) project - II. Multi-epoch monitoring of extremely cool brown dwarfs (United States)

    Rajan, A.; Patience, J.; Wilson, P. A.; Bulger, J.; De Rosa, R. J.; Ward-Duong, K.; Morley, C.; Pont, F.; Windhorst, R.


    With the discovery of Y dwarfs by the WISE mission, the population of field brown dwarfs now extends to objects with temperatures comparable to those of Solar system planets. To investigate the atmospheres of these newly identified brown dwarfs, we have conducted a pilot study monitoring an initial sample of three late-T dwarfs (T6.5, T8 and T8.5) and one Y dwarf (Y0) for infrared photometric variability at multiple epochs. With J-band imaging, each target was observed for a period of 1.0-4.5 h per epoch, which covers a significant fraction of the expected rotational period. These measurements represent the first photometric monitoring for these targets. For three of the four targets (2M1047, Ross 458C and WISE0458), multi-epoch monitoring was performed, with the time span between epochs ranging from a few hours to ˜2 years. During the first epoch, the T8.5 target WISE0458 exhibited variations with a remarkable min-to-max amplitude of 13 per cent, while the second epoch light curve taken ˜2 years later did not note any variability to a 3 per cent upper limit. With an effective temperature of ˜600 K, WISE0458 is the coldest variable brown dwarf published to date, and combined with its high and variable amplitude makes it a fascinating target for detailed follow-up. The three remaining targets showed no significant variations, with a photometric precision between 0.8 and 20.0 per cent, depending on the target brightness. Combining the new results with previous multi-epoch observations of brown dwarfs with spectral types of T5 or later, the currently identified variables have locations on the colour-colour diagram better matched by theoretical models incorporating cloud opacities rather than cloud-free atmospheres. This preliminary result requires further study to determine if there is a definitive link between variability among late-T dwarfs and their location on the colour-colour diagram.

  8. Methodological proposal for the jotted issue of the first epoch of the Hero magazine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maité García Díaz


    Full Text Available During the neocolonial republic emerges in Sancti Spiritus a very significative magazine of artistic, literary and scientific sketch: Hero, founded by Jacinto Gomer Fernández-Morera and Anastacio Fernández-Morera del Castillo, it first appeared on December 20th 1907. This issue constitutes a vivid reflect of the commercial, literary, cultural, scientific and historic panorama and above all, of the life of the middle and high class in Sancti Spiritus at the beginning of the XX century. The need to divulge the advantage the texts of Hero constitute for the high school and university students, also to humanistic profile graduates and others, such as investigators, evidenced the need to carry out an investigation that pursued such purposes. That’s why the methodological proposal for the jotted issue of the first epoch of the Hero magazine (1907-1908 takes place, composed by 38 publications, departing from the fundamental theorizations about the jotted issue of the presentation of the methodological proposal on behalf of updating these publication texts for its potential readers.

  9. An improved model of H II bubbles during the epoch of reionization (United States)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Choudhury, T. Roy


    The size distribution of ionized regions during the epoch of reionization - a key ingredient in understanding the H I power spectrum observable by 21 cm experiments - can be modelled analytically using the excursion set formalism of random walks in the smoothed initial density field. To date, such calculations have been based on simplifying assumptions carried forward from the earliest excursion set models of two decades ago. In particular, these models assume that the random walks have uncorrelated steps and that haloes can form at arbitrary locations in the initial density field. We extend these calculations by incorporating recent technical developments that allow us to (a) include the effect of correlations in the steps of the walks induced by a realistic smoothing filter and (b) more importantly, account for the fact that dark matter haloes preferentially form near peaks in the initial density. A comparison with previous calculations shows that including these features, particularly the peaks constraint on halo locations, has large effects on the size distribution of the H II bubbles surrounding these haloes. For example, when comparing models at the same value of the globally averaged ionized volume fraction, the typical bubble sizes predicted by our model are more than a factor of 2 larger than earlier calculations. Our results can potentially have a significant impact on estimates of the observable H I power spectrum.

  10. First Results on the Epoch of Reionization from First Light with SARAS 2 (United States)

    Singh, Saurabh; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Udaya Shankar, N.; Sathyanarayana Rao, Mayuri; Fialkov, Anastasia; Cohen, Aviad; Barkana, Rennan; Girish, B. S.; Raghunathan, A.; Somashekar, R.; Srivani, K. S.


    Long-wavelength spectral distortions in the cosmic microwave background arising from the 21 cm transition in neutral hydrogen are a key probe of the Cosmic Dawn and the Epoch of Reionization. These features may reveal the nature of the first stars and ultra-faint galaxies that transformed the spin temperature and ionization state of the primordial gas. SARAS 2 is a spectral radiometer purposely designed for the precision measurement of these monopole or all-sky global 21 cm spectral distortions. We use 63 hr nighttime observations of the radio background in the frequency band 110-200 MHz, with the radiometer deployed at the Timbaktu Collective in Southern India, to derive likelihoods for plausible redshifted 21 cm signals predicted by theoretical models. First light with SARAS 2 disfavors the class of models that feature weak X-ray heating (with {f}X≤slant 0.1) and rapid reionization (with peak \\tfrac{{{dT}}b}{{dz}}≥slant 120 mK per unit redshift interval).

  11. On the latitudinal distribution of Titan's haze at the Voyager epoch (United States)

    Negrao, A.; Roos-Serote, M.; Rannou, P.; Rages, K.; McKay, C.


    In this work, we re-analyse a total of 10 high phase angle images of Titan (2 from Voyager 1 and 8 from Voyager 2). The images were acquired in different filters of the Voyager Imaging Sub System in 1980 - 1981. We apply a model, developed and used by Rannou etal. (1997) and Cabane etal. (1992), that calculates the vertical (1-D) distribution of haze particles and the I/F radial profiles as a function of a series of parameters. Two of these parameters, the haze particle production rate (P) and imaginary refractive index (xk), are used to obtain fits to the observed I/F profiles at different latitudes. Differerent from previous studies is that we consider all filters simultaneously, in an attempt to better fix the parameter values. We also include the filter response functions, not considered previously. The results show that P does not change significantly as a function of latitude, eventhough somewhat lower values are found at high northern latitudes. xk seems to increase towards southern latitudes. We will compare our results with GCM runs, that can give the haze distribution at the epoch of the observations. Work financed by portuguese Foundation for Science and Tecnology (FCT), contract ESO/PRO/40157/2000

  12. GNSS Single Frequency, Single Epoch Reliable Attitude Determination Method with Baseline Vector Constraint. (United States)

    Gong, Ang; Zhao, Xiubin; Pang, Chunlei; Duan, Rong; Wang, Yong


    For Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) single frequency, single epoch attitude determination, this paper proposes a new reliable method with baseline vector constraint. First, prior knowledge of baseline length, heading, and pitch obtained from other navigation equipment or sensors are used to reconstruct objective function rigorously. Then, searching strategy is improved. It substitutes gradually Enlarged ellipsoidal search space for non-ellipsoidal search space to ensure correct ambiguity candidates are within it and make the searching process directly be carried out by least squares ambiguity decorrelation algorithm (LAMBDA) method. For all vector candidates, some ones are further eliminated by derived approximate inequality, which accelerates the searching process. Experimental results show that compared to traditional method with only baseline length constraint, this new method can utilize a priori baseline three-dimensional knowledge to fix ambiguity reliably and achieve a high success rate. Experimental tests also verify it is not very sensitive to baseline vector error and can perform robustly when angular error is not great.

  13. Thermokarst, mantling and Late Amazonian Epoch periglacial-revisions in the Argyre region, Mars (United States)

    Soare, R. J.; Baoini, D.; Conway, S. J.; Dohm, J. M.; Kargel, J. S.


    Thermokarst, mantling and Late Amazonian Epoch periglacial-revisions in the Argyre region, Mars R.J. Soare(1), D. Baioni(2), S.J. Conway (3), J.M. Dohm(4)and J.S. Kargel (5)(1) Geography Department, Dawson College, Montreal, Canada H3Z 1A4 Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra,della Vita e Ambiente, Università di Urbino "Carlo Bo", Campus SOGESTA, 61029 Urbino (PU) Italy. (3) Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom, MK7 6AA. (4) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-, Japan.(5) Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA 85719.1.Introduction Metre to decametre-deep depressions that are rimless, relatively flat-floored, polygonised and scallop-shaped have been widely observed in Utopia Planitia (UP) [e.g. 1-5] and Malea Planum (MP) [6-8]. Although there is some debate about whether the depressions formed by means of sublimation or evaporation, it is commonly believed that the terrain in which the depressions occur is ice-rich.Moreover, most workers assume that this "ice-richness" is derived of a bi-hemispheric, latitudinally-dependent and atmospherically-precipitated mantle that is metres thick [2,4,6-10].

  14. An Improved Statistical Point-source Foreground Model for the Epoch of Reionization (United States)

    Murray, S. G.; Trott, C. M.; Jordan, C. H.


    We present a sophisticated statistical point-source foreground model for low-frequency radio Epoch of Reionization (EoR) experiments using the 21 cm neutral hydrogen emission line. Motivated by our understanding of the low-frequency radio sky, we enhance the realism of two model components compared with existing models: the source count distributions as a function of flux density and spatial position (source clustering), extending current formalisms for the foreground covariance of 2D power-spectral modes in 21 cm EoR experiments. The former we generalize to an arbitrarily broken power law, and the latter to an arbitrary isotropically correlated field. This paper presents expressions for the modified covariance under these extensions, and shows that for a more realistic source spatial distribution, extra covariance arises in the EoR window that was previously unaccounted for. Failure to include this contribution can yield bias in the final power-spectrum and under-estimate uncertainties, potentially leading to a false detection of signal. The extent of this effect is uncertain, owing to ignorance of physical model parameters, but we show that it is dependent on the relative abundance of faint sources, to the effect that our extension will become more important for future deep surveys. Finally, we show that under some parameter choices, ignoring source clustering can lead to false detections on large scales, due to both the induced bias and an artificial reduction in the estimated measurement uncertainty.

  15. The End of Cassini: Final VLBA Astrometry Epochs to Improve the Saturn Ephemeris (United States)

    Jones, Dayton; Folkner, William M.; Romney, Jonathan D.; Dhawan, Vivek


    During the past dozen years we have used the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to measure the position of the Cassini spacecraft in orbit around Saturn. These data, combined with fits of Cassini’s orbit with respect to Saturn from Deep Space Network tracking, have provided a time series of positions for the Saturn system barycenter in the inertial International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). We we report results from the final observing epochs of this program obtained prior to Cassini’s intentional destruction in the atmosphere of Saturn in September 2017. We now know Saturn’s orbit to approximately 0.2 mas (1 nrad), nearly two orders of magnitude better than it was know before the Cassini mission. Our VLBA positions provide the best constraints on the orientation of Saturn’s orbit (inclination and longitude of ascending node), while ranging data provide the best constraints on the orbit semi-major axis and eccentricity. This work has been partially supported by a grant from the NASA Planetary Astronomy program to the Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO. Part of this work has been carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. The Long Baseline Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  16. New Finds of Painted Ceramics of the Epoch of the Abkhazian Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armarchuk Ekaterina A.


    Full Text Available The painted polished red-clay ceramic items of the 8th-10th centuries, found on the Anakopia and other sites of Northern Abkhazia and the adjoining district of the city of Sochi are considered in the article. These are small and medium sized single-handled narrow-necked jugs. The painting is made in dark brown paint. The ornament consists mainly of straight and wavy lines; hatching in the form of oblique grids, braids and patterns of specks occur. Taking into account the new finds made during the 2007-2008 excavations of the necropolis on the Sakharnaya Golovka Mountain and of the church near Veseloye village, the analysis of painted polished ware of the Abkhazian Kingdom epoch makes it possible to determine its territorial and chronological distribution limits. The area of this pottery covers the Black Sea coast from the mouth of the Mzymta river to New Athos. Based on the results of the 1950-1980s excavations, it has been dated to the 8th-10th centuries; however, the new materials allow restricting the interval to the 9th-10th centuries. The differences in the vessels manufacturing technology indicate the presence of at least two production centers. The small painted burnished jars discovered in Christian graves suggest that they had been used to store incense or chrism.

  17. Coarse Initial Orbit Determination for a Geostationary Satellite Using Single-Epoch GPS Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghangho Kim


    Full Text Available A practical algorithm is proposed for determining the orbit of a geostationary orbit (GEO satellite using single-epoch measurements from a Global Positioning System (GPS receiver under the sparse visibility of the GPS satellites. The algorithm uses three components of a state vector to determine the satellite’s state, even when it is impossible to apply the classical single-point solutions (SPS. Through consideration of the characteristics of the GEO orbital elements and GPS measurements, the components of the state vector are reduced to three. However, the algorithm remains sufficiently accurate for a GEO satellite. The developed algorithm was tested on simulated measurements from two or three GPS satellites, and the calculated maximum position error was found to be less than approximately 40 km or even several kilometers within the geometric range, even when the classical SPS solution was unattainable. In addition, extended Kalman filter (EKF tests of a GEO satellite with the estimated initial state were performed to validate the algorithm. In the EKF, a reliable dynamic model was adapted to reduce the probability of divergence that can be caused by large errors in the initial state.

  18. The Mars water cycle at other epochs: Recent history of the polar caps and layered terrain (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Henderson, Bradley G.; Mellon, Michael T.


    The Martian polar caps and layered terrain presumably evolves by the deposition and removal of small amounts of water and dust each year, the current cap attributes therefore represent the incremental transport during a single year as integrated over long periods of time. The role was studied of condensation and sublimation of water ice in this process by examining the seasonal water cycle during the last 10(exp 7) yr. In the model, axial obliquity, eccentricity, and L sub s of perihelion vary according to dynamical models. At each epoch, the seasonal variations in temperature are calculated at the two poles, keeping track of the seasonal CO2 cap and the summertime sublimation of water vapor into the atmosphere; net exchange of water between the two caps is calculated based on the difference in the summertime sublimation between the two caps (or on the sublimation from one cap if the other is covered with CO2 frost all year). Results from the model can help to explain (1) the apparent inconsistency between the timescales inferred for layer formation and the much older crater retention age of the cap and (2) the difference in sizes of the two residual caps, with the south being smaller than the north.

  19. GNSS Single Frequency, Single Epoch Reliable Attitude Determination Method with Baseline Vector Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Gong


    Full Text Available For Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS single frequency, single epoch attitude determination, this paper proposes a new reliable method with baseline vector constraint. First, prior knowledge of baseline length, heading, and pitch obtained from other navigation equipment or sensors are used to reconstruct objective function rigorously. Then, searching strategy is improved. It substitutes gradually Enlarged ellipsoidal search space for non-ellipsoidal search space to ensure correct ambiguity candidates are within it and make the searching process directly be carried out by least squares ambiguity decorrelation algorithm (LAMBDA method. For all vector candidates, some ones are further eliminated by derived approximate inequality, which accelerates the searching process. Experimental results show that compared to traditional method with only baseline length constraint, this new method can utilize a priori baseline three-dimensional knowledge to fix ambiguity reliably and achieve a high success rate. Experimental tests also verify it is not very sensitive to baseline vector error and can perform robustly when angular error is not great.

  20. A New Method for Single-Epoch Ambiguity Resolution with Indoor Pseudolite Positioning. (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Jiming; Wang, Jinling; Qiu, Weining


    Ambiguity resolution (AR) is crucial for high-precision indoor pseudolite positioning. Due to the existing characteristics of the pseudolite positioning system, such as the geometry structure of the stationary pseudolite which is consistently invariant, the indoor signal is easy to interrupt and the first order linear truncation error cannot be ignored, and a new AR method based on the idea of the ambiguity function method (AFM) is proposed in this paper. The proposed method is a single-epoch and nonlinear method that is especially well-suited for indoor pseudolite positioning. Considering the very low computational efficiency of conventional AFM, we adopt an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm to search for the best solution in the coordinate domain, and variances of a least squares adjustment is conducted to ensure the reliability of the solving ambiguity. Several experiments, including static and kinematic tests, are conducted to verify the validity of the proposed AR method. Numerical results show that the IPSO significantly improved the computational efficiency of AFM and has a more elaborate search ability compared to the conventional grid searching method. For the indoor pseudolite system, which had an initial approximate coordinate precision better than 0.2 m, the AFM exhibited good performances in both static and kinematic tests. With the corrected ambiguity gained from our proposed method, indoor pseudolite positioning can achieve centimeter-level precision using a low-cost single-frequency software receiver.

  1. Dynamics of large-scale solar-wind streams obtained by the double superposed epoch analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yermolaev, Yu I; Nikolaeva, N S; Yermolaev, M Yu


    Using the OMNI data for period 1976-2000 we investigate the temporal profiles of 20 plasma and field parameters in the disturbed large-scale types of solar wind (SW): CIR, ICME (both MC and Ejecta) and Sheath as well as the interplanetary shock (IS). To take into account the different durations of SW types, we use the double superposed epoch analysis (DSEA) method: re-scaling the duration of the interval for all types in such a manner that, respectively, beginning and end for all intervals of selected type coincide. As the analyzed SW types can interact with each other and change parameters as a result of such interaction, we investigate separately 8 sequences of SW types: (1) CIR, (2) IS/CIR, (3) Ejecta, (4) Sheath/Ejecta, (5) IS/Sheath/Ejecta, (6) MC, (7) Sheath/MC, and (8) IS/Sheath/MC. The main conclusion is that the behavior of parameters in Sheath and in CIR are very similar both qualitatively and quantitatively. Both the high-speed stream (HSS) and the fast ICME play a role of pistons which push the pl...

  2. About Basic Epochs of Crust Formation and Kimberlite Magmatism in Connection with Diamond Prospecting Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Zinchuk


    Full Text Available Results of comprehensive analysis of large amount of worldwide and regional geological information allowed suggesting necessity of more intensive research of massive crust formation and diamondiferous magmatism epochs, which were paid little attention to. Presently available highly scattered information allows distinguishing two megastages in formation of the Siberian platform diamondiferousness. The early stage includes the time from Archean to Riphean or from diamonds formation in the mantle to its first appearance at the surface conditions. Polycentrism, localization at peripheral parts of the platform, as well as diversity of transporters are characteristic for this megastage. The second megastage (Early Paleozoic-Eocene differs from the first one by spatial arrangement of occurrences, monocentrism, and prevalence of kimberlite diatremes. During planning and carrying out the diamonds prospecting works on perspective territories of the platform, it is necessary to study not only Middle-Paleozoic productive collectors, but also more ancient (Preсambrian and Lower Paleozoic and young (Mesozoic strata as well, performing detailed complex analysis of  rock composition (especially the key layers and basal horizons.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Cohen, Seth; Zheng Zhenya [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States); Pirzkal, Norbert; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton; Peth, Michael A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Spinrad, Hyron [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Reddy, Naveen [University of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Hathi, Nimish [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA (United States); Budavari, Tamas [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ferreras, Ignacio [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Gardner, Jonathan P. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gronwall, Caryl [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Haiman, Zoltan [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Kuemmel, Martin [Universitaets-Sternwarte Muenchen, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany); Meurer, Gerhardt, E-mail: [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, University of Western Australia, M468, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); and others


    We present observations of a luminous galaxy at z = 6.573-the end of the reionization epoch-which has been spectroscopically confirmed twice. The first spectroscopic confirmation comes from slitless Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys grism spectra from the PEARS survey (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically), which show a dramatic continuum break in the spectrum at rest frame 1216 A. The second confirmation is done with Keck + DEIMOS. The continuum is not clearly detected with ground-based spectra, but high wavelength resolution enables the Ly{alpha} emission line profile to be determined. We compare the line profile to composite line profiles at z = 4.5. The Ly{alpha} line profile shows no signature of a damping wing attenuation, confirming that the intergalactic gas is ionized at z = 6.57. Spectra of Lyman breaks at yet higher redshifts will be possible using comparably deep observations with IR-sensitive grisms, even at redshifts where Ly{alpha} is too attenuated by the neutral intergalactic medium to be detectable using traditional spectroscopy from the ground.

  4. Superposed epoch analysis of the ionospheric convection evolution during substorms: onset latitude dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grocott


    Full Text Available Using data from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN we investigate the ionospheric convection response to magnetospheric substorms. Substorms were identified using the Far Ultraviolet (FUV instrument on board the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE spacecraft, and were then binned according to the magnetic latitude of their onset. A superposed epoch analysis of the ionospheric convection patterns for each onset-latitude bin was then performed using radar data for the interval 60 min before onset to 90 min after. It is found that lower onset-latitude substorms are associated with generally more enhanced convection than the higher latitude substorms, although they suffer from a significant localised reduction of the flow in the midnight sector during the expansion phase. Higher-latitude substorms are associated with a significant and rapid increase in the nightside convection following substorm onset, with all onset-latitude bins showing an enhancement over onset values by ~60 min into the expansion phase. A rudimentary inspection of the concurrent auroral evolution suggests that the duration of the flow reduction following substorm onset is dependent on the strength and duration of the expansion phase aurora and its associated conductivity enhancement.

  5. A multiwavelength study of the epoch of reionization through intensity fluctuations (United States)

    Mitchell-Wynne, Ketron

    The diffuse cosmological background light that pervades our Universe continues to be one of the best probes to uncover the astrophysical environments of the early Universe. In our attempt to gain a more holistic understanding of our present cosmological situation, we seek to understand the formation and evolution of the first stars and galaxies that came into existence. It is thought that these first-light galaxies are the progenitors to our Milky Way, and all other evolved galaxies. The spatial fluctuations of the extragalactic background light trace the total emission from all stars and galaxies in the Universe, and these first-light galaxies have left a measurable imprint on the cosmic infrared backgroud (CIB) light. In the first part of this thesis I describe measurements which suggest a detection of this signal, using a large subset of data from the largest allocation of Hubble time to date (CANDELS). This is followed by a cross-correlation analysis of the CIB with the cosmic X-ray background (CXB), which can give some insight as to whether or not X-ray emitting sources were present during this first-light epoch. I then shift towards the far-infrared (submillimeter) regime and discuss a statistical measurement of the redshift distribution of Herschel galaxies. Finally I show two-point correlation measurements of strongly lensed submillimeter galaxies, and the bias that this population may be introducing into past and current clustering analyses, which can lead to erroneous dark matter halo mass measurements from such studies.

  6. Eliminating Polarized Leakage as a Systematic for 21 cm Epoch of Reionization Experiments (United States)

    Aguirre, James E.; HERA Collaboration, PAPER Collaboration


    Because of the extreme brightness of foreground emission relative to the desired signal, experiments seeking the 21 cm HI signal from the epoch of reionization must employ foreground removal or avoidance strategies with high dynamic range. Almost all of these techniques rely on the spectral smoothness of the foreground emission, which is dominated by synchrotron emission. The polarized component of such emission can suffer Faraday rotation through the interstellar medium of the Milky Way, thereby inducing frequency structure which can be mistaken for real reionization signal. Therefore, it is of great importance for such experiments to eliminate leakage of Faraday-rotated, polarized emission into the unpolarized (Stokes I) component where the reionization signal lives. We discuss a number of approaches under investigation for mitigating this leakage in the PAPER and HERA experiments, including calibration and careful instrument design. Importantly, however, we show that the ionosphere may provide a very strong suppression of the polarized signal, when averaged over the integration times required for EoR experiments, by scrambling the phase of polarized sources. Moreover, this attenuation comes with very little suppression of the desired unpolarized signal. We consider the implications of this strategy for PAPER and HERA.

  7. Coping with kidney disease - qualitative findings from the Empowering Patients on Choices for Renal Replacement Therapy (EPOCH-RRT) study. (United States)

    Subramanian, Lalita; Quinn, Martha; Zhao, Junhui; Lachance, Laurie; Zee, Jarcy; Tentori, Francesca


    The highly burdensome effects of kidney failure and its management impose many life-altering changes on patients. Better understanding of successful coping strategies will inform patients and help health care providers support patients' needs as they navigate these changes together. A qualitative, cross-sectional study involving semi-structured telephone interviews including open- and closed-ended questions, with 179 U.S. patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), either not yet on dialysis ([CKD-ND], n = 65), or on dialysis (hemodialysis [HD], n = 76; or peritoneal dialysis [PD], n = 38) recruited through social media and in-person contacts from June to December 2013. Themes identified through content analysis of interview transcripts were classified based on the Coping Strategies Index (CSI) and compared across groups by demographics, treatment modality, and health status. Overall, more engagement than disengagement strategies were observed. "Take care of myself and follow doctors' orders," "accept it," and "rely on family and friends" were the common coping themes. Participants often used multiple coping strategies. Various factors such as treatment modality, time since diagnosis, presence of other chronic comorbidities, and self-perceived limitations contributed to types of coping strategies used by CKD patients. The simultaneous use of coping strategies that span different categories within each of the CSI subscales by CKD patients reflects the complex and reactive response to the variable demands of the disease and its treatment options on their lives. Learning from the lived experience of others could empower patients to more frequently use positive coping strategies depending on their personal context as well as the stage of the disease and associated stressors. Moreover, this understanding can improve the support provided by health care systems and providers to patients to better deal with the many challenges they face in living with kidney disease.

  8. Analysis of short single rest/activation epoch fMRI by self-organizing map neural network (United States)

    Erberich, Stephan G.; Dietrich, Thomas; Kemeny, Stefan; Krings, Timo; Willmes, Klaus; Thron, Armin; Oberschelp, Walter


    Functional magnet resonance imaging (fMRI) has become a standard non invasive brain imaging technique delivering high spatial resolution. Brain activation is determined by magnetic susceptibility of the blood oxygen level (BOLD effect) during an activation task, e.g. motor, auditory and visual tasks. Usually box-car paradigms have 2 - 4 rest/activation epochs with at least an overall of 50 volumes per scan in the time domain. Statistical test based analysis methods need a large amount of repetitively acquired brain volumes to gain statistical power, like Student's t-test. The introduced technique based on a self-organizing neural network (SOM) makes use of the intrinsic features of the condition change between rest and activation epoch and demonstrated to differentiate between the conditions with less time points having only one rest and one activation epoch. The method reduces scan and analysis time and the probability of possible motion artifacts from the relaxation of the patients head. Functional magnet resonance imaging (fMRI) of patients for pre-surgical evaluation and volunteers were acquired with motor (hand clenching and finger tapping), sensory (ice application), auditory (phonological and semantic word recognition task) and visual paradigms (mental rotation). For imaging we used different BOLD contrast sensitive Gradient Echo Planar Imaging (GE-EPI) single-shot pulse sequences (TR 2000 and 4000, 64 X 64 and 128 X 128, 15 - 40 slices) on a Philips Gyroscan NT 1.5 Tesla MR imager. All paradigms were RARARA (R equals rest, A equals activation) with an epoch width of 11 time points each. We used the self-organizing neural network implementation described by T. Kohonen with a 4 X 2 2D neuron map. The presented time course vectors were clustered by similar features in the 2D neuron map. Three neural networks were trained and used for labeling with the time course vectors of one, two and all three on/off epochs. The results were also compared by using a

  9. Was the Sun especially active at the end of the late glacial epoch? (United States)

    Alekseeva, Liliya

    In their pioneering work, the geophysicists A. Brekke and A. Egeland (1983) collected beliefs of different peoples, associated with northern lights. Our analyses of this collection show that these beliefs are mainly related to the mythological idea of ``abnormal'' deads (dead, childless old maids in Finnish beliefs; killed people; spirits dangerous to children). We find similar motifs in Slavic fairy tales about the ``Thrice-Nine Land,'' regarded as the other world in folkloric studies (in the Land where mobile and agitated warlike girls live, whose Head Girl is characterized by the words ``white snow, pretty light, the prettiest in the World,'' but whose name ``Mariya Morevna'' refers to the word ``mort''; where a river flows with its banks covered by human bones; where the witch Baba-Yaga dwells, being extremely dangerous for children). Moreover, it can be noted that similar narrative fabulous myths deal with the concept of auroral oval northern lights, since some specific features of the natural auroral forms are mentioned there, with their particular spatial orientations (to the North or West). This resembles the manner in which Ancient Greek myths describe the real properties of the heavenly phenomena in a mythological language. It is interesting that myths on the high-latitude northern lights spread even to the South of Europe (and, might be, to India and Iran). This fact can be understood in view of the following. It has been established that, during the late glacial epoch, the environmental and cultural conditions were similar over the area from Pyrenean to the Ural Mountains; the pattern of hunters' settlements outlined the glacial sheet from the outside. Relics of the hunters' beliefs can now be found in Arctic, where the environment and lifestyle remain nearly unchanged. The ethnographer Yu.B. Simchenko (1976) has reconstructed the most archaic Arctic myths. According to them, the World of dead is associated with the world of ice governed by the ``Ice

  10. Chimenea and other tools: Automated imaging of multi-epoch radio-synthesis data with CASA (United States)

    Staley, T. D.; Anderson, G. E.


    In preparing the way for the Square Kilometre Array and its pathfinders, there is a pressing need to begin probing the transient sky in a fully robotic fashion using the current generation of radio telescopes. Effective exploitation of such surveys requires a largely automated data-reduction process. This paper introduces an end-to-end automated reduction pipeline, AMIsurvey, used for calibrating and imaging data from the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager Large Array. AMIsurvey makes use of several component libraries which have been packaged separately for open-source release. The most scientifically significant of these is chimenea, which implements a telescope-agnostic algorithm for automated imaging of pre-calibrated multi-epoch radio-synthesis data, of the sort typically acquired for transient surveys or follow-up. The algorithm aims to improve upon standard imaging pipelines by utilizing iterative RMS-estimation and automated source-detection to avoid so called 'Clean-bias', and makes use of CASA subroutines for the underlying image-synthesis operations. At a lower level, AMIsurvey relies upon two libraries, drive-ami and drive-casa, built to allow use of mature radio-astronomy software packages from within Python scripts. While targeted at automated imaging, the drive-casa interface can also be used to automate interaction with any of the CASA subroutines from a generic Python process. Additionally, these packages may be of wider technical interest beyond radio-astronomy, since they demonstrate use of the Python library pexpect to emulate terminal interaction with an external process. This approach allows for rapid development of a Python interface to any legacy or externally-maintained pipeline which accepts command-line input, without requiring alterations to the original code.

  11. Analysing the 21 cm signal from the epoch of reionization with artificial neural networks (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Hayato; Semelin, Benoit


    The 21 cm signal from the epoch of reionization should be observed within the next decade. While a simple statistical detection is expected with Square Kilometre Array (SKA) pathfinders, the SKA will hopefully produce a full 3D mapping of the signal. To extract from the observed data constraints on the parameters describing the underlying astrophysical processes, inversion methods must be developed. For example, the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method has been successfully applied. Here, we test another possible inversion method: artificial neural networks (ANNs). We produce a training set that consists of 70 individual samples. Each sample is made of the 21 cm power spectrum at different redshifts produced with the 21cmFast code plus the value of three parameters used in the seminumerical simulations that describe astrophysical processes. Using this set, we train the network to minimize the error between the parameter values it produces as an output and the true values. We explore the impact of the architecture of the network on the quality of the training. Then we test the trained network on the new set of 54 test samples with different values of the parameters. We find that the quality of the parameter reconstruction depends on the sensitivity of the power spectrum to the different parameters at a given redshift, that including thermal noise and sample variance decreases the quality of the reconstruction and that using the power spectrum at several redshifts as an input to the ANN improves the quality of the reconstruction. We conclude that ANNs are a viable inversion method whose main strength is that they require a sparse exploration of the parameter space and thus should be usable with full numerical simulations.

  12. A shift of thermokarst lakes from carbon sources to sinks during the Holocene epoch (United States)

    Walter Anthony, K. M.; Zimov, S. A.; Grosse, G.; Jones, Miriam C.; Anthony, P.; Chapin, F. S.; Finlay, J. C.; Mack, M. C.; Davydov, S.; Frenzel, P.F.; Frolking, S.


    Thermokarst lakes formed across vast regions of Siberia and Alaska during the last deglaciation and are thought to be a net source of atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide during the Holocene epoch1,2,3,4. However, the same thermokarst lakes can also sequester carbon5, and it remains uncertain whether carbon uptake by thermokarst lakes can offset their greenhouse gas emissions. Here we use field observations of Siberian permafrost exposures, radiocarbon dating and spatial analyses to quantify Holocene carbon stocks and fluxes in lake sediments overlying thawed Pleistocene-aged permafrost. We find that carbon accumulation in deep thermokarst-lake sediments since the last deglaciation is about 1.6 times larger than the mass of Pleistocene-aged permafrost carbon released as greenhouse gases when the lakes first formed. Although methane and carbon dioxide emissions following thaw lead to immediate radiative warming, carbon uptake in peat-rich sediments occurs over millennial timescales. We assess thermokarst-lake carbon feedbacks to climate with an atmospheric perturbation model and find that thermokarst basins switched from a net radiative warming to a net cooling climate effect about 5,000 years ago. High rates of Holocene carbon accumulation in 20 lake sediments (47±10 grams of carbon per square metre per year; mean±standard error) were driven by thermokarst erosion and deposition of terrestrial organic matter, by nutrient release from thawing permafrost that stimulated lake productivity and by slow decomposition in cold, anoxic lake bottoms. When lakes eventually drained, permafrost formation rapidly sequestered sediment carbon. Our estimate of about 160petagrams of Holocene organic carbon in deep lake basins of Siberia and Alaska increases the circumpolar peat carbon pool estimate for permafrost regions by over 50 per cent (ref. 6). The carbon in perennially frozen drained lake sediments may become vulnerable to mineralization as permafrost disappears7

  13. Tropical cyclones and permanent El Niño in the early Pliocene epoch. (United States)

    Fedorov, Alexey V; Brierley, Christopher M; Emanuel, Kerry


    Tropical cyclones (also known as hurricanes and typhoons) are now believed to be an important component of the Earth's climate system. In particular, by vigorously mixing the upper ocean, they can affect the ocean's heat uptake, poleward heat transport, and hence global temperatures. Changes in the distribution and frequency of tropical cyclones could therefore become an important element of the climate response to global warming. A potential analogue to modern greenhouse conditions, the climate of the early Pliocene epoch (approximately 5 to 3 million years ago) can provide important clues to this response. Here we describe a positive feedback between hurricanes and the upper-ocean circulation in the tropical Pacific Ocean that may have been essential for maintaining warm, El Niño-like conditions during the early Pliocene. This feedback is based on the ability of hurricanes to warm water parcels that travel towards the Equator at shallow depths and then resurface in the eastern equatorial Pacific as part of the ocean's wind-driven circulation. In the present climate, very few hurricane tracks intersect the parcel trajectories; consequently, there is little heat exchange between waters at such depths and the surface. More frequent and/or stronger hurricanes in the central Pacific imply greater heating of the parcels, warmer temperatures in the eastern equatorial Pacific, warmer tropics and, in turn, even more hurricanes. Using a downscaling hurricane model, we show dramatic shifts in the tropical cyclone distribution for the early Pliocene that favour this feedback. Further calculations with a coupled climate model support our conclusions. The proposed feedback should be relevant to past equable climates and potentially to contemporary climate change.

  14. New probe of magnetic fields in the prereionization epoch. I. Formalism (United States)

    Venumadhav, Tejaswi; Oklopčić, Antonija; Gluscevic, Vera; Mishra, Abhilash; Hirata, Christopher M.


    We propose a method of measuring extremely weak magnetic fields in the intergalactic medium prior to and during the epoch of cosmic reionization. The method utilizes the Larmor precession of spin-polarized neutral hydrogen in the triplet state of the hyperfine transition. This precession leads to a systematic change in the brightness temperature fluctuations of the 21-cm line from the high-redshift universe, and thus the statistics of these fluctuations encode information about the magnetic field the atoms are immersed in. The method is most suited to probing fields that are coherent on large scales; in this paper, we consider a homogenous magnetic field over the scale of the 21-cm fluctuations. Due to the long lifetime of the triplet state of the 21-cm transition, this technique is naturally sensitive to extremely weak field strengths, of order 10-19 G at a reference redshift of ˜20 (or 10-21 G if scaled to the present day). Therefore, this might open up the possibility of probing primordial magnetic fields just prior to reionization. If the magnetic fields are much stronger, it is still possible to use this method to infer their direction, and place a lower limit on their strength. In this paper (Paper I in a series on this effect), we perform detailed calculations of the microphysics behind this effect, and take into account all the processes that affect the hyperfine transition, including radiative decays, collisions, and optical pumping by Lyman-α photons. We conclude with an analytic formula for the brightness temperature of linear-regime fluctuations in the presence of a magnetic field, and discuss its limiting behavior for weak and strong fields.

  15. 21SSD: a public data base of simulated 21-cm signals from the epoch of reionization (United States)

    Semelin, B.; Eames, E.; Bolgar, F.; Caillat, M.


    The 21-cm signal from the epoch of reionization (EoR) is expected to be detected in the next few years, either with existing instruments or by the upcoming SKA and HERA projects. In this context, there is a pressing need for publicly available high-quality templates covering a wide range of possible signals. These are needed both for end-to-end simulations of the up-coming instruments and to develop signal analysis methods. We present such a set of templates, publicly available, for download at The data base contains 21-cm brightness temperature lightcones at high and low resolution, and several derived statistical quantities for 45 models spanning our choice of 3D parameter space. These data are the result of fully coupled radiative hydrodynamic high-resolution (10243) simulations performed with the licorice code. Both X-ray and Lyman line transfer are performed to account for heating and Wouthuysen-Field coupling fluctuations. We also present a first exploitation of the data using the power spectrum and the pixel distribution function (PDF) computed from lightcone data. We analyse how these two quantities behave when varying the model parameters while taking into account the thermal noise expected of a typical SKA survey. Finally, we show that the noiseless power spectrum and PDF have different - and somewhat complementary - abilities to distinguish between different models. This preliminary result will have to be expanded to the case including thermal noise. This type of results opens the door to formulating an optimal sampling of the parameter space, dependent on the chosen diagnostics.

  16. The Egyptian geomagnetic reference field to the Epoch, 2010.0 (United States)

    Deebes, H. A.; Abd Elaal, E. M.; Arafa, T.; Lethy, A.; El Emam, A.; Ghamry, E.; Odah, H.


    The present work is a compilation of two tasks within the frame of the project ;Geomagnetic Survey & Detailed Geomagnetic Measurements within the Egyptian Territory; funded by the ;Science and Technology Development Fund agency (STDF);. The National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG), has conducted a new extensive land geomagnetic survey that covers the whole Egyptian territory. The field measurements have been done at 3212 points along all the asphalted roads, defined tracks, and ill-defined tracks in Egypt; with total length of 11,586 km. In the present work, the measurements cover for the first time new areas as: the southern eastern borders of Egypt including Halayeb and Shlatin, the Quattara depresion in the western desert, and the new roads between Farafra and Baharia oasis. Also marine geomagnetic survey have been applied for the first time in Naser lake. Misallat and Abu-Simble geomagnetic observatories have been used to reduce the field data to the Epoch 2010. During the field measurements, whenever possible, the old stations occupied by the previous observers have been re-occupied to determine the secular variations at these points. The geomagnetic anomaly maps, the normal geomagnetic field maps with their corresponding secular variation maps, the normal geomagnetic field equations of the geomagnetic elements (EGRF) and their corresponding secular variations equations, are outlined. The anomalous sites, as discovered from the anomaly maps are, only, mentioned. In addition, a correlation between the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) 2010.0 and the Egyptian Geomagnetic Reference Field (EGRF) 2010 is indicated.

  17. Spectroscopic confirmation of an ultra-faint galaxy at the epoch of reionization (United States)

    Hoag, Austin; Bradač, Maruša; Trenti, Michele; Treu, Tommaso; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Lemaux, Brian C.; He, Julie; Bernard, Stephanie R.; Abramson, Louis E.; Mason, Charlotte A.; Morishita, Takahiro; Pentericci, Laura; Schrabback, Tim


    Within one billion years of the Big Bang, intergalactic hydrogen was ionized by sources emitting ultraviolet and higher energy photons. This was the final phenomenon to globally affect all the baryons (visible matter) in the Universe. It is referred to as cosmic reionization and is an integral component of cosmology. It is broadly expected that intrinsically faint galaxies were the primary ionizing sources due to their abundance in this epoch1,2. However, at the highest redshifts (z > 7.5 lookback time 13.1 Gyr), all galaxies with spectroscopic confirmations to date are intrinsically bright and, therefore, not necessarily representative of the general population3. Here, we report the unequivocal spectroscopic detection of a low luminosity galaxy at z > 7.5. We detected the Lyman-α emission line at ˜10,504 Å in two separate observations with MOSFIRE4 on the Keck I Telescope and independently with the Hubble Space Telescope's slitless grism spectrograph, implying a source redshift of z = 7.640 ± 0.001. The galaxy is gravitationally magnified by the massive galaxy cluster MACS J1423.8+2404 (z = 0.545), with an estimated intrinsic luminosity of MAB = -19.6 ± 0.2 mag and a stellar mass of M⊙=3.0-0.8+1.5×108 solar masses. Both are an order of magnitude lower than the four other Lyman-α emitters currently known at z > 7.5, making it probably the most distant representative source of reionization found to date.

  18. Subkurgan Paleosoils of the Lower Volga Steppes as Indicators of Climate Dynamics over an Historical Epoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demkin Vitaliy A.


    Full Text Available The studies of paleosoils buried beneath burial mounds of the Early, Middle, and Late Sarmatian time (4th c. BC to 4th c. AD were carried out in the dry and desert steppes of the Lower Volga river area (the Volga and Yergenino uplands, the Caspian lowland. It was established that within the chronological interval of 2400–1600 years ago temporal variability of morphological, chemical, microbiological, and magnetic properties of paleosoils was rhythmical, being conditioned by the centennial dynamics of climate humidity with oscillations of mean annual precipitation rate within ±30–50 mm. The periodic change of humid and arid climatic epochs considerably influenced soil salinization-desalinization, solonetz and humus formation processes, and biological activity of paleosoils of the solonetz alkali soil complexes. This stimulated essential changes in the structure of the soil covering with reversal evolutionary transformations of paleosoils on the levels of types, genera or species within several decades. The natural conditions within the existence of the Sarmatian culture society may be characterized as alternation of micropluvial and microarid periods with 100–200-year duration. In particular, both in dry (Volga-Don interfluve and in desert (Trans-Volga steppes, the 1st c. BC, AD 1st and 4th cc. were characterized by relatively humid conditions, while the 4th–3rd cc. BC and second half of the 2nd to first half of the 3rd cc. AD were most arid. Intermediate humidity situation close to modern time was characteristic of the period from the first half of the 2nd to the second half of 3rd century AD. The evolution of climatic conditions is generally consistent with the rhythms of natural processes in other steppe and desert regions of Eurasia.

  19. A semi-aquatic Arctic mammalian carnivore from the Miocene epoch and origin of Pinnipedia. (United States)

    Rybczynski, Natalia; Dawson, Mary R; Tedford, Richard H


    Modern pinnipeds (seals, sea lions and the walrus) are semi-aquatic, generally marine carnivores the limbs of which have been modified into flippers. Recent phylogenetic studies using morphological and molecular evidence support pinniped monophyly, and suggest a sister relationship with ursoids (for example bears) or musteloids (the clade that includes skunks, badgers, weasels and otters). Although the position of pinnipeds within modern carnivores appears moderately well resolved, fossil evidence of the morphological steps leading from a terrestrial ancestor to the modern marine forms has been weak or contentious. The earliest well-represented fossil pinniped is Enaliarctos, a marine form with flippers, which had appeared on the northwestern shores of North America by the early Miocene epoch. Here we report the discovery of a nearly complete skeleton of a new semi-aquatic carnivore from an early Miocene lake deposit in Nunavut, Canada, that represents a morphological link in early pinniped evolution. The new taxon retains a long tail and the proportions of its fore- and hindlimbs are more similar to those of modern terrestrial carnivores than to modern pinnipeds. Morphological traits indicative of semi-aquatic adaptation include a forelimb with a prominent deltopectoral ridge on the humerus, a posterodorsally expanded scapula, a pelvis with relatively short ilium, a shortened femur and flattened phalanges, suggestive of webbing. The new fossil shows evidence of pinniped affinities and similarities to the early Oligocene Amphicticeps from Asia and the late Oligocene and Miocene Potamotherium from Europe. The discovery suggests that the evolution of pinnipeds included a freshwater transitional phase, and may support the hypothesis that the Arctic was an early centre of pinniped evolution.

  20. Galactic wind X-ray heating of the intergalactic medium during the Epoch of Reionization (United States)

    Meiksin, Avery; Khochfar, Sadegh; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Kohn, Saul


    The diffuse soft X-ray emissivity from galactic winds is computed during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). We consider two analytic models, a pressure-driven wind and a superbubble model, and a 3D cosmological simulation including gas dynamics from the First Billion Years (FiBY) project. The analytic models are normalized to match the diffuse X-ray emissivity of star-forming galaxies in the nearby Universe. The cosmological simulation uses physically motivated star formation and wind prescriptions, and includes radiative transfer corrections. The models and the simulation all are found to produce sufficient heating of the intergalactic medium to be detectable by current and planned radio facilities through 21 cm measurements during the EoR. While the analytic models predict a 21 cm emission signal relative to the cosmic microwave backgroundsets in by ztrans ≃ 8-10, the predicted signal in the FiBY simulation remains in absorption until reionization completes. The 21 cm absorption differential brightness temperature reaches a minimum of ΔT ≃ -130 to -200 mK, depending on model. Allowing for additional heat from high-mass X-ray binaries pushes the transition to emission to ztrans ≃ 10-12, with shallower absorption signatures having a minimum of ΔT ≃ -110 to -140 mK. The 21 cm signal may be a means of distinguishing between the wind models, with the superbubble model favouring earlier reheating. While an early transition to emission may indicate X-ray binaries dominate the reheating, a transition to emission as early as ztrans > 12 would suggest the presence of additional heat sources.

  1. A shift of thermokarst lakes from carbon sources to sinks during the Holocene epoch. (United States)

    Anthony, K M Walter; Zimov, S A; Grosse, G; Jones, M C; Anthony, P M; Chapin, F S; Finlay, J C; Mack, M C; Davydov, S; Frenzel, P; Frolking, S


    Thermokarst lakes formed across vast regions of Siberia and Alaska during the last deglaciation and are thought to be a net source of atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide during the Holocene epoch. However, the same thermokarst lakes can also sequester carbon, and it remains uncertain whether carbon uptake by thermokarst lakes can offset their greenhouse gas emissions. Here we use field observations of Siberian permafrost exposures, radiocarbon dating and spatial analyses to quantify Holocene carbon stocks and fluxes in lake sediments overlying thawed Pleistocene-aged permafrost. We find that carbon accumulation in deep thermokarst-lake sediments since the last deglaciation is about 1.6 times larger than the mass of Pleistocene-aged permafrost carbon released as greenhouse gases when the lakes first formed. Although methane and carbon dioxide emissions following thaw lead to immediate radiative warming, carbon uptake in peat-rich sediments occurs over millennial timescales. We assess thermokarst-lake carbon feedbacks to climate with an atmospheric perturbation model and find that thermokarst basins switched from a net radiative warming to a net cooling climate effect about 5,000 years ago. High rates of Holocene carbon accumulation in 20 lake sediments (47 ± 10 grams of carbon per square metre per year; mean ± standard error) were driven by thermokarst erosion and deposition of terrestrial organic matter, by nutrient release from thawing permafrost that stimulated lake productivity and by slow decomposition in cold, anoxic lake bottoms. When lakes eventually drained, permafrost formation rapidly sequestered sediment carbon. Our estimate of about 160 petagrams of Holocene organic carbon in deep lake basins of Siberia and Alaska increases the circumpolar peat carbon pool estimate for permafrost regions by over 50 per cent (ref. 6). The carbon in perennially frozen drained lake sediments may become vulnerable to mineralization as permafrost disappears

  2. Interpreting ALMA observations of the ISM during the epoch of reionization (United States)

    Katz, Harley; Kimm, Taysun; Sijacki, Debora; Haehnelt, Martin G.


    We present cosmological, radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of galaxy formation during the epoch of reionization in an effort towards modelling the interstellar medium (ISM) and interpreting Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations. Simulations with and without stellar radiation are compared at large (Mpc), intermediate (tens of kpc) and small (sub-kpc) scales. At large scales, the dense regions around galaxies reionize first before ultraviolet (UV) photons penetrate the voids; however, considerable amounts of neutral gas remain present within the haloes. The spatial distribution of neutral gas is highly dynamic and is anticorrelated with the presence of stars older than a few Myr. For our specific feedback implementation, most of the metals remain inside the virial radii of haloes, and they are proportionally distributed over the ionized and neutral media by mass. For our most massive galaxy with Mh ˜ 1011 M⊙, the majority of the C II and O I masses are associated with cold neutral clumps. N II is more diffuse and arises in warmer gas, while O III arises in hotter gas with a higher ionization parameter, produced by photoheating and supernovae. If smaller pockets of high-metallicity gas exist in the ISM, the emission from these ions may be observable by ALMA, while the low metallicity of the galaxy may cause these systems to fall below the local [C II]-star formation rate relation. The presence of dust can cause spatial offsets between UV/Lyman α and [C II] emissions, as suggested by the recent observations of Maiolino et al. [O III] may be spatially offset from both of these components since it arises from a different part of density-temperature phase space.

  3. On the Longevity of current epoch Compact Group-like Associations in a ΛCDM Cosmology (United States)

    Tamayo, F. J.; Aceves, H.


    The survival time of initially compact associations of galaxy-size dark matter halos, obtained at the present epoch from a series of ΛCDM cosmological simulations, is studied by means of dynamical N-body simulations. The time evolution of such systems from the present epoch up to 5 Gyr into the future is followed. We find that out of 14 initial compact associations only 1 (≈ 10%) suffers a full merger, and the others still have at least two discernible members in such a time span, although they have suffered multiple mergers. Our results support the hypothesis that the majority of current compact galaxy groups will not suffer a complete merger within the next few gigayears, and that some of them (≈ 10%) may even evolve without a single merger. We conclude that no overmerging problem exists in compact groups.

  4. An Efficient Algorithm for On-the-Fly Data Race Detection Using an Epoch-Based Technique

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    Ok-Kyoon Ha


    Full Text Available Data races represent the most notorious class of concurrency bugs in multithreaded programs. To detect data races precisely and efficiently during the execution of multithreaded programs, the epoch-based FastTrack technique has been employed. However, FastTrack has time and space complexities that depend on the maximum parallelism of the program to partially maintain expensive data structures, such as vector clocks. This paper presents an efficient algorithm, called iFT, that uses only the epochs of the access histories. Unlike FastTrack, our algorithm requires O(1 operations to maintain an access history and locate data races, without any switching between epochs and vector clocks. We implement this algorithm on top of the Pin binary instrumentation framework and compare it with other on-the-fly detection algorithms, including FastTrack, which uses a state-of-the-art happens-before analysis algorithm. Empirical results using the PARSEC benchmark show that iFT reduces the average runtime and memory overhead to 84% and 37%, respectively, of those of FastTrack.

  5. The Greek Orthodox Community of Northern Lebanon in the Beginning of the Ottoman Epoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Panchenko


    Full Text Available This article is devoted to a less-known period in the political history of the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch, namely the early decades of the Ottoman rule (1530s–1540s. The lack of historical narratives on the Melkites of that epoch can be partly balanced by information taken from colophons and notes of Arab Christian manuscripts which have not been properly studied yet. The main sources for this research are colophons of Melkite books of the 15th and 16th centuries from collections of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts (St Petersburg and Balamand monastery (Lebanon that deal with the history of the Church of Antioch. The main object of the study is the Arab Christian elite of Northern Lebanon, particularly the powerful sheikh ʻIsa from Tripoli and a circle of high-status clergy of the Antioch and Jerusalem Churches connected with him. The most prominent fi gure in this group was the ambitious metropolitan Macarius Hilal who ruled a number of bishoprics in the Kalamun plateau and the Lebanon mountains. He was in obvious confl ict with the patriarch of Antioch Mikhail IV ibn al-Mawardi (1523–1540 but actively cooperated with his successor Dorotheus III (1540–1543. Being infl uenced by the Melkite elite of Northern Lebanon, including such persons as sheikh ʻIsa and Macarius Hilal, Dorotheus concluded an unprecedented agreement on the Unia with the Maronite Church. In the 16th century, both communities maintained close interactions including common use of churches and even participation in tribal vengeance in Lebanese highlands. Trying to facilitate inter-communal contacts, the Melkite and Maronite Patriarchs agreed about the mutual recognition of the Holy Sacraments and mixed marriages, while the doctrines of the both Churches were left untouched. The Maronite clergy did it best to keep this treaty in secret from Rome. However, the Greek Orthodox society saw the acts of Dorotheus as a violation of the Church canons. The council

  6. Basic Geomagnetic Network of the Republic of Croatia 2004 – 2012, with Geomagnetic Field Maps for 2009.5 epoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Brkić


    Full Text Available After more than half a century, scientific book Basic Geomagnetic Network of the Republic of Croatia 2004 – 2012, with Geomagnetic Field Maps for 2009.5 epoch describes the recent geomagnetic field on Croatian territory. A review of research in the past decade as well as the original solutions makes the book a document of contribution to geodesy and geomagnetism in Croatia.The book’s introduction gives an overview of two centuries of history and the strategic, security, economic and scientific significance of knowing the geomagnetic field on the Croatian territory. All the activities related to the updating of the geomagnetic information, which took place in the last decade, signified a big step toward the countries where geomagnetic survey is a mature scientific and technical discipline, and a scientific contribution to understanding of the nature of the Earth's magnetism.The declination, inclination and total intensity maps (along with the normal annual changes for the epoch 2009.5 are given in the Appendix. The book Basic Geomagnetic Network of the Republic of Croatia 2004 – 2012, with Geomagnetic Field Maps for 2009.5 epoch (ISBN 978-953-293-521-9 is published by the State Geodetic Administration of the Republic of Croatia. Beside editor in chief, M. Brkić, the authors are: E. Vujić, D. Šugar, E. Jungwirth, D. Markovinović, M. Rezo, M. Pavasović, O. Bjelotomić, M. Šljivarić, M. Varga and V. Poslončec-Petrić. The book contains 48 pages and 3 maps, and is published in 200 copies. CIP record is available in digital catalogue of the National and University Library in Zagreb under number 861937.

  7. The phenomenon of literature images transformation into musical images and paradigmal images of corresponding epochs (philosophy of history analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Masayev


    The author comes to the conclusion that the images of the M. A. Sholokhov’s novels «Quit Waves of Don» and «Newly­ploughed virgin soil» and short story «Destiny of the man» having become musical images of the I. I. Dzerzhinsky’s operas «Quit Waves of Don», «Newly­ploughed virgin soil», «Destiny of the man» and «Grigoriy Melekhov», turned into real paradigmal symbols of the epochs of the civil war, collectivization and the Great Patriotic War.

  8. A simulation-calibrated limit on the H i power spectrum from the GMRT Epoch of Reionization experiment


    Paciga, Gregory; Albert, Joshua G.; Bandura, Kevin; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Gupta, Yashwant; Hirata, Christopher; Odegova, Julia; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B.; Roy, Jayanta; Shaw, J. Richard; Sigurdson, Kris; Voytek, Tabitha


    The Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope Epoch of Reionization experiment is an ongoing effort to measure the power spectrum from neutral hydrogen at high redshift. We have previously reported an upper limit of (70 mK)^2 at wavenumbers of k ≈ 0.65 h Mpc^(−1) using a basic piecewise-linear foreground subtraction. In this paper, we explore the use of a singular value decomposition to remove foregrounds with fewer assumptions about the foreground structure. Using this method, we also quantify, for th...

  9. Unifying inflation with {lambda}CDM epoch in modified f(R) gravity consistent with Solar System tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojiri, Shin' ichi [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)], E-mail:; Odintsov, Sergei D. [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA) and Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-Par-2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail:


    We suggest two realistic f(R) and one F(G) modified gravities which are consistent with local tests and cosmological bounds. The typical property of such theories is the presence of the effective cosmological constant epochs in such a way that early-time inflation and late-time cosmic acceleration are naturally unified within single model. It is shown that classical instability does not appear here and Newton law is respected. Some discussion of possible anti-gravity regime appearance and related modification of the theory is done.

  10. A superposed epoch analysis of auroral evolution during substorm growth, onset and recovery: open magnetic flux control of substorm intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan


    Full Text Available We perform two superposed epoch analyses of the auroral evolution during substorms using the FUV instrument on the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Explorer (IMAGE spacecraft. The larger of the two studies includes nearly 2000 substorms. We subdivide the substorms by onset latitude, a measure of the open magnetic flux in the magnetosphere, and determine average auroral images before and after substorm onset, for both electron and proton aurora. Our results indicate that substorms are more intense in terms of auroral brightness when the open flux content of the magnetosphere is larger, and that magnetic flux closure is more significant. The increase in auroral brightness at onset is larger for electrons than protons. We also show that there is a dawn-dusk offset in the location of the electron and proton aurora that mirrors the relative locations of the region 1 and region 2 current systems. Superposed epoch analyses of the solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, and geomagnetic indices for the substorms under study indicate that dayside reconnection is expected to occur at a faster rate prior to low latitude onsets, but also that the ring current is enhanced for these events.

  11. Effects of Antenna Beam Chromaticity on Redshifted 21 cm Power Spectrum and Implications for Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (United States)

    Thyagarajan, Nithyanandan; Parsons, Aaron R.; DeBoer, David R.; Bowman, Judd D.; Ewall-Wice, Aaron M.; Neben, Abraham R.; Patra, Nipanjana


    Unaccounted for systematics from foregrounds and instruments can severely limit the sensitivity of current experiments from detecting redshifted 21 cm signals from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Upcoming experiments are faced with a challenge to deliver more collecting area per antenna element without degrading the data with systematics. This paper and its companions show that dishes are viable for achieving this balance using the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) as an example. Here, we specifically identify spectral systematics associated with the antenna power pattern as a significant detriment to all EoR experiments which causes the already bright foreground power to leak well beyond ideal limits and contaminate the otherwise clean EoR signal modes. A primary source of this chromaticity is reflections in the antenna-feed assembly and between structures in neighboring antennas. Using precise foreground simulations taking wide-field effects into account, we provide a generic framework to set cosmologically motivated design specifications on these reflections to prevent further EoR signal degradation. We show that HERA will not be impeded by such spectral systematics and demonstrate that even in a conservative scenario that does not perform removal of foregrounds, HERA will detect the EoR signal in line-of-sight k-modes, {k}\\parallel ≳ 0.2 h Mpc-1, with high significance. Under these conditions, all baselines in a 19-element HERA layout are capable of detecting EoR over a substantial observing window on the sky.

  12. A model and solving algorithm of combination planning for weapon equipment based on Epoch-era analysis method (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Huaiqiang; Zhang, Kan


    Focused on the circumstance that the equipment using demand in the short term and the development demand in the long term should be made overall plans and took into consideration in the weapons portfolio planning and the practical problem of the fuzziness in the definition of equipment capacity demand. The expression of demand is assumed to be an interval number or a discrete number. With the analysis method of epoch-era, a long planning cycle is broke into several short planning cycles with different demand value. The multi-stage stochastic programming model is built aimed at maximize long-term planning cycle demand under the constraint of budget, equipment development time and short planning cycle demand. The scenario tree is used to discretize the interval value of the demand, and genetic algorithm is designed to solve the problem. At last, a case is studied to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed mode.

  13. A simulation-calibrated limit on the H I power spectrum from the GMRT Epoch of Reionization experiment (United States)

    Paciga, Gregory; Albert, Joshua G.; Bandura, Kevin; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Gupta, Yashwant; Hirata, Christopher; Odegova, Julia; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B.; Roy, Jayanta; Shaw, J. Richard; Sigurdson, Kris; Voytek, Tabitha


    The Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope Epoch of Reionization experiment is an ongoing effort to measure the power spectrum from neutral hydrogen at high redshift. We have previously reported an upper limit of (70 mK)2 at wavenumbers of k ≈ 0.65 h Mpc-1 using a basic piecewise-linear foreground subtraction. In this paper, we explore the use of a singular value decomposition to remove foregrounds with fewer assumptions about the foreground structure. Using this method, we also quantify, for the first time, the signal loss due to the foreground filter and present new power spectra adjusted for this loss, providing a revised measurement of a 2σ upper limit at (248 mK)2 for k = 0.50 h Mpc-1. While this revised limit is larger than previously reported, we believe it to be more robust and still represents the best current constraint on reionization at z ≈ 8.6.

  14. The Early Prevention of Obesity in CHildren (EPOCH Collaboration - an Individual Patient Data Prospective Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simes John


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts to prevent the development of overweight and obesity have increasingly focused early in the life course as we recognise that both metabolic and behavioural patterns are often established within the first few years of life. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs of interventions are even more powerful when, with forethought, they are synthesised into an individual patient data (IPD prospective meta-analysis (PMA. An IPD PMA is a unique research design where several trials are identified for inclusion in an analysis before any of the individual trial results become known and the data are provided for each randomised patient. This methodology minimises the publication and selection bias often associated with a retrospective meta-analysis by allowing hypotheses, analysis methods and selection criteria to be specified a priori. Methods/Design The Early Prevention of Obesity in CHildren (EPOCH Collaboration was formed in 2009. The main objective of the EPOCH Collaboration is to determine if early intervention for childhood obesity impacts on body mass index (BMI z scores at age 18-24 months. Additional research questions will focus on whether early intervention has an impact on children's dietary quality, TV viewing time, duration of breastfeeding and parenting styles. This protocol includes the hypotheses, inclusion criteria and outcome measures to be used in the IPD PMA. The sample size of the combined dataset at final outcome assessment (approximately 1800 infants will allow greater precision when exploring differences in the effect of early intervention with respect to pre-specified participant- and intervention-level characteristics. Discussion Finalisation of the data collection procedures and analysis plans will be complete by the end of 2010. Data collection and analysis will occur during 2011-2012 and results should be available by 2013. Trial registration number ACTRN12610000789066

  15. Environmental Profile of a Community's Health (EPOCH: an ecometric assessment of measures of the community environment based on individual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Corsi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Public health research has turned towards examining upstream, community-level determinants of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Objective measures of the environment, such as those derived from direct observation, and perception-based measures by residents have both been associated with health behaviours. However, current methods are generally limited to objective measures, often derived from administrative data, and few instruments have been evaluated for use in rural areas or in low-income countries. We evaluate the reliability of a quantitative tool designed to capture perceptions of community tobacco, nutrition, and social environments obtained from interviews with residents in communities in 5 countries. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirteen measures of the community environment were developed from responses to questionnaire items from 2,360 individuals residing in 84 urban and rural communities in 5 countries (China, India, Brazil, Colombia, and Canada in the Environmental Profile of a Community's Health (EPOCH study. Reliability and other properties of the community-level measures were assessed using multilevel models. High reliability (>0.80 was demonstrated for all community-level measures at the mean number of survey respondents per community (n = 28 respondents. Questionnaire items included in each scale were found to represent a common latent factor at the community level in multilevel factor analysis models. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: Reliable measures which represent aspects of communities potentially related to cardiovascular disease (CVD/risk factors can be obtained using feasible sample sizes. The EPOCH instrument is suitable for use in different settings to explore upstream determinants of CVD/risk factors.

  16. Variable Dynamics in the Inner Disk of HD 135344B Revealed with Multi-epoch Scattered Light Imaging (United States)

    Stolker, Tomas; Sitko, Mike; Lazareff, Bernard; Benisty, Myriam; Dominik, Carsten; Waters, Rens; Min, Michiel; Perez, Sebastian; Milli, Julien; Garufi, Antonio; de Boer, Jozua; Ginski, Christian; Kraus, Stefan; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Avenhaus, Henning


    We present multi-epoch Very Large Telescope/Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (VLT/SPHERE) observations of the protoplanetary disk around HD 135344B (SAO 206462). The J-band scattered light imagery reveal, with high spatial resolution (˜41 mas, 6.4 au), the disk surface beyond ˜20 au. Temporal variations are identified in the azimuthal brightness distributions of all epochs, presumably related to the asymmetrically shading dust distribution in the inner disk. These shadows manifest themselves as narrow lanes, cast by localized density enhancements, and broader features which possibly trace the larger scale dynamics of the inner disk. We acquired visible and near-infrared photometry which shows variations up to 10% in the JHK bands, possibly correlated with the presence of the shadows. Analysis of archival Very Large Telescope Interferometer/Precision Integrated-Optics Near-infrared Imaging ExpeRiment (VLTI/PIONIER) H-band visibilities constrain the orientation of the inner disk to I=18\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} {2}-4.1+3.4 and {PA}=57\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 3+/- 5\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 7, consistent with an alignment with the outer disk or a minor disk warp of several degrees. The latter scenario could explain the broad, quasi-stationary shadowing in north-northwest direction in case the inclination of the outer disk is slightly larger. The correlation between the shadowing and the near-infrared excess is quantified with a grid of radiative transfer models. The variability of the scattered light contrast requires extended variations in the inner disk atmosphere (H/r≲ 0.2). Possible mechanisms that may cause asymmetric variations in the optical depth ({{Δ }}τ ≲ 1) through the atmosphere of the inner disk include turbulent fluctuations, planetesimal collisions, or a dusty disk wind, possibly enhanced by a minor disk warp. A fine temporal sampling is required to follow day-to-day changes of the shadow patterns which may be a face

  17. Solar-wind turbulence and shear: a superposed-epoch analysis of corotating interaction regions at 1 AU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovsky, Joseph E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denton, Michael H [LANCASTER UNIV.


    A superposed-epoch analysis of ACE and OMNI2 measurements is performed on 27 corotating interaction regions (CIRs) in 2003-2008, with the zero epoch taken to be the stream interface as determined by the maximum of the plasma vorticity. The structure of CIRs is investigated. When the flow measurements are rotated into the local-Parker-spiral coordinate system the shear is seen to be abrupt and intense, with vorticities on the order of 10{sup -5}-10{sup -4} sec{sup -1}. Converging flows perpendicular to the stream interface are seen in the local-Parker-spiral coordinate system and about half of the CIRs show a layer of divergent rebound flow away from the stream interface. Arguments indicate that any spreading of turbulence away from the region where it is produced is limited to about 10{sup 6} km, which is very small compared with the thickness of a CrR. Analysis of the turbulence across the CrRs is performed. When possible, the effects of discontinuities are removed from the data. Fluctuation amplitudes, the Alfvenicity, and the level of Alfvenic correlations all vary smoothly across the CrR. The Alfven ratio exhibits a decrease at the shear zone of the stream interface. Fourier analysis of 4.5-hr subintervals of ACE data is performed and the results are superposed averaged as an ensemble of realizations. The spectral slopes of the velocity, magnetic-field, and total-energy fluctuations vary smoothly across the CIR. The total-energy spectral slope is {approx} 3/2 in the slow and fast wind and in the CrRs. Analysis of the Elsasser inward-outward fluctuations shows a smooth transition across the CrR from an inward-outward balance in the slow wind to an outward dominance in the fast wind. A number of signatures of turbulence driving at the shear zone are sought (entropy change, turbulence amplitude, Alfvenicity, Alfven ratio, spectral slopes, in-out nature): none show evidence of driving of turbulence by shear.

  18. Proton therapy (United States)

    Proton beam therapy; Cancer - proton therapy; Radiation therapy - proton therapy; Prostate cancer - proton therapy ... that use x-rays to destroy cancer cells, proton therapy uses a beam of special particles called ...

  19. Tracing the Evolution of Dust Obscured Star Formation and Accretion Back to the Reionisation Epoch with SPICA (United States)

    Gruppioni, C.; Ciesla, L.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Pozzi, F.; Rodighiero, G.; Santini, P.; Armus, L.; Baes, M.; Braine, J.; Charmandaris, V.; Clements, D. L.; Christopher, N.; Dannerbauer, H.; Efstathiou, A.; Egami, E.; Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A.; Fontanot, F.; Franceschini, A.; González-Alfonso, E.; Griffin, M.; Kaneda, H.; Marchetti, L.; Monaco, P.; Nakagawa, T.; Onaka, T.; Papadopoulos, A.; Pearson, C.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Peréz-González, P.; Roelfsema, P.; Scott, D.; Serjeant, S.; Spinoglio, L.; Vaccari, M.; van der Tak, F.; Vignali, C.; Wang, L.; Wada, T.


    Our current knowledge of star formation and accretion luminosity at high redshift (z > 3-4), as well as the possible connections between them, relies mostly on observations in the rest-frame ultraviolet, which are strongly affected by dust obscuration. Due to the lack of sensitivity of past and current infrared instrumentation, so far it has not been possible to get a glimpse into the early phases of the dust-obscured Universe. Among the next generation of infrared observatories, SPICA, observing in the 12-350 µm range, will be the only facility that can enable us to trace the evolution of the obscured star-formation rate and black-hole accretion rate densities over cosmic time, from the peak of their activity back to the reionisation epoch (i.e., 3 z ≲ 6-7), where its predecessors had severe limitations. Here, we discuss the potential of photometric surveys performed with the SPICA mid-infrared instrument, enabled by the very low level of impact of dust obscuration in a band centred at 34 µm. These unique unbiased photometric surveys that SPICA will perform will fully characterise the evolution of AGNs and star-forming galaxies after reionisation.

  20. Specific interplanetary conditions for CIR-, Sheath-, and ICME-induced geomagnetic storms obtained by double superposed epoch analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Yermolaev


    Full Text Available A comparison of specific interplanetary conditions for 798 magnetic storms with Dst <−50 nT during 1976–2000 was made on the basis of the OMNI archive data. We categorized various large-scale types of solar wind as interplanetary drivers of storms: corotating interaction region (CIR, Sheath, interplanetary CME (ICME including both magnetic cloud (MC and Ejecta, separately MC and Ejecta, and "Indeterminate" type. The data processing was carried out by the method of double superposed epoch analysis which uses two reference times (onset of storm and minimum of Dst index and makes a re-scaling of the main phase of the storm in a such way that all storms have equal durations of the main phase in the new time reference frame. This method reproduced some well-known results and allowed us to obtain some new results. Specifically, obtained results demonstrate that (1 in accordance with "output/input" criteria the highest efficiency in generation of magnetic storms is observed for Sheath and the lowest one for MC, and (2 there are significant differences in the properties of MC and Ejecta and in their efficiencies.

  1. Recent Results from the Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER) Experiment in South Africa (United States)

    Backer, Donald C.; PAPER Collaboration


    The goal of the Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER) experiment is detection of the power spectrum of the fluctuations of 21cm emission at high redshift (7-11) when the first stars were forming. The design of PAPER consists of broad-band dipoles, active balun, coaxial cable transmission, analog gain/filtering, digitization and correlation. Analysis of PAPER data requires RFI excision, iterative calibration and source removal, and full-hemisphere imaging. A 16-dipole engineering test array has been deployed at the NRAO Green Bank, WV site; a 4-dipole was deployed in Western Australia in 2007. See Parsons et al. arXiv:0904.2334 for a brief description of the status of the experiment in the middle of 2009. This poster will describe the first deployment of a PAPER experiment at the Karoo SKA development site in South Africa. Our work has been supported by the National Science Foundation; we thank the South African MeerKAT team for their generous contributions.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neben, Abraham R.; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Dillon, Joshua S.; Goeke, R.; Morgan, E. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bradley, Richard F. [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22904 (United States); Bernardi, G. [Square Kilometre Array South Africa (SKA SA), Cape Town 7405 (South Africa); Bowman, J. D. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Briggs, F. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McWhirter, S. R. [MIT Haystack Observatory, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Deshpande, A. A. [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Greenhill, L. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hazelton, B. J.; Morales, M. F. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Johnston-Hollitt, M. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Kaplan, D. L. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Mitchell, D. A. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science (CASS), P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); and others


    Accurate antenna beam models are critical for radio observations aiming to isolate the redshifted 21 cm spectral line emission from the Dark Ages and the Epoch of Reionization (EOR) and unlock the scientific potential of 21 cm cosmology. Past work has focused on characterizing mean antenna beam models using either satellite signals or astronomical sources as calibrators, but antenna-to-antenna variation due to imperfect instrumentation has remained unexplored. We characterize this variation for the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) through laboratory measurements and simulations, finding typical deviations of the order of ±10%–20% near the edges of the main lobe and in the sidelobes. We consider the ramifications of these results for image- and power spectrum-based science. In particular, we simulate visibilities measured by a 100 m baseline and find that using an otherwise perfect foreground model, unmodeled beam-forming errors severely limit foreground subtraction accuracy within the region of Fourier space contaminated by foreground emission (the “wedge”). This region likely contains much of the cosmological signal, and accessing it will require measurement of per-antenna beam patterns. However, unmodeled beam-forming errors do not contaminate the Fourier space region expected to be free of foreground contamination (the “EOR window”), showing that foreground avoidance remains a viable strategy.

  3. Multi-epoch VLA observations of IRAS 16293-2422B and the modeling of its continuum emission (United States)

    Hernández-Gómez, A.; Quénard, D.; Loinard, L.; Caux, E.


    We present multi-epoch interferometric observations of IRAS 16293-2422B taken with the Very Large Array at 0.7, 1, 1.3, 2, 3, 6 and 13 cm. We made continuum maps of the source at these wavelengths and measured a proper motion of -5.7±1.4 mas yr-1 in R.A. and -21.0±1.1 mas yr-1 in Dec. We also measured the spectral energy distribution for the source and found that the emission doesn't show any break in frequency as IRAS16293-2422A does, which is associated with free-free emission. We also observe that the size of this source increases always with the frequency, reaching a maximum of about 200 marcsec at 7 mm. This could indicate us that the emission is coming mostly from dust. We built up a model with a radiative transfer code (GASS-LIME) by considering the dust opacity, and the radial density and temperature profiles for the source. We show a comparison between our model and the continuum maps, proving that we are able to reproduce satisfactorily the continuum emission and the size for all the observations.

  4. Physicists epoch and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Feinberg, E L; Leonidov, A V


    The book is a collection of memoirs on famous Soviet physicists of the 20th century, such as Tamm, Vavilov, Sakharov, Landau and others. The narrative is situated within a remarkably well-described historical, cultural and social context. Of special interest are the chapters devoted to Soviet and German atomic projects.

  5. First Results from the Lyman Alpha Galaxies in the Epoch of Reionization (LAGER) Survey: Cosmological Reionization at z ˜ 7 (United States)

    Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Wang, Junxian; Rhoads, James; Infante, Leopoldo; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Hu, Weida; Walker, Alistair R.; Jiang, Linhua; Jiang, Chunyan; Hibon, Pascale; Gonzalez, Alicia; Kong, Xu; Zheng, XianZhong; Galaz, Gaspar; Barrientos, L. Felipe


    We present the first results from the ongoing Lyman Alpha Galaxies in the Epoch of Reionization (LAGER) project, which is the largest narrowband survey for z ˜ 7 galaxies to date. Using a specially built narrowband filter NB964 for the superb large-area Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the NOAO/CTIO 4 m Blanco telescope, LAGER has collected 34 hr NB964 narrowband imaging data in the 3 deg2 COSMOS field. We have identified 23 Lyα Emitter candidates at z = 6.9 in the central 2-deg2 region, where DECam and public COSMOS multi-band images exist. The resulting luminosity function (LF) can be described as a Schechter function modified by a significant excess at the bright end (four galaxies with L Lyα ˜ 1043.4±0.2 erg s-1). The number density at L Lyα ˜ 1043.4±0.2 erg s-1 is little changed from z = 6.6, while at fainter L Lyα it is substantially reduced. Overall, we see a fourfold reduction in Lyα luminosity density from z = 5.7 to z = 6.9. Combined with a more modest evolution of the continuum UV luminosity density, this suggests a factor of ˜3 suppression of Lyα by radiative transfer through the z ˜ 7 intergalactic medium (IGM). It indicates an IGM neutral fraction of x H I ˜ 0.4-0.6 (assuming Lyα velocity offsets of 100-200 km s-1). The changing shape of the Lyα LF between z ≲ 6.6 and z = 6.9 supports the hypothesis of ionized bubbles in a patchy reionization at z ˜ 7.

  6. The Epoch of the First Star Formation in the Closest Metal-Poor Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy UGC 4483 (United States)

    Aloisi, Alessandra


    Metal-poor Blue Compact Dwarf (BCD) galaxies have been interpreted as nearby galaxies in formation. This view has been challenged by HST detection of Red Giant Branch (RGB) stars in all metal-poor BCDs where an RGB tip (TRGB, brightest RGB phase) has been searched for, impling the presence of stars at least 1 Gyr old. Due to the age-metallicity degeneracy, the RGB color provides little insight into the exact star formation history (SFH) beyond 1 Gyr. So, the first SF epoch may have occurred anywhere between 13 and 1 Gyr ago. To resolve this, it is necessary to reach features in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) that are much fainter than the TRGB. Here we propose new WFC3/UVIS observations (with ACS/WFC in parallel) of the closest metal-poor BCD, UGC 4483. These data will yield an I vs. V-I CMD that goes 4 mag deeper than the TRGB allowing to detect red clump (RC) and horizontal branch (HB) stars. Variable stars of RR Lyrae type will also be detected. With their mere presence, these variables will indisputably prove the existence of a population at least 10 Gyr old. Apparent mag and width of RC, HB and RGB will independently constrain age and metallicity of the old/evolved stars, the presence of multiple SF episodes, their duration and metallicity spread. This deep crowded-field photometric project is only possible with HST. Due to UGC 4483 location in CVZ, it can be done in half the number of orbits that it would otherwise take. Since UGC 4483 is so close, it may be the only BCD for which these questions can be answered in the near future. It provides our best chance for learning about the true cosmological age and evolutionary state of these enigmatic galaxies.

  7. Dark-ages Reionization and Galaxy Formation Simulation - VIII. Suppressed growth of dark matter haloes during the Epoch of Reionization (United States)

    Qin, Yuxiang; Duffy, Alan R.; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Geil, Paul M.; Angel, Paul W.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.


    We investigate how the hydrostatic suppression of baryonic accretion affects the growth rate of dark matter haloes during the Epoch of Reionization. By comparing halo properties in a simplistic hydrodynamic simulation in which gas only cools adiabatically, with its collisionless equivalent, we find that halo growth is slowed as hydrostatic forces prevent gas from collapsing. In our simulations, at the high redshifts relevant for reionization (between ˜6 and ˜11), haloes that host dwarf galaxies (≲109 M⊙) can be reduced by up to a factor of 2 in mass due to the hydrostatic pressure of baryons. Consequently, the inclusion of baryonic effects reduces the amplitude of the low-mass tail of the halo mass function by factors of 2-4. In addition, we find that the fraction of baryons in dark matter haloes hosting dwarf galaxies at high redshift never exceeds ˜90 per cent of the cosmic baryon fraction. When implementing baryonic processes, including cooling, star formation, supernova feedback and reionization, the suppression effects become more significant with further reductions of 30-60 per cent. Although convergence tests suggest that the suppression may become weaker in higher resolution simulations, this suppressed growth will be important for semi-analytic models of galaxy formation, in which the halo mass inherited from an underlying N-body simulation directly determines galaxy properties. Based on the adiabatic simulation, we provide tables to account for these effects in N-body simulations and present a modification of the halo mass function along with explanatory analytic calculations.

  8. SARAS: a precision system for measurement of the cosmic radio background and signatures from the epoch of reionization (United States)

    Patra, Nipanjana; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Raghunathan, A.; Udaya Shankar, N.


    SARAS is a correlation spectrometer purpose designed for precision measurements of the cosmic radio background and faint features in the sky spectrum at long wavelengths that arise from redshifted 21-cm from gas in the reionization epoch. SARAS operates in the octave band 87.5-175 MHz. We present herein the system design arguing for a complex correlation spectrometer concept. The SARAS design concept provides a differential measurement between the antenna temperature and that of an internal reference termination, with measurements in switched system states allowing for cancellation of additive contaminants from a large part of the signal flow path including the digital spectrometer. A switched noise injection scheme provides absolute spectral calibration. Additionally, we argue for an electrically small frequency-independent antenna over an absorber ground. Various critical design features that aid in avoidance of systematics and in providing calibration products for the parametrization of other unavoidable systematics are described and the rationale discussed. The signal flow and processing is analyzed and the response to noise temperatures of the antenna, reference termination and amplifiers is computed. Multi-path propagation arising from internal reflections are considered in the analysis, which includes a harmonic series of internal reflections. We opine that the SARAS design concept is advantageous for precision measurement of the absolute cosmic radio background spectrum; therefore, the design features and analysis methods presented here are expected to serve as a basis for implementations tailored to measurements of a multiplicity of features in the background sky at long wavelengths, which may arise from events in the dark ages and subsequent reionization era.

  9. Astronomical tuning of the end-Permian extinction and the Early Triassic Epoch of South China and Germany (United States)

    Li, Mingsong; Ogg, James; Zhang, Yang; Huang, Chunju; Hinnov, Linda; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Zou, Zhuoyan


    The timing of the end-Permian mass extinction and subsequent prolonged recovery during the Early Triassic Epoch can be established from astronomically controlled climate cycles recorded in continuous marine sedimentary sections. Astronomical-cycle tuning of spectral gamma-ray logs from biostratigraphically-constrained cyclic stratigraphy through marine sections at Meishan, Chaohu, Daxiakou and Guandao in South China yields an integrated time scale for the Early Triassic, which is consistent with scaling of magnetostratigraphy from climatic cycles in continental deposits of the Germanic Basin. The main marine mass extinction interval at Meishan is constrained to less than 40% of a 100-kyr (kilo-year) cycle (i.e., conodont biostratigraphic datums for their boundaries, are 1.4 ± 0.1, 0.6 ± 0.1, 1.7 ± 0.1 and 1.4 ± 0.1 myr, implying a total span for the Early Triassic of 5.1 ± 0.1 myr. Therefore, relative to an assigned 251.902 ± 0.024 Ma for the Permian-Triassic boundary from the Meishan GSSP, the ages for these substage boundaries are 250.5 ± 0.1 Ma for base Dienerian, 249.9 ± 0.1 Ma for base Smithian (base of Olenekian stage), 248.2 ± 0.1 Ma for base Spathian, and 246.8 ± 0.1 Ma for the base of the Anisian Stage. This astronomical-calibrated timescale provides rates for the recurrent carbon isotope excursions and for trends in sedimentation accumulation through the Early Triassic of studied sections in South China.

  10. Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Collision Avoidance Maneuver Decisions Based on a Bank of Norm-Inequality-Constrained Epoch-State Filters (United States)

    Carpenter, J. R.; Markley, F. L.; Alfriend, K. T.; Wright, C.; Arcido, J.


    Sequential probability ratio tests explicitly allow decision makers to incorporate false alarm and missed detection risks, and are potentially less sensitive to modeling errors than a procedure that relies solely on a probability of collision threshold. Recent work on constrained Kalman filtering has suggested an approach to formulating such a test for collision avoidance maneuver decisions: a filter bank with two norm-inequality-constrained epoch-state extended Kalman filters. One filter models 1he null hypothesis 1ha1 the miss distance is inside the combined hard body radius at the predicted time of closest approach, and one filter models the alternative hypothesis. The epoch-state filter developed for this method explicitly accounts for any process noise present in the system. The method appears to work well using a realistic example based on an upcoming highly-elliptical orbit formation flying mission.

  11. Structural Analysis of Histo-Blood Group Antigen Binding Specificity in a Norovirus GII.4 Epidemic Variant: Implications for Epochal Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanker, Sreejesh; Choi, Jae-Mun; Sankaran, Banumathi; Atmar, Robert L.; Estes, Mary K.; Prasad, B.V. Venkataram (Baylor); (LBNL)


    Susceptibility to norovirus (NoV), a major pathogen of epidemic gastroenteritis, is associated with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are also cell attachment factors for this virus. GII.4 NoV strains are predominantly associated with worldwide NoV epidemics with a periodic emergence of new variants. The sequence variations in the surface-exposed P domain of the capsid protein resulting in differential HBGA binding patterns and antigenicity are suggested to drive GII.4 epochal evolution. To understand how temporal sequence variations affect the P domain structure and contribute to epochal evolution, we determined the P domain structure of a 2004 variant with ABH and secretor Lewis HBGAs and compared it with the previously determined structure of a 1996 variant. We show that temporal sequence variations do not affect the binding of monofucosyl ABH HBGAs but that they can modulate the binding strength of difucosyl Lewis HBGAs and thus could contribute to epochal evolution by the potentiated targeting of new variants to Lewis-positive, secretor-positive individuals. The temporal variations also result in significant differences in the electrostatic landscapes, likely reflecting antigenic variations. The proximity of some of these changes to the HBGA binding sites suggests the possibility of a coordinated interplay between antigenicity and HBGA binding in epochal evolution. From the observation that the regions involved in the formation of the HBGA binding sites can be conformationally flexible, we suggest a plausible mechanism for how norovirus disassociates from salivary mucin-linked HBGA before reassociating with HBGAs linked to intestinal epithelial cells during its passage through the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. The selection of royal figures in the image of power during the Palaiologan epoch: Byzantium - Serbia - Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojvodić Dragan


    Full Text Available The preserved presentations of the Byzantine basileis of the XIII, XIV and XV centuries show that the creators of the late Byzantine monarchical portraits adhered to certain traditional rules when selecting the personages from the ruling house, which they were to portray. Defining which figures were to be depicted in the portrayal of power depended to a large extent on the changing circumstances and events in the imperial house. However, at the same time this was also based on a significantly more profound conception that rested on principles that had evolved in the course of a long history. The understanding of who could personify power was refracted through the prism of ideology and reflected in carefully shaped iconographic matrices. The omission of the images of certain members of the ruler's house, just as much as their inclusion, carried a certain meaning, as did the hierarchical arrangement of those who were portrayed. Generally speaking, this depended on the degree of their kinship with the sovereign, their sex, titles or dignities, and the connection of the members of the dynasty with the emperor's particular marriage. Therefore, one can rather clearly distinguish certain constants, if not rules, according to which some figures were omitted and others included, and, the specific changes that occurred from the end of the Middle Byzantine period till the fall of the Empire. The development of a unique kind of feudalism played a particular role in the specific characteristics in determining who was to appear in the monarchical portraits of the Palaiologan epoch in Byzantium and the states in its neighbourhood. As the preserved portrait ensembles and known written testimonies indicate, we find the images of the rulers' daughters did not feature in presentations of the 'emperors of the Romans' from the Late Byzantine period. In the Palaiologan epoch, they did not participate in the governing of the state nor were they taken into

  13. Epoch-based likelihood models reveal no evidence for accelerated evolution of viviparity in squamate reptiles in response to cenozoic climate change. (United States)

    King, Benedict; Lee, Michael S Y


    A broad scale analysis of the evolution of viviparity across nearly 4,000 species of squamates revealed that origins increase in frequency toward the present, raising the question of whether rates of change have accelerated. We here use simulations to show that the increased frequency is within the range expected given that the number of squamate lineages also increases with time. Novel, epoch-based methods implemented in BEAST (which allow rates of discrete character evolution to vary across time-slices) also give congruent results, with recent epochs having very similar rates to older epochs. Thus, contrary to expectations, there was no accelerated burst of origins of viviparity in response to global cooling during the Cenozoic or glacial cycles during the Plio-Pleistocene. However, if one accepts the conventional view that viviparity is more likely to evolve than to be lost, and also the evidence here that viviparity has evolved with similar regularity throughout the last 200 Ma, then the absence of large, ancient clades of viviparous squamates (analogs to therian mammals) requires explanation. Viviparous squamate lineages might be more prone to extinction than are oviparous lineages, due to their prevalance at high elevations and latitudes and thus greater susceptibility to climate fluctuations. If so, the directional bias in character evolution would be offset by the bias in extinction rates. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolowski, Marcin; Wayth, Randall B.; Tremblay, Steven E.; Tingay, Steven J.; Waterson, Mark; Tickner, Jonathan; Emrich, David; Schlagenhaufer, Franz; Kenney, David; Padhi, Shantanu, E-mail: [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, G.P.O Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)


    The redshifted 21 cm line of neutral hydrogen (H i), potentially observable at low radio frequencies (∼50–200 MHz), is a promising probe of the physical conditions of the intergalactic medium during Cosmic Dawn and the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). The sky-averaged H i signal is expected to be extremely weak (∼100 mK) in comparison to the Galactic foreground emission (∼10{sup 4} K). Moreover, the sky-averaged spectra measured by ground-based instruments are affected by chromatic propagation effects (∼tens of kelvin) originating in the ionosphere. We analyze data collected with the upgraded Broadband Instrument for Global Hydrogen Reionization Signal system deployed at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory to assess the significance of ionospheric effects on the detection of the global EoR signal. The ionospheric effects identified in these data are, particularly during nighttime, dominated by absorption and emission. We measure some properties of the ionosphere, such as the electron temperature (T{sub e} ≈ 470 K at nighttime), magnitude, and variability of optical depth (τ{sub 100} {sub MHz} ≈ 0.01 and δτ ≈ 0.005 at nighttime). According to the results of a statistical test applied on a large data sample, very long integrations (∼100 hr collected over approximately 2 months) lead to increased signal-to-noise ratio even in the presence of ionospheric variability. This is further supported by the structure of the power spectrum of the sky temperature fluctuations, which has flicker noise characteristics at frequencies ≳10{sup −5} Hz, but becomes flat below ≈10{sup −5} Hz. Hence, we conclude that the stochastic error introduced by the chromatic ionospheric effects tends to zero in an average. Therefore, the ionospheric effects and fluctuations are not fundamental impediments preventing ground-based instruments from integrating down to the precision required by global EoR experiments, provided that the ionospheric contribution is

  15. Antenna Design and Foreground Characterization for Improved Detection of the Redshifted 21 cm Global Signature During the Epoch of Reionization (United States)

    Mozdzen, Thomas J.; Bowman, Judd D.; Monsalve, Raul A.; Rogers, Alan E. E.


    The Experiment to Detect the Global Epoch of Reionization (EoR) Signature (EDGES) is an effort to measure the sky-averaged redshifted 21 cm difference temperature, Tb, with a single wide field-of-view well-calibrated antenna placed in Western Australia. Tb is due to interactions of the hyperfine ground state of HI with the CMB and is four to five orders of magnitude dimmer than the foreground synchrotron radiation whose removal requires very low systematic errors in data collection. I analyzed two different antenna designs, a rectangular blade-shaped antenna and a fourpoint-shaped antenna, by comparing and quantifying the impact of the chromatic nature of the antenna beam directivity. Foreground removal of simulated antenna temperatures, formed by convolving a frequency scaled Haslam 408 MHz sky map with each of the antenna’s chromatic beams, resulted in a factor of 10 lower rms error for the blade antenna when using a five term polynomial for the sky foreground. The signal to noise ratio was at a maximum when five terms were used to represent the sky foreground and was superior for the blade antenna by factors between 1.35 and 1.95. These results led to the conversion of all EDGES antenna designs to the blade design. The spectral index, β, of the sky was measured, using 211 nights of data, to be ‑2.60 > β > ‑2.62 in lower LST regions, increasing to ‑2.50 near the Galactic plane. I compared our measurements with spectral index simulations derived from two published sky maps and found good agreement at the transit of the Galactic Center, but at other LST values tended to overpredict by at most by Δβ < 0.05 for one map and by Δβ < 0.12 for the other. The EDGES instrument is shown to be very stable throughout the observations as the data scatter is very low, σβ < 0.003, and the total systematic uncertainty in β is 0.02. The improved systematic error enhances our ability to detect EoR signatures. I present preliminary results that show an EoR model by

  16. Broad absorption line disappearance and emergence using multiple-epoch spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (United States)

    McGraw, S. M.; Brandt, W. N.; Grier, C. J.; Filiz Ak, N.; Hall, P. B.; Schneider, D. P.; Anderson, S. F.; Green, P. J.; Hutchinson, T. A.; Macleod, C. L.; Vivek, M.


    We investigate broad absorption line (BAL) disappearance and emergence using a 470 BAL-quasar sample over ≤0.10-5.25 rest-frame years with at least three spectroscopic epochs for each quasar from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We identify 14 disappearing BALs over ≤1.73-4.62 rest-frame years and 18 emerging BALs over ≤1.46-3.66 rest-frame years associated with the C iv λλ1548,1550 and/or Si iv λλ1393,1402 doublets, and report on their variability behaviour. BAL quasars in our data set exhibit disappearing/emerging C iv BALs at a rate of 2.3^{+0.9}_{-0.7} and 3.0^{+1.0}_{-0.8} per cent, respectively, and the frequency for BAL to non-BAL quasar transitions is 1.7^{+0.8}_{-0.6} per cent. We detect four re-emerging BALs over ≤3.88 rest-frame years on average and three re-disappearing BALs over ≤4.15 rest-frame years on average, the first reported cases of these types. We infer BAL lifetimes along the line of sight to be nominally ≲ 100-1000 yr using disappearing C iv BALs in our sample. Interpretations of (re-)emerging and (re-)disappearing BALs reveal evidence that collectively supports both transverse-motion and ionization-change scenarios to explain BAL variations. We constrain a nominal C iv/Si iv BAL-outflow location of ≲ 100 pc from the central source and a radial size of ≳ 1× 10-7 pc (0.02 au) using the ionization-change scenario, and constrain a nominal outflow location of ≲ 0.5 pc and a transverse size of ∼0.01 pc using the transverse-motion scenario. Our findings are consistent with previous work, and provide evidence in support of BALs tracing compact flow geometries with small filling factors.

  17. Phase space and power spectral approaches for EEG-based automatic sleep-wake classification in humans: a comparative study using short and standard epoch lengths. (United States)

    Brignol, Arnaud; Al-Ani, Tarik; Drouot, Xavier


    Sleep disorders in humans have become a public health issue in recent years. Sleep can be analysed by studying the electroencephalogram (EEG) recorded during a night's sleep. Alternating between sleep-wake stages gives information related to the sleep quality and quantity since this alternating pattern is highly affected during sleep disorders. Spectral composition of EEG signals varies according to sleep stages, alternating phases of high energy associated to low frequency (deep sleep) with periods of low energy associated to high frequency (wake and light sleep). The analysis of sleep in humans is usually made on periods (epochs) of 30-s length according to the original Rechtschaffen and Kales sleep scoring manual. In this work, we propose a new phase space-based (mainly based on Poincaré plot) algorithm for automatic classification of sleep-wake states in humans using EEG data gathered over relatively short-time periods. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated through a series of experiments involving EEG data from seven healthy adult female subjects and was tested on epoch lengths ranging from 3-s to 30-s. The performance of our phase space approach was compared to a 2-dimensional state space approach using the power spectral (PS) in two selected human-specific frequency bands. These powers were calculated by dividing integrated spectral amplitudes at selected human-specific frequency bands. The comparison demonstrated that the phase space approach gives better performance in the case of short as well as standard 30-s epoch lengths. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Real-time forecasting of ICME shock arrivals at L1 during the "April Fool’s Day" epoch: 28 March – 21 April 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Sun


    Full Text Available The Sun was extremely active during the "April Fool’s Day" epoch of 2001. We chose this period between a solar flare on 28 March 2001 to a final shock arrival at Earth on 21 April 2001. The activity consisted of two presumed helmet-streamer blowouts, seven M-class flares, and nine X-class flares, the last of which was behind the west limb. We have been experimenting since February 1997 with real-time, end-to-end forecasting of interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME shock arrival times. Since August 1998, these forecasts have been distributed in real-time by e-mail to a list of interested scientists and operational USAF and NOAA forecasters. They are made using three different solar wind models. We describe here the solar events observed during the April Fool’s 2001 epoch, along with the predicted and actual shock arrival times, and the ex post facto correction to the real-time coronal shock speed observations. It appears that the initial estimates of coronal shock speeds from Type II radio burst observations and coronal mass ejections were too high by as much as 30%. We conclude that a 3-dimensional coronal density model should be developed for application to observations of solar flares and their Type II radio burst observations.Key words. Interplanetary physics (flare and stream dynamics; interplanetary shocks – Magnetosheric physics (storms and substorms

  19. Real-time forecasting of ICME shock arrivals at L1 during the "April Fool’s Day" epoch: 28 March – 21 April 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Sun

    Full Text Available The Sun was extremely active during the "April Fool’s Day" epoch of 2001. We chose this period between a solar flare on 28 March 2001 to a final shock arrival at Earth on 21 April 2001. The activity consisted of two presumed helmet-streamer blowouts, seven M-class flares, and nine X-class flares, the last of which was behind the west limb. We have been experimenting since February 1997 with real-time, end-to-end forecasting of interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME shock arrival times. Since August 1998, these forecasts have been distributed in real-time by e-mail to a list of interested scientists and operational USAF and NOAA forecasters. They are made using three different solar wind models. We describe here the solar events observed during the April Fool’s 2001 epoch, along with the predicted and actual shock arrival times, and the ex post facto correction to the real-time coronal shock speed observations. It appears that the initial estimates of coronal shock speeds from Type II radio burst observations and coronal mass ejections were too high by as much as 30%. We conclude that a 3-dimensional coronal density model should be developed for application to observations of solar flares and their Type II radio burst observations.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (flare and stream dynamics; interplanetary shocks – Magnetosheric physics (storms and substorms

  20. Family Therapy (United States)

    Family therapy Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Family therapy is a type of psychological counseling (psychotherapy) that can help family members improve communication and resolve conflicts. Family therapy is usually provided ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apai, Dániel; Schneider, Glenn [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Grady, Carol A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland CA 96002 (United States); Wyatt, Mark C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Lagrange, Anne-Marie [Université Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000, Grenoble (France); Kuchner, Marc J.; Stark, Christopher J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lubow, Stephen H., E-mail: [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph coronagraphic images of the β Pic debris disk obtained at two epochs separated by 15 yr. The new images and the re-reduction of the 1997 data provide the most sensitive and detailed views of the disk at optical wavelengths as well as the yet smallest inner working angle optical coronagraphic image of the disk. Our observations characterize the large-scale and inner-disk asymmetries and we identify multiple breaks in the disk radial surface brightness profile. We study in detail the radial and vertical disk structure and show that the disk is warped. We explore the disk at the location of the β Pic b super-Jupiter and find that the disk surface brightness slope is continuous between 0.''5 and 2.''0, arguing for no change at the separations where β Pic b orbits. The two epoch images constrain the disk's surface brightness evolution on orbital and radiation pressure blow-out timescales. We place an upper limit of 3% on the disk surface brightness change between 3'' and 5'', including the locations of the disk warp, and the CO and dust clumps. We discuss the new observations in the context of high-resolution multi-wavelength images and divide the disk asymmetries in two groups: axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric. The axisymmetric structures (warp, large-scale butterfly, etc.) are consistent with disk structure models that include interactions of a planetesimal belt and a non-coplanar giant planet. The non-axisymmetric features, however, require a different explanation.

  2. New Constraints on the Hard Ionizing Photon Budget and the Lifetime and Obscuration of Quasars During the Epoch of Helium Reionization (United States)

    Davies, Frederick


    The epoch of helium reionization was a major milestone in the history of the Universe, a direct consequence of supermassive black hole growth and the cumulative output of hard ionizing photons by quasars. Our observations of the He II Ly-alpha forest with HST/COS in 26 quasar sightlines show strong fluctuations at z 3, consistent with our state-of-the-art simulations of the He II reionization epoch. However, our detection of transmission at z > 3.5 is inconsistent with all He II reionization models. Resolving this puzzle requires an extensive parameter study of He II reionization, which we propose to carry out using our fast, efficient simulations. The He II Ly-alpha forest is also sensitive to the effect of quasar radiation illuminating the intergalactic medium, known as the proximity effect. We have performed an ambitious ground-based imaging and spectroscopic survey for z 3 quasars in the foreground of HeII sightlines observed with HST/COS, and statistically detected the transverse proximity effect for the first time. The strength of this effect depends on both the quasar lifetime and the opening angle of quasar emission (or the fraction of obscured quasars), and we propose to use our He II reionization simulations to interpret this new measurement. Finally, the line-of-sight proximity effect due to the background quasar provides an independent constraint on the quasar lifetime. Our preliminary comparison of He II spectra to our radiative transfer simulations suggests a quasar lifetime > 10 Myr. We propose to use our He II reionization simulations to model this diverse set of observations and fully capitalize on the far-UV legacy of HST.

  3. Hormone Therapy (United States)

    ... vaginal lining gets thinner, dryer, and less elas- tic. Vaginal dryness may cause pain during sexual intercourse . ... when a woman starts taking hormone therapy. Some research suggests that for women who start combined therapy ...

  4. Insulin Therapy (United States)

    ... Your Health Resources Drugs, Procedures & Devices Prescription Medicines Insulin Therapy Insulin Therapy Share Print When you digest food, your ... you eat into glucose (a form of sugar). Insulin allows this glucose to enter all the cells ...

  5. Gene Therapy (United States)

    Gene therapy Overview Gene therapy involves altering the genes inside your body's cells in an effort to treat or stop disease. Genes contain your ... that don't work properly can cause disease. Gene therapy replaces a faulty gene or adds a new ...

  6. Calibration of an aerogel counter of index 1.1 at the Bevalac (United States)

    Rasmussen, I. L.; Laursen, S.; Buffington, A.; Schindler, S. M.


    The counter, which is exposed to sea level muons and to a beam of relativistic Mn-55, is 6 cm thick and approximmately 60 cm in diameter; it is viewed by twelve 12.7-cm-diameter photomultipliers. It comprises a mosaic with 48 aerogel pieces whose refractive indices are approximately 1.1. It is pointed out that a relativistic muon produces typically 23 + or - 4 photo-electrons. The light yield, which is mapped as a function of position, has an r.m.s. variation of less than 1 percent per cm. An analysis of the light yield suggests that absorption is important at short wavelengths. The calibration reveals that the light yield and uniformity of the counter are sufficient to determine particle velocity in the gamma range from 2.4 to 3.1.

  7. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1977-1980. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirruccello, M.C.; Tobias, C.A. (eds.)


    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers presented in this progress report. This report is a major review of studies with accelerated heavy ions carried out by the Biology and Medicine Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory from 1977 to 1980. (KRM)

  8. What Is Music Therapy? (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is ...

  9. Foreground and Sensitivity Analysis for Broadband (2D) 21 cm-Lyα and 21 cm-Hα Correlation Experiments Probing the Epoch of Reionization (United States)

    Neben, Abraham R.; Stalder, Brian; Hewitt, Jacqueline N.; Tonry, John L.


    A detection of the predicted anticorrelation between 21 cm and either Lyα or Hα from the epoch of reionization (EOR) would be a powerful probe of the first galaxies. While 3D intensity maps isolate foregrounds in low-{k}\\parallel modes, infrared surveys cannot yet match the field of view and redshift resolution of radio intensity mapping experiments. In contrast, 2D (I.e., broadband) infrared intensity maps can be measured with current experiments and are limited by foregrounds instead of photon or thermal noise. We show that 2D experiments can measure most of the 3D fluctuation power at k181 ({\\text{kJy sr}}-1 {{mK}}) (95%) at {\\ell }˜ 800. We predict levels of foreground correlation and sample variance noise in future experiments, showing that higher-resolution surveys such as LOFAR, SKA-LOW, and the Dark Energy Survey can start to probe models of the 21 cm-Lyα EOR cross spectrum.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isler, Jedidah C. [Chancellor’s Faculty Fellow, Syracuse University, Department of Physics, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States); Urry, C. M.; Bailyn, C.; Coppi, P.; Brady, M.; MacPherson, E.; Hasan, I.; Buxton, M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Smith, P. S., E-mail: [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tuscon, AZ 85721 (United States)


    We present multi-epoch optical spectroscopy of seven southern Fermi-monitored blazars from 2008 to 2013 using the Small and Medium Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS), with supplemental spectroscopy and polarization data from the Steward Observatory. We find that the emission lines are much less variable than the continuum; four of seven blazars had no detectable emission line variability over the 5 yr observation period. This is consistent with photoionization primarily by an accretion disk, allowing us to use the lines as a probe of disk activity. Comparing optical emission line flux with Fermi γ-ray flux and optical polarized flux, we investigate whether relativistic jet variability is related to the accretion flow. In general, we see no such dependence, suggesting that the jet variability is likely caused by internal processes like turbulence or shock acceleration rather than a variable accretion rate. However, three sources showed statistically significant emission line flares in close temporal proximity to very large Fermi γ-ray flares. While we do not have sufficient emission line data to quantitatively assess their correlation with the γ-ray flux, it appears that in some cases the jet might provide additional photoionizing flux to the broad-line region (BLR), which implies that some γ-rays are produced within the BLR, at least for these large flares.

  11. Dynamics of large-scale solar-wind streams obtained by the double superposed epoch analysis. 2. CIR.vs.Sheath and MC.vs.Ejecta comparisons

    CERN Document Server

    Yermolaev, Yu I; Nikolaeva, N S; Yermolaev, M Yu


    This work is a continuation of our previous paper [Yermolaevetal2015] which describes the average temporal profiles of interplanetary plasma and field parameters in large-scale solar-wind (SW) streams: CIR, ICME (both MC and Ejecta) and Sheath as well as the interplanetary shock (IS). Like in the previous work we use data of OMNI database, our catalog of large-scale solar-wind phenomena during 1976--2000 [Yermolaevetal2009] and the double superposed epoch analysis (DSEA) method [Yermolaevetal2010]: re-scaling the duration of interval for all types in such a manner that, respectively, beginning and end for all intervals of selected type coincide. We present new detailed results of comparison of two pair phenomena: (1) both types of compression regions (CIR.vs.Sheath) and (2) both types of ICMEs (MC.vs.Ejecta). Obtained data allows us to suggest that the formation of all types of compression regions has the same physical mechanism irrespective of piston (High-Speed Stream (HSS) or ICME) type and differences are...

  12. Multi-epoch multi-frequency VLBI study of the parsec-scale jet in the blazar 3C 66A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Guang-Yao; Chen, Yong-Jun; Shen, Zhi-Qiang [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Sudou, Hiroshi [Faculty of Engineering, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Iguchi, Satoru, E-mail: [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)


    We present observational results of the γ-ray blazar 3C 66A at 2.3, 8.4, and 22 GHz at four epochs during 2004–2005 with the VLBA. The resulting images show an overall core-jet structure extending roughly to the south, with two intermediate breaks occurring in the region near the core. By model-fitting to the visibility data, the northmost component, which is also the brightest, is identified as the core according to its relatively flat spectrum and its compactness. Combining our results with previous results to investigate the proper motions of the jet components, we found the kinematics of 3C 66A to be quite complicated, with components of inward and outward, subluminal and superluminal motions all detected in the radio structure. The superluminal motions indicate strong Doppler boosting exists in the jet. The apparent inward motions of the innermost components last for at least 10 years and could not be caused by newborn components. A possible reason could be non-stationarity of the core due to opacity change.

  13. Long Runs and Epochal Turns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Alfano


    Full Text Available Continuità o discontinuità? Nelle ricostruzioni storiografiche ci si muove rintracciando delle costanti morfologiche e delle fratture funzionali o estetiche. La storia della scrittura umorista vede senza dubbio in Laurence Sterne la chiave di volta di una trasformazione epocale, che però va intesa – a parere di chi scrive – su un duplice sfondo: la lunga continuità di forme e procedure della sociabilità conversevole; il progressivo emergere del concetto moderno di soggettività. Il libro discusso da Giorgio Forni e Riccardo Donati prova a muoversi rispettando queste tre esigenze.

  14. The extended epoch of galaxy formation: Age dating of 3600 galaxies with 2 < z < 6.5 in the VIMOS Ultra-Deep Survey (United States)

    Thomas, R.; Le Fèvre, O.; Scodeggio, M.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Lemaux, B. C.; Maccagni, D.; Pforr, J.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Hathi, N. P.; Tresse, L.; Zucca, E.; Koekemoer, A. M.


    In this paper we aim at improving constraints on the epoch of galaxy formation by measuring the ages of 3597 galaxies with reliable spectroscopic redshifts 2 ≤ z ≤ 6.5 in the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS). We derive ages and other physical parameters from the simultaneous fitting with the GOSSIP+ software of observed UV rest-frame spectra and photometric data from the u band up to 4.5 μm using model spectra from composite stellar populations. We perform extensive simulations and conclude that at z ≥ 2 the joint analysis of spectroscopy and photometry, combined with restricted age possibilities when taking the age of the Universe into account, substantially reduces systematic uncertainties and degeneracies in the age derivation; we find that age measurements from this process are reliable. We find that galaxy ages range from very young with a few tens of million years to substantially evolved with ages up to 1.5 Gyr or more. This large age spread is similar for different age definitions including ages corresponding to the last major star formation event, stellar mass-weighted ages, and ages corresponding to the time since the formation of 25% of the stellar mass. We derive the formation redshift zf from the measured ages and find galaxies that may have started forming stars as early as zf 15. We produce the formation redshift function (FzF), the number of galaxies per unit volume formed at a redshift zf, and compare the FzF in increasing observed redshift bins finding a remarkably constant FzF. The FzF is parametrized with (1 + z)ζ, where ζ ≃ 0.58 ± 0.06, indicating a smooth increase of about 2 dex from the earliest redshifts, z 15, to the lowest redshifts of our sample at z 2. Remarkably, this observed increase in the number of forming galaxies is of the same order as the observed rise in the star formation rate density (SFRD). The ratio of the comoving SFRD with the FzF gives an average SFR per galaxy of 7-17M⊙/yr at z 4-6, in agreement with the

  15. An Extended ADOP for Performance Evaluation of Single-Frequency Single-Epoch Positioning by BDS/GPS in Asia-Pacific Region (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Shubi; Zhang, Qiuzhao; Yang, Wei


    Single-Frequency Single-Epoch (SFSE) high-precision positioning has always been the hot spot of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and ambiguity dilution of precision (ADOP) is a well-known scalar measure for success rate of ambiguity resolution. Traditional ADOP expression is complicated, thus the SFSE extended ADOP (E-ADOP), with the newly defined Summation-Multiplication Ratio of Weight (SMRW) and two theorems for short baseline, was developed. This simplifies the ADOP expression; gives a clearer insight into the influences of SMRW and number of satellites on E-ADOP; and makes theoretical analysis of E-ADOP more convenient than that of ADOP, and through that the E-ADOP value can be predicted more accurately than through the ADOP expression for ADOP value. E-ADOP reveals that number of satellites and SMRW or high-elevation satellite are important for ADOP and, through E-ADOP, we studied which factor is dominant to control ADOP in different conditions and make ADOP different between BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS), Global Positioning System (GPS), and BDS/GPS. Based on experimental results of SFSE positioning with different baselines, some conclusions are made: (1) ADOP decreases when new satellites are added mainly because the number of satellites becomes larger; (2) when the number of satellites is constant, ADOP is mainly affected by SMRW; (3) in contrast to systems where the satellites with low-elevation are the majority or where low- and high-elevation satellites are equally distributed, in systems where the high-elevation satellites are the majority, the SMRW mainly makes ADOP smaller, even if there are fewer satellites than in the two previous cases, and the difference in numbers of satellites can be expanded as the proportion of high-elevation satellites becomes larger; and (4) ADOP of BDS is smaller than ADOP of GPS mainly because of its SMRW. PMID:28973977

  16. An Extended ADOP for Performance Evaluation of Single-Frequency Single-Epoch Positioning by BDS/GPS in Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu


    Full Text Available Single-Frequency Single-Epoch (SFSE high-precision positioning has always been the hot spot of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS, and ambiguity dilution of precision (ADOP is a well-known scalar measure for success rate of ambiguity resolution. Traditional ADOP expression is complicated, thus the SFSE extended ADOP (E-ADOP, with the newly defined Summation-Multiplication Ratio of Weight (SMRW and two theorems for short baseline, was developed. This simplifies the ADOP expression; gives a clearer insight into the influences of SMRW and number of satellites on E-ADOP; and makes theoretical analysis of E-ADOP more convenient than that of ADOP, and through that the E-ADOP value can be predicted more accurately than through the ADOP expression for ADOP value. E-ADOP reveals that number of satellites and SMRW or high-elevation satellite are important for ADOP and, through E-ADOP, we studied which factor is dominant to control ADOP in different conditions and make ADOP different between BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS, Global Positioning System (GPS, and BDS/GPS. Based on experimental results of SFSE positioning with different baselines, some conclusions are made: (1 ADOP decreases when new satellites are added mainly because the number of satellites becomes larger; (2 when the number of satellites is constant, ADOP is mainly affected by SMRW; (3 in contrast to systems where the satellites with low-elevation are the majority or where low- and high-elevation satellites are equally distributed, in systems where the high-elevation satellites are the majority, the SMRW mainly makes ADOP smaller, even if there are fewer satellites than in the two previous cases, and the difference in numbers of satellites can be expanded as the proportion of high-elevation satellites becomes larger; and (4 ADOP of BDS is smaller than ADOP of GPS mainly because of its SMRW.

  17. Dynamics of Large-Scale Solar-Wind Streams Obtained by the Double Superposed Epoch Analysis: 2. Comparisons of CIRs vs. Sheaths and MCs vs. Ejecta (United States)

    Yermolaev, Y. I.; Lodkina, I. G.; Nikolaeva, N. S.; Yermolaev, M. Y.


    This work is a continuation of our previous article (Yermolaev et al. in J. Geophys. Res. 120, 7094, 2015), which describes the average temporal profiles of interplanetary plasma and field parameters in large-scale solar-wind (SW) streams: corotating interaction regions (CIRs), interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs including both magnetic clouds (MCs) and ejecta), and sheaths as well as interplanetary shocks (ISs). As in the previous article, we use the data of the OMNI database, our catalog of large-scale solar-wind phenomena during 1976 - 2000 (Yermolaev et al. in Cosmic Res., 47, 2, 81, 2009) and the method of double superposed epoch analysis (Yermolaev et al. in Ann. Geophys., 28, 2177, 2010a). We rescale the duration of all types of structures in such a way that the beginnings and endings for all of them coincide. We present new detailed results comparing pair phenomena: 1) both types of compression regions ( i.e. CIRs vs. sheaths) and 2) both types of ICMEs (MCs vs. ejecta). The obtained data allow us to suggest that the formation of the two types of compression regions responds to the same physical mechanism, regardless of the type of piston (high-speed stream (HSS) or ICME); the differences are connected to the geometry ( i.e. the angle between the speed gradient in front of the piston and the satellite trajectory) and the jumps in speed at the edges of the compression regions. In our opinion, one of the possible reasons behind the observed differences in the parameters in MCs and ejecta is that when ejecta are observed, the satellite passes farther from the nose of the area of ICME than when MCs are observed.

  18. Sweat Therapy. (United States)

    Colmant, Stephen A.; Merta, Rod J.


    A study combined group sweating and group counseling. Four adolescent boys with disruptive behavior disorders participated in 12 sweat therapy sessions. They reported the sessions useful for sharing personal concerns and receiving assistance with problem solving. Three boys showed improvement in self-esteem. Advantages of sweat therapy over other…

  19. Intravenous Therapy. (United States)

    Galliart, Barbara

    Intended for teaching licensed practical nurses, this curriculum guide provides information related to the equipment and skills required for nursing care of patients needing intravenous (IV) therapy. It also explains the roles and responsibilities of the licensed practical nurse with regard to intravenous therapy. Each of the 15 instructional…

  20. Poetry Therapy. (United States)

    Evans, Ronald V.

    Poetry therapy is the method of therapy based on the principle that a poem is a special medium for expressing emotions and that this expression can have psychotherapeutic value. A survey taken in 1973 showed there were over 400 therapists treating 3,500 drug addicts, alcoholics, and mental retardates around the country. Poetry therapists…

  1. Proton Therapy (United States)

    ... therapy is one of the most precise and advanced forms of radiation treatment available. How Proton Therapy is Delivered The patient is positioned on a table with a head frame or face mask covering the head. As the cyclotron smashes atoms, the protons released are directed toward ...

  2. Hand Therapy (United States)

    ... Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Hand Therapy Email to a friend * required fields From * ... ensure a healthy style of work. Find a Hand Therapist Search for a hand therapist in your ...

  3. Radiation Therapy (United States)

    ... therapy, including: Fatigue Hair loss Skin changes Swelling/edema Nausea Sexual effects (reduced desire) Blood clots Your ... American Brain Tumor Association 8550 W. Bryn Mawr Ave. Ste 550 Chicago, IL 60631 © 2014 American Brain ...

  4. Sex Therapy (United States)

    ... therapists have graduate degrees and can demonstrate their competence in sex therapy by becoming credentialed by the ... ways to resolve your concerns and improve your communication and intimacy. Talking about sex and intimacy may ...

  5. Proton Therapy (United States)

    ... changes colon and rectal changes infertility joint changes lymphedema mouth changes secondary cancer There is a slight risk of developing cancer from radiation therapy. Following radiation treatment for cancer, you should be ...

  6. Gene Therapy (United States)

    ... or improve your body's ability to fight disease. Gene therapy holds promise for treating a wide range of diseases, such as cancer, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, hemophilia and AIDS. Researchers are still studying how and ...

  7. Alternative Therapies (United States)

    ... biofeedback for learning to promote relaxation and increase oxygen flow to muscles (Schwartz & Schwartz, 1993) ; hypnotherapy for relaxation and pain relief (Hammond, 1991); magnet therapy for pain relief (Vallbona et al., 1997) ; and ...

  8. Radiation Therapy (United States)

    ... Be extra careful not to spend time with children or pregnant women. Internal Radiation Therapy Makes You Give Off Radiation With systemic radiation, your body fluids ( urine , sweat, and saliva ) will give off radiation for a while. With ...

  9. Radiation Therapy (United States)

    Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from ... half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, ...

  10. Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria (United States)

    Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria Information for Families and Caretakers from The Progeria Research Foundation Written ... accelerated aging in children. Children with Progeria need Physical Therapy (PT) and Occupational Therapy (OT) as often as ...

  11. Superposed epoch analysis of vertical ion velocity, electron temperature, field-aligned current, and thermospheric wind in the dayside auroral region as observed by DMSP and CHAMP (United States)

    Kervalishvili, G.; Lühr, H.


    This study reports on the results obtained by a superposed epoch analysis (SEA) method applied to the electron temperature, vertical ion velocity, field-aligned current (FAC), and thermospheric zonal wind velocity at high-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. The SEA study is performed in a magnetic latitude versus magnetic local time (MLat-MLT) frame. The obtained results are based on observations collected during the years 2001-2005 by the CHAMP and DMSP (F13 and F15) satellites. The dependence on interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientations is also investigated using data from the NASA/GSFC's OMNI database. Further, the obtained results are subdivided into three Lloyd seasons of 130 days each, which are defined as follows: local winter (1 January ± 65 days), combined equinoxes (1 April and 1 October ± 32days), and local summer (1 July ± 65 days). A period of 130 days is needed by the CHAMP satellite to pass through all local times. The time and location of the electron temperature peaks from CHAMP measurements near the cusp region are used as the reference parameter for the SEA method to investigate the relationship between the electron temperature and other ionospheric quantities. The SEA derived MLat profiles of the electron temperature show a seasonal dependence, increasing from winter to summer, as expected. But, the temperature rise (difference between the reference temperature peak and the background electron temperature) strongly decreases towards local summer. The SEA derived MLat profiles of the ion vertical velocity at DMSP altitude show the same seasonal behaviour as the electron temperature rice. There exists a clear linear relation between these two variables with a quiet large correlation coefficient value, >0.9. The SEA derived MLat profiles of both, thermospheric zonal wind velocity and FAC, show a clear IMF By orientation dependence for all local seasons. The zonal wind velocity is prominently directed towards west in the MLat-MLT frame

  12. Potential and limitations of the ESR dating method applied to Lower Pleistocene epoch: some examples from Orce (Guadix-Baza basin, Andalusia, Spain) (United States)

    Duval, Mathieu; Falguères, Christophe; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Voinchet, Pierre; Grün, Rainer


    The range of absolute dating methods potentially applicable in archaeological and/or geological context appears quite limited for the Lower Pleistocene epoch. Indeed, their use is constrained by several factors such as the sedimentary context, the kind of material in situ available or the studied time range. Among these methods, Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) is undoubtedly the most commonly used for ancient archaeological sites, mainly because it can be applied to a large range of material: flowstone, sedimentary quartz and fossil teeth for example. The development of this method is therefore really crucial in order to complete the chronostratigraphical framework of the first human settlement in Europe. To illustrate this, we worked on several sites in the Guadix-Baza basin (Andalusia, Spain), one of the foremost places in Europe with evidence of early human occupation. The basin has accumulated a massive sequence of Neogen-Quaternary sediments which contains a detailed archive of palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic changes since the Miocene. The numerous palaeontological remains discovered from more than a hundred sites, together with a well-defined magnetostratigraphical framework, have established the basin as a reference sequence for the European Pliocene-Quaternary period. The most famous Plio-Pleistocene localities are located in the eastern part of the basin, near the village of Orce. The sites of Fuente Nueva III and Barranco León have delivered an archaic lithic industry associated with Early Pleistocene fauna, indicating one of the oldest occupations of Western Europe. A third site, Venta Micena, which contained large and detailed palaeontological assemblages (several thousands of remains), has become a reference locality for the Early Pleistocene biochronology. The chronostratigraphical framework of these sites was established mainly by the combination of several methods: biochronology (small and large-mammals) and palaeomagnetism. In order to

  13. Maintenance Therapy in IBD (United States)

    ... Help Center Home > Resources > Maintenance Therapy Go Back Maintenance Therapy Email Print + Share The term "maintenance therapy" ... are referred to as "maintenance therapies." Why is Maintenance Therapy Needed in IBD? Both Crohn's disease and ...

  14. Family therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Altamash


    Full Text Available Another major force not letting us succeed in the treatment of diabetes remains right inside the patients home, their family members. Hence, it is important to know the perception of the close family members about this simple and strong tool in diabetes, ′insulin′. The drug is nearing its century, it has not fully being accepted gracefully even in todays electronic savvy society. So, we need to strongly discover the reason for its non-acceptance, while trials are out inventing new drugs. One vital thing that can change this attitude is increasing the understanding of this drug, insulin in depth to close people around the patient, the ′family′. Underestimating family′s perception about disease and treatment for diabetes is detrimental to both diseased and the doctor. This consists of a biopsychosocial model; biological, psychological and social factors. Family forms the most important part of it. The strategies in family therapy include psychodynamic, structural, strategic, and cognitive-behavioral component. Diabetes has and will continue to rise, so will be the treatment options. From the clinicians side its to fix fasting first but from patients its fix family first. Family therapy demonstrates the importance of insulin initiation and maintenance in insulin naive patients, and continuation for others. The specific needs of such patients and their impact on family life are met with family therapy. Who needs family therapy? Benefits of family therapy and a case based approach is covered.

  15. Art Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibeke; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard


    Abstract Based on a Jungian approach, this article will introduce an integrative model to therapeutic change using art therapy methods as practical tools, with the aim of improving quality of life and in the prevention of depression. In a research study involving six participants, painting, clay...... work and drumming were used together with imagination and personal dialogues linked to the artwork. These art therapy processes attempted to combine the participant’s experience of inner and outer reality. The effect of gaining more knowledge about their inner reality using dreams and symbols......, was that participants gained a new understanding about their personal life. In addition, some participants were able to continue to use art therapy experiences as selfdevelopmental tools after the research study terminated. Jung’s description of the interactive relationship between the two living parts of the psyche...

  16. Music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    alternate with clear and lucid mental states. These states are important as it is here that it is possible to meet the person’s psychosocial needs. Ketil Normann’s conceps of periods of lucidity are presented and connected to clinical music therapy practice and how it is possible to use music in order...... as a consequence of person-centred care. Umeå University Medical Dissertations. New Series. Ridder, H.M. (2005). Music therapy as a way to enhance lucidity in persons with dementia in advanced stages. In: Esch, A.; Frohne-Hagemann, I.; Laqua, M.; Schirmer, H.; Seitz, E. (Eds.) Jahrbuch Musicktherapie. Forschung...... und Entwicklung Music Therapy Annual. Research and Development. 2005 (1), pp. 25-40. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden....

  17. A single-institution retrospective cohort study of first-line R-EPOCH chemoimmunotherapy for Richter syndrome demonstrating complex chronic lymphocytic leukaemia karyotype as an adverse prognostic factor. (United States)

    Rogers, Kerry A; Huang, Ying; Ruppert, Amy S; Salem, Galena; Stephens, Deborah M; Heerema, Nyla A; Andritsos, Leslie A; Awan, Farrukh T; Byrd, John C; Flynn, Joseph M; Maddocks, Kami J; Jones, Jeffrey A


    Richter Syndrome, an aggressive lymphoma occurring in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), has a generally poor prognosis and anthracycline-based chemoimmunotherapy regimens designed to treat de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma achieve modest clinical benefit. R-EPOCH (rituximab, etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin) has demonstrated greater activity against aggressive B-cell histologies but has not been studied in Richter Syndrome. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 46 Richter Syndrome patients treated with first-line R-EPOCH at our institution between 1 January 2006 and 31 May 2014. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3·5 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 2·0-7·6] and median overall survival (OS) was 5·9 months (95% CI: 3·2-10·3). Toxicity was high and 30% of patients died without progression or response. Patients with a complex CLL karyotype had significantly shorter PFS and OS (P = 0·005 and P = 0·002, respectively). Multivariable analysis identified complex CLL karyotype as the most significant predictor of decreased survival [Hazard ratio (HR) 2·72, 95% CI: 1·14-6·52, P = 0·025], adjusting for number of prior CLL treatments (P = 0·036). Richter Syndrome patients with complex CLL karyotype experience poor survival with R-EPOCH treatment and novel approaches are needed for these patients. In contrast, survival of patients without a complex CLL karyotype was similar to patients with de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Dance Therapy. (United States)

    Leventhal, Marcia B.


    Dance therapy deals with personal growth via body-mind interaction. A change in movement expression is believed to result in a personality or behavior change. The therapist is trained to become sensitive to movement expression as it relates to the psychological, motor, and cognitive development of the child. (JN)

  19. [Corporal therapy in sexual therapy]. (United States)

    Bonierbale, M


    The use of corporal therapy in treating sexual problems is discussed. The erotic zones of the body are established very early in infancy. The central nervous system continues to develop 6 months after birth in human beings. Experiments done with rats show that rats that are stimulated by noise, handling, etc., develop denser and more numerous nerve cells. Touch, rhythm, and facial expression are established as the interface with the self's erotic image (established in infancy) and the world. Corporal therapy can modify the physiological functioning of the libido. It is also necessary that one accept one's sociocultural identity. Relational massage, bioenergy, and relaxation are 3 types of corporal therapy used to ameliorate sexual problems.

  20. Music Therapy: A Career in Music Therapy (United States)

    About Music Therapy & Music Therapy Training M usic therapy is a healthcare profession that uses music to help individuals of all ages improve physical, cognitive, emotional, and social functioning. Music therapists work with children and adults with developmental ...

  1. Narrative therapy, family therapy and history


    Harper, David J.


    This article was inspired by listening to the interesting plenary on the influence of narrative therapy on family therapy at the AFT annual conference in Manchester in September 2008. One of the issues raised concerned the historical connections between narrative therapy and the broader family therapy field. The contributors seemed keen to avoid a split between narrative therapy and the broader family therapy field and, instead, to find connections but this issue seemed difficult to negotiate...

  2. Antiproton therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Knudsen, Helge V; Bassler, Niels; Alsner, Jan; Beyer, Gerd-Jürgen; DeMarco, John J; Doser, Michael; Hajdukovic, Dragan; Hartley, Oliver; Iwamoto, Keisuke S; Jäkel, Oliver; Kovacevic, Sandra; Møller, Søren Pape; Overgaard, Jens; Petersen, Jørgen B; Ratib, Osman; Solberg, Timothy D; Vranjes, Sanja; Wouters, Bradly G


    Radiotherapy is one of the most important means we have for the treatment of localised tumours. It is therefore essential to optimize the technique, and a lot of effort goes into this endeavour. Since the proposal by Wilson in 1946 [R.R. Wilson, Radiology use of fast protons, Radiology 47 (1946) 487.] that proton beams might be better than photon beams at inactivating cancer cells, hadron therapy has been developed in parallel with photon therapy and a substantial knowledge has been gained on the effects of pions, protons and heavy ions (mostly carbon ions). Here we discuss the recent measurements by the CERN ACE collaboration of the biological effects of antiprotons, and argue that these particles very likely are the optimal agents for radiotherapy.

  3. [Functional therapy]. (United States)

    De Lima, G R


    This article attempts to present and explain the therapy for the most common gynecological and nongynecological problems caused by oral contraception (OC). Carcinogenic side effects include vulvar and cervical cancer, which can be treated with cryosurgery, breast cancer, usually treated either by termination of OC, or by additional hormonal therapy, endometritis, and endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma, a result of the action of progesterone on tissues continuously stimulated by estrogen. Endocrinal aspects of OC include all menopausal syndromes, most dermatological side effects, such as acne and hirsutism, nonpuerperal galactorrhea, usually due to hyperprolactinemia, and which responds very well to treatment with bromocriptine, and infections such as herpes genitalis, candida albicans, and others. OC can also cause vulvar distrophy, to be treated with testosterone propionate, and anovulation, which responds very well to treatment with clomiphene.

  4. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfi, Ilan


    may cause detrimental long-term effects. Three studies have examined the effect of music therapy procedural support (MTPS) under needle procedures. Consequently, this study aims at examining the effects of MTPS in an RCT. Moreover, the study addresses clinical aspects of the applied MT intervention...... and provides research-based clinical tools. Methods 41 children (1 to 10 years) were enrolled and underwent a single PIVA procedure. The children were randomly assigned to either an MT or a comparable control group receiving PIVA. In addition, the music therapy (MT) group received individualised MTPS (i.......e. music alternate engagement) before, during, and after PIVA. The intervention was performed by a trained music therapist and comprised preferred songs, improvised songs/music, and instrument playing. The study was carried out in accordance with the rules in force regarding research ethics and clinical MT...

  5. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondalen, Gro; Bonde, Lars Ole


    Music therapy (MT) is most commonly defined as an intervention where “the therapist helps the client to promote health, using music experiences and the relationships developing through them” (Bruscia 1998). Also other definitions of MT agree that a therapeutic relationship is important for a music...... intervention to be considered MT. Other interventions that “use music for health-related goals, but in ways that do not qualify as music therapy” (Gold 2009), may be described as music medicine, or simply as music listening. In this text we elaborate on an overview chapter covering some of the different major...... music therapy orientations/models (Guided Imagery and Music, Nordoff-Robbins, Psychoanalytic, Cognitive-behavioral etc), their theoretical foundations and their practical approaches to health and wellbeing or ‘health musicking’. The relational context – the interplay of (expressive as well as receptive...



    Dr. Archana Sharma


    Music Therapy is an established health profession in which music is used within a therapeutic relationship to address to physical, emotional, cognitive and social needs of individuals. After assessing the strength and needs of each client, the qualified music therapist provides the indicated treatment including creating, singing, moving to and/or listening to music. Through musical involvement in therapeutic context, clients, abilities are strengthened and transfer to other areas of their liv...

  7. Types of hormone therapy (United States)

    ... your doctor for regular checkups when taking HT. Alternative Names HRT- types; Estrogen replacement therapy - types; ERT- types of hormone therapy; Hormone replacement therapy - types; Menopause - types of hormone therapy; HT - types; Menopausal hormone ...

  8. About Occupational Therapy (United States)

    ... if}} {{{tweet}}} About Occupational Therapy What Is Occupational Therapy? Occupational therapy practitioners ask, "What matters to you?" not, " ... about our science-driven and evidence-based profession. Occupational Therapy: Improving Function While Controlling Costs 4 4 The ...

  9. Radiation Therapy (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Giving Teens a Voice in Health Care Decisions Radiation Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Radiation Therapy Print A ... have many questions and concerns about it. About Radiation Therapy In radiation therapy, high-energy radiation from ...

  10. [Gestalt therapy.]. (United States)

    Corbeil, J; Poupard, D


    The authors describe Gestalt Therapy. They retrace its fundamental theoretical axes. These are psychoanalysis, character analysis, the german Gestalt theory of perception, existentialism, and the Orient. Some principal concepts are then elaborated more fully such as the cycle of awareness, desensitization, excitation anxiety and the five defense mechanisms: retroflection, introjection, projection, deflection, and confluence. The nature and goals of the therapeutic process are also described before the presentation of some techniques specific to this approach such as enactment and role playing. Finally, certain basic Gestalt rules, which aim at facilitating and intensifying the communication process among group members, are enunciated.

  11. Nutritional Therapy. (United States)

    Schwartz, Julie


    This article provides the reader with steps needed to accurately assess patient nutrition behaviors that contribute to weight gain, inability to lose weight, or inability to sustain weight loss. Evidence-based approaches in nutrition therapy that can create the daily energy deficit needed to produce 1/2 to 2 pounds of weight loss per week, and the strategies to create the energy deficit, are presented. To optimize health, long-term weight loss maintenance is needed. The benefits of using a multidisciplinary team approach in treating obesity are highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Calibration between the Estimated Probability of the Risk Assessment Chart of Japan Atherosclerosis Society and Actual Mortality Using External Population: Evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in Japan (EPOCH-JAPAN). (United States)

    Nakai, Michikazu; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Higashiyama, Aya; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Sakata, Kiyomi; Iso, Hiroyasu; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori


    In Japan Atherosclerosis Society guidelines for the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases 2012 (JAS2012), NIPPON DATA80 risk assessment chart (ND80RAC) was adopted to estimate the 10-year probability of coronary artery disease (CAD) mortality. However, there was no comparison between the estimated mortality calculated by ND80RAC and actual mortality in external populations. Accordingly, we used the large pooled database of cohorts in Japan, EPOCH-JAPAN, as an external population. The participants of EPOCH-JAPAN without a history of cardiovascular disease (15,091 men and 18,589 women aged 40-74 years) were analyzed based on sex. The probability of a 10-year risk of CAD/stroke mortality was estimated by ND80RAC. The participants were divided into both decile of their estimated mortality and three categories according to JAS2012. The calibration between the mean estimated mortality and the actual mortality was performed by the Hosmer and Lemeshow (H-L) test. In both sexes, the estimated CAD mortality was higher than the actual mortality, particularly in higher deciles of estimated mortality, and the estimated stroke mortality was almost concordant with the actual mortality in low/moderate deciles of estimated mortality. As for the categories according to JAS2012, the estimated CAD mortality was higher than the actual mortality in both sexes; actual mortality in Category III was lower than that in Category II in women. However, it increased in the ascending order of category when we excluded the presence of diabetes from Category III. The estimated CAD mortality by ND80RAC tended to be higher than the actual mortality in the population in which the baseline survey was more recently performed.

  13. Deciding about hormone therapy (United States)

    ... to continue seeing your doctor for regular checkups. Alternative Names HRT - deciding; Estrogen replacement therapy - deciding; ERT- deciding; Hormone replacement therapy - deciding; Menopause - deciding; HT - deciding; Menopausal hormone therapy - deciding; MHT - ...

  14. Brain Stimulation Therapies (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  15. Dystonia: Physical Therapy (United States)

    ... Online Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Physical Therapy Physical therapy may be an important component of treating dystonia ... everyday tasks, Since dystonia is a neurological disorder, physical therapy does not treat the dystonia directly but rather ...

  16. Laser therapy for cancer (United States)

    ... this page: // Laser therapy for cancer To use the sharing features on ... Lasers are also used on the skin. How Laser Therapy is Used Laser therapy can be used to: ...

  17. Occupational Therapy (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Late for the Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias Occupational Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Occupational Therapy Print A A ... for some kids. continue Kids Who Might Need Occupational Therapy According to the AOTA, kids with these medical ...

  18. Music therapy and depression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Assche, E; De Backer, J; Vermote, R


    .... This is the reason why music therapy is also used to treat depression. To examine the efficacy of music therapy and to report on the results of recent research into the value of music therapy as a treatment for depression...

  19. American Music Therapy Association (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  20. Endobronchial ablative therapies. (United States)

    Seaman, Joseph C; Musani, Ali I


    Endobronchial ablative therapies are used to address a variety of malignant and benign airway lesions. By utilizing endobronchial ablative techniques patients with symptomatic airway lesions may receive significant symptom improvement, improved quality of life, and improved life expectancy. Endobronchial ablative therapies include laser, electrocautery, argon plasma coagulation, cryotherapy, brachytherapy, and photodynamic therapy. The choice to use one therapy versus another depends on technical and patient specific factors. This article reviews indications and contraindications for each therapy, discusses details related to each endobronchial ablative therapy, complications of endobronchial ablative therapies, and briefly discusses practical consideration with endobronchial ablative therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical Therapy (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Physical Therapy KidsHealth / For Parents / Physical Therapy Print en español Terapia física Physical Therapy Basics Doctors often recommend physical therapy (PT) for ...

  2. Art Therapy Verses Psychotherapy (United States)

    Del Giacco, Maureen


    The purpose of my paper is to identify the difference between psychotherapy and art therapy. Then to introduce a technique within the field of art therapy that is relevant to neuro-plasticity Del Giacco Neuro Art Therapy. The paper identifies the importance of the amygdala and the hippocampus within the role of art therapy. Supporting…

  3. Music therapy in kindergarten


    Šírová, Michaela


    This work deals with the subject of music therapy in a special kindergarten for the children with combined disabilities. In the theoretical part it clarifies the concept and principle of music therapy and characterizes the types of disabilities that occur at researched clients. As a research method were used observation and interviews with three music therapists from the institution. KEYWORDS Music therapy, preschool education, special pedagogy, group music therapy,individual music therapy, p...

  4. Occupational therapy students' perceptions of occupational therapy. (United States)

    Turpin, Merrill June; Rodger, Sylvia; Hall, Anna R


    An understanding of students' perceptions of occupational therapy on entry is required to recognise how professional socialisation occurs through curriculum. Findings pertain to a qualitative study investigating students' perceptions of occupational therapy upon entry to two occupational therapy programmes in Australia. Students commencing Bachelor of Occupational Therapy and Masters of Occupational Therapy Studies programmes participated in the study (n = 462). A purpose-designed questionnaire was distributed to students in the first lecture of each programme. Preliminary analysis comprised identification of keywords/phrases and coding categories were generated from patterns of keywords. Frequency counts and percentages of keywords/phrases within categories were completed. Students' responses were categorised as 'what' occupational therapists do; 'how' they do it; 'why' they do it; and 'who' they work with. In 'what' occupational therapists do students frequently described 'helping' people. Both undergraduate and graduate entry masters students used the term 'rehabilitation' to describe how occupational therapy is done, with graduate entry students occasionally responding with 'through occupation' and 'modifying the environment'. Students perceived the 'why' of occupational therapy as getting back to 'everyday activities', with some students emphasising returning to 'normal' activities or life. Regarding the 'who' category, students also thought occupational therapists worked with people with an 'injury' or 'disability'. Students entered their occupational therapy programmes with perceptions consistent with the general public's views of occupational therapy. However, graduate entry students exposed to a pre-reading package prior to entry had more advanced occupational therapy concepts than undergraduate students. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2011 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  5. Music Therapy and Music Therapy Research. Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard


    This response to Keynote by Prof. Even Ruud (N)"Music Education and Music Therapy seeks to define these two areas with specific focus on tools and methods for analysis of music as these methods are developed in music therapy. This includes that the music therapist, the music and the client create...

  6. Brief Therapy: Ronny G. (United States)

    Chandler, Louis A.


    Uses a case study to illustrate brief therapy with a parent and presents some implications for the school psychologist. Brief therapy is an active, focused, incisive intervention especially useful with children referred because of emotional adjustment problems. (Author/JAC)

  7. Virtual particle therapy centre

    CERN Multimedia


    Particle therapy is an advanced technique of cancer radiation therapy, using protons or other ions to target the cancerous mass. This advanced technique requires a multi-disciplinary team working in a specialised centre. 3D animation: Nymus3D

  8. Adlerian Play Therapy. (United States)

    Kottman, Terry; Warlick, Jayne


    Describes Adlerian method of play therapy. Claims Adlerian therapy represents an integration of the concepts and techniques of individual psychology into a method of using play to help troubled children. (Author/ABL)

  9. Targeted therapies for cancer (United States)

    ... so they cannot spread. How Does Targeted Therapy Work? Targeted therapy drugs work in a few different ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  10. Genes and Gene Therapy (United States)

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  11. Depigmentation therapies in vitiligo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Divya; Kumari, Rashmi; Thappa, Devinder Mohan


    Depigmentation therapy in vitiligo is an option in those with extensive vitiligo who have failed to respond to medical therapy and have obvious cosmetic disfigurement due to intervening patchy pigmented areas...

  12. Immune Therapies for Neuroblastoma


    Navid, Fariba; Armstrong, Michael; Barfield, Raymond C


    Neuroblastoma, a solid tumor arising from developing cells of the sympathetic nervous system, is the most common extracranial tumor in children. The prognosis for high-risk neuroblastoma remains poor with conventional treatment, and new approaches are therefore being explored to treat this disease. One such alternative therapy that holds promise is immune therapy. We review here the recent advances in 4 types of immune therapy – cytokine, vaccine, antibody, and cellular therapy – to treat neu...

  13. "Black Universe" epoch in String Cosmology


    Buchel, Alex; Kofman, Lev


    String theory compactification involves manifolds with multiple warp factors. For cosmological applications, one often introduces a short, high-energy inflationary throat, and a long,low-energy Standard Model throat. It is assumed that at the end of inflation,the excited Kaluza-Klein modes from the Inflationary throat tunnel to the SM throat and reheat Standard Model degrees of freedom, which are attached to probe brane(s). However, the huge hierarchy of energy scales can result in a highly d...

  14. Plasma Sterilization: New Epoch in Medical Textiles (United States)

    Senthilkumar, P.; Arun, N.; Vigneswaran, C.


    Clothing is perceived to be second skin to the human body since it is in close contact with the human skin most of the times. In hospitals, use of textile materials in different forms and sterilization of these materials is an essential requirement for preventing spread of germs. The need for appropriate disinfection and sterilization techniques is of paramount importance. There has been a continuous demand for novel sterilization techniques appropriate for use on various textile materials as the existing sterilization techniques suffer from various technical and economical drawbacks. Plasma sterilization is the alternative method, which is friendlier and more effective on the wide spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Basically, the main inactivation factors for cells exposed to plasma are heat, UV radiation and various reactive species. Plasma exposure can kill micro-organisms on a surface in addition to removing adsorbed monolayer of surface contaminants. Advantages of plasma surface treatment are removal of contaminants from the surface, change in the surface energy and sterilization of the surface. Plasma sterilization aims to kill and/or remove all micro-organisms which may cause infection of humans or animals, or which can cause spoilage of foods or other goods. This review paper emphasizes necessity for sterilization, essentials of sterilization, mechanism of plasma sterilization and the parameters influencing it.

  15. Deformed Matter Bounce with Dark Energy Epoch

    CERN Document Server

    Odintsov, S D


    We extend the Loop Quantum Cosmology matter bounce scenario in order to include a dark energy era, which ends abruptly at a Rip singularity where the scale factor and the Hubble rate diverge. In the "deformed matter bounce scenario", the Universe is contracting from an initial non-causal matter dominated era until it reaches a minimal radius. After that it expands in a decelerating way, until at late times, where it expands in an accelerating way, thus the model is described by a dark energy era that follows the matter dominated era. Depending on the choice of the free parameters of the model, the dark energy era is quintessential like which follows the matter domination era, and eventually it crosses the phantom divide line and becomes phantom. At the end of the dark energy era, a Rip singularity exists, where the scale factor and Hubble rate diverge, however the physical system cannot reach the singularity, since the effective energy density and pressure become complex. This indicates two things, firstly th...

  16. Deformed matter bounce with dark energy epoch (United States)

    Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.


    We extend the loop quantum cosmology matter bounce scenario in order to include a dark energy era, which ends abruptly at a rip singularity where the scale factor and the Hubble rate diverge. In the "deformed matter bounce scenario," the Universe is contracting from an initial noncausal matter dominated era until it reaches a minimal radius. After that it expands in a decelerating way, until at late times, where it expands in an accelerating way, and thus the model is described by a dark energy era that follows the matter dominated era. Depending on the choice of the free parameters of the model, the dark energy era is quintessential as what follows the matter domination era, and eventually it crosses the phantom divide line and becomes phantom. At the end of the dark energy era, a rip singularity exists, where the scale factor and Hubble rate diverge; however, the physical system cannot reach the singularity, since the effective energy density and pressure become complex. This indicates two things, first that the ordinary loop quantum cosmology matter bounce evolution stops, thus ending the infinite repetition of the ordinary matter bounce scenario. Second, the fact that both the pressure and the density become complex probably indicates that the description of the cosmic evolution within the theoretical context of loop quantum cosmology ceases to describe the physics of the system and possibly a more fundamental theory of quantum gravity is needed near the would be rip singularity. We describe the qualitative features of the model, and we also investigate how this cosmology could be realized by a viscous fluid in the context of loop quantum cosmology. In addition to this, we show how this deformed model can be realized by a canonical scalar field filled Universe, in the context of loop quantum cosmology. Finally, we demonstrate how the model can be generated by a vacuum F (R ) gravity.

  17. Evaluation of Inter Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard


    This article (revised conference lecture from the 10th World Congress of Music Therapy, Oxford July 2002)) emphasizes the evaluation of the training of Inter Therapy for music therapy students at the MA training at Aalborg University. The students take turns in being client and therapist within...

  18. Aquatic Therapy for Children (United States)

    Kucher, Greta; Moore, Kelsey; Rodia, Rachel; Moser, Christy Szczech


    Aquatic therapy has long been highlighted in the literature as a potentially powerful therapeutic intervention. This review will highlight basic definitions of aquatic therapy, review salient research, and identify specific diagnoses that may benefit from aquatic therapy. Online resources, blogs, and books that occupational therapists may find…

  19. Historical Trends in the Use of Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Cancers: 1973-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jairam, Vikram [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Therapeutic Radiology, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Roberts, Kenneth B. [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Therapeutic Radiology, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research (COPPER) Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yu, James B., E-mail: [Yale School of Medicine, Department of Therapeutic Radiology, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research (COPPER) Center at Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)


    Purpose: This study was undertaken to assess historical trends in the use of radiation therapy (RT) for pediatric cancers over the past 4 decades. Methods: The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database of the 9 original tumor registries (SEER-9) was queried to identify patients aged 0 to 19 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, bone and joint cancer, cancer of the brain and nervous system, Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, soft tissue cancer, Wilms tumor, or retinoblastoma from 1973 to 2008. Patients were grouped into 4-year time epochs. The number and percentage of patients who received RT as part of their initial treatment were calculated per epoch by each diagnosis group from 1973 to 2008. Results: RT use for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and retinoblastoma declined sharply from 57%, 57%, and 30% in 1973 to 1976 to 11%, 15%, and 2%, respectively, in 2005 to 2008. Similarly, smaller declines in RT use were also seen in brain cancer (70%-39%), bone cancer (41%-21%), Wilms tumor (75%-53%), and neuroblastoma (60%-25%). RT use curves for Wilms tumor and neuroblastoma were nonlinear with nadirs in 1993 to 1996 at 39% and 19%, respectively. There were minimal changes in RT use for Hodgkin lymphoma, soft tissue cancer, or acute myeloid leukemia, roughly stable at 72%, 40%, and 11%, respectively. Almost all patients treated with RT were given external beam RT exclusively. However, from 1985 to 2008, treatments involving brachytherapy, radioisotopes, or combination therapy increased in frequency, comprising 1.8%, 4.6%, and 11.9% of RT treatments in brain cancer, soft tissue cancer, and retinoblastoma, respectively. Conclusions: The use of RT is declining over time in 7 of 10 pediatric cancer categories. A limitation of this study is a potential under-ascertainment of RT use in the SEER-9 database including the delayed use of RT.

  20. Differential heart rate response to magnetic seizure therapy (MST) relative to electroconvulsive therapy: a nonhuman primate model. (United States)

    Rowny, Stefan B; Cycowicz, Yael M; McClintock, Shawn M; Truesdale, Matthew D; Luber, Bruce; Lisanby, Sarah H


    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for severe depression; however, the induced therapeutic seizure acts on the autonomic nervous system and results in significant cardiac effects. This is an important consideration particularly in the elderly. Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is in development as a less invasive alternative, but its effects on cardiac function have not been studied. We sought to model those effects in nonhuman primates to inform the development of safer neurostimulation interventions. Twenty four rhesus monkeys were randomly assigned to receive 6 weeks of daily treatment with electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS), magnetic seizure therapy (MST) or anesthesia-alone sham. Digitally acquired ECG and an automated R-wave and inter-R interval (IRI) sampling were used to measure intervention effects on heart rate (HR). Significant differences between experimental conditions were found in the HR as evidenced by changes in the immediate post-stimulus, ictal and postictal epochs. Immediate post-stimulus bradycardia was seen with ECS but not with MST. ECS induced significantly more tachycardia than MST or sham in both the ictal and postictal periods. MST resulted in a small, but statistically significant increase in HR during the postictal period relative to baseline. HR was found to increase by 25% and 8% in the ECS and MST conditions, respectively. MST resulted in significantly less marked sympathetic and parasympathetic response than did ECS. This differential physiological response is consistent with MST having a more superficial cortical site of action with less impact on deeper brain structures implicated in cardiac control relative to ECT. The clinical relevance of the topographical seizure spread of MST and its associated effects on the autonomic nervous system remain to be determined in human clinical trials.

  1. Music Therapy for Seniors




    This bachelor thesis deals with the use of music therapy in the lives of seniors. The target of this thesis is to map the possibilities of using music therapy ways with seniors and to recommend a suitable music therapy resources on the basis of the research and evaluation of obtained dates. The theoretical part describes the term "the music therapy", e.g. concept, definition, types and forms, the development of music therapy, the history, methods and techniques. This age group is defined in t...

  2. [Music therapy and depression]. (United States)

    Van Assche, E; De Backer, J; Vermote, R


    Music therapy is a predominantly non-verbal psychotherapy based on music improvisation, embedded in a therapeutic relationship. This is the reason why music therapy is also used to treat depression. To examine the efficacy of music therapy and to report on the results of recent research into the value of music therapy as a treatment for depression. We reviewed the literature on recent research into music therapy and depression, reporting on the methods used and the results achieved, and we assessed the current position of music therapy for depression in the context of evidence-based scientific research. A wide variety of research methods was used to investigate the effects of using music therapy as a psychotherapy. Most studies focused usually on the added value that music therapy brings to the standard form of psychiatric treatment, when administered with or without psychopharmacological support. Music therapy produced particularly significant and favourable results when used to treat patients with depression. Current research into music therapy and depression points to a significant and persistent reduction in patients' symptoms and to improvements in their quality of life. However, further research is needed with regard to the best methods of illustrating the effects of music therapy.

  3. Hendee's radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlicki, Todd; Starkschall, George


    The publication of this fourth edition, more than ten years on from the publication of Radiation Therapy Physics third edition, provides a comprehensive and valuable update to the educational offerings in this field. Led by a new team of highly esteemed authors, building on Dr Hendee’s tradition, Hendee’s Radiation Therapy Physics offers a succinctly written, fully modernised update. Radiation physics has undergone many changes in the past ten years: intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has become a routine method of radiation treatment delivery, digital imaging has replaced film-screen imaging for localization and verification, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is frequently used, in many centers proton therapy has become a viable mode of radiation therapy, new approaches have been introduced to radiation therapy quality assurance and safety that focus more on process analysis rather than specific performance testing, and the explosion in patient-and machine-related data has necessitated an ...

  4. Radiation Therapy: Professions in Radiation Therapy (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Professions in Radiation Therapy Radiation Oncologist Therapeutic Medical Physicist Radiation Therapist Dosimetrist Radiation Oncology Nurse Social Worker Dietitian Radiation Oncologist Radiation oncologists are physicians who oversee the ...

  5. Radon therapy; Radon in der Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spruck, Kaija [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz


    Radon therapies are used since more than 100 years in human medicine. Today this method is controversially discussed due to the possible increase of ionizing radiation induced tumor risk. Although the exact mode of biological radiation effect on the cell level is still not known new studies show the efficiency of the radon therapy without side effect for instance for rheumatic/inflammatory or respiratory disorders.

  6. [Physical therapy in osteoarthritis]. (United States)

    Gnjidić, Zoja


    Physical therapy has an important role in treating rheumatic diseases; its goal is to reduced pain, swelling and to keep joints mobile. The properly manage osteoarthritis is nonpharmacological and pharmacological modalities. Physical therapy applied as a remedy for osteoarthritis is a part of multimodal therapy. The basis for physical therapy management is determined by the recommendation of the physical therapeutic science and evidence-based medicine. When making a decision about application of different methods of treatment in physical therapy, it is important to correctly diagnose a structural transformation and functional problem. Systematic review of the scientific, evidence-based, international concensus recommendations for the management of the osteoarthritis published between 2000 and 2010 were identified high-quality evidence therapy practice that is efficient and effective in increasing movement capability function, and reduce pain, disability, medical intake and improved physical function for patients with osteoarthritis

  7. Nuclear medicine therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Eary, Janet F


    One in three of the 30 million Americans who are hospitalized are diagnosed or treated with nuclear medicine techniques. This text provides a succinct overview and detailed set of procedures and considerations for patient therapy with unsealed radioactivity sources.  Serving as a complete literature reference for therapy with radiopharmaceuticals currently utilized in practice, this source covers the role of the physician in radionuclide therapy, and essential procedures and protocols required by health care personnel.

  8. Electroconvulsive therapy revisited. (United States)

    Atkinson, S D; Smith, C; Smith, E M; Miller, J M


    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains an extremely valuable tool in the treatment of certain psychiatric disorders. Despite the sensationalism of the past decade, ECT is the treatment of choice in severe depression that is unresponsive to other therapies or in patients who are overtly suicidal. In addition, ECT is particularly valuable in the elderly population, who are at risk for serious complications from the side effects associated with drug therapy. This report describes a case of recurrent depression in which ECT was successfully used.

  9. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (United States)

    ... ulcers Heart disease Heatstroke Hepatitis Migraine Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Spinal cord injury Sports injury Stroke Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is generally a safe procedure. Complications are rare. ...

  10. [Morita therapy over history]. (United States)

    Usa, Shinichi


    At Sansei Hospital in Kyoto we performed Morita Therapy not only for Japanese clients but also foreign clients from several countries, like Germany, Switzerland, U.S.A., China, Korea, India and Indonesia. We could treat those foreign clients using Morita Therapy with good success although they came from various cultural backgrounds. One of the characteristic Approaches of Morita Therapy was that it avoided the conceptualization of self-consciousness and self image as a subjective fiction established by abstract and logical thinking. Secondary Morita Therapy moves clients to deal with activities in real life. These 2 approaches help clients not to be involved in symptom development or fixation mechanisms and break through self-centeredness. At the first stage of Morita Therapy, namely in the bed rest period clients can experience his psychic state as if he were a just born baby. The founder of Gestalt Therapy, Frederick S. Perls experienced by himself Morita Therapy. During bed rest therapy he behaved as if he were a baby. This behavior came out not from conscious abstract and logical thinking but from spontaneous "pre-conscious" state of mind. Morita called this "Jun-na-kokoro" (Pure mind). Morita knew that neurotic symptoms come out from those abstract and logical thinking which could lead to fixation of symptoms so that therapy principle might be the de-centralization of self and the pure mind experience which is found in our daily life and also in daily life of foreign people from various cultural backgrounds.

  11. Photodynamic therapy: an update. (United States)

    Dima, V F; Vasiliu, V; Dima, S V


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising local treatment modality based on the selective accumulation of a photosensitizer in malignant tissues and the subsequent irradiation with laser light. Photodynamic therapy of malignant tumors includes biological, photochemical and photophysical processes. These processes involve: (a) absorption of photosensitizing agent; (b) selective retention of the photosensitizer in tumors and (c) irradiation of sensitized tumor by laser radiation. This report provides a review of photosensitizers, photochemistry, subcellular targets, side effects and laser involved in photodynamic therapy. In addition, gradual increase in knowledge related to in vitro and in vivo mechanisms of action of PDT, as well as some clinical applications of photodynamic therapy are presented.

  12. Neutron Therapy Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Neutron Therapy Facility provides a moderate intensity, broad energy spectrum neutron beam that can be used for short term irradiations for radiobiology (cells)...

  13. Medical Art Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgul Aydin


    Full Text Available Art therapy is a form of expressive therapy that uses art materials. Art therapy combines traditional psychotherapeutic theories and techniques with an understanding of the psychological aspects of the creative process, especially the affective properties of the different art materials. Medical art therapy has been defined as the clinical application of art expression and imagery with individuals who are physically ill, experiencing physical trauma or undergoing invasive or aggressive medical procedures such as surgery or chemotherapy and is considered as a form of complementary or integrative medicine. Several studies have shown that patients with physical illness benefit from medical art therapy in different aspects. Unlike other therapies, art therapy can take the patients away from their illness for a while by means of creative activities during sessions, can make them forget the illness or lost abilities. Art therapy leads to re-experiencing normality and personal power even with short creative activity sessions. In this article definition, influence and necessity of medical art therapy are briefly reviewed.

  14. Therapy with radionuclides. Radionuklid-Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Hotze, A.L. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin)


    Radioiodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid diseases is a well-established procedure in Nuclear Medicine. However, the therapeutic use of radioisotopes in other diseases is relatively unknown among our refering physicians. The therapeutic effects of intraarticular (rheumatoid arthritis) and intracavitary (pleural and peritoneal carcinosis) applications yields good results. The radiophosphorus therapy in polycythemia vera rubra has always to be considered as an alternative to chemotherapy. The use of analgetics may be reduced by pain therapy of bone metastasis by injection of bone-seeking beta emitters like Rh-186 HEDP. Other procedures like therapeutic application of meta-iodo-benzylguanidine in neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma resulted in at least remissions of the disease. Radioimmunotherapy needs further evaluation before it can be recommended as a routine procedure. (orig.).

  15. Pediatric Music Therapy. (United States)

    Lathom-Radocy, Wanda B.

    This book on music therapy includes relevant medical, psychological, and developmental information to help service providers, particularly music therapists, and parents to understand children with disabilities. The first two chapters describe the process of assessment and delineation of goals in music therapy that leads to the design of the music…

  16. Boganmeldelse - Music Therapy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner


    . Alligevel følger her en anbefaling af bogen: for musikterapeuter er det en bog, man ikke kommer uden om. Music Therapy Research, på dansk Musikterapiforskning, er en gennemrevideret, ja faktisk nyudgivelse, af bogen Music Therapy Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives, som udkom i 1995. Også...

  17. Therapy in Motion. (United States)

    Costonis, Maureen Needham, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of articles on the subject of movement therapy. It can be used as a set of supplementary readings for an academic course in dance therapy or a psychiatric residency program. It includes an exhaustive bibliography on this field for students and practioners in this field. Four principal themes have been selected as a…

  18. [Dance/Movement Therapy. (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.


    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  19. History of gene therapy. (United States)

    Wirth, Thomas; Parker, Nigel; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo


    Two decades after the initial gene therapy trials and more than 1700 approved clinical trials worldwide we not only have gained much new information and knowledge regarding gene therapy in general, but also learned to understand the concern that has persisted in society. Despite the setbacks gene therapy has faced, success stories have increasingly emerged. Examples for these are the positive recommendation for a gene therapy product (Glybera) by the EMA for approval in the European Union and the positive trials for the treatment of ADA deficiency, SCID-X1 and adrenoleukodystrophy. Nevertheless, our knowledge continues to grow and during the course of time more safety data has become available that helps us to develop better gene therapy approaches. Also, with the increased understanding of molecular medicine, we have been able to develop more specific and efficient gene transfer vectors which are now producing clinical results. In this review, we will take a historical view and highlight some of the milestones that had an important impact on the development of gene therapy. We will also discuss briefly the safety and ethical aspects of gene therapy and address some concerns that have been connected with gene therapy as an important therapeutic modality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Speech therapy after thyroidectomy. (United States)

    Yu, Wing-Hei Viola; Wu, Che-Wei


    Common complaints of patients who have received thyroidectomy include dysphonia (voice dysfunction) and dysphagia (difficulty swallowing). One cause of these surgical outcomes is recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis. Many studies have discussed the effectiveness of speech therapy (e.g., voice therapy and dysphagia therapy) for improving dysphonia and dysphagia, but not specifically in patients who have received thyroidectomy. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to discuss issues regarding speech therapy such as voice therapy and dysphagia for patients after thyroidectomy. Another aim was to review the literature on speech therapy for patients with recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis after thyroidectomy. Databases used for the literature review in this study included, PubMed, MEDLINE, Academic Search Primer, ERIC, CINAHL Plus, and EBSCO. The articles retrieved by database searches were classified and screened for relevance by using EndNote. Of the 936 articles retrieved, 18 discussed "voice assessment and thyroidectomy", 3 discussed "voice therapy and thyroidectomy", and 11 discussed "surgical interventions for voice restoration after thyroidectomy". Only 3 studies discussed topics related to "swallowing function assessment/treatment and thyroidectomy". Although many studies have investigated voice changes and assessment methods in thyroidectomy patients, few recent studies have investigated speech therapy after thyroidectomy. Additionally, some studies have addressed dysphagia after thyroidectomy, but few have discussed assessment and treatment of dysphagia after thyroidectomy.

  1. Narrative Family Therapy. (United States)

    Walsh, William M.; Keenan, Robert


    States that narrative family therapy is informed by social constructionism and postmodern worldviews, and is a relatively significant departure from mainstream psychotherapy. Discusses the use of narrative family therapy. Uses the story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden as an example. (MKA)

  2. Therapy of Lies (United States)

    Price, Sean


    Conversion therapy comes in many forms, ranging from informal chats with counselors to aggressive physical coercion, but all are based on the belief that a gay male or a lesbian can be changed "back" to heterosexual behavior. It is not just alarmed parents who turn to this therapy. Many LGBT individuals seek out such treatment in an effort to…

  3. Art Therapy: A Bibliography. (United States)

    Gantt, Linda, Comp.; Schmal, Marilyn Strauss, Comp.

    The bibliography on art therapy presents 1175 citations (1940-1973) drawn from searches of the medical indexes, computer systems of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institute of Mental Health, other bibliographies, Centre International de Documentation Concernant les Expressions Plastiques, and the American Journal of Art Therapy.…

  4. Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... Information Translations Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Expand Section Radiation Therapy - Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  5. Social Action Art Therapy (United States)

    Golub, Deborah


    This paper explores intersections among art, action, and community. It describes sociopolitical aspects of the author's art therapy work with survivors of repressive regimes living in Brazil, China, and Denmark and considers ways that unique historical and social processes influenced her conceptualization and practice of social action art therapy.

  6. Animal-Assisted Therapy and Occupational Therapy (United States)

    Andreasen, Gena; Stella, Tiffany; Wilkison, Megan; Szczech Moser, Christy; Hoelzel, Allison; Hendricks, Laura


    The use of animals for therapeutic purposes has been documented in the literature for centuries. This review will highlight evidence of the benefits of animal-assisted therapy as well as provide a plethora of resources for therapists interested in learning more about how animals can provide restorative benefits for their clients.

  7. Music therapy in dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, Orii; Crellin, Nadia; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner


    Objective Recent reviews on music therapy for people with dementia have been limited to attempting to evaluate whether it is effective, but there is a need for a critical assessment of the literature to provide insight into the possible mechanisms of actions of music therapy. This systematic review......, five studies investigated hormonal and physiological changes, and five studies focused on social and relational aspects of music therapy. The musical interventions in the studies were diverse, but singing featured as an important medium for change. Conclusions Evidence for short-term improvement...... in mood and reduction in behavioural disturbance was consistent, but there were no high-quality longitudinal studies that demonstrated long-term benefits of music therapy. Future music therapy studies need to define a theoretical model, include better-focused outcome measures, and discuss how the findings...

  8. Music therapy improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Kuzma


    Full Text Available In this article, the technique of music therapy – music therapy improvisation is introduced. In this form of music therapy the improvising partners share meaning through the improvisation: the improvisation is not an end in itself: it portrays meaning that is personal, complex and can be shared with the partner. The therapeutic work, then, is meeting and matching the client's music in order to give the client an experience of "being known", being responded through sounds and being able to express things and communicate meaningfully. Rather than the client playing music, the therapy is about developing the engagement through sustained, joint improvisations. In music therapy, music and emotion share fundamental features: one may represent the other, i.e., we hear the music not as music but as dynamic emotional states. The concept of dynamic structure explains why music makes therapeutic sense.

  9. [Navigated retinal laser therapy]. (United States)

    Kernt, M; Ulbig, M; Kampik, A; Neubauer, A S


    Navigated laser therapy introduces for the first time computerized assistance systems for retinal laser therapy. The Navilas system offers high precision and safety and provides additional benefits regarding standardization of planning, execution, documentation and quality assurance. The current focus of clinical application for navigated laser therapy besides laser treatment after retinal vein occlusion and panretinal laser photocoagulation in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is diabetic macular edema. Recent data indicate that combined initial anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) and navigated macular laser therapy allows achievement and maintenance of treatment success with a minimum number of interventions. Despite very promising results the current assessment of navigated laser therapy is still limited by the evidence available worldwide.

  10. Pharmacological therapy for amblyopia (United States)

    Singh, Anupam; Nagpal, Ritu; Mittal, Sanjeev Kumar; Bahuguna, Chirag; Kumar, Prashant


    Amblyopia is the most common cause of preventable blindness in children and young adults. Most of the amblyopic visual loss is reversible if detected and treated at appropriate time. It affects 1.0 to 5.0% of the general population. Various treatment modalities have been tried like refractive correction, patching (both full time and part time), penalization and pharmacological therapy. Refractive correction alone improves visual acuity in one third of patients with anisometropic amblyopia. Various drugs have also been tried of which carbidopa & levodopa have been popular. Most of these agents are still in experimental stage, though levodopa-carbidopa combination therapy has been widely studied in human amblyopes with good outcomes. Levodopa therapy may be considered in cases with residual amblyopia, although occlusion therapy remains the initial treatment choice. Regression of effect after stoppage of therapy remains a concern. Further studies are therefore needed to evaluate the full efficacy and side effect profile of these agents. PMID:29018759

  11. Pain in photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Tampa


    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy is a modern treatment with applications in several medical specialties, which has been intensely studied in the last years. The main indications in dermatology are actinic keratosis, superficial basal cell carcinoma and Bowen's disease- common skin disorders in which photodynamic therapy proved its efficacy. At present, the use of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of other skin disorders is profoundly researched. Pain is the most common and redoubtable adverse effect of photodynamic therapy and it is the most important factor affecting the patient's adherence to treatment. The aim of this article is to look over the most recent medical studies regarding pain in PDT, with emphasis on the factors affecting the occurrence of pain and the most recent strategies for controlling photodynamic therapy- related pain.

  12. Medical therapy in acromegaly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sherlock, Mark


    Acromegaly is a rare disease characterized by excess secretion of growth hormone (GH) and increased circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentrations. The disease is associated with increased morbidity and premature mortality, but these effects can be reduced if GH levels are decreased to <2.5 μg\\/l and IGF-1 levels are normalized. Therapy for acromegaly is targeted at decreasing GH and IGF-1 levels, ameliorating patients\\' symptoms and decreasing any local compressive effects of the pituitary adenoma. The therapeutic options for acromegaly include surgery, radiotherapy and medical therapies, such as dopamine agonists, somatostatin receptor ligands and the GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant. Medical therapy is currently most widely used as secondary treatment for persistent or recurrent acromegaly following noncurative surgery, although it is increasingly used as primary therapy. This Review provides an overview of current and future pharmacological therapies for patients with acromegaly.

  13. Proton therapy physics

    CERN Document Server


    Proton Therapy Physics goes beyond current books on proton therapy to provide an in-depth overview of the physics aspects of this radiation therapy modality, eliminating the need to dig through information scattered in the medical physics literature. After tracing the history of proton therapy, the book summarizes the atomic and nuclear physics background necessary for understanding proton interactions with tissue. It describes the physics of proton accelerators, the parameters of clinical proton beams, and the mechanisms to generate a conformal dose distribution in a patient. The text then covers detector systems and measuring techniques for reference dosimetry, outlines basic quality assurance and commissioning guidelines, and gives examples of Monte Carlo simulations in proton therapy. The book moves on to discussions of treatment planning for single- and multiple-field uniform doses, dose calculation concepts and algorithms, and precision and uncertainties for nonmoving and moving targets. It also exami...

  14. Accelerators for Cancer Therapy (United States)

    Lennox, Arlene J.


    The vast majority of radiation treatments for cancerous tumors are given using electron linacs that provide both electrons and photons at several energies. Design and construction of these linacs are based on mature technology that is rapidly becoming more and more standardized and sophisticated. The use of hadrons such as neutrons, protons, alphas, or carbon, oxygen and neon ions is relatively new. Accelerators for hadron therapy are far from standardized, but the use of hadron therapy as an alternative to conventional radiation has led to significant improvements and refinements in conventional treatment techniques. This paper presents the rationale for radiation therapy, describes the accelerators used in conventional and hadron therapy, and outlines the issues that must still be resolved in the emerging field of hadron therapy.

  15. Immune Therapies for Neuroblastoma (United States)

    Navid, Fariba; Armstrong, Michael; Barfield, Raymond C.


    Neuroblastoma, a solid tumor arising from developing cells of the sympathetic nervous system, is the most common extracranial tumor in children. The prognosis for high-risk neuroblastoma remains poor with conventional treatment, and new approaches are therefore being explored to treat this disease. One such alternative therapy that holds promise is immune therapy. We review here the recent advances in 4 types of immune therapy – cytokine, vaccine, antibody, and cellular therapy – to treat neuroblastoma. We present preclinical research and clinical trials on several promising candidates such as IL-12, dendritic cell vaccines, anti-GD2 antibodies, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. An optimal treatment plan for neuroblastoma will most likely involve multimodal approaches and combinations of immune therapies. PMID:19342881

  16. Systemic Cancer Therapy:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ostario Palumbo


    Full Text Available In the last half of the century, advances in the systemic therapy of cancer, including chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy have been responsible for improvements in cancer related mortality in developed countries even as the population continues to age. Although such advancements have yet to benefit all cancer types, systemic therapies have led to an improvement in overall survival in both the adjuvant and metastatic setting for many cancers. With the pressure to make therapies available as soon as possible, the side-effects of systemic therapies, in particular long-term side-effects are not very well characterized and understood. Increasingly, a number of cancer types are requiring long-term and even lifelong systemic therapy. This is true for both younger and older patients with cancer and has important implications for each subset. Younger patients have an overall greater expected life-span, and as a result may suffer a greater variety of treatment related complications in the long-term, whereas older patients may develop earlier side-effects as a result of their frailty. Because the incidence of cancer in the world will increase over the next several decades and there will be more people living with cancer, it is important to have an understanding of the potential side effects of new systemic therapies. As an introductory article, in this review series, we begin by describing some of the major advances made in systemic cancer therapy along with some of their known side-effects and we also make an attempt to describe the future of systemic cancer therapy.

  17. Supportive therapy for schizophrenia. (United States)

    Buckley, Lucy A; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Adams, Clive E


    Supportive therapy is often used in everyday clinical care and in evaluative studies of other treatments. To review the effects of supportive therapy compared with standard care, or other treatments in addition to standard care for people with schizophrenia. For this update, we searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's register of trials (November 2012). All randomised trials involving people with schizophrenia and comparing supportive therapy with any other treatment or standard care. We reliably selected studies, quality rated these and extracted data. For dichotomous data, we estimated the risk ratio (RR) using a fixed-effect model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where possible, we undertook intention-to-treat analyses. For continuous data, we estimated the mean difference (MD) fixed-effect with 95% CIs. We estimated heterogeneity (I(2) technique) and publication bias. We used GRADE to rate quality of evidence. Four new trials were added after the 2012 search. The review now includes 24 relevant studies, with 2126 participants. Overall, the evidence was very low quality.We found no significant differences in the primary outcomes of relapse, hospitalisation and general functioning between supportive therapy and standard care.There were, however, significant differences favouring other psychological or psychosocial treatments over supportive therapy. These included hospitalisation rates (4 RCTs, n = 306, RR 1.82 CI 1.11 to 2.99, very low quality of evidence), clinical improvement in mental state (3 RCTs, n = 194, RR 1.27 CI 1.04 to 1.54, very low quality of evidence) and satisfaction of treatment for the recipient of care (1 RCT, n = 45, RR 3.19 CI 1.01 to 10.7, very low quality of evidence). For this comparison, we found no evidence of significant differences for rate of relapse, leaving the study early and quality of life.When we compared supportive therapy to cognitive behavioural therapy CBT), we again found no significant differences in primary

  18. 75 FR 50880 - TRICARE: Non-Physician Referrals for Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech Therapy (United States)


    ..., Occupational Therapy, and Speech Therapy AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Defense. ACTION: Final... engage in referrals of beneficiaries to the Military Health System for physical therapy, occupational..., occupational therapy, and speech therapy without having the patient see a physician. This rule will align...

  19. Massage therapy research review. (United States)

    Field, Tiffany


    In this review, massage therapy has been shown to have beneficial effects on varying conditions including prenatal depression, preterm infants, full-term infants, autism, skin conditions, pain syndromes including arthritis and fibromyalgia, hypertension, autoimmune conditions including asthma and multiple sclerosis, immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer and aging problems including Parkinson's and dementia. Although many of the studies have involved comparisons between massage therapy and standard treatment control groups, several have compared different forms of massage (e.g. Swedish versus Thai massage), and different active therapies such as massage versus exercise. Typically, the massage therapy groups have experienced more positive effects than the control or comparison groups. This may relate to the massage therapy providing more stimulation of pressure receptors, in turn enhancing vagal activity and reducing cortisol levels. Some of the researchers have assessed physical, physiological and biochemical effects, although most have relied exclusively on self-report measures. Despite these methodological problems and the dearth of research from the U.S., the massage therapy profession has grown significantly and massage therapy is increasingly practiced in traditional medical settings, highlighting the need for more rigorous research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Helicobacter pylori: Novel Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Drouin


    Full Text Available The ideal therapy for Helicobacter pylori would cure the infection without resulting in the development of antibiotic resistance. Current therapies have variable cure rates; the reasons for treatment failure include bacterial resistance and poor compliance. Some antibiotics, such as furazolidone, may be affordable agents to treat this infection worldwide. New proton pump inhibitors, such as rabeprazole, can potentiate antibiotics. Nutriceuticals and probiotics demonstrate interesting in vitro activity against H pylori. Children rarely have symptoms to this infection and, therefore, are a suitable group in which to assess different nonaggressive therapies.

  1. Medical Therapy of Acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Plöckinger


    Full Text Available This paper outlines the present status of medical therapy of acromegaly. Indications for permanent postoperative treatment, postirradiation treamtent to bridge the interval until remission as well as primary medical therapy are elaborated. Therapeutic efficacy of the different available drugs—somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs, dopamine agonists, and the GH antagonist Pegvisomant—is discussed, as are the indications for and efficacy of their respective combinations. Information on their mechanism of action, and some pharmakokinetic data are included. Special emphasis is given to the difficulties to define remission criteria of acromegaly due to technical assay problems. An algorithm for medical therapy in acromegaly is provided.

  2. Radiation therapy in horses. (United States)

    Fidel, Janean L


    Although the diagnosis of cancer is relatively uncommon in horses, tumors do occur in this species. Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are traditional cancer treatments in all species. In equine patients, surgery has often been the only treatment offered; however, not all tumors can be controlled with surgery alone. In small animal oncology, newer and better therapies are in demand and available. Radiation therapy is often used to control or palliate tumors locally, especially to satisfy clients who demand sophisticated treatments. The large size of equine patients can make radiation therapy difficult, but it is a valuable tool for treating cancer and should not be overlooked when treating horses.

  3. Feminist music therapy pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahna, Nicole; Swantes, Melody


    This study surveyed 188 music therapy educators regarding their views and use of feminist pedagogy and feminist music therapy. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (a) to determine how many music therapy educators used feminist pedagogy and (b) to determine if there was a relationship between......) participatory learning, (b) validation of personal experience/development of confidence, (c) political/social activism, and (d) critical thinking/ open-mindedness. The results revealed that 46% (n = 32) of participants identified as feminist music therapists and 67% (n = 46) of participants identified as using...

  4. Therapy and Counseling (United States)

    ... system of rewards and reinforcement of positive behavior.Psychoanalysis. This type of treatment encourages you to think ... work, marriage and family therapy, rehabilitation counseling, and psychoanalysis. Your family doctor can help you choose the ...

  5. Music therapy in pediatrics. (United States)

    Avers, Laura; Mathur, Ambika; Kamat, Deepak


    The soothing effects of music have been well described over the centuries and across cultures. In more recent times, studies have shown the beneficial effects of music in alleviating symptoms in a wide variety of clinical and psychologic conditions. Music therapy has been primarily used as an intervention to control emotional states, in pain management, cognitive processing, and stress management. Stress is associated with increased production of the stress hormone cortisol, which is known to suppress immune responses. Several studies in the past few decades have demonstrated a positive effect of music therapy on reducing stress or increasing immune responses, or both. Music therapy should therefore be considered as a valuable addition to standard pharmacologic therapeutic modalities in enhancing the immune response and lowering stress levels in such conditions. This article reviews the role of music as a therapeutic modality and the future for music therapy, particularly in pediatrics.

  6. Therapy Provider Phase Information (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  7. Botulinum Toxin Therapy (United States)

    ... AADA Health System Reform Principles Drug pricing and availability CVS dermatologic formulary restrictions Access to compounded medications ... Botulinum toxin therapy: Overview Also called botulinum rejuvenation Brand names: Botox® Cosmetic, Dysport®, MYOBLOC®, and XEOMIN® When ...

  8. Music therapy for depression. (United States)

    Aalbers, Sonja; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Freeman, Ruth E; Spreen, Marinus; Ket, Johannes Cf; Vink, Annemiek C; Maratos, Anna; Crawford, Mike; Chen, Xi-Jing; Gold, Christian


    Depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder that is characterised by persistent low mood, diminished interest, and loss of pleasure. Music therapy may be helpful in modulating moods and emotions. An update of the 2008 Cochrane review was needed to improve knowledge on effects of music therapy for depression. 1. To assess effects of music therapy for depression in people of any age compared with treatment as usual (TAU) and psychological, pharmacological, and/or other therapies.2. To compare effects of different forms of music therapy for people of any age with a diagnosis of depression. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR; from inception to 6 May 2016); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; to 17 June 2016); Thomson Reuters/Web of Science (to 21 June 2016); Ebsco/PsycInfo, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Embase, and PubMed (to 5 July 2016); the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP),, the National Guideline Clearing House, and OpenGrey (to 6 September 2016); and the Digital Access to Research Theses (DART)-Europe E-theses Portal, Open Access Theses and Dissertations, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database (to 7 September 2016). We checked reference lists of retrieved articles and relevant systematic reviews and contacted trialists and subject experts for additional information when needed. We updated this search in August 2017 and placed potentially relevant studies in the "Awaiting classification" section; we will incorporate these into the next version of this review as appropriate. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing music therapy versus treatment as usual (TAU), psychological therapies, pharmacological therapies, other therapies, or different forms of music therapy for reducing depression. Two review

  9. Whole breast radiation therapy (United States)

    ... 11, 2016. . Accessed September 13, 2016. National Cancer Institute. Radiation therapy and you: support for people who have cancer. Web ...

  10. Radiation Therapy for Cancer (United States)

    ... is exposed to radiation. Whether IMRT leads to improved control of tumor growth and better survival compared ... treatments. Some patients may receive radiation therapy and chemotherapy at the same time. The timing of radiation ...

  11. Occupational therapy evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristina Tomra; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen


    Background: The Occupational Therapy Intervention Process Model (OTIPM) serves to guide occupational therapists in their professional reasoning. The OTIPM prescribes evaluation of task performance based on both self-report and observation. Although this approach seems ideal, many clinicians raise...

  12. External Beam Therapy (EBT) (United States)

    ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... Colorectal Cancer Treatment Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Brain ...

  13. Nicotine replacement therapy (United States)

    Smoking cessation - nicotine replacement; Tobacco - nicotine replacement therapy ... Before you start using a nicotine replacement product, here are some things to know: The more cigarettes you smoke, the higher the dose you may need to ...

  14. Complementary and Integrative Therapies (United States)

    ... imagery • Meditation and prayer • Qi gong • Reflexology • Reiki • Yoga Whole medical systems use many types of therapies. Examples include: Ayurveda, homeopathic medicine and traditional Chinese medicine. Safety of ...

  15. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (United States)

    ... Migraine Multiple sclerosis Parkinson's disease Spinal cord injury Sports injury Stroke Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic Risks Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is generally a safe procedure. Complications are rare. ...

  16. Radiation therapy -- skin care (United States)

    ... this page: // Radiation therapy - skin care To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. When you have radiation treatment for cancer, you may have some changes ...

  17. Topical therapies for rosacea. (United States)

    Nally, Jennie B; Berson, Diane S


    Therapeutic options for rosacea include topical agents, oral therapies, laser and light treatments, and surgical procedures. Topical therapies play a critical role in the treatment of patients with papulopustular rosacea and erythematotelangiectatic rosacea, and have the ability to effectively minimize certain manifestations of the disease, including papules, pustules, and erythema. The 3 primary agents for the topical treatment of rosacea are metronidazole, azelaic acid, and sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur. Each of these therapies is approved for the treatment of rosacea and has been validated by multiple studies. Additional topical therapies including benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, retinoids, topical steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and permethrin are not approved for the treatment of rosacea and play variable roles in the management of this condition.

  18. Neuroimaging and electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Tom G


    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, a number of neuroimaging studies of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have been conducted to elucidate the working action of this highly efficacious treatment modality. The technologies used are single photon emission tomography, positron emission tomography, magnetic...... resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and quantitative electroencephalography. METHODS: A PubMed literature search with focus on clinical studies was made from the inception of the database until December 2013 using the search terms electroconvulsive therapy and neuroimaging. RESULTS: Early...

  19. Helicobacter pylori: Novel Therapies


    Eric Drouin


    The ideal therapy for Helicobacter pylori would cure the infection without resulting in the development of antibiotic resistance. Current therapies have variable cure rates; the reasons for treatment failure include bacterial resistance and poor compliance. Some antibiotics, such as furazolidone, may be affordable agents to treat this infection worldwide. New proton pump inhibitors, such as rabeprazole, can potentiate antibiotics. Nutriceuticals and probiotics demonstrate interesting in vitro...

  20. [Therapy-resistant pneumonia]. (United States)

    Oestmann, Andreas; Schäfer, Stephan Christian; Geiser, Thomas


    We report the case of a 72 year old patient with B-symptoms and a persistent pulmonary infiltrate despite an antibiotic therapy. Buds of granulation tissue were found by transbronchial biopsy proving an organizing pneumonia. B-Symptoms and pulmonary infiltrate were improved immediately by a therapy with steroids. Even though there were reasons for a secondary organizing pneumonia due to a known chronic lymphocytic leukemia and a pneumonia treated four months before, we consider a cryptogenic organizing pneumonia as most probable.

  1. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy. (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K


    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed.

  2. Journal of Proton Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office


    Full Text Available Journal of Proton Therapy (JPT is an international open access, peer-reviewed journal, which publishes original research, technical reports, reviews, case reports, editorials, and other materials on proton therapy with focus on radiation oncology, medical physics, medical dosimetry, and radiation therapy.No article processing/submission feeNo publication feePeer-review completion within 3-6 weeksImmediate publication after the completion of final author proofreadDOI assignment for each published articleFree access to published articles for all readers without any access barriers or subscriptionThe views and opinions expressed in articles are those of the author/s and do not necessarily reflect the policies of the Journal of Proton Therapy.Authors are encouraged to submit articles for publication in the inaugural issue of the Journal of Proton Therapy by online or email to editor@protonjournal.comOfficial Website of Journal of Proton Therapy:

  3. Fertility and cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, L.C.


    With increased survival of increasing numbers of cancer patients as a result of therapy, the consequences, early and late, of the therapies must be realized. It is the treating physician's duty to preserve as much reproductive potential as possible for patients, consistent with adequate care. With radiotherapy this means shielding the gonads as much as possible, optimal but not excessive doses and fields, oophoropexy, or sperm collection and storage prior to irradiation. With chemotherapy it means the shortest exposure to drugs consistent with best treatment and prior to therapy the collection and storage of sperm where facilities are available. At present this is still an experimental procedure. Artificial insemination for a couple when the male has received cancer therapy is another alternative. Finally, it is the responsibility of physicians caring for patients with neoplasms to be knowledgeable about these and all other effects of therapy so that patients may be counseled appropriately and understand the implications of therapy for their life.

  4. Humanistic therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression (United States)

    Churchill, Rachel; Davies, Philippa; Caldwell, Deborah; Moore, Theresa HM; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien


    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all humanistic therapies compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different humanistic therapy models (person-centred, gestalt, process-experiential, transactional analysis, existential and non-directive therapies) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all humanistic therapies compared with different psychological therapy approaches (psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, integrative, cognitive-behavioural) for acute depression. PMID:25278809

  5. Implementing a practice change: early initiation of continuous renal replacement therapy during neonatal extracorporeal life support standardizes care and improves short-term outcomes. (United States)

    Murphy, Heidi J; Cahill, John B; Twombley, Katherine E; Annibale, David J; Kiger, James R


    We hypothesized that a standardized approach to early continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) during neonatal extracorporeal life support (ECLS) results in greater homogeneity of CRRT initiation times with improvements in fluid balance and outcomes. Retrospective analysis of data (2007-2015) obtained from neonates treated prior to (E1; n = 32) and after (E2; n = 31) a 2011 practice change: CRRT initiation within 48 h of ECLS. Birthweight, gestational age, ECLS mode, and age at ECLS initiation were similar to each epoch. Survival [E1: median 75%, E2: 71%] and length of ECLS [E1: median 221 h, E2: 180 h] were comparable. During E2, 100% of infants received CRRT (vs. E1: 37%; p CRRT within 48 h of ECLS (vs. E1: 13%; p CRRT differed between Epochs [E1: median 105 h, E2: 9 h; p CRRT initiation [E1: 4.13 kg (29% above baseline), E2: 3.19 kg (0%); p CRRT within 48 h of ECLS cannulation, leading to decreased practice variation and improved short-term outcomes including decreased weight gain at CRRT initiation and faster return to baseline weight during the first 7 days of ECLS. We did not demonstrate changes in duration of ECLS, invasive ventilation, or survival.

  6. Adenovirus Vectors for Gene Therapy, Vaccination and Cancer Gene Therapy


    Wold, William S. M.; Toth, Karoly


    Adenovirus vectors are the most commonly employed vector for cancer gene therapy. They are also used for gene therapy and as vaccines to express foreign antigens. Adenovirus vectors can be replication-defective; certain essential viral genes are deleted and replaced by a cassette that expresses a foreign therapeutic gene. Such vectors are used for gene therapy, as vaccines, and for cancer therapy. Replication-competent (oncolytic) vectors are employed for cancer gene therapy. Oncolytic vector...

  7. Anticytokine therapy for osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Goldring, M B


    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint disease that involves degeneration of articular cartilage, weakening of the subchondral bone and limited intra-articular inflammation manifested by synovitis. Since the pathogenesis of OA involves multiple aetiologies, including mechanical, biochemical and genetic factors, it has been difficult to identify unique targets for therapy. Current pharmacological interventions focus primarily on improving symptoms. The rationale for the use of anticytokine therapy in OA is based on evidence from studies in vitro and in vivo that interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha are the predominant pro-inflammatory and catabolic cytokines involved in the initiation and progression of articular cartilage destruction. Since the increased levels of catabolic enzymes, prostaglandins, nitric oxide (NO) and other markers in OA fluids and tissues appear to be related to elevated levels of IL-1 and TNF-alpha, therapies that interfere with the expression or actions of these cytokines are most promising. Other cytokines that are anti-inflammatory and are often detected, paradoxically, in OA tissues are also potential therapeutic agents for counteracting the cartilage destruction in OA. Identification of methods for early diagnosis is of key importance, since therapeutic interventions aimed at blocking or reversing structural damage will be more effective when there is the possibility of preserving normal homeostasis. At later stages, cartilage tissue engineering with or without gene therapy will also require anticytokine therapy to block damage to newly repaired cartilage. This review will focus on experimental approaches currently under study that may lead to elucidation of effective strategies for therapy in OA, with special emphasis on anticytokine therapy.

  8. Manual therapy for asthma. (United States)

    Hondras, M A; Linde, K; Jones, A P


    A variety of manual therapies with similar postulated biologic mechanisms of action are commonly used to treat patients with asthma. Manual therapy practitioners are also varied, including physiotherapists, respiratory therapists, chiropractic and osteopathic physicians. A systematic review across disciplines is warranted. To evaluate the evidence for the effects of manual therapies for treatment of patients with bronchial asthma. Trials were searched in computerized general (EMBASE, CINAHL and MEDLINE) and specialized databases (Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, Cochrane Rehabilitation Field, ICL, and MANTIS). In addition, bibliographies from included studies were assessed, and authors of known studies were contacted for additional information about published and unpublished trials. Date of most recent search: February 2002. Trials were included if they: (1) were randomised; (2) included asthmatic children or adults; (3) examined one or more types of manual therapy; and (4) included clinical outcomes. All three reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality using a standard form. From 393 unique citations, 59 full text articles were retrieved and evaluated, which resulted in nine citations to five RCTs (290 patients) suitable for inclusion. Trials could not be pooled statistically because studies that addressed similar interventions used disparate patient groups or outcomes. The methodological quality of one of two trials examining chiropractic manipulation was good and neither trial found significant differences between chiropractic spinal manipulation and a sham manoeuvre on any of the outcomes measured. Quality of the remaining three trials was poor. One small trial compared massage therapy with a relaxation control group and found significant differences in many of the lung function measures obtained. However, this trial had poor reporting characteristics and the data have yet to be confirmed. One small trial compared chest

  9. Manual therapy for asthma. (United States)

    Hondras, M A; Linde, K; Jones, A P


    A variety of manual therapies with similar postulated biologic mechanisms of action are commonly used to treat patients with asthma. Manual therapy practitioners are also varied, including physiotherapists, respiratory therapists, chiropractic and osteopathic physicians. A systematic review across disciplines is warranted. To evaluate the evidence for the effects of manual therapies for treatment of patients with bronchial asthma. We searched for trials in computerized general (EMBASE, CINAHL and MEDLINE) and specialized databases (Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, Cochrane Rehabilitation Field, Index to Chiropractic Literature (ICL), and Manual, Alternative and Natural Therapy (MANTIS)). In addition, we assessed bibliographies from included studies, and contacted authors of known studies for additional information about published and unpublished trials. Date of most recent search: August 2004. Trials were included if they: (1) were randomised; (2) included asthmatic children or adults; (3) examined one or more types of manual therapy; and (4) included clinical outcomes with observation periods of at least two weeks. All three reviewers independently extracted data and assessed trial quality using a standard form. From 473 unique citations, 68 full text articles were retrieved and evaluated, which resulted in nine citations to three RCTs (156 patients) suitable for inclusion. Trials could not be pooled statistically because studies that addressed similar interventions used disparate patient groups or outcomes. The methodological quality of one of two trials examining chiropractic manipulation was good and neither trial found significant differences between chiropractic spinal manipulation and a sham manoeuvre on any of the outcomes measured. One small trial compared massage therapy with a relaxation control group and found significant differences in many of the lung function measures obtained. However, this trial had poor reporting characteristics and the data

  10. Hormone therapy in acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chembolli Lakshmi


    Full Text Available Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne.

  11. Therapy of hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildmeister, W.


    The etiology of hyperthyroidism is still largely unknown and therefore no causal therapy of this condition is possible. Antithyroid drug treatment is usually carried out with thiocarbamides. When an euthyroid state is achieved synthetic thyroid hormones are added. Pregnancy and iodine contamination (after exposure to contrast medium) require individual treatment. In this paper the advantages, indications and contraindications are discussed as well as supportive drug therapy necessary in specific cases. Radioiodine therapy is reserved for patients over 35 years of age; the individual dose is calculated according to the size of the thyroid gland and the iodine uptake. Disadvantageous is the late onset of therapeutic efficiency, the small effect on the size of goitre and the exposure to radiation. A patient should be operated upon in an euthyroid state, i.e. after preoperative drug therapy. Operations are normally performed on individuals with a coexistent goitre or where antithyroid drugs or radioiodine therapy are contraindicated. Paresis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and hypoparathyroidism are rare complications. 3 to 4 g of thyroid tissues should remain. Of great importance in all cases are precise diagnostics both before and after commencing treatment and adequate follow up.

  12. Rescue therapies for seizures. (United States)

    Poukas, Valeriya S; Pollard, John R; Anderson, Christopher Todd


    Most medical therapies for epilepsy consist of daily (or multiple-daily) dose, fixed-schedule, pharmacologic oral agents. Despite adherence, many patients continue to experience seizures. Various products have been discovered, designed, and marketed to serve as seizure-abortant therapies. These agents can be administered rapidly, as a "rescue" therapy, once a clinical seizure or cluster of seizures starts. Rescue medications are given as needed in an attempt to disrupt progression of a given seizure, and forestall what would otherwise be a more prolonged or more severe clinical event. Seizure-abortants also serve to aid in the management of seizure emergencies, such as prolonged, repetitive seizures, or status epilepticus. These compounds are not appropriate for all patients. Nevertheless, they do provide therapeutic benefit to several groups of patients: 1) those who perceive the onset of their seizures and have time to perform a self-intervention, 2) patients' caregivers who administer the therapy when they witness the onset of an ictal event, and 3) patients who are in the midst of an out-of-the-hospital seizure emergency (a seizure cluster or status epilepticus). In this article we will review currently available and future rescue therapies for seizures: US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved and FDA nonapproved drugs, nonpharmacologic behavioral treatments, the vagus nerve stimulator and the NeuroPace RNS® System (Mountain View, CA).

  13. Depigmentation therapies in vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Gupta


    Full Text Available Depigmentation therapy in vitiligo is an option in those with extensive vitiligo who have failed to respond to medical therapy and have obvious cosmetic disfigurement due to intervening patchy pigmented areas. Various aspects of this therapy such as the cost, treatment time, course, permanency of depigmentation, side effects, and the possibility of repigmentation should first be discussed with the patient. At present, there is no ideal depigmenting therapy available, but many agents in the market have been in use for many years. Monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone (MBEH is the mainstay and Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved in USA but takes many months to depigment and is associated with local side effects and risk of repigmentation. Other agents which are also used are 4-methoxy phenol and 88% phenol. Physical therapies for depigmentation include Q-switched ruby and alexandrite lasers and cryotherapy. Second-line agents which can be explored for depigmentation include imatinib mesylate, imiquimod, and diphencyprone. Many possible experimental agents are being explored like various phenol derivatives, melanoma vaccines, interferon gamma, busulfan, etc. A major lacuna still exists in this area and a lot more research is desirable to give satisfactory cosmesis to these patients with extensive vitiligo.

  14. Monitoring Antiplatelet Therapy. (United States)

    Orme, Rachel; Judge, Heather M; Storey, Robert F


    The increasing use of antiplatelet therapy, particularly aspirin and oral P2Y12 inhibitors, in the prevention and management of arterial thrombosis, has stimulated extensive pharmacodynamic studies and research into tailored antiplatelet regimens. Many different methodologies have been studied for monitoring antiplatelet drugs and some are now well validated and used in clinical practice. However, clinical studies of tailored antiplatelet therapy have not convincingly demonstrated a benefit of this approach in patients treated with aspirin and clopidogrel, coupled with the fact that more potent antiplatelet therapies have more consistent effects compared with clopidogrel and so may reduce the rationale for monitoring. On the other hand, the optimum timing of urgent surgery after cession of oral antiplatelet therapy may be informed by platelet function testing. This review discusses the different methodologies that have been used to monitor the effects of antiplatelet therapy and highlights the current position of platelet function testing in clinical practice. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Involved Node Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Aznar, Marianne C; Vogelius, Ivan R


    PURPOSE: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy...... to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. RESULTS: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field......, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7...

  16. Laser therapy for periodontitis (United States)

    Efanov, O. I.


    An investigation was made of applying pulsed (lambda) equals 0.89 micrometers laser radiation in the treatment for early diagnosed periodontitis. The investigation was made on 65 patients (47 patients constituted the experimental group and 18 patients constituted a control group) affected by periodontitis. Clinical and functional tests revealed that laser therapy produced a string effect on the course of the illness. It reduced bleeding, inflammation, and pruritus. However, it did not produce an affect on electroexcitation. Biomicroscopic examinations and periodontium rheography revealed that the gingival blood flow became normal after the course of laser therapy. The capillary permeability and venous congestion decreased, which was confirmed by the increased time of vacuum tests, raised gingival temperature, reduced tissue clearance, and increased oxygen tension. Apart from that, laser therapy subsided fibrinolysis, proteolytic tissue activity, and decreased the exudative inflammation of periodontium.

  17. Ozone Therapy in Dentistry (United States)

    Domb, William C


    Summary The 21st century dental practice is quite dynamic. New treatment protocols and new materials are being developed at a rapid pace. Ozone dental therapy falls into the category of new treatment protocols in dentistry, yet ozone is not new at all. Ozone therapy is already a major treatment modality in Europe, South America and a number of other countries. What is provided here will not be an exhaustive scientific treatise so much as a brief general introduction into what dentists are now doing with ozone therapies and the numerous oral/systemic links that make this subject so important for physicians so that, ultimately, they may serve their patients more effectively and productively. PMID:25363268

  18. Music Therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Professional development and recognition is an 'old' issue in music therapy but still a relevant, complex and crucial one. Burning questions regarding professionalisation are at the forefront of most music therapy associations’ agendas across Europe and beyond, and feed back directly to the work...... of the EMTC. Considering the wider political, socio-economic, cultural and disciplinary aspects of professionalisation, different development pathways impact directly on music therapy practice, training, ethics, professional collaboration and employment conditions. Although a number of endeavours have been...... implemented regarding music therapy’s professional development and recognition in different countries, documentation and sharing of such endeavours on international level has been limited and scattered. Drawing from the EMTC’s work since the early ‘90s, as well as from colleagues’ experiences (and struggles...

  19. Hormonal therapy for acne. (United States)

    George, Rosalyn; Clarke, Shari; Thiboutot, Diane


    Acne affects more than 40 million people, of which more than half are women older than 25 years of age. These women frequently fail traditional therapy and have high relapse rates even after isotretinoin. Recent advances in research have helped to delineate the important role hormones play in the pathogenesis of acne. Androgens such as dihydrotestosterone and testosterone, the adrenal precursor dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, estrogens, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factors may all contribute to the development of acne. Hormonal therapy remains an important part of the arsenal of acne treatments available to the clinician. Women dealing with acne, even those without increased serum androgens, may benefit from hormonal treatments. The mainstays of hormonal therapy include oral contraceptives and antiandrogens such as spironolactone, cyproterone acetate, or flutamide. In this article, we discuss the effects of hormones on the pathogenesis of acne, evaluation of women with suspected endocrine abnormalities, and the myriad of treatment options available.

  20. Cell Therapy in Dermatology (United States)

    Petrof, Gabriela; Abdul-Wahab, Alya; McGrath, John A.


    Harnessing the regenerative capacity of keratinocytes and fibroblasts from human skin has created new opportunities to develop cell-based therapies for patients. Cultured cells and bioengineered skin products are being used to treat patients with inherited and acquired skin disorders associated with defective skin, and further clinical trials of new products are in progress. The capacity of extracutaneous sources of cells such as bone marrow is also being investigated for its plasticity in regenerating skin, and new strategies, such as the derivation of inducible pluripotent stem cells, also hold great promise for future cell therapies in dermatology. This article reviews some of the preclinical and clinical studies and future directions relating to cell therapy in dermatology, particularly for inherited skin diseases associated with fragile skin and poor wound healing. PMID:24890834

  1. [Therapy of childhood schizophrenia]. (United States)

    Eggers, C


    Due to the multifacet genesis and variability of clinical phenomenology, the therapy of childhood schizophrenia must be multidimensional. Formerly applied techniques like electroshock- and insulin-therapy are now replaced by pharmaco-therapy, primarily with phenothiazines, butyrophenones and chlorprothixens. The dosage depends on age, body weight or body surface. Because of extrapyramidal motor side effects, combinations with anticholinergic drugs may be necessary. Psychopharmaco-therapy alone, however, is insufficient. High emphasis must be placed on psychotherapy and educational guidance and counselling of the psychotic child. Participation in play groups, sports, muscial activities, arts and crafts, and acting helps make it possible to improve communication behaviour and to transform aggressive anxiety defense into stabilized control of emotions and impulses. In addition to successive integration of the psychotic child into small groups, play therapy with the single child is meaningful. In this case, a constant and confidential relation between therapist and child is extremely important and only possible if the therapist attempts to place himself into the magic-animistic phantasies of the psychotic child. He has first to learn the psychotic language of his patient in order to support more reality-oriented behaviour processes of the child's thinking, preceiving and performing later on. In this manner, the magic-omnipotent phantasies can be dissolved and an increasing orientation of the child toward reality can be encouraged. This involves strengthening and support of non-pathological ego-functions and initiation of a new level of ego-functioning. Such an integrated developmental concept can best be realized through play therapy.

  2. Fokale Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosen A


    Full Text Available Die EAU bezeichnet die fokale Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms als die therapeutische Option mit dem größten Zukunftspotenzial, auch wenn es sich dabei derzeit nicht um ein Standardverfahren handelt. Sie vermag bei Patienten mit einem niedrigmalignen, fokal begrenzten Prostatakarzinom die Lücke zu schließen zwischen potenzieller Übertherapie durch die radikalen Standardverfahren und der onkologischen Unsicherheit einer ,,Active surveillance“. Dieser Überblick gibt den derzeitigen Kenntnisstand bei der fokalen Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms wieder.

  3. Spa therapy in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeba Riyaz


    Full Text Available Spa therapy constitutes the use of mineral springs and thermal mud to soothe and heal various ailments. Like the mineral springs, seas and oceans are also important centers for spa therapy of which the most important is Dead Sea (DS. DS has been famous for thousands of years for its miraculous curative and cosmetic properties. Intensive research is going on using DS minerals in a wide range of dermatological conditions especially psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, vitiligo and other eczemas and several papers have been published in various international and pharmacological journals.

  4. Anticholinerge Therapie der OAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hampel C


    Full Text Available Kenntnisse über Differentialdiagnostik und Pathophysiologie des Blasenüberaktivitäts-Syndroms sind essentiell für eine erfolgreiche Therapie. Obwohl Verhaltenstraining und Elektrostimulation ihre Wirksamkeit bei OAB bewiesen haben, ist die Therapie der ersten Wahl nach wie vor die anticholinerge Behandlung. Dessen ungeachtet ist die Einnahmetreue der Patienten unbefriedigend, was in der letzten Zeit zu verschiedenen Medikamentenneuentwicklungen mit verbesserter Verträglichkeit bei gleichbleibend hoher Effektivität geführt hat. Retard-Formulierungen, extraenterale Applikationswege und Rezeptor-Subselektivität sind hierbei die Prinzipien, welche die Behandlungsakzeptanz und Patientenzufriedenheit steigern sollen.

  5. Art therapy for schizophrenia? (United States)

    Ruiz, María Isabel; Aceituno, David; Rada, Gabriel


    Art therapy is used as a complementary treatment to antipsychotics in schizophrenia. However, its effectiveness is not clear. To answer this question, we searched in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening multiple databases. We identified five systematic reviews including 20 studies overall, of which four were randomized trials. We extracted data and prepared summary of findings tables using the GRADE method. We concluded it is not clear whether art therapy leads to clinical improvement in schizophrenia because the certainty of the evidence is very low.

  6. Dreams and gestalt therapy


    Vásquez, Francisco; Departamento Académico de Psiquiatría, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM


    The dream is described here by in the course of the time and the meaning it has and had according to time and culture. The general theory of dreams is focused from Hippocrates until our days, as well as its psychological, religious and cultural interpretation. Emphasis is made on the therapeutic function of dreams, in the Freudian, Jungian and gestalt therapy. It meditates on Freud’s, Jung’s and Perls’ contributions, enlarging the concepts of dream in the gestalt therapy that considers the dr...

  7. Population Health and Occupational Therapy. (United States)

    Braveman, Brent


    Occupational therapy practitioners play an important role in improving the health of populations through the development of occupational therapy interventions at the population level and through advocacy to address occupational participation and the multiple determinants of health. This article defines and explores population health as a concept and describes the appropriateness of occupational therapy practice in population health. Support of population health practice as evidenced in the official documents of the American Occupational Therapy Association and the relevance of population health for occupational therapy as a profession are reviewed. Recommendations and directions for the future are included related to celebration of the achievements of occupational therapy practitioners in the area of population health, changes to the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework and educational accreditation standards, and the importance of supporting, recognizing, rewarding, and valuing occupational therapy practitioners who assume roles in which direct care is not their primary function. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  8. Physical therapy for headaches. (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cuadrado, María L


    Background Headache is the medical problem most commonly observed by neurologists. Non-pharmacological treatments are commonly demanded by individuals with headaches, but their evidence of effectiveness is conflicting. Aim The current review provides an updated discussion on what is supported by current scientific evidence about physical therapies for tension-type headache (TTH), migraine, and cervicogenic headache (CeH), and which gaps there still may be in our understanding of the interventions. Methods PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, EBSCO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Collaboration Trials Register, PEDro, and SCOPUS were searched from their inception through March 2015. Results/Discussion Several physical therapies including spinal joint manipulation/mobilization, soft tissue interventions, therapeutic exercises and needling therapies are proposed to be effective for the management of headaches. Current evidence has shown that the effectiveness of these interventions will depend on proper clinical reasoning since not all interventions are equally effective for all headache pain conditions. For instance, evidence of physical therapy in migraine is more controversial than in TTH, since migraine pathogenesis involves activation of sub-cortical structures and the trigemino-vascular system, whereas pathogenesis of TTH is more associated with musculoskeletal disorders, e.g. muscle pain. It seems that multimodal approaches including different interventions are more effective for patients with TTH, migraine and CeH.

  9. Music therapy for depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, Sonja; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Freeman, Ruth E.; Spreen, Marinus; Ket, Johannes C.F.; Vink, Annemiek C.; Maratos, Anna; Crawford, Mike; Chen, Xi Jing; Gold, Christian


    Background: Depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder that is characterised by persistent low mood, diminished interest, and loss of pleasure. Music therapy may be helpful in modulating moods and emotions. An update of the 2008 Cochrane review was needed to improve knowledge on effects of music

  10. Sex Therapy and Mastectomy (United States)

    Witkin, Mildred Hope


    Because the emotional trauma associated with a mastectomy exceeds the physical trauma, the recovery of the woman is greatly affected by the response of her husband or lover. Sex therapy, therefore, involves the couple. The approach described is aimed at assisting the couple to confront and integrate the mastectomy experience. (Author)

  11. Obstructive sleep apnea therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, A.; Stegenga, B.; Wijkstra, P. J.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; Meinesz, A. F.; de Bont, L. G. M.

    In clinical practice, oral appliances are used primarily for obstructive sleep apnea patients who do not respond to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. We hypothesized that an oral appliance is not inferior to CPAP in treating obstructive sleep apnea effectively. We randomly assigned

  12. Gene therapy: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Indu


    Full Text Available Gene therapy "the use of genes as medicine" involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working copy of a gene into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. The technique may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favorably modify the clinical course of a condition. The objective of gene therapy is to introduce new genetic material into target cells while causing no damage to the surrounding healthy cells and tissues, hence the treatment related morbidity is decreased. The delivery system includes a vector that delivers a therapeutic gene into the patient′s target cell. Functional proteins are created from the therapeutic gene causing the cell to return to a normal stage. The vectors used in gene therapy can be viral and non-viral. Gene therapy, an emerging field of biomedicine, is still at infancy and much research remains to be done before this approach to the treatment of condition will realize its full potential.

  13. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Part 1 of this series on photodynamic therapy (PDT)!, we discussed salient features of this new modality against cancer with special emphasis on the physical and biochemical prin- ciples involved. The subsequent article was devoted to the design and clinical applications of porphyrinic and non- porphyrinic ...

  14. Endovascular Therapy in Trauma (United States)


    rates of TEVAR. Technology continues to advance rapidly, and many industry -sponsored multi-institutional trials are cur- rently investigating aortic...anti- impulse (beta-blockers) and anti-platelet ( aspirin ) therapy and close follow-up. These lesions typically demonstrate a decrease in size and

  15. Nonsteroidal therapy of sarcoidosis (United States)

    Korsten, Peter; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Sweiss, Nadera J.


    Purpose of review None of the medications used in clinical practice to treat sarcoidosis have been approved by the regulatory authorities. Understanding how to use disease-modifying antisarcoid drugs, however, is essential for physicians treating patients with sarcoidosis. This review summarizes the recent studies of medications used for sarcoidosis with a focus on nonsteroidal therapies. Studies from 2006 to 2013 were considered for review to update clinicians on the most relevant literature published over the last few years. Recent findings Several recently published pieces of evidence have helped expand our ability to more appropriately sequence second-line and third-line therapies for sarcoidosis. For instance, methotrexate and azathioprine may be useful and well tolerated medications as second-line treatment. Mycophenolate mofetil might have a role in neurosarcoidosis. TNF-α blockers and other biologics seem to be well tolerated medications for the most severely affected patients. Summary Corticosteroids remain the first-line therapy for sarcoidosis as many patients never require treatment or only necessitate a short treatment duration. Second-line and third-line therapies described in this article should be used in patients with progressive or refractory disease or when life-threatening complications are evident at the time of presentation. PMID:23884295

  16. Tumor therapy evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blattmann, H. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Kaser-Hotz, B.; Parvis, A. [Zurich Univ., Zurich (Switzerland)] [and others


    The aim of this program is to acquire data in order to evaluate the advantages of the proton spot scan technique compared to other forefront radiotherapy procedures, and to integrate the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities of the life science department for human cancer therapy by testing it in veterinary radio-oncology. (author) 1 fig., 2 tab., 2 refs.

  17. Modeling Internal Radiation Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Theo E.; Pellegrini, M.; Fred, A.; Filipe, J.; Gamboa, H.


    A new technique is described to model (internal) radiation therapy. It is founded on morphological processing, in particular distance transforms. Its formal basis is presented as well as its implementation via the Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transform. Its use for all variations of internal


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belia Méndez Rial


    Full Text Available Yoga is a useful supportive intervention for a broad range of pain-associated diseases. It is often recommended as therapy for a variety of medical conditions and it is rising popularity as therapy (Verrastro, 2014. Yoga is a system of movement and breathing exercises meant to foster mind-body connection. It creates inner, physical and emotional balance through the use of postures, called asanas, combined with breathing techniques or pranayama (Posadzki et al, 2011. Benefits are found in different areas: Physical benefits (e.g.: flexibility, coordination, strength, endurance mental benefits (e.g.: to develop greater awareness, diminish anxiety and reduction of distress, positive behavioural changes, improvement mood, facilitate positive emotions and optimism, broaden cognitive processes and enhance self- efficacy for pain control or social (e.g.: to reduce isolation, to foster social networks and reinforce social support. Researches show that even despite persistent pain symptoms, patients recognize that they are able to be physically active, they experience higher self-competence and self-awareness, which contributes to higher quality of life. Moreover, yoga therapy is a safe and beneficial supportive treatment, relatively cheap, it requires just the motivation of patients (Posadzki et al, 2011; Büsing et al, 2012 and a good professional support. Objectives: The aim of this review it is to determine what are the topics of the researches about Yoga therapy and disability.   

  19. Hematopoietic Stem Cells Therapies. (United States)

    Chivu-Economescu, Mihaela; Rubach, Martin


    Stem cell-based therapies are recognized as a new way to treat various diseases and injuries, with a wide range of health benefits. The goal is to heal or replace diseased or destroyed organs or body parts with healthy new cells provided by stem cell transplantation. The current practical form of stem cell therapy is the hematopoietic stem cells transplant applied for the treatment of hematological disorders. There are over 2100 clinical studies in progress concerning hematopoietic stem cell therapies. All of them are using hematopoietic stem cells to treat various diseases like: cancers, leukemia, lymphoma, cardiac failure, neural disorders, auto-immune diseases, immunodeficiency, metabolic or genetic disorders. Several challenges are to be addressed prior to developing and applying large scale cell therapies: 1) to explain and control the mechanisms of differentiation and development toward a specific cell type needed to treat the disease, 2) to obtain a sufficient number of desired cell type for transplantation, 3) to overcome the immune rejection and 4) to show that transplanted cells fulfill their normal functions in vivo after transplants. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  20. Targeted radionuclide therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    but negative for a Ga-68-DOTATATE PET/. CT.[7]. Accumulated evidence from clinical experience indicates that partial and complete responses may be achieved in almost 50% of patients, and that the duration of the therapy response is more than 40 months.[8] The patients' self-assessed quality of life also improves signi ...

  1. American Massage Therapy Association (United States)

    ... contraindications and techniques with online and in-person education. Register for fascial therapy CE » Online Course Topics Massage for Specific Conditions Sports Massage Self-care for Massage Therapists Ethics Research Business Master the Classroom for Massage Educators Career Guidance ...

  2. Operation Brain Trauma Therapy (United States)


    and Banyan was notified of the shipment. This approach, as shown below, produced high quality serum biomarker data across the OBTT consortium...routes may be used in selected situations (i.e., nutraceuticals , rehabilitation-related therapies). For each agent, two doses will be screened, again

  3. Indomethacin therapy in hydramnios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhyankar S


    Full Text Available AIM: The use of indomethacin in treatment of hydramnios was evaluated. SUBJECTS & METHODS: Twelve patients with symptomatic hydramnios were treated with indomethacin (2.2- 3.0 mg/kg body weight/day. RESULTS: The treatment was started at a gestational age of 31.17-/+7.94 weeks and continued for 3.74-/+2.3 weeks. Eleven patients responded to the therapy both subjectively and objectively and pregnancies were prolonged by 4.6-/+3.1 weeks (range 0.1-10 weeks. Five women had term deliveries. Six patients had a favourable perinatal outcome. Four patients who had a known congenital anomaly in the foetus, delivered stillborn babies or had an early neonatal death. One patient who did not follow up after commencing therapy delivered a full-term stillbirth. One patient delivered within 1 day of starting therapy. Indomethacin therapy caused no maternal complications. CONCLUSION: Indomethacin was effective in the management of hydramnios and preventing it′s complications.

  4. Diet Therapy Specialist. (United States)

    Air Force Training Command, Sheppard AFB, TX.

    This four-volume student text is intended for use in training Air Force diet therapy specialists. The first volume, a study guide and workbook for self-directed instruction, covers nutrition, food processing and preparation, therapeutic diets, security precautions in medical food service, procedures for ordering equipment and supplies, food…

  5. Gerson Therapy (PDQ) (United States)

    ... cancer treatment in the United States? The Gerson therapy has not been approved by the FDA for use as a treatment for cancer or any other disease. For most cancer patients, nutrition guidelines include eating a well-balanced diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain ...

  6. Efficacy of play therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Efficacy of Play Therapy on Self-Healing and. Berhanu Nigussie 57. The language of his family was Afan. Oromo and he could speak this language, which other members of the SOS village couldn't speak, and this might have made the communication difficult, they told me. More importantly, they emphasized that his.

  7. Cosmetic Behavior Therapy. (United States)

    Jones, W. Paul


    Discusses the theoretical and practical applications of cosmetic behavior therapy in a private practice. Enhancement of physical appearance will frequently result in an enhancement of self-concept, and the client's attainment of physical attractiveness contributes to the probability of success in current culture. (Author/JAC)

  8. Induction Therapy for Mesothelioma. (United States)

    Opitz, Isabelle; Weder, Walter


    One particular approach of multimodality treatment for mesothelioma is induction therapy followed by surgery. Among its several advantages, the most important is downstaging of the tumor into a resectable stage, although morbidity and mortality might be increased. In this article we review the principles and outcome of different modalities for induction treatment of mesothelioma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 20, 2003 ... Introduction. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) developed out of the work of the early behaviour theorists – Watson1 , Skinner, Mowrer2 ,. Dollard & Miller3 . Watson rejected introspection and this had a significant influence on early theorists who focussed only on the role of external variables and stimuli.

  10. Antiproton Cancer Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels

    Antiprotons are interesting as a modality in radiation therapy for the following reasons: When fast antiprotons penetrate matter, they behave as protons. Well before the Bragg-peak, protons and antiprotons have near identical stopping powers exhibit equal radiobiology. But when the antiprotons come...

  11. [Domiciliary oxygen therapy]. (United States)

    Abdel Kafi, S


    In Belgium, oxygen therapy is becoming more and more accessible. When oxygen is needed for short periods or for special indications as palliative care, an agreement between mutual insurance companies and pharmacists allows the practitioner the home installation of gazeous oxygen cylinder or of oxygen concentrator. When long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) is indicated for patients with respiratory insufficiency, the pneumologist must first ask the INAMI the authorization to install one of the following modalities: oxygen concentrator with or without demand oxygen delivery cylinder and liquid oxygen. The goal of LTOT is to increase survival and quality of life. The principal and well accepted indication for LTOT is severe hypoxemia. The beneficial effects of oxygen therapy limited at night or on exertion are controversial. In order to increase patient's autonomy, oxygen can be prescribed for ambulation, respecting prescription's rules. At each step of oxygen therapy implementing (indication, choice of the device and follow-up) the patient under oxygen may benefit from a joint approach between the general practitioner and the chest specialist.

  12. Operation Brain Trauma Therapy (United States)


    OBTT.85 However, blunting of hyperglycemia that is seen in CNS insults could play some role in the observed benefit. 18 Beam Balance Days Post...62. Abrahamson EE, Ikonomovic MD, Dixon CE, DeKosky ST. Simvastatin therapy prevents brain trauma- induced increases in β-amyloid peptide levels

  13. Adlerian Family Therapy. (United States)

    Dinkmeyer, Don; Dinkmeyer, Don, Jr.


    Discusses the competencies basic to Adlerian therapy--including influencing psychological movement, working with the family communication system, focusing on the real issue, aligning goals and dealing with resistance, stimulating social interest, encouragement, and tentative hypotheses, and antisuggestion. A specific process for helping the family…

  14. [Schema therapy - ACT - mindfulness]. (United States)

    Cousineau, Pierre; Ngô, Thanh-Lan


    For schema therapy, significant weight is given to early experiences of social life. They lead to the creation of memories, largely implicit. These memories are reactivated in specific contexts and are often managed through dysfunctional strategies. Schema therapy seeks to modify these memories categorized as patterns. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), meanwhile, aims to transform our reactions linked to our learning history and to develop a greater flexibility taking into account what occurs in the present moment. Several techniques originate from the mindfulness tradition and seek to transform the individual into a witness of his own experience, rather than someone acting out patterns based on his learning history. Despite their different paradigms, it is possible to combine these approaches. As schemas manifest through somatic reactions, thoughts, affects, action tendencies, it becomes possible to try to change the relationship between the individual and these private experiences through the use of mindfulness, philosophical concepts and techniques derived from ACT. This is the aim of this article. Essay presenting the use of a schema mindfulness flash card to help patients tolerate intense affects generated by the activation of schemas and to attain greater adaptive flexibility (Healthy Adult mode). It is possible to integrate ACT techniques and concept to schema therapy in order to facilitate adaptive flexibility.

  15. Physical therapy and manual physical therapy: Differences in patient characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravensberg, C. D. Dorine; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; van Berkel, Lonneke M.; Scholten-Peeters, G.G.M.; Pool, J.J.M.; Swinkels, Raymond A. H. M.; Huijbregts, Peter A.


    This study compared socio-demographic characteristics, health problem characteristics, and primary process data between database samples of patients referred to physical therapy (PT) versus a sample of patients referred to manual physical therapy (MPT) in the Netherlands. Statistical analysis

  16. Physical Therapy and Manual Physical Therapy: Differences in Patient Characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravensberg, C. D. Dorine; Oostendorp, Rob A B; van Berkel, Lonneke M.; Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G M; Pool, Jan J.M.; Swinkels, Raymond A. H. M.; Huijbregts, Peter A.


    This study compared socio-demographic characteristics, health problem characteristics, and primary process data between database samples of patients referred to physical therapy (PT) versus a sample of patients referred to manual physical therapy (MPT) in the Netherlands. Statistical analysis

  17. Physical Therapy and Manual Physical Therapy: Differences in Patient Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravensberg, C. D. Dorine; Oostendorp, Rob A B; van Berkel, Lonneke M.; Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G. M.; Pool, Jan J.M.; Swinkels, Raymond A. H. M.; Huijbregts, Peter A.


    This study compared socio-demographic characteristics, health problem characteristics, and primary process data between database samples of patients referred to physical therapy (PT) versus a sample of patients referred to manual physical therapy (MPT) in the Netherlands. Statistical analysis

  18. Comparison of efficacy of neural therapy and physical therapy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of neural therapy, and physical therapy on level of pain, disability, quality of life, and psychological status in patients with chronic low back pain. Patients admitted to the physical therapy and rehabilitation outpatient clinic with the complaint of low back pain of at ...

  19. Emotion Regulation in Schema Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassbinder, E.; Schweiger, U.; Martius, D.; Brand-de Wilde, O.; Arntz, A.


    Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However,

  20. Dance therapy for schizophrenia. (United States)

    Ren, Juanjuan; Xia, Jun


    Dance therapy or dance movement therapy (DMT) is defined as 'the psychotherapeutic use of movement as a process which furthers the emotional, social, cognitive, and physical integration of the individual'. It may be of value for people with developmental, medical, social, physical or psychological impairments. Dance therapy can be practiced in mental health rehabilitation units, nursing homes, day care centres and incorporated into disease prevention and health promotion programmes. To evaluate the effects of dance therapy for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses compared with standard care and other interventions. We updated the original July 2007 search of the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group' register in July 2012. We also searched Chinese main medical databases. We included one randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing dance therapy and related approaches with standard care or other psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia. We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data. For continuous outcomes, we calculated a mean difference (MD); for binary outcomes we calculated a fixed-effect risk ratio (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We created a 'Summary of findings' table using the GRADE approach. We included one single blind study (total n = 45) of reasonable quality. It compared dance therapy plus routine care with routine care alone. Most people tolerated the treatment package but nearly 40% were lost in both groups by four months (1 RCT n = 45, RR 0.68 95% CI 0.31 to 1.51, low quality evidence). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) average endpoint total scores were similar in both groups (1 RCT n = 43, MD -0.50 95% CI -11.80 to 10.80, moderate quality evidence) as were the positive sub-scores (1 RCT n = 43, MD 2.50 CI -0.67 to 5.67, moderate quality evidence). At the end of treatment, significantly more people in the dance therapy group had a greater than 20% reduction in PANSS negative symptom

  1. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert


    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...

  2. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert


    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...

  3. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert S


    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., -40...

  4. What Is Nutrition Support Therapy? (United States)

    ... Center Professional Development Calendar of Events What Is Nutrition Support Therapy All people need food to live. ... patient populations from pediatrics to geriatrics. Key Terms: Nutrition Support Therapy The provision of enteral or parenteral ...

  5. Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers (United States)

    ... 000 members who specialize in treating cancer with radiation therapies. ASTRO is dedicated to improving patient care through ... © ASTRO 2016 PRINTED ON RECYCLED PAPER Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers Gynecologic cancers include malignancies of ...

  6. Targeted therapy for pediatric glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olow, A.K.


    This thesis assesses molecular underpinnings of responses to promising targeted agents for pediatric tumors of Central Nervous System (CNS), incorporating preclinical testing of novel and translatable combination therapies to define the best therapy for each tumor cell specific molecular aberration.

  7. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options (United States)

    ... Cancer Upper GI Cancers Search x FIND A RADIATION ONCOLOGIST CLOSE SNIPEND TREATMENT TYPES SNIPSTART Home / Treatment ... novel targeted therapies can act as radiosensitizers. Systemic Radiation Therapy Certain cancers may be treated with radioactive ...

  8. Nanotechnology Cancer Therapy and Treatment (United States)

    Nanotechnology offers the means to target therapies directly and selectively to cancerous cells and neoplasms. With these tools, clinicians can safely and effectively deliver chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and the next generation of immuno- and gene therapi

  9. Hormone replacement therapy in menopause

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pardini, Dolores


    Although estrogen has been clinically available for more than six decades, women have been confused by different opinions regarding the risks and benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (HT), estrogen therapy (ET...

  10. Experimental therapies: gene therapies and oncolytic viruses. (United States)

    Hulou, M Maher; Cho, Choi-Fong; Chiocca, E Antonio; Bjerkvig, Rolf


    Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. Over the past three decades, the overall survival time has only improved by a few months, therefore novel alternative treatment modalities are needed to improve clinical management strategies. Such strategies should ultimately extend patient survival. At present, the extensive insight into the molecular biology of gliomas, as well as into genetic engineering techniques, has led to better decision processes when it comes to modifying the genome to accommodate suicide genes, cytokine genes, and tumor suppressor genes that may kill cancer cells, and boost the host defensive immune system against neoantigenic cytoplasmic and nuclear targets. Both nonreplicative viral vectors and replicating oncolytic viruses have been developed for brain cancer treatment. Stem cells, microRNAs, nanoparticles, and viruses have also been designed. These have been armed with transgenes or peptides, and have been used both in laboratory-based experiments as well as in clinical trials, with the aim of improving selective killing of malignant glioma cells while sparing normal brain tissue. This chapter reviews the current status of gene therapies for malignant gliomas and highlights the most promising viral and cell-based strategies under development. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Brief therapy: focused solution development. (United States)

    De Shazer, S; Berg, I K; Lipchik, E; Nunnally, E; Molnar, A; Gingerich, W; Weiner-Davis, M


    This article describes the form of brief therapy developed at the Brief Family Therapy Center. We have chosen a title similar to Weakland, Fisch, Watzlawick, and Bodin's classic paper, "Brief Therapy: Focused Problem Resolution" (20) to emphasize our view that there is a conceptual relationship and a developmental connection between the points of view expressed in the two papers.

  12. Dialectical metatheory in family therapy. (United States)

    Bopp, M J; Weeks, G R


    This paper addresses the controversy in family therapy over basic philosophical issues in terms of a historical opposition between demonstrative and dialectical metatheories. It argues that advances in family therapy are indicative of the growing prominence of dialectical forms of understanding in the social sciences. Several family therapy concepts are explored as representative of the dialectical categories of motion, form, relationship, and transformation.

  13. Tailored thrombolytic therapy. A perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Simoons (Maarten); A.E.R. Arnold (Alfred)


    textabstractBACKGROUND. In contrast with current standard regimens, it seems more appropriate to tailor thrombolytic therapy to individual patient characteristics. A proposed model for such tailored therapy is based on individual assessment of benefits and risks of thrombolytic therapy, taking into

  14. Intraoperative fluid therapy in neonates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: fluid responsiveness, fluid therapy, intraoperative, neonates. Introduction. Fluid therapy should ensure ... therapy, replacement for blood loss and for insensible and sensible water loss due to surgery and ..... of Paediatric Anaesthetists (APA) and the French-language. Society of Paediatric Anaesthesiologists ...

  15. Integrative therapies for menopause. (United States)

    McKee, Julie; Warber, Sara L


    Menopause is a transitional time for women. This gives practitioners an opportunity to focus on recommending healthy life-style changes. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been the mainstay of therapy for menopausal symptoms. With recent research findings, women and their physicians are seeking alternatives that do not carry the risks associated with HRT. Exercise has been shown to help some women with symptoms of hot flashes, as have relaxation techniques and deep breathing. Dietary changes to incorporate whole foods and soy are thought by some to help with menopausal symptoms, and are recommended because of a positive impact on heart disease and obesity; soy isoflavones may also help with menopausal symptoms. Botanicals such as black cohosh and red clover have been shown in some studies to decrease severity and frequency of hot flashes. We recommend that HRT be prescribed when other measures have failed to adequately control symptoms. Bioidentical hormones are preferred in our practice.

  16. Biological therapy of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivamani Raja


    Full Text Available The treatment of psoriasis has undergone a revolution with the advent of biologic therapies, including infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, efalizumab, and alefacept. These medications are designed to target specific components of the immune system and are a major technological advancement over traditional immunosuppressive medications. These usually being well tolerated are being found useful in a growing number of immune-mediated diseases, psoriasis being just one example. The newest biologic, ustekinumab, is directed against the p40 subunit of the IL-12 and IL-23 cytokines. It has provided a new avenue of therapy for an array of T-cell-mediated diseases. Biologics are generally safe; however, there has been concern over the risk of lymphoma with use of these agents. All anti-TNF-α agents have been associated with a variety of serious and "routine" opportunistic infections.

  17. Thiamine in nutrition therapy. (United States)

    Sriram, Krishnan; Manzanares, William; Joseph, Kimberly


    Clinicians involved with nutrition therapy traditionally concentrated on macronutrients and have generally neglected the importance of micronutrients, both vitamins and trace elements. Micronutrients, which work in unison, are important for fundamental biological processes and enzymatic reactions, and deficiencies may lead to disastrous consequences. This review concentrates on vitamin B(1), or thiamine. Alcoholism is not the only risk factor for thiamine deficiency, and thiamine deficiency is often not suspected in seemingly well-nourished or even overnourished patients. Deficiency of thiamine has historically been described as beriberi but may often be seen in current-day practice, manifesting as neurologic abnormalities, mental changes, congestive heart failure, unexplained metabolic acidosis, and so on. This review explains the importance of thiamine in nutrition therapy and offers practical tips on prevention and management of deficiency states.

  18. Novel antiplatelet therapies. (United States)

    Kim, Luke; Charitakis, Konstantinos; Swaminathan, Rajesh V; Feldman, Dmitriy N


    Advances in antiplatelet therapy have significantly improved outcomes in patients with ischemic heart disease. Thienopyridines remain a cornerstone of therapy along with aspirin. Recently, concerns have been raised about the use of clopidogrel due to its pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic interpatient variability. A third-generation thienopyridine, prasugrel, overcomes some of these problems by improving inhibition of platelet aggregation, but increasing the risk of peri-procedural bleeding. Other novel antiplatelet agents, such as ticagrelor, have shown improved efficacy in recent trials and require further investigations. The field of pharmacotherapy continues to rapidly evolve as newer agents, such as thrombin receptor antagonists, along with older agents, such as cilostazol and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, are being explored.

  19. Photodynamic therapy with fullerenes† (United States)

    Mroz, Pawel; Tegos, George P.; Gali, Hariprasad; Wharton, Tim; Sarna, Tadeusz; Hamblin, Michael R.


    Fullerenes are a class of closed-cage nanomaterials made exclusively from carbon atoms. A great deal of attention has been focused on developing medical uses of these unique molecules especially when they are derivatized with functional groups to make them soluble and therefore able to interact with biological systems. Due to their extended π-conjugation they absorb visible light, have a high triplet yield and can generate reactive oxygen species upon illumination, suggesting a possible role of fullerenes in photodynamic therapy. Depending on the functional groups introduced into the molecule, fullerenes can effectively photoinactivate either or both pathogenic microbial cells and malignant cancer cells. The mechanism appears to involve superoxide anion as well as singlet oxygen, and under the right conditions fullerenes may have advantages over clinically applied photosensitizers for mediating photodynamic therapy of certain diseases. PMID:17973044

  20. [Nanoparticles and radiation therapy]. (United States)

    Calugaru, Valentin; Magné, Nicolas; Hérault, Joel; Bonvalot, Sylvie; Le Tourneau, Christophe; Thariat, Juliette


    Nanoparticles have emerged in oncology as new therapeutic agents of distinct biochemical and physical properties, and pharmacokinetics. Current rationale and clinical applications in combination with radiation therapy were analyzed. A review of the literature was conducted on nanoparticles as radiosensitizers, with a focus on metallic nanoparticles and radiosensitization mechanisms. Nanoparticles are mainly used as vectors for drugs or to potentiate dose deposit selectively in irradiated tissues. Preclinical data suggest a predominating effect in the kilovoltage range through a photoelectric effect and a potential in the megavoltage range under a combination of physical and biochemical (diameter, concentration, site of infusion etc) conditions. Several clinical trials are ongoing with metallic/crystalline nanoparticles. Nanoparticles have shown a potential for better therapeutic index with radiation therapy, which is being increasingly investigated clinically. Copyright © 2014 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Regenerative photonic therapy: Review (United States)

    Salansky, Natasha; Salansky, Norman


    After four decades of research of photobiomodulation phenomena in mammals in vitro and in vivo, a solid foundation is created for the use of photobiomodulation in regenerative medicine. Significant accomplishments are achieved in animal models that demonstrate opportunities for photo-regeneration of injured or pathological tissues: skin, muscles and nerves. However, the use of photobiomodulation in clinical studies leads to controversial results while negative or marginal clinical efficacy is reported along with positive findings. A thor ough analysis of requirements to the optical parameters (dosimetry) for high efficacy in photobimodulation led us to the conclusion that there are several misconceptions in the clinical applications of low level laser therapy (LLLT). We present a novel appr oach of regenerative photonic therapy (RPT) for tissue healing and regeneration that overcomes major drawbacks of LLLT. Encouraging clinical results on RPT efficacy are presented. Requirements for RPT approach and vision for its future development for tissue regeneration is discussed.

  2. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should...... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  3. Medical leech therapy (Hirudotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina


    Full Text Available Leeches have been used in medicine long time before BC. In recent years medical leech therapy has gained increasing interest in reconstructive surgery and pain management and other medical fields. The possible indications and success rates of this treatment are discussed. There is a special interest in salvage of flaps and grafts by the use of medical leeches. Retrospective analysis indicates a success rate of >80%. Randomized controlled trials have been performed in osteoarthritis. Case reports and smaller series are available for the treatment of chronic wounds, post-phlebitic syndrome and inflammatory skin diseases. The most common adverse effects are prolonged bleeding and infection by saprophytic intestinal bacteria of leeches. Medical leech therapy is a useful adjunct to other measures wound management.

  4. Targeted therapy in lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalli Franco


    Full Text Available Abstract Discovery of new treatments for lymphoma that prolong survival and are less toxic than currently available agents represents an urgent unmet need. We now have a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of lymphoma, such as aberrant signal transduction pathways, which have led to the discovery and development of targeted therapeutics. The ubiquitin-proteasome and the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathways are examples of pathological mechanisms that are being targeted in drug development efforts. Bortezomib (a small molecule protease inhibitor and the mTOR inhibitors temsirolimus, everolimus, and ridaforolimus are some of the targeted therapies currently being studied in the treatment of aggressive, relapsed/refractory lymphoma. This review will discuss the rationale for and summarize the reported findings of initial and ongoing investigations of mTOR inhibitors and other small molecule targeted therapies in the treatment of lymphoma.

  5. Targeted Therapy of CLL. (United States)

    Al-Sawaf, Othman; Fischer, Kirsten; Eichhorst, Barbara; Hallek, Michael


    The landscape of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has undergone profound changes in the past years. First, the addition of CD20-targeting antibodies to conventional chemotherapy has improved the therapeutic outcome in the majority of CLL patients. Since the establishment of the critical role of the B cell receptor signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of CLL, several agents have been developed to target this pathway. Ibrutinib and idelalisib, 2 potent kinase inhibitors, have both become available for CLL therapy in the first and second line. Additionally, the observation of high expression levels of the anti-apoptotic mitochondrial protein Bcl-2 in CLL has led to the development of venetoclax, a BH3 mimetic compound that inhibits Bcl-2 and has shown high efficacy in CLL. This short review summarizes preclinical and clinical data on currently available agents in CLL and provides an outlook on upcoming new challenges in the targeted therapy of CLL. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  6. Emerging therapies for gout. (United States)

    Edwards, N Lawrence; So, Alexander


    Over the past decade much has been learned about the mechanisms of crystal-induced inflammation and renal excretion of uric acid, which has led to more specific targeting of gout therapies and a more potent approach to future management of gout. This article outlines agents being developed for more aggressive lowering of urate and more specific anti-inflammatory activity. The emerging urate-lowering therapies include lesinurad, arhalofenate, ulodesine, and levotofisopam. Novel gout-specific anti-inflammatories include the interleukin-1β inhibitors anakinra, canakinumab, and rilonacept, the melanocortins, and caspase inhibitors. The historic shortcomings of current gout treatment may, in part, be overcome by these novel approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Schema Therapy in Sex Therapy: A Theoretical Conceptualization. (United States)

    Derby, Danny S; Peleg-Sagy, Tal; Doron, Guy


    Schema therapy is an integrative approach of psychotherapy developed by Jeffrey E. Young. Its aim is to help clients explore and understand their deep emotional needs and meet them in a healthy manner. It is suitable for complex pathologies, such as comorbidities and personality disorders. In sex therapy, schema therapy can serve as a method for a deep, evidence-based, integrative conceptualization of a client's difficulties and needs. However, its principles have never been demonstrated in sex therapy. In this paper, we briefly review schema therapy and introduce schema domains. We bring a case study of a couple undergoing sex therapy from the cognitive-behavioral perspective. We then return to the same case study, in order to demonstrate the usefulness of a schema therapy conceptualization.

  8. Fetal drug therapy.


    Evans, M I; Pryde, P G; Reichler, A; Bardicef, M; Johnson, M P


    Fetal drug therapy encompasses several areas, including the prevention of external genital masculinization in 21-hydroxylase deficiency syndrome (congenital adrenal hyperplasia), biochemical amelioration of methylmalonic acidemia, and biotin-responsive multiple carboxylase deficiency. The correction of cardiac arrhythmias has become relatively commonplace, and a reduction in the risks of neural tube defects is now possible with the use of preconceptual and early conceptual folic acid. Similar...

  9. Individualization of antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos R


    Full Text Available Rebecca Pavlos, Elizabeth J PhillipsInstitute for Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Antiretroviral therapy (ART has evolved considerably over the last three decades. From the early days of monotherapy with high toxicities and pill burdens, through to larger pill burdens and more potent combination therapies, and finally, from 2005 and beyond where we now have the choice of low pill burdens and once-daily therapies. More convenient and less toxic regimens are also becoming available, even in resource-poor settings. An understanding of the individual variation in response to ART, both efficacy and toxicity, has evolved over this time. The strong association of the major histocompatibility class I allele HLA-B*5701 and abacavir hypersensitivity, and its translation and use in routine HIV clinical practice as a predictive marker with 100% negative predictive value, has been a success story and a notable example of the challenges and triumphs in bringing pharmacogenetics to the clinic. In real clinical practice, however, it is going to be the exception rather than the rule that individual biomarkers will definitively guide patient therapy. The need for individualized approaches to ART has been further increased by the importance of non-AIDS comorbidities in HIV clinical practice. In the future, the ideal utilization of the individualized approach to ART will likely consist of a combined approach using a combination of knowledge of drug, virus, and host (pharmacogenetic and pharmacoecologic [factors in the individual's environment that may be dynamic over time] information to guide the truly personalized prescription. This review will focus on our knowledge of the pharmacogenetics of the efficacy and toxicity of currently available antiretroviral agents and the current and potential utility of such information and approaches in present and future HIV clinical care.Keywords: HIV

  10. Virtual reality exposure therapy


    Rothbaum, BO; Hodges, L; Kooper, R


    It has been proposed that virtual reality (VR) exposure may be an alternative to standard in vivo exposure. Virtual reality integrates real-time computer graphics, body tracking devices, visual displays, and other sensory input devices to immerse a participant in a computer- generated virtual environment. Virtual reality exposure is potentially an efficient and cost-effective treatment of anxiety disorders. VR exposure therapy reduced the fear of heights in the first control...

  11. Assessment in Cognitive Therapy


    Brown, Gary P.; Clark, David A.


    This volume brings together leading experts to explore the state of the art of cognitive clinical assessment and identify cutting-edge approaches of interest to clinicians and researchers. The book highlights fundamental problems concerning the validity of assessments that are widely used in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Key directions for further research and development are identified. Updated cognitive assessment methods are described in detail, with particular attention to transdiag...

  12. Photodvnamic Therapy in Endodontics. (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Jafarzadeh, Hamid; Shalavi, Sousan; Kinoshita, Jun-Ichiro


    Commonly used irrigants do not always eradicate the entire microbial flora in infected root canals. Therefore, several other strategies, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been developed. Photoactivated disinfection is based on the interaction of a photosensitive antibacterial agent and a light source. It uses a nontoxic dye named photosensitizer (PS) and low-intensity visible light. In oxygen presentation, these combine to produce some cytotoxic species. The PS molecules attach to bacteria membrane. Irradiation with a specific wavelength of the light may lead to the production of singlet oxygen, resulting in rupture of the microbial cell wall. There are several applications for PDT in dentistry. A successful periodontal treatment is based on elimination of bacteria from the infected area. Phenothiazinium PSs have been shown to be highly effective and safe for this purpose. However, scaling/root planing should be performed before the PDT. While performing the PDT, PS should be first injected in the periodontal pocket and allowed to pigment. Then, the special fiber should be inserted 1 mm short of the pocket base and lased. Photodynamic therapy has also been used to disinfect caries dentin before restoration, disinfecting oral tissues before or during surgical procedures, treating denture stomatitis, and treating oral candidiasis in immunocompromised patients. Photodynamic therapy can be used in combination with mechanical instrumentation and chemical antimicrobial agents, such as sodium hypochlo-rite, too. The purpose of this study was to review historical perspective, mechanism of action, and applications of PDT in dentistry and especially in endodontics was reviewed. Furthermore, the effects of PDT on dentin bonding and endo-toxin are discussed. Photodynamic therapy has been advocated to increase the disinfection level of the root canal system.

  13. Pulmonary surfactant therapy.


    Poulain, F R; Clements, J. A.


    Surfactant replacement therapy is now an integral part of the care of neonates since several clinical trials of natural surfactant extracts and synthetic preparations have shown efficacy in the treatment of infants with hyaline membrane disease. In these studies, early treatment with exogenous surfactant substantially reduced mortality and the incidence of air leak, although it did not appear to reduce the incidence of other complications, in particular bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Early repor...

  14. Medical leech therapy (Hirudotherapy)


    Uwe Wollina; Birgit Heinig; Andreas Nowak


    Leeches have been used in medicine long time before BC. In recent years medical leech therapy has gained increasing interest in reconstructive surgery and pain management and other medical fields. The possible indications and success rates of this treatment are discussed. There is a special interest in salvage of flaps and grafts by the use of medical leeches. Retrospective analysis indicates a success rate of >80%. Randomized controlled trials have been performed in osteoarthritis. Case repo...

  15. [Therapy through film]. (United States)

    Nicli, Pierrette


    For psychiatric patients, playing the role of their life, producing a film, editing it and presenting it to the public with the support of a group made up of patients and caregivers is a real form of self-distancing, a type of therapy. The video group from the Saint Ouen day hospital has been carrying out this creative and therapeutic work for several years. Screenings and exchanges between care centres are regularly organised.

  16. Massage therapy research review


    Field, Tiffany


    In this review, massage therapy has been shown to have beneficial effects on varying conditions including prenatal depression, preterm infants, full-term infants, autism, skin conditions, pain syndromes including arthritis and fibromyalgia, hypertension, autoimmune conditions including asthma and multiple sclerosis, immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer and aging problems including Parkinson's and dementia. Although many of the studies have involved comparisons between massage the...

  17. Medical nutrition therapy planning


    Torović Ljilja; Grujičić Maja; Pavlović-Trajković Ljiljana; Jovičić Jelena; Novaković Budimka; Balać Dragana


    Introduction. Diet has vital, preventive and therapeutic functions. Medical nutrition therapy is a part of the Standardized Nutrition Care Process integrated in health care systems. Material and methods. An overview of the Nutrition Care Process model and the application of nutrition guidelines based on literature, reports, documents and programmes of international health, food and physical activity authorities was done. Results. The Nutrition Care Process model requires registered diet...

  18. Fokale Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms


    Roosen A


    Die EAU bezeichnet die fokale Therapie des Prostatakarzinoms als die therapeutische Option mit dem größten Zukunftspotenzial, auch wenn es sich dabei derzeit nicht um ein Standardverfahren handelt. Sie vermag bei Patienten mit einem niedrigmalignen, fokal begrenzten Prostatakarzinom die Lücke zu schließen zwischen potenzieller Übertherapie durch die radikalen Standardverfahren und der onkologischen Unsicherheit einer ,,Active surveillance. Dieser Überblick gibt den derzeitigen Kenntnisstand ...

  19. Radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server


    The aim of this book is to provide a uniquely comprehensive source of information on the entire field of radiation therapy physics. The very significant advances in imaging, computational, and accelerator technologies receive full consideration, as do such topics as the dosimetry of radiolabeled antibodies and dose calculation models. The scope of the book and the expertise of the authors make it essential reading for interested physicians and physicists and for radiation dosimetrists.

  20. Superficial Bladder Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Schenkman


    Full Text Available Bladder cancer treatment remains a challenge despite significant improvements in preventing disease progression and improving survival. Intravesical therapy has been used in the management of superficial transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the urinary bladder (i.e. Ta, T1, and carcinoma in situ with specific objectives which include treating existing or residual tumor, preventing recurrence of tumor, preventing disease progression, and prolonging survival. The initial clinical stage and grade remain the main determinant factors in survival regardless of the treatment. Prostatic urethral mucosal involvement with bladder cancer can be effectively treated with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG intravesical immunotherapy. Intravesical chemotherapy reduces short-term tumor recurrence by about 20%, and long-term recurrence by about 7%, but has not reduced progression or mortality. Presently, BCG immunotherapy remains the most effective treatment and prophylaxis for TCC (Ta, T1, CIS and reduces tumor recurrence, disease progression, and mortality. Interferons, Keyhole-limpet hemocyanin (KLH, bropirimine and Photofrin-Photodynamic Therapy (PDT are under investigation in the management of TCC and early results are encouraging. This review highlights and summarizes the recent advances in therapy for superficial TCC.

  1. Laser therapy for onychomycosis. (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya K; Simpson, Fiona C


    Laser therapy is a rapidly expanding new treatment modality for onychomycosis. To review current and prospective laser systems for the treatment of onychomycosis. We searched the PubMed database, the Food and Drug Administration 510(k) database,, and Google Scholar for in vitro studies, peer-reviewed clinical trials, manufacturers' white papers, and registered clinical trials of laser systems indicated for the treatment of onychomycosis. All published clinical trials were assessed on a 20-point methodological quality scale. We identified three basic science articles, five peer-reviewed articles, three white papers, and four pending clinical trials, as well as numerous gray literature documents. The overall methodological score for the clinical trials was 9.1 ± 1.1, with peer-reviewed studies showing a higher score (9.8 ± 1.5) than white papers (7.5 ± 0.7). We also identified 11 commercial laser device systems of varying global availability. Laser therapy has been tested and approved as a cosmetic treatment only for onychomycosis. It cannot be recommended as a therapeutic intervention to eradicate fungal infection at this time as more rigorous randomized, controlled trials are required to determine if laser therapy is efficacious on par with oral and topical interventions.

  2. Novel therapies for constipation (United States)

    Thayalasekeran, Sreedhari; Ali, Hani; Tsai, Her-Hsin


    Constipation is a common medical problem and when standard laxatives fail it can be difficult to treat. Different aetiologies require tailored therapeutic approaches. Simple constipation may only require dietary manipulation while severe neurological or slow transit constipation may need pharmacologic intervention. Recently new drug therapies have been introduced. PubMed and Ovid were searched for reviews, systematic reviews and meta-analysis published since 2003 using the terms: constipation, prucalopride, linaclotide and lubiprostone. This review summarizes potential novel therapies identified as effective in the management of chronic constipation. Prucalopride is a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonist. The prucalopride study was in patients, largely women with idiopathic constipation showed improved spontaneous complete bowel movement (SCBM) at a dose of 2 mg a day with few adverse events reported. Linaclotide is a 14-amino acid peptide guanylate cyclase-C agonist. The linaclotide study was carried out in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, constipation group (IBS-C). There was significant improvement of bowel evacuation and symptom resolution in patients on the active treatment arm. Lubiprostone activates type-2 chloride channels, increasing intestinal fluid secretion. In the trials of this drug, the lubiprostone arms had a greater mean number of SCBM. The novel therapies, prucalopride, lubiprostone, and linaclotide had very different modes of action yet, all three have been shown to be efficacious and safe in the treatment dose for constipation. PMID:24363515


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Živić


    Full Text Available The insulin classification regarding the duration of its effect gradually be-comes outdated; it is necessary to speak first about the insulin therapy regimes. The intensified insulin therapy regarding the type of multiple daily insulin injections be-comes an indisputable standard. The progress in the "protein engineering" with the formation of a wide spectrum of insulin analogues provides for moving forward to-wards modern diabetology and the concept of strict individualization of the insulin therapy. The experience becomes a pattern in creating two existing formulas of the insulin "short" analogues, namely HUMALAG with the replacement of the proline and lysinane places with those of 28 and 29, and NOVORAPID with aspartic acid at the 28th place in the B chain. The most recent long-effect analogues are created by amino acid changes with the glycine residual at the position A21 and two ariginines added to the positions B31 and B32 - insulin "glargin" - LANTUS. The development of short and long effect analogues imposed the logical need for formulating "new" fixed insulin combination's as well. New combination's are made of two kinds of ac-tual insulin, namely, the fast-effect analogues of the aspart type or lystroinsulin and protamine-retarded preparations - neutral protamine - lystroinsulin. Three kinds of combinations are made.

  4. Continuous home oxygen therapy. (United States)

    Ortega Ruiz, Francisco; Díaz Lobato, Salvador; Galdiz Iturri, Juan Bautista; García Rio, Francisco; Güell Rous, Rosa; Morante Velez, Fátima; Puente Maestu, Luis; Tàrrega Camarasa, Julia


    Oxygen therapy is defined as the therapeutic use of oxygen and consists of administering oxygen at higher concentrations than those found in room air, with the aim of treating or preventing hypoxia. This therapeutic intervention has been shown to increase survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and respiratory failure. Although this concept has been extended by analogy to chronic respiratory failure caused by respiratory and non-respiratory diseases, continuous oxygen therapy has not been shown to be effective in other disorders. Oxygen therapy has not been shown to improve survival in patients with COPD and moderate hypoxaemia, nor is there consensus regarding its use during nocturnal desaturations in COPD or desaturations caused by effort. The choice of the oxygen source must be made on the basis of criteria such as technical issues, patient comfort and adaptability and cost. Flow must be adjusted to achieve appropriate transcutaneous oxyhaemoglobin saturation correction. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Smart Radiation Therapy Biomaterials. (United States)

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Boateng, Francis; Kumar, Rajiv; Irvine, Darrell J; Formenti, Silvia; Ngoma, Twalib; Herskind, Carsten; Veldwijk, Marlon R; Hildenbrand, Georg Lars; Hausmann, Michael; Wenz, Frederik; Hesser, Juergen


    Radiation therapy (RT) is a crucial component of cancer care, used in the treatment of over 50% of cancer patients. Patients undergoing image guided RT or brachytherapy routinely have inert RT biomaterials implanted into their tumors. The single function of these RT biomaterials is to ensure geometric accuracy during treatment. Recent studies have proposed that the inert biomaterials could be upgraded to "smart" RT biomaterials, designed to do more than 1 function. Such smart biomaterials include next-generation fiducial markers, brachytherapy spacers, and balloon applicators, designed to respond to stimuli and perform additional desirable functions like controlled delivery of therapy-enhancing payloads directly into the tumor subvolume while minimizing normal tissue toxicities. More broadly, smart RT biomaterials may include functionalized nanoparticles that can be activated to boost RT efficacy. This work reviews the rationale for smart RT biomaterials, the state of the art in this emerging cross-disciplinary research area, challenges and opportunities for further research and development, and a purview of potential clinical applications. Applications covered include using smart RT biomaterials for boosting cancer therapy with minimal side effects, combining RT with immunotherapy or chemotherapy, reducing treatment time or health care costs, and other incipient applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder (United States)

    ... for children with ASD, such as: Speech and language therapy Music therapy Occupational therapy Acupuncture Vitamins and mineral supplements Massage therapy The Picture Exchange Communication System Responsive Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching Neurofeedback Sleep education and training Do they help? ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    SUMMARY. Ultrasound therapy is a popular physical therapy modality among clinicians. The era of ... A recent account indicated that no published review for the effects of US .... Physical Therapy 2007: 87:986-994 [letter]. Physical Therapy 87 ...

  8. Gene Therapy and Children (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Needs a Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Gene Therapy and Children KidsHealth > For Parents > Gene Therapy and ... by a "bad" gene. continue Two Types of Gene Therapy The two forms of gene therapy are: Somatic ...

  9. Magnet therapy: what's the attraction? (United States)

    Ratterman, Rebecca; Secrest, Janet; Norwood, Barbara; Ch'ien, Anne P


    To review the current state of the science of magnet therapy with respect to pain management and to view magnet therapy from a nursing perspective. Extensive review of the world-wide scientific literature and of scientific peer-reviewed journals regarding magnet therapy. Magnet therapy is gaining popularity; however, the scientific evidence to support the success of this therapy is lacking. More scientifically sound studies are needed in order to fully understand the effects that magnets can have on the body and the possible benefits or dangers that could result from their use. Credibility for advanced practice will be established across disciplines as nurses demonstrate their ability to critically evaluate practices. Alternative therapies are accepted and used by many patients today. While magnet therapy is popular, the scientific evidence to support its use is limited, at best. Advanced practice nurses have more effective treatment modalities in their repertoire and are advised to avoid practices for which efficacy is unsupported.

  10. Intensive behavioral therapy for agoraphobia. (United States)

    Knuts, Inge J E; Esquivel, Gabriel; Overbeek, Thea; Schruers, Koen R J


    We investigated the efficacy of an intensive 1-week behavioral therapy program focusing on agoraphobia for panic disorder patients with agoraphobia (PDA). The study design was a case-control study. Main outcome measure was the agoraphobia score of the Fear Questionnaire (FQ-AGO). The outcomes on the FQ-AGO of a 1-week intensive therapy (96 patients) and a twice-weekly therapy (98 patients) were compared. Agoraphobia improved significantly in both groups, 1 week and 3 months after therapy. Effect size for changes in the 1-week intensive therapy on the FQ-AGO was 0.75. Limitations are use of antidepressants, no placebo group, and no long term follow-up. Behavioral therapy for agoraphobia can be shortened significantly if intensified without affecting therapy outcome, thus allowing patients a more rapid return to work and resumption of daily activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy. (United States)

    Drisko, C H


    Regular home care by the patient in addition to professional removal of subgingival plaque is generally very effective in controlling most inflammatory periodontal diseases. When disease does recur, despite frequent recall, it can usually be attributed to lack of sufficient supragingival and subgingival plaque control or to other risk factors that influence host response, such as diabetes or smoking. Causative factors contributing to recurrent disease include deep inaccessible pockets, overhangs, poor crown margins and plaque-retentive calculus. In most cases, simply performing a thorough periodontal debridement under local anesthesia will stop disease progression and result in improvement in the clinical signs and symptoms of active disease. If however, clinical signs of disease activity persist following thorough mechanical therapy, such as increased pocket depths, loss of attachment and bleeding on probing, other pharmacotherapeutic therapies should be considered. Augmenting scaling and root planing or maintenance visits with adjunctive chemotherapeutic agents for controlling plaque and gingivitis could be as simple as placing the patient on an antimicrobial mouthrinse and/or toothpaste with agents such as fluorides, chlorhexidine or triclosan, to name a few. Since supragingival plaque reappears within hours or days after its removal, it is important that patients have access to effective alternative chemotherapeutic products that could help them achieve adequate supragingival plaque control. Recent studies, for example, have documented the positive effect of triclosan toothpaste on the long-term maintenance of both gingivitis and periodontitis patients. Daily irrigation with a powered irrigation device, with or without an antimicrobial agent, is also useful for decreasing the inflammation associated with gingivitis and periodontitis. Clinically significant changes in probing depths and attachment levels are not usually expected with irrigation alone. Recent

  12. [Botulism: Diagnosis and Therapy]. (United States)

    Wendt, Sebastian; Eder, Ines; Wölfel, Roman; Braun, Peggy; Lippmann, Norman; Rodloff, Arne


    Background Botulism is a rare, life-threatening, time-critical neuroparalytic disease that is frequently a subject of differential diagnostic considerations. But there is much uncertainty regarding diagnosis and therapy. Rapid diagnosis, early antitoxin dose, consistent food hygiene and the sensitization of the population can help to reduce incidence, morbidity and mortality. Methods This overview is based on an epidemiological data inquiry (RKI, ECDC, CDC, WHO) and a selective literature research (pubmed till March 2017). Additionally, the German botulism guideline (2012) and own diagnostical experiences were taken into account. Results The incidence of botulinum toxin intoxication induced by ubiquitous spore-forming Clostridium botulinum (main representative) is < 0.01/100 000 EU citizens. Foodborne botulism is a pure intoxication syndrome (most common form) due to improperly prepared or incorrectly stored food. Wound and infant botulism are kinds of "toxico-infections". A "bulbar" neuroparalysis is a main symptom progressing to a flaccid tetraparesis up to respiratory paralysis. Infant botulism is presented non-specific and is treated only symptomatically; but a special human-derived antitoxin is available at international pharmacies. In case of suspected foodborne or wound botulism antitoxin must be administered as soon as possible, which may also be effective 24 hours after symptoms onset. There is no evidence for adjuvant treatment except of intensive care unit (ICU) therapy. Conclusion Despite typical symptomatology botulism is often diagnosed too late. Early antitoxin administration and ICU therapy are crucial for survival. A consultant laboratory should be contacted for advice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Gene therapy flexes muscle. (United States)

    VandenDriessche, Thierry


    This commentary highlights the promising results of recent studies in animal models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that have clearly demonstrated the potential of gene therapy for tackling these diseases. In the absence of effective drugs or other treatments, these advances in gene therapy technology represent the best hope for those patients and families that are blighted by these diseases. Diseases characterized by progressive muscle degeneration are often incurable and affect a relatively large number of individuals. The progressive deterioration of muscle function is like the sword of Damocles that constantly reminds patients suffering from these diseases of their tragic fate, since most of them will eventually die from cardiac or pulmonary dysfunction. Some of these disorders are due to mutations in genes that directly influence the integrity of muscle fibers, such as in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a recessive X-linked genetic disease. Others result from a progressive neurodegeneration of the motoneurons that are essential for maintaining muscle function, such as in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also commonly known as Lou Gehrig's disease. The genetic basis of DMD is relatively well understood as it is due to mutations in the dystrophin gene that encodes the cognate sarcolemmal protein. In contrast, the cause of ALS is poorly defined, with the exception of some dominantly inherited familial cases of ALS that are due to gain-of-function mutations in the gene encoding superoxide dismutase (SODG93A). Gene therapy for these disorders has been hampered by the inability to achieve widespread gene transfer. Moreover, since familial ALS is due to a dominant gain-of-function mutation, inhibition of gene expression (rather than gene augmentation) would be required to correct the phenotype, which is particularly challenging. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Pompe disease gene therapy (United States)

    Byrne, Barry J.; Falk, Darin J.; Pacak, Christina A.; Nayak, Sushrusha; Herzog, Roland W.; Elder, Melissa E.; Collins, Shelley W.; Conlon, Thomas J.; Clement, Nathalie; Cleaver, Brian D.; Cloutier, Denise A.; Porvasnik, Stacy L.; Islam, Saleem; Elmallah, Mai K.; Martin, Anatole; Smith, Barbara K.; Fuller, David D.; Lawson, Lee Ann; Mah, Cathryn S.


    Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive metabolic myopathy caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid alpha-glucosidase and results in cellular lysosomal and cytoplasmic glycogen accumulation. A wide spectrum of disease exists from hypotonia and severe cardiac hypertrophy in the first few months of life due to severe mutations to a milder form with the onset of symptoms in adulthood. In either condition, the involvement of several systems leads to progressive weakness and disability. In early-onset severe cases, the natural history is characteristically cardiorespiratory failure and death in the first year of life. Since the advent of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), the clinical outcomes have improved. However, it has become apparent that a new natural history is being defined in which some patients have substantial improvement following ERT, while others develop chronic disability reminiscent of the late-onset disease. In order to improve on the current clinical outcomes in Pompe patients with diminished clinical response to ERT, we sought to address the cause and potential for the treatment of disease manifestations which are not amenable to ERT. In this review, we will focus on the preclinical studies that are relevant to the development of a gene therapy strategy for Pompe disease, and have led to the first clinical trial of recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene-based therapy for Pompe disease. We will cover the preliminary laboratory studies and rationale for a clinical trial, which is based on the treatment of the high rate of respiratory failure in the early-onset patients receiving ERT. PMID:21518733

  15. Physical Therapy Machine (United States)


    Loredan Biomedical, Inc.'s LIDO, a computerized physical therapy system, was purchased by NASA in 1985 for evaluation as a Space Station Freedom exercise program. In 1986, while involved in an ARC muscle conditioning project, Malcom Bond, Loredan's chairman, designed an advanced software package for NASA which became the basis for LIDOSOFT software used in the commercially available system. The system employs a "proprioceptive" software program which perceives internal body conditions, induces perturbations to muscular effort and evaluates the response. Biofeedback on a screen allows a patient to observe his own performance.

  16. Parasitic miticidal therapy. (United States)

    Ghubash, Rudayna


    Parasites are a common cause of dermatological disease in the dog and cat. Knowledge of different miticidal options for the common parasitic diseases is imperative when choosing the appropriate treatment for a patient. This is especially important with the recent advent of safer and more effective antiparasitic medications. Diagnostic and therapeutic methods for Cheyletiella spp., Demodex spp., Notoedres cati, Sarcoptes scabei, and Otodectes cyanotis are discussed, with emphasis on protocols for miticidal therapies, as well as safety concerns and side effects. This information will allow the practitioner to choose the safest and most efficient treatment for parasitic skin disease in their small animal patients.

  17. Carbon Ion Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Hansen, David Christoffer; Herrmann, Rochus

    On the importance of choice of target size for selective boosting of hypoxic tumor subvolumina in carbon ion therapy Purpose: Functional imaging methods in radiotherapy are maturing and can to some extent uncover radio resistant structures found within a tumour entity. Selective boost of identified...... hypoxic subvolumina with high-LET radiation may in principle lead to increased tumour control due to LET-dependence of the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER). Here, we demonstrate the importance of minimizing field sizes in order not to dilute the dose average LET by quantifying the OER as a function of PTV...

  18. Intense pulsed light therapy. (United States)

    Soltes, Barbara


    Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) is an FDA-approved photo therapy for the treatment of a variety of conditions such as acne and hirsutism. It utilizes the principle of selective photothermolysis. Photothermolysis allows a specific wavelength to be delivered to a chromophore of a designated tissue while leaving the surrounding tissue unaffected. The results of IPL are similar to that of laser treatments but it offers the advantage of a relative low cost. It is a safe and rapid treatment with minimal discomfort to the patient. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pain and Complementary Therapies. (United States)

    Hamlin, Amy S; Robertson, T Michelle


    Treatment of both acute and chronic pain typically involves a combination of pharmacologic and provider-based interventions, which is effective for some patients but not for others. Use of pain medications, especially repeated and frequent usage, involves the risk of adverse reactions, overuse, and dependency. Complementary and alternative therapies (CAT) offer an alternative or adjunctive method to decrease the pain experience and enhance function and quality of life. Various evidence-based CAT methods have been proved to be effective in the management of both acute and chronic pain. Nurses are well placed to implement various CAT modalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Metformin poisoning: which therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Casagranda


    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a rare but serious adverse effect in metformintreated- patients. The authors report a case of metformin-associated lactic acidosis and discuss the appropriated therapy. The patient was treated with bicarbonate iv and with two short dialysis session, also because of acute renal failure. Many authors do not agree with using bicarbonate, and about hemodialysis some authors suggest that the session should go on at least 12 hours. In this case the use of bicarbonate and short hemodialysis determinated a favourable outcame.

  1. Gene Therapy for Hemophilia. (United States)

    Nathwani, Amit C; Davidoff, Andrew M; Tuddenham, Edward G D


    The best currently available treatments for hemophilia A and B (factor VIII or factor IX deficiency, respectively) require frequent intravenous infusion of highly expensive proteins that have short half-lives. Factor levels follow a saw-tooth pattern that is seldom in the normal range and falls so low that breakthrough bleeding occurs. Most hemophiliacs worldwide do not have access to even this level of care. In stark contrast, gene therapy holds out the hope of a cure by inducing continuous endogenous expression of factor VIII or factor IX following transfer of a functional gene to replace the hemophilic patient's own defective gene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Group therapy for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Hribar


    Full Text Available The group included adolescents from secondary school and some students. The group had weekly sessions or twice on mounth. The adolescents had varied simptoms: depressive, anxiety, psychosomatic disorders, learning difficulties, cunduct problems. All of adolescents were common on many problems in social interactions. The goal of therapeutic work were: to increase assertiveness skills and to reduce the anxious in social situations. The adolescents in group raised a self-esteem and developed some assertiveness skills: eye contact" and effective communication skills, persistence, refusing and requesting, giving and receiving critism, etc. The methods of work and techniques were based on principles of cognitive-behaviour therapy.

  3. Culture and complementary therapies. (United States)

    Engebretson, Joan


    Complementary therapies are becoming increasingly popular in cultures dominated by biomedicine. Modalities are often extracted from various healing systems and cultural contexts and integrated into health care, expanding the focus from treatment of disease to the promotion of health. The cultural aspects of biomedicine are presented and compared and contrasted with other healing systems. Three healing systems; traditional Chinese medicine, Yoga, with roots in Ayurvedic medicine and Shamanic healing illustrate these fundamental differences in approaches to healing. A reverse example of isolating one healing intervention from biomedicine and interpreting it through other cultural lenses is presented. Implications are drawn for practice and research.

  4. New antiepileptic therapies. (United States)

    Ozuna, J


    This is an exciting time for AED development. Four new AEDs have been approved for use in the last 3 years and several more are being evaluated. New formulations of traditional therapies, such as Tegretol XR, and IV and IM fosphenytoin offer alternatives for the management of acute and chronic seizure disorders (see "Clip & Save" and "What's News"). With these new treatments options, providers will be challenged to choose the most appropriate drug or drug combination for their patients based on seizure type, AED mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetic properties, adverse effects, and drug interactions.

  5. Operation Brain Trauma Therapy (United States)


    Operation Brain Trauma Therapy. J Trauma 71(1 Suppl):S15-24, 2011. 2. Diaz-Arrastia R, Kochanek PM, Bergold P, Kenney K, Marx C, Grimes JB, Loh Y...severe traumatic brain injury. J. Neurotrauma 29, 1096–1104. 66. Diaz-Arrastia, R., Kochanek, P.M., Bergold, P., Kenney K, Marx CE, Grimes CJ, Loh LT...Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 15268–15273. 4. Mendoza-Torreblanca, J.G., Vanoye- Carlo , A., Phillips-Farfan, B.V., Carmona-Aparicio, L., and

  6. Behaviour therapy for obesity treatment considering approved drug therapy. (United States)

    Kossmann, Beate; Ulle, Tanja; Kahl, Kai G; Wasem, Jürgen; Aidelsburger, Pamela


    Obesity is a worldwide health problem whose prevalence is on the increase. Many obesity-associated diseases require intensive medical treatment and are the cause of a large proportion of health-related expenditures in Germany. Treatment of obesity includes nutritional, exercise and behaviour therapy, usually in combination. The goal of behaviour therapy for obesity is to bring about a long-term alteration in the eating and exercise habits of overweight and obese individuals. Under certain circumstances, drug treatment may be indicated. What is the effectiveness of behaviour therapy for obesity considering approved drugs reduce weight under medical, economic, ethical-social and legal aspects? A systematic review was conducted using relevant electronic literature databases. Publications chosen according to predefined criteria are evaluated by approved methodical standards of the evidence-based medicine systematically and qualitatively. In total 18 studies, included one HTA and one meta-analysis could be identified according to the predefined inclusion criteria. Three studies compare behaviour therapy to other therapy forms (advice or instruction on nutritional changes, physical activity or a combination of the two), six studies evaluate different forms of behaviour therapy, four studies and four studies compare behaviour therapies mediated by Internet or telephone. Three studies could be identified examining the effect of the combination of behaviour and drug therapy. Furthermore one HTA and one meta-analysis could be included in the evaluation. The behaviour therapy in comparison with other therapy forms reveals a higher effectiveness. In comparison of the different therapeutic approaches of the behaviour therapy intensive behaviour therapy forms and group therapy show a higher effectiveness. Studies related to behaviour therapy based on media support demonstrate a weight reduction both through the interventions of media alone as well as through the intervention of

  7. Gene therapy in periodontics (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Singh, Nidhi; Saluja, Mini


    GENES are made of DNA - the code of life. They are made up of two types of base pair from different number of hydrogen bonds AT, GC which can be turned into instruction. Everyone inherits genes from their parents and passes them on in turn to their children. Every person's genes are different, and the changes in sequence determine the inherited differences between each of us. Some changes, usually in a single gene, may cause serious diseases. Gene therapy is ‘the use of genes as medicine’. It involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working gene copy into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. Thus it may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favorably modify the clinical course of a condition. It has a promising era in the field of periodontics. Gene therapy has been used as a mode of tissue engineering in periodontics. The tissue engineering approach reconstructs the natural target tissue by combining four elements namely: Scaffold, signaling molecules, cells and blood supply and thus can help in the reconstruction of damaged periodontium including cementum, gingival, periodontal ligament and bone. PMID:23869119

  8. Vedic principles of therapy. (United States)

    Boyer, R W


    This paper introduces Vedic principles of therapy as a holistic integration of healing and human development. The most integrative aspect is a "consciousness-based" approach in which the bottom line of the mind is consciousness itself, accessed by transcending mental activity to its simplest ground state. This directly contrasts with "unconscious-based" approaches that hold the basis of conscious mind is the unconscious, such as analytic, humanistic, and cognitive-behavioral approaches. Although not presented as a specific therapeutic approach, interventions associated with this Vedic approach have extensive support in the applied research literature. A brief review of experimental research toward a general model of mind-and cutting-edge developments in quantum physics toward nonlocal mind-shows a convergence on the ancient Vedic model of mind. Comparisons with contemporary therapies further show that the simplicity, subtlety, and holistic nature of the Vedic approach represent a significant advance over approaches which have overlooked the fundamental ground state of the mind. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nutritional Therapy in Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Durmuş


    Full Text Available A burn is characterized by the damage to one’s body tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, or radiation. The incidence of burn injuries has recently been decreasing. However, it is a fact that burns constitute a significant problem all over the world, with a few million people being affected by burns each year. A burn is an extensive trauma that affects the whole organism and determines the prognosis through its physiopathology. The case of the burn patient is also characterized by the acute phase response. Since burn patients have a non-functional skin barrier, they experience loss of liquids, minerals, proteins and electrolytes. They can also develop protein, energy and micro-nutrition deficiencies due to intense catabolic processes, infections and increased bodily needs in case of wound healing. Therefore, nutritional therapy is one of the major steps that need to be monitored from the initial moments of the burn injury through to the end of the burn treatment. This study focuses on the significance of nutritional therapy for burn patients in the light of current literature.

  10. Choice of initial therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Battegay


    Full Text Available Current international and national treatment guidelines such as EACS, BHIVA, DHHS or IAS update regularly recommendations on the choice of initial combination antiretroviral treatment (cART regimens. Preferred cART regimens include a backbone with two nucleoside (nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors combined either with one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or one ritonavir boosted protease inhibitor or more recently one integrase inhibitor. Response rates according to viral load measurements increased in recent years, in particular due to better tolerability. The choice of initial therapy is flexible and influenced by several factors such as height of viral load, genotypic resistance testing, CD4 cell count, co-morbidities, interactions, potential adverse events, (potential for pregnancy, convenience, adherence, costs as well as physician's and patient's preferences. Diverse highly potent initial cART regimens exist. Following the many possibilities, the choice of a regimen is based on a mixture of evidence-informed data and individualized concepts, some of the latter only partly supported by strong evidence. For example, different perceptions and personal experiences exist about boosted protease inhibitors compared to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or integrase inhibitors and vice versa which may influence the initial choice. This lecture will discuss choices of initial cART in view of international guidelines and the evidence for individualization of initial HIV therapy.

  11. Antiplatelet therapies: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundu H R Rao


    Full Text Available The role of blood components including platelets, in initiating inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, thrombus formation, thrombus growth, and acute vascular ischemic events, is well established. Given this recognized role played by platelets, there is a considerable interest in understanding the physiology and function of platelets, as well as in the development of novel platelet function-inhibitory drugs. The generation of the second messengers, calcium mobilization, shape change, adhesion, aggregation, contraction, release of granule contents, thrombus development, thrombus growth, and formation of hemostatic plug at the injured vessel surfaces, in brief, constitute platelet activation. Some of the known compounds that inhibit platelet activation include inhibitors of arachidonic metabolism (cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitors; aspirin, ibuprofen, etc., adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonists (P2Y 12 inhibitors, adenylyl and guanylyl cyclase stimulators, calcium antagonists, and GP11b/111a receptor antagonists. Since platelets have multiple mechanisms of achieving in vivo activation, it is difficult to design a novel drug that offers total protection for developing acute ischemic vascular events, without compromising coagulation mechanisms. Given this complexity, any aggressive antiplatelet therapy results in increased bleeding episodes. Having said that, we feel that there is a great window of opportunity for developing novel antiplatelet therapies. There is also scope for the development of fixed-dose combinations for the primary and secondary management of chronic diseases such as hypertension, heart disease, and type-2 diabetes.

  12. Therapy of Chlorpromazine Melanosis (United States)

    Greiner, A. C.; Nicolson, G. A.; Baker, R. A.


    Melanosis observed in association with prolonged chlorpromazine therapy has become a serious problem in mental institutions. Skin pigmentation has produced an appearance which is cosmetically undesirable. Ocular deposits have caused visual impairment. Diffuse visceral involvement has been accompanied by functional disturbances of the involved organs. Withholding chlorpromazine did not diminish the pigment deposits already present in eight patients with chlorpromazine-induced melanosis. Therefore therapy for existing cases and means of preventing this side effect were investigated. A method of blocking melanin synthesis by depressing tyrosinase activity was devised. A copperchelating agent, D-penicillamine, was administered for a period of four weeks (300 mg. three times daily for six days each week, with mineral supplement substituted on the seventh day). Four of six days patients thus treated improved markedly as evidenced by diminution of skin pigmentation. Urinary copper excretion was substantially increased during the trial period. An alternative method of treatment designed to stimulate melatonin production by the pineal gland was employed. Two patients were kept in darkness for a period of four weeks. One improved markedly, the other only slightly. PMID:14201250

  13. Nanotechnology in cancer therapy. (United States)

    Aslan, Burcu; Ozpolat, Bulent; Sood, Anil K; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel


    Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality worldwide and advanced techniques for therapy are urgently needed. The development of novel nanomaterials and nanocarriers has allowed a major drive to improve drug delivery in cancer. The major aim of most nanocarrier applications has been to protect the drug from rapid degradation after systemic delivery and allowing it to reach tumor site at therapeutic concentrations, meanwhile avoiding drug delivery to normal sites as much as possible to reduce adverse effects. These nanocarriers are formulated to deliver drugs either by passive targeting, taking advantage of leaky tumor vasculature or by active targeting using ligands that increase tumoral uptake potentially resulting in enhanced antitumor efficacy, thus achieving a net improvement in therapeutic index. The rational design of nanoparticles plays a critical role since structural and physical characteristics, such as size, charge, shape, and surface characteristics determine the biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, internalization and safety of the drugs. In this review, we focus on several novel and improved strategies in nanocarrier design for cancer therapy.

  14. Targeted Therapy for Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Thomas [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States); Moore, Herbert [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States)


    The research project, entitled ”Targeted Therapy for Melanoma,” was focused on investigating the use of kidney protection measures to lower the non-specific kidney uptake of the radiolabeled Pb-DOTA-ReCCMSH peptide. Previous published work demonstrated that the kidney exhibited the highest non-target tissue uptake of the 212Pb/203Pb radiolabeled melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-ReCCMSH. The radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analog DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH, which binds the melanocortin-1 receptor over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells, has shown promise as a PRRT agent in pre-clinical studies. High tumor uptake of 212Pb labeled DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH resulted in tumor reduction or eradication in melanoma therapy studies. Of particular note was the 20-50% cure rate observed when melanoma mice were treated with alpha particle emitter 212Pb. However, as with most PRRT agents, high radiation doses to the kidneys where observed. To optimize tumor treatment efficacy and reduce nephrotoxicity, the tumor to kidney uptake ratio must be improved. Strategies to reduce kidney retention of the radiolabeled peptide, while not effecting tumor uptake and retention, can be broken into several categories including modification of the targeting peptide sequence and reducing proximal tubule reabsorption.

  15. Physical therapy in spasticity. (United States)

    Richardson, D


    Physiotherapists are part of the rehabilitation team involved in the management of adult spasticity. Physical therapy is one part of the armoury in the fight against this disabling symptom of the upper motor neurone syndrome. Identifying the physiological changes brought about by physical therapy or physiotherapy, is difficult. As with many interventions in rehabilitation, this area is poorly studied and, until recently, there was little or no evidence for its effectiveness. The aim of this presentation is to identify key components of a physiotherapy approach and outline specific techniques. The key components considered are: education of the patient and their carers; the 'intervention cycle' - involving accurate assessment, careful measurement, intervention and evaluation; accurate goal setting and a staged stepwise approach over prolonged periods. The specific techniques used include treatments targeted at: muscle length changes, muscle strengthening and functional performance. Broadly these techniques can be divided into biomechanical, cognitive and neurophysiological, each being interdependent on the others. Physiotherapy combined with the other available treatments should meet the challenge arising from adult spasticity.

  16. Physics controversies in proton therapy. (United States)

    Engelsman, Martijn; Schwarz, Marco; Dong, Lei


    The physical characteristics of proton beams are appealing for cancer therapy. The rapid increase in operational and planned proton therapy facilities may suggest that this technology is a "plug-and-play" valuable addition to the arsenal of the radiation oncologist and medical physicist. In reality, the technology is still evolving, so planning and delivery of proton therapy in patients face many practical challenges. This review article discusses the current status of proton therapy treatment planning and delivery techniques, indicates current limitations in dealing with range uncertainties, and proposes possible developments for proton therapy and supplementary technology to try to realize the actual potential of proton therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bevacizumab Therapy for Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma. (United States)

    Metts, Ryan D; Bartynski, Walter; Welsh, Cynthia T; Kinsman, Stephen; Bredlau, Amy-Lee


    Pilomyxoid astrocytoma is a rare tumor of the central nervous system generally found in young children near the hypothalamus. Herein, we report a 19-month-old female infant with a pilomyxoid astrocytoma, who underwent surgery as well as carboplatin and vincristine chemotherapy in an attempt to delay radiation therapy to the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the tumor had increased in tumor volume on therapy. Chemotherapy with carboplatin and vincristine was stopped and bevacizumab therapy (10 mg/kg every other week) was initiated. After 15 months of bevacizumab therapy, the patient's tumor was significantly smaller. Bevacizumab therapy was discontinued for 6 months due to stability in tumor size but was resumed after tumor growth was observed. Patient was again placed on bevacizumab therapy with subsequent magnetic resonance imagings revealing a decrease in tumor size.

  18. [Conservative therapy of chronic sinusitis]. (United States)

    Reiss, Michael; Reiss, Gilfe


    The chronic rhinosinusitis is defined as chronic inflammation of the nose and nasal sinuses, with or without nasal polyps. Patients suffering from chronic rhinosinusitis report about nasal obstruction and secretion, olfactory impairment, head and facial pain. These symptoms cause also considerable impact on quality of life. Therefore, an adequate rhinological diagnostics as well as therapies are essential. This paper reviews the pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapy of chronic rhinosinusitis. First choice of therapy should be topical glucocorticoids. The application of glucocorticoids causes anti-inflammatory and certain curative effects. Hypertonic salt solutions improve nasal symptoms. Long-term therapy with oral macrolides might improve median to severe symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps. An additional therapy with antihistamines is possible in patients with an allergy. Adaptive desensitization in patients suffering from analgesic-intolerance associating among other with nasal polyps is currently the single causal therapy. Therefore, frequency of endonasal revision surgery is reduced after desensitization.

  19. A history of manipulative therapy. (United States)

    Pettman, Erland


    Manipulative therapy has known a parallel development throughout many parts of the world. The earliest historical reference to the practice of manipulative therapy in Europe dates back to 400 BCE. Over the centuries, manipulative interventions have fallen in and out of favor with the medical profession. Manipulative therapy also was initially the mainstay of the two leading alternative health care systems, osteopathy and chiropractic, both founded in the latter part of the 19th century in response to shortcomings in allopathic medicine. With medical and osteopathic physicians initially instrumental in introducing manipulative therapy to the profession of physical therapy, physical therapists have since then provided strong contributions to the field, thereby solidifying the profession's claim to have manipulative therapy within in its legally regulated scope of practice.

  20. Proton and carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Tony


    Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy is an up-to-date guide to using proton and carbon ion therapy in modern cancer treatment. The book covers the physics and radiobiology basics of proton and ion beams, dosimetry methods and radiation measurements, and treatment delivery systems. It gives practical guidance on patient setup, target localization, and treatment planning for clinical proton and carbon ion therapy. The text also offers detailed reports on the treatment of pediatric cancers, lymphomas, and various other cancers. After an overview, the book focuses on the fundamental aspects of proton and carbon ion therapy equipment, including accelerators, gantries, and delivery systems. It then discusses dosimetry, biology, imaging, and treatment planning basics and provides clinical guidelines on the use of proton and carbon ion therapy for the treatment of specific cancers. Suitable for anyone involved with medical physics and radiation therapy, this book offers a balanced and critical assessment of state-of-the-art...

  1. Gene therapy for psychiatric disorders. (United States)

    Gelfand, Yaroslav; Kaplitt, Michael G


    Gene therapy has become of increasing interest in clinical neurosurgery with the completion of numerous clinical trials for Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and pediatric genetic disorders. With improved understanding of the dysfunctional circuitry mediating various psychiatric disorders, deep brain stimulation for refractory psychiatric diseases is being increasingly explored in human patients. These factors are likely to facilitate development of gene therapy for psychiatric diseases. Because delivery of gene therapy agents would require the same surgical techniques currently being employed for deep brain stimulation, neurosurgeons are likely to lead the development of this field, as has occurred in other areas of clinical gene therapy for neurologic disorders. We review the current state of gene therapy for psychiatric disorders and focus specifically on particular areas of promising research that may translate into human trials for depression, drug addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. Issues that are relatively unique to psychiatric gene therapy are also discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Art therapy in cancer fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Rodrigues D'Alencar


    Full Text Available Art therapy is the therapeutic use of artistic activity in the context of the professional relationship with people affected by disease, injury or by seeking personal development. This study aims to report the experience of art therapy activities with a group of patients and their caregivers in a university hospital. This is an experience report, in Fortaleza - CE, during September 2010 to February 2011. In the meetings, participated 49 people, who performed activities, using the methods of art therapy, like painting, cutting, drawing, collage, creative visualization and color therapy. In the assessments, after the groups, the participants demonstrated the effects of art therapy, which described that the intervention allowed speak from the process of facing life to cancer fight. It is concluded that the techniques of art therapy provided self-knowledge, self-esteem and redemption sense of well-being with relaxation, and promote happiness and reduce stress.

  3. Proton therapy in clinical practice (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Chang, Joe Y.


    Radiation dose escalation and acceleration improves local control but also increases toxicity. Proton radiation is an emerging therapy for localized cancers that is being sought with increasing frequency by patients. Compared with photon therapy, proton therapy spares more critical structures due to its unique physics. The physical properties of a proton beam make it ideal for clinical applications. By modulating the Bragg peak of protons in energy and time, a conformal radiation dose with or without intensity modulation can be delivered to the target while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Thus, proton therapy is ideal when organ preservation is a priority. However, protons are more sensitive to organ motion and anatomy changes compared with photons. In this article, we review practical issues of proton therapy, describe its image-guided treatment planning and delivery, discuss clinical outcome for cancer patients, and suggest challenges and the future development of proton therapy. PMID:21527064

  4. 42 CFR 410.35 - X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services... Other Health Services § 410.35 X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope. Medicare Part B pays for X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services, including radium therapy and...

  5. Behaviour therapy for obesity treatment considering approved drug therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasem, Jürgen


    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a worldwide health problem whose prevalence is on the increase. Many obesity-associated diseases require intensive medical treatment and are the cause of a large proportion of health-related expenditures in Germany. Treatment of obesity includes nutritional, exercise and behaviour therapy, usually in combination. The goal of behaviour therapy for obesity is to bring about a long-term alteration in the eating and exercise habits of overweight and obese individuals. Under certain circumstances, drug treatment may be indicated. Objectives: What is the effectiveness of behaviour therapy for obesity considering approved drugs reduce weight under medical, economic, ethical-social and legal aspects? Methods: A systematic review was conducted using relevant electronic literature databases. Publications chosen according to predefined criteria are evaluated by approved methodical standards of the evidence-based medicine systematically and qualitatively. Results: In total 18 studies, included one HTA and one meta-analysis could be identified according to the predefined inclusion criteria. Three studies compare behaviour therapy to other therapy forms (advice or instruction on nutritional changes, physical activity or a combination of the two, six studies evaluate different forms of behaviour therapy, four studies and four studies compare behaviour therapies mediated by Internet or telephone. Three studies could be identified examining the effect of the combination of behaviour and drug therapy. Furthermore one HTA and one meta-analysis could be included in the evaluation. The behaviour therapy in comparison with other therapy forms reveals a higher effectiveness. In comparison of the different therapeutic approaches of the behaviour therapy intensive behaviour therapy forms and group therapy show a higher effectiveness. Studies related to behaviour therapy based on media support demonstrate a weight reduction both through the

  6. Gene therapy for lipid disorders


    Rader Daniel J; Kawashiri Masa-aki


    Abstract Lipid disorders are associated with atherosclerotic vascular disease, and therapy is associated with a substantial reduction in cardiovascular events. Current approaches to the treatment of lipid disorders are ineffective in a substantial number of patients. New therapies for refractory hypercholesterolemia, severe hypertriglyceridemia, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are needed: somatic gene therapy is one viable approach. The molecular etiology and pathophysi...

  7. The physics of proton therapy


    Newhauser, Wayne D; ZHANG, Rui


    The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes a...

  8. Dental extractions during anticoagulant therapy. (United States)

    Anavi, Y; Sharon, A; Gutman, D; Laufer, D


    1. 15 patients, whose therapy with the anticoagulant Coumarin was not discontinued, were observed for bleeding following dental extractions. 2. There was no significant bleeding in these patients as compared to 15 others whose Coumarin therapy was temporarily interrupted. 3. Patients with prosthetic heart valves should preferably be hospitalized for dental extractions. but Coumarin/anticoagulant therapy need not be discontinued. The procedures can safely be done within a therapeutic range of 20-30% P.T.

  9. Behavioral Therapy Across the Spectrum


    Witkiewitz, Katie; Marlatt, G. Alan


    Numerous effective behavioral therapies have been developed that can bring the treatment to the patient rather than bringing the patient to treatment. These behavioral therapy techniques, which can provide effective treatment across the spectrum of severity of alcohol abuse disorders, include facilitated self-change, individual therapies, couples and family approaches, and contingency management. New methods of delivery and successful adjuncts to existing behavioral treatments also have been ...

  10. Targeted Therapies for Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idoroenyi Amanam


    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer related death and by 2030, it will be second only to lung cancer. We have seen tremendous advances in therapies for lung cancer as well as other solid tumors using a molecular targeted approach but our progress in treating pancreatic cancer has been incremental with median overall survival remaining less than one year. There is an urgent need for improved therapies with better efficacy and less toxicity. Small molecule inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies and immune modulatory therapies have been used. Here we review the progress that we have made with these targeted therapies.

  11. The history of cupping therapy. (United States)

    Yang, J


    As an important and integral part of non - drug folk therapy on TCM, there were also many other names for cupping therapy, such as "horning", "needlehorn", "sucking method", "fire - cupping", "boiling bamboo cylinder". By textual investigation, considerable clear recognition can be reached on the names, cupping instruments, cupping measure, indications and contradictions in different historical stages. Presently, cupping therapy is combined with other measures, such as drug therapy, acumoxibustions etc. In recent years, multi - functional vacuum cupping devices made of high - technical materials mark a great leap forward of the features of cupping devices and sucking measures.

  12. The physics of proton therapy. (United States)

    Newhauser, Wayne D; Zhang, Rui


    The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes as well as selected practical experimental and theoretical methods. We conclude by briefly speculating on possible future areas of research of relevance to the physics of proton therapy.

  13. The physics of proton therapy (United States)

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Zhang, Rui


    The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes as well as selected practical experimental and theoretical methods. We conclude by briefly speculating on possible future areas of research of relevance to the physics of proton therapy.

  14. [Cardiac effects of radiation therapy]. (United States)

    Tuohinen, Suvi; Turpeinen, Anu; Skyttä, Tanja; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa


    Because of increased life-expentancy cancer patients having undergone radiation therapy nowadays live longer, and late-appearing adverse effects are therefore playing a more significant role. Radiation therapy given to the chest is known to approximately double the risk of heart disease, the cumulative total radiation dose being the most important risk-increasing factor. The most significant adverse effects appear only years after the treatment. The mortality from late manifestations reduces the total benefit of radiation therapy. Patients with radiation therapy due to a cancer of the left breast or Hodgkin's lymphoma are particularly susceptible to cardiac effects. A safe radiation dose is not known.

  15. Different Approaches in Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf-Dieter eKortmann


    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is a cornerstone in the therapeutic management of craniopharyngioma. The close proximity to neighbouring eloquent structures pose a particular challenge to radiation therapy. Modern treatment technologies including fractionated 3-d conformal radiotherapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy and recently proton therapy are able to precisely cover the target while preserving surrounding tissue,Tumour controls between 80 and in access of 90 % can be achieved. Alternative treatments consisting of radiosurgery, intracavitary application of isotopes and brachytherapy also offer an acceptable tumour control and might be given in selected cases. More research is needed to establish the role of each treatment modality.

  16. Therapy of atopic eczema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias


    Full Text Available Objectives: Major objective is the evaluation of the medical effectiveness of different therapeutical approaches and the cost effectiveness with relevance for Germany. Methods: This health technology assessment (HTA evaluates systemically randomized controlled studies (RCT on the therapy of atopic dermatitis which were published between 1999 and 2004. Further it includes some important clinical studies which have been published after 2004 and other updates the English HTA report by Hoare et al. [1]. Results: Topical corticosteroids and topical calcineurin-inhibitors are the principal substances which are currently used for anti-inflammatory therapy in atopic dermatitis. These substances have shown a significant therapeutic efficacy in controlled studies. In newer controlled studies no difference was observable when corticosteroids were applied once or more than once daily onto the skin. Moreover, there is now one controlled study available which points to the fact that an interval therapy with a stronger topical corticosteroid over a limited time (some weeks may lower the risk of recurrent flares of atopic dermatitis. Both topical calcineurin-inhibitors pimecrolimus and tacrolimus have shown a significant therapeutical efficacy in a number of placebo-controlled prospective studies. The wealth of data is high for these substances. Both substances have been shown to be efficient in infants, children and adult patients with atopic dermatitis. The importance of a so-called basic therapy with emollients which have to be adapted to the current status of skin is generally accepted in clinical practice. Controlled studies show the efficacy of ”basic therapy” - although the level of evidence is quite low for this approach. The skin of patients with atopic dermatitis is colonized in the majority with Staphylococcus aureus, a gram-positive bacterium. Therefore, a therapeutical approach for the treatment of atopic dermatitis is the anti-bacterial or

  17. Iodine neutron capture therapy (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  18. Antiviral therapy: a perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidi Bonjar AH


    Full Text Available Amir Hashem Shahidi Bonjar Clinician Scientist, Institute of Applied Research in Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran Abstract: This paper discusses extracorporeal removal of viral particles and their antigens from the blood as an auxiliary therapy. This hypothesis has not been reported before. In some chronic blood-borne viral infections, the virus remains systemic and persistent for extended periods of time, with adverse effects that weaken the immune system. Blood titers of virus and its toxins are proportional to the severity of the disease, and their reduction can alleviate symptoms, leading to improved health. Several blood-borne viral infections can be overcome by the young, but are life-threatening in the elderly. It is known that some older people have extreme difficulty tolerating viral infections such as influenza and the common cold. Further, several types of viral infection persist throughout the life of the individual and cannot be eliminated by conventional treatments. Well-known infections of this type include HIV and hepatitis B. In the case of Ebola virus, patients remain infectious as long as their blood contains the virus. According to the present hypothesis, an extracorporeal viral antibody column (EVAC is proposed for elimination or reduction of the blood viral titer when treating blood-borne viral infection. EVAC would selectively trap viral antigens and toxins in the blood into an extracorporeal circuit, while returning detoxified blood back to the patient’s body. It is anticipated that EVAC would reduce mortality caused by blood-borne viral infections in the elderly since reduction of blood virus titers would improve health, leading to improved overall patient performance. Such enhancement would also make conventional therapies even more effective. EVAC could have a lifesaving role in treatment of viral illness, especially those involving lethal viruses such as Ebola, where the patient

  19. [Acceptance and commitment therapy]. (United States)

    Ducasse, D; Fond, G


    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a third generation of cognitive-behavioral therapies. The point is to help patients to improve their psychological flexibility in order to accept unavoidable private events. Thus, they have the opportunity to invest energy in committed actions rather than struggle against their psychological events. (i) To present the ACT basic concepts and (ii) to propose a systematic review of the literature about effectiveness of this kind of psychotherapy. (i) The core concepts of ACT come from Monestès (2011), Schoendorff (2011), and Harris (2012); (ii) we conducted a systematic review of the literature using the PRISMA's criteria. The research paradigm was « acceptance and commitment therapy AND randomized controlled trial ». The bases of the MEDLINE, Cochrane and Web of science have been checked. Overall, 61 articles have been found, of which, after reading the abstracts, 40 corresponded to the subject of our study. (I) Psychological flexibility is established through six core ACT processes (cognitive defusion, acceptance, being present, values, committed action, self as context), while the therapist emphasizes on experiential approach. (II) Emerging research shows that ACT is efficacious in the psychological treatment of a wide range of psychiatric problems, including psychosis, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, trichotillomania, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, eating disorders. ACT has also shown a utility in other areas of medicine: the management chronic pain, drug-dependence, smoking cessation, the management of epilepsy, diabetic self-management, the management of work stress, the management of tinnitus, and the management of multiple sclerosis. Meta-analysis of controlled outcome studies reported an average effect size (Cohen's d) of 0.66 at post-treatment (n=704) and 0.65 (n=580) at follow-up (on average 19.2 weeks later). In studies involving

  20. Basic Family Therapy Skills, IV: Transgenerational Theories of Family Therapy. (United States)

    Nelson, Thorana S.; And Others


    Family therapy educators listed most critical/basic skills/competencies of beginning family therapists with transgenerational orientation. Self-selected respondents then rated items according to importance for beginning therapists. Found transgenerational family therapy skills founded in theory and identifiable behaviorally. Most important skills…

  1. Physical therapy and occupational therapy in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radder, D.L.M.; Sturkenboom, I.H.W.M.; Nimwegen, M. van; Keus, S.H.; Bloem, B.R.; Vries, N.M. de


    Current medical management is only partially effective in controlling the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. As part of comprehensive multidisciplinary care, physical therapy and occupational therapy aim to support people with Parkinson's disease in dealing with the consequences of their disease in

  2. Bone Marrow Cellular Therapies: Novel Therapy for Knee Osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Piuzzi, Nicolas S; Khlopas, Anton; Newman, Jared M; Ng, Mitchell; Roche, Martin; Husni, M Elaine; Spindler, Kurt P; Mont, Michael A; Muschler, George


    Cellular therapies are emerging as potentially promising treatments for numerous musculoskeletal conditions, such as knee osteoarthritis (OA). As orthopaedic surgeons represent a sizable portion of the providers who deliver these therapies, it is particularly essential for them to understand their fundamental principles. One major principle is to identify the appropriate sources for obtaining these cells, with bone marrow being most common. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to provide an overview of cell-based therapies available for the treatment of knee OA with a focus on bone marrow-derived cellular therapies. Specifically, we discuss (1) bone marrow aspiration technique, (2) processing to bone marrow aspirate concentrate, and (3) the rational and clinical evidence for the use of bone marrow cellular therapies for the treatment of knee OA. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Gene therapy in keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahgol Farjadnia


    Full Text Available Keratoconus (KC is the most common ectasia of the cornea and is a common reason for corneal transplant. Therapeutic strategies that can arrest the progression of this disease and modify the underlying pathogenesis are getting more and more popularity among scientists. Cumulating data represent strong evidence of a genetic role in the pathogenesis of KC. Different loci have been identified, and certain mutations have also been mapped for this disease. Moreover, Biophysical properties of the cornea create an appropriate candidate of this tissue for gene therapy. Immune privilege, transparency and ex vivo stability are among these properties. Recent advantage in vectors, besides the ability to modulate the corneal milieu for accepting the target gene for a longer period and fruitful translation, make a big hope for stupendous results reasonable.

  4. Future Therapies of Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgün Atakan


    Full Text Available For many years psoriasis was thought to be an epidermal disorder resulting from uncontrolled hyperproliferation of keratinocytes. After the discovery of T cell targeted immunosuppressive agents improving psoriasis, it has been considered as a T cell mediated autoimmune disease. Systemic agents including methotrexate, tretinoin, cyclosporin have been used to treat psoriasis for over 30 years. The understanding of psoriasis as a T-cell.mediated disease has led to the development of biologic agents which target key molecules in the pathologic process.These new agents named biologicals appear to be safer than the agents in traditional therapies. Because they are so new and their long term safety is not established well; scientists are exploring several new therapeutic targets. Several new molecules such as angiogenesis inhibitors, immunomodulatory compounds, intracellular messenger targets, anti-inflammatory molecules, anti-integrins can be possible future treatment agent of psoriasis.

  5. Ozone Therapy in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Sudarshan


    Full Text Available With the advancements in the field of dentistry, new treatment protocols are budding day by day to combat human ailments in a much natural better and simpler way. One such advancement is the application of ozone in dentistry. Ozone is a natural element protects us from ultraviolet rays. It has several properties including analgesics, immunostimulant and antimicrobial properties. In Dentistry its uses are abundance from gingival diseases, infection control, temporomandibular disorders, radiation and chemotherapy induced mucositis, lichen planus etc. Researchers believe that this therapy is in state of equilibrium with benefit and drawback. This review throws light on the history, properties, methods of administration, uses in the field of medicine and dentistry, toxicity, contraindications of ozone. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 45-54

  6. Gene therapy for hemophilia (United States)

    Rogers, Geoffrey L.; Herzog, Roland W.


    Hemophilia is an X-linked inherited bleeding disorder consisting of two classifications, hemophilia A and hemophilia B, depending on the underlying mutation. Although the disease is currently treatable with intravenous delivery of replacement recombinant clotting factor, this approach represents a significant cost both monetarily and in terms of quality of life. Gene therapy is an attractive alternative approach to the treatment of hemophilia that would ideally provide life-long correction of clotting activity with a single injection. In this review, we will discuss the multitude of approaches that have been explored for the treatment of both hemophilia A and B, including both in vivo and ex vivo approaches with viral and nonviral delivery vectors. PMID:25553466

  7. [Fibromyalgia and physical therapy]. (United States)

    Tits, M


    Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by the existence of widespread musculoskeletal pain, present above and below the waist and the axial skeleton for a period of at least three months. Other symptoms are frequently present, intolerance to exercise, fatigue, trouble sleeping, morning stiffness, paresthesias, anxiety, headaches, etc. The exact etiology and pathophysiology of the disease are not clearly established. Currently, we primarily retain a bad handling of pain pathways. An understanding of these mechanisms is important as a basis for a global therapeutic program and the rehabilitation of patients with fibromyalgia. By the multiple nature of these symptoms associated with fibromyalgia, an accurate assessment of the patient will be a preamble to any optimal care. Current guidelines recommend comprehensive and multidisciplinary care, however centers that offer this type of care are rare. In mono-disciplinary treatment, the physical therapy recommended is aerobic exercise and the strengthening of muscles associated with different manual techniques to decrease the nociceptive input.

  8. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy & Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild

    coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own......Coaching is an expanding area of professional work, and recent years have brought forward the notion of cognitive coaching (Costa, 2006; Oestrich, 2005) which adapts theory and techniques from cognitive therapy to serve self-enhancement in non-clinical populations. We suggest that a cognitive...... repertoire. The skills needed for cognitive coaching reflect all therapeutic techniques but at a less advanced psychotherapeutic level, and still prepare for future clinical work and development. In the poster, we summarise a cognitive coaching course syllabus as well as results from data collected...

  9. Poetry as therapy. (United States)

    Morrice, J K


    In the practice of general psychiatry, art therapy in the form of painting is widely employed. Music and drama similarly provide regular treatment occasions. The use of poetry is less familiar and is little discussed in the literature. This paper reviews a therapeutic liaison, happening largely by chance, which depended almost exclusively upon an exchange of verse. The relationship between the processes of psychotherapy, on the one hand, and the writing and reading of poetry, on the other, is suggested and illustrated by the patient's writings. It may be that good poetry, like successful psychotherapy, arises from disturbed emotions only when they are given resolution and form. Exceptionally the two go hand-in-hand.

  10. New therapies for gout. (United States)

    Crittenden, Daria B; Pillinger, Michael H


    Gout prevalence is increasing, yet management remains suboptimal. Fortunately, new insights into gout biology are permitting the development of novel, potentially more effective strategies for both gouty inflammation and urate lowering. Colchicine, a drug long used for gout, has been recently approved (for the first time ever) by the FDA, based on a new, safer dosing regimen. The recently appreciated centrality of IL-1β in acute gouty inflammation has prompted studies of agents blocking the IL-1β receptor or soluble IL-1β signaling (canakinumab, rilonacept, anakinra). Novel approaches to urate lowering have led to mechanism-based therapies such as urate synthesis inhibitors (febuxostat is already FDA approved and BCX4208 is in development), URAT-1 inhibitors promoting renal uric acid excretion (lesinurad), and recombinant uricase to directly catabolize urate (pegloticase). These new treatments do not obviate the need for lifestyle and dietary management, another area in which significant scientific and clinical progress has recently been made.

  11. Immunosupportive therapies in aging (United States)

    Fülöp, Tamas; Larbi, Anis; Hirokawa, Katsuiku; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Lesourd, Bruno; Castle, Stephen; Wikby, Anders; Franceschi, Claudio; Pawelec, Graham


    The primary role of the immune system is to protect the organism against pathogens, but age-associated alterations to immunity increase the susceptibility of the elderly to infectious disease. The exact nature of these changes is still controversial, but the use of screening procedures, such as the SENIEUR protocol to exclude underlying illness, helped to better characterize the changes actually related to physiological aging rather than pathology. It is generally agreed that the most marked changes occur in the cellular immune response reflecting profound alterations in T cells. Much of this is due to thymic involution as well as changes in the proportions of T cell subpopulations resulting from antigen exposure, and altered T cell activation pathways. However, a body of data indicates that innate immune responses, including the critical bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, and antigen presenting capacity are not completely resistant to senescence processes. The consequences of all these alterations are an increased incidence of infections, as well as possibly cancers, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory diseases. The leading question is what, if anything, can we do to prevent these deleterious changes without dangerously dysregulating the precarious balance of productive immunity versus immunopathology? There are many potential new therapeutic means now available to modulate immunosenescence and many others are expected to be available shortly. One main problem in applying these experimental therapies is ethical: there is a common feeling that as ageing is not a disease; the elderly are not sick and therefore do not require adventurous therapies with unpredictable side-effects in mostly frail individuals. Animal models are not helpful in this context. In this chapter we will first briefly review what we think we know about human immunosenescence and its consequences for the health status of elderly individuals. We will then discuss possible

  12. Mutagenesis after cancer therapy. (United States)

    Kelsey, K T; Caggana, M; Mauch, P M; Coleman, C N; Clark, J R; Liber, H L


    A subset of Hodgkin's disease (HD) and breast cancer patients have been reported to have elevated hprt mutant frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes after cessation of therapy. A subset of these patients are also known to develop second therapy-related malignancies. Therefore, it is clearly important to determine if these elevations in mutant frequency represent true, persistently elevated mutation frequencies. As a follow-up to our study of patients previously treated for HD, we recruited for a prospective study six previously treated HD patients and five patients who had been treated for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. These individuals were studied several times over a 6-7 months. The results confirmed that a subset of patients have persistently high mutant frequencies when compared to 71 previously studied controls. The study was designed to determine if the elevated mutant frequencies of treated patients represented independent mutations or resulted from the in vivo expansion of single mutant cells. We used the polymerase chain reaction to examine DNA single strand conformation polymorphisms at the T-cell receptor-gamma locus of individual mutant clones. This analysis showed that 20.1% of the mutants from Hodgkin's disease patients and 17.5% of the mutants from squamous cell carcinoma patients were siblings. The sibling mutants generally did not persist over time. However, one patient had one mutant clone that persisted, but slowly decreased in prevalence over a 7 month sampling period. The data demonstrate that treatments for cancer result in persistently elevated mutation frequencies at the hprt locus in some, but not all, patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8143613

  13. Optimizing intraoperative fluid therapy. (United States)

    Stephens, Robert; Mythen, Monty


    Correcting the fluid status of the surgical patient is an integral part of good anaesthetic practice. There have been few areas in anaesthesia and perioperative medicine as controversial as fluid resuscitation. Uncertainties still exist as to what the best solution to give is, whether it be a colloid or a crystalloid, and how and when to give it. As well as increasing awareness of the different properties of various colloids, there has been interest in the nature of the carrier solutions, essentially a choice between saline or Ringer's lactate (compound sodium lactate or Hartmann's solution). In this article we review recent studies involving crystalloids, the 'new colloids', and on the amount and timing of fluid therapy. Saline based fluids (including most colloids) are associated with a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, and a hypocoagulable state, although these may not necessarily harm the patient. Saline may have deleterious effects on renal function. Colloids in solutions similar to Ringer's lactate ('balanced solutions') may avoid these effects although few are currently available. Several studies that have used fluids (along with other therapies) to improve organ perfusion around the time of surgery have been associated with a better outcome. Compared with Ringer's lactate, saline, and saline-based colloids are associated with a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, and a hypocoagulable state although they may not be associated with adverse patient outcomes. Increasing awareness of the 'Stewart hypothesis' has led to new ways of managing hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. The 'crystalloid-colloid debate' continues, and has led to an awareness that these different fluids, along with their carrier solutions are drugs with different effects. Several studies, in which patients have received more fluid in the protocol group, have found better clinical outcomes in the 'optimized' patients.

  14. [Therapy of Wilson disease]. (United States)

    Smolarek, C; Stremmel, W


    Wilson disease is a copper storage disease with autosomal-recessive trait that is predominantly a disorder of the adolescent and young adult. Clinical manifestations are dominated by hepatic and/or neurological symptoms. Diagnostic procedures include determination of total serum copper, free serum copper and serum ceruloplamin concentrations as well as urinary copper excretion. Confirmation of diagnosis may be achieved by liver biopsy and histological determination of copper content. The aim of treatment is reduction of tissue copper concentration and detoxification of copper. Drugs applied are the chelating agents. D-penicillamine and trientine, or zinc. The chelating agents induce renal and biliary copper excretion and increased synthesis of metallothionein, which attaches and detoxifies intracellular copper, leading to impaired absorption and binding of excess intracellular copper. Treatment with zinc results in induction of hepatic and intestinal metallothionein synthesis. Regular examinations of the parameters of copper metabolism are necessary in order to control the therapeutic effect. Free copper serum concentrations and urinary copper excretion should reach values below 10 micrograms/dl and 80 micrograms/day, respectively. A significant improvement of clinical symptoms and normalization of parameters of copper metabolism can be expected earliest six months after onset of therapy. Anti-copper treatment may be accompanied by copper-reduced diet. Lifelong therapy is required and provides life-expectancy near to normal. Interruption of treatment leads to reaccumulation of copper, often resulting in fulminant hepatic failure. This can also be observed as initial presentation in 5% of cases (predominant age 12 to 25 years). End stage liver disease and fulminant hepatic failure are indications for liver transplantation by which the genetic defect is phenotypically cured. Here decoppering treatment is no longer required. Whether severe neurological disorders may

  15. Interventional MR: interstitial therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J.; Mack, M.G.; Straub, R.; Engelmann, K.; Eichler, K. [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Mueller, P.K. [Department of Radiology, Virchow, Humboldt Univ. of Berlin (Germany)


    The rationale and results for interstitial therapies via interventional MRI in the treatment of tumors in various regions are presented. Different interstitial treatment techniques are presented based on varying technologies both for tumor ablation and treatment monitoring. Data are presented based on 335 patients, 29-84 years of age (mean age 59 years, 196 men and 139 women) with a total of 932 liver tumors, 16 head and neck tumors and 14 abdominal recurrent pelvic and lymphatic tumors. All lesions had been treated with MR-guided laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) via 2516 laser applications and 1856 cannulations. Data in the literature are extremely varying depending on author experience, treatment technique, and the included patient material. In our patient material we were able to achieve a local tumor control of 96.7 % depending on the size of the tumorous lesion, the topographical relationship, and the applied laser parameters. The overall cumulative survival rate of patients with liver metastases was 45.74 months (median 40.97 months, 95 % confidence interval 31.42-50.52). The cumulative survival rate of the patient group with hepatic metastases of colorectal carcinoma was 42.71 months (median 39.33 months, 95 % confidence interval 33.26-45.37). In patients with head and neck tumors a relevant reduction in clinically relevant symptoms such as pain, swallowing disorders, or nervous compression was achieved in 11 of 15 patients treated with LITT. In 14 soft tissue tumors, such as pelvic tumor recurrence and lymph node metastases, a local tumor control was obtained in 68 % of lesions. Interstitial therapies under interventional MRI guidance, such as LITT, results in a high local tumor control with an improved survival rate. (orig.) With 7 figs., 28 refs.

  16. Music Therapy with Premature Infants (United States)

    Standley, Jayne


    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  17. Learning theory and gestalt therapy. (United States)

    Harper, R; Bauer, R; Kannarkat, J


    This article discusses the theory and operations of Gestalt Therapy from the viewpoint of learning theory. General comparative issues are elaborated as well as the concepts of introjection, retroflextion, confluence, and projection. Principles and techniques of Gestalt Therapy are discussed in terms of learning theory paradigm. Practical implications of the various Gestalt techniques are presented.

  18. Striding Towards Better Physical Therapy (United States)


    This paper presents a discussion on a new rehabilitative device that promises to improve physical therapy for patients working to regain the ability to walk after facing traumatic injuries or a degenerative illness. Produced by Enduro Medical Technology, of East Hartford, Connecticut, the Secure Ambulation Module (S.A.M.) creates a stable and secure environment for patients as they stand during ambulation therapy.

  19. Gene therapy in pancreatic cancer (United States)

    Liu, Si-Xue; Xia, Zhong-Sheng; Zhong, Ying-Qiang


    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly lethal disease and notoriously difficult to treat. Only a small proportion of PC patients are eligible for surgical resection, whilst conventional chemoradiotherapy only has a modest effect with substantial toxicity. Gene therapy has become a new widely investigated therapeutic approach for PC. This article reviews the basic rationale, gene delivery methods, therapeutic targets and developments of laboratory research and clinical trials in gene therapy of PC by searching the literature published in English using the PubMed database and analyzing clinical trials registered on the Gene Therapy Clinical Trials Worldwide website (http://www. clinical). Viral vectors are main gene delivery tools in gene therapy of cancer, and especially, oncolytic virus shows brighter prospect due to its tumor-targeting property. Efficient therapeutic targets for gene therapy include tumor suppressor gene p53, mutant oncogene K-ras, anti-angiogenesis gene VEGFR, suicide gene HSK-TK, cytosine deaminase and cytochrome p450, multiple cytokine genes and so on. Combining different targets or combination strategies with traditional chemoradiotherapy may be a more effective approach to improve the efficacy of cancer gene therapy. Cancer gene therapy is not yet applied in clinical practice, but basic and clinical studies have demonstrated its safety and clinical benefits. Gene therapy will be a new and promising field for the treatment of PC. PMID:25309069

  20. Combining Clozapine and Talk Therapies. (United States)

    Mulroy, Kevin

    Clozapine is an antipsychotic medication used in the treatment of schizophrenia. This paper reviews articles concerning clozapine therapy. It considers its benefits and dangers in various situations, and how it can be successfully combined with talk therapies. Studies are reviewed concerning patients in outpatient clinics, partial hospitalization…

  1. Play Therapy in Elementary Schools (United States)

    Landreth, Garry L.; Ray, Dee C.; Bratton, Sue C.


    Because the child's world is a world of action and activity, play therapy provides the psychologist in elementary-school settings with an opportunity to enter the child's world. In the play therapy relationship, toys are like the child's words and play is the child's language. Therefore, children play out their problems, experiences, concerns, and…

  2. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Introduction (United States)

    Twohig, Michael P.


    This is the introductory article to a special series in Cognitive and Behavioral Practice on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Instead of each article herein reviewing the basics of ACT, this article contains that review. This article provides a description of where ACT fits within the larger category of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT):…

  3. [Why proton therapy? And how? (United States)

    Thariat, Juliette; Habrand, Jean Louis; Lesueur, Paul; Chaikh, Abdulhamid; Kammerer, Emmanuel; Lecomte, Delphine; Batalla, Alain; Balosso, Jacques; Tessonnier, Thomas


    Proton therapy is a radiotherapy, based on the use of protons, charged subatomic particles that stop at a given depth depending on their initial energy (pristine Bragg peak), avoiding any output beam, unlike the photons used in most of the other modalities of radiotherapy. Proton therapy has been used for 60 years, but has only become ubiquitous in the last decade because of recent major advances in particle accelerator technology. This article reviews the history of clinical implementation of protons, the nature of the technological advances that now allows its expansion at a lower cost. It also addresses the technical and physical specificities of proton therapy and the clinical situations for which proton therapy may be relevant but requires evidence. Different proton therapy techniques are possible. These are explained in terms of their clinical potential by explaining the current terminology (such as cyclotrons, synchrotrons or synchrocyclotrons, using superconducting magnets, fixed line or arm rotary with passive diffusion delivery or active by scanning) in basic words. The requirements associated with proton therapy are increased due to the precision of the depth dose deposit. The learning curve of proton therapy requires that clinical indications be prioritized according to their associated uncertainties (such as range uncertainties and movement in lung tumors). Many clinical indications potentially fall under proton therapy ultimately. Clinical strategies are explained in a paralleled manuscript. Copyright © 2018 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Frequently Asked Questions about Music Therapy (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and Quotes ... m Having Trouble Logging In/Staying Logged In Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? What do music therapists ...

  5. The physics of radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Faiz M


    Dr. Khan's classic textbook on radiation oncology physics is now in its thoroughly revised and updated Fourth Edition. It provides the entire radiation therapy team—radiation oncologists, medical physicists, dosimetrists, and radiation therapists—with a thorough understanding of the physics and practical clinical applications of advanced radiation therapy technologies, including 3D-CRT, stereotactic radiotherapy, HDR, IMRT, IGRT, and proton beam therapy. These technologies are discussed along with the physical concepts underlying treatment planning, treatment delivery, and dosimetry. This Fourth Edition includes brand-new chapters on image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and proton beam therapy. Other chapters have been revised to incorporate the most recent developments in the field. This edition also features more than 100 full-color illustrations throughout.

  6. Particle therapy for noncancer diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert, Christoph; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Durante, Marco [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Biophysics Department, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Philipps-University Marburg, Center for Radiology, Department of Radiation Therapy, Baldinger Strasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Biophysics Department, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Hochschulstrasse 3, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany) and Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)


    Radiation therapy using high-energy charged particles is generally acknowledged as a powerful new technique in cancer treatment. However, particle therapy in oncology is still controversial, specifically because it is unclear whether the putative clinical advantages justify the high additional costs. However, particle therapy can find important applications in the management of noncancer diseases, especially in radiosurgery. Extension to other diseases and targets (both cranial and extracranial) may widen the applications of the technique and decrease the cost/benefit ratio of the accelerator facilities. Future challenges in this field include the use of different particles and energies, motion management in particle body radiotherapy and extension to new targets currently treated by catheter ablation (atrial fibrillation and renal denervation) or stereotactic radiation therapy (trigeminal neuralgia, epilepsy, and macular degeneration). Particle body radiosurgery could be a future key application of accelerator-based particle therapy facilities in 10 years from today.

  7. Neonatal Infusion Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Zhukov


    Full Text Available Objective: to study whether 20% albumin might be postoperatively used in the newborn. Subjects and methods. The study included 64 neonatal infants with various congenital surgical diseases: esophageal atresia (34.1%, congenital low and high ileus (43.9%, diaphragmatic hernia (12.1%, and gastroschisis (5.7%. On days 1 and 2 after birth, all the infants underwent correction of a defect. The rate of neonatal shock elimination was studied, by using the traditional scheme and transfusion of highly concentrated 20% albumin solution (20% plasbumin (Talecris Biotherapeutics. A study group comprised 12 neonates aged 0 to 3 days. For stabilization of blood pressure and emergence from shock, they received highly concentrated 20% albumin solution by the authors’ scheme (at an infusion rate of 20 ml/kg/hour until BP stabilized in the early postoperative period. A control group consisted of 52 neonatal infants who had the similar surgical interventions and received the complete standard complex of infusion-transfusion therapy: 10% glucose + physiological solution in a ratio of 1:1 at a rate of 20 ml/kg/hour, then 6% hydroxyethyl starch preparations in a dose of 3 ml/kg/hour. The control points in the study were as follows: mortality rate, the rate of normalization of BP and diuresis within the first 24 hours after surgery, the severity of generalized edema and the stabilization of total blood protein by day 10, and the duration of artificial ventilation (AV. All the neonates underwent monitoring of vital indices: ECG, systolic, diastolic, and mean BP, and tissue oxygen saturation (SaO2. Statistical processing involved estimation of the significance of changes, by using Student’s test. Results. Mortality rates were 9.8 and 22.3% in the group of neonates receiving 20% albumin against shock and in the control having the traditional treatment, respectively. A significant acceleration of BP normalization was noted in the study group (1.5±0.12 hours as

  8. Immunosupportive therapies in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Fülöp


    subpopulations resulting from antigen exposure, and altered T cell activation pathways. However, a body of data indicates that innate immune responses, including the critical bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, and antigen presenting capacity are not completely resistant to senescence processes. The consequences of all these alterations are an increased incidence of infections, as well as possibly cancers, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory diseases. The leading question is what, if anything, can we do to prevent these deleterious changes without dangerously dysregulating the precarious balance of productive immunity versus immunopathology? There are many potential new therapeutic means now available to modulate immunosenescence and many others are expected to be available shortly. One main problem in applying these experimental therapies is ethical: there is a common feeling that as ageing is not a disease; the elderly are not sick and therefore do not require adventurous therapies with unpredictable side-effects in mostly frail individuals. Animal models are not helpful in this context. In this chapter we will first briefly review what we think we know about human immunosenescence and its consequences for the health status of elderly individuals. We will then discuss possible interventions that might one day become applicable in an appropriate ethical environment.Keywords: immunosenescence, T cells, phagocytic cells, nutrition, vaccination, exercise, CMV, inflammaging, IRP, immunorestorative therapies

  9. Mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy; Diagnostik und Therapie des Mammakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Uwe; Baum, Friedemann (eds.) [Diagnostisches Brustzentrum Goettingen BZG, Goettingen(Germany)


    The book on mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy covers the following issues: development, anatomy and physiology of the mammary glands, pathology of benign and malign mammary gland changes, non-imaging diagnostics; mammography; ultrasonic mammography; magnetic resonance tomography of the mammary glands; imaging diagnostics findings; mammary interventions; examination concepts; operative therapy of the mammary carcinoma; chemotherapy of the mammary carcinoma; radio-oncological therapy of the mammary carcinoma; logistics in a medical center for mammary gland diseases; logistics in an interdisciplinary center for mammary diseases; dialogue conduction and psycho-social attendance.

  10. American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy (United States)

    ... Chicago Learn More Close The American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy ASGCT is the primary membership organization for scientists, ... Therapeutics Official Journal of the American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy Molecular Therapy is the leading journal for gene ...

  11. Manual therapies for migraine: a systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chaibi, Aleksander; Tuchin, Peter J; Russell, Michael Bjørn


    ...) on manual therapies for migraine. The RCTs suggest that massage therapy, physiotherapy, relaxation and chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy might be equally effective as propranolol and topiramate in the prophylactic management of migraine...

  12. AIDS and Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Garrós, MC


    Full Text Available "When my first hospitalization took place, I must recognize I was plunged into the mistake of identifying AIDS with death, together with the depression, uneasiness, unsecurity and the feeling of inability to plan my life in the short and long term to the point of refusing in my mind to organize things as simple as future holidays or improvements at home".Thanks to retroviral treatments, the initially mortal HIV/AIDS infection has become a chronic disease as it can be today thediabetes, allowing objectives in the short, medium and long term. Here is where the occupational therapy operates as an instrument to improve, keep or rehabilitate the occupational areas of this group which has a series of special features to be borne in mind when working with them.I seek to reflect my 8 months experience working as an occupational therapist in a Refuge Centre for AIDS ill people, and how throughout this experience I changed several of my initial approaches and working methods too.

  13. Dopaminergic therapy in aphasia. (United States)

    Gill, Sumanjit K; Leff, Alexander P


    The dopaminergic system is involved in a wide range of cognitive functions including motor control, reward, memory, attention, problem-solving and learning. This has stimulated interest in investigating the potential of dopaminergic drugs as cognitive enhancers in aphasic patients. To discuss the evidence for the use of dopaminergic agents in patients with aphasia. Levodopa (L-dopa) and the dopamine agonist bromocriptine are the two drugs that have been trialled to date. We discuss, in some detail, the 15 studies that have been published on this topic from the first case report in 1988 to the present (2012), and assess the evidence from each. In addition to summarising the effectiveness of the drugs that have been tried, we examine the possible cognitive mechanisms by which dopaminergic drugs may act on language function and aphasia recovery. Given the wide range of dopaminergic drugs, it is surprising that such a narrow range has been trialled in aphasic patients. Important lessons are to be learned from published studies and we discuss optimal trial designs to help guide future work. The evidence for the efficacy of dopaminergic agents in aphasia therapy is mixed. Further trials with better tolerated agents are required. Optimal trial designs with appropriate control groups or blocks should be used. The mechanism of action is unclear, but at the cognitive level the evidence points towards either (re)learning of word-forms or their improved retrieval.

  14. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff


    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  15. [Therapy of tic disorders]. (United States)

    Roessner, Veit; Schoenefeld, Katia; Buse, Judith; Wanderer, Sina; Rothenberger, Aribert


    Tremendous progress has taken place in the last 8 years since the publication of our review on «Therapy of Tic Disorders» in the Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie. Several steps in treatment have been specified. For example, consensus-based indications for treatment have been published, and a detailed manual for a so-called habit-reversal training program has been developed and evaluated. In addition, new treatment options such as aripiprazole and deep-brain stimulation have been implemented. Increasing attention is being given to the disabling consequences of the commonly co-occurring psychiatric conditions known as ADHD or OCD. Nevertheless, there is still much to be learned about the treatment of tic disorders; standardized and sufficiently large drug trials in patients with tic disorders fulfilling evidence-based medicine standards are still scarce. The same is true for direct comparisons of different agents as well as of medication versus behavioral treatment. Finally, the question of how to predict the individual course of tics and how best to deal with the problems of waxing and waning of tics in this context still limits evidence base for treatment decisions. Large clinical experience is still a pre-requisite for making optimal decisions for the treatment of individual patients suffering from a tic disorder.

  16. Androgen therapy in women. (United States)

    Arlt, Wiebke


    Androgens in women either derive from direct ovarian production or from peripheral conversion of the adrenal sex steroid precursor, dehydroepiandrosterone, towards active androgens. Therefore, loss of adrenal or ovarian function, caused by Addison's disease or consequent to bilateral oophorectomy, results in severe androgen deficiency, clinically often associated with a loss of libido and energy. Importantly, physiological menopause does not necessarily lead to androgen deficiency, as androgen synthesis in the ovaries may persist despite the decline in estrogen production. However, the definition of female androgen deficiency, as recently provided by the Princeton consensus statement, is not precise enough and may lead to over-diagnosis due to the high prevalence of its diagnostic criteria: androgen levels below or within the lower quartile of the normal range and concurrent sexual dysfunction. Importantly, physiological menopause is not necessarily associated with androgen deficiency and therefore does not routinely require androgen therapy. Current replacement options include transdermal testosterone administration or dehydroepiandrosterone treatment, both of which have been shown to result in significant improvements, in particular in libido and mood, while effects on body composition and muscular function are not well documented. It is important to keep in mind that the number of randomized controlled trials is still limited and that currently none of the available preparations is officially approved for use in women. Currently, androgen replacement should be reserved for women with severe androgen deficiency due to an established cause and matching clinical signs and symptoms.

  17. Systematic reviews informing occupational therapy. (United States)

    Bennett, Sally; Hoffmann, Tammy; McCluskey, Annie; Coghlan, Nicole; Tooth, Leigh


    We sought to identify and describe the number, topics, and publishing trends of systematic reviews relevant to occupational therapy indexed in the OTseeker database. We performed a cross-sectional survey of the systematic reviews contained in OTseeker in December 2011. Of the 1,940 systematic reviews indexed in OTseeker, only 53 (2.7%) were published in occupational therapy journals. The most common diagnostic categories were stroke (n = 195, 10.1%) and affective disorders (n = 204, 10.5%). The most common intervention categories were consumer education (n = 644, 33.2%) and psychosocial techniques (n = 571, 29.4%). Only 390 (20.1%) of the 1,940 systematic reviews specifically involved occupational therapy. Occupational therapists need to search broadly to locate relevant systematic reviews or, alternatively, to use databases such as OTseeker. Clarity about the involvement of occupational therapy in reports of future research will improve the ability to identify occupational therapy research for all stakeholders. Finally, occupational therapy practitioners need to read systematic reviews critically to determine whether review conclusions are justified. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  18. Bio-Surgical Therapy- Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivshankar M. Gunjegaonkar


    Full Text Available After 21st century William Baer presented a dramatic work to bone and soft tissue infections with live maggots or warm or larva. Certainly numbers of therapists around the globe have rediscovered the benefits of maggot therapy. The principal vision for the in maggot therapy is the clean and clear debridement caused due to chronic wound which are not responding to current antibiotic or antimicrobial therapy. More over the advantage of maggot or warm therapy over existence is low cost, easy production, higher cure rate, lack of resistance and reliable therapy. Modern dressing materials have simplified the procedure and minimized the risk of escaping maggots. The development and establishment of biotech laboratories throughout the world make possible availability to millions of people. Various medical literatures are rapidly growing with scientific evidence demonstrating the efficacy and safety of maggot therapy for a variety of problematic wounds. Current review is prepared to focus various application and advantages of maggot debridement therapy with suitability for choric wounds.

  19. Food Therapy in Sinosphere Asia. (United States)

    Chu, Natural Hoi Sing; Yao, Chu Kion; Tan, Victoria Ping Yi


    Traditional Chinese Food Therapy has long been an integral part of dietary practices in Sinosphere Asia. This therapy is defined by the classification of foods into cooling (Yin) and heaty (Yang) and the manipulation of dietary intake of these foods as a therapeutic strategy for chronic diseases. Both functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are chronic, functional gut disorders widely prevalent in Sinosphere Asia. Diet is increasingly recognized as a symptom trigger in FD and IBS, and the evidence suggesting the utility of diet therapies as front-line management is growing, particularly in the West. Specifically, a diet low in Fermentable, Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides, and Polyols is an efficacious therapy for patients with IBS. In contrast, a proportion of patients with IBS in Sinosphere Asia utilize Chinese Food Therapy for symptom management. Chinese Food Therapy provides an attractive target for integration with evidence-based Western dietary therapies as a management strategy in FD and IBS. However, significant gaps in research exist with the utility of Chinese Food Therapy that first need to be addressed. This includes a lack of standardization for heaty and cooling classification, limited mechanistic rationale or clinical studies supporting its efficacy in FD and IBS, and the lack of an ideal practitioner for implementation of Chinese Food Therapy. Hence, the review provides a summary of the role of diet and nutrition in Sinosphere Asia with an emphasis on FD and IBS, and an examination of how modern dietary practices may be able to be integrated into practices in this region.

  20. Therapy: a new nonsurgical therapy option for benign thyroid nodules?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegedüs, Laszlo


    Despite the increasing implementation of iodization programs, benign nodular thyroid disease will remain a prevalent therapeutic concern for decades. recent research suggests that nonsurgical therapy, including radioactive iodine, radiofrequency thermal ablation and percutaneous laser ablation...