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Sample records for therapy ameliorates motor

  1. Salvianolic Acid B Ameliorates Motor Dysfuntion in Spinal Cord ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) rating and Schnell Swim Test (SST) were used for estimating the recovery of motor function. At the same ... Conclusion: The beneficial effect of motor function recovery was observed in SCI rats following intraperitoneal administration of Sal ..... Voda J, Yamaji T, Gold BG. Neuroimmunophilin ligands.

  2. Salvianolic Acid B Ameliorates Motor Dysfuntion in Spinal Cord ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) treatment on the motor function of spinal cord injury (SCI) rat. Methods: SCI rats were modelled by contusion, and then received 10 mg/kg Sal B, or methylprednisolone, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) intraperitoneally daily for 4 weeks, two hours after the ...

  3. Dihydrotestosterone ameliorates degeneration in muscle, axons and motoneurons and improves motor function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model mice.

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    Young-Eun Yoo

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a lethal disease characterized by a progressive loss of motoneurons. The clinical symptoms include skeletal muscle weakness and atrophy, which impairs motor performance and eventually leads to respiratory failure. We tested whether dihydrotestosterone (DHT, which has both anabolic effects on muscle and neuroprotective effects on axons and motoneurons, can ameliorate clinical symptoms in ALS. A silastic tube containing DHT crystals was implanted subcutaneously in SOD1-G93A mice at early symptomatic age when decreases in body weight and grip-strength were observed as compared to wild-type mice. DHT-treated SOD1-G93A mice demonstrated ameliorated muscle atrophy and increased body weight, which was associated with stronger grip-strength. DHT treatment increased the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 in muscle, which can exert myotrophic as well as neurotrophic effects through retrograde transport. DHT treatment attenuated neuromuscular junction denervation, and axonal and motoneuron loss. DHT-treated SOD1-G93A mice demonstrated improvement in motor behavior as assessed by rota-rod and gait analyses, and an increased lifespan. Application of DHT is a relatively simple and non-invasive procedure, which may be translated into therapy to improve the quality of life for ALS patients.

  4. Ozone therapy ameliorates paraquat-induced lung injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldirim, Umit; Uysal, Bulent; Yuksel, Ramazan; Macit, Enis; Eyi, Yusuf E; Toygar, Mehmet; Tuncer, Salim K; Ardic, Sukru; Arziman, Ibrahim; Aydin, Ibrahim; Oztas, Yesim; Karslioglu, Yildirim; Topal, Turgut

    2014-12-01

    Paraquat (PQ) overdose can cause acute lung injury and death. Ozone therapy (OT) was previously demonstrated to alleviate inflammation and necrosis in various pathologies. We therefore hypothesized that OT has ameliorative and preventive effects on PQ-induced lung damage due to anti-inflammatory and antioxidants properties. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 24) were separated into three groups: sham, PQ, and PQ+OT groups. 15 mg/kg PQ was administered intraperitoneally in PQ and PQ+OT groups to induce experimental lung injury. One hour after PQ treatment, PQ+OT group was administered a single dose of ozone-oxygen mixture (1 mg/kg/day) by intraperitoneal route for four consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed on fifth day after PQ administration. Blood samples and lung tissues were collected to evaluate the inflammatory processes, antioxidant defense and pulmonary damage. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and neopterin levels, tissue oxidative stress parameters, total TGF-β1 levels, and histological injury scores in PQ+OT group were significantly lower than PQ group (Ptherapy. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  5. Bosutinib Therapy Ameliorates Lung Inflammation and Fibrosis in Experimental Silicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Priscila J; Clevelario, Amanda L; Padilha, Gisele A; Silva, Johnatas D; Kitoko, Jamil Z; Olsen, Priscilla C; Capelozzi, Vera L; Rocco, Patricia R M; Cruz, Fernanda F

    2017-01-01

    Silicosis is an occupational lung disease for which no effective therapy exists. We hypothesized that bosutinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, might ameliorate inflammatory responses, attenuate pulmonary fibrosis, and thus improve lung function in experimental silicosis. For this purpose, we investigated the potential efficacy of bosutinib in the treatment of experimental silicosis induced in C57BL/6 mice by intratracheal administration of silica particles. After 15 days, once disease was established, animals were randomly assigned to receive DMSO or bosutinib (1 mg/kg/dose in 0.1 mL 1% DMSO) by oral gavage, twice daily for 14 days. On day 30, lung mechanics and morphometry, total and differential cell count in alveolar septa and granuloma, levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-4, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and vascular endothelial growth factor in lung homogenate, M1 and M2 macrophages, total leukocytes, and T cells in BALF, lymph nodes, and thymus, and collagen fiber content in alveolar septa and granuloma were analyzed. In a separate in vitro experiment, RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to silica particles in the presence or absence of bosutinib. After 24 h, gene expressions of arginase-1, IL-10, IL-12, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, and caspase-3 were evaluated. In vivo, in silicotic animals, bosutinib, compared to DMSO, decreased: (1) fraction area of collapsed alveoli, (2) size and number of granulomas, and mononuclear cell granuloma infiltration; (3) IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and TGF-β levels in lung homogenates, (4) collagen fiber content in lung parenchyma, and (5) viscoelastic pressure and static lung elastance. Bosutinib also reduced M1 cell counts while increasing M2 macrophage population in both lung parenchyma and granulomas. Total leukocyte, regulatory T, CD4+, and CD8+ cell counts in the lung-draining lymph

  6. Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation ameliorates motor function deterioration of spinocerebellar ataxia by rescuing cerebellar Purkinje cells

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    Ma Wei-Hsien

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA refers to a disease entity in which polyglutamine aggregates are over-produced in Purkinje cells (PCs of the cerebellum as well as other neurons in the central nervous system, and the formation of intracellular polyglutamine aggregates result in the loss of neurons as well as deterioration of motor functions. So far there is no effective neuroprotective treatment for this debilitating disease although numerous efforts have been made. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs possess multi-lineage differentiation potentials as well as immuno-modulatory properties, and are theoretically good candidates for SCA treatment. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether transplantation of human MSCs (hMSCs can rescue cerebellar PCs and ameliorate motor function deterioration in SCA in a pre-clinical animal model. Method Transgenic mice bearing poly-glutamine mutation in ataxin-2 gene (C57BL/6J SCA2 transgenic mice were serially transplanted with hMSCs intravenously or intracranially before and after the onset of motor function loss. Motor function of mice was evaluated by an accelerating protocol of rotarod test every 8 weeks. Immunohistochemical stain of whole brain sections was adopted to demonstrate the neuroprotective effect of hMSC transplantation on cerebellar PCs and engraftment of hMSCs into mice brain. Results Intravenous transplantation of hMSCs effectively improved rotarod performance of SCA2 transgenic mice and delayed the onset of motor function deterioration; while intracranial transplantation failed to achieve such neuroprotective effect. Immunohistochemistry revealed that intravenous transplantation was more effective in the preservation of the survival of cerebellar PCs and engraftment of hMSCs than intracranial injection, which was compatible to rotarod performance of transplanted mice. Conclusion Intravenous transplantation of hMSCs can indeed delay the onset as well as improve the motor

  7. Anle138b partly ameliorates motor deficits despite failure of neuroprotection in a model of advanced multiple system atrophy

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    Lisa eFellner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The neurodegenerative disorder multiple system atrophy (MSA is characterized by autonomic failure, cerebellar ataxia and parkinsonism in any combination associated with predominantly oligodendroglial α-synuclein (α-syn aggregates (glial cytoplasmic inclusions=GCIs. To date, there is no effective disease modifying therapy. Previous experiments have shown that the aggregation inhibitor anle138b reduces neurodegeneration, as well as behavioral deficits in both transgenic and toxin mouse models of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Here we analyzed whether anle138b improves motor skills and reduces neuronal loss, as well as oligodendroglial α-syn aggregation in the PLP-α-syn transgenic mouse challenged with the mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP to model full-blown MSA. Following one month of treatment with anle138b, MSA mice showed signs of motor improvement affecting stride length, but not pole, grip strength and beam test performance. Loss of dopaminergic nigral neurons and Purkinje cells was not attenuated and GCI density remained unchanged. These data suggest that the pathology in transgenic PLP-α-syn mice receiving 3-NP might be too advanced to detect significant effects of anle138b treatment on neuronal loss and intracytoplasmic α-syn inclusion bodies. However, the partial motor amelioration may indicate potential efficacy of anle138b treatment that may be mediated by its actions on α-syn oligomers or may reflect improvement of neuronal dysfunction in neural at risk populations. Further studies are required to address the efficacy of anle138b in transgenic α-syn models of early-stage MSA and in the absence of additional toxin application.

  8. Molecular Hydrogen Therapy Ameliorates Organ Damage Induced by Sepsis

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    Yijun Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since it was proposed in 2007, molecular hydrogen therapy has been widely concerned and researched. Many animal experiments were carried out in a variety of disease fields, such as cerebral infarction, ischemia reperfusion injury, Parkinson syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney disease, radiation injury, chronic hepatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, stress ulcer, acute sports injuries, mitochondrial and inflammatory disease, and acute erythema skin disease and other pathological processes or diseases. Molecular hydrogen therapy is pointed out as there is protective effect for sepsis patients, too. The impact of molecular hydrogen therapy against sepsis is shown from the aspects of basic vital signs, organ functions (brain, lung, liver, kidney, small intestine, etc., survival rate, and so forth. Molecular hydrogen therapy is able to significantly reduce the release of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress injury. Thereby it can reduce damage of various organ functions from sepsis and improve survival rate. Molecular hydrogen therapy is a prospective method against sepsis.

  9. Equine-assisted therapy as intervention for motor proficiency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Equine-assisted therapy as intervention for motor proficiency in children with autism spectrum disorder: Case studies. ... EAT interventions could provide a suitable alternative approach for children on this spectrum who experience impairments in low muscle tone, repetitive motor movements, poor motor planning, postural ...

  10. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy for Coronary Artery Disease: Relationship of Symptom Amelioration and Ischemia Improvement

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    Youko Takakuwa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The current management of coronary artery disease (CAD relies on three major therapeutic options, namely medication, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. However, severe CAD that is not indicated for PCI or CABG still bears a poor prognosis due to the lack of effective treatments. In 2006, extracorporeal cardiac shock wave (SW therapy reported on human for the first time. This treatment resulted in better myocardial perfusion as evaluated by dipyridamole stress thallium scintigraphy, angina symptoms, and exercise tolerance. The aim of the present study was to investigate myocardial perfusion images and evaluate the relationship between the ischemia improvement and symptom amelioration by SW therapy. Methods: We treated ten patients (i.e., nine males and one female with cardiac SW therapy who had CAD but not indicated for PCI or CABG and aged 63–89 years old. After the SW therapy, all patients were followed up for three months to evaluate any amelioration of the myocardial ischemia based on symptoms, adenosine stress thallium scintigraphy, transthoracic echocardiography, and blood biochemical examinations. Results: The changes in various parameters were evaluated before and after cardiac SW therapy. The cardiac SW therapy resulted in a significant improvement in the symptoms as evaluated by the Canadian Cardiovascular Society [CCS] class score (P=0.016 and a tendency to improve in summed stress score (SSS (P=0.068. However, no significant improvement was observed in the summed rest score (SRS, summed difference score (SDS, left ventricular wall motion score index (LVWMSI, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic, and troponin I. The difference of CCS class score (ΔCCS was significantly correlated with those of SSS (ΔSSS and SDS (ΔSDS (r=0.69, P=0.028 and r=0.70, P=0.025, respectively. There was no significant correlation between ΔCCS and other parameters. Furthermore, no significant

  11. INHIBITORY MOTOR SEIZURES: SEMIOLOGY AND THERAPY

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    K. Yu. Мukhin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to rare and unique type of epileptic seizures – inhibitory motor seizures, characterized by the inability to execute a voluntary movement with preserved consciousness. The exact prevalence of this type of seizures is not known, but many cases are unrecognized or non-correctly diagnosed as Todd's paralysis. Therefore practical doctors should know the clinical and electroencephalographic characteristics of this type of seizures andtake them into account in the differential diagnoses . The authors presented a detailed review of the literature, including the historical data, etiology, pathogenesis and proposed mechanisms of formation of inhibitory motor seizures, clinical and EEG characteristics, therapeutic approaches. Antiepileptic drugs of choice used in the treatment of inhibitory motor seizures are valproic acid (preferably depakine chronosphere – original prolonged form of valproate. The authors also presented their observations of patients with inhibitory motor seizures.

  12. Ozone therapy ameliorates tubulointerstitial inflammation by regulating TLR4 in adenine-induced CKD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Liu, Xiuheng; Yu, Gang; Chen, Hui; Wang, Lei; Wang, Zhishun; Qiu, Tao; Weng, Xiaodong

    2016-06-01

    Tubulointerstitium inflammation is a common pathway aggravating chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and the mechanism is partly associated with excessive activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in tubulointerstitium. Ozone therapy is demonstrated to alleviate inflammation in some experiments. The aim of this study is to examine whether ozone therapy could ameliorate chronic tubulointerstitium inflammation by suppressing TLR4 in adenine-induced CKD rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with 0.75% adenine-containing diet to induce CKD and tubulointerstitium inflammation injury. Ozone therapy (1.1 mg/kg) was simultaneously administrated by rectal insufflations (i.r.). After 4 weeks, serum and kidney samples were collected for detection. Renal function and systemic electrolyte were detected. Renal pathological changes were assessed by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining and Masson trichrome (MT) staining. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and Real-time PCR were applied to evaluate tubulointerstitium inflammation as well as the expression of TLR4 and phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa B P65 (p-NF-κB P65) in rats. The results showed ozone therapy improved serious renal insufficiency, systemic electrolyte disorder and tubulointerstitium morphology damages in adenine-induced CKD rats. In addition, ozone therapy suppressed excessive activation of TLR4 and p-NF-κB P65 in the tubulointerstitium of adenine-induced CKD rats, accompanied by the reduction of inflammation-related cytokines including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The protein expression of TLR4 was positively correlated with the protein expression levels of MCP-1 (r = 0.7863, p ozone therapy could attenuate tubulointerstitium inflammation injury in adenine-induced CKD rats and the mechanism might associate with the mediation of TLR4.

  13. Mirror therapy enhances upper extremity motor recovery in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirela Cristina, Luca; Matei, Daniela; Ignat, Bogdan; Popescu, Cristian Dinu

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of mirror therapy program in addition with physical therapy methods on upper limb recovery in patients with subacute ischemic stroke. 15 subjects followed a comprehensive rehabilitative treatment, 8 subjects received only control therapy (CT) and 7 subjects received mirror therapy (MT) for 30 min every day, five times a week, for 6 weeks in addition to the conventional therapy. Brunnstrom stages, Fugl-Meyer Assessment (upper extremity), the Ashworth Scale, and Bhakta Test (finger flexion scale) were used to assess changes in upper limb motor recovery and motor function after intervention. After 6 weeks of treatment, patients in both groups showed significant improvements in the variables measured. Patients who received MT showed greater improvements compared to the CT group. The MT treatment results included: improvement of motor functions, manual skills and activities of daily living. The best results were obtained when the treatment was started soon after the stroke. MT is an easy and low-cost method to improve motor recovery of the upper limb.

  14. Erythropoietin ameliorates the motor and cognitive function impairments in a rat model of hepatic cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei, Iraj; Nazeri, Masoud; Shabani, Mohammad; Mossavinasab, Marziehsadat; Mirhosseini, Fatemeh Khaleghi; Nayebpour, Mohsen; Dalili, Afshin

    2015-02-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a serious consequence of hepatic cirrhosis (HC). Previous studies have demonstrated cognitive impairments in both clinical and animal experiments of HC. Some potential therapeutic agents have been used to alleviate the cognitive symptoms in the animal models of HC. In the current study, the possible effect of erythropoietin (ERY) as a potent neuroprotective agent on motor and cognitive impairments induced by HC has been studied. Male Wistar rats (180-200 g) underwent bile duct ligation (BDL) or sham surgery. Administration of ERY (5,000 IU/kg, i.p., daily for three days) was initiated 2 weeks after surgery and lasted for the next 28 days. Open field, rotarod, Morris water maze and passive avoidance learning was used to evaluate the motor and cognitive function of the animals. ANOVA and repeated measures ANOVA were used to analyze the data. p balance function by BDL was reversed by ERY. Spatial and passive avoidance learning impairments observed in BDL rats were also reversed by chronic administration of ERY. ERY can be offered as a potential neuroprotective agent in the treatment of patients with HC that manifest mental dysfunctions. Though further studies are needed to clarify the exact mechanisms, the neuroprotective properties of ERY against BDL impairments were demonstrated in the current study.

  15. Manual therapy ameliorates delayed-onset muscle soreness and alters muscle metabolites in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakawa, Susumu; Takamoto, Kouichi; Nakamura, Tomoya; Sakai, Shigekazu; Matsuda, Teru; Taguchi, Toru; Mizumura, Kazue; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-02-01

    Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) can be induced by lengthening contraction (LC); it can be characterized by tenderness and movement-related pain in the exercised muscle. Manual therapy (MT), including compression of exercised muscles, is widely used as physical rehabilitation to reduce pain and promote functional recovery. Although MT is beneficial for reducing musculoskeletal pain (i.e. DOMS), the physiological mechanisms of MT remain unclear. In the present study, we first developed an animal model of MT in DOMS; LC was applied to the rat gastrocnemius muscle under anesthesia, which induced mechanical hyperalgesia 2-4 days after LC. MT (manual compression) ameliorated mechanical hyperalgesia. Then, we used capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (CE-TOFMS) to investigate early effects of MT on the metabolite profiles of the muscle experiencing DOMS. The rats were divided into the following three groups; (1) normal controls, (2) rats with LC application (LC group), and (3) rats undergoing MT after LC (LC + MT group). According to the CE-TOFMS analysis, a total of 171 metabolites were detected among the three groups, and 19 of these metabolites were significant among the groups. Furthermore, the concentrations of eight metabolites, including branched-chain amino acids, carnitine, and malic acid, were significantly different between the LC + MT and LC groups. The results suggest that MT significantly altered metabolite profiles in DOMS. According to our findings and previous data regarding metabolites in mitochondrial metabolism, the ameliorative effects of MT might be mediated partly through alterations in metabolites associated with mitochondrial respiration. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  16. Lutein protects dopaminergic neurons against MPTP-induced apoptotic death and motor dysfunction by ameliorating mitochondrial disruption and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataraj, Jagatheesan; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy Justin; Essa, Musthafa Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis plays an important role in various neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), the most widely used neurotoxin mimics the symptoms of PD by inhibiting mitochondrial complex I that stimulates excessive intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and finally leads to mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. Lutein, a carotenoid of xanthophyll family, is found abundantly in leafy green vegetables such as spinach, kale and in egg yolk, animal fat and human eye retinal macula. Increasing evidence indicates that lutein has offers benefits against neuronal damages during diabetic retinopathy, ischemia and AD by virtue of its mitochondrial protective, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. Male C57BL/6 mice (23-26 g) were randomized and grouped in to Control, MPTP, and Lutein treated groups. Lutein significantly reversed the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons by increasing the striatal dopamine level in mice. Moreover, lutein-ameliorated MPTP induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and motor abnormalities. In addition, lutein repressed the MPTP-induced neuronal damage/apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of pro-apoptotic markers (Bax, caspases-3, 8 and 9) and enhancing anti-apoptotic marker (Bcl-2) expressions. Our current results revealed that lutein possessed protection on dopaminergic neurons by enhancing antioxidant defense and diminishing mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic death, suggesting the potential benefits of lutein for PD treatment.

  17. Exendin-4 ameliorates motor neuron degeneration in cellular and animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

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    Yazhou Li

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive loss of lower motor neurons in the spinal cord. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, facilitates insulin signaling, and the long acting GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4 is currently used as an anti-diabetic drug. GLP-1 receptors are widely expressed in the brain and spinal cord, and our prior studies have shown that Ex-4 is neuroprotective in several neurodegenerative disease rodent models, including stroke, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Here we hypothesized that Ex-4 may provide neuroprotective activity in ALS, and hence characterized Ex-4 actions in both cell culture (NSC-19 neuroblastoma cells and in vivo (SOD1 G93A mutant mice models of ALS. Ex-4 proved to be neurotrophic in NSC-19 cells, elevating choline acetyltransferase (ChAT activity, as well as neuroprotective, protecting cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and staurosporine-induced apoptosis. Additionally, in both wild-type SOD1 and mutant SOD1 (G37R stably transfected NSC-19 cell lines, Ex-4 protected against trophic factor withdrawal-induced toxicity. To assess in vivo translation, SOD1 mutant mice were administered vehicle or Ex-4 at 6-weeks of age onwards to end-stage disease via subcutaneous osmotic pump to provide steady-state infusion. ALS mice treated with Ex-4 showed improved glucose tolerance and normalization of behavior, as assessed by running wheel, compared to control ALS mice. Furthermore, Ex-4 treatment attenuated neuronal cell death in the lumbar spinal cord; immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the rescue of neuronal markers, such as ChAT, associated with motor neurons. Together, our results suggest that GLP-1 receptor agonists warrant further evaluation to assess whether their neuroprotective potential is of therapeutic relevance in ALS.

  18. DIAGNOSIS AND THERAPY OF MOTOR DISTURBANCES IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM

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    Neli VASILEVA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals uncommonly examined aspects concerning the specifics of the motor de­velopment in the children with autistic spectrum disorders and the problems regarding their diagnostics and the­ra­py. An analytical theory of the autistic disorders is des­cribed, connecting autism with disorders in the ba­sic levels of affective behavioral regulation. The re­port in­cludes a classification of the groups of autis­tic children, each of which demonstrates spe­ci­fic motor dysfunctions. Furthermore, the paper ana­ly­zes and recommends methodo­lo­gi­cal approaches to motor therapy which will help improve the de­ve­lop­ment of different motor skills.

  19. Effects of oral motor therapy in children with cerebral palsy

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    Seray Nural Sigan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Oral motor dysfunction is a common issue in children with cerebral palsy (CP. Drooling, difficulties with sucking, swallowing, and chewing are some of the problems often seen. In this study, we aimed to research the effect of oral motor therapy on pediatric CP patients with feeding problems. Materials and Methods: Included in this single centered, randomized, prospective study were 81 children aged 12-42 months who had been diagnosed with CP, had oral motor dysfunction and were observed at the Pediatric Neurology outpatient clinic of the Children′s Health and Diseases Department, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul University. Patients were randomized into two groups: The training group and the control group. One patient from the training group dropped out of the study because of not participating regularly. Following initial evaluation of all patients by a blinded physiotherapist and pedagogue, patients in the training group participated in 1 h oral motor training sessions with a different physiotherapist once a week for 6 months. All patients kept on routine physiotherapy by their own physiotherapists. Oral motor assessment form, functional feeding assessment (FFA subscale of the multidisciplinary feeding profile (MFP and the Bayley scales of infant development (BSID-II were used to evaluate oral motor function, swallowing, chewing, the gag reflex, the asymmetrical tonic neck reflex, tongue, jaw, and mouth function, severity of drooling, aspiration, choking, independent feeding and tolerated food texture during the initial examination and 6 months later. Results: When the initial and post-therapy FFA and BSID-II scores received by patients in the training and the study group were compared, the training group showed a statistically significant improvement (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Oral motor therapy has a beneficial effect on feeding problems in children with CP.

  20. Focal Segmental Glomerular Sclerosis Ameliorated by Long-term Hemodialysis Therapy with Low-density Lipoprotein Apheresis.

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    Araki, Hisazumi; Ono, Shinya; Nishizawa, Yuka; Deji, Naoko; Nakazawa, Jun; Morita, Yoshikata; Kume, Shinji; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Isshiki, Keiji; Araki, Shin-ichi; Arimura, Tetsuro; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Uzu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We report a case involving a 43-year-old Japanese woman with steroid-resistant focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS) and severe renal dysfunction, which was ameliorated by low-density lipoprotein apheresis (LDL-A). She had been treated with steroid therapy, but had experienced anuria for over 10 weeks and required hemodialysis. She was then treated with LDL-A, which resulted in improved urinary protein excretion and renal function. Her renal function recovered after 97 days of hemodialysis therapy. This case suggests that LDL-A may represent an effective rescue treatment in patients with FSGS and long-term anuria.

  1. Parent-child interaction in motor speech therapy.

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    Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; Jethava, Vibhuti; Pukonen, Margit; Huynh, Anna; Goshulak, Debra; Kroll, Robert; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    This study measures the reliability and sensitivity of a modified Parent-Child Interaction Observation scale (PCIOs) used to monitor the quality of parent-child interaction. The scale is part of a home-training program employed with direct motor speech intervention for children with speech sound disorders. Eighty-four preschool age children with speech sound disorders were provided either high- (2×/week/10 weeks) or low-intensity (1×/week/10 weeks) motor speech intervention. Clinicians completed the PCIOs at the beginning, middle, and end of treatment. Inter-rater reliability (Kappa scores) was determined by an independent speech-language pathologist who assessed videotaped sessions at the midpoint of the treatment block. Intervention sensitivity of the scale was evaluated using a Friedman test for each item and then followed up with Wilcoxon pairwise comparisons where appropriate. We obtained fair-to-good inter-rater reliability (Kappa = 0.33-0.64) for the PCIOs using only video-based scoring. Child-related items were more strongly influenced by differences in treatment intensity than parent-related items, where a greater number of sessions positively influenced parent learning of treatment skills and child behaviors. The adapted PCIOs is reliable and sensitive to monitor the quality of parent-child interactions in a 10-week block of motor speech intervention with adjunct home therapy. Implications for rehabilitation Parent-centered therapy is considered a cost effective method of speech and language service delivery. However, parent-centered models may be difficult to implement for treatments such as developmental motor speech interventions that require a high degree of skill and training. For children with speech sound disorders and motor speech difficulties, a translated and adapted version of the parent-child observation scale was found to be sufficiently reliable and sensitive to assess changes in the quality of the parent-child interactions during

  2. The effects of therapy on spasticity utilizing a motorized exercise-cycle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rösche, J; Paulus, C; Maisch, U; Kaspar, A; Mauch, E; Kornhuber, H H

    1997-01-01

    .... In this study it is shown that F-wave amplitudes can also be used to document changes of motor neuron excitability as an effect of the therapy with a motorized exercise-cycle, which moves the legs...

  3. Antiretroviral Therapy-Associated Acute Motor and Sensory Axonal Neuropathy

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    Kimberly N. Capers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS has been reported in HIV-infected patients in association with the immune reconstitution syndrome whose symptoms can be mimicked by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART-mediated mitochondrial toxicity. We report a case of a 17-year-old, HIV-infected patient on HAART with a normal CD4 count and undetectable viral load, presenting with acute lower extremity weakness associated with lactatemia. Electromyography/nerve conduction studies revealed absent sensory potentials and decreased compound muscle action potentials, consistent with a diagnosis of acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy. Lactatemia resolved following cessation of HAART; however, neurological deficits minimally improved over several months in spite of immune modulatory therapy. This case highlights the potential association between HAART, mitochondrial toxicity and acute axonal neuropathies in HIV-infected patients, distinct from the immune reconstitution syndrome.

  4. Effects of mirror therapy through functional activites and motor standards in motor function of the upper limb after stroke

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    Medeiros, Candice Simões Pimenta de; Fernandes, Sabrina Gabrielle Gomes; Lopes, Johnnatas Mikael; Cacho, Enio Walker Azevedo; Cacho, Roberta de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effects of mirror therapy through functional activities and motor standards in upper limb function of chronic stroke subjects. Six patients with paresis of the arm within at least six months after stroke were randomly to a group of functional activities (GAF - n=3) and group of motor standards (GPM - n=3). Both groups performed 15 sessions of mirror therapy for 30 minutes, but the first one (GAF) were instructed to do the bilateral and symmetrical movements bas...

  5. 7,8-dihydroxyflavone Ameliorates Motor Deficits Via Suppressing α-synuclein Expression and Oxidative Stress in the MPTP-induced Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Huan; Dai, Chun-Fang; Chen, Long; Zhou, Wei-Tao; Han, Hui-Li; Dong, Zhi-Fang

    2016-07-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and diminished dopamine content in the striatum, which is at least partly associated with α-synuclein protein overexpression in these neurons. Recent reports show that 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (DHF), a TrkB agonist, has beneficial effects in animal model of PD. However, it is unclear whether the therapeutic effects of DHF are associated with the expression of α-synuclein. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of DHF on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced deficit of motor functions, the loss of dopaminergic neurons and the expression of α-synuclein as well as antioxidative activity in the C57BL/6 mice. Mice were treated with MPTP (30 mg/kg, i.p.) once a day for 5 days to induce dopaminergic neuron death in the SN. DHF (5 mg/kg, i.p.) was administrated once a day from the first day of MPTP injection until 9 days after the last injection of MPTP. Behavioral tests showed that DHF succeeded in ameliorating the impaired motor functions in the MPTP-treated mice. The immunohistochemical assay showed that the amelioration of motor function was accompanied by a reduction in the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the SN and striatum. Western blot analyses showed that DHF prevented the inactivation of TrkB and suppressed α-synuclein overexpression in the SN and striatum following MPTP treatment. Antioxidative activity detection revealed that DHF prevented MPTP-induced reduction in glutathione and total superoxide dismutase activity in the SN and striatum. Taken together, these results indicate that DHF treatment may suppress the accumulation of α-synuclein and oxidative stress via activating TrkB and subsequently block the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the SN and striatum, thereby ameliorating MPTP-induced motor deficits in the C57BL/6 mice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Improvements in motor and non-motor symptoms in parkinson patients under ropinirole therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, B; Angersbach, D; Jost, W H

    2007-04-01

    Ropinirole is a non-ergoline selective D2 dopamine agonist. Its efficacy and safety has been established in several controlled double-blind studies in patients with early and advanced Parkinson's disease. It is assumed that the improvement in the activities of daily living under ropinirole is not only due to the improved motor symptoms but also due to the improvement of non-motor symptoms like symptoms of mood and anxiety. The objective of this post marketing surveillance study was to show that under the conditions of the daily routine in the neurologic practice ropinirole may not only improve motor symptoms, the activity of daily living and complications of the treatment (dystonia, dyskinesia) but also alleviate symptoms of depression and anxiety. A total of 110 neurological practices enrolled 327 patients in early and advanced stages of the disease (139 females, 188-males; mean age: 67 years). They were treated with ropinirole as monotherapy and as adjunctive therapy with l-dopa over a period of 12 - 14 weeks. Selected symptoms of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) part II-IV and symptoms of depression and anxiety were rated by the clinicians. Mood and functional impairment in job, family and social life were rated by the patients using selected items of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). The different subtypes, i. e. the akinetic-rigid, tremor-dominant and the mixed subtype, are described separately. The total UPDRS score at baseline was similar for all three subtypes and there was also a similar improvement in the three groups under ropinirole. Both according to self-rating and to clinician rating the symptoms of depression and anxiety at baseline were more severe in the akinetic-rigid and the mixed subtype compared to the tremor-dominant subtype. The symptoms considerably improved and were reduced by 48 % under therapy with ropinirole. Adverse events were reported by 7.7 % of the patients. The surveillance

  7. Gene therapy with mesenchymal stem cells expressing IFN-ß ameliorates neuroinflammation in experimental models of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Bañasco, C; Benabdellah, K; Melero-Jerez, C; Oliver, B; Pinto-Medel, M J; Hurtado-Guerrero, I; de Castro, F; Clemente, D; Fernández, O; Martin, F; Leyva, L; Suardíaz, M

    2017-02-01

    Recombinant IFN-ß is one of the first-line treatments in multiple sclerosis (MS), despite its lack of efficacy in some patients. In this context, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising therapeutic alternative due to their immunomodulatory properties and multipotency. Moreover, by taking advantage of their pathotropism, these cells can be genetically modified to be used as carriers for delivering or secreting therapeutic drugs into injured tissues. Here, we report the therapeutic effect of systemic delivery of adipose-derived MSCs (AdMSCs), transduced with the IFN-β gene, into mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Relapsing-remitting and chronic progressive EAE were induced in mice. Cells were injected i.v. Disease severity, inflammation and tissue damage were assessed clinically, by flow cytometry of spleens and histopathological evaluation of the CNS respectively. Genetic engineering did not modify the biological characteristics of these AdMSCs (morphology, growth rate, immunophenotype and multipotency). Furthermore, the transduction of IFN-ß to AdMSCs maintained and, in some cases, enhanced the functional properties of AdMSCs by ameliorating the symptoms of MS in EAE models and by decreasing indications of peripheral and central neuro-inflammation. Gene therapy was found to be more effective than cell therapy in ameliorating several clinical parameters in both EAE models, presumably due to the continuous expression of IFN-β. Furthermore, it has significant advantages over AdMSC therapy, and also over systemic IFN-ß treatment, by providing long-term expression of the cytokine at therapeutic concentrations and reducing the frequency of injections, while minimizing dose-limiting side effects. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Dual AAV therapy ameliorates exercise-induced muscle injury and functional ischemia in murine models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yadong; Yue, Yongping; Li, Liang; Hakim, Chady H; Zhang, Keqing; Thomas, Gail D; Duan, Dongsheng

    2013-09-15

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) membrane delocalization contributes to the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) by promoting functional muscle ischemia and exacerbating muscle injury during exercise. We have previously shown that supra-physiological expression of nNOS-binding mini-dystrophin restores normal blood flow regulation and prevents functional ischemia in transgenic mdx mice, a DMD model. A critical next issue is whether systemic dual adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy can restore nNOS-binding mini-dystrophin expression and mitigate muscle activity-related functional ischemia and injury. Here, we performed systemic gene transfer in mdx and mdx4cv mice using a pair of dual AAV vectors that expressed a 6 kb nNOS-binding mini-dystrophin gene. Vectors were packaged in tyrosine mutant AAV-9 and co-injected (5 × 10(12) viral genome particles/vector/mouse) via the tail vein to 1-month-old dystrophin-null mice. Four months later, we observed 30-50% mini-dystrophin positive myofibers in limb muscles. Treatment ameliorated histopathology, increased muscle force and protected against eccentric contraction-induced injury. Importantly, dual AAV therapy successfully prevented chronic exercise-induced muscle force drop. Doppler hemodynamic assay further showed that therapy attenuated adrenergic vasoconstriction in contracting muscle. Our results suggest that partial transduction can still ameliorate nNOS delocalization-associated functional deficiency. Further evaluation of nNOS binding mini-dystrophin dual AAV vectors is warranted in dystrophic dogs and eventually in human patients.

  9. Gene therapy with mesenchymal stem cells expressing IFN‐ß ameliorates neuroinflammation in experimental models of multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin‐Bañasco, C; Benabdellah, K; Melero‐Jerez, C; Oliver, B; Pinto‐Medel, M J; Hurtado‐Guerrero, I; de Castro, F; Clemente, D; Fernández, O; Martin, F; Leyva, L

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Recombinant IFN‐ß is one of the first‐line treatments in multiple sclerosis (MS), despite its lack of efficacy in some patients. In this context, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising therapeutic alternative due to their immunomodulatory properties and multipotency. Moreover, by taking advantage of their pathotropism, these cells can be genetically modified to be used as carriers for delivering or secreting therapeutic drugs into injured tissues. Here, we report the therapeutic effect of systemic delivery of adipose‐derived MSCs (AdMSCs), transduced with the IFN‐β gene, into mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Experimental Approach Relapsing–remitting and chronic progressive EAE were induced in mice. Cells were injected i.v. Disease severity, inflammation and tissue damage were assessed clinically, by flow cytometry of spleens and histopathological evaluation of the CNS respectively. Key Results Genetic engineering did not modify the biological characteristics of these AdMSCs (morphology, growth rate, immunophenotype and multipotency). Furthermore, the transduction of IFN‐ß to AdMSCs maintained and, in some cases, enhanced the functional properties of AdMSCs by ameliorating the symptoms of MS in EAE models and by decreasing indications of peripheral and central neuro‐inflammation. Conclusion and Implications Gene therapy was found to be more effective than cell therapy in ameliorating several clinical parameters in both EAE models, presumably due to the continuous expression of IFN‐β. Furthermore, it has significant advantages over AdMSC therapy, and also over systemic IFN‐ß treatment, by providing long‐term expression of the cytokine at therapeutic concentrations and reducing the frequency of injections, while minimizing dose‐limiting side effects. PMID:27882538

  10. Hemifacial spasm non-motor and motor-related symptoms and their response to botulinum toxin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzińska, Monika; Wójcik, Magdalena; Szczudlik, Andrzej

    2010-06-01

    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a chronic movement disorder which presents as clonic and/or tonic facial muscle contractions frequently accompanied by many other sensory (visual or auditory disturbances, pain), motor (facial weakness, trismus, bruxism, dysarthria) and/or autonomic (lacrimation, salivation) symptoms. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of HFS non-motor and motor-related symptoms and their responsiveness to botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) therapy. 56 HFS patients were included in the open-label design study. Patients were examined three times: before BTX-A injection, and 2 and 12 weeks later. The occurrence of non-motor and motor-related symptoms was assessed by a special questionnaire, and the severity of HFS was rated by the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale (CGI-S) and depression symptoms by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Over 81% of the patients before BTX-A therapy reported HFS non-motor and motor-related symptoms. Almost 50% of the patients reported more than three symptoms. The most frequent symptoms were: tearing (44.5%), eye irritation (39.3%), facial paraesthesia (26.8%) and hearing of a "clicking" sound (25.0%). 2 weeks after BTX-A injection 75% of the patients did not report any symptoms and 20% reported only one or two. 3 months later the number of symptoms had increased again, with 57% of patients reporting at least one. The number of HFS non-motor and other symptoms did not correlate with the patients' age, disease duration and the presence of neuro-vascular conflict, but were positively correlated with the CGI-S and BDI scores. This study showed that muscle contractions in HFS patients are commonly accompanied by non-motor and other motor-related symptoms and most of them are reduced following BTX-A treatment.

  11. Cell Therapy Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Renal Progenitors Ameliorates Acute Kidney Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyohara, Takafumi; Mae, Shin-Ichi; Sueta, Shin-Ichi; Inoue, Tatsuyuki; Yamagishi, Yukiko; Kawamoto, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Tomoko; Hoshina, Azusa; Toyoda, Taro; Tanaka, Hiromi; Araoka, Toshikazu; Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Sato, Yasunori; Yamaji, Noboru; Ogawa, Seishi; Yamanaka, Shinya; Osafune, Kenji

    2015-09-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is defined as a rapid loss of renal function resulting from various etiologies, with a mortality rate exceeding 60% among intensive care patients. Because conventional treatments have failed to alleviate this condition, the development of regenerative therapies using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) presents a promising new therapeutic option for AKI. We describe our methodology for generating renal progenitors from hiPSCs that show potential in ameliorating AKI. We established a multistep differentiation protocol for inducing hiPSCs into OSR1+SIX2+ renal progenitors capable of reconstituting three-dimensional proximal renal tubule-like structures in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we found that renal subcapsular transplantation of hiPSC-derived renal progenitors ameliorated the AKI in mice induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury, significantly suppressing the elevation of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels and attenuating histopathological changes, such as tubular necrosis, tubule dilatation with casts, and interstitial fibrosis. To our knowledge, few reports demonstrating the therapeutic efficacy of cell therapy with renal lineage cells generated from hiPSCs have been published. Our results suggest that regenerative medicine strategies for kidney diseases could be developed using hiPSC-derived renal cells. This report is the first to demonstrate that the transplantation of renal progenitor cells differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has therapeutic effectiveness in mouse models of acute kidney injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. In addition, this report clearly demonstrates that the therapeutic benefits come from trophic effects by the renal progenitor cells, and it identifies the renoprotective factors secreted by the progenitors. The results of this study indicate the feasibility of developing regenerative medicine strategy using iPS cells against renal diseases.

  12. Amelioration of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a mouse model by a combination therapy of bosentan and imatinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilakapati, Shanmuga Reddy; Serasanambati, Mamatha; Vissavajjhala, Prabhakar; Kanala, Jagadeeshwara Reddy; Chilakapati, Damodar Reddy

    2015-05-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by alveolitis, progressing into fibrosis. Due to the involvement of both endothelin and platelet-derived growth factor signaling in IPF, combination effects of a bosentan and imatinib were studied in mouse model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Mice subjected to bleomycin instillation (0.05 U) and were administered with either bosentan (100 mg/kg) and/or imatinib (50 mg/kg). Inflammatory cell count, total protein estimation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung edema, superoxide dismutase, catalase, myeloperoxidase activities, and Hematoxylin & Eosin staining were performed on day 7. Hydroxyproline content, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), collagens I and III gene expression analysis, immunohistochemistry, matrix metalloproteinases-9 and -2 activities, trichrome and sirius red staining were performed on day 21. Combination treatment with bosentan and imatinib prevented bleomycin-induced mortality and loss of body weight more than the individual agents. On day 7, the combination therapy attenuated bleomycin-induced increase of total and differential inflammatory cell counts, total proteins, lung wet/dry weight ratio, myeloperoxidase activity, lung inflammatory cell infiltration more than individual agents alone. Bosentan but not imatinib ameliorated superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, which were lowered following bleomycin instillation. On day 21, combination therapy ameliorated bleomycin-induced increase of fibrosis score, collagen deposition, protein and gene expression of SMA, mRNA levels of collagens-I and -III, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and -2 activities more than monotherapy. Combination of bosentan and imatinib exerted more enhanced protection against bleomycin-induced inflammation and fibrosis than either of the agents alone.

  13. Behavioral Senescence and Aging-Related Changes in Motor Neurons and Brain Neuromodulator Levels Are Ameliorated by Lifespan-Extending Reproductive Dormancy in Drosophila

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    Dick R. Nässel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The lifespan of Drosophilamelanogaster can be extended substantially by inducing reproductive dormancy (also known as diapause by lowered temperature and short days. This increase of longevity is accompanied by lowered metabolism and increased stress tolerance. We ask here whether behavioral senescence is ameliorated during adult dormancy. To study this we kept flies for seven or more weeks in normal rearing conditions or in diapause conditions and compared to 1-week-old flies in different behavioral assays of sleep, negative geotaxis and exploratory walking. We found that the senescence of geotaxis and locomotor behavior seen under normal rearing conditions was negligible in flies kept in dormancy. The normal senescence of rhythmic activity and sleep patterns during the daytime was also reduced by adult dormancy. Investigating the morphology of specific neuromuscular junctions (NMJs, we found that changes normally seen with aging do not take place in dormant flies. To monitor age-associated changes in neuronal circuits regulating activity rhythms, sleep and walking behavior we applied antisera to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, serotonin and several neuropeptides to examine changes in expression levels and neuron morphology. In most neuron types the levels of stored neuromodulators decreased during normal aging, but not in diapause treated flies. No signs of neurodegeneration were seen in either condition. Our data suggest that age-related changes in motor neurons could be the cause of part of the behavioral senescence and that this is ameliorated by reproductive diapause. Earlier studies established a link between age-associated decreases in neuromodulator levels and behavioral decline that could be rescued by overexpression of neuromodulator. Thus, it is likely that the retained levels of neuromodulators in dormant flies alleviate behavioral senescence.

  14. Intensive lipid-lowering therapy ameliorates novel calcification markers and GSM score in patients with carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoglou, N P E; Gerasimidis, T; Moumtzouoglou, A; Kapelouzou, A; Sailer, N; Fotiadis, G; Vitta, I; Katinios, A; Kougias, P; Bandios, S; Voliotis, K; Karayannacos, P E; Liapis, C D

    2008-06-01

    Carotid plaque echogenicity quantified by the Gray-Scale Median (GSM) score has been associated with plaque vulnerability. The aim of this study was to assess whether intensive lipid-lowering treatment with atorvastatin in patients with carotid artery stenosis ameliorates novel vascular calcification inhibitors, such as osteopontin (OPN) and osteoprotegerin (OPG), and improves GSM score. Ninety-seven patients with carotid stenosis (>40%), but without indication for intervention, were treated for 6 months with atorvastatin (10mg-80mg) to target LDLGSM were obtained at the beginning and after 6 months. Systolic blood pressure, hsCRP, fibrinogen, OPN and OPG levels differed significantly between patients with carotid stenosis and healthy controls at baseline (pGSM score increased considerably after atorvastatin therapy (from 58.33+/-24.38 to 79.33+/-22.3; p<0.001) and that effect appeared related to OPN (p=0.001), OPG (p=0.013) and LDL (p=0.01) reduction. In patients with carotid stenosis, intensive lipid-lowering therapy with statins attenuates serum OPN and OPG levels and enhances carotid plaque echogenicity, outlining their beneficial effects on plaque stability.

  15. Combining afferent stimulation and mirror therapy for rehabilitating motor function, motor control, ambulation, and daily functions after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Keh-chung; Huang, Pai-chuan; Chen, Yu-ting; Wu, Ching-yi; Huang, Wen-ling

    2014-02-01

    Mirror therapy (MT) and mesh glove (MG) afferent stimulation may be effective in reducing motor impairment after stroke. A hybrid intervention of MT combined with MG (MT + MG) may broaden aspects of treatment benefits. To demonstrate the comparative effects of MG + MT, MT, and a control treatment (CT) on the outcomes of motor impairments, manual dexterity, ambulation function, motor control, and daily function. Forty-three chronic stroke patients with mild to moderate upper extremity impairment were randomly assigned to receive MT + MG, MT, or CT for 1.5 hours/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Outcome measures were the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and muscle tone measured by Myoton-3 for motor impairment and the Box and Block Test (BBT) and 10-Meter Walk Test (10 MWT) for motor function. Secondary outcomes included kinematic parameters for motor control and the Motor Activity Log and ABILHAND Questionnaire for daily function. FMA total scores were significantly higher and synergistic shoulder abduction during reach was less in the MT + MG and MT groups compared with the CT group. Performance on the BBT and the 10 MWT (velocity and stride length in self-paced task and velocity in as-quickly-as-possible task) were improved after MT + MG compared with MT. MT + MG improved manual dexterity and ambulation. MT + MG and MT reduced motor impairment and synergistic shoulder abduction more than CT. Future studies may integrate functional task practice into treatments to enhance functional outcomes in patients with various levels of motor severity. The long-term effects of MG + MT remain to be evaluated.

  16. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Gene Therapy Ameliorates Bone Loss in Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Mohammad Ahsanul; Cao, Jay J; Lu, Yuanqing; Nardo, David; Chen, Mong-Jen; Elshikha, Ahmed S; Ahamed, Rubina; Brantly, Mark; Holliday, L Shannon; Song, Sihong

    2016-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a major healthcare burden affecting mostly postmenopausal women characterized by compromised bone strength and increased risk of fragility fracture. Although pathogenesis of this disease is complex, elevated proinflammatory cytokine production is clearly involved in bone loss at menopause. Therefore, anti-inflammatory strategies hold a great potential for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of gene therapy of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated human alpha-1 antitrypsin (hAAT), a multifunctional protein that has anti-inflammatory property, on bone loss in an ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis mouse model. Adult ovariectomized (OVX) mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with hAAT (protein therapy), rAAV8-CB-hAAT (gene therapy), or phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Age-matched and sham-operated animals were used as controls. Eight weeks after the treatment, animals were sacrificed and bone-related biomarkers and vertebral bone structure were evaluated. Results showed that hAAT gene therapy significantly decreased serum IL-6 level and receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) gene expression in bone. Importantly, hAAT gene therapy increased bone volume/total volume and decreased structure model index (SMI) compared to PBS injection in OVX mice. These results demonstrate that hAAT gene therapy by rAAV vector efficiently mitigates bone loss possibly through inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and RANK gene expression. Considering the safety profile of hAAT and rAAV vector in humans, our results provide a new alternative for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  17. Mild systemic thermal therapy ameliorates renal dysfunction in a rodent model of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Yoshihiro; Kuwabara, Takashige; Hayata, Manabu; Kakizoe, Yutaka; Izumi, Yuichiro; Iiyama, Junichi; Kitamura, Kenichiro; Mukoyama, Masashi

    2016-06-01

    Thermal therapy has become a nonpharmacological therapy in clinical settings, especially for cardiovascular diseases. However, the practical role of thermal therapy on chronic kidney disease remains elusive. We performed the present study to investigate whether a modified thermal protocol, repeated mild thermal stimulation (MTS), could affect renal damages in chronic kidney disease using a mouse renal ablation model. Mice were subjected to MTS or room temperature (RT) treatment once daily for 4 wk after subtotal nephrectomy (Nx) or sham operation (Sh). We revealed that MTS alleviated renal impairment as indicated by serum creatinine and albuminuria in Nx groups. In addition, the Nx + MTS group showed attenuated tubular histological changes and reduced urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin excretion approximately by half compared with the Nx + RT group. Increased apoptotic signaling, such as TUNEL-positive cell count and cleavage of caspase 3, as well as enhanced oxidative stress were significantly reduced in the Nx + MTS group compared with the Nx + RT group. These changes were accompanied with the restoration of kidney Mn-SOD levels by MTS. Heat shock protein 27, a key molecular chaperone, was phosphorylated by MTS only in Nx kidneys rather than in Sh kidneys. MTS also tended to increase the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and Akt in Nx kidneys, possibly associated with the activation of heat shock protein 27. Taken together, these results suggest that modified MTS can protect against renal injury in a rodent model of chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Language changes coincide with motor and fMRI changes following upper extremity motor therapy for hemiparesis: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnish, Stacy; Meinzer, Marcus; Trinastic, Jonathan; Fitzgerald, David; Page, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    To formally assess changes in language, affected UE movement, and motor functional activation changes via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) following participation in motor therapy without any accompanying language intervention. Pre-post case series. Five subjects with stroke exhibiting chronic, stable UE hemiparesis. The upper extremity section of the Fugl-Meyer (FM), the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), administered during performance of an affected UE motor task. All subjects were administered six weeks of repetitive task specific training (RTP), performed for approximately 2.5 hours per day, split into two sessions. For the first four weeks of the intervention period, RTP was administered every weekday, whereas, for the subsequent two weeks, RTP was administered 3 days/week. Epidural cortical stimulation was co-administered with the RTP via an electrode array and implanted pulse generator. For all sessions, one subject worked with a single therapist. Four weeks before and four weeks after the intervention period, all subjects were administered the FM, WAB, and fMRI. Three of the subjects exhibited clinically significant language changes on the WAB. These individuals exhibited the largest motor changes as measured by the FM. Functional MRI revealed distinct motor activation patterns in these subjects, characterized by more strongly right lateralized focal BOLD activity or a shift in activation toward the right hemisphere. Language changes appear to co-occur with motor changes after UE RTP. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of these findings may lead to more efficient and synergistic rehabilitative therapy delivery.

  19. Central leptin gene therapy ameliorates diabetes type 1 and 2 through two independent hypothalamic relays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Satya P.

    2009-01-01

    Although its role in energy homeostasis is firmly established, the evidence accumulated over a decade linking the adipocyte leptin -hypothalamus axis in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus has received little attention in the contemporary thinking. In this context various lines of evidence are collated here to show that (1) under the direction of leptin two independent relays emanating from the hypothalamus restrain insulin secretion from the pancreas and mobilize peripheral organs - liver, skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue - to upregulate glucose disposal, and (2), leptin insufficiency in the hypothalamus produced by either leptinopenia or restriction of leptin transport across the blood brain barrier due to hyperleptinemia of obesity and aging, initiate antecedent pathophysiological sequalae of diabetes type 1 and 2. Further, we document here the efficacy of leptin replenishment in vivo, especially by supplying it to the hypothalamus with the aid of gene therapy, in preventing the antecedent pathophysiological sequalae-hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia - in various animal models and clinical paradigms of diabetes type 1 and 2 with or without attendant obesity. Overall, the new insights on the long-lasting antidiabetic potential of two independent hypothalamic relays engendered by central leptin gene therapy and the preclinical safety indicators in rodents warrant further validation in subhuman primates and humans. PMID:19647774

  20. Rituximab therapy reduces organ-specific T cell responses and ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Nancy L; Cravens, Petra; Hussain, Rehana; Harp, Christopher T; Cummings, Matthew; de Pilar Martin, Maria; Ben, Li-Hong; Do, Julie; Lyons, Jeri-Anne; Lovette-Racke, Amy; Cross, Anne H; Racke, Michael K; Stüve, Olaf; Shlomchik, Mark; Eagar, Todd N

    2011-02-16

    Recent clinical trials have established B cell depletion by the anti-CD20 chimeric antibody Rituximab as a beneficial therapy for patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). The impact of Rituximab on T cell responses remains largely unexplored. In the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS in mice that express human CD20, Rituximab administration rapidly depleted peripheral B cells and strongly reduced EAE severity. B cell depletion was also associated with diminished Delayed Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) and a reduction in T cell proliferation and IL-17 production during recall immune response experiments. While Rituximab is not considered a broad immunosuppressant, our results indicate a role for B cells as a therapeutic cellular target in regulating encephalitogenic T cell responses in specific tissues.

  1. Rituximab therapy reduces organ-specific T cell responses and ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L Monson

    Full Text Available Recent clinical trials have established B cell depletion by the anti-CD20 chimeric antibody Rituximab as a beneficial therapy for patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS. The impact of Rituximab on T cell responses remains largely unexplored. In the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model of MS in mice that express human CD20, Rituximab administration rapidly depleted peripheral B cells and strongly reduced EAE severity. B cell depletion was also associated with diminished Delayed Type Hypersensitivity (DTH and a reduction in T cell proliferation and IL-17 production during recall immune response experiments. While Rituximab is not considered a broad immunosuppressant, our results indicate a role for B cells as a therapeutic cellular target in regulating encephalitogenic T cell responses in specific tissues.

  2. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate ameliorates photodynamic therapy responses in an in vitro T lymphocyte model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hang; Abe, Naomi; Zhu, Beiwei; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Yoshimasa

    2014-10-01

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant polyphenolic constituent in green tea, is known as a powerful antioxidant but concomitantly possesses a prooxidant property. We investigated the effect of EGCG on phloxine B (PhB)-induced photocytotoxicity in human T lymphocytic leukemia Jurkat cells. EGCG significantly potentiated PhB-induced photocytotoxic effects, including the inhibition of cell proliferation, DNA fragmentation, and caspase-3 activity induction in Jurkat cells. Catalase attenuated the enhanced cytotoxicity by EGCG, suggesting the involvement of extracellularly produced hydrogen peroxide. Indeed, EGCG significantly enhanced extracellular hydrogen peroxide formation induced by photo-irradiated PhB. The EGCG also enhanced intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) gene expression, all of which are involved in PhB-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest that EGCG is capable of potentiating photodynamic therapy responses, presumably through the intracellular oxidative stress-sensitive JNK/IFN-γ pathway by exogenous hydrogen peroxide formation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Cinnamon ameliorates experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in mice via regulatory T cells: implications for multiple sclerosis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Susanta; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-01-01

    Upregulation and/or maintenance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) during an autoimmune insult may have therapeutic efficacy in autoimmune diseases. Although several immunomodulatory drugs and molecules are available, most present significant side effects over long-term use. Cinnamon is a commonly used natural spice and flavoring material used for centuries throughout the world. Here, we have explored a novel use of cinnamon powder in protecting Tregs and treating the disease process of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Oral feeding of cinnamon (Cinnamonum verum) powder suppresses clinical symptoms of relapsing-remitting EAE in female PLP-TCR transgenic mice and adoptive transfer mouse model. Cinnamon also inhibited clinical symptoms of chronic EAE in male C57/BL6 mice. Dose-dependent study shows that cinnamon powder at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt/d or higher significantly suppresses clinical symptoms of EAE in mice. Accordingly, oral administration of cinnamon also inhibited perivascular cuffing, maintained the integrity of blood-brain barrier and blood-spinal cord barrier, suppressed inflammation, normalized the expression of myelin genes, and blocked demyelination in the central nervous system of EAE mice. Interestingly, cinnamon treatment upregulated Tregs via reduction of nitric oxide production. Furthermore, we demonstrate that blocking of Tregs by neutralizing antibodies against CD25 abrogates cinnamon-mediated protection of EAE. Taken together, our results suggest that oral administration of cinnamon powder may be beneficial in MS patients and that no other existing anti-MS therapies could be so economical and trouble-free as this approach.

  4. Cinnamon ameliorates experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in mice via regulatory T cells: implications for multiple sclerosis therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta Mondal

    Full Text Available Upregulation and/or maintenance of regulatory T cells (Tregs during an autoimmune insult may have therapeutic efficacy in autoimmune diseases. Although several immunomodulatory drugs and molecules are available, most present significant side effects over long-term use. Cinnamon is a commonly used natural spice and flavoring material used for centuries throughout the world. Here, we have explored a novel use of cinnamon powder in protecting Tregs and treating the disease process of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of MS. Oral feeding of cinnamon (Cinnamonum verum powder suppresses clinical symptoms of relapsing-remitting EAE in female PLP-TCR transgenic mice and adoptive transfer mouse model. Cinnamon also inhibited clinical symptoms of chronic EAE in male C57/BL6 mice. Dose-dependent study shows that cinnamon powder at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt/d or higher significantly suppresses clinical symptoms of EAE in mice. Accordingly, oral administration of cinnamon also inhibited perivascular cuffing, maintained the integrity of blood-brain barrier and blood-spinal cord barrier, suppressed inflammation, normalized the expression of myelin genes, and blocked demyelination in the central nervous system of EAE mice. Interestingly, cinnamon treatment upregulated Tregs via reduction of nitric oxide production. Furthermore, we demonstrate that blocking of Tregs by neutralizing antibodies against CD25 abrogates cinnamon-mediated protection of EAE. Taken together, our results suggest that oral administration of cinnamon powder may be beneficial in MS patients and that no other existing anti-MS therapies could be so economical and trouble-free as this approach.

  5. Effect of motor relearning program poststem cell therapy in chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorida Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old male, with chronic hemiplegia, received the first dose of stem cell therapy 1 year back. Physiotherapy was started immediately. The patient was evaluated using Fugl-Meyer assessment scale and functional independence measure before and after physiotherapy. After 6 months of physiotherapy intervention using motor relearning program, improvements were observed in the motor outcome with significant changes in the upper extremity, especially the hand component.

  6. Motor synergies research in physical therapy: advantages of the uncontrolled manifold approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz,Daniela Virgínia

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Movement is central to physical therapy identity and practice. Advances in the science of movement control, motor learning and development are thus inextricably tied to professional development and clinical activity. This paper aims to describe a prominent approach to motor control with potential to greatly advance the understanding of movement dysfunction: the uncontrolled manifold (UCM). An argument is formulated for incorporating this method of data analysis in rehabilitation rese...

  7. Effect of therapist-based constraint-induced therapy at home on motor control, motor performance and daily function in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-ling; Kang, Lin-ju; Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Fei-Chuan; Chen, Hsieh-Ching; Wu, Ching-yi

    2013-03-01

    To determine the effect of therapist-based constraint-induced therapy at home on motor performance, daily function and reaching control for children with cerebral palsy. A single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Forty-seven children (23 boys; 24 girls) with unilateral cerebral palsy, aged 6-12 years, were randomized to constraint-induced therapy (n = 24) or traditional rehabilitation (n = 23). Constraint-induced therapy involved intensive functional training of the more affected arm while the less affected arm was restrained. Traditional rehabilitation involved functional unilateral and bilateral arm training. Both groups received individualized therapist-based interventions at home for 3.5-4 hours/day, two days a week for four weeks. Motor performance and daily function were measured by the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale, Second Edition and the Pediatric Motor Activity Log. Reaching control was assessed by the kinematics of reaction time, movement time, movement unit and peak velocity. There were larger effects in favour of constraint-induced therapy on motor performance, daily function, and some aspects of reaching control compared with traditional rehabilitation. Children receiving constraint-induced therapy demonstrated higher scores for Peabody Developmental Motor Scale, Second Edition - Grasping (pretest mean ± SD, 39.9 ± 3.1; posttest, 44.1 ± 2.8; P Motor Activity Log (pretest, 1.8 ± 0.3; posttest, 2.5 ± 0.3; P control of reaching in children with unilateral cerebral palsy than traditional rehabilitation.

  8. MaLT - Combined Motor and Language Therapy Tool for Brain Injury Patients Using Kinect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wairagkar, Maitreyee; McCrindle, Rachel; Robson, Holly; Meteyard, Lotte; Sperrin, Malcom; Smith, Andy; Pugh, Moyra

    2017-03-23

    The functional connectivity and structural proximity of elements of the language and motor systems result in frequent co-morbidity post brain injury. Although rehabilitation services are becoming increasingly multidisciplinary and "integrated", treatment for language and motor functions often occurs in isolation. Thus, behavioural therapies which promote neural reorganisation do not reflect the high intersystem connectivity of the neurologically intact brain. As such, there is a pressing need for rehabilitation tools which better reflect and target the impaired cognitive networks. The objective of this research is to develop a combined high dosage therapy tool for language and motor rehabilitation. The rehabilitation therapy tool developed, MaLT (Motor and Language Therapy), comprises a suite of computer games targeting both language and motor therapy that use the Kinect sensor as an interaction device. The games developed are intended for use in the home environment over prolonged periods of time. In order to track patients' engagement with the games and their rehabilitation progress, the game records patient performance data for the therapist to interrogate. MaLT incorporates Kinect-based games, a database of objects and language parameters, and a reporting tool for therapists. Games have been developed that target four major language therapy tasks involving single word comprehension, initial phoneme identification, rhyme identification and a naming task. These tasks have 8 levels each increasing in difficulty. A database of 750 objects is used to programmatically generate appropriate questions for the game, providing both targeted therapy and unique gameplay every time. The design of the games has been informed by therapists and by discussions with a Public Patient Involvement (PPI) group. Pilot MaLT trials have been conducted with three stroke survivors for the duration of 6 to 8 weeks. Patients' performance is monitored through MaLT's reporting facility

  9. Non-viral gene therapy that targets motor neurons in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise eRogers

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in neurological gene therapy is safe delivery of transgenes to sufficient cell numbers from the circulation or periphery. This is particularly difficult for diseases involving spinal cord motor neurons such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. We have examined the feasibility of non-viral gene delivery to spinal motor neurons from intraperitoneal injections of plasmids carried by ‘immunogene’ nanoparticles targeted for axonal retrograde transport using antibodies. PEGylated polyethylenimine (PEI-PEG12 as DNA carrier was conjugated to an antibody (MLR2 to the neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR. We used a plasmid (pVIVO2 designed for in vivo gene delivery that produces minimal immune responses, has improved nuclear entry into post mitotic cells and also expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP. MLR2-PEI-PEG12 carried pVIVO2 and was specific for mouse motor neurons in mixed cultures containing astrocytes. While only 8% of motor neurons expressed GFP 72 h post transfection in vitro, when the immunogene was given intraperitonealy to neonatal C57BL/6J mice GFP specific motor neuron expression was observed in 25.4% of lumbar, 18.3% of thoracic and 17.0 % of cervical motor neurons, 72 h post transfection. PEI-PEG12 carrying pVIVO2 by itself did not transfect motor neurons in vivo, demonstrating the need for specificity via the p75NTR antibody MLR2. This is the first time that specific transfection of spinal motor neurons has been achieved from peripheral delivery of plasmid DNA as part of a non-viral gene delivery agent. These results stress the specificity and feasibility of immunogene delivery targeted for p75NTR expressing motor neurons, but suggests that further improvements are required to increase the transfection efficiency of motor neurons in vivo.

  10. D-amphetamine improves cognitive deficits and physical therapy promotes fine motor rehabilitation in a rat embolic stroke model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Overgaard, K; Hildebrandt-Eriksen, E S

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of D-amphetamine (D-amph) and physical therapy separately or combined on fine motor performance, gross motor performance and cognition after middle cerebral artery thromboembolization in rats. METHODS: Seventy-four rats......-amph), 4) THERAPY (embolized, saline + physical therapy) and 5) D-AMPH + THERAPY (embolized, D-amph + physical therapy). Rats of the groups 4-5 underwent d-amph or saline treatment on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 after surgery and were re-trained for 1 h starting 60 min after each treatment. During this time, rats...... regarding gross motor performance. CONCLUSIONS: After embolization, physical therapy improved fine motor performance and D-amph accelerated rehabilitation of cognitive performance as observed in the rats of the THERAPY and D-AMPH groups. As a result of the administration of a high dose of D-amph, the rats...

  11. Restauration of age related motor impairment: Role of IGF-1 based gene therapy and microglial activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Falomir Lockhart

    2015-05-01

    In the current study we implemented ICV IGF-I gene therapy in very old rats (28 months and assessed the motor performance pre and 17-days after surgery. Glial immunoreactivity in striatum was evaluated by Iba1 and GFAP markers. Results: As we previously reported, IGF-I restored motor coordination and forelimb grip strength in aged rats (Sanchez et al., 2008. We found that microglia immunoreactivity (Iba-1+ was significantly increased for at least 17 days after treatment with IGF-I (Xm-senil-IGF-I=8.370±0.3297 vs Xm-senil-DsRed= 5.557±0.2553; p<0.0001, astrocytes (GFAP+ showed not changes. Our results identify a novel function of microglia in the maintenance of motor permormance and suggest an original approach for reversing age-associated motor and exploratory performance recorded in rats.

  12. Effect of hand-arm bimanual intensive therapy on fine-motor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manal Abd El Wahab

    2014-09-04

    Sep 4, 2014 ... trol group received traditional physical therapy program directed toward improving upper extremity use. Each child in the two groups was evaluated before and after the suggested treatment duration for detecting the level of hand performance using the Peabody Developmental Test of. Motor Proficiency and ...

  13. Mirror therapy, graded motor imagery and virtual illusion for the management of chronic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plumbe, Lee; Peters, Susan; Bennett, Sally; Vicenzino, Bill; Coppieters, Michel W.

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the efficacy of mirror therapy, graded motor imagery, and virtual illusion for improving pain and function levels in chronic pain states, including, but not limited to, chronic regional pain

  14. Music-supported motor training after stroke reveals no superiority of synchronisation in group therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Tijmen Van Vugt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Music-supported therapy has been shown to be an effective tool for rehabilitation of motor deficits after stroke. A unique feature of music performance is that it is inherently social: music can be played together in synchrony.Aim. The present study explored the potential of synchronised music playing during therapy, asking whether synchronised playing could improve fine motor rehabilitation and mood.Method. Twenty-eight patients in neurological early rehabilitation after stroke with no previous musical background were included. Patients learned to play simple finger exercises and familiar children’s songs on the piano for ten sessions of half an hour. Patients first received three individual therapy sessions and then continued in pairs. The patient pairs were divided into two groups. Patients in one group played synchronously (together group whereas the patients in the other group played one after the other (in-turn group. To assess fine motor skill recovery the patients performed standard clinical tests such as the nine-hole-pegboard test (9HPT and index finger-tapping speed and regularity, and metronome-paced finger tapping. Patients' mood was established using the Profile of Mood States (POMS.Results. Both groups showed improvements in fine motor control. In metronome-paced finger tapping, patients in both groups improved significantly. Mood tests revealed reductions in depression and fatigue in both groups. During therapy, patients in the in-turn group rated their partner as more sympathetic than the together-group in a visual-analogue scale.Conclusions. Our results suggest that music-supported stroke rehabilitation can improve fine motor control and mood not only individually but also in patient pairs. Patients who were playing in turn rather than simultaneously tended to reveal greater improvement in fine motor skill. We speculate that patients in the former group may benefit from the opportunity to learn from observation.

  15. Music-supported motor training after stroke reveals no superiority of synchronization in group therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vugt, Floris T; Ritter, Juliane; Rollnik, Jens D; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2014-01-01

    Music-supported therapy has been shown to be an effective tool for rehabilitation of motor deficits after stroke. A unique feature of music performance is that it is inherently social: music can be played together in synchrony. The present study explored the potential of synchronized music playing during therapy, asking whether synchronized playing could improve fine motor rehabilitation and mood. Twenty-eight patients in neurological early rehabilitation after stroke with no substantial previous musical training were included. Patients learned to play simple finger exercises and familiar children's songs on the piano for 10 sessions of half an hour. Patients first received three individual therapy sessions and then continued in pairs. The patient pairs were divided into two groups. Patients in one group played synchronously (together group) whereas the patients in the other group played one after the other (in-turn group). To assess fine motor skill recovery the patients performed standard clinical tests such as the nine-hole-pegboard test (9HPT) and index finger-tapping speed and regularity, and metronome-paced finger tapping. Patients' mood was established using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Both groups showed improvements in fine motor control. In metronome-paced finger tapping, patients in both groups improved significantly. Mood tests revealed reductions in depression and fatigue in both groups. During therapy, patients in the in-turn group rated their partner as more sympathetic than the together-group in a visual-analog scale. Our results suggest that music-supported stroke rehabilitation can improve fine motor control and mood not only individually but also in patient pairs. Patients who were playing in turn rather than simultaneously tended to reveal greater improvement in fine motor skill. We speculate that patients in the former group may benefit from the opportunity to learn from observation.

  16. Neural reorganization accompanying upper limb motor rehabilitation from stroke with virtual reality-based gesture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Fernández del Castillo, Isabel; Palafox, Lorena; Pasaye, Erick; Sánchez-Villavicencio, Israel; Leder, Ronald; Franco, Jorge Hernández; Sucar, Luis Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Gesture Therapy is an upper limb virtual reality rehabilitation-based therapy for stroke survivors. It promotes motor rehabilitation by challenging patients with simple computer games representative of daily activities for self-support. This therapy has demonstrated clinical value, but the underlying functional neural reorganization changes associated with this therapy that are responsible for the behavioral improvements are not yet known. We sought to quantify the occurrence of neural reorganization strategies that underlie motor improvements as they occur during the practice of Gesture Therapy and to identify those strategies linked to a better prognosis. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neuroscans were longitudinally collected at 4 time points during Gesture Therapy administration to 8 patients. Behavioral improvements were monitored using the Fugl-Meyer scale and Motricity Index. Activation loci were anatomically labelled and translated to reorganization strategies. Strategies are quantified by counting the number of active clusters in brain regions tied to them. All patients demonstrated significant behavioral improvements (P brain activity during therapy was inversely related to normalized behavioral improvements (r2 = 0.64; P brain changes suggests that those with stronger impairment benefit the most from this paradigm.

  17. Motor programme activating therapy influences adaptive brain functions in multiple sclerosis: clinical and MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasova, Kamila; Prochazkova, Marie; Tintera, Jaroslav; Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Zimova, Denisa; Stetkarova, Ivana

    2015-03-01

    There is still little scientific evidence for the efficacy of neurofacilitation approaches and their possible influence on brain plasticity and adaptability. In this study, the outcome of a new kind of neurofacilitation approach, motor programme activating therapy (MPAT), was evaluated on the basis of a set of clinical functions and with MRI. Eighteen patients were examined four times with standardized clinical tests and diffusion tensor imaging to monitor changes without therapy, immediately after therapy and 1 month after therapy. Moreover, the strength of effective connectivity was analysed before and after therapy. Patients underwent a 1-h session of MPAT twice a week for 2 months. The data were analysed by nonparametric tests of association and were subsequently statistically evaluated. The therapy led to significant improvement in clinical functions, significant increment of fractional anisotropy and significant decrement of mean diffusivity, and decrement of effective connectivity at supplementary motor areas was observed immediately after the therapy. Changes in clinical functions and diffusion tensor images persisted 1 month after completing the programme. No statistically significant changes in clinical functions and no differences in MRI-diffusion tensor images were observed without physiotherapy. Positive immediate and long-term effects of MPAT on clinical and brain functions, as well as brain microstructure, were confirmed.

  18. Trophic factors as modulators of motor neuron physiology and survival: implications for ALS therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis B Tovar-y-Romo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Motor neuron physiology and development depend on a continuous and tightly regulated trophic support from a variety of cellular sources. Trophic factors guide the generation and positioning of motor neurons during every stage of the developmental process. As well, they are involved in axon guidance and synapse formation. Even in the adult spinal cord an uninterrupted trophic input is required to maintain neuronal functioning and protection from noxious stimuli. Among the trophic factors that have been demonstrated to participate in motor neuron physiology are vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1. Upon binding to membrane receptors expressed in motor neurons or neighboring glia, these trophic factors activate intracellular signaling pathways that promote cell survival and have protective action on motor neurons, in both in vivo and in vitro models of neuronal degeneration. For these reasons these factors have been considered a promising therapeutic method for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases, although their efficacy in human clinical trials have not yet shown the expected protection. In this review we summarize experimental data on the role of these trophic factors in motor neuron function and survival, as well as their mechanisms of action. We also briefly discuss the potential therapeutic use of the trophic factors and why these therapies may have not been yet successful in the clinical use.

  19. Design of a Novel Servo-motorized Laser Device for Visual Pathways Diseases Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ignacio Sarmiento

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss a novel servo-motorized laser device and a research protocol for visual pathways diseases therapies. The proposed servo-mechanized laser device can be used for potential rehabilitation of patients with hemianopia, quadrantanopia, scotoma, and some types of cortical damages. The device uses a semi spherical structure where the visual stimulus will be shown inside, according to a previous stimuli therapy designed by an ophthalmologist or neurologist. The device uses a pair of servomotors (with torque=1.5kg, which controls the laser stimuli position for the internal therapy and another pair for external therapy. Using electronic tools such as microcontrollers along with miscellaneous electronic materials, combined with LabVIEW based interface, a control mechanism is developed for the new device. The proposed device is well suited to run various visual stimuli therapies. We outline the major design principles including the physical dimensions, laser device’s kinematical analysis and the corresponding software development.

  20. Haptic Feedback in Motor Hand Virtual Therapy Increases Precision and Generates Less Mental Workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ramírez-Fernández

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we show that haptic feedback in upper limb motor therapy improves performance and generates a lower mental workload. To demonstrate this, two groups of participants (healthy adults and elders with hand motor problems used a low-cost haptic device (Novint Falcon and a non-robotic device (Leap Motion Controller. Participants conducted the same rehabilitation task by using a non-immersive virtual environment. Results show significant differences for all participants regarding precision on the use of the haptic feedback device. Additionally, participants in the older adult group demonstrated a lower mental workload while using the haptic device (Novint Falcon. Finally, qualitative results show that participants preferred to conduct their therapy exercises by using the haptic device, as they found it more useful, easier to use and easier to learn

  1. Coenzyme Q10 Therapy in Hereditary Motor Sensory Neuropathy Type VI with Novel Mitofusin 2 Mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Ryoichi; Ikeda, Tokuhei; Hamaguchi, Ayumi; Iwasa, Kazuo; Yamada, Masahito

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary motor sensory neuropathy type VI (HMSN VI) is hereditary neuropathy accompanied by optic neuropathy. The feasibility of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as a treatment for subacute visual impairment of HMSN VI was examined. A 37-year-old patient with HMSN VI with a novel mitofusin 2 mutation was treated with high dose of CoQ10 (200 mg/day) for eight months. Visual impairment was partially resolved after CoQ10 therapy. High dose CoQ10 therapy may improve the prognosis of subacute visual impairm...

  2. Short-term effects of vibration therapy on motor impairments in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lauren K; Almeida, Quincy J; Ahonen, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that vibration therapy may have a positive influence on motor symptoms in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, quantitative evidence of these benefits is scarce, and the concept of "whole-body" vibration in these studies is vague. The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the influence of vibration on motor symptoms and functional measures in PD by delivering sound waves to the entire body. We delivered whole body sound wave vibration to 40 individuals with PD using a Physioacoustic Chair, a piece of equipment with speakers spaced throughout the chair permitting a series of programmed low frequency sound waves through the body. Using a parallel cross-over design we utilized the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), quantitative gait assessments, and a grooved pegboard for upper limb control. Improvements were seen in all symptom, motor control and functional outcome measures at the time of assessment. Specifically, a significant decrease in rigidity, and tremor were shown, as well as a significant increase in step length and improved speed on the grooved pegboard task. Results of this initial investigation provide support for vibration therapy as a non-pharmacological treatment alternative. Long-term benefits of vibration therapy will require further research.

  3. Comparison of Brunnstrom movement therapy and Motor Relearning Program in rehabilitation of post-stroke hemiparetic hand: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, Shanta; Arya, Kamal Narayan; Davidson, E W Rajkumar

    2012-07-01

    Motor recovery of the hand usually plateaus in chronic stroke patients. Various conventional and contemporary approaches have been used to rehabilitate the hand post-stroke. However, the evidence for their effectiveness is still limited. To compare the hand therapy protocols based on Brunnstrom approach and motor relearning program in rehabilitation of the hand of chronic stroke patients. Randomized trial. Outpatients attending the occupational therapy department of a rehabilitation institute. 30 post-stroke subjects (35.06 ± 14.52 months) were randomly assigned into two equal groups (Group A and Group B), Outcome Measures: Brunnstrom recovery stages of hand (BRS-H), Fugl-Meyer assessment: wrist and hand (FMA-WH). Group A received Brunnstrom hand manipulation (BHM). BHM is the hand treatment protocol of the Brunnstrom movement therapy, which uses synergies and reflexes to develop voluntary motor control. Group B received the Motor Relearning Program (MRP) based hand protocol. MRP is the practice of specific motor skills, which results in the ability to perform a task. Active practice of context-specific motor task such as reaching and grasping helps regain the lost motor functions. Both the therapy protocols were effective in rehabilitation of the hand (BRS-H; p = 0.003 to 0.004, FMA-WH; p hand motor recovery) (p hand in chronic post-stroke patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Active music therapy in Parkinson's disease: an integrative method for motor and emotional rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchetti, C; Mancini, F; Aglieri, R; Fundarò, C; Martignoni, E; Nappi, G

    2000-01-01

    Modern management of Parkinson's disease (PD) aims to obtain symptom control, to reduce clinical disability, and to improve quality of life. Music acts as a specific stimulus to obtain motor and emotional responses by combining movement and stimulation of different sensory pathways. We explored the efficacy of active music therapy (MT) on motor and emotional functions in patients with PD. This prospective, randomized, controlled, single-blinded study lasted 3 months. It consisted of weekly sessions of MT and physical therapy (PT). Thirty-two patients with PD, all stable responders to levodopa and in Hoehn and Yahr stage 2 or 3, were randomly assigned to two groups of 16 patients each. We assessed severity of PD with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, emotional functions with the Happiness Measure, and quality of life using the Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire. MT sessions consisted of choral singing, voice exercise, rhythmic and free body movements, and active music involving collective invention. PT sessions included a series of passive stretching exercises, specific motor tasks, and strategies to improve balance and gait. MT had a significant overall effect on bradykinesia as measured by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (p < .034). Post-MT session findings were consistent with motor improvement, especially in bradykinesia items (p < .0001). Over time, changes on the Happiness Measure confirmed a beneficial effect of MT on emotional functions (p < .0001). Improvements in activities of daily living and in quality of life were also documented in the MT group (p < .0001). PT improved rigidity (p < .0001). MT is effective on motor, affective, and behavioral functions. We propose active MT as a new method for inclusion in PD rehabilitation programs.

  5. Restoration of gait and motor recovery by functional electrical stimulation therapy in persons with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabut, Sukanta K; Sikdar, Chanda; Mondal, Ramkrishna; Kumar, Ratnesh; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of functional electrical stimulation (FES) therapy of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle on gait restoration and enhancing motor recovery with stroke patients. Thirty hemiparetic participants with spastic foot-drop impairments who were at least 3 months post-stroke were recruited from a rehabilitation institute and were assigned either to a control group or a FES group. Both the groups participated in a conventional stroke rehabilitation program for 60 min per day, 5 days a week, for 12-weeks. The FES group received the electrical stimulation to the TA muscle for correction of foot-drop. Functional electric stimulation (FES) resulted in a 26.3% (p control group was only 11.5% (p control group in other gait parameters (e.g. cadence, step length), physiological cost index (PCI), ankle range of motion, spasticity of calf muscle, Fugl-Meyer scores, and the maximum value of the root mean square (RMS(max)), which reflects the capacity of the muscle output. These findings suggest that, the FES therapy combined with conventional therapy treatment more effectively improves the walking ability and enhances the motor recovery when compared with conventional therapy alone in stroke survivors.

  6. A Neuron-Specific Gene Therapy Relieves Motor Deficits in Pompe Disease Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ni-Chung; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Muramatsu, Shin-Ichi; Falk, Darin J; Byrne, Barry J; Cheng, Chia-Hao; Shih, Nien-Chu; Chang, Kai-Ling; Tsai, Li-Kai; Chien, Yin-Hsiu

    2017-09-11

    In Pompe disease, deficient lysosomal acid α-glucosidase (GAA) activity causes glycogen accumulation in the muscles, which leads to weakness, cardiomyopathy, and respiratory failure. Although glycogen accumulation also occurs in the nervous system, the burden of neurological deficits in Pompe disease remains obscure. In this study, a neuron-specific gene therapy was administered to Pompe mice through intracerebroventricular injection of a viral vector carrying a neuron-specific promoter. The results revealed that gene therapy increased GAA activity and decreased glycogen content in the brain and spinal cord but not in the muscles of Pompe mice. Gene therapy only slightly increased the muscle strength of Pompe mice but substantially improved their performance on the rotarod, a test measuring motor coordination. Gene therapy also decreased astrogliosis and increased myelination in the brain and spinal cord of Pompe mice. Therefore, a neuron-specific treatment improved the motor coordination of Pompe mice by lowering glycogen accumulation, decreasing astrogliosis, and increasing myelination. These findings indicate that neurological deficits are responsible for a significant burden in Pompe disease.

  7. Development of a haptic interface for motor rehabilitation therapy using augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrios-Serrano, Carlos; Bonilla, Isela; Vigueras-Gomez, Flavio; Mendoza, Marco

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a robot-assisted therapy system is presented, mainly focused on the improvement of fine movements of patients with motor deficits of upper limbs. This system combines the use of a haptic device with an augmented reality environment, where a kind of occupational therapy exercises are implemented. The main goal of the system is to provide an extra motivation to patients, who are stimulated visually and tactilely into a scene that mixes elements of real and virtual worlds. Additionally, using the norm of tracking error, it is possible to quantitatively measure the performance of the patient during a therapy session, likewise, it is possible to obtain information such as runtime and the followed path.

  8. The effect of vibration therapy on spasticity and motor function in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusic, Ana; Alimovic, Sonja; Mejaski-Bosnjak, Vlatka

    2013-01-01

    As the motor system relies heavily on deep sensory stimulation, recent studies have investigated the effect of vibration stimuli. Although research suggests a positive influence of vibration on motor performance in individuals with neurological disorders, there are very limited numbers of studies in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sound wave vibration therapy on spasticity and motor function in children with CP. In this 3-month trial, 89 children with spastic CP were randomized to either continue their physiotherapy treatment (PT) or to receive vibration therapy twice a week in addition to their PT program. The randomization was stratified according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level to ensure similar functional ability. Children were assessed at baseline and after the 12-week intervention period. The outcomes measured were spasticity level as assessed by Modified Modified Ashworth Scale (MMAS) and gross motor function as assessed by Gross Motor Function Measurement (GMFM-88). Subgroup analysis was performed for the GMFCS. Significant differences between groups were detected for changes in spasticity level and gross motor function after the three months intervention. In conclusion, vibration therapy may decrease spasticity and improve motor performance in children with CP. The results of the present trial serve as valuable input for evidence-based treatments in paediatric neurorehabilitation.

  9. The NCAM-derived P2 peptide facilitates recovery of cognitive and motor function and ameliorates neuropathology following traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klementiev, B; Novikova, T; Korshunova, Irina

    2008-01-01

    significantly improved postlesion recovery of motor and cognitive function, reduced neuronal degeneration, protected cells against oxidative stress, and increased reactive astrogliosis and neuronal plasticity in the sublesional area. P2 appeared rapidly in blood and cerebrospinal fluid after subcutaneous...

  10. Logistic Regression Analyses for Predicting Clinically Important Differences in Motor Capacity, Motor Performance, and Functional Independence after Constraint-Induced Therapy in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tien-ni; Wu, Ching-yi; Chen, Chia-ling; Shieh, Jeng-yi; Lu, Lu; Lin, Keh-chung

    2013-01-01

    Given the growing evidence for the effects of constraint-induced therapy (CIT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP), there is a need for investigating the characteristics of potential participants who may benefit most from this intervention. This study aimed to establish predictive models for the effects of pediatric CIT on motor and functional…

  11. Spatiotemporal neuromodulation therapies engaging muscle synergies improve motor control after spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Nikolaus; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Gandar, Jerome; Musienko, Pavel; Capogrosso, Marco; Baud, Laetitia; Le Goff, Camille G.; Barraud, Quentin; Pavlova, Natalia; Dominici, Nadia; Minev, Ivan R.; Asboth, Leonie; Hirsch, Arthur; Duis, Simone; Kreider, Julie; Mortera, Andrea; Haverbeck, Oliver; Kraus, Silvio; Schmitz, Felix; DiGiovanna, Jack; van den Brand, Rubia; Bloch, Jocelyne; Detemple, Peter; Lacour, Stéphanie P.; Bézard, Erwan; Micera, Silvestro; Courtine, Grégoire

    2016-01-01

    Electrical neuromodulation of lumbar segments improves motor control after spinal cord injury in animal models and humans. However, the physiological principles underlying the effect of this intervention remain poorly understood, which has limited this therapeutic approach to continuous stimulation applied to restricted spinal cord locations. Here, we developed novel stimulation protocols that reproduce the natural dynamics of motoneuron activation during locomotion. For this, we computed the spatiotemporal activation pattern of muscle synergies during locomotion in healthy rats. Computer simulations identified optimal electrode locations to target each synergy through the recruitment of proprioceptive feedback circuits. This framework steered the design of spatially selective spinal implants and real–time control software that modulate extensor versus flexor synergies with precise temporal resolution. Spatiotemporal neuromodulation therapies improved gait quality, weight–bearing capacities, endurance and skilled locomotion in multiple rodent models of spinal cord injury. These new concepts are directly translatable to strategies to improve motor control in humans. PMID:26779815

  12. Oral motor, communication, and nutritional status of children during intrathecal baclofen therapy: a descriptive pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornson, Kristie F; McLaughlin, John F; Loeser, John D; Nowak-Cooperman, Kim M; Russel, Mark; Bader, Kathy A; Desmond, StarRina A

    2003-04-01

    To describe the oral motor, communication, and nutritional status of children receiving intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy for spasticity of cerebral origin. Observational cross-sectional design. Tertiary-care regional children's hospital. Thirty children with spasticity of cerebral origin receiving ITB therapy. Not applicable. One interviewer administered a structured in-person interview tool designed for this pilot study, data from which were collapsed into 4 change categories: communication and speech, feeding and nutrition, oral motor function, and gastrointestinal function. Functional severity was ranked with the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Speech: 10 improved (5 in GMFCS level V) and 2 worsened. Use of assistive technology to communicate: 6 improved (5 in GMFCS level V). Appetite: 10 improved (6 in GMFCS level V) and 4 worsened. Self-feeding: 9 improved (2 in GMFCS level III, 4 in level IV, 3 in level V) and 2 worsened. Saliva control: 10 improved (1 in GMFCS level III, 1 in level IV, 8 in level V) and 8 worsened. Cup drinking: 12 improved (5 in GMFCS level V) and 2 worsened. Indicates thirst: 9 improved (4 in GMFCS level IV, 5 in level V) and none worsened. Stool frequency: 8 improved (8 in GMFCS level V) and 14 worsened. Some aspects of speech, communication, and saliva control seemed to have improved, with bowel movement frequency decreased in some children receiving ITB. Fewer changes in feeding and nutritional status were reported. On the basis of this pilot study, prospective management guidelines are proposed that relate objective outcome measures of oral motor function, communication, and nutrition to changes in spasticity with ITB.

  13. Caregiver-Provided Physical Therapy Home Programs for Children with Motor Delay: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgon, Edward James R

    2018-01-17

    Caregiver-provided physical therapy home programs (PTHP) play an important role in enhancing motor outcomes in pediatric patient populations. This scoping review systematically mapped clinical trials of caregiver-provided PTHP that were aimed at enhancing motor outcomes in children who have or who are at risk for motor delay, with the purpose of (1) describing trial characteristics; (2) assessing methodologic quality, and (3) examining the reporting of caregiver-related components. Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Cochrane CENTRAL, PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, ProQuest Central, CINAHL, LILACS, and OTseeker were searched up to July 31, 2017. Two reviewers independently assessed study eligibility. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials on PTHP administered by parents, other family members, friends, or informal caregivers to children who had or who were at risk for motor delay were included. Two reviewers independently appraised trial quality on the PEDro scale and extracted data. Twenty-four articles representing 17 individual trials were identified. Populations and interventions investigated were heterogeneous. Most of the trials had important research design limitations and methodological issues that could limit usefulness in ascertaining the effectiveness of caregiver-provided PTHP. Few (4 of 17) trials indicated involvement of caregivers in the PTHP planning, assessed how the caregivers learned from the training or instructions provided, or carried out both. Included studies were heterogeneous, and unpublished data were excluded. Although caregiver-provided PTHP are important in addressing motor outcomes in this population, there is a lack of evidence at the level of clinical trials to guide practice. More research is urgently needed to determine the effectiveness of caregiver-provided PTHP. Future studies should address the many important issues identified in this scoping review to improve the usefulness of the trial results.

  14. Effect of motor imagery therapy on cognitive function of patients with stroke

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    Wei-jun GONG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the rehabilitation effect of motor imagery therapy on cognitive function of stroke patients.  Methods A total of 99 stroke patients with mild to moderate cognitive dysfunction were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group (N = 33, cognitive training group (N = 33 and motor imagery training group (N = 33. All patients received conventional rehabilitation training. Before and after 8-week training, all subjects were assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA. At the same time, event-related potential (ERP was examined to detect P300 latency and amplitude.   Results ompared with before training, MMSE (P = 0.000 and MoCA (P = 0.000 scores were significantly increased, P300 latency was shortened (P = 0.000 and P300 amplitude was increased (P = 0.000 in 3 groups after 8 - week training. There were significant differences among 3 groups on MMSE (P = 0.030 and MoCA (P = 0.013 scores, P300 latency (P = 0.004 and P300 amplitude (P = 0.009 before and after training. Among them, cognitive training group and motor imagery training group had significantly higher MMSE (P = 0.019, 0.021 and MoCA (P = 0.003, 0.031 scores, shorter P300 latency (P = 0.020, 0.003 and higher P300 amplitude (P = 0.003, 0.002 than control group.  Conclusions Motor imagery training can not only improve motor function of stroke patients, but also improve their cognitive function. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.06.005

  15. Feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of dignity therapy for people with motor neurone disease.

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    Brenda Bentley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motor neurone disease (MND practice guidelines suggest developing interventions that will promote hope, meaning, and dignity to alleviate psychological distress, but very little research has been done. This study begins to address this need by exploring the use of dignity therapy with people with MND. Dignity therapy is a brief psychotherapy that promotes hope, meaning and dignity, and enhances the end of life for people with advanced cancer. The aims of this study are to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of dignity therapy for people with MND. METHODS/DESIGN: This cross-sectional feasibility study used a one-group pre-test post-test design with 29 people diagnosed with MND. Study participants completed the following self-report questionnaires: Herth Hope Index, FACIT-sp, Patient Dignity Inventory, ALS Assessment Questionnaire, ALS Cognitive Behavioural Screen, and a demographic and health history questionnaire. Acceptability was measured with a 25-item feedback questionnaire. Feasibility was assessed by examining the length of time taken to complete dignity therapy and how symptoms common in MND affected the intervention. Generalised linear mixed models and reliable change scores were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: There were no significant pre-test post-test changes for hopefulness, spirituality or dignity on the group level, but there were changes in hopefulness on the individual level. The results of the feedback questionnaire indicates dignity therapy is highly acceptable to people with MND, who report benefits similar to those in the international randomised controlled trial on dignity therapy, a population who primarily had end-stage cancer. Benefits include better family relationships, improved sense of self and greater acceptance. Dignity therapy with people with MND is feasible if the therapist can overcome time and communication difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: Dignity therapy for people with

  16. Coenzyme Q10 therapy in hereditary motor sensory neuropathy type VI with novel mitofusin 2 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryoichi; Ikeda, Tokuhei; Hamaguchi, Ayumi; Iwasa, Kazuo; Yamada, Masahito

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary motor sensory neuropathy type VI (HMSN VI) is hereditary neuropathy accompanied by optic neuropathy. The feasibility of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as a treatment for subacute visual impairment of HMSN VI was examined. A 37-year-old patient with HMSN VI with a novel mitofusin 2 mutation was treated with high dose of CoQ10 (200 mg/day) for eight months. Visual impairment was partially resolved after CoQ10 therapy. High dose CoQ10 therapy may improve the prognosis of subacute visual impairment in HMSN VI. To confirm the effectiveness of CoQ10 on HMSN VI, further studies are needed.

  17. [Physical therapy performance in respiratory and motor involvement during postoperative in children submitted to abdominal surgeries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Caroline C; Gonçalves, Marcela T; Piccolo, Mariana M; Lima, Simone; Rosa, George J da; Paulin, Elaine; Schivinski, Camila S

    2011-01-01

    to verify the physiotherapy performance in the respiratory and motor affections during postoperative period in pediatric patients undergoing abdominal surgery. was a literature review of articles published in the databases Lilacs, Medline and SciELO in the period 1983 to 2010 as well as books, papers presented at scientific meetings and journals of the area, who approached the post-therapy of abdominal surgery in children. The keywords used were: abdominal surgery, children and physiotherapy. 28 articles, one book chapter and one dissertation had been selected that examined the question and proposed that contained all, or at least two of the descriptors listed. Most of the material included covers the incidence of respiratory complications after surgery for pediatric abdominal surgery due to immaturity of the respiratory system of this population, abdominal manipulation of surgical period, the prolonged time in bed, pain at the incision site and waste anesthetic. Some authors also discuss the musculoskeletal and connective tissue arising from the inaction and delay of psychomotor development consequent to periods of hospitalization in early childhood, taking on the role of physiotherapy to prevent motor and respiratory involvement. there are few publications addressing this topic, but the positive aspects of physiotherapy have been described, especially in relation to the prevention of respiratory complications and motor, recognized the constraints and consequences of hospitalizations and surgeries cause in children.

  18. Intensive neuromotor therapy with suit improves motor gross function in cerebral palsy: a Brazilian study

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    Tainá Ribas Mélo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP is the most common disability in children caused by central nervous system lesion. The aim of the present study was to verify the intensive neuromotor therapy effects in children with CP, in a reference Brazilian centre. In this study, three years of medical records from a Brazilian reference Centre of Intensive Neuromotor Therapy (INMT which use the INMT protocol were analysed. The motor evaluation for each child was done by the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS and GMFM-88 by an experienced professional, before and after each INMT module. A total of 53 children between the ages of 1 and 15 years (age at treatment initiation, initial evaluation, with a mean age of 5.94±3.38 years, participated in the study. Participants performed between 1 and 10 INMT modules. There was no strong correlation between age and overall performance on the GMFM scale, but it was observed a strong negative correlation between the percentage of GMFM gains and the number of modules (r=-0.709; R2 = 0.50; p = 0.022, CI95%[0.014 - 0.026], suggesting that patients tend to present higher percentage gains in the first modules. Through an intra-module comparison, it was observed statistical difference in the total score in each of the modules.

  19. Impedance control in a wave-based teleoperator for rehabilitation motor therapies assisted by robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Marco; Bonilla, Isela; González-Galván, Emilio; Reyes, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an improved wave-based bilateral teleoperation scheme for rehabilitation therapies assisted by robot manipulators. The main feature of this bilateral teleoperator is that both robot manipulators, master and slave, are controlled by impedance. Thus, a pair of motion-based adaptive impedance controllers are integrated into a wave-based configuration, in order to guarantee a stable human-robot interaction and to compensate the position drift, characteristic of the available schemes of bilateral teleoperation. Moreover, the teleoperator stability, in the presence of time delays in the communication channel, is guaranteed because the wave-variable approach is included to encode the force and velocity signals. It should be noted that the proposed structure enables the implementation of several teleoperator schemes, from passive therapies, without the intervention of a human operator on the master side, to fully active therapies where both manipulators interact with humans in a stable manner. The suitable performance of the proposed teleoperator is verified through some results obtained from the simulation of the passive and active-constrained modes, by considering typical tasks in motor-therapy rehabilitation, where an improved behavior is observed when compared to implementations of the classical wave-based approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Determinants of concurrent motor and language recovery during intensive therapy in chronic stroke patients: four single case studies

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    Annika ePrimaßin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite intensive research on mechanisms of recovery of function after stroke, surprisingly little is known about determinants of concurrent recovery of language and motor functions in single patients. The alternative hypotheses are that the two functions might either fight for resources or use the same mechanisms in the recovery process. Here we present follow-up data of four exemplary patients with different base levels of motor and language abilities. We assessed functional scales and performed exact lesion analysis to examine the connection between lesion parameters and recovery potential in each domain. Results confirm that preservation of the corticospinal tracts is a neural predictor for good motor recovery while preservation of the arcuate fasciculus is important for a good language recovery. However, results further indicate that even patients with large lesions in corticospinal tract, arcuate fasciculus and superior longitudinal fasciculus, respectively, are able to recover their motor/language abilities during intensive therapy. We further found some indicators of a facilitating interaction between motor and language recovery. Patients with positive improvement of motor skills after therapy also improved in language skills, while the patients with no motor improvements were not able to gain any language recovery.

  1. Cell Therapy Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Renal Progenitors Ameliorates Acute Kidney Injury in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Toyohara, Takafumi; Mae, Shin-Ichi; Sueta, Shin-Ichi; Inoue, Tatsuyuki; Yamagishi, Yukiko; Kawamoto, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Tomoko; Hoshina, Azusa; Toyoda, Taro; Tanaka, Hiromi; Araoka, Toshikazu; Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Sato, Yasunori; Yamaji, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is defined as a rapid loss of renal function resulting from various etiologies, with a mortality rate exceeding 60% among intensive care patients. Because conventional treatments have failed to alleviate this condition, the development of regenerative therapies using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) presents a promising new therapeutic option for AKI. We describe our methodology for generating renal progenitors from hiPSCs that show potential in ameliora...

  2. Amelioration of intractable epilepsy by adjunct vagus nerve stimulation therapy in a girl with a CDKL5 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Shimpei; Sugawara, Yuji; Moriyama, Kengo; Inaji, Motoki; Maehara, Taketoshi; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Morio, Tomohiro

    2017-04-01

    We report the case of on an 8-year-old girl with a cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 mutation and who underwent vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy for 2years. She had developed epilepsy at the age of 6months and had severe developmental delays. Initially, she had tonic and tonic-clonic seizures; however, around the age of 5years, she also developed epileptic spasms. These seizures were never completely controlled by conventional medical treatments. At the age of 7, after VNS initiation, her seizure frequency markedly reduced, and abnormal electrical activities on her electroencephalography tests strikingly decreased. Moreover, using questionnaires, we confirmed an improvement in her quality of life in the fields of alertness and activity. Although the efficacy of VNS therapy for patients with intractable epilepsy associated with a genetic anomaly has not been fully established, adjunctive VNS therapy may widen the scope of treatment choices available to these patients. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Systemic therapy of plaque-type psoriasis ameliorates endothelial cell function: results of a prospective longitudinal pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehncke, Sandra; Fichtlscherer, Stephan; Salgo, Rebekka; Garbaraviciene, Jurate; Beschmann, Heike; Diehl, Sandra; Hardt, Katja; Thaçi, Diamant; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning

    2011-08-01

    Severe psoriasis is associated with significant cardiovascular mortality. We therefore investigated the effects of systemic therapy on the cardiovascular risk of psoriasis patients. Thirteen consecutive patients receiving fumaric acid esters were included and followed for 24 weeks both clinically and by means of laboratory monitoring, 10 completed the study. Eight of ten patients showed a PASI-50 response. Two of three patients with clinical insulin resistance (Homeostasis Model Assessment of insulin resistance >2.5) showed normal insulin responsiveness at the end of the study. Clinical improvement was paralleled by a reduction of high-sensitive CRP serum levels (median -25%). There was a trend toward reduced serum levels for the vascular endothelial growth factor (median -10%) and resistin (median -4%), while the potentially cardio-protective adiponectin showed a trend toward increased serum levels under therapy (median +19%). Systemic endothelial function assessed by venous occlusion plethysmography revealed an improvement of endothelial vasodilator function after 24 weeks of treatment (p psoriasis under effective continuous systemic therapy. Future studies need to compare the cardioprotective effects of different treatment modalities, based on hard end points such as the rate of myocardial infarction.

  4. Changes in Voice Onset Time and Motor Speech Skills in Children following Motor Speech Therapy: Evidence from /pa/ productions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Vickie Y.; Kadis, Darren S.; Oh, Anna; Goshulak, Debra; Namasivayam, Aravind; Pukonen, Margit; Kroll, Robert; De Nil, Luc F.; Pang, Elizabeth W.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated changes in motor speech control and inter-gestural coordination for children with speech sound disorders (SSD) subsequent to PROMPT (Prompts for Restructuring Oral Muscular Phonetic Targets) intervention. We measured the distribution patterns of voice onset time (VOT) for a voiceless stop (/p/) to examine the changes in inter-gestural coordination. Two standardized tests were used (VMPAC, GFTA-2) to assess the changes in motor speech skills and articulation. Data showed positive changes in patterns of VOT with a lower pattern of variability. All children showed significantly higher scores for VMPAC, but only some children showed higher scores for GFTA-2. Results suggest that the proprioceptive feedback provided through PROMPT had a positive influence on motor speech control and inter-gestural coordination in voicing behavior. This set of VOT data for children with SSD adds to our understanding of the speech characteristics underlying motor speech control. Directions for future studies are discussed. PMID:24446799

  5. Maintenance of the contractile phenotype in corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells by Myocardin gene therapy ameliorates erectile dysfunction in bilateral cavernous nerve injury rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H-B; Wang, Z-Q; Chen, F-Z; Ding, W; Liu, W-B; Chen, Z-R; He, S-H; Wei, A-Y

    2017-07-01

    The pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction post radical prostatectomy is not clearly clarified, and the low efficacy of traditional PDE5i treatment remains a major complaint in contemporary practice. This study aimed to demonstrate phenotypic modulation in bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI) rats within 7 days, and subsequently validate gene therapy with Myocardin (Mycod) by maintaining a contractile phenotype in corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells. Initially, 36 male rats were randomly divided into BCNI and negative control (NC) groups for histological and phenotypic molecular measurements at 3, 5, and 7 days. Afterwards, an additional 30 rats received a single intra-cavernous injection of 50 μL PBS, Ad-Myocd (1 × 1011  pfu/ml) or Ad-vector for 10 animals each, namely the NC+PBS, BCNI+Ad-Myocd, and BCNI+Ad-vector groups. Finally, the validity and mechanism of Myocd transfection was explored at 21 days in vivo and 48 h in vitro. Western blotting showed canonical declines in Myocd, α-SMA, and Calponin expression, as well as elevated Osteopontin (OPN) expression, before corporeal morphological and SM-to-collagen ratio changes at day 5 after injury. Overexpression of Myocd maintained the contractile phenotype of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells, ameliorated bilateral cavernous nerve injury rat erectile dysfunction, as well as promoted cell contractility and suppressed proliferative capacity. Simultaneously, confocal imaging revealed up-regulation and co-localization of serum response factor in gene-transferred cells. In conclusion, our study is the first to investigate corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells phenotypes in the early stages of cavernous injury model rats, and Myocd reversed phenotypic modulation by activating serum response factor. The experimental results demonstrated the validity of gene therapy for erectile dysfunction. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  6. EMDR therapy for PTSD after motor vehicle accidents: meta-analytic evidence for specific treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Maddalena; Piccardi, Laura; Cordellieri, Pierluigi; Guariglia, Cecilia; Giannini, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Motor vehicle accident (MVA) victims may suffer both acute and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD). With PTSD affecting social, interpersonal and occupational functioning, clinicians as well as the National Institute of Health are very interested in identifying the most effective psychological treatment to reduce PTSD. From research findings, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is considered as one of the effective treatment of PTSD. In this paper, we present the results of a meta-analysis of fMRI studies on PTSD after MVA through activation likelihood estimation. We found that PTSD following MVA is characterized by neural modifications in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a cerebral structure involved in fear-conditioning mechanisms. Basing on previous findings in both humans and animals, which demonstrate that desensitization techniques and extinction protocols act on the limbic system, the effectiveness of EMDR and of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) may be related to the fact that during these therapies the ACC is stimulated by desensitization. PMID:25954183

  7. EMDR therapy for PTSD after motor vehicle accidents: meta-analytic evidence for specific treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddalena eBoccia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle accident (MVA victims may suffer both acute and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD. With PTSD affecting social, interpersonal and occupational functioning, clinicians as well as the National Institute of Health are very interested in identifying the most effective psychological treatment to reduce PTSD. From research findings, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR therapy is considered as one of the effective treatment of PTSD. In this paper, we present the results of a meta-analysis of fMRI studies on PTSD after MVA through activation likelihood estimation. We found that PTSD following MVA is characterized by neural modifications in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, a cerebral structure involved in fear-conditioning mechanisms. Basing on previous findings in both humans and animals, which demonstrate that desensitization techniques and extinction protocols act on the limbic system, the effectiveness of EMDR and of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT may be related to the fact that during these therapies the ACC is stimulated by desensitization.

  8. The therapeutic efficacy of intensive medical therapy in ameliorating high-density lipoprotein dysfunction in subjects with type two diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Sangeeta; Kheniser, Karim; Li, Ling; Bena, James; Kasumov, Takhar

    2016-08-27

    To determine whether 12 months of intensive medical therapy (IMT) improves HDL functionality parameters in subjects with type II diabetes (T2D). Retrospective, randomized, and controlled 12-month IMT intervention trial that enrolled 13-subjects with T2D (age 51- years, fasting glucose 147 mg/dL, body mass index [BMI] 36.5 kg/m(2)) and nine healthy control (46-years, fasting glucose 90 mg/dL, BMI 26.5 kg/m2). Subjects with T2D underwent IMT and HDL functionality measures (pro-inflammatory index of high-density lipoprotein (pHDL)), paraoxonase one (PON1), ceruloplasmin (Cp), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were performed on samples at baseline and at 12-months following IMT. At baseline, pHDL index was significantly higher in subjects with T2D (p therapy alone may only have relatively miniscule effects on the aforementioned factors, in relation to the aggregate.

  9. Gross motor outcomes in children with hemiparesis involved in a modified constraint-induced therapy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillick, Bernadette T; Koppes, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Constraint-Induced Therapy (CIT) has been used in pediatric rehabilitation and targets upper extremity (UE) outcomes. The purpose of this study was to measure concurrent gross motor and lower extremity functional changes using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) before and after a modified UE CIT program. The Assisting Hand Assessment (AHA) was used to evaluate upper extremity outcomes. Before-after trial design of a 19-day outpatient CIT program at Seattle Children's Hospital in Seattle, WA, USA of six ambulatory children with spastic hemiparesis between the ages of 5 and 11 years with GMFCS scores of 1. GMFM Section D (Standing) and E (Walking, Running, Jumping) and AHA scores were obtained before and after a modified CIT program. Significant differences were found between pre and post-CIT AHA and GMFM section D and E scores (p children improved from baseline, yet the child with the lowest initial scores revealed the greatest improvements. Improvements in GMFM and AHA scores were noted after a modified CIT program. Such data suggests that CIT may also influence rehabilitation outcomes not only specific to the upper extremity and warrants further investigation.

  10. Neurobiological Foundations of Neurologic Music Therapy: Rhythmic Entrainment and the Motor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eThaut

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractEntrainment is defined by a temporal locking process in which one system’s motion or signal frequency entrains the frequency of another system. This process is a universal phenomenon that can be observed in physical (e.g., pendulum clocks and biological systems (e.g. fire flies. However, entrainment can also be observed between human sensory and motor systems. The function of rhythmic entrainment in rehabilitative training and learning was established for the first time by Thaut and colleagues in several research studies in the early 1990s. It was shown that the inherent periodicity of auditory rhythmic patterns could entrain movement patterns in patients with movement disorders (see for a review: Thaut et al, 1999. Physiological, kinematic and behavioral movement analysis showed very quickly that entrainment cues not only changed the timing of movement but also improved spatial and force parameters. Mathematical models have shown that anticipatory rhythmic templates as critical time constraints can result in the complete specification of the dynamics of a movement over the entire movement cycle, thereby optimizing motor planning and execution. Furthermore, temporal rhythmic entrainment has been successfully extended into applications in cognitive rehabilitation and speech and language rehabilitation, and thus become one of the major neurological mechanisms linking music and rhythm to brain rehabilitation. These findings provided a scientific basis for the development of Neurologic Music Therapy.

  11. Neurobiological foundations of neurologic music therapy: rhythmic entrainment and the motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaut, Michael H; McIntosh, Gerald C; Hoemberg, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Entrainment is defined by a temporal locking process in which one system's motion or signal frequency entrains the frequency of another system. This process is a universal phenomenon that can be observed in physical (e.g., pendulum clocks) and biological systems (e.g., fire flies). However, entrainment can also be observed between human sensory and motor systems. The function of rhythmic entrainment in rehabilitative training and learning was established for the first time by Thaut and colleagues in several research studies in the early 1990s. It was shown that the inherent periodicity of auditory rhythmic patterns could entrain movement patterns in patients with movement disorders (see for a review: Thaut et al., 1999). Physiological, kinematic, and behavioral movement analysis showed very quickly that entrainment cues not only changed the timing of movement but also improved spatial and force parameters. Mathematical models have shown that anticipatory rhythmic templates as critical time constraints can result in the complete specification of the dynamics of a movement over the entire movement cycle, thereby optimizing motor planning and execution. Furthermore, temporal rhythmic entrainment has been successfully extended into applications in cognitive rehabilitation and speech and language rehabilitation, and thus become one of the major neurological mechanisms linking music and rhythm to brain rehabilitation. These findings provided a scientific basis for the development of neurologic music therapy.

  12. Error amplification to promote motor learning and motivation in therapy robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzad, Navid; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2012-01-01

    To study the effects of different feedback error amplification methods on a subject's upper-limb motor learning and affect during a point-to-point reaching exercise, we developed a real-time controller for a robotic manipulandum. The reaching environment was visually distorted by implementing a thirty degrees rotation between the coordinate systems of the robot's end-effector and the visual display. Feedback error amplification was provided to subjects as they trained to learn reaching within the visually rotated environment. Error amplification was provided either visually or through both haptic and visual means, each method with two different amplification gains. Subjects' performance (i.e., trajectory error) and self-reports to a questionnaire were used to study the speed and amount of adaptation promoted by each error amplification method and subjects' emotional changes. We found that providing haptic and visual feedback promotes faster adaptation to the distortion and increases subjects' satisfaction with the task, leading to a higher level of attentiveness during the exercise. This finding can be used to design a novel exercise regimen, where alternating between error amplification methods is used to both increase a subject's motor learning and maintain a minimum level of motivational engagement in the exercise. In future experiments, we will test whether such exercise methods will lead to a faster learning time and greater motivation to pursue a therapy exercise regimen.

  13. Amelioration of behavioral abnormalities in BH(4-deficient mice by dietary supplementation of tyrosine.

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    Sang Su Kwak

    Full Text Available This study reports an amelioration of abnormal motor behaviors in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice by the dietary supplementation of tyrosine. Since BH4 is an essential cofactor for the conversion of phenylalanine into tyrosine as well as the synthesis of dopamine neurotransmitter within the central nervous system, the levels of tyrosine and dopamine were severely reduced in brains of BH4-deficient Spr (-/- mice. We found that Spr (-/- mice display variable 'open-field' behaviors, impaired motor functions on the 'rotating rod', and dystonic 'hind-limb clasping'. In this study, we report that these aberrant motor deficits displayed by Spr (-/- mice were ameliorated by the therapeutic tyrosine diet for 10 days. This study also suggests that dopamine deficiency in brains of Spr (-/- mice may not be the biological feature of aberrant motor behaviors associated with BH4 deficiency. Brain levels of dopamine (DA and its metabolites in Spr (-/- mice were not substantially increased by the dietary tyrosine therapy. However, we found that mTORC1 activity severely suppressed in brains of Spr (-/- mice fed a normal diet was restored 10 days after feeding the mice the tyrosine diet. The present study proposes that brain mTORC1 signaling pathway is one of the potential targets in understanding abnormal motor behaviors associated with BH4-deficiency.

  14. Comparison of general exercise, motor control exercise and spinal manipulative therapy for chronic low back pain: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Manuela L; Ferreira, Paulo H; Latimer, Jane; Herbert, Robert D; Hodges, Paul W; Jennings, Matthew D; Maher, Christopher G; Refshauge, Kathryn M

    2007-09-01

    Practice guidelines recommend various types of exercise and manipulative therapy for chronic back pain but there have been few head-to-head comparisons of these interventions. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to compare effects of general exercise, motor control exercise and manipulative therapy on function and perceived effect of intervention in patients with chronic back pain. Two hundred and forty adults with non-specific low back pain 3months were allocated to groups that received 8weeks of general exercise, motor control exercise or spinal manipulative therapy. General exercise included strengthening, stretching and aerobic exercises. Motor control exercise involved retraining specific trunk muscles using ultrasound feedback. Spinal manipulative therapy included joint mobilization and manipulation. Primary outcomes were patient-specific function (PSFS, 3-30) and global perceived effect (GPE, -5 to 5) at 8weeks. These outcomes were also measured at 6 and 12months. Follow-up was 93% at 8weeks and 88% at 6 and 12months. The motor control exercise group had slightly better outcomes than the general exercise group at 8weeks (between-group difference: PSFS 2.9, 95% CI: 0.9-4.8; GPE 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-2.4), as did the spinal manipulative therapy group (PSFS 2.3, 95% CI: 0.4-4.2; GPE 1.2, 95% CI: 0.4-2.0). The groups had similar outcomes at 6 and 12months. Motor control exercise and spinal manipulative therapy produce slightly better short-term function and perceptions of effect than general exercise, but not better medium or long-term effects, in patients with chronic non-specific back pain.

  15. Delayed administration of allogeneic cardiac stem cell therapy for acute myocardial infarction could ameliorate adverse remodeling: experimental study in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisostomo, Veronica; Baez-Diaz, Claudia; Maestre, Juan; Garcia-Lindo, Monica; Sun, Fei; Casado, Javier G; Blazquez, Rebeca; Abad, Jose L; Palacios, Itziar; Rodriguez-Borlado, Luis; Sanchez-Margallo, Francisco M

    2015-05-12

    The optimal timing of cardiac stem cells administration is still unclear. We assessed the safety of same-day and delayed (one week) delivery and the possible influence of the timing on the therapeutic outcomes of allogeneic porcine cardiac stem cells administration after acute myocardial infarction in a closed-chest ischemia-reperfusion model. Female swine surviving 90 min occlusion of the mid left anterior descending coronary artery received an intracoronary injection of 25x10(6) porcine cardiac stem cells either two hours (n = 5, D0) or 7 days (n = 6, D7) after reperfusion. Controls received intracoronary injection of vehicle on day 7 (n = 6, CON). Safety was defined in terms of absence of major cardiac events, changes to the ECG during injection, post-administration coronary flow assessed using the TIMI scale and cardiac troponin I determination after the intervention. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance was performed for morphological and functional assessment prior to infarction, before injection (D7 and CON groups only), at one and 10 weeks. Samples were taken from the infarct and transition areas for pathological examination. No major adverse cardiac events were seen during injection in any group. Animals receiving the therapy on the same day of infarction (D0 group) showed mild transient ST changes during injection (n = 4) and, in one case, slightly compromised coronary flow (TIMI 2). Cardiac function parameters and infarct sizes were not significantly different between groups, with a trend towards higher ejection fraction in the treated groups. Ventricular volumes indexed to body surface area increased over time in control animals, and decreased by the end of the study in animals receiving the therapy, significantly so when comparing End Diastolic Volume between CON and D7 groups (CON: 121.70 ml/m(2) ± 26.09 ml/m(2), D7: 98.71 ml/m(2) ± 8.30 ml/m(2), p = 0.037). The treated groups showed less organization of the collagenous scar, and a significantly (p = 0

  16. Amelioration of serum 8-OHdG level by enzyme replacement therapy in patients with Fabry cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Hsuan; Chou, Yueh-Ching; Hsiao, Chen-Yuan; Chien, Yueh; Wang, Kang-Ling; Lai, Ying-Hsiu; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Niu, Dau-Ming; Yu, Wen-Chung

    2017-04-29

    The level of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosise (8-OHdG) is a marker of oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) on the level of 8-OHdG in patients with Fabry cardiomyopathy and the clinical evolution of Fabry cardiomyopathy. We measured the serum levels of 8-OHdG in 20 healthy control and 22 patients with Fabry cardiomyopathy before and after ERT. The mean lysoGb3 and 8-OHdG levels was significantly increased in patients with Fabry cardiomyopathy compared with that of control subjects (lysoGb3, 3.6 ± 1.1 nM vs. 0.4 ± 0.1 nM, p cardiomyopathy (FC) and that successful management of FC with ERT is associated with a decrease in this oxidative stress marker. Serum 8-OHdG levels can be used not only as a noninvasive biomarker of oxidative stress in patients with FC but also an objective and quantitative parameter in the follow-up of patients during ERT. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. AMELIORATION OF QUALITY OF LIFE AND LUNG FUNCTION OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE BY PRANIC HEALING AS ADJUVANT THERAPY

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    Padukudru Anand Mahesh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims To study the effects of Pranic Healing (PH, as a complementary therapy to improve lung function, physiological condition and quality of life of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD patients. Methods Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study. 21 males with a mean age of 61.6 years and COPD stage II were randomly allocated to PH and control groups. The PH group received PH sessions thrice weekly during the study. The control group received Sham PH. Data was collected during baseline and four scheduled visits of the participants during six months. The primary outcome of the study was to access the reduction in COPD symptoms and to increase participation in physical and social activities by evaluating Spirometry, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD. Results Significant improvement for PH group in Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (p=0.02, SGRQ domains of Activity (p=0.006, Impact (p=0.002, Total (p=0.000, and non-significant change in Symptom domain (p=0.44. PH group showed a positive tendency in 6 MWT and HRSD scores with insignificant difference between the groups. No serious adverse events occurred during the study. Conclusion PH as an adjunct to conventional treatment can improve lung function and quality of life of COPD subjects.

  18. Combined transcranial direct current stimulation and home-based occupational therapy for upper limb motor impairment following intracerebral hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jesper; Figlewski, Krystian; Andersen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the combined effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and home-based occupational therapy on activities of daily living (ADL) and grip strength, in patients with upper limb motor impairment following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: A double...

  19. The impact of sensory integration therapy on gross motor function in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol

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    Jacek Wilczyński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : In Poland there are 900 cases of full-blown foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS in neonates per year, and in 9000 children there are some symptoms of it. Aim of the research : To analyse the impact of sensory integration (SI therapy on gross motor skills function in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol. Material and methods: The study was conducted on a group of 20 children aged 4–5 years with information from an interview about prenatal exposure to alcohol. The diagnosis of sensory integration disorder consisted of two 60-minute diagnostics meetings. Twelve trials with clinical observations were performed by Ayres: finger to nose, cocontraction, prone extension posture, flexed position supine, asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATOS, symmetrical tonic neck reflex (STOS, muscle tension, Schilder test, dynamic balance, static balance, gravitational insecurity, and trunk stabilisation. The therapeutic program included: normalisation of the vestibular and proprioceptive system, normalisation of the touch system, strengthening muscle tension, development of motion planning, development of oculomotor performance, development of motor coordination, hand therapy, integration of ATOS, STOS, development of locomotion and balance functions, and improving efficiency of gross and small motor skills. Results and conclusions : High efficiency of SI therapy has been shown in children after prenatal exposure to alcohol on the example of gross motor skills. Positive effects of SI therapy have been shown for tests: finger to nose, in the erect position on the stomach, the flexural position on the back, ATOS, STOS, Schilder test, dynamic balance, static balance, and the uncertainty of gravity and trunk stabilisation. Only cocontraction and muscle tension tests showed no efficacy of SI therapy. The a-Cronbach position analysis showed high reliability of the performed tests both before and after the therapy. It is advisable to continue the study on a

  20. [Clinical research of knee joint motor impairment after fracture operation treated with relaxing needling manipulation combined with exercise therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kaimin; Qi, Tianchen; Yang, Lin; Hou, Zhi

    2015-09-01

    To compare the clinical efficacy on the motor impairment of knee joint after tracture operation between the combined therapeutic method of relaxing needling manipulation and exercise therapy and the simple exercise therapy. Sixty-four patients after the operation for the fracture of femoral shaft were randomized into a relaxing needling combined with exercise therapy group (group A) and an exercise therapy group (group B), 32 cases in each one. In the group A, the relaxing needling manipulation was applied to the local painful area of knee or the stiff soft tissues. Additionally, the exercise therapy was used in combination. In the group B, the exercise therapy was applied simply. Hospital for special surgery (HSS) pain score, the range of movement (ROM) of knee joint and Lysholm score were compared before and 60 days after treatment in the patients of the two groups. The efficacy was compared between the two groups. After treatment, HSS pain score, ROM and Lysholm score were all improved in the two groups, presenting the significant differences as compared with those before treatment (all Pexercise therapy achieves the significant efficacy on the motor impairment of knee joint after the operation for the fracture of femoral shaft, superior to the simple exercise therapy.

  1. Exercise Therapy for Parkinson's Disease: Pedaling Rate Is Related to Changes in Motor Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Chintan; Beall, Erik B; Frankemolle, Anneke M M; Penko, Amanda; Phillips, Michael D; Lowe, Mark J; Alberts, Jay L

    2016-02-01

    Forced-rate lower-extremity exercise has recently emerged as a potential safe and low-cost therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). The efficacy is believed to be dependent on pedaling rate, with rates above the subjects' voluntary exercise rates being most beneficial. In this study, we use functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to further elucidate the mechanism underlying this effect. Twenty-seven PD patients were randomized to complete 8 weeks of forced-rate exercise (FE) or voluntary-rate exercise (VE). Exercise was delivered using a specialized stationary bicycle, which can augment patients' voluntary exercise rates. The FE group received assistance from the cycle. Imaging was conducted at baseline, end of therapy, and after 4 weeks of follow-up. Functional connectivity (FC) was determined via seed-based correlation analysis, using activation-based seeds in the primary motor cortex (M1). The change in FC after exercise was compared using linear correlation with pedaling rate. Results of the correlation analysis showed a strong positive correlation between pedaling rate and change in FC from the most affected M1 to the ipsilateral thalamus. This effect persisted after 4 weeks of follow-up. These results indicate that a plausible mechanism for the therapeutic efficacy of high-rate exercise in PD is that it improves thalamo-cortical connectivity.

  2. Occupational Therapy and the amazon riverside child victim of scalping by motor boat shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Dayse Braga Santos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although scalping is a recurrentaccident innorthern Brazil, there are still few studies on the subject. The aim of the present work was to report the occupational therapy procedure on the minimization of the occupational performance impairment of two riverside children that were victims of scalping by unprotected motor boat shaft, through the evaluation of occupational performance and exposure of the intervention performed. This is a case study with two scalped riverside girls hospitalized between April and June, 2013. The application of evaluation protocols verified changes in the areas of occupational performance, where activities of daily living (ADL such as dependence for bathing and ambulationare inserted; changesin the performance context, verified in the anxiety to be discharged from hospital; and changesin the performance component, with decreased self-esteem because of the change on their self-image. Reassessment after intervention showed improvement in the performance of ADL and self-image perceptionof both patients. Thereby it is believed that the development of the research allowed the contact with a theme that is so typical in the Braziliannorth region, stressing the importance of Occupational Therapy assistance, providing greater independence in the performance of ADL that are meaningful to each child.

  3. Low-dose, continuous enzyme replacement therapy ameliorates brain pathology in the neurodegenerative lysosomal disorder mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Barbara; Hassiotis, Sofia; Rozaklis, Tina; Beard, Helen; Trim, Paul J; Snel, Marten F; Hopwood, John J; Hemsley, Kim M

    2016-05-01

    Repeated replacement of sulphamidase via cerebrospinal fluid injection is an effective treatment for pathological changes in the brain in mice and dogs with the lysosomal storage disorder, mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA (MPS IIIA). Investigational trials of this approach are underway in children with this condition, however, infusions require attendance at a specialist medical facility. We sought to comprehensively evaluate the effectiveness of sustained-release (osmotic pump-delivered) enzyme replacement therapy in murine MPS IIIA as this method, if applied to humans, would require only subcutaneous administration of enzyme once the pump was installed. Six-week-old MPS IIIA and unaffected mice were implanted with subcutaneous mini-osmotic pumps connected to an infusion cannula directed at the right lateral ventricle. Either recombinant human sulphamidase or vehicle were infused over the course of 7 weeks, with pumps replaced part-way through the experimental period. We observed near-normalisation of primarily stored substrate (heparan sulphate) in both hemispheres of the MPS IIIA brain and cervical spinal cord, as determined using tandem mass spectrometry. Immunohistochemistry indicated a reduction in secondarily stored GM 3 ganglioside and neuroinflammatory markers. A bias towards the infusion side was seen in some, but not all outcomes. The recombinant enzyme appears stable under pump-like conditions for at least 1 month. Given that infusion pumps are in clinical use in other nervous system disorders, e.g. for treatment of spasticity or brain tumours, this treatment method warrants consideration for testing in large animal models of MPS IIIA and other lysosomal storage disorders that affect the brain. Clinical trials of repeated injection of replacement enzyme into CSF are underway in patients with the inherited neurodegenerative disorder mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA. In this pre-clinical study, we examined an alternative approach - slow, continual infusion

  4. Amelioration of cardiac function and activation of anti-inflammatory vasoactive peptides expression in the rat myocardium by low level laser therapy.

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    Martha Trindade Manchini

    Full Text Available Low-level laser therapy (LLLT has been used as an anti-inflammatory treatment in several disease conditions, even when inflammation is a secondary consequence, such as in myocardial infarction (MI. However, the mechanism by which LLLT is able to protect the remaining myocardium remains unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that LLLT reduces inflammation after acute MI in female rats and ameliorates cardiac function. The potential participation of the Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS and Kallikrein-Kinin System (KKS vasoactive peptides was also evaluated. LLLT treatment effectively reduced MI size, attenuated the systolic dysfunction after MI, and decreased the myocardial mRNA expression of interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6 in comparison to the non-irradiated rat tissue. In addition, LLLT treatment increased protein and mRNA levels of the Mas receptor, the mRNA expression of kinin B2 receptors and the circulating levels of plasma kallikrein compared to non-treated post-MI rats. On the other hand, the kinin B1 receptor mRNA expression decreased after LLLT. No significant changes were found in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in the myocardial remote area between laser-irradiated and non-irradiated post-MI rats. Capillaries density also remained similar between these two experimental groups. The mRNA expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS was increased three days after MI, however, this effect was blunted by LLLT. Moreover, endothelial NOS mRNA content increased after LLLT. Plasma nitric oxide metabolites (NOx concentration was increased three days after MI in non-treated rats and increased even further by LLLT treatment. Our data suggest that LLLT diminishes the acute inflammation in the myocardium, reduces infarct size and attenuates left ventricle dysfunction post-MI and increases vasoactive peptides expression and nitric oxide (NO generation.

  5. Factors Influencing the Gross Motor Outcome of Intensive Therapy in Children with Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bo Young; Jo, Leechan; Kim, Joon Sung; Lim, Seong Hoon; Bae, Jung Min

    2017-05-01

    The study was designed to identify factors influencing the short term effect of intensive therapy on gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy or developmental delay. Retrospectively, total Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) scores measured during the first and last weeks of intensive therapy were analyzed (n = 103). Good and poor responder groups were defined as those in the top and bottom 25% in terms of score difference, respectively. The GMFM-88 score increased to 4.67 ± 3.93 after 8 weeks of intensive therapy (P therapy. Age (≥ 36 months; OR = 2.737, 95% CI = 1.003-7.471, P = 0.049) and GMFCS level (I-II vs. IV-V; OR = 0.189, 95% CI = 0.057-0.630, P = 0.007; and III vs. IV-V; OR = 0.095, 95% CI = 0.011-0.785, P = 0.029) were significantly associated with a poor response. GMFCS level is the most important prognostic factor for the effect of intensive therapy on gross motor function. In addition, age ≥ 36 months, is associated with a poor outcome. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  6. Neuromuscular taping versus sham therapy on muscular strength and motor performance in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Cosimo; Pedrini, Martina Francesca; Licari, Oriana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to evaluate differences in leg muscles strength and motor performance between neuromuscular taping (NT) and sham tape groups. Relapsing-remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) patients were recruited and randomly assigned to NT or sham tape groups. All patients underwent the treatment 5 times at 5-d intervals. They were submitted to a 6-minute walk test and isokinetic test (peak torque) at the beginning (T0), at the end (T1) and 2 months after the end of the treatment (T2). Forty MS patients (38 F; 2 M; mean age 45.5 ± 6.5 years) were assigned to NT group (n = 20) and to sham tape group (n = 20). Delta Peak Torque T1-T0 and T2-T0 between two groups were statistically significant in quadriceps (p = 0.007; 0.000) and hamstrings (p = 0.011; 0.007). The difference between the two groups according to 6-minute walk test was not statistically significant but in NT group it was noticed an increasing trend about the distance run. In this single-blind randomized controlled trial, NT seemed to increase strength in leg muscles, compared to a sham device, in RR MS patients. Further studies are needed to consider this therapy as a complement to classic physical therapy. Neuromuscular taping (NT) in multiple sclerosis: NT is well tolerated by multiple sclerosis patients and should be a complement to classic physical therapy. This technique normalizes muscular function, strengthens weakened muscles and assists the postural alignment.

  7. The Role of Endogenous Neurogenesis in Functional Recovery and Motor Map Reorganization Induced by Rehabilitative Therapy after Stroke in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiromoto, Takashi; Okabe, Naohiko; Lu, Feng; Maruyama-Nakamura, Emi; Himi, Naoyuki; Narita, Kazuhiko; Yagita, Yoshiki; Kimura, Kazumi; Miyamoto, Osamu

    2017-02-01

    Endogenous neurogenesis is associated with functional recovery after stroke, but the roles it plays in such recovery processes are unknown. This study aims to clarify the roles of endogenous neurogenesis in functional recovery and motor map reorganization induced by rehabilitative therapy after stroke by using a rat model of cerebral ischemia (CI). Ischemia was induced via photothrombosis in the caudal forelimb area of the rat cortex. First, we examined the effect of rehabilitative therapy on functional recovery and motor map reorganization, using the skilled forelimb reaching test and intracortical microstimulation. Next, using the same approaches, we examined how motor map reorganization changed when endogenous neurogenesis after stroke was inhibited by cytosine-β-d-arabinofuranoside (Ara-C). Rehabilitative therapy for 4 weeks after the induction of stroke significantly improved functional recovery and expanded the rostral forelimb area (RFA). Intraventricular Ara-C administration for 4-10 days after stroke significantly suppressed endogenous neurogenesis compared to vehicle, but did not appear to influence non-neural cells (e.g., microglia, astrocytes, and vascular endothelial cells). Suppressing endogenous neurogenesis via Ara-C administration significantly inhibited (~50% less than vehicle) functional recovery and RFA expansion (~33% of vehicle) induced by rehabilitative therapy after CI. After CI, inhibition of endogenous neurogenesis suppressed both the functional and anatomical markers of rehabilitative therapy. These results suggest that endogenous neurogenesis contributes to functional recovery after CI related to rehabilitative therapy, possibly through its promotion of motor map reorganization, although other additional roles cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of combined special education treatment and occupational therapy on upper extremities motor skills in adult patients with hemiplegia

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    Savković Nada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Stroke is the most common single cause of severe and multiple physical disabilities, and rehabilitation that reduces functional deficits is the most effective treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of special education treatment as a supplement to occupational therapy on upper extremities motor skills in adult patients with post stroke hemiplegia. Methods. Standard education tests for motor function evaluation of the upper extremities: O`Connor, Ring and Hand grip test, were applied on a sample of 64 patients who were in the process of rehabilitation in the Clinic for Rehabilitation “Dr. Miroslav Zotović” in Belgrade. After the evaluation, all the participants were included in occupational therapy and divided in two intervention groups per 32 subjects each. The patients from the first experimental group received individually dosed special education treatment which was performed for at least 12 weeks as a supplement together with occupational therapy, while patients from the second experimental group were only in the process of occupational therapy without special education treatment. At the end of the study the same tests were used to re-evaluate the level of motor abilities of the patients in both groups. Results.The patients from the first experimental group with individually dosed special education treatment as a supplement showed significantly better scores after applying the treatment in all tested variables – explosive, static and dynamic muscular strength grip fist, as well as oculomotor skills at the level of the elbow and shoulder for both healthy and paretic hand. Conclusion. On the basis of the obtained results, it can be concluded that special education treatment added to occupational therapy lead to better performing of upper extremities motor skills and that it can be a good supplement to conventional occupational therapy methods and techniques.

  9. THERAPIST: Towards an Autonomous Socially Interactive Robot for Motor and Neurorehabilitation Therapies for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderita, Luis Vicente; Manso, Luis J; Bustos, Pablo; Suárez-Mejías, Cristina; Fernández, Fernando; Bandera, Antonio

    2014-10-07

    Neurorehabilitation therapies exploiting the use-dependent plasticity of our neuromuscular system are devised to help patients who suffer from injuries or diseases of this system. These therapies take advantage of the fact that the motor activity alters the properties of our neurons and muscles, including the pattern of their connectivity, and thus their functionality. Hence, a sensor-motor treatment where patients makes certain movements will help them (re)learn how to move the affected body parts. But these traditional rehabilitation processes are usually repetitive and lengthy, reducing motivation and adherence to the treatment, and thus limiting the benefits for the patients. Our goal was to create innovative neurorehabilitation therapies based on THERAPIST, a socially assistive robot. THERAPIST is an autonomous robot that is able to find and execute plans and adapt them to new situations in real-time. The software architecture of THERAPIST monitors and determines the course of action, learns from previous experiences, and interacts with people using verbal and non-verbal channels. THERAPIST can increase the adherence of the patient to the sessions using serious games. Data are recorded and can be used to tailor patient sessions. We hypothesized that pediatric patients would engage better in a therapeutic non-physical interaction with a robot, facilitating the design of new therapies to improve patient motivation. We propose RoboCog, a novel cognitive architecture. This architecture will enhance the effectiveness and time-of-response of complex multi-degree-of-freedom robots designed to collaborate with humans, combining two core elements: a deep and hybrid representation of the current state, own, and observed; and a set of task-dependent planners, working at different levels of abstraction but connected to this central representation through a common interface. Using RoboCog, THERAPIST engages the human partner in an active interactive process. But Robo

  10. THERAPIST: Towards an Autonomous Socially Interactive Robot for Motor and Neurorehabilitation Therapies for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderita, Luis Vicente; Manso, Luis J; Bustos, Pablo; Fernández, Fernando; Bandera, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurorehabilitation therapies exploiting the use-dependent plasticity of our neuromuscular system are devised to help patients who suffer from injuries or diseases of this system. These therapies take advantage of the fact that the motor activity alters the properties of our neurons and muscles, including the pattern of their connectivity, and thus their functionality. Hence, a sensor-motor treatment where patients makes certain movements will help them (re)learn how to move the affected body parts. But these traditional rehabilitation processes are usually repetitive and lengthy, reducing motivation and adherence to the treatment, and thus limiting the benefits for the patients. Objective Our goal was to create innovative neurorehabilitation therapies based on THERAPIST, a socially assistive robot. THERAPIST is an autonomous robot that is able to find and execute plans and adapt them to new situations in real-time. The software architecture of THERAPIST monitors and determines the course of action, learns from previous experiences, and interacts with people using verbal and non-verbal channels. THERAPIST can increase the adherence of the patient to the sessions using serious games. Data are recorded and can be used to tailor patient sessions. Methods We hypothesized that pediatric patients would engage better in a therapeutic non-physical interaction with a robot, facilitating the design of new therapies to improve patient motivation. We propose RoboCog, a novel cognitive architecture. This architecture will enhance the effectiveness and time-of-response of complex multi-degree-of-freedom robots designed to collaborate with humans, combining two core elements: a deep and hybrid representation of the current state, own, and observed; and a set of task-dependent planners, working at different levels of abstraction but connected to this central representation through a common interface. Using RoboCog, THERAPIST engages the human partner in an active

  11. [Experimental approach to the gene therapy of motor neuron disease with the use of genes hypoxia-inducible factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismailov, Sh M; Barykova, Iu A; Shmarov, M M; Tarantul, V Z; Barskov, I V; Kucherianu, V G; Brylev, L V; Logunov, D Iu; Tutykhina, I L; Bocharov, E V; Zakharova, M N; Naroditskiĭ, B S; Illarioshkin, S N

    2014-05-01

    Motor neuron disease (MND), or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord and the brain. Several angiogenic and neurogenic growth factors, such as the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiogenin (ANG), insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and others, have been shown to promote survival of the spinal motor neurons during ischemia. We constructed recombinant vectors using human adenovirus 5 (Ad5) carrying the VEGF, ANG or IGF genes under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. As a model for MND, we employed a transgenic mice strain, B6SJL-Tg (SOD1*G93A)d11 Gur/J that develops a progressive degeneration of the spinal motor neurons caused by the expression of a mutated Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene SOD1. Delivery of the therapeutic genes to the spinal motor neurons was done using the effect of the retrograde axonal transport after multiple injections of the Ad5-VEGF, Ad5-ANG and Ad5-IGF vectors and their combinations into the limbs and back muscles of the SOD1(G93A) mice. Viral transgene expression in the spinal cord motor neurons was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and RT-RCR. We assessed the neurological status, motor activity and lifespan of experimental and control animal groups. We discovered that SOD1(G93A) mice injected with the Ad5-VEGF + Ad5-ANG combination showed a 2-3 week delay in manifestation of the disease, higher motor activity at the advanced stages of the disease, and at least a 10% increase in the lifespan compared to the control and other experimental groups. These results support the safety and therapeutic efficacy of the tested recombinant treatment. We propose that the developed experimental MND treatment based on viral delivery of VEGF + ANG can be used as a basis for gene therapy drug development and testing in the preclinical and clinical trials of the MND.

  12. Can music-based movement therapy improve motor dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease? Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Dong; Ye, Dan; Li, Haiyu; Chen, Feng

    2017-06-21

    This study aimed to quantify whether there is association between music-based movement therapy and motor dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease, and, if so, whether music-based movement therapy can be used as first-line non-pharmacological treatment. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials that examined the effect of music-based movement therapy on patient-relevant and disease-specific outcomes. Comprehensive literature was searched of PubMed, EMbase, and the Cochrane Library from inception to November 2016. Randomized controlled trial of patients with Parkinson's disease was searched to identify trials comparing music-based movement therapy with no music care. A total of 8 studies (11 analyses, 241 subjects) were included; all of them had acceptable quality by PEDro scale score. Studies based on any type of Parkinson's disease patients were combined and subgroup analyzed. Compared with the control group, the SMD of Berg Balance Scale score was 0.85(0.46 to 1.25), -0.60 (-0.98 to -0.22) in Parkinson Disease Questionnaire-39 summary index, -0.90s (-1.56 to -0.23) in Time Up and Go text, and -0.43 (-1.11 to 0.25) in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Motor Subscale 3 as instrument methods for motor function. Secondary outcomes included cognitive function and quality of life. There was positive evidence to support the use of music-based movement therapy on treatment of motor function; there was neutral evidence to support the use of music for the treatment of cognitive function quality of life.

  13. [The effectiveness of physical therapy methods (Bobath and motor relearning program) in rehabilitation of stroke patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutulyte, Grazina; Kimtys, Algimantas; Krisciūnas, Aleksandras

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether two different physiotherapy regimes caused any differences in outcome in the rehabilitation after stroke. We examined 240 patients with stroke. Examination was carried out at the Rehabilitation Center of Kaunas Second Clinical Hospital. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Bobath method was applied to the first (I) group (n=147), motor relearning program (MRP) method was applied to the second (II) group (n=93). In every group of patients we established samples according to sex, age, hospitalization to rehab unit as occurrence of CVA degree of disorder (hemiplegia, hemiparesis). The mobility of patients was evaluated according to European Federation for Research in Rehabilitation (EFRR) scale. Activities of daily living were evaluated by Barthel index. Analyzed groups were evaluated before physical therapy. When preliminary analysis was carried out it proved no statically reliable differences between analyzed groups (reliability 95%). The same statistical analysis was carried out after physical therapy. The results of differences between patient groups were compared using chi(2) method. Bobath method was applied working with the first group of patients. The aim of the method is to improve quality of the affected body side's movements in order to keep both sides working as harmoniously as possible. While applying this method at work, physical therapist guides patient's body on key-points, stimulating normal postural reactions, and training normal movement pattern. MRP method was used while working with the second group patients. This method is based on movement science, biomechanics and training of functional movement. Program is based on idea that movement pattern shouldn't be trained; it must be relearned. CONCLUSION. This study indicates that physiotherapy with task-oriented strategies represented by MRP, is preferable to physiotherapy with facilitation/inhibition strategies, such the Bobath programme, in the

  14. Intrajejunal levodopa versus conventional therapy in Parkinson disease: motor and nonmotor effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Prashanth; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Rizos, Alexandra; Martin, Anne; Faye, Guy C; Forgacs, Ian; Odin, Per; Antonini, Angelo; Chaudhuri, K Ray

    2012-01-01

    Seventeen patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD) were treated with intrajejunal L-dopa infusion (IJL) and compared with a matched group of 9 patients (termed comparator [C]) not given IJL because of funding restriction by primary care trusts (PCTs) in the UK, although considered to be clinically eligible for IJL. Assessments were baseline and follow-up (6 months) with Hoehn and Yahr staging, unified PD rating scale (UPDRS-III and UPDRS-IV), Parkinson disease questionnaire (PDQ-8, quality of life [QoL]) and nonmotor symptom scale (NMSS).Baseline characteristics were comparable between the groups. The IJL-treated group showed highly significant improvements in UPDRS-III (P = 0.005), UPDRS-IV (P = 0.0004), total NMSS score (P = 0.004), and QoL (P = 0.01), whereas the C group showed no change in these parameters. A large effect size of IJL was seen in treated patients for UPDRS-III (1.13), UPDRS-IV (1.52), NMSS score (0.82), and QoL (1.12), whereas continuing conventional treatment registered no effect in C.This study confirms the robust effect of IJL on motor and, in particular, nonmotor symptoms and QoL in advanced PD as described in open-label studies but additionally points to the need for such treatment in those denied this therapy because of centrally dictated funding policies leading to inequalities in health care.

  15. Early postoperative physical therapy for improving short-term gross motor outcome in infants with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseba, Sumihito; Sakakima, Harutoshi; Nakao, Syuhei; Ohira, Misaki; Yanagi, Shigefumi; Imoto, Yutaka; Yoshida, Akira; Shimodozono, Megumi

    2017-04-07

    We analysed the gross motor recovery of infants and toddlers with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD) who received early postoperative physical therapy to see whether there was any difference in the duration to recovery. This study retrospectively evaluated the influence of early physical therapy on postoperative gross motor outcomes of patients with CHD. The gross motor ability of patients with cyanotic (n = 25, average age: 376.4 days) and acyanotic (n = 26, average age: 164.5 days) CHD was evaluated using our newly developed nine-grade mobility assessment scale. Physical therapy was started at an average of five days after surgery, during which each patient's gross motor ability was significantly decreased compared with the preoperative level. Patients (who received early postoperative physical therapy) with cyanotic (88.0%) and acyanotic CHD (96.2%) showed improved preoperative mobility grades by the time of hospital discharge. However, patients with cyanotic CHD had a significantly prolonged recovery period compared to those with acyanotic CHD (p physical therapy promotes gross motor recovery. Implications of Rehabilitation Infants and toddlers with cyanotic congenital heart disease are likely at greater risk of gross motor delays and have a prolonged recovery period of gross motor ability compared to those with acyanotic congenital heart disease. Early postoperative physical therapy for patients with congenital heart disease after cardiac surgery promoted gross motor recovery. The postoperative recovery period to preoperative mobility grade was affected by pre-, intra-, and postoperative factors. Rehabilitation experts should consider the risk of gross motor delays of patients with congenital heart disease after cardiac surgery and the early postoperative physical therapy to promote their gross motor recovery.

  16. Effects of laser therapy and Grimaldi's muscle shortening manoeuvre on motor control of subjects with incomplete spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Diego; Longo, Leonardo; Lippi, Paolo; Cherubini, Giulio; Mangé, Vanessa

    2017-09-30

    From year 2003 we treated positively 251 patients with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injuries (TSCI), using Non-Surgical Laser Therapy (NSLT). In order to increase muscle strength, we have also started using a physical therapy practice called Grimaldi's Muscle Shortening Manoeuvre (GMSM)The goal of our study is to obtain objective data suggesting the real effectiveness of the association of these two treatments. In 2015, 10 patients with incomplete TSCI were enrolled. Further 10 subjects with similar features were included as control group. All patients have subtotal sensory loss and motor paralysis below the level of the lesion. Lasers used were 808, 10600, and 1064 nm, applied with a first cycle of four sessions per day for a total of 20 sessions. The patients participated in specific physical therapy training (GMSM) twice a day, for a total of eight sessions.Each cycle of laser and GMSM was replicated each month. Results were considered positive if sensitivity increased at least two dermatomes per cycle under the level of the lesion. Results in muscle activity (on/off) were regarded as positive if sEMG showed modifications in CNS-muscle. Objective assessment of force displayed encouraging results. After each cycle, patients showed improvements in motor function and voluntary command. Follow-up is positive after 3 months. Associating laser treatment and Grimaldi's Muscle Shortening Manoeuvre (MSM) seems to be effective on muscle strength and motor control in patients affected by subtotal SCI compared to a control group.

  17. On the Role of Dopamine Replacement Therapy in Decision-Making, Working Memory, and Reward in Parkinson's Disease: Does the Therapy-Dose Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torta, Diana Maria Elena; Castelli, Lorys; Zibetti, Maurizio; Lopiano, Leonardo; Geminiani, Giuliano

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dopaminergic therapy proved to ameliorate motor deficits in Parkinson's disease but its effects on behavior and cognition vary according to factors that include, among others, the evolution of the disease and the nature of the task that is tested. This study addressed the question of whether, in moderate to advanced Parkinson's disease…

  18. The Effect of Motorized Spinal Decompression Delivered via SpineMED Combined with Physical Therapy Modalities for Patients with Cervical Radiculopathy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, Sang-Yeol; Kim, Hyeong-Dong

    2010-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a 4-week course of motorized spinal decompression delivered via SpineMED combined with physical therapy modalities on the treatment...

  19. Effect of neurodevelopmental treatment-based physical therapy on the change of muscle strength, spasticity, and gross motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of neurodevelopmental treatment-based physical therapy on muscle tone, strength, and gross motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy...

  20. The experiences of professionals utilizing sensory–motor play with young children in Gestalt play therapy / Elizabeth Sarah Janse van Rensburg

    OpenAIRE

    Janse van Rensburg, Liza

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of professionals utilizing sensory-motor play (SMP) with young children (YC) in Gestalt play therapy in order to provide recommendations for professionals and to create an awareness of the value of SMP in Gestalt play therapy. Coming from an occupational therapy background, the researcher became aware of the potential value of utilizing sensorymotor play in Gestalt play therapy with YC. SMP, being a vital part of...

  1. Effectiveness of mirror therapy, motor imagery, and virtual feedback on phantom limb pain following amputation: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrador Colmenero, Laura; Perez Marmol, Jose Manuel; Martí-García, Celia; Querol Zaldivar, María de Los Ángeles; Tapia Haro, Rosa María; Castro Sánchez, Adelaida María; Aguilar-Ferrándiz, María Encarnación

    2017-11-01

    Phantom limb pain is reported in 50%-85% of people with amputation. Clinical interventions in treating central pain, such as mirror therapy, motor imagery, or virtual visual feedback, could redound in benefits to amputee patients with phantom limb pain. To provide an overview of the effectiveness of different techniques for treating phantom limb pain in amputee patients. Systematic review. A computerized literature search up to April 2017 was performed using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, MEDLINE, ProQuest, PEDro, EBSCOhost, and Cochrane Plus. Methodological quality and internal validity score of each study were assessed using PEDro scale. For data synthesis, qualitative methods from the Cochrane Back Review Group were applied. In all, 12 studies met our inclusion criteria, where 9 were rated as low methodological quality and 3 rated moderate quality. All studies showed a significant reduction in pain, but there was heterogeneity among subjects and methodologies and any high-quality clinical trial (PEDro score ≤8; internal validity score ≤5) was not found. Mirror therapy, motor imaginary, and virtual visual feedback reduce phantom limb pain; however, there is limited scientific evidence supporting their effectiveness. Future studies should include designs with more solid research methods, exploring short- and long-term benefits of these therapies. Clinical relevance This systematic review investigates the effectiveness of mirror therapy, motor imagery, and virtual visual feedback on phantom limb pain, summarizing the currently published trials and evaluating the research quality. Although these interventions have positive benefits in phantom limb pain, there is still a lack of evidence for supporting their effectiveness.

  2. Comparison of Effectiveness of Adeli Suit Therapy and Bobath Approach on Gross Motor Function Improvement in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khayat-Zadeh-Mahani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Adeli Suit Therapy (AST and Bobath approach on improvement of gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy aged 4 to 11 years of old. Materials & Methods: In this experimental and randomized clinical trial study, 24 children with cerebral palsy were selected simply according to inclusive and exclusive criteria from patients referred to ValieAsr rehabilitation center and then assigned into two Adeli Suit Thrapy and Bobath groups by simple random method. Period of therapeutic intervention was 36 sessions, 3 times per week for both groups. Assessment tool was Gross Motor Function Measure test (GMFM–66. Data was analyzed by Kolmogroff Smirnoff, Independent T-test and ANOVA for repeated measurements. Results: After intervention, the gross motor function improved significantly in both groups (P<0.001. Follow up study revealed significant improvement of functions in Adeli Suit group (P=0.007 and significant regression of functions in Bobath group (P=0.004. There was no significant difference, just after the intervention, between two groups (P=0.598, but there was significant difference between two groups at follow up assessments (P=0.002. Conclusion: Both Adeli Suit and Bobath approaches are effective in improvement of gross motor functions in children with cerebral palsy during the therapeutic sessions. At follow up study, the Adeli Suit group, were still improving their function whereas the Bobath group regressed.

  3. Synaptic plasticity and sensory-motor improvement following fibrin sealant dorsal root reimplantation and mononuclear cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Ulian Benitez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Root lesions may affect both dorsal and ventral roots. However, due to the possibility of generating further inflammation and neuropathic pain, surgical procedures do not prioritize the repair of the afferent component. The loss of such sensorial input directly disturbs the spinal circuits thus affecting the functionality of the injuried limb. The present study evaluated the motor and sensory improvement following dorsal root reimplantation with fibrin sealant (FS plus bone marrow mononuclear cells (MC after dorsal rhizotomy. MC were used to enhance the repair process. We also analyzed changes in the glial response and synaptic circuits within the spinal cord. Female Lewis rats (6-8 weeks old were divided in three groups: rhizotomy (RZ group, rhizotomy repaired with FS (RZ+FS group and rhizotomy repaired with FS and MC (RZ+FS+MC group. The behavioral tests electronic von-Frey and Walking track test were carried out. For immunohistochemistry we used markers to detect different synapse profiles as well as glial reaction. The behavioral results showed a significant decrease in sensory and motor function after lesion. The reimplantation decreased glial reaction and improved synaptic plasticity of afferent inputs. Cell therapy further enhanced the rewiring process. In addition, both reimplanted groups presented twice as much motor control compared to the non-treated group. In conclusion, the reimplantation with FS and MC is efficient and may be considered an approach to improve sensory-motor recovery following dorsal rhizotomy.

  4. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of adjuvant treatment to levodopa therapy in Parkinson s disease patients with motor complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, Rebecca; Ives, Natalie; Clarke, Carl E; Deane, Katherine; Wheatley, Keith; Gray, Richard; Handley, Kelly; Furmston, Alex

    2010-07-07

    One of the complications of long-term treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) with levodopa is the development of motor complications. Generally, when motor complications develop, clinicians add in an additional drug (to the levodopa regimen) from one of three other classes of anti-Parkinsonian treatments (dopamine agonists, catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors (COMTIs) or monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors (MAOBIs)). However, despite trials having shown that these drugs are beneficial compared to placebo, it remains unclear as to the best way to treat patients experiencing motor complications and whether one class of drug is more effective than another. This meta-analysis aims to assess more reliably the benefits and risks of the three classes of drugs (dopamine agonists, COMTIs and MAOBIs) currently used as adjuvant treatment to levodopa in PD patients suffering from motor complications. The three drug classes were compared with the aim of determining whether one class of drug provides better symptomatic control than another. We searched CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science, plus major journals in the field, abstract books, conference proceedings and reference lists of retrieved publications. Randomised trials comparing an orally administered dopamine agonist, COMTI or MAOBI versus placebo, both on a background of levodopa therapy, in PD patients experiencing motor complications. Two authors independently extracted data on off-time, levodopa dose, motor complications, side-effects, treatment concordance, clinician-rated disability, mortality, quality of life and health economic data. Forty-four eligible trials, involving 8436 participants were identified. Compared to placebo, adjuvant therapy significantly reduced off-time (-1.05 hours/day, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.19 to -0.90; Pclasses suggested that dopamine agonists were more efficacious in reducing off-time (dopamine agonist: -1.54 hours/day; COMTI: -0

  5. Motor function measure scale, steroid therapy and patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine C. da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the evolution of motor function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD treated with steroids (prednisolone or deflazacort through the Motor Function Measure (MFM, which evaluates three dimensions of motor performance (D1, D2, D3. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with DMD (22 ambulant, 6 non-ambulant and 5 who lost the capacity to walk during the period of the study were assessed using the MFM scale six times over a period of 18 months. RESULTS: All the motor functions remained stable for 14 months in all patients, except D1 for those who lost their walking ability. In ambulant patients, D2 (axial and proximal motor capacities motor functions improved during six months; an improvement in D3 (distal motor capacity was noted during the total follow-up. D1 (standing posture and transfers and total score were useful to predict the loss of the ability to walk. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the MFM in DMD patients confirms the benefits of the steroid treatment for slowing the progression of the disease.

  6. Growth hormone therapy, muscle thickness, and motor development in Prader-Willi syndrome: an RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reus, Linda; Pillen, Sigrid; Pelzer, Ben J; van Alfen-van der Velden, Janielle A A E M; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S; Zwarts, Machiel; Otten, Barto J; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the effect of physical training combined with growth hormone (GH) on muscle thickness and its relationship with muscle strength and motor development in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). In a randomized controlled trial, 22 infants with PWS (12.9 ± 7.1 months) were followed over 2 years to compare a treatment group (n = 10) with a waiting-list control group (n = 12). Muscle thickness of 4 muscle groups was measured by using ultrasound. Muscle strength was evaluated by using the Infant Muscle Strength meter. Motor performance was measured with the Gross Motor Function Measurement. Analyses of variance were used to evaluate between-group effects of GH on muscle thickness at 6 months and to compare pre- and posttreatment (after 12 months of GH) values. Multilevel analyses were used to evaluate effects of GH on muscle thickness over time, and multilevel bivariate analyses were used to test relationships between muscle thickness, muscle strength, and motor performance. A significant positive effect of GH on muscle thickness (P muscle thickness and muscle strength (r = 0.61, P muscle thickness and motor performance (r = 0.81, P muscle strength and motor performance (r = 0.76, P muscle thickness, which was related to muscle strength and motor development in infants with PWS. Catch-up growth was faster in muscles that are most frequently used in early development. Because this effect was independent of GH, it suggests a training effect. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Ameliorative effect of nicotine exposure on insulin resistance is accompanied by decreased cardiac glycogen synthase kinase-3 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 during oral oestrogen-progestin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Olugbenga S; Olatunji, Lawrence A

    2017-09-03

    Cigarette smoking is considered to be a major risk factor for the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Oestrogen-progestin combined oral contraceptive (COC) use has been associated with adverse cardiometabolic events. We hypothesized that nicotine would ameliorate insulin resistance (IR) that is accompanied by decreased cardiac glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Female Wistar rats received (po) low-(0.1 mg/kg) or high-nicotine (1.0 mg/kg) with or without COC containing 5.0 µg levonorgestrel plus 1.0 µg ethinylestradiol daily for 8 weeks. Data showed that COC treatment or nicotine exposure led to IR, glucose deregulation, atherogenic dyslipidemia, increased corticosterone, aldosterone, cardiac and circulating GSK-3 values and PAI-1. However, these effects with the exception of corticosterone and aldosterone were ameliorated in COC + nicotine-exposed rats. Amelioration of IR induced by COC treatment is accompanied by decreased circulating PAI-1, cardiac PAI-1 and GSK-3 instead of circulating aldosterone and corticosterone.

  8. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Combined with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over Premotor Cortex Improves Motor Function in Severe Stroke: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen M. Andrade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We compared the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation at different cortical sites (premotor and motor primary cortex combined with constraint-induced movement therapy for treatment of stroke patients. Design. Sixty patients were randomly distributed into 3 groups: Group A, anodal stimulation on premotor cortex and constraint-induced movement therapy; Group B, anodal stimulation on primary motor cortex and constraint-induced movement therapy; Group C, sham stimulation and constraint-induced movement therapy. Evaluations involved analysis of functional independence, motor recovery, spasticity, gross motor function, and muscle strength. Results. A significant improvement in primary outcome (functional independence after treatment in the premotor group followed by primary motor group and sham group was observed. The same pattern of improvement was highlighted among all secondary outcome measures regarding the superior performance of the premotor group over primary motor and sham groups. Conclusions. Premotor cortex can contribute to motor function in patients with severe functional disabilities in early stages of stroke. This study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov database (NCT 02628561.

  9. Motor rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury and stroke - Advances in assessment and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, Thomas; Hesse, S.; Mauritz, K.-H.

    1999-01-01

    A long-term goal in motor rehabilitation is that treatment is not selected on the basis of 'schools of thought', but rather, based on knowledge about efficacy and effectiveness of specific interventions for specific situations (e.g. functional syndromes). Motor dysfunction after stroke or TBI can be caused by many different functional syndromes such as paresis, ataxia, deafferentaion, visuo-perceptual deficits, or apraxia. Examples are provided showing that theory-based analysis of motor behavior makes it possible to describe 'syndrome-specific motor deficits'. Its potential implications for motor rehabilitation are that our understanding of altered motor behavior as well as specific therapeutic approaches might be promoted. A methodological prerequisite for clinical trials in rehabilitation is knowledge about test properties of assessment tools in follow-up situations such as test-retest reliability and responsiveness to change. Test-retest reliability assesses whether a test can produce stable measures with test repetition, while sensitivity to change reflects whether a test detects changes that occur over time. Exemplifying these considerations, a reliability and validity study of a kinematic arm movement analysis is summarized. In terms of new therapeutic developments, two examples of clinical therapeutic studies are provided assessing the efficacy of specific inter-ventions for specific situations in arm and gait rehabilitation: the Arm Ability Training for high functioning hemiparetic stroke and TBI patients, and the treadmill training for non-ambulatory hemiparetic patients. In addition, a new technical development, a machine-controlled gait trainer ist introduced.

  10. New and emerging medical therapies in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotia, Mitesh; Jankovic, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most challenging neurodegenerative disorders to treat as it manifests with a large variety of troublesome, and often disabling, motor and non-motor symptoms. Despite limitations, such as motor and other complications, levodopa remains the most effective drug in the treatment of PD. In this review, we focus on phase 2 and 3 studies describing new and emerging medical therapies in PD. We discuss new formulations of levodopa, medications that prolong levodopa response and ameliorate levodopa-induced dyskinesias, and innovative delivery methods that are currently being evaluated in clinical trials or are in development with the promise of better efficacy and tolerability. We also describe novel non-dopaminergic drugs that have been identified for treatment of motor and non-motor symptoms. A specific section is designated for potential disease modifying therapies. Alternative formulations of levodopa appear to be promising especially to help with the motor fluctuations either by providing sustained benefits with controlled released formulations or ameliorate sudden OFF by formulations such as inhaled levodopa. Several different medications affecting non-dopaminergic pathways are being evaluated which may aide levodopa. As the understanding of the disease grows further, numerous novel neuroprotective or disease modifying therapies have been suggested. This along with development of medications to treat various non-motor symptoms will help improve quality of life of patients with PD.

  11. Construction of bacteriophage phi29 DNA packaging motor and its applications in nanotechnology and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Jin; Schwartz, Chad; Guo, Peixuan

    2009-10-01

    Nanobiotechnology involves the creation, characterization, and modification of organized nanomaterials to serve as building blocks for constructing nanoscale devices in technology and medicine. Living systems contain a wide variety of nanomachines and highly ordered structures of macromolecules. The novelty and ingenious design of the bacterial virus phi29 DNA packaging motor and its parts inspired the synthesis of this motor and its components as biomimetics. This 30-nm nanomotor uses six copies of an ATP-binding pRNA to gear the motor. The structural versatility of pRNA has been utilized to construct dimers, trimers, hexamers, and patterned superstructures via the interaction of two interlocking loops. The approach, based on bottom-up assembly, has also been applied to nanomachine fabrication, pathogen detection and the delivery of drugs, siRNA, ribozymes, and genes to specific cells in vitro and in vivo. Another essential component of the motor is the connector, which contains 12 copies of a protein gp10 to form a 3.6-nm central channel as a path for DNA. This article will review current studies of the structure and function of the phi29 DNA packaging motor, as well as the mechanism of motion, the principle of in vitro construction, and its potential nanotechnological and medical applications.

  12. Amantadine Ameliorates Dopamine-Releasing Deficits and Behavioral Deficits in Rats after Fluid Percussion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Eagle Yi-Kung; Tsui, Pi-Fen; Kuo, Tung-Tai; Tsai, Jing-Jr.; Chou, Yu-Ching; Ma, Hsin-I; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Chen, Yuan-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Aims To investigate the role of dopamine in cognitive and motor learning skill deficits after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), we investigated dopamine release and behavioral changes at a series of time points after fluid percussion injury, and explored the potential of amantadine hydrochloride as a chronic treatment to provide behavioral recovery. Materials and Methods In this study, we sequentially investigated dopamine release at the striatum and behavioral changes at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after fluid percussion injury. Rats subjected to 6-Pa cerebral cortical fluid percussion injury were treated by using subcutaneous infusion pumps filled with either saline (sham group) or amantadine hydrochloride, with a releasing rate of 3.6mg/kg/hour for 8 weeks. The dopamine-releasing conditions and metabolism were analyzed sequentially by fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Novel object recognition (NOR) and fixed-speed rotarod (FSRR) behavioral tests were used to determine treatment effects on cognitive and motor deficits after injury. Results Sequential dopamine-release deficits were revealed in 6-Pa-fluid-percussion cerebral cortical injured animals. The reuptake rate (tau value) of dopamine in injured animals was prolonged, but the tau value became close to the value for the control group after amantadine therapy. Cognitive and motor learning impairments were shown evidenced by the NOR and FSRR behavioral tests after injury. Chronic amantadine therapy reversed dopamine-release deficits, and behavioral impairment after fluid percussion injuries were ameliorated in the rats treated by using amantadine-pumping infusion. Conclusion Chronic treatment with amantadine hydrochloride can ameliorate dopamine-release deficits as well as cognitive and motor deficits caused by cerebral fluid-percussion injury. PMID:24497943

  13. Amantadine ameliorates dopamine-releasing deficits and behavioral deficits in rats after fluid percussion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eagle Yi-Kung Huang

    Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate the role of dopamine in cognitive and motor learning skill deficits after a traumatic brain injury (TBI, we investigated dopamine release and behavioral changes at a series of time points after fluid percussion injury, and explored the potential of amantadine hydrochloride as a chronic treatment to provide behavioral recovery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we sequentially investigated dopamine release at the striatum and behavioral changes at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after fluid percussion injury. Rats subjected to 6-Pa cerebral cortical fluid percussion injury were treated by using subcutaneous infusion pumps filled with either saline (sham group or amantadine hydrochloride, with a releasing rate of 3.6 mg/kg/hour for 8 weeks. The dopamine-releasing conditions and metabolism were analyzed sequentially by fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Novel object recognition (NOR and fixed-speed rotarod (FSRR behavioral tests were used to determine treatment effects on cognitive and motor deficits after injury. RESULTS: Sequential dopamine-release deficits were revealed in 6-Pa-fluid-percussion cerebral cortical injured animals. The reuptake rate (tau value of dopamine in injured animals was prolonged, but the tau value became close to the value for the control group after amantadine therapy. Cognitive and motor learning impairments were shown evidenced by the NOR and FSRR behavioral tests after injury. Chronic amantadine therapy reversed dopamine-release deficits, and behavioral impairment after fluid percussion injuries were ameliorated in the rats treated by using amantadine-pumping infusion. CONCLUSION: Chronic treatment with amantadine hydrochloride can ameliorate dopamine-release deficits as well as cognitive and motor deficits caused by cerebral fluid-percussion injury.

  14. Amantadine ameliorates dopamine-releasing deficits and behavioral deficits in rats after fluid percussion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Eagle Yi-Kung; Tsui, Pi-Fen; Kuo, Tung-Tai; Tsai, Jing-Jr; Chou, Yu-Ching; Ma, Hsin-I; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Chen, Yuan-Hao

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of dopamine in cognitive and motor learning skill deficits after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), we investigated dopamine release and behavioral changes at a series of time points after fluid percussion injury, and explored the potential of amantadine hydrochloride as a chronic treatment to provide behavioral recovery. In this study, we sequentially investigated dopamine release at the striatum and behavioral changes at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after fluid percussion injury. Rats subjected to 6-Pa cerebral cortical fluid percussion injury were treated by using subcutaneous infusion pumps filled with either saline (sham group) or amantadine hydrochloride, with a releasing rate of 3.6 mg/kg/hour for 8 weeks. The dopamine-releasing conditions and metabolism were analyzed sequentially by fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Novel object recognition (NOR) and fixed-speed rotarod (FSRR) behavioral tests were used to determine treatment effects on cognitive and motor deficits after injury. Sequential dopamine-release deficits were revealed in 6-Pa-fluid-percussion cerebral cortical injured animals. The reuptake rate (tau value) of dopamine in injured animals was prolonged, but the tau value became close to the value for the control group after amantadine therapy. Cognitive and motor learning impairments were shown evidenced by the NOR and FSRR behavioral tests after injury. Chronic amantadine therapy reversed dopamine-release deficits, and behavioral impairment after fluid percussion injuries were ameliorated in the rats treated by using amantadine-pumping infusion. Chronic treatment with amantadine hydrochloride can ameliorate dopamine-release deficits as well as cognitive and motor deficits caused by cerebral fluid-percussion injury.

  15. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) with methylprednisolone pulse therapy for motor impairment of neuralgic amyotrophy: clinical observations in 10 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Ko-suke; Fukushima, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Seiko; Kuwahara, Motoi; Morita, Hiroshi; Kusunoki, Susumu; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2012-01-01

    Neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) is a distinct peripheral nervous system disorder characterized by attacks of acute neuropathic pain and rapid multifocal weakness and atrophy unilaterally in the upper limb. The current hypothesis is that the episodes are caused by an immune-mediated response to the brachial plexus, however, therapeutic strategies for NA have not been well established. We retrospectively reviewed 15 case series of NA; 10 of the 15 patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) with methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPPT) and 9 of these 0 patients showed clinical improvement of motor impairment. Our clinical observations do not contradict the possibility that IVIg with MPPT may be one of the potential therapeutics for NA, however the efficacy remains to be established. Further confirmatory trials are needed in patients with various clinical severities and phases of NA. Further basic research and confirmatory trials should be performed to survey the efficacy of such immunomodulation therapy for NA.

  16. Oxygen-ozone therapy for herniated lumbar disc in patients with subacute partial motor weakness due to nerve root compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Olio, Massimo; Princiotta, Ciro; Cirillo, Luigi; Budai, Caterina; de Santis, Fabio; Bartolini, Stefano; Serchi, Elena; Leonardi, Marco

    2014-10-31

    Intradiscal oxygen-ozone (O2-O3) chemonucleolysis is a well-known effective treatment for pain caused by protruding disc disease and nerve root compression due to bulging or herniated disc. The most widely used therapeutic combination is intradiscal injection of an O2-O3 mixture (chemonucleolysis), followed by periradicular injection of O2-O3, steroid and local anaesthetic to enhance the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. The treatment is designed to resolve pain and is administered to patients without motor weakness, whereas patients with acute paralysis caused by nerve root compression undergo surgery 24-48h after the onset of neurological deficit. This paper reports on the efficacy of O2-O3 chemonucleolysis associated with anti-inflammatory foraminal injection in 13 patients with low back pain and cruralgia, low back pain and sciatica and subacute partial motor weakness caused by nerve root compression unresponsive to medical treatment. All patients were managed in conjunction with our colleagues in the Neurosurgery Unit of Bellaria Hospital and the IRCCS Institute of Neurological Sciences, Bologna. The outcomes obtained are promising: 100% patients had a resolution of motor weakness, while 84.6% had complete pain relief. Our results demonstrate that O2-O3 therapy can be considered a valid treatment option for this category of patients.

  17. Randomized trial comparing interferential therapy with motorized lumbar traction and massage in the management of low back pain in a primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werners, R; Pynsent, P B; Bulstrode, C J

    1999-08-01

    A randomized trial designed to compare interferential therapy with motorized lumbar traction and massage management for low back pain in a primary care setting. To measure and compare the outcome of interferential therapy and management by motorized lumbar traction and massage. Management of low back pain by interferential therapy and motorized lumbar traction and massage is common in Germany. No reports of previous randomized trials for the outcome from interferential therapy were found. Consenting patients were randomly assigned into one of two groups. A pretreatment interview was performed by the patient using a computer-based questionnaire. It also incorporated the Oswestry Disability Index and a pain visual analog scale. Management consisted of six sessions over a 2- to 3-week period. Oswestry Disability Indexes and pain visual analog scale scores also were obtained immediately after and at 3 months after treatment. A total of 152 patients were recruited. The two treatment groups had similar demographic and clinical baseline characteristics. The mean Oswestry Disability Index before treatment was 30 for both groups (n = 147). After treatment, this had dropped to 25, and, at 3 months, were 21 (interferential therapy) and 22 (motorized lumbar traction and massage). The mean pain visual analog scale score before treatment was 50 (interferential therapy) and 51 (motorized lumbar traction and massage). This had dropped, respectively, to 46 and 44 after treatment and to 42 and 39 at 3 months. This study shows a progressive fall in Oswestry Disability Index and pain visual analog scale scores in patients with low back pain treated with either-interferential therapy or motorized lumbar traction and massage. There was no difference in the improvement between the two groups at the end of treatment. Although there is evidence from several trials that traction alone is ineffective in the management of low back pain, this study could not exclude some effect from the

  18. Growth hormone therapy, muscle thickness, and motor development in Prader-Willi Syndrome: An RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus, L.; Pillen, S.; Pelzer, B.J.; Velden, J.A.M. van der; Hokken-Koelega, A.C.; Zwarts, M.; Otten, B.J.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of physical training combined with growth hormone (GH) on muscle thickness and its relationship with muscle strength and motor development in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, 22 infants with PWS (12.9 +/- 7.1

  19. Modified constraint-induced movement therapy improves fine and gross motor performance of the upper limb in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung-Suk; Lee, Wan-Hee; Hwang, Sujin

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of modified constraint-induced movement therapy on hand and arm functions in people with Parkinson disease. Twenty individuals with Parkinson disease participated in the study. The experimental group (ten subjects) performed modified constraint-induced movement therapy for 4 wks (3 hrs/day, 5 days/wk), whereas the control group performed general upper limb exercises on the same schedule. The outcome measures both pretest and posttest were the box and block test, Fugl-Meyer assessment, and action research arm test. The scores for the box and block test in the experimental group increased from 35.8 ± 2.6 to 44.8 ± 3.4 after training. Total scores for the Fugl-Meyer assessment in the experimental group significantly increased from 33.6 ± 1.5 to 53.7 ± 3.1 after training. Greater improvement in action research arm test scores were observed in the experimental group (from 35.1 ± 4.9 to 50.8 ± 3.6) than in the general exercise group (from 33.1 ± 2.2 to 34.8 ± 2.7). Modified constraint-induced movement therapy improves fine and gross motor performances of the upper limb in people with Parkinson disease. Therefore, the therapy would be recommended as an effective treatment for them.

  20. CURCUMIN IN COMBINATION WITH TRIPLE THERAPY REGIMES AMELIORATES OXIDATIVE STRESS AND HISTOPATHOLOGIC CHANGES IN CHRONIC GASTRITIS-ASSOCIATED HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezu JUDAKI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori gastric infection is a main cause of inflammatory changes and gastric cancers. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was finding the effects of curcumin on oxidative stress and histological changes in chronic gastritis associated with H. pylori. METHODS In a randomized clinical trial, patients were divided into two groups: a standard triple therapy group and triple therapy with curcumin group. Endoscopic and histological examinations were measured for all patients before and after 8 weeks. RESULTS Triple therapy with curcumin treatment group significantly decreased malondialdehyde markers, glutathione peroxides and increased total antioxidant capacity of the gastric mucosa at the end of study compared to baseline and triple regimen groups. In addition, the oxidative damage to DNA was significantly decreased in triple therapy with curcumin group at the end of study compared to baseline and compared to triple therapy (P<0.05 for both. Triple therapy group in combination with Curcumin significantly decreased all active, chronic and endoscopic inflammation scores of patients compared to the baseline and triple therapy group (P<0.05 for both. The eradication rate by triple therapy + curcumin was significantly increased compared to triple therapy alone (P<0.05. CONCLUSION Curcumin can be a useful supplement to improve chronic inflammation and prevention of carcinogenic changes in patients with chronic gastritis associated by H. pylori.

  1. Total skin electron beam therapy using an inclinable couch on motorized table and a compensating filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, H.; Suzuki, K.; Shida, K.; Mori, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Kobayashi, D.; Seki, M.; Isobe, T.; Okumura, T.; Sakae, T.; Sakurai, H.

    2014-06-01

    Total skin electron beam is a specialized technique that involves irradiating the entire skin from the skin surface to only a few millimetres in depth. In the Stanford technique, the patient is in a standing position and six different directional positions are used during treatment. Our technique uses large electron beams in six directions with an inclinable couch on motorized table and a compensating filter was also used to spread the electron beam and move its intensity peak. Dose uniformity measurements were performed using Gafchromic films which indicated that the surface dose was 2.04 ± 0.05 Gy. This technique can ensure the dose reproducibility because the patient is fixed in place using an inclinable couch on a motorized table.

  2. Development of rehabilitation training support system for occupational therapy of upper limb motor function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yoshifumi; Hirose, Akinori; Uno, Takashi; Uchid, Masaki; Ukai, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Nobuyuki

    2007-12-01

    In this paper we propose a new rehabilitation training support system for upper limbs. The proposed system enables therapists to quantitatively evaluate the therapeutic effect of upper limb motor function during training, to easily change the load of resistance of training and to easily develop a new training program suitable for the subjects. For this purpose we develop control algorithms of training programs in the 3D force display robot. The 3D force display robot has parallel link mechanism with three motors. The control algorithm simulating sanding training is developed for the 3D force display robot. Moreover the teaching/training function algorithm is developed. It enables the therapists to easily make training trajectory suitable for subject's condition. The effectiveness of the developed control algorithms is verified by experiments.

  3. Error-enhancing robot therapy to induce motor control improvement in childhood onset primary dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casellato Claudia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robot-generated deviating forces during multijoint reaching movements have been applied to investigate motor control and to tune neuromotor adaptation. Can the application of force to limbs improve motor learning? In this framework, the response to altered dynamic environments of children affected by primary dystonia has never been studied. Methods As preliminary pilot study, eleven children with primary dystonia and eleven age-matched healthy control subjects were asked to perform upper limb movements, triangle-reaching (three directions and circle-writing, using a haptic robot interacting with ad-hoc developed task-specific visual interfaces. Three dynamic conditions were provided, null additive external force (A, constant disturbing force (B and deactivation of the additive external force again (C. The path length for each trial was computed, from the recorded position data and interaction events. Results The results show that the disturbing force affects significantly the movement outcomes in healthy but not in dystonic subjects, already compromised in the reference condition: the external alteration uncalibrates the healthy sensorimotor system, while the dystonic one is already strongly uncalibrated. The lack of systematic compensation for perturbation effects during B condition is reflected into the absence of after-effects in C condition, which would be the evidence that CNS generates a prediction of the perturbing forces using an internal model of the environment. The most promising finding is that in dystonic population the altered dynamic exposure seems to induce a subsequent improvement, i.e. a beneficial after-effect in terms of optimal path control, compared with the correspondent reference movement outcome. Conclusions The short-time error-enhancing training in dystonia could represent an effective approach for motor performance improvement, since the exposure to controlled dynamic alterations induces a refining

  4. Changes in supraspinal activation patterns following robotic locomotor therapy in motor-incomplete spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Patricia; McColl, Roderick; Querry, Ross; Foreman, Nathan; Mosby, James; Tansey, Keith; Williamson, Jon

    2005-12-01

    Body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) is a task-specific rehabilitation strategy that enhances functional locomotion in patients following spinal cord injury (SCI). Supraspinal centers may play an important role in the recovery of over-ground locomotor function in patients with motor-incomplete SCI. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for supraspinal reorganization associated with 12 weeks of robotic BWSTT using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Four men with motor-incomplete SCI participated in this study. Time since onset ranged from 14 weeks to 48 months post-SCI injury. All subjects were trained with BWSTT 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. This training was preceded and followed by fMRI study of supraspinal activity during a movement task. Testing of locomotor disability included the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI II) and over-ground gait speed. All subjects demonstrated some degree of change in the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal following BWSTT. fMRI results demonstrated greater activation in sensorimotor cortical regions (S1, S2) and cerebellar regions following BWSTT. Intensive task-specific rehabilitative training, such as robotic BWSTT, can promote supraspinal plasticity in the motor centers known to be involved in locomotion. Furthermore, improvement in over-ground locomotion is accompanied by an increased activation of the cerebellum.

  5. CURCUMIN IN COMBINATION WITH TRIPLE THERAPY REGIMES AMELIORATES OXIDATIVE STRESS AND HISTOPATHOLOGIC CHANGES IN CHRONIC GASTRITIS-ASSOCIATED HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judaki, Arezu; Rahmani, Asghar; Feizi, Jalil; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Hafezi Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) gastric infection is a main cause of inflammatory changes and gastric cancers. The aim of this study was finding the effects of curcumin on oxidative stress and histological changes in chronic gastritis associated with H. pylori. In a randomized clinical trial, patients were divided into two groups: a standard triple therapy group and triple therapy with curcumin group. Endoscopic and histological examinations were measured for all patients before and after 8 weeks. Triple therapy with curcumin treatment group significantly decreased malondialdehyde markers, glutathione peroxides and increased total antioxidant capacity of the gastric mucosa at the end of study compared to baseline and triple regimen groups. In addition, the oxidative damage to DNA was significantly decreased in triple therapy with curcumin group at the end of study compared to baseline and compared to triple therapy (Pgastritis associated by H. pylori.

  6. Effectiveness of intense, activity-based physical therapy for individuals with spinal cord injury in promoting motor and sensory recovery: is olfactory mucosa autograft a factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Cathy A; Dension, Paula M

    2013-01-01

    Rehabilitation for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) is expanding to include intense, activity-based, out-patient physical therapy (PT). The study's primary purposes were to (i) examine the effectiveness of intense PT in promoting motor and sensory recovery in individuals with SCI and (ii) compare recovery for individuals who had an olfactory mucosa autograft (OMA) with individuals who did not have the OMA while both groups participated in the intense PT program. Prospective, non-randomized, non-blinded, intervention study. Using the American Spinal Injury Association examination, motor and sensory scores for 23 (7 OMA, 6 matched control and 10 other) participants were recorded. Mean therapy dosage was 137.3 total hours. The participants' total, upper and lower extremity motor scores improved significantly while sensory scores did not improve during the first 60 days and from initial to discharge examination. Incomplete SCI or paraplegia was associated with greater motor recovery. Five of 14 participants converted from motor-complete to motor-incomplete SCI. Individuals who had the OMA and participated in intense PT did not have greater sensory or greater magnitude or rate of motor recovery as compared with participants who had intense PT alone. This study provides encouraging evidence as to the effectiveness of intense PT for individuals with SCI. Future research is needed to identify the optimal therapy dosage and specific therapeutic activities required to generate clinically meaningful recovery for individuals with SCI including those who elect to undergo a neural recovery/regenerative surgical procedure and those that elect intense therapy alone.

  7. Mirror Therapy with Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for improving motor function of stroke survivors: A pilot randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, DongGeon; Lee, GyuChang; Jeong, JiSim

    2016-07-27

    This study was to investigate the effects of Mirror Therapy (MT) combined with Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) on muscle strength and tone, motor function, balance, and gait ability in stroke survivors with hemiplegia. This study was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-seven hemiplegic stroke survivors from a rehabilitation center participated in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental or a control group. The experimental group (n = 14) underwent MT combined with NMES and conventional physical therapy, and the control group (n = 13) underwent conventional physical therapy alone. Muscle strength and tone, balance, and gait ability were examined at baseline and after 4 weeks of intervention. A hand-held dynamometer was used to assess muscle strength, the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) was used to assess muscle tone, the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Timed Up and Go test (TUG) were used to ascertain balance, and the 6-m Walk Test (6mWT) was used to examine gait ability. After the intervention, compared to baseline values, there were significant improvements in muscle strength and MAS, BBS, TUG, and 6mWT values in the experimental group (Pstroke survivors. However, further studies are necessary to demonstrate brain reorganization after MT combined with NMES.

  8. COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN TASK SPECIFIC MOTOR IMAGERY WITH MENTAL PRACTICE VERSUS TASK SPECIFIC MIRROR THERAPY ON UPPER LIMB FUNCTIONS FOR SUB ACUTE HEMIPLEGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thara. N

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Task specific training of upper limb may result in learning of new motor task through transfer after repeated practice. Mirror therapy and motor imagery are effective emerging techniques used as an adjunct in rehabilitation of upper limb function in hemiplegia. The purpose of the study is to find comparative effects of task specific motor imagery with mental practice over task specific mirror therapy on upper limb functional activities for subjects with sub acute hemiplegia. Method: An experimental study design with two groups conducted on 30 subjects with sub-acute hemiplegic. Thirty subjects randomised, 15 subjects into group A and 15 into group B. Group A subjects received task specific motor imagery with mental practice thrice a week for 10 weeks and Group B received task specific mirror therapy thrice a week for 10 weeks. In both groups, each session consisted of 60 minutes. The outcome measure such as Action Research Arm Test (ARAT was measured before and after 10 weeks of intervention. Results: Comparison of post intervention means of ARAT using Independent t test and Mann-Whitney Test showed that there is no statistically significant difference in grasp and gross movement between the groups and there is a statistically significant difference in grip, pinch and total score between the groups. Conclusion: The present study concludes that 10 weeks of task specific motor imagery with mental practice and task specific mirror therapy both shown significant effect on improvement of upper extremity function. However, greater percentage of improvement was found using task specific motor imagery with mental practice in hand function when compared to task specific mirror therapy.

  9. Effects of anodal tDCS and occupational therapy on fine motor skill deficits in patients with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Nela V; Dubljanin-Raspopović, Emilija; Nedeljković, Una; Tomanović-Vujadinović, Sanja; Milanović, Sladjan D; Petronić-Marković, Ivana; Ilić, Tihomir V

    2016-11-22

    A growing body of evidence supports the effectiveness of using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with chronic hand motor impairment resulting from stroke. In this study, we investigate and compare the combined effects of anodal tDCS and occupational therapy (OT) to sham stimulation with OT (control) on fine motor skill deficits of chronic stroke patients. A total of 26 stroke patients (at ≥ 9 months) were randomly assigned to an active treatment or a control group in a double-blinded, sham-controlled, parallel design study. Each group received OT for 45 min/day (10 sessions for 2 weeks). Treatment was preceded by either 20 minutes of 2 mA anodal tDCS over ipsilesional M1 or sham tDCS. A modified Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (mJTHFT) was administered as primary outcome measure, and handgrip dynamometer and upper limb Fugl-Meyer (ULFM) assessments were performed as secondary outcomes. The assessment was done at baseline (T0), after the interventions on day 1(T1), day 10 (T2) and day 40 (T3). We observed a statistically significant effect in the tDCS group when the results were compared to the sham group. The mJTHFT times were significantly shorter immediately after treatment and at day 40. The intervention had no effect on handgrip strength or ULFM score. Fine motor skill deficits in chronic stroke survivors can be improved when intensive OT is primed with anodal tDCS over the ipsilesional hemisphere.

  10. Evolution of surface motor activation zones in hemiplegic patients during 20 sessions of FES therapy with multi-pad electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Malešević

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine surface motor activation zones for wrist, fingers and thumb extension movements and their temporal change during 20 therapy sessions using advanced multi-pad functional electrical stimulation system. Results from four hemiplegic patients indicate that certain zones have higher probability of eliciting each of the target movements. However, mutual overlap and variations of the zones are present not just between the subjects, but also on the intrasubject level, reflected through these session to session transformations of the selected virtual electrodes. The obtained results could be used as a priori knowledge for semi-automated optimization algorithm and could shorten the time required for calibration of the multi-pad electrode.

  11. The effect of levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel infusion long-term therapy on motor complications in advanced Parkinson's disease: a multicenter Romanian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Băjenaru, O; Ene, A; Popescu, B O; Szász, J A; Sabău, M; Mureşan, D F; Perju-Dumbrava, L; Popescu, C D; Constantinescu, A; Buraga, I; Simu, M

    2016-04-01

    Chronic treatment with oral levodopa is associated with an increased frequency of motor complications in the late stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). Continuous administration of levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG-Duodopa(®), Abbott Laboratories), which has been available in Romania since 2009, represents an option for treating patients with advanced PD. Our primary objective was to report changes in motor complications after initiation of LCIG therapy. The secondary objectives were as follows: to determine the impact of LCIG therapy on the daily levodopa dose variation before/and after LCIG, to collect patient self-assessments of quality of life (QoL), and to study the overall tolerability and safety of LCIG administration. A retrospective analysis (2009-2013) of LCIG therapy and the experience in nine neurology centers in Romania was performed. The impact of LCIG therapy was evaluated by analyzing changes in motor fluctuations, dyskinesia and the patients' QoL after initiating therapy. The safety of LCIG therapy was estimated by noting agent-related adverse events (AEs) and medical device-related AEs. In the 113 patients included, we observed a significant improvement in PD symptoms after initiation of LCIG therapy. The "on" period increased, with a mean value of 6.14 h, and the dyskinesia period was reduced, with a mean value of 29.4 %. The quantified non-motor symptoms subsided. The patients exhibited significant improvements in QoL scores. There were few AEs and few cases of LCIG therapy discontinuation. LCIG is an important and available therapeutic option for managing patients with advanced PD.

  12. Ameliorative effect of the hydroethanolic whole plant extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the end of the study, biochemical markers of nitrosative and oxidative stress status were determined. Results: DH (12.5, 50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated haloperidol-induced catalepsy (bar test), spontaneous motor and working memory deficits (open field and elevated plus maze tests, respectively), ...

  13. Effects of manual therapy on treatment duration and motor development in infants with severe nonsynostotic plagiocephaly: a randomised controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Martos, I; Valenza, M C; Valenza-Demet, G; Benítez-Feliponi, A; Robles-Vizcaíno, C; Ruiz-Extremera, A

    2016-11-01

    Despite growing evidence regarding nonsynostotic plagiocephaly and their repercussions on motor development, there is little evidence to support the use of manual therapy as an adjuvant option. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a therapeutic approach based on manual therapy as an adjuvant option on treatment duration and motor development in infants with severe nonsynostotic plagiocephaly. This is a randomised controlled pilot study. The study was conducted at a university hospital. Forty-six infants with severe nonsynostotic plagiocephaly (types 4-5 of the Argenta scale) referred to the Early Care and Monitoring Unit were randomly allocated to a control group receiving standard treatment (repositioning and an orthotic helmet) or to an experimental group treated with manual therapy added to standard treatment. Infants were discharged when the correction of the asymmetry was optimal taken into account the previous clinical characteristics. The outcome measures were treatment duration and motor development assessed with the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) at baseline and at discharge. Asymmetry after the treatment was minimal (type 0 or 1 according to the Argenta scale) in both groups. A comparative analysis showed that treatment duration was significantly shorter (p Manual therapy added to standard treatment reduces the treatment duration in infants with severe nonsynostotic plagiocephaly.

  14. Virtual reality techniques in older adults: exposure therapy, memory training, and training of motor balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyerbröker, K.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Pachana, N.A.; Laidlaw, K.

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on virtual reality techniques in older adults. Although treatment of specific phobias in older adults by virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is feasible and might be effective, this has yet not been evaluated in randomized controlled trials. The few controlled studies

  15. Effect of hand-arm bimanual intensive therapy on fine-motor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children in the study group were engaged in play and functional activities that provided structured bimanual practice 3 h per day for 12 weeks, while children in the control group received traditional physical therapy program directed toward improving upper extremity use. Each child in the two groups was evaluated before ...

  16. Increased Intensity of Physical Therapy for a Child with Gross Motor Developmental Delay: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The intensity of physical therapy provided for children in early intervention (EI) programs may be influenced by a number of factors. In an individualized program, however, some children and families may benefit from an increased frequency of services. The purpose of this case report was to systematically document and…

  17. Central Pain and Complex Motoric Symptoms after Gosarelin Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ernst

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A 76-year-old man with prostate cancer T3N0M0 and increasing PSA was treated with goserelin three times in a half year. As soon as the first treatment, he described subjective muscle weakness. After the third treatment, he developed complex motoric symptoms and atypical central pain with a likely association to goserelin. His left arm had signs of spastic movement; pain deteriorated after relaxation. The right hand showed muscle cramps under passive movements of the left arm that were not typical for rigor. He felt aching and partial burning pain in his whole body. There were few allodynic areas, mainly in the left arm. Several treatment approaches failed and the patient died some weeks after the first contact with our pain clinic due to pneumonia.

  18. Effectiveness of an early switch from intravenous to oral antimicrobial therapy for lower respiratory tract infection in patients with severe motor intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Masaru; Hoshina, Takayuki; Ogawa, Masato; Nakamoto, Takato; Kusuhara, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    An early switch from intravenous to oral antimicrobial therapy is useful for reducing the duration of the hospitalization in adult patients with community acquired-pneumonia, whereas the efficacy of switch therapy for pediatric patients with community acquired (CA)-lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is uncertain. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of switch therapy for LRTI in patients with severe motor intellectual disabilities (SMID). This retrospective study was performed on 92 patients with SMID who were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics at the Hospital of University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Japan from April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2017 for the suspicion of bacterial LRTI and were initially treated with an intravenous antimicrobial agent. Clinical outcomes were compared between patients with switch therapy (Switch therapy group) and conventional intravenous antimicrobial therapy (No switch therapy group). Thirteen and 79 in patients with SMID belonged to Switch thrapy group and No switch therapy group, respectively. Length of hospital stay in Switch therapy group was significantly shorter than that in No switch therapy group (P = 0.002). In the patients undergoing switch therapy, there was no patient who required re-treatment and/or re-hospitalization. Switch therapy for LRTI was useful for the reduction of length of hospital stay without increasing risk of re-treatment and re-hospitalization in patients with SMID. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Changes in brain electrical activity after cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in patients injured in motor vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Sirko; Zoellner, Tanja; Beauducel, Andrë; Maercker, Andreas; Karl, Anke

    2008-01-01

    To explore changes for the first time in neural processing due to effective cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after severe motor vehicle accidents. Recent studies have highlighted the role of right hemisphere activation during withdrawal-related emotions (e.g., anxiety). There has been little research on changes in brain function due to cognitive-behavioral interventions in anxiety disorders. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy with an assessment-only Wait-list condition. Spontaneous electroencephalographic activity was recorded from left and right anterior and posterior regions in participants with PTSD/subsyndromal PTSD receiving CBT (n = 17) before and after a CBT program. Wait-list controls (n = 18) were investigated before and after 3 months. At the pretreatment assessment, a pattern of increased right-sided activation during exposure to a trauma-related picture (relative to a neutral picture) was observed in both CBT and Wait-list participants. At posttreatment, there was a greater reduction of right anterior activation in the CBT group as compared with Wait-list controls. Across both groups, PTSD symptom reduction was significantly positively correlated with a decrease in right anterior activation to the trauma stimulus. These findings suggest that effective CBT treatment of PTSD may be accompanied by adaptive changes in asymmetrical brain function. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  20. Physical therapy and functional motor recovery in patient with Guillain-Barré Syndrome - Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, Antoaneta; Izov, Nikolai; Maznev, Ivan; Grigorova-Petrova, Kristin; Lubenova, Daniela; Vasileva, Dance

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disease with sudden onset and progressive impairment of the peripheral nerves. Aim: To study the influence of applied physical therapy (PT) on functional recovery in patient with a prolonged complicated course of GBS, Landry ascending paralysis and assisted breathing and 4 months in-hospital stay. Case report: The study was conducted with a 34-year-old woman in subacute stage of GBS, over the course of 2 months in the patien...

  1. Mirror therapy in lower limb amputees. A look beyond primary motor cortex reorganization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, S.; Essmeister, M.; Sycha, T.; Auff, E. [Vienna Medical Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Neurology; Kasprian, G.; Furtner, J.; Schoepf, V.; Prayer, D. [Vienna Medical Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2011-11-15

    Phantom pain in upper limb amputees is associated with the extent of reorganization in the primary sensorimotor cortex. Mirror visual feedback therapy has been shown to improve phantom pain. We investigated the extent of cortical reorganization in lower limb amputees and changes in neural activity induced by mirror therapy. Eight lower limb amputees underwent 12 sessions of MVFT and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain before the first and after the last MVFT session. FMRI sessions consisted of two runs in which subjects were instructed to perform repetitive movement of the healthy and phantom ankle. Before MVFT, the mean phantom pain intensity was 4.6 {+-} 3.1 on a visual analog scale and decreased to 1.8 {+-} 1.7 (p = 0.04). We did not observe a consistent pattern of cortical activation in primary sensorimotor areas during phantom limb movements. Following MVFT, increased activity was obtained in the right orbitofrontal cortex during phantom ankle movements. Comparison of cortical activity during movements of the phantom ankle and the intact ankle showed significantly higher activity in the left inferior frontal cortex (pars triangularis). These results question the known association between phantom pain and primary sensorimotor reorganization and propose reorganizational changes involving multiple cortical areas in lower limb amputees. Finally, reduction of phantom pain after mirror visual feedback therapy was associated with increased prefrontal cortical activity during phantom ankle movements. (orig.)

  2. Effectiveness of mirror therapy on lower extremity motor recovery, balance and mobility in patients with acute stroke: A randomized sham-controlled pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uthra Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of mirror therapy on lower extremity motor recovery, balance and mobility in patients with acute stroke. Design: A randomized, sham-controlled, assessor blinded, pilot trial. Setting: Inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit. Subjects: First time onset of stroke with mean post-stroke duration of 6.41 days, able to respond to verbal instructions, and Brunnstrom recovery stage 2 and above were enrolled. Intervention: Mirror therapy group performed 30 minutes of functional synergy movements of non-paretic lower extremity, whereas control group underwent sham therapy with similar duration. In addition, both groups were administered with conventional stroke rehabilitation regime. Altogether 90 minutes therapy session per day, six days a week, for two weeks duration was administered to both groups. Outcome Measures: Lower extremity motor subscale of Fugl Meyer Assessment (FMA, Brunnel Balance Assessment (BBA and Functional Ambulation Categories (FAC. Results: Amongst the 22 patients included, equal number of patients participated in mirror group (N = 11 and control group (N = 11. Baseline variables were similar in both groups, except for Brunnstrom recovery stage. There was no statistical difference between groups, except for FAC. (FMA: P = 0.894; BBA: P = 0.358; FAC: P = 0.02. Significance was set at P < 0.05. Conclusion: Administration of mirror therapy early after stroke is not superior to conventional treatment in improving lower limb motor recovery and balance, except for improvement in mobility.

  3. The effect of visual therapy on the ocular motor control of seven- to eight-year-old children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Dané; Pienaar, Anita E

    2013-11-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the extent of ocular, motor control problems and the effect of visual therapy on such problems, among seven- to eight-year-old children diagnosed with DCD. Thirty-two, children with a mean age of 95.66 months (SD ± 3.54) participated in the study. The MABC was used to classify children into DCD categories (motor control. A two-group pre-test-post-test, cross-over design was followed with a retention test two years, thereafter to determine the lasting effect of the visual therapy, intervention. The 18-week visual therapy programme was executed once a week, for 40 min during school hours, after which the two groups were, crossed over. Percentages of ocular motor control problems ranging, between 6.25% and 93.75% were found in both the groups before participating, in the visual therapy programme, with the highest percentage problems found, in visual pursuit with the left eye. Visual therapy contributed to a, significant improvement of 75-100% in visual pursuit, fixation, ocular, alignment and convergence, with significant lasting effects (pmotor control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gesture therapy: an upper limb virtual reality-based motor rehabilitation platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucar, Luis Enrique; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Velazquez, Roger Luis; Reinkensmeyer, David J; Leder, Ronald; Hernández-Franco, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Virtual reality platforms capable of assisting rehabilitation must provide support for rehabilitation principles: promote repetition, task oriented training, appropriate feedback, and a motivating environment. As such, development of these platforms is a complex process which has not yet reached maturity. This paper presents our efforts to contribute to this field, presenting Gesture Therapy, a virtual reality-based platform for rehabilitation of the upper limb. We describe the system architecture and main features of the platform and provide preliminary evidence of the feasibility of the platform in its current status.

  5. Blue light therapy improves circadian dysfunction as well as motor symptoms in two mouse models of Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Bin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Huntington's disease (HD exhibit movement disorders, psychiatric disturbance and cognitive impairments as the disease progresses. Abnormal sleep/wake cycles are common among HD patients with reports of delayed sleep onset, fatigue during the day, and a delayed pattern of melatonin secretion all of which suggest circadian dysfunction. Mouse models of HD confirm disrupted circadian rhythms with pathophysiology found in the central circadian clock (suprachiasmatic nucleus. Importantly, circadian dysfunction manifests early in disease, even before the classic motor symptoms, in both patients and mouse models. Therefore, we hypothesize that the circadian dysfunction may interact with the disease pathology and exacerbate the HD symptoms. If correct, early intervention may benefit patients and delay disease progression. One test of this hypothesis is to determine whether light therapy designed to strengthen this intrinsic timing system can delay the disease progression in mouse models. Therefore, we determined the impact of blue wavelength-enriched light on two HD models: the BACHD and Q175 mice. Both models received 6 h of blue-light at the beginning of their daily light cycle for 3 months. After treatment, both genotypes showed improvements in their locomotor activity rhythm without significant change to their sleep behavior. Critically, treated mice of both lines exhibited improved motor performance compared to untreated controls. Focusing on the Q175 genotype, we sought to determine whether the treatment altered signaling pathways in brain regions known to be impacted by HD using NanoString gene expression assays. We found that the expression of several HD relevant markers was altered in the striatum and cortex of the treated mice. Our study demonstrates that strengthening the circadian system can delay the progression of HD in pre-clinical models. This work suggests that lighting conditions should be considered when managing

  6. Coenzyme Q10 in combination with triple therapy regimens ameliorates oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in chronic gastritis associated with H. pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Asghar; Abangah, Ghobad; Moradkhani, Atefeh; Hafezi Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Asadollahi, Khairollah

    2015-08-01

    Chronic gastritis associated with H. pylori infection causes oxidative stress in the stomach. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of coenzyme q10 among gastric patients infected by H. pylori. By a clinical trial, chronic gastric patients infected by H. pylori were randomly divided into 2 groups: intervention and placebo. The placebo group received a standard triple therapy regimen, and the intervention group received the triple regimen + coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Mean inflammation score; serum levels of 3 serum markers were then compared. A total of 100 participants of whom 67% were female were evaluated. The mean age of participants was 59.4 ± 11.4 years. The mean inflammation score was considerably decreased at the end of the study, in the intervention group. The mean levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) at the end of the study were reduced among the triple therapy group (P < .05, P =.03 respectively). The mean levels of TAC and GPx were significantly higher among the intervention group at the end of the study compared with those at the start of the study. The combination of triple therapy with CoQ10 demonstrated an effective outcome on the mucosal inflammation, and stress oxidative in patients with chronic gastritis. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  7. The effects of "Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy" on fine motor skills in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abootalebi Sh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Constraint-Induced movement therapy (CIMT is a promising treatment for improving upper limb function in adults after stroke and traumatic brain injury. It involves constraint of the less affected limb and intensive practice with the more affected limb. The purpose of this study on children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP was to evaluate the effects of CIMT on upper extremity and to make a comparison with conventional treatment."n"nMethods: I a randomized clinical trial twelve children (seven females, five males; aged between 48 and 72 months with mean±standard deviation of 59.91±9.15mo were randomly assigned in two groups. An intensive occupational therapy program including five hours per day for 21 consecutive days was performed for all of them, while less affected limbs were placed in sling for immobilization. Before and after intervention, upper extremity function, spasticity, and motor neuron excitation were evaluated by means of peabody developmental motor scales, modified Ashworth scale, and H reflex and H/M ratio, respectively."n"nResults: The children who received CIMT did not improved their ability to use their hemiplegic hand significantly more than the children in the control group (p>0

  8. Feasibility of visual instrumented movement feedback therapy in individuals with motor incomplete spinal cord injury walking on a treadmill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eSchließmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI leads to motor and sensory deficits. Even in ambulatory persons with good motor function an impaired proprioception may result in an insecure gait. Limited internal afferent feedback (FB can be compensated by provision of external FB by therapists or technical systems. Progress in computational power of motion analysis systems allows for implementation of instrumented real-time FB. The aim of this study was to test if individuals with iSCI can normalize their gait kinematics during FB and more importantly maintain an improvement after therapy. Methods: Individuals with chronic iSCI had to complete 6 days (one day per week of treadmill-based FB training with a 2 weeks pause after 3 days of training. Each day consists of an initial gait analysis followed by 2 blocks with FB/no-FB. During FB the deviation of the mean knee angle during swing from a speed matched reference (norm distance, ND is visualized as a number. The task consists of lowering the ND, which was updated after every stride. Prior to the tests in patients the in-house developed FB implementation was tested in healthy subjects with an artificial movement task. Results: 4 of 5 study participants benefited from FB in the short and medium term. Decrease of mean ND was highest during the first 3 sessions (from 3.93±1.54 to 2.18±1.04. After the pause mean ND stayed in the same range than before. In the last 3 sessions the mean ND decreased slower (2.40±1.18 to 2.20±0.90. Direct influences of FB ranged from 60% to 15% of reduction in mean ND compared to initial gait analysis and from 20% to 1% compared to no-FB sessions. Conclusions: Instrumented kinematic real-time FB may serve as an effective adjunct to established gait therapies in normalizing the gait pattern after incomplete spinal cord injury. Further studies with larger patient groups need to prove long term learning and the successful transfer of newly acquired skills to

  9. Central leptin gene therapy ameliorates diabetes type 1 and 2 through two independent hypothalamic relays; a benefit beyond weight and appetite regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Satya P

    2009-10-01

    Although its role in energy homeostasis is firmly established, the evidence accumulated over a decade linking the adipocyte leptin-hypothalamus axis in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus has received little attention in the contemporary thinking. In this context various lines of evidence are collated here to show that (1) under the direction of leptin two independent relays emanating from the hypothalamus restrain insulin secretion from the pancreas and mobilize peripheral organs--liver, skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue--to upregulate glucose disposal, and (2), leptin insufficiency in the hypothalamus produced by either leptinopenia or restriction of leptin transport across the blood brain barrier due to hyperleptinemia of obesity and aging, initiate antecedent pathophysiological sequalae of diabetes type 1 and 2. Further, we document here the efficacy of leptin replenishment in vivo, especially by supplying it to the hypothalamus with the aid of gene therapy, in preventing the antecedent pathophysiological sequalae--hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia--in various animal models and clinical paradigms of diabetes type 1 and 2 with or without attendant obesity. Overall, the new insights on the long-lasting antidiabetic potential of two independent hypothalamic relays engendered by central leptin gene therapy and the preclinical safety indicators in rodents warrant further validation in subhuman primates and humans.

  10. Combined transcranial direct current stimulation and home-based occupational therapy for upper limb motor impairment following intracerebral hemorrhage: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Jesper; Figlewski, Krystian; Andersen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the combined effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and home-based occupational therapy on activities of daily living (ADL) and grip strength, in patients with upper limb motor impairment following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). A double-blind randomized controlled trial with one-week follow-up. Patients received five consecutive days of occupational therapy at home, combined with either anodal (n = 8) or sham (n = 7) tDCS. The primary outcome was ADL performance, which was assessed with the Jebsen-Taylor test (JTT). Both groups improved JTT over time (p occupational therapy provided greater improvements in grip strength compared with occupational therapy alone. tDCS is a promising add-on intervention regarding training of upper limb motor impairment. It is well tolerated by patients and can easily be applied for home-based training. Larger studies with long-term follow-up are needed to further explore possible effects of tDCS in patients with ICH. Five consecutive days of tDCS combined with occupational therapy provided greater improvements in grip strength compared with occupational therapy alone. tDCS is well tolerated by patients and can easily be applied for home-based rehabilitation.

  11. Prospective study of the effect of sensory integration, neurodevelopmental treatment, and perceptual-motor therapy on the sensorimotor performance in children with mild mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Wang, Chih-Chung; Huang, Mao-Hsiung; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2009-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study compared the effect of sensory integrative (SI) therapy, neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT), and perceptual-motor (PM) approach on children with mild mental retardation. Children (N = 120) were randomly assigned to intervention with SI, NDT, or PM; another 40 children served as control participants. All children were assessed with measures of sensorimotor function. After intervention, the treatment groups significantly outperformed the control group on almost all measures. The SI group demonstrated a greater pretest-posttest change on fine motor, upper-limb coordination, and SI functioning. The PM group showed significant gains in gross motor skills, whereas the NDT group had the smallest change in most measures. SI, NDT, and PM improved sensorimotor function among children with mild mental retardation. The choice of sensorimotor approaches should be determined on the basis of the child's particular needs because each approach may have an advantage in certain aspects of sensorimotor function.

  12. Opicapone as Adjunct to Levodopa Therapy in Patients With Parkinson Disease and Motor Fluctuations: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Andrew J; Ferreira, Joaquim; Rascol, Olivier; Poewe, Werner; Rocha, José-Francisco; McCrory, Michelle; Soares-da-Silva, Patricio

    2017-02-01

    Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors are an established treatment for end-of-dose motor fluctuations associated with levodopa therapy in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Current COMT inhibitors carry a high risk for toxic effects to hepatic cells or show moderate improvement. Opicapone was designed to be effective without the adverse effects. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 25- and 50-mg/d dosages of opicapone compared with placebo as adjunct to levodopa therapy in patients with PD experiencing end-of-dose motor fluctuations. This phase 3 international, multicenter outpatient study evaluated a 25- and a 50-mg/d dosage of opicapone in a randomized, double-blind, 14- to 15-week, placebo-controlled clinical trial, followed by a 1-year open-label phase during which all patients received active treatment with opicapone. Patients with PD who experienced signs of end-of-dose deterioration and had a mean total awake off-time (state of akinesia or decreased mobility) of at least 1.5 hours, not including morning akinesia, were enrolled. Data were collected from March 18, 2011, through June 25, 2013. Data from the evaluable population were analyzed from July 31, 2013, to July 31, 2014. The primary efficacy outcome of the double-blind phase was the change from baseline in absolute off-time vs placebo based on patient diaries. The open-label phase focused on maintenance of treatment effect in off-time. A total of 427 patients (258 men [60.4%] and 169 women [39.6%]; mean [SD] age, 63.1 [8.8] years) were randomized to a 25-mg/d (n = 129) or a 50-mg/d (n = 154) dosage of opicapone or to placebo (n = 144). Of these, 376 patients completed the double-blind phase and entered the open-label phase, of whom 286 completed 1 year of open-label treatment. At the end of the double-blind phase, the least squares mean change (SE) in off-time was -64.5 (14.4) minutes for the placebo group, -101.7 (14.9) minutes for the 25-mg/d opicapone group, and -118.8

  13. Motor skill delays in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapy as an important risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverna, Livia; Tremolada, Marta; Bonichini, Sabrina; Tosetto, Barbara; Basso, Giuseppe; Messina, Chiara; Pillon, Marta

    2017-01-01

    CNS-directed therapies for the treatment of leukemia can adversely affect the acquisition of new skills, such as reading/writing and math. Two years after the end of treatments, children show gross and fine motor skill delays that may persist even when patients are considered healed. The goal of the present study was to assess motor skills difficulties in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment. Particular attention has been paid to those patients who had undergone Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) and to the relationship between motor delays and age bands. Participants were 60 children (median age of 5; inter quartile range: 3.07-5.76), including 31 females and 29 males, 91.7% of them were affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 8.3% by acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Five children had undergone HCST. Parents were interviewed by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) on children's motor skills and filled in the Italian Temperament Questionnaire (QUIT). VABS's total scores were converted into equivalent mental age scores (EMA). A score difference of at least three months between current age and equivalent mental age was considered a developmental delay. Non-parametric analyses were run to understand if HSCT treatment and a specific age band influence children's motor skills. Significant delays were found in global motor skills (56.7%) as well as in fine and gross motor domains. Mann Whitney U tests showed that children with HSCT were reported to have lower gross motor mean ranks (U = 62; p = 0.004; Mean rank = 15.40) than peers without HSCT (Mean rank = 31.87) and lower mean rank values on motor temperament scale (U = 9; p = 0.003; HSCT Mean rank = 4.75 versus no HSCT Mean rank = 27.81). Kruskal Wallis' tests identified the high risk treatment showing that HSCT experience negatively impacted the motor skills and temperamental motor activity of pre-school children one year after the diagnosis of leukemia.

  14. Motor skill delays in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapy as an important risk factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Taverna

    Full Text Available CNS-directed therapies for the treatment of leukemia can adversely affect the acquisition of new skills, such as reading/writing and math. Two years after the end of treatments, children show gross and fine motor skill delays that may persist even when patients are considered healed. The goal of the present study was to assess motor skills difficulties in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment. Particular attention has been paid to those patients who had undergone Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT and to the relationship between motor delays and age bands. Participants were 60 children (median age of 5; inter quartile range: 3.07-5.76, including 31 females and 29 males, 91.7% of them were affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, and 8.3% by acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Five children had undergone HCST. Parents were interviewed by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS on children's motor skills and filled in the Italian Temperament Questionnaire (QUIT. VABS's total scores were converted into equivalent mental age scores (EMA. A score difference of at least three months between current age and equivalent mental age was considered a developmental delay. Non-parametric analyses were run to understand if HSCT treatment and a specific age band influence children's motor skills. Significant delays were found in global motor skills (56.7% as well as in fine and gross motor domains. Mann Whitney U tests showed that children with HSCT were reported to have lower gross motor mean ranks (U = 62; p = 0.004; Mean rank = 15.40 than peers without HSCT (Mean rank = 31.87 and lower mean rank values on motor temperament scale (U = 9; p = 0.003; HSCT Mean rank = 4.75 versus no HSCT Mean rank = 27.81. Kruskal Wallis' tests identified the high risk treatment showing that HSCT experience negatively impacted the motor skills and temperamental motor activity of pre-school children one year after the diagnosis of leukemia.

  15. Novel transdermal photodynamic therapy using ATX-S10.Na(II) induces apoptosis of synovial fibroblasts and ameliorates collagen antibody-induced arthritis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, S; Nishida, K; Komiyama, T; Nakae, Y; Takeda, K; Yorimitsu, M; Kitamura, A; Kunisada, T; Ohtsuka, A; Inoue, H

    2006-06-01

    We aimed to test the effect of transdermal photodynamic therapy (PDT) on synovial proliferation in vitro and in vivo, using a novel photosensitizer, ATX-S10.Na(II). Synovial fibroblasts were obtained from patients with RA (RASF). Cell viability with or without PDT was determined by MTT assay. Cell morphology was examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. DNA fragmentation was labeled by TUNEL stain. Collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) was induced in DBA/1 mice, and the effects of transdermal PDT were evaluated by clinical and histological examination. PDT showed drug concentration-dependent and laser dose-dependent cytotoxicity on RASF. TUNEL stain and TEM study revealed the induction of apoptotic cell death of RASF. Transdermal PDT significantly reduced clinical arthritis and synovial inflammation in this model of arthritis. These results suggest that transdermal PDT using ATX-S10.Na(II) might be a novel less invasive treatment strategy for small joint arthritis and tenosynovitis.

  16. Adenovirus-mediated anti-sense extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 gene therapy inhibits activation of vascular smooth muscle cells and angiogenesis, and ameliorates transplant arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, B; Li, X; Dai, X; Gong, N

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore underlying mechanisms of transplant arteriosclerosis (TA) based on intimal thickening that involve activation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and angiogenesis. We also examined the effects of adenovirus-mediated anti-sense extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) (Adanti-ERK2) gene therapy on TA. We employed a rat aorta transplantation model (Brown-Norway → Lewis). The animals were divided into: (1) an isograft group (n = 6), (2) an empty control group (n = 6), (3) the Ad-LacZ group (n = 6), and (4) the adanti-ERK2 group (n = 6). At 60 days after transplantation, we documented the ratio of intima/(intima + media) the isografts pathologically. Staining for α-actin and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB was performed to analyze the migration and secretion of VSMCs. We evaluated angiogenesis and COX-2 staining. Isografts showed normal histology; allografts from the empty control group and the Ad-LacZ group displayed typical TA lesions, while the pathology was significantly improved among the adanti-ERK2 group. The ratios of intima/(intima + media) were 7.6 ± 2.1%, 81.4% ± 6.7%, 85.9% ± 9.4%, and 15.9% ± 4.1% among the isograft group, the empty control, the Ad-LacZ, and the adanti-ERK2 groups respectively. The α-actin+ cells in the intima per field (×400) were 2.1 ± 1.1, 71.3 ± 9.2, 76.4 ± 11.3, and 34.8 ± 5.3, PDGF-BB+ cells, 0.9 ± 0.5, 28.4 ± 3.4, 29.1 ± 3.2, and 8.6 ± 1.7; COX-2+ cells in new capillaries were none, 36.3 ± 8.3, 40.9 ± 9.2, and 10.4 ± 3.9 respectively (P < .05). Intimal thickening a key feature of TA, involves activation of VSMC (proliferation, migration and secretion), and the accompanying angiogenesis. Adanti-ERK2 gene therapy modulates the mechanisms, protecting allografts against TA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inflammation and oxidative stress in corneal tissue in experimental keratitis due to Fusarium solani: Amelioration following topical therapy with voriconazole and epigallocatechin gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruban, Vasanthakumar V; Archana, Philip T; Sundararajan, Mahalingam; Geraldine, Pitchairaj; Thomas, Philip A

    2017-10-24

    Combined antifungal and antioxidant therapy may help to reduce oxidative stress in fungal keratitis. Experimental Fusarium solani keratitis was induced by application of F. solani conidia to scarified cornea (right eye) of 16 rabbits (another four rabbits were negative controls [Group I]). Five days later, F. solani-infected animals began receiving hourly topical saline alone (Group II), voriconazole (10 mg/mL) alone (Group III), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, 10 mg/mL) alone (Group IV) or voriconazole and EGCG (Group V). Twenty days post-inoculation, corneal lesions were graded. After animal sacrifice, excised corneas underwent histopathological and microbiological investigations. Corneal tissue levels/activities of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) gene mRNA transcripts, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9 proteins, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), were also measured. Clinical and histopathological scores (severity of corneal lesions; [P  Groups IV and III > Groups V and I. Mean SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH levels (P solani keratitis, as manifested by improved clinical, histological, microbiological and molecular parameters. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Electroconvulsive therapy and aerobic exercise training increased BDNF and ameliorated depressive symptoms in patients suffering from treatment-resistant major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Iraj; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Haghighi, Mohammad; Jahangard, Leila; Bajoghli, Hafez; Gerber, Markus; Pühse, Uwe; Kirov, Roumen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2014-10-01

    To treat patients suffering from treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (TR-MDD), research has focused on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and aerobic exercise training (AET). Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems to be key in MDD. The aims of the present study were therefore two-fold, to investigate in a three-arm interventional study the differential effects of ECT, ECT plus AET, and AET alone in patients suffering from TR-MDD on 1. depressive symptoms and 2. 60 patients with TR-MDD (mean age: 31 years; 31.6% female patients) were randomly assigned either to the ECT, ECT + AET, or AET condition. The AET condition consisted of treadmill exercise for 30 min, three times a week. Both depression severity and BDNF levels were assessed at baseline and 4 weeks later. All patients were further treated with an SSRI standard medication. BDNF levels increased over time in all three study conditions. After completion of the intervention program, the ECT group showed significantly higher BDNF levels compared to the ECT + AET and the AET conditions. Depressive symptoms decreased in all three conditions over time. The combination of ECT + AET led to a significantly greater decrease than in either the ECT or AET alone conditions. BDNF levels were not associated with symptoms of depression. The pattern of results suggests that ECT, AET and particularly their combination are promising directions for treatment patients suffering from TR-MDD, and that it remains unclear to what extent BDNF is key and a reliable biomarker for TR-MDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and aerobic exercise training (AET) increased plasma BDNF and ameliorated depressive symptoms in patients suffering from major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Iraj; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Haghighi, Mohammad; Jahangard, Leila; Bajoghli, Hafez; Gerber, Markus; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-05-01

    To treat patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD), research has focused on electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and aerobic exercise training (AET). Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) seems to be key in MDD. The aims of the present study were therefore two-fold, to investigate in a three-arm interventional study the differential effects of ECT, ECT plus AET, and AET alone in patients suffering from TR-MDD on 1. depressive symptoms and 2. plasma BDNF (pBDNF). 60 patients with MDD (mean age: 31 years; 31.6% female patients) were randomly assigned either to the ECT, ECT + AET, or AET condition. The AET condition consisted of treadmill exercise for 45 min, three times a week. Both depression severity and pBDNF levels were assessed at baseline and 4 weeks later. All patients were further treated with an SSRI standard medication. pBDNF levels increased over time in all three study conditions, though, highest increase was observed in the ECT + EAT condition, and lowest increase was observed in the AET condition. Depressive symptoms decreased in all three conditions over time, though, strongest decrease was observed in the ECT + AET condition. The combination of ECT + AET led to significantly greater remission rates than in either the ECT or AET alone conditions. BDNF levels were not associated with symptoms of depression. The pattern of results suggests that ECT, AET and particularly their combination are promising directions for the treatment of patients suffering from MDD, and that it remains unclear to what extent pBDNF is key and a reliable biomarker for MDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Zinc-carnosine and vitamin E supplementation does not ameliorate gastrointestinal side effects associated with ciclosporin therapy of canine atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura S; Rosenkrantz, Wayne S; Roycroft, Linda M

    2011-02-01

    Chelated zinc-carnosine and vitamin E [GastriCalm(®) (GCM); Teva Animal Health] is marketed as an anti-emetic supplement for dogs to assist the repair of damaged stomach and intestinal mucosa. The purpose of this prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to determine whether GCM reduced the frequency of vomiting, diarrhoea and appetite changes during initiation of ciclosporin (Atopica(®); Novartis Animal Health) therapy for the treatment of canine atopic dermatitis. Sixty privately owned dogs diagnosed with atopic dermatitis were randomly assigned to GCM (n=30) or placebo (n=30) groups. All dogs received ∼ 5 mg/kg ciclosporin (range, 3.5-5.8 mg/kg) once daily. Dogs <13.6 kg received half a tablet of GCM or placebo; dogs ≥ 13.6 kg received one tablet once daily. GastriCalm(®) or placebo was administered 30 min prior to eating, and the ciclosporin was administered 2 h after feeding. Owners recorded episodes of vomiting, diarrhoea and appetite changes. Dogs were examined on days 0 and 14. Forty-one of 60 dogs (68.3%) had at least one episode of vomiting, diarrhoea or appetite change, leaving nine placebo dogs (30%) and ten GCM dogs (33.3%) free of adverse events (AE). Twenty-seven of 60 dogs (45%) vomited, and 15 of 60 (25%) had diarrhoea. There was no significant difference in episodes of individual AEs, but the placebo group had a significantly lower total AE score (summation of episodes of appetite change, vomiting and diarrhoea; P=0.022). Small dogs (<6.82 kg) had significantly fewer total AEs in both treatment groups and tolerated ciclosporin better than larger dogs (P<0.05). © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 ESVD and ACVD.

  1. Determinants of Concurrent Motor and Language Recovery during Intensive Therapy in Chronic Stroke Patients: Four Single-Case Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Primaßin, Annika; Scholtes, Nina; Heim, Stefan; Huber, Walter; Neuschäfer, Martina; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Werner, Cornelius J

    2015-01-01

    Despite intensive research on mechanisms of recovery of function after stroke, surprisingly little is known about determinants of concurrent recovery of language and motor functions in single patients...

  2. The addition of functional task-oriented mental practice to conventional physical therapy improves motor skills in daily functions after stroke

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    Clarissa C. Santos-Couto-Paz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mental practice (MP is a cognitive strategy which may improve the acquisition of motor skills and functional performance of athletes and individuals with neurological injuries. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an individualized, specific functional task-oriented MP, when added to conventional physical therapy (PT, promoted better learning of motor skills in daily functions in individuals with chronic stroke (13±6.5 months post-stroke. METHOD: Nine individuals with stable mild and moderate upper limb impairments participated, by employing an A1-B-A2 single-case design. Phases A1 and A2 included one month of conventional PT, and phase B the addition of MP training to PT. The motor activity log (MAL-Brazil was used to assess the amount of use (AOU and quality of movement (QOM of the paretic upper limb; the revised motor imagery questionnaire (MIQ-RS to assess the abilities in kinesthetic and visual motor imagery; the Minnesota manual dexterity test to assess manual dexterity; and gait speed to assess mobility. RESULTS: After phase A1, no significant changes were observed for any of the outcome measures. However, after phase B, significant improvements were observed for the MAL, AOU and QOM scores (p<0.0001, and MIQ-RS kinesthetic and visual scores (p=0.003; p=0.007, respectively. The significant gains in manual dexterity (p=0.002 and gait speed (p=0.019 were maintained after phase A2. CONCLUSIONS: Specific functional task-oriented MP, when added to conventional PT, led to improvements in motor imagery abilities combined with increases in the AOU and QOM in daily functions, manual dexterity, and gait speed.

  3. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and intensive occupational therapy on motor neuron excitability in poststroke hemiparetic patients: a neurophysiological investigation using F-wave parameters.

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    Kondo, Takahiro; Kakuda, Wataru; Yamada, Naoki; Shimizu, Masato; Abo, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    The combination protocol of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (RTMS) and intensive occupational therapy (OT) improves motor function of the paretic upper limb in poststroke patients. However, the effect of RTMS/OT on motor neuron excitability remains to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 15-day application of RTMS/OT on motor neuron excitability in such patients using neurophysiological studies including F-wave parameter measurements. Ten poststroke patients with spastic upper limb hemiparesis were studied (mean age: 57.4 ± 8.1 years, ± SD). Patients were hospitalized for 15 days to receive RTMS/OT. One session of 40-min low-frequency RTMS and two sessions of 120-min intensive OT were provided daily. Neurophysiological studies including F-wave parameters measurements were performed on the days of admission/discharge. Motor function and spasticity of the affected upper limb were evaluated on the same time points. RTMS/OT significantly improved motor function of the affected upper limb. RTMS/OT decreased the modified Ashworth scale (MAS) in the affected upper limb (p < 0.05), but did not change F-wave frequency in either upper limb. However, both F-mean/M ratio and F-max/M ratio significantly decreased in the affected upper limb (all p < 0.05). The 15-day protocol of LF-RTMS/OT produced significant reduction of motor neuron excitability. RTMS/OT can potentially produce significant reduction in upper limb spasticity in the affected upper limb, although this finding should be confirmed in a larger number of patients.

  4. The Effects of Combination of Robot-Assisted Therapy With Task-Specific or Impairment-Oriented Training on Motor Function and Quality of Life in Chronic Stroke.

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    Hung, Chung-Shan; Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Wu, Ching-Yi; Lin, Yi-Ting; Lin, Keh-Chung; Chen, Chia-Ling

    2016-08-01

    Robot-assisted therapy (RT) is a promising intervention for stroke rehabilitation. RT hybridized with therapist-mediated therapy (eg, RT plus task-specific or impairment-oriented training) may possibly yield functionally relevant improvements. A comparative study of the different combination regimens is needed. To investigate the efficacy of RT combined with task-specific training or impairment-oriented training on motor function and quality of life in patients with chronic stroke. A single-blind, randomized comparative efficacy study. Two medical centers in Taiwan. Twenty-one subjects with chronic stroke. Participants were recruited and randomized into 1 of 2 groups: (1) RT combined with task-specific (RTT) training (enrolled, n = 11; completed, n = 11) or (2) RT combined with impairment-oriented (RTI) training (enrolled, n = 10; completed, n = 9). Participants received 20 intervention sessions (90-100 min/d, 5 d/wk for 4 weeks). The Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment Upper Extremity subscale, Stroke Impact Scale, Action Research Arm Test, and Medical Research Council Scale were administered at baseline, posttreatment, and at 3-month follow-up. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to investigate the treatment effects. The improvements of the RTT group in motor function measured by the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment Upper Extremity subscale and quality of life assessed by the Stroke Impact Scale were significantly superior to the RTI group after the interventions. The improvements of the RTT group were maintained for 3 months. Both groups demonstrated significant within-group improvements in motor function, muscle power, and quality of life. RTT may be a more compelling approach to enhance motor function and quality of life for a long-term period than RTI. The combination of RT with task-specific training and with impairment-oriented training had similar benefits on upper limb motor function and muscle strength immediately after the interventions

  5. EFFECTS OF MODIFIED CONSTRAINT-INDUCED MOVEMENT THERAPY FOR LOWER LIMB ON MOTOR FUNCTION IN STROKE PATIENTS: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED STUDY

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    Sevim ACAROZ CANDAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have examined the effectiveness of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (mCIMT for the paretic lower limb following stroke. This study aimed to investigate the effects of mCIMT on motor function of the lower limb in stroke patients. Methods: A randomized, controlled study of 30 participants, who were randomized to 2 groups, was conducted. The study group received mCIMT, and the control group received neurodevelopmental therapy (NDT for two weeks. All were evaluated for motor function through the Functional Ambulation Classification (FAC, Berg Balance Scale (BBS,10-Meter Walk Test, gait parameters (cadence and step length ratio and postural symmetry ratio at pretreatment and post-treatment, like two times. Results: The improvements in BBS score, postural symmetry ratio, step length ratio, cadence and walking velocity had greater in the study group than the control group (P < 0.05. The improvement of FAC score was more pronounced in the study group (P = 0.005. Conclusion: mCIMT for paretic lower limb had superior effect against the NDT to enhance the motor function (gait parameters, balance, ambulation, and symmetry in patients with stroke. mCIMT may be used as a new alternative treatment for lower limb rehabilitation.

  6. Multimodal Therapy Involving High-Intensity Interval Training Improves the Physical Fitness, Motor Skills, Social Behavior, and Quality of Life of Boys With ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Study.

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    Meßler, Carolin Friederike; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Sperlich, Billy

    2016-03-24

    To compare the effects of multimodal therapy including supervised high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with those of standard multimodal therapy (TRAD) concerning key variables of physical fitness (peak power and oxygen uptake), motor skills, social behavior, and quality of life in boys with ADHD. A single-center, two-arm randomized, controlled design was used, with 28 boys (8-13 years of age, IQ = 83-136) being randomly assigned to multimodal HIIT (three sessions/week, 4 × 4-min intervals at 95% of peak heart rate) or TRAD. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children II evaluated motor skills and the German version of the hyperkinetic disorder questionnaire for external evaluation by the guardians (FBB-HKS) or German version of the hyperkinetic disorder questionnaire for self-assessment by the children (SBB-HKS) and the KINDL-R questionnaires mental health and health-related quality of life. Both interventions enhanced peak power, and HIIT also reduced submaximal oxygen uptake. HIIT was more effective than TRAD in improving the total score for motor skills (including manual dexterity and ball skills;pskills, certain aspects of quality of life, competence, and attention in boys with ADHD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of equine assisted activities and therapies on gross motor outcome in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Sung-Hui; Chen, Hung-Chou; Tam, Ka-Wai

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the literature on the efficacy of equine assisted activities and therapies (EAAT) on gross motor outcomes representing the ICF component of body functions and activity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and observational studies of hippotherapy (HPOT) and therapeutic horseback riding (TR) for children with spastic CP. Gross motor outcomes, assessed via muscle activity and muscle tone, gait, posture and Gross Motor Function Measures (GMFM) were evaluated. Five TR studies and nine HPOT studies were included. Our meta-analysis indicated that short-term HPOT (total riding time 8-10 min) significantly reduced asymmetrical activity of the hip adductor muscles. HPOT could improve postural control in children with spastic CP, GMFCS level < 5. However, the evidence did not show a statistically significant effect on GMFM after long-term HPOT or TR (total riding time, 8-22 h) in children with spastic CP. This systematic review found insufficient evidence to support the claim that long-term TR or HPOT provide a significant benefit to children with spastic CP. We found no statistically significant evidence of either therapeutic effect or maintenance effects on the gross motor activity status in CP children.

  8. Myofascial structural integration therapy on gross motor function and gait of young children with spastic cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial

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    Elizabeth C Loi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Though the cause of motor abnormalities in cerebral palsy is injury to the brain, structural changes in muscle and fascia may add to stiffness and reduced function. This study examined whether Myofascial Structural Integration therapy (MSI, a complementary treatment that manipulates muscle and fascia, would improve gross motor function and gait in children < 4 years with cerebral palsy. Participants (N=29 were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT: NCT01815814, https://goo.gl/TGxvwd or Open Label Extension. The main outcome was the Gross Motor Function Measure-66 assessed at 3-month intervals. Gait (n=8 was assessed using the GAITRite® electronic walkway. Parents completed a survey at study conclusion.Comparing Treatment (n=15 and Waitlist-Control Groups (n=9, we found a significant main effect of time but no effect of group or timeXgroup interaction. The pooled sample (n=27 showed a main effect of time, but no significantly greater change after treatment than between other assessments. Foot length on the affected side increased significantly after treatment, likely indicating improvement in the children’s ability to approach a heel strike. Parent surveys indicated satisfaction and improvements in the children's quality of movement. MSI did not increase the rate of motor skill development, but was associated with improvement in gait quality.

  9. Younger Children with Cerebral Palsy Respond Better Than Older Ones to Therapist-Based Constraint-Induced Therapy at Home on Functional Outcomes and Motor Control.

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    Chen, Hsieh-ching; Kang, Lin-ju; Chen, Chia-ling; Lin, Keh-chung; Chen, Fei-chuan; Wu, Katie P H

    2016-01-01

    To examine the differences in efficacy of home-based constraint-induced therapy (CIT) on functional outcomes and motor control in two age groups of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-three children with spastic unilateral CP receiving 4-week home-based CIT by a therapist were divided into younger (6-8 years; n = 11) and older (9-12 years; n = 12) groups. The home-based CIT involved intensive functional training of the more affected upper-limb while restraining the less affected upper-limb. The outcome measures were Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-2nd edition (PDMS-2) that was being used in a modified way, Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM), and reach-to-grasp kinematic parameters, including reaction time (RT), normalized movement time (MT), normalized movement units (MUs), peak velocity (PV), and maximum grip aperture (MGA). The outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 4-weeks (post-treatment), 3- and 6-months (follow-up). The younger group showed greater changes in visual motor integration skills and RT at all post-tests after intervention than the older group. Groups had comparable changes on any other measures. Younger children with CP responded better to home-based CIT on some areas of upper-limb functions and reach-to-grasp motor control strategies than older children.

  10. TREATMENT AND REHABILITATION IN NON-MOTOR SYMPTOMS OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE

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    Gabriela Dogaru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. The cardinal clinical features of PD are motor and include bradykinesia, rigidity, and resting tremor with an asymmetric pattern. Apart from these, various nonmotor symptoms (NMS also occur in PD and constitute a major clinical symptoms. NMS can present at any stage of the disease including early and pre-motor phase of PD. Management of PD requires recognition of both motor and nonmotor symptoms as well as an understanding of the relationship between these symptoms and how they can be affected by treatments for PD. Therapy should be individualized for each patient, as treatments for the motor symptoms of PD can improve some nonmotor symptoms while they can worsen others. Some non-motor symptoms, including depression, constipation, pain, genitourinary problems, and sleep disorders, can be improved with antiparkinsonian drugs . Other non-motor symptoms can be more refractory and need the introduction of novel non-dopaminergic drugs in association with rehabilitation programs . In the future, development of treatments that can slow or prevent the progression of Parkinson's disease and its multicentric neurodegeneration are the best hope of ameliorating non-motor symptoms

  11. Impairments in Motor Neurons, Interneurons and Astrocytes Contribute to Hyperexcitability in ALS: Underlying Mechanisms and Paths to Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do-Ha, Dzung; Buskila, Yossi; Ooi, Lezanne

    2017-02-03

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterised by the loss of motor neurons leading to progressive paralysis and death. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and nerve excitability tests, several clinical studies have identified that cortical and peripheral hyperexcitability are among the earliest pathologies observed in ALS patients. The changes in the electrophysiological properties of motor neurons have been identified in both sporadic and familial ALS patients, despite the diverse etiology of the disease. The mechanisms behind the change in neuronal signalling are not well understood, though current findings implicate intrinsic changes in motor neurons and dysfunction of cells critical in regulating motor neuronal excitability, such as astrocytes and interneurons. Alterations in ion channel expression and/or function in motor neurons has been associated with changes in cortical and peripheral nerve excitability. In addition to these intrinsic changes in motor neurons, inhibitory signalling through GABAergic interneurons is also impaired in ALS, likely contributing to increased neuronal excitability. Astrocytes have also recently been implicated in increasing neuronal excitability in ALS by failing to adequately regulate glutamate levels and extracellular K(+) concentration at the synaptic cleft. As hyperexcitability is a common and early feature of ALS, it offers a therapeutic and diagnostic target. Thus, understanding the underlying pathways and mechanisms leading to hyperexcitability in ALS offers crucial insight for future development of ALS treatments.

  12. A Concept for Extending the Applicability of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy through Motor Cortex Activity Feedback Using a Neural Prosthesis

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    Tomas E. Ward

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a concept for the extension of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT through the use of feedback of primary motor cortex activity. CIMT requires residual movement to act as a source of feedback to the patient, thus preventing its application to those with no perceptible movement. It is proposed in this paper that it is possible to provide feedback of the motor cortex effort to the patient by measurement with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Significant changes in such effort may be used to drive rehabilitative robotic actuators, for example. This may provide a possible avenue for extending CIMT to patients hitherto excluded as a result of severity of condition. In support of such a paradigm, this paper details the current status of CIMT and related attempts to extend rehabilitation therapy through the application of technology. An introduction to the relevant haemodynamics is given including a description of the basic technology behind a suitable NIRS system. An illustration of the proposed therapy is described using a simple NIRS system driving a robotic arm during simple upper-limb unilateral isometric contraction exercises with healthy subjects.

  13. Music-supported therapy (MST) in improving post-stroke patients' upper-limb motor function: a randomised controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yanna; Forreider, Brian; Sun, Xinting; Geng, Xiaokun; Zhang, Weidong; Du, Huishan; Zhang, Tong; Ding, Yuchuan

    2015-05-01

    Music-supported therapy (MST) is a new approach for motor rehabilitation of stroke patients. Recently, many studies have demonstrated that MST improved the motor functions of post-stroke patients. However, the underlying mechanism for this effect is still unclear. It may result from repeated practice or repeated practice combined with musical stimulation. Currently, few studies have been designed to clarify this discrepancy. In this study, the application of "mute" musical instruments allowed for the study of music as an independent factor. Thirty-three post-stroke patients with no substantial previous musical training were included. Participants were assigned to either audible music group (MG) or mute music group (CG), permitting observation of music's independent effect. All subjects received the conventional rehabilitation treatments. Patients in MG (n = 15) received 20 extra sessions of audible musical instrument training over 4 weeks. Patients in CG (n = 18) received "mute" musical instrument training of the same protocol as that of MG. Wolf motor function test (WMFT) and Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) for upper limbs were utilised to evaluate motor functions of patients in both groups before and after the treatment. Three patients in CG dropped out. All participants in both groups showed significant improvements in motor functions of upper limbs after 4  weeks' treatment. However, significant differences in the WMFT were found between the two groups (WMFT-quality: P = 0.025; WMFT-time: P = 0.037), but not in the FMA (P = 0.448). In short, all participants showed significant improvement after 4 weeks' treatment, but subjects in MG demonstrated greater improvement than those in CG. This study supports that MST, when combined with conventional treatment, is effective for the recovery of motor skills in post-stroke patients. Additionally, it suggests that apart from the repetitive practices of MST, music may play a unique role in improving

  14. Overexpression of hepatocyte growth factor in SBMA model mice has an additive effect on combination therapy with castration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Ying [Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Adachi, Hiroaki, E-mail: hadachi-ns@umin.org [Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Department of Neurology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan); Katsuno, Masahisa [Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Huang, Zhe [Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Department of Neurology, University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8555 (Japan); Jiang, Yue-Mei; Kondo, Naohide; Iida, Madoka; Tohnai, Genki; Nakatsuji, Hideaki [Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Funakoshi, Hiroshi [Center for Advanced Research and Education, Asahikawa Medical University, 1-1-1- Higashinijo Midorigaoka, Asahikawa 078-8510 (Japan); Nakamura, Toshikazu [Neurogen Inc., 1-1-52-201 Nakahozumi, Ibaraki 567-0034 (Japan); Sobue, Gen, E-mail: sobueg@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Neurology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Research Division of Dementia and Neurodegenerative Disease, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)

    2015-12-25

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an inherited motor neuron disease caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ)-encoding tract within the androgen receptor (AR) gene. The pathologic features of SBMA are motor neuron loss in the spinal cord and brainstem and diffuse nuclear accumulation and nuclear inclusions of mutant AR in residual motor neurons and certain visceral organs. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a polypeptide growth factor which has neuroprotective properties. To investigate whether HGF overexpression can affect disease progression in a mouse model of SBMA, we crossed SBMA transgenic model mice expressing an AR gene with an expanded CAG repeat with mice overexpressing HGF. Here, we report that high expression of HGF induces Akt phosphorylation and modestly ameliorated motor symptoms in an SBMA transgenic mouse model treated with or without castration. These findings suggest that HGF overexpression can provide a potential therapeutic avenue as a combination therapy with disease-modifying therapies in SBMA. - Highlights: • HGF overexpression ameliorates the motor phenotypes of the SBMA mouse model. • HGF overexpression induces Akt phosphorylation in the SBMA mouse model. • This is the first report of combination therapy in a mouse model of polyQ diseases.

  15. Robotic therapy provides a stimulus for upper limb motor recovery after stroke that is complementary to and distinct from conventional therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, Elizabeth B; Nichols, Diane; Holley, Rahsaan J; Lum, Peter S

    2014-05-01

    Individuals with chronic stroke often have long-lasting upper extremity impairments that impede function during activities of daily living. Rehabilitation robotics have shown promise in improving arm function, but current systems do not allow realistic training of activities of daily living. We have incorporated the ARMin III and HandSOME device into a novel robotic therapy modality that provides functional training of reach and grasp tasks. To compare the effects of equal doses of robotic and conventional therapy in individuals with chronic stroke. Subjects were randomized to 12 hours of robotic or conventional therapy and then crossed over to the other therapy type after a 1-month washout period. Twelve moderate to severely impaired individuals with chronic stroke were enrolled, and 10 completed the study. Across the 3-month study period, subjects showed significant improvements in the Fugl-Meyer (P = .013) and Box and Blocks tests (P = .028). The robotic intervention produced significantly greater improvements in the Action Research Arm Test than conventional therapy (P = .033). Gains in the Box and Blocks test from conventional therapy were larger than from robotic therapy in subjects who received conventional therapy after robotic therapy (P = .044). Data suggest that robotic therapy can elicit improvements in arm function that are distinct from conventional therapy and supplements conventional methods to improve outcomes. Results from this pilot study should be confirmed in a larger study.

  16. A smooth transition protocol for patients with multifocal motor neuropathy going from intravenous to subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy: an open-label proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misbah, Siraj A; Baumann, Andreas; Fazio, Raffaella; Dacci, Patrizia; Schmidt, Dirk S; Burton, Janet; Sturzenegger, Matthias

    2011-06-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is the first-line therapy for multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). This open-label multi-centre study (NCT00701662) assessed the efficacy, safety, and convenience of subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) in patients with MMN over 6 months, as an alternative to IVIG. Eight MMN patients (42-66 years), on stable IVIG dosing, received weekly SCIG at doses equivalent to previous IVIG using a "smooth transition protocol". Primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline to week 24 in muscle strength. Disability, motor function, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) endpoints were also assessed. One patient deteriorated despite dose increase and was withdrawn. Muscle strength, disability, motor function, and health status were unchanged in all seven study completers who rated home treatment as extremely good. Four experienced 18 adverse events, of which only two were moderate. This study suggests that MMN patients with stable clinical course on regular IVIG can be switched to SCIG at the same monthly dose without deterioration and with a sustained overall improvement in HRQL. © 2011 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  17. Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) as group therapy for children living with motor coordination difficulties: An integrated literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Leanne; Wilson, Jessie; Williams, Gary

    2017-04-01

    Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) demonstrate limited participation in daily occupations which negatively impacts their physical and psycho-social wellbeing. The CO-OP approach is strongly supported within the literature as an effective treatment for DCD when delivered as a one-on-one therapy. Group interventions have proven to be effective in increasing self-esteem, decreasing feelings of isolation and are a cost effective way of delivering therapy. The purpose of this review was to explore the evidence for the use of the CO-OP approach in a group format for children with motor coordination difficulties. Searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE, Scopus, Proquest, PsycINFO, ERIC and OTDBase, were conducted from 2000 through until September 30, 2015. Articles included were in English, peer reviewed articles, followed principals of CO-OP and were delivered through a group therapy approach. All articles were critically reviewed and thematically analysed. 192 studies were retrieved with a final number of six articles included in the review. Six themes were highlighted: achieving a new level of perceived competence; feeling a sense of belonging; children learning how the condition affected them and strategies to overcome these challenges; careful formation of intervention groups; the value of following the CO-OP protocols; and the significance of parental involvement. The findings of this review suggest that the CO-OP approach, when administered in a group format, has the potential to benefit children living with motor coordination difficulties in both physical and psycho-social domains. More research is required to confirm these findings and contribute to evidence-based practice. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  18. Therapeutic Effects of Horseback Riding Therapy on Gross Motor Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

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    Whalen, Cara N.; Case-Smith, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review examined the efficacy of hippotherapy or therapeutic horseback riding (THR) on motor outcomes in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Databases were searched for clinical trials of hippotherapy or THR for children with CP. Results: Nine articles were included in this review. Although the current level of…

  19. Combination therapy of human umbilical cord blood cells and granulocyte colony stimulating factor reduces histopathological and motor impairments in an experimental model of chronic traumatic brain injury.

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    Sandra A Acosta

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is associated with neuro-inflammation, debilitating sensory-motor deficits, and learning and memory impairments. Cell-based therapies are currently being investigated in treating neurotrauma due to their ability to secrete neurotrophic factors and anti-inflammatory cytokines that can regulate the hostile milieu associated with chronic neuroinflammation found in TBI. In tandem, the stimulation and mobilization of endogenous stem/progenitor cells from the bone marrow through granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF poses as an attractive therapeutic intervention for chronic TBI. Here, we tested the potential of a combined therapy of human umbilical cord blood cells (hUCB and G-CSF at the acute stage of TBI to counteract the progressive secondary effects of chronic TBI using the controlled cortical impact model. Four different groups of adult Sprague Dawley rats were treated with saline alone, G-CSF+saline, hUCB+saline or hUCB+G-CSF, 7-days post CCI moderate TBI. Eight weeks after TBI, brains were harvested to analyze hippocampal cell loss, neuroinflammatory response, and neurogenesis by using immunohistochemical techniques. Results revealed that the rats exposed to TBI treated with saline exhibited widespread neuroinflammation, impaired endogenous neurogenesis in DG and SVZ, and severe hippocampal cell loss. hUCB monotherapy suppressed neuroinflammation, nearly normalized the neurogenesis, and reduced hippocampal cell loss compared to saline alone. G-CSF monotherapy produced partial and short-lived benefits characterized by low levels of neuroinflammation in striatum, DG, SVZ, and corpus callosum and fornix, a modest neurogenesis, and a moderate reduction of hippocampal cells loss. On the other hand, combined therapy of hUCB+G-CSF displayed synergistic effects that robustly dampened neuroinflammation, while enhancing endogenous neurogenesis and reducing hippocampal cell loss. Vigorous and long-lasting recovery of

  20. Is dignity therapy feasible to enhance the end of life experience for people with motor neurone disease and their family carers?

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    Bentley Brenda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of interventions that address psychosocial and existential distress in people with motor neurone disease (MND or that alleviate caregiver burden in MND family carers have often been suggested in the research literature. Dignity therapy, which was developed to reduce psychosocial and existential distress at the end of life, has been shown to benefit people dying of cancer and their families. These results may not be transferable to people with MND. The objectives of this study are to assess the feasibility, acceptability and potential effectiveness of dignity therapy to enhance the end of life experience for people with motor neurone disease and their family carers. Methods/design This is a cross-sectional study utilizing a single treatment group and a pre/post test design. The study population will comprise fifty people diagnosed with MND and their nominated family carers. Primarily quantitative outcomes will be gathered through measures assessed at baseline and at approximately one week after the intervention. Outcomes for participants include hopefulness, spirituality and dignity. Outcomes for family carers include perceived caregiver burden, hopefulness and anxiety/depression. Feedback and satisfaction with the intervention will be gathered through a questionnaire. Discussion This detailed research will explore if dignity therapy has the potential to enhance the end of life experience for people with MND and their family carers, and fill a gap for professionals who are called on to address the spiritual, existential and psychosocial needs of their MND patients and families. Trial registration ACTRN Trial Number: ACTRN12611000410954

  1. ALTERACIONES OCULOMOTORAS EN EL SÍNDROME DE BALINT: TERAPIA OCUPACIONAL ASISTIDA POR ORDENADOR Optic and motor alteration in Balint syndrome: computer assisted occupational therapy

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    L.P. Rodríguez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    El Síndrome de Balint, descrito en 1909, es un trastorno producido por las lesiones bilaterales de ambos lóbulos parieto-occipitales, que afecta a la conexión entre las regiones corticales de la visión y las áreas motrices prerrolándicas y caracterizado por la presencia de ataxia visual, incapacidad para ver y coger objetos e inatención visual. Amén de los métodos tradicionales de evaluación y tratamiento desde Terapia Ocupacional de los trastornos motrices producidos por el Síndrome, proponemos aquí una nueva vía de realización de ambas utilizando las nuevas tecnologías, haciendo realidad la Terapia Ocupacional Asistida por Ordenador.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Terapia Ocupacional, ataxia óptica, atención visual, movimientos sacádicos.

    Balint Syndrome, which was reported in 1909, is an affection produced by bilateral parieto-occipital lesions affecting the connections between the visual cortical regions and the prerolandic motor areas and caracterized by visual ataxia, failure to grasp or touch objects, and visual inatention. Beyond traditional evaluation and treatment methods applied from Occupational Therapy to the motor diseases produced by syndrome, we propose a new way to do them using new technologies, doing reality Computer Assisted Occupational Therapy.
    KEY WORDS: Occupational Therapy, optic ataxia, visual attention, saccades movements

  2. Chronic testosterone propionate supplement could activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway in the brain and ameliorated the behaviors of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-liang; Wang, Wei; Kang, Yun-xiao; Xue, Yan; Yang, Huan; Zhou, Chen-ming; Shi, Ge-ming

    2013-09-01

    Aging is usually associated with a progressive disruption of the redox balance leading to recurrent damage resulting from oxidative stress. Oxidative stress resulting from excessive free-radical release is likely implicated in the initiation and progression of motor behavior disorders. Therefore, antioxidant therapies have received considerable attention in motor behavior defects treatment. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) binds to antioxidant response element (ARE) to induce antioxidant and phase II detoxification enzymes under conditions of oxidative stress, which reduces oxidative stress and accumulation of toxic metabolites. Testosterone has many physiological and behavioral effects throughout the lifespan and shown to affect motor behavior in adult male rats and gonadectomized rats. However, whether Nrf2-ARE pathway is activated after testosterone administration has not been studied in aged rats. The tilting-plane test and the horizontal-wire test as well as the oxidative stress parameters, the expression of Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) and the number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-ir) cells in brain were examined in aged rats following chronic subcutaneous injections of testosterone propionate (TP). Our study showed that chronic TP supplement significantly ameliorated the decline of balancing reactions and muscular strength associated with aging. Oxidative stress parameters were ameliorate, the expression of Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1 at protein or gene levels and the number of TH-ir cells significantly increased in substantia nigra or caudate putamen after TP treatment in aged rats. Our findings demonstrated that chronic TP treatment activated Nrf2-ARE pathway may influence the maintenance of the balancing reactions and muscular strength and reduce TH-ir cells death in aged rats. Therefore, TP supplement have shown for therapeutic strategies in the treatment and modification of motor

  3. [Electrical stimulation therapy and its effects on the general activity of motor impaired cerebral palsied children; a comparative study of the Bobath physiotherapy and its combination with the Hufschmidt electrical stimulation therapy (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyendecker, C

    1975-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to answer the following questions: (1) Is it more effective to treat spastic cerebral palsy with the Hufschmidt electrical stimulation therapy combined with the Bobath neuro-development treatment or only with the Bobath therapy? (2) Can a general increase in activity be obtained by the electrotherapeutic muscle stimulation? A test group (combined Hufschmidt/Bobath therapy) and a control group (Bobath), both consisting of 10 subjects, were observed for four months. The duration of observation was divided into two four months treatment periods with a rest interval of two months in between. At the start of therapeutic measures, motor activity and psychic condition were tested with corresponding motormetric and psychodiagnostic techniques; three check-up examinations were carried out at the end of the first, and at the beginning and end of the second period of treatment. The motor-metric control examination showed that at the end of the first period the test group had achieved by far the better results, but at the end of the second therapeutic period, both groups were equally successful. The combined electrophysiotherapy hence reached in a relatively shorter time - as it were by leaps and bounds - the optimal obtainable state of functional improvements which, with the Bobath therapy alone, can be effected more slowly but with more continuity. The psychodiagnostic controls clearly indicate that the electrical stimulation produced an unspecified increase in activity, especially after the first phase of treatment, whereas in the second phase this could only be proven in a graded form. The report closes with an examination of the results and their consequences for the implementation of the treatment for cerebral palsied children.

  4. Physical therapy interventions for gross motor skills in people with an intellectual disability aged 6 years and over: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Judith; McNeil, Julian; Campbell, Jared

    2016-12-01

    The systematic review was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of physical therapy interventions for improving gross motor skills (GMSs) in people with an intellectual disability aged 6 years and older. There is a lack of physical therapy research for GMSs in this population, and no prior systematic review. People with an intellectual disability may require specific teaching approaches within therapy interventions to accommodate their cognitive and learning needs. People with an intellectual disability who suffer from GMS deficits can benefit from physical therapy to help improve their GMSs. Data sources were PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, and ProQuest. Reference lists of relevant identified articles were also hand searched. Papers published in English from 1 January 2008 to 22 October 2014 were considered for inclusion. This start date was chosen to reflect the tenets of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities which was ratified in 2008.Eligible study designs for inclusion were randomized controlled trial (RCT), pseudo-RCT, repeated measures, and case report. Overall, 887 potential articles were identified, of which 42 were retrieved for full-text review, and seven were finally included. Critical appraisal was independently conducted by two reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute appraisal checklists; no articles were excluded following critical appraisal. Data extraction was performed using Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument data extraction instruments. High heterogeneity between the studies precluded meta-analysis of the results; a narrative synthesis was completed instead. Two RCTs, two pseudo-RCTs, two repeated measures studies, and one case report were included. Studies varied in regard to participants' intellectual disability, and the clinical interventions used. Interventions were well tolerated with negligible adverse effects. Significant improvements were reported for

  5. The effects of mirror therapy on pain and motor control of phantom limb in amputees: A systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barbin, J; Seetha, V; Casillas, J M; Paysant, J; Pérennou, D

    2016-01-01

    Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a major problem after limb amputation. Mirror therapy (MT) is a non-pharmacological treatment using representations of movement, the efficacy of which in reducing PLP remains to be clarified...

  6. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...

  7. Motor improvement and corticospinal modulation induced by hybrid assistive neuromuscular dynamic stimulation (HANDS) therapy in patients with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Kasashima, Yuko; Honaga, Kaoru; Muraoka, Yoshihiro; Tsuji, Tetsuya; Osu, Rieko; Hase, Kimitaka; Masakado, Yoshihisa; Liu, Meigen

    2009-02-01

    We devised a therapeutic approach to facilitate the use of the hemiparetic upper extremity (UE) in daily life by combining integrated volitional control electrical stimulation with a wrist splint, called hybrid assistive neuromuscular dynamic stimulation (HANDS). Twenty patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke (median 17.5 months) had moderate to severe UE weakness. Before and immediately after completing 3 weeks of training in 40-minute sessions, 5 days per week over 3 weeks and wearing the system for 8 hours each day, clinical measures of motor impairment, spasticity, and UE functional scores, as well as neurophysiological measures including electromyography activity, reciprocal inhibition, and intracortical inhibition were assessed. A follow-up clinical assessment was performed 3 months later. UE motor function, spasticity, and functional scores improved after the intervention. Neurophysiologically, the intervention induced restoration of presynaptic and long loop inhibitory connections as well as disynaptic reciprocal inhibition. Paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation study indicated disinhibition of the short intracortical inhibition in the affected hemisphere. The follow-up assessment showed that improved UE functions were maintained at 3 months. The combination of hand splint and volitional and electrically induced muscle contraction can induce corticospinal plasticity and may offer a promising option for the management of the paretic UE in patients with stroke. A larger sample size with randomized controls is needed to demonstrate effectiveness.

  8. CDC Kerala 5: Developmental therapy clinic experience--use of Child Development Centre grading for motor milestones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M K C; Resmi, V R; Krishnan, Rajee; Harikumaran Nair, G S; Leena, M L; Bhaskaran, Deepa; George, Babu; Russell, Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar

    2014-12-01

    To document the experiences of the intervention given to children who attended the developmental therapy clinic of Child Development Centre (CDC) Kerala, a specialized clinic for providing developmental intervention/therapy for babies less than two years with developmental delay/disability. All the babies referred to this speciality clinic from developmental screening/evaluation clinics of CDC were registered in the clinic and re-evaluation was done using CDC grading for head holding, sitting, standing, Amiel Tison passive angles, and Trivandrum Developmental Screening Chart (TDSC) 0-2 y. Out of a total of 600 consecutive babies below 2 y with developmental delay/disability referred to developmental therapy clinic, on comparing the test results at enrollment and after 6 mo of intervention, a statistically significant reduction was observed (i) in the 2-4 mo age group with regard to abnormal TDSC (25.5%), (ii) in the 4-8 mo age group with regard to abnormal head holding grade (87.1%) and abnormal TDSC (19.4%), (iii) in the 8-12 mo age group, with regard to abnormal sitting grade (71.7%) and (iv) in the above 12 mo age group with regard to abnormal sitting grade (35.3%) and abnormal standing grade (78.8%). The experience of organizing the developmental intervention/therapy clinic at CDC Kerala has shown that therapy services by developmental therapists in a centre and supportive therapy by mother at home is useful in improving the developmental status of children with developmental delay.

  9. Low-Level Laser Therapy (904 nm Counteracts Motor Deficit of Mice Hind Limb following Skeletal Muscle Injury Caused by Snakebite-Mimicking Intramuscular Venom Injection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willians Fernando Vieira

    Full Text Available Myotoxins present in Bothrops venom disrupt the sarcolemma of muscle fibers leading to the release of sarcoplasmic proteins and loss of muscle homeostasis. Myonecrosis and tissue anoxia induced by vascularization impairment can lead to amputation or motor functional deficit. The objective of this study was to investigate the dynamic behavior of motor function in mice subjected to injection of Bothrops jararacussu venom (Bjssu and exposed to low-level laser therapy (LLLT. Male Swiss mice received Bjssu injection (830 μg/kg into the medial portion of the right gastrocnemius muscle. Three hours later the injected region was irradiated with diode semiconductor Gallium Arsenide (GaAs- 904 nm, 4 J/cm² laser following by irradiation at 24, 48 and 72 hours. Saline injection (0.9% NaCl was used as control. Gait analysis was performed 24 hours before Bjssu injection and at every period post-Bjssu using CatWalk method. Data from spatiotemporal parameters Stand, Maximum Intensity, Swing, Swing Speed, Stride Length and Step Cycle were considered. The period of 3 hours post venom-induced injury was considered critical for all parameters evaluated in the right hindlimb. Differences (p<0.05 were concentrated in venom and venom + placebo laser groups during the 3 hours post-injury period, in which the values of stand of most animals were null. After this period, the gait characteristics were re-established for all parameters. The venom + laser group kept the values at 3 hours post-Bjssu equal to that at 24 hours before Bjssu injection indicating that the GaAs laser therapy improved spatially and temporally gait parameters at the critical injury period caused by Bjssu. This is the first study to analyze with cutting edge technology the gait functional deficits caused by snake envenoming and gait gains produced by GaAs laser irradiation. In this sense, the study fills a gap on the field of motor function after laser treatment following snake envenoming.

  10. Motor Recovery and Cortical Reorganization After Mirror Therapy in Chronic Stroke Patients : A Phase II Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, Marian E.; Selles, Ruud W.; van der Geest, Jos N.; Eckhardt, Martine; Yavuzer, Gunes; Stam, Henk J.; Smits, Marion; Ribbers, Gerard M.; Bussmann, Johannes B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate for any clinical effects of home-based mirror therapy and subsequent cortical reorganization in patients with chronic stroke with moderate upper extremity paresis. Methods. A total of 40 chronic stroke patients (mean time post. onset, 3.9 years) were randomly assigned to the

  11. Tri-wave laser therapy for spinal cord injury, neuropathic pain management, and restoration of motor function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chariff, Mark D.; Olszak, Peter

    2015-03-01

    A laser therapy device using three combined wavelengths 532nm, 808nm, and 1064nm has been demonstrated in clinical studies. Primarily, therapeutic lasers have used wavelengths in the ranges of 632nm through 1064nm, where the optical density (OD) < 5, to achieve pain relief and tissue regeneration. Conventional wisdom would argue against using wavelengths in the region of 532nm, due to poor penetration (OD ~ 8); however, the author's observations are to the contrary. The 532nm light is efficiently absorbed by chromophores such as oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and cytochrome c oxidase thereby providing energy to accelerate the healing process. The 808nm light is known to result in Nitric Oxide production thereby reducing inflammation and oxidative stress. All three laser wavelengths likely contribute to pain relief by inhibiting nerve conduction; however, the 1064nm has the deepest penetration. Through the use of this device on over 1000 patients with a variety of acute and chronic neuro-musculoskeletal disorders, the author observed that a majority of these individuals experienced rapid relief from their presenting conditions and most patients reported a tingling sensation upon irradiation. Patient testimonials and thermal images have been collected to document the results of the laser therapy. These studies demonstrate the ability of laser therapy to rapidly alleviate pain from both acute and chronic conditions.

  12. Effectiveness of a Multisystem Aquatic Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Giovanni; Ippolito, Giovanni; Mazzotta, Marina; Sentenza, Luigi; Muzio, Mara Rosaria; Salzano, Sara; Conson, Massimiliano

    2018-01-08

    Aquatic therapy improves motor skills of persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), but its usefulness for treating functional difficulties needs to be verified yet. We tested effectiveness of a multisystem aquatic therapy on behavioural, emotional, social and swimming skills of children with ASD. Multisystem aquatic therapy was divided in three phases (emotional adaptation, swimming adaptation and social integration) implemented in a 10-months-programme. At post-treatment, the aquatic therapy group showed significant improvements relative to controls on functional adaptation (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales), emotional response, adaptation to change and on activity level (Childhood Autism Rating Scale). Swimming skills learning was also demonstrated. Multisystem aquatic therapy is useful for ameliorating functional impairments of children with ASD, going well beyond a swimming training.

  13. Influence of aquatic physical therapy on gross motor skills in children under 5 years of age with cerebral palsy: Systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Latorre-García

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aquatic environment has been used and is used to perform physiotherapy treatments in different pathologies including cerebral palsy. No method has been proven more effective than the others. Aim: The objective of this article is to carry out a systematic review of the scientific literature on how physical exercise in water affects the gross motor skills and neurodevelopment of children with cerebral palsy. Methods: A systematic search was carried out using the PRISMA model. The search for articles in this review was done in the databases through Scopus and PubMed, as well as in the Web of Science (WOS platform and in official websites of international organizations, such as the World Health Organization (WHO. The review was carried out between the months of June and December of the year 2016. Results: Of the 8 studies that met the inclusion criteria, only two used randomized control trial design and the results were mixed. Most of the studies used quasi-experimental designs and reported improvements in gross motor skills, for group analyzes, after the aquatic programs were maintained from two to three sessions a week and lasted from 6 to 16 weeks. Participants were evaluated and classified according to the different development scales, and were less than 5 years old. Conclusions: Although the different studies have not demonstrated a greater efficacy of aquatic physiotherapy compared to other treatment concepts, neither has been less, so that the exercise in water increases the therapeutic possibilities to which the chronic nature of the Pathology must access the patient throughout his life. Aquatic exercise is feasible and adverse effects are minimal; but the dosage parameters are not clear. However, in order to promote the prescription by physicians of this type of therapy, it is necessary to carry out research studies that demonstrate in a quantitative way the efficacy of the method, with longer and longer samples.

  14. The effects of mirror therapy on pain and motor control of phantom limb in amputees: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbin, J; Seetha, V; Casillas, J M; Paysant, J; Pérennou, D

    2016-09-01

    Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a major problem after limb amputation. Mirror therapy (MT) is a non-pharmacological treatment using representations of movement, the efficacy of which in reducing PLP remains to be clarified. Here, we present the first systematic review on MT efficacy in PLP and phantom limb movement (PLM) in amputees (lower or upper limb). A search on Medline, Cochrane Database and Embase, crossing the keywords "Phantom Limb" and "Mirror Therapy" found studies which were read and analyzed according the PRISMA statement. Twenty studies were selected, 12 on the subject of MT and PLP, 3 on MT and PLM, 5 on MT and both (PLP and PLM). Among these 20 studies, 5 were randomized controlled trials (163 patients), 6 prospective studies (55 patients), 9 case studies (40 patients) and methodologies were heterogeneous. Seventeen of the 18 studies reported the efficacy of MT on PLP, but with low levels of evidence. One randomized controlled trial did not show any significant effect of MT. As to the effect of MT on PLM, the 8 studies concerned reported effectiveness of MT: 4 with a low level of evidence and 4 with a high level of evidence. An alternative to visual illusion seems to be tactile or auditory stimulation. We cannot recommend MT as a first intention treatment in PLP. The level of evidence is insufficient. Further research is needed to assess the effect of MT on pain, prosthesis use, and body representation, and to standardize protocols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. SMN is required for sensory-motor circuit function in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imlach, Wendy L.; Beck, Erin S.; Choi, Ben Jiwon; Lotti, Francesco; Pellizzoni, Livio; McCabe, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a lethal human disease characterized by motor neuron dysfunction and muscle deterioration due to depletion of the ubiquitous Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein. Drosophila SMN mutants have reduced muscle size and defective locomotion, motor rhythm and motor neuron neurotransmission. Unexpectedly, restoration of SMN in either muscles or motor neurons did not alter these phenotypes. Instead, SMN must be expressed in proprioceptive neurons and interneurons in the motor circuit to non-autonomously correct defects in motor neurons and muscles. SMN depletion disrupts the motor system subsequent to circuit development and can be mimicked by the inhibition of motor network function. Furthermore, increasing motor circuit excitability by genetic or pharmacological inhibition of K+ channels can correct SMN-dependent phenotypes. These results establish sensory-motor circuit dysfunction as the origin of motor system deficits in this SMA model and suggest that enhancement of motor neural network activity could ameliorate the disease. PMID:23063130

  16. Motor Music

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, John

    2014-01-01

    Motor Music II (2014) for small group and motors What happens when an AC or DC motor is plugged raw into a mixing desk or connected directly to a speaker? Motor Music II explores ‘low level’ instrument design and a reductionist approach. The piece also sets up a proposition concerning electronic music: ‘How can it be done simpler?’ The motor as ‘instrument’ encourages an objection-orientated approach to sound and music making: the motor itself has inherent musical qualities and po...

  17. Motor learning curve and long-term effectiveness of modified constraint-induced movement therapy in children with unilateral cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerdink, Yvonne; Aarts, Pauline; Geurts, Alexander C

    2013-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the progression of manual dexterity during 6 weeks (54h) (modified) constraint-induced movement therapy ((m)CIMT) followed by 2 weeks (18h) bimanual training (BiT) in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP), to establish whether and when a maximal training effect was reached and which factors might influence the motor learning curve. In addition, long-term retention of effects was determined. In a randomized controlled trial of 52 children with CP, aged 2.5-8 years, comparing mCIMT-BiT to conventional therapy, 28 children were allocated to the mCIMT-BiT group. This group was assessed weekly with the Box and Block test. Long-term effectiveness was determined by collecting follow-up data of the primary (Assisting Hand Assessment, ABILHAND-Kids) and secondary (Melbourne, COPM) outcomes at six months and one year after intervention. Fifteen children (53.6%) reached a maximum training effect within the mCIMT period. This group differed from others with respect to age, but not gender, affected side or manual ability. Children younger than five years had a greater chance to reach a maximum score within 6 weeks mCIMT (OR=6.67, 95%CI=1.24-35.71) that stabilized already after four weeks; older children showed a longer progression and tended to decline afterwards. In both age groups, beneficial effects were retained in the long term. The findings suggest that children of 5 years and older might profit from a longer period of mCIMT than 54h to reach their maximum unimanual capacity and to retain this capacity during subsequent bimanual training. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Comparison of Neurodevelopmental-Bobath Approach with Occupational Therapy Home Program on Gross Motor Function of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faranak Behzadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional Bobath approach (TBA is one of the several methods which is used for the treatment of children with cerebral palsy (CP who are referred to occupational therapy settings. In this study the effect of TBA on the gross motor function (GMF of children with CP was compared with that of the Home Program Bobath approach (HPBA. Methods: Thirty children with CP participated in this study. They were randomly assigned in two groups. Control group received Bobath traditional services for 12 sessions. In the intervention group, along with these services, parents participated in training program and followed the exercises. Scale was used to assess GMF before and after intervention. Results: Participants of this study consisted of 9 girls and 6 boys in traditional group and 10 girls and 5 boys in home-based group. The mean age of homebased group was 19.53±3.35 months and traditional group was 17.20±6.80. GMF increased significantly in both groups. In addition, differences between the two groups were significant (P=0.007. Conclusion: the results of this study showed that TBA with HPBA was more effective than the traditional ones.

  19. Ghrelin Ameliorates Asthma by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tian; Wang, Lei; Zeng, Qingdi; Zhang, Yan; Sheng, Baowei; Han, Liping

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to confirm the ameliorative effect of ghrelin on asthma and investigate its mechanism. The murine model of asthma was induced by ovalbumin (OVA) treatment and assessed by histological pathology and airway responsiveness to methacholine. The total and differential leukocytes were counted. Tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ, interleukin-5 and interleukin-13 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were quantified by commercial kits. The protein levels in pulmonary tissues were measured by Western blot analysis. Ghrelin ameliorated the histological pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in the OVA-induced asthmatic mouse model. Consistently, OVA-increased total and differential leukocytes and levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ, interleukin-5 and interleukin-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly attenuated by ghrelin. Ghrelin prevented the increased protein levels of the endoplasmic reticulum stress markers glucose regulated protein 78 and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein and reversed the reduced levels of p-Akt in asthmatic mice. Ghrelin might prevent endoplasmic reticulum stress activation by stimulating the Akt signaling pathway, which attenuated inflammation and ameliorated asthma in mice. Ghrelin might be a new target for asthma therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Treadmill exercise ameliorates ischemia-induced brain edema while suppressing Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger 1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Ryutaro; Sugimoto, Kana; Aono, Hitomi; Mise, Ayano; Choudhury, Mohammed E; Miyanishi, Kazuya; Islam, Afsana; Fujita, Takahiro; Takeda, Haruna; Takahashi, Hisaaki; Yano, Hajime; Tanaka, Junya

    2016-03-01

    Exercise may be one of the most effective and sound therapies for stroke; however, the mechanisms underlying the curative effects remain unclear. In this study, the effects of forced treadmill exercise with electric shock on ischemic brain edema were investigated. Wistar rats were subjected to transient (90 min) middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Eighty nine rats with substantially large ischemic lesions were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and were randomly assigned to exercise and non-exercise groups. The rats were forced to run at 4-6m/s for 10 min/day on days 2, 3 and 4. Brain edema was measured on day 5 by MRI, histochemical staining of brain sections and tissue water content determination (n=7, each experiment). Motor function in some rats was examined on day 30 (n=6). Exercise reduced brain edema (Peffects, but orally administered corticosterone mimicked the ameliorating effects of exercise. Exercise prevented the ischemia-induced expression of mRNA encoding aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHEs) (n=5 or 7, Prat brains and also in mixed glial cultures. Corticosterone at ~10nM reduced NHE1 and AQP4 expression in mixed glial and pure microglial cultures. Dexamethasone and aldosterone at 10nM did not significantly alter NHE1 and AQP4 expression. Exposure to a NHE inhibitor caused shrinkage of microglial cells. These results suggest that the stressful short-period and slow-paced treadmill exercise suppressed NHE1 and AQP4 expression resulting in the amelioration of brain edema at least partly via the moderate increase in plasma corticosterone levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploring the use of computer games and virtual reality in exposure therapy for fear of driving following a motor vehicle accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, David G; Lewis, Elizabeth J; Kim, Sun I; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Wiederhold, Brenda K

    2003-06-01

    Specific phobia, situational type-driving, induced by accident (accident phobia) occurs in 18-38% of those involved in a vehicular accident of sufficient severity to warrant referral to the emergency departments of a general hospital. The objective is to investigate, in an open study, the effectiveness of the combined use of computer generated environments involving driving games (game reality [GR]) and a virtual reality (VR) driving environment in exposure therapy for the treatment of driving phobia following a motor vehicle accident (MVA) program. Fourteen subjects who met DSM-IV criteria for Simple Phobia/Accident Phobia and were referred from the emergency department of a general hospital were exposed to a Virtual Driving Environment (Hanyang University Driving Phobia Environment) and computer driving games (London Racer/Midtown Madness/Rally Championship). Patients who experienced "immersion" (i.e., a sense of presence with heightened anxiety) in one of the driving simulations (defined as an increase in SUD ratings of 3 and/or an increase of heart rate > 15 BPM in a 1-h trial session of computer simulation driving) were exposed to a cognitive behavioral program of up to 12 1-h sessions involving graded driving simulation tasks with self-monitoring, physiological feedback, diaphragmatic breathing and cognitive reappraisal. Subjects were assessed at the beginning and end of therapy with measurements of: physiological responsivity (heart rate), subjective ratings of distress (SUD), rating scales for severity of fear of driving (FDI), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CAPS) and depression (HAM-D) and achievement of target behaviors. Of all patients 7/14 (50%) became immersed in the driving environments. This immersed group (n = 7) completed the exposure program. Pre- and post-treatment comparisons showed significant post treatment reductions on all measures SUDS (p = 0.008), FDI (p = 0.008), CAPS (p = 0.008), HR (p = 0.008), CAPS (p = 0.008), HAM-D (p = 0

  2. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Saba

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  3. Dietary Amelioration of Helicobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Jed W.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Wallace, Alison J.

    2015-01-01

    We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on: (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H. pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H. pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability and cultural acceptability. This review therefore highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (e.g. honey and propolis), probiotics, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, oils, essential oils, and herbs, spices and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and pre-clinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. PMID:25799054

  4. Dietary amelioration of Helicobacter infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Jed W; Stephenson, Katherine K; Wallace, Alison J

    2015-06-01

    We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability, and cultural acceptability. This review, therefore, highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (eg, honey and propolis); probiotics; dairy products; vegetables; fruits; oils; essential oils; and herbs, spices, and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and preclinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The electric motor handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Feltham, P. (eds.)

    2004-05-01

    This handbook outlines the important role that electric motors play in modern society. It covers the field of motor applications from various motor types to their use and repair. It also presents practical applications of electric motors and methods on motor efficiency. More than half of all electricity generated, and 75 per cent of all industrial electricity consumption is consumed by electric motors. Electrical personnel must be aware of all factors involved in electric motors in order to choose and apply the appropriate size of electric motor. These factors include efficiency, sizing and proper application. The efficient use and maximum life expectancy of electric motors depends on proper motor protection, control and maintenance. This handbook includes articles from leading experts on electric motors in modern electrical systems. The content includes: design considerations; proper electric motor sizing techniques; optimal electric motor application; electric motor protection technology; electric motor control principles; electric motor maintenance and troubleshooting; induction electric motors; electric motor bearing currents; electric motor bearing lubrication; electromagnetism; electric motor enclosures; electric motor testing; electric motor repair; DC electric motor; electric motor starters; electric motor brushes; industrial electric motors; electric motor diagrams; AC electric motors; electric motor wiring; electric motor service; electric motor rewinding; electric motor winding; diagram of electric motor wiring; electric motor kit; and, troubleshooting electric motors. A directory of motor manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. A randomized controlled trial comparing McKenzie therapy and motor control exercises on the recruitment of trunk muscles in people with chronic low back pain: a trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Mark H; Ferreira, Paulo H; Hancock, Mark J; Clare, Helen A

    2015-06-01

    To investigate if McKenzie exercises when applied to a cohort of patients with chronic LBP who have a directional preference demonstrate improved recruitment of the transversus abdominis compared to motor control exercises when measurements were assessed from ultrasound images. A randomized blinded trial with a 12-month follow-up. The Physiotherapy department of Concord Hospital a primary health care environment. 70-adults with greater than three-month history of LBP who have a directional preference. McKenzie techniques or motor control exercises for 12-sessions over eight weeks. Transversus abdominus thickness measured from real time ultrasound images, pain, global perceived effect and capacity to self-manage. This study will be the first to investigate the possible mechanism of action that McKenzie therapy and motor control exercises have on the recruitment of the transversus abdominus in a cohort of low back pain patients sub-classified with a directional preference. Patients receiving matched exercises according to their directional preference are believed to have better outcomes than those receiving unmatched exercises. A better understanding of the mechanism of action that specific treatments such as motor control exercises or McKenzie exercises have on patients classified with a directional preference will allow therapist to make a more informed choice about treatment options. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Motor teams :

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Switch. Welte et al, 1998, Gross et al, 2002. Motion of Lipid droplets in Drosophila embryos. Page 7. • Stochastic transitions between two species of motor yields Bidirectional motion. • Tuning of single-motor parameters. • No need to invoke a ...

  8. Molecular motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemand, Jean François Desbiolles, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    How do we move? More precisely, what are the molecular mechanisms that can explain that our muscles, made of very small components can move at a osopic scale? To answer these questions we must introduce molecular motors. Those motors are proteins, or small protein assemblies that, in our cells, transform chemical energy into mechanical work. Then, like we could do for a oscopic motor, used in a car or in a fan, we are going to study the basic behavior of these molecular machines, present what are their energy sources, calculate their power, their yield. If molecular motors are crucial for our oscopic movements, we are going to see that they are also essential to cellular transport and that considering the activity of some enzymes as molecular motors bring some interesting new insights on their activity.

  9. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Ying Lean

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF or intraperitoneal administration (DPF. Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could

  10. Beneficial effect of pramipexole for motor function and depression in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Kano

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Osamu Kano1,2, Ken Ikeda2, Tetsuhito Kiyozuka2, Konosuke Iwamoto2, Hirono Ito2, Yuji Kawase2, Ryuta Sato2, Toshiki Fujioka2, Yo Araki2, Shigeji Baba2, Yasuo Iwasaki21Department of Neurology, Methodist Neurological Institute, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Neurology, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: We examined whether pramipexole (PPX can influence depressive scale in normal and mild depressive parkinsonian patients. In an open study of PPX as an add-on to L-dopa therapy or single administration, 36 nondemented outpatients with Parkinson’s disease (PD were entered first. All were in the stage II or III of Hoehn and Yahr scale (H&Y. PPX were started at 0.125 mg/day and daily doses were increased to 1.5 mg/day. At 3 months after PPX treatment, patients were re-evaluated. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale III, H&Y stage, and freezing of gait questionnaire were compared in patients before and after PPX treatment. These scores were significantly improved after PPX administration. There were no correlations between HAM-D and those motor functions. We suggest that PPX treatment has antidepressant effects in depressive PD patients and also ameliorates HAM-D score in nondepressive PD patients in addition to motor function.Keywords: Parkinson disease, pramipexole, motor function, depression, antidepressant effect

  11. Stepper motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekramer, Cornelis

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the more commonly used permanent magnet stepper motors for spaceflight. It will discuss the mechanical and electrical aspects of the devices, their torque behavior, those parameters which need to be controlled and measured, and test methods to be employed. It will also discuss torque margins, compare these to the existing margin requirements, and determine the applicability of these requirements. Finally it will attempt to generate a set of requirements which will be used in any stepper motor procurement and will fully characterize the stepper motor behavior in a consistent and repeatable fashion.

  12. Academic Performance, Motor Function, and Behavior 11 Years After Neonatal Caffeine Citrate Therapy for Apnea of Prematurity: An 11-Year Follow-up of the CAP Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Barbara; Roberts, Robin S; Anderson, Peter J; Asztalos, Elizabeth V; Costantini, Lorrie; Davis, Peter G; Dewey, Deborah; D'Ilario, Judy; Doyle, Lex W; Grunau, Ruth E; Moddemann, Diane; Nelson, Harvey; Ohlsson, Arne; Solimano, Alfonso; Tin, Win

    2017-06-01

    Caffeine citrate therapy for apnea of prematurity reduces the rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, severe retinopathy, and neurodevelopmental disability at 18 months and may improve motor function at 5 years. To evaluate whether neonatal caffeine therapy is associated with improved functional outcomes 11 years later. A follow-up study was conducted at 14 academic hospitals in Canada, Australia, and the United Kingdom from May 7, 2011, to May 27, 2016, of English- or French-speaking children who had been enrolled in the randomized, placebo-controlled Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity trial between October 11, 1999, and October 22, 2004. A total of 1202 children with birth weights of 500 to 1250 g were eligible for this study; 920 (76.5%) had adequate data for the main outcome. Caffeine citrate or placebo until drug therapy for apnea of prematurity was no longer needed. Functional impairment was a composite of poor academic performance (defined as at least 1 standard score greater than 2 SD below the mean on the Wide Range Achievement Test-4), motor impairment (defined as a percentile rank of ≤5 on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition), and behavior problems (defined as a Total Problem T score ≥2 SD above the mean on the Child Behavior Checklist). Among the 920 children (444 females and 476 males; median age, 11.4 years [interquartile range, 11.1-11.8 years]), the combined rates of functional impairment were not significantly different between the 457 children assigned to receive caffeine compared with the 463 children assigned to receive placebo (145 [31.7%] vs 174 [37.6%]; adjusted odds ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.59-1.02; P = .07). With all available data, including those from up to 24 Swedish trial participants, the rates of poor academic performance on 1 or more of 4 subtests (66 of 458 [14.4%] vs 61 of 462 [13.2%]; adjusted odds ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.77-1.61; P = .58) and behavior problems (52 of 476 [10.9%] vs 40 of 481 [8

  13. Losartan ameliorates dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and uncovers new disease mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Alexander; Thriene, Kerstin; Mittapalli, Venugopal; Kern, Johannes S; Kiritsi, Dimitra; Dengjel, Jörn; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Genetic loss of collagen VII causes recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB)—a severe skin fragility disorder associated with lifelong blistering and disabling progressive soft tissue fibrosis. Causative therapies for this complex disorder face major hurdles, and clinical implementation remains elusive. Here, we report an alternative evidence-based approach to ameliorate fibrosis and relieve symptoms in RDEB. Based on the findings that TGF-β activity is elevated in injured RDEB skin, we targeted TGF-β activity with losartan in a preclinical setting. Long-term treatment of RDEB mice efficiently reduced TGF-β signaling in chronically injured forepaws and halted fibrosis and subsequent fusion of the digits. In addition, proteomics analysis of losartan- vs. vehicle-treated RDEB skin uncovered changes in multiple proteins related to tissue inflammation. In line with this, losartan reduced inflammation and diminished TNF-α and IL-6 expression in injured forepaws. Collectively, the data argue that RDEB fibrosis is a consequence of a cascade encompassing tissue damage, TGF-β-mediated inflammation, and matrix remodeling. Inhibition of TGF-β activity limits these unwanted outcomes and thereby substantially ameliorates long-term symptoms. PMID:26194911

  14. Genetic heterogeneity of motor neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansagi, Boglarka; Griffin, Helen; Whittaker, Roger G; Antoniadi, Thalia; Evangelista, Teresinha; Miller, James; Greenslade, Mark; Forester, Natalie; Duff, Jennifer; Bradshaw, Anna; Kleinle, Stephanie; Boczonadi, Veronika; Steele, Hannah; Ramesh, Venkateswaran; Franko, Edit; Pyle, Angela; Lochmüller, Hanns; Chinnery, Patrick F; Horvath, Rita

    2017-03-28

    To study the prevalence, molecular cause, and clinical presentation of hereditary motor neuropathies in a large cohort of patients from the North of England. Detailed neurologic and electrophysiologic assessments and next-generation panel testing or whole exome sequencing were performed in 105 patients with clinical symptoms of distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN, 64 patients), axonal motor neuropathy (motor Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease [CMT2], 16 patients), or complex neurologic disease predominantly affecting the motor nerves (hereditary motor neuropathy plus, 25 patients). The prevalence of dHMN is 2.14 affected individuals per 100,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval 1.62-2.66) in the North of England. Causative mutations were identified in 26 out of 73 index patients (35.6%). The diagnostic rate in the dHMN subgroup was 32.5%, which is higher than previously reported (20%). We detected a significant defect of neuromuscular transmission in 7 cases and identified potentially causative mutations in 4 patients with multifocal demyelinating motor neuropathy. Many of the genes were shared between dHMN and motor CMT2, indicating identical disease mechanisms; therefore, we suggest changing the classification and including dHMN also as a subcategory of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Abnormal neuromuscular transmission in some genetic forms provides a treatable target to develop therapies. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  15. Quantification of muscle strength and motor ability in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy on steroid therapy Quantificação da força muscular e habilidades motoras em pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne em corticoterapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Lamounier Santana Parreira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: An assessment protocol was applied to quantify and describe muscular strength and motor abilities of 32 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, aged between 5 and 12 years on steroid therapy. METHOD: Assessments were made monthly for the first six months and with intervals of two months thereafter until the 14-month end point. The tests employed included: the Medical Research Council (MRC scale; the Hammersmith motor ability score; maximum weight lift; timed rise from floor and nine-meter walk. RESULTS: The results showed that loss of muscular strength and motor abilities were slowed in comparison to that observed in the natural evolution of the disease according to the literature. CONCLUSION: We conclude that a swift and objective assessment may be performed using the MRC scale for lower limbs and trunk, the Hammersmith motor ability score, timed nine-meter walk and weight lifts.OBJETIVO: Um protocolo de avaliação foi aplicado com o objetivo de quantificar e descrever evolutivamente a força muscular e as habilidades motoras de 32 pacientes com distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD, com idades variando de 5 a 12 anos, em corticoterapia. MÉTODO: As avaliações foram aplicadas mensalmente durante os primeiros seis meses e bimensais até completar um período de 14 meses. Os testes empregados foram: escala da "Medical Research Council" (MRC; Hammersmith "motor ability score"; levantamento da carga máxima de peso; cronometragem do tempo para levantar-se do chão e percorrer nove metros. RESULTADOS: Os resultados demonstraram que a perda da força muscular e das habilidades motoras foi mais lenta do que a observada na evolução natural da doença, como descrito na literatura internacional. CONCLUSÃO: Concluímos que uma rápida e objetiva avaliação pode ser executada utilizando a escala MRC para membros inferiores e tronco, Hammersmith motor ability score, cronometragem do tempo para percorrer 9 metros.e o levantamento de

  16. ANTIOXIDANTS AMELIORATION OF ARSENICAL-INDUCED EFFECTS IN VIVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidant amelioration of arsenical-induced effects in vivo. ES Hunter and EH Rogers. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC. Antioxidants have been reported to ameliorate the effects of many developmental toxicants. We tested the hypothesis that oxi...

  17. Ameliorative Effect of Different Concentration of Mushroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental groups were exposed to 0.1 g/l of lead daily for 21 days. At the end of exposure period, lead salt was discontinued for 21 and 42days to verify possible ameliorative effect of mushroom in the post-experimental stage. Samples of liver and kidney tissues were then collected and subsequently analyzed for ...

  18. Ameliorative Effect and Underlying Mechanisms of Total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.05 or p < 0.01) by TTPGL in sciatic nerve. Mechanism analysis indicated that the ameliorative effect of TTPGL, in part, is through suppression of the expression of pro - inflammatory cytokines by NF - κB pathway mediation. Conclusion: TTPGL offers a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of diabetic peripheral.

  19. 27 CFR 24.178 - Amelioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... is calculated as tartaric acid for grapes, malic acid for apples, and citric acid for other fruit... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.178 Amelioration. (a) General. In producing natural wine from juice having a fixed acid level exceeding 5.0 grams per liter, the winemaker may adjust...

  20. THE MOTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    MOTOR is the first assignment that students at Unit 1a of the School of Architecture are introduced to. The purpose of the assignment is to shake up the students and their preconceptions of what architec- ture is. This is done by introducing them to a working method that al- lows them to develop...

  1. A Comparison of Robotic, Body Weight-Supported Locomotor Training and Aquatic Therapy in Chronic Motor Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Relationships among Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disability (PASIPD), Body Mass Index ( BMI ), and Peak Oxygen Consumption (V02peak) in...Kuchonov PhD, Paula Richley Geigle PT PhD, presented: Abdominal Adiposity , Insulin Resistance, and Prescribed Exercise for a Woman with Chronic Motor...optional participation in MRI screening at pre, mid, and post data assessment for abdominal adiposity . • Two manuscripts from screening data and study

  2. The effects of whole-body vibration therapy on bone turnover, muscle strength, motor function, and spasticity in chronic stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, M Y C; Lau, R W K; Yip, S P

    2013-08-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been used in older adults to improve bone health and neuromuscular function, and may have potential applications for stroke patients. To investigate the effects of WBV on bone turnover, leg muscle strength, motor function, and spasticity among chronic stroke patients. Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Community. Eighty-two chronic stroke patients. The experimental group underwent exercise training with WBV stimulation for a maximum of 15 minutes, 3 days per week for 8 weeks. The controls received the same exercises without WBV. Participants were evaluated for isokinetic knee muscle strength, serum levels of bone formation and resorption markers, spasticity and motor function of the paretic leg at baseline, immediately after the 8-week training period, and 1-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no significant changes in levels of bone turnover markers and motor function of the paretic leg over time in both groups. Muscle strength outcomes showed no significant group×time interaction, with similar significant improvements found in both groups. Spasticity of the paretic knee was significantly reduced in the experimental group (P=0.005), but not in controls (P=0.465). No serious adverse events were reported. The WBV protocol used in this study did not induce additional effects on bone turnover, knee muscle strength and paretic leg motor function among chronic stroke patients. WBV may have potential to modulate spasticity, but this requires further investigation. More study on WBV is required before it can be recommended as an adjunct treatment in rehabilitation of chronic stroke patients.

  3. [Corporal therapy in sexual therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonierbale, M

    1977-12-01

    The use of corporal therapy in treating sexual problems is discussed. The erotic zones of the body are established very early in infancy. The central nervous system continues to develop 6 months after birth in human beings. Experiments done with rats show that rats that are stimulated by noise, handling, etc., develop denser and more numerous nerve cells. Touch, rhythm, and facial expression are established as the interface with the self's erotic image (established in infancy) and the world. Corporal therapy can modify the physiological functioning of the libido. It is also necessary that one accept one's sociocultural identity. Relational massage, bioenergy, and relaxation are 3 types of corporal therapy used to ameliorate sexual problems.

  4. Blood derived stem cells: an ameliorative therapy in veterinary ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfe, Gabriella; Massaro-Giordano, Mina; Ranalli, Marco; Cozzoli, Eliana; Di Stefano, Carla; Malafoglia, Valentina; Polettini, Marco; Gambacurta, Alessandra

    2012-03-01

    Stem cell technology has evoked considerable excitement among people interested in the welfare of animals, as it has suggested the potential availability of new tools for several pathologies, including eye disease, which in many cases is considered incurable. One such example is ulcerative keratitis, which is very frequent in horses. Because some of these corneal ulcers can be very severe, progress rapidly and, therefore, can be a possible cause of vision loss, it is important to diagnose them at an early stage and administer an appropriate treatment, which can be medical, surgical, or a combination of both. The therapeutic strategy should eradicate the infection in order to reduce or stop destruction of the cornea. In addition, it should support the corneal structures and control the uveal reaction, and the pain associated with it, in order to minimize scarring. In this study, we address how stem cells derived from peripheral blood can be used also in ophthalmological pathologies. Our results demonstrate that this treatment protocol improved eye disease in four horse cases, including corneal ulcers and one case of retinal detachment. In all cases, we detected a decrease in the intense inflammatory reaction as well as the restoration of the epithelial surface of the central cornea. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Dance Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Marcia B.

    1980-01-01

    Dance therapy deals with personal growth via body-mind interaction. A change in movement expression is believed to result in a personality or behavior change. The therapist is trained to become sensitive to movement expression as it relates to the psychological, motor, and cognitive development of the child. (JN)

  6. Randomized controlled trial of web-based multimodal therapy for children with acquired brain injury to improve gross motor capacity and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baque, Emmah; Barber, Lee; Sakzewski, Leanne; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2017-06-01

    To compare efficacy of a web-based multimodal training programme, 'Move it to improve it' (Mitii(TM)), to usual care on gross motor capacity and performance for children with an acquired brain injury. Randomized waitlist controlled trial. Home environment. A total of 60 independently ambulant children (30 in each group), minimum 12 months post-acquired brain injury were recruited and randomly allocated to receive either 20 weeks of Mitii(TM) training (30 minutes/day, six days/week, total 60 hours) immediately, or waitlisted (usual care control group) for 20 weeks. A total of 58 children completed baseline assessments (32 males; age 11 years 11 months ± 2 years 6 months; Gross Motor Function Classification System equivalent I = 29, II = 29). The Mitii(TM) program comprised of gross motor, upper limb and visual perception/cognitive activities. The primary outcome was 30-second, repetition maximum functional strength tests for the lower limb (sit-to-stand, step-ups, half-kneel to stand). Secondary outcomes were the 6-minute walk test, High-level Mobility Assessment Tool, Timed Up and Go Test and habitual physical activity as captured by four-day accelerometry. Groups were equivalent at baseline on demographic and clinical measures. The Mitii(TM) group demonstrated significantly greater improvements on combined score of functional strength tests (mean difference 10.19 repetitions; 95% confidence interval, 3.26-17.11; p = 0.006) compared with the control group. There were no other between-group differences on secondary outcomes. Although the Mitii(TM) programme demonstrated statistically significant improvements in the functional strength tests of the lower limb, results did not exceed the minimum detectable change and cannot be considered clinically relevant for children with an acquired brain injury. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registration Number, ANZCTR12613000403730.

  7. THE EFFECT OF SWISS BALL THERAPY ON SIT-TO-STAND FUNCTION, PARETIC LIMB WEIGHT BEARING AND LOWER LIMB MOTOR SCORE IN PATIENTS WITH HEMIPLEGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadnagarwala Rasheeda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Swiss ball is used as a tool in stroke rehabilitation It is commonly used to improve postural control. Sitting on unstable surfaces can provoke lower extremity muscle contractions as a component of postural control. Effect of unstable surface sitting on lower extremity control and functions following stroke is not clear from available literature. Hence this study was planned to study the effect of Swiss ball training on sit to stand function, weight bearing through paretic lower limb and motor control of paretic limb in patients with hemiplegia. Methods: First-time stroke patients with hemiplegia were recruited from an acute stroke care set up in a University teaching hospital and assigned to control (n=34 and experimental group (n = 33. Along with physiotherapy based on impairments, patients in control group were trained for sitting to standing and sitting activities on a stool, and from in the experimental group were trained with Swiss Ball. Both the groups underwent 40 minutes of training for ten days. 30-second sit to stand, Percentage of weight bearing through the paretic limb and Brunnstrom stages were recorded. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used based on the outcome tested. Results: The baseline characteristics between the groups were similar statistically. Post-intervention experimental group had better weight bearing ability and motor control of lower limb (p<0.05, than the control group. The difference in 30-second sit to stand did not reach statistical significance (p=0.059. Conclusion: Training with Swiss ball results in greater improvement in weight - bearing ability and motor control of paretic lower limb, compared to conventional training. The Swiss ball training does not enhance the sit to stand performance more than conventional training.

  8. [Gene therapy for Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Shin-Ichi

    2012-01-01

    The current clinical trials of gene therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) are based on three strategies. 1. To restore the local production of dopamine by introducing genes associated with dopamine-synthesizing enzymes into the putamen. 2. To protect nigrostriatal projection by delivering the neurturin gene, a trophic factor for dopaminergic neurons, both in the putamen and the substantia nigra. 3. To modulate the neural activity by transducing the subthalamic nucleus with vectors expressing glutamic acid decarboxylase. A phase I clinical study was initiated in 2007 to determine the safety of intra-putaminal infusion of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector encoding aromatic (L)-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC). All six patients enrolled in the trial showed improvements from baseline in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor scores in the OFF medication state at 36 months after treatment. Although this trial was a small, open-label study and the use of a non-blinded, uncontrolled analysis limits interpretation, the efficacy outcomes are encouraging and indicate that the AAV vector-mediated gene transfer of AADC may benefit advanced PD patients. A similar approach, delivering AAV vector carrying AADC gene into the putamen ameliorated the symptoms in children with AADC deficiency.

  9. Coniferyl Aldehyde Ameliorates Radiation Intestine Injury via Endothelial Cell Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ye Ji; Jung, Myung Gu; Lee, Yoonjin; Lee, Haejune [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yunsil [Ewha Woman' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Younggyu [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Cancer treatments related gastrointestinal toxicity has also been recognized as a significant economic burden. Especially, extensive apoptosis of microvascular endothelial cell of the lamina propria is the primary lesion initiating intestinal radiation damage after abdominal radiation therapy. Coniferyl aldehyde (CA) is phenolic compounds isolated from cork stoppers, and one of the major pyrolysis products of lignin. Shi H. was support for the empirical use of CA as a medicinal food for cardiovascular diseases. CA has positive effect in broad way but there is no consequence in radiation induced intestine damage. Here, we investigate effect of CA on small intestine after abdominal IR to mice in this study. In this study, CA increased the survival rate in C3H mice against 13.5 Gy abdominal IR. We found CA protects small intestine via preventing endothelial cell apoptosis and enhancing their angiogenic activity. CA also showed protective effect on crypt cell survival. Endothelial cell survival may affect crypt cell protection against IR. From this data, we concluded that CA is effective for protection against abdominal radiation injury. CA could ameliorate side-effect of radiation therapy.

  10. Environmental Enrichment Therapy for Autism: Outcomes with Increased Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Aronoff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown in two randomized clinical trials that environmental enrichment is capable of ameliorating symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD, and in the present study, we determined whether this therapy could be effective under real-world circumstances. 1,002 children were given daily Sensory Enrichment Therapy, by their parents, using personalized therapy instructions given over the Internet. Parents were asked to assess the symptoms of their child every 2 weeks for up to 7 months. An intention-to-treat analysis showed significant overall gains for a wide range of symptoms in these children, including learning, memory, anxiety, attention span, motor skills, eating, sleeping, sensory processing, self-awareness, communication, social skills, and mood/autism behaviors. The children of compliant caregivers were more likely to experience a significant improvement in their symptoms. The treatment was effective across a wide age range and there was equal progress reported for males and females, for USA and international subjects, for those who paid and those who did not pay for the therapy, and for individuals at all levels of initial symptom severity. Environmental enrichment, delivered via an online system, therefore appears to be an effective, low-cost means of treating the symptoms of ASD.

  11. Timed motor tests can detect subtle motor dysfunction in early Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaxma, C.A.; Bloem, B.R.; Overeem, S.; Borm, G.F.; Horstink, M.W.I.M.

    2010-01-01

    Early diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is important for putative neuroprotective therapies to be initiated in the earliest stage of the disease. We investigated whether a previously validated timed motor test (TMT) battery could detect subtle motor dysfunction in early PD patients and even in

  12. Oral-Motor Function and Feeding Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, June

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the elements of the Oral Motor Intervention section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy interventions presented in this path are evidence based as well as infant driven and family focused. In the context of anticipated maturation of…

  13. [Motor system physiotherapy of the masticatory organ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagucka-Metel, Wioletta; Brzeska, Paulina; Sobolewska, Ewa; Machoy-Mokrzyńska, Anna; Baranowska, Agata

    2013-01-01

    The motor system of the masticatory organ is a complex morphological and functional structure. Its dysfunctions are manifested by various symptoms within the masticatory apparatus and in distant organs. The paper presents a discussion on the physiotherapeutic procedure for the treatment of disorders in the motor system of the masticatory organ. Therapeutic methods are presented, including: massage, trigger point therapy, kinesitherapy, biofeedback, manual therapy, postural re-education, kinesiotaping, physical interventions (TENS, hyaluronidase iontophoresis, ultrasound, laser therapy, and magnetoledotherapy). The paper points out the role of a comprehensive approach to the patient in order to eliminate the cause of disorders, going beyond symptomatic treatment.

  14. Dimethyl Fumarate ameliorates acute pancreatitis in rodent

    OpenAIRE

    Robles, Lourdes; Vaziri, Nostratola D.; Li, Shiri; Takasu, Chie; Masuda, Yuichi; Vo, Kelly; Farzaneh, Seyed H.; Stamos, Micheal J.; Ichii, Hirohito

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Pancreatitis is a complex inflammatory disorder, ranging from a mild attack, to severe and potentially fatal condition. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, has been used medicinally for decades. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that treatment with DMF may ameliorate acute pancreatitis (AP) in a rodent model. Methods: Rats were treated with DMF (25 mg/kg) 24 hours prior to AP induction with L-arginine (3 g/kg). At 72 hours, the p...

  15. Gross motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they ...

  16. Effects of a High Protein Food Supplement on Physical Activity, Motor Performance and Health Related Quality of Life of HIV Infected Botswana Children on Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leapetswe Malete

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite existing evidence about the benefits of nutrition, physical activity (PA and sport to the overall health and wellbeing of children, knowledge gaps remain on this relationship in children living with chronic conditions like HIV/AIDS. Such knowledge should inform context specific programs that could enhance the quality of life of children. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of integrating a nutrition intervention (culturally tailored food supplement into antiretroviral therapy (ART on psychosocial outcomes and physical activity among HIV-positive children in Botswana. Method: 201 HIV-positive children (6–15 years; M = 9.44, SD = 2.40 were recruited and randomly assigned (stratified by age and gender to two groups. The intervention group (n = 97 received a high protein (bean-sorghum plus micronutrients food supplement, while the control group (n = 104 received a sorghum plus micronutrients supplement. Participants were followed over 12 months. Anthropometric measures, PA, motor performance, and health related quality of life (HRQL were collected at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Results: Mixed repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant time effect of the food supplement on target variables except body fat percentage, speed, and school functioning. Time×treatment interaction was found for physical functioning, psyioning achosocial functnd total quality of life score. Scores on physical functioning and total of quality life in the intervention group significantly increased from baseline to 6 months compared with the control group (p = 0.015. Conclusion: A combination of ART and nutritional intervention had a positive effect on physical functioning and total quality of life of HIV-positive children in this study. There were also improvements to physical activity and motor performance tests over time. More research is needed on long term effects of nutrition and PA interventions on HRQL in children living with

  17. Cacao polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Watanabe, Ryo; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2016-04-01

    Myocarditis is a clinically severe disease; however, no effective treatment has been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether cacao bean (Theobroma cacao) polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis. We used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model in Balb/c mice. Mice with induced EAM were treated with a cacao polyphenol extract (CPE, n=12) or vehicle (n=12). On day 21, hearts were harvested and analyzed. Elevated heart weight to body weight and fibrotic area ratios as well as high cardiac cell infiltration were observed in the vehicle-treated EAM mice. However, these increases were significantly suppressed in the CPE-treated mice. Reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that mRNA expressions of interleukin (Il)-1β, Il-6, E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and collagen type 1 were lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. The mRNA expressions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (Nox)2 and Nox4 were increased in the vehicle-treated EAM hearts, although CPE treatment did not significantly suppress the transcription levels. However, compared with vehicle treatment of EAM hearts, CPE treatment significantly suppressed hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Cardiac myeloperoxidase activity, the intensity of dihydroethidium staining and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65 were also lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. Our data suggest that CPE ameliorates EAM in mice. CPE is a promising dietary supplement to suppress cardiovascular inflammation and oxidative stress.

  18. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition ameliorates deficits in motivational drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinowich Keri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apathy is frequently observed in numerous neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Apathy is defined as a lack of motivation characterized by diminished goal-oriented behavior and self-initiated activity. This study evaluated a chronic restraint stress (CRS protocol in modeling apathetic behavior, and determined whether administration of an anticholinesterase had utility in attenuating CRS-induced phenotypes. Methods We assessed behavior as well as regional neuronal activity patterns using FosB immunohistochemistry after exposure to CRS for 6 h/d for a minimum of 21 d. Based on our FosB findings and recent clinical trials, we administered an anticholinesterase to evaluate attenuation of CRS-induced phenotypes. Results CRS resulted in behaviors that reflect motivational loss and diminished emotional responsiveness. CRS-exposed mice showed differences in FosB accumulation, including changes in the cholinergic basal forebrain system. Facilitating cholinergic signaling ameliorated CRS-induced deficits in initiation and motivational drive and rescued immediate early gene activation in the medial septum and nucleus accumbens. Conclusions Some CRS protocols may be useful for studying deficits in motivation and apathetic behavior. Amelioration of CRS-induced behaviors with an anticholinesterase supports a role for the cholinergic system in remediation of deficits in motivational drive.

  19. Music therapy in rehabilitation: a narrative review (2004-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Gómez Álvaro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During this decade, there has been an increased on research about music therapy interventions as a therapeutic tool.  Narrative reviews that have been published till nowadays show the implications and effectiveness of interventions based on music therapy as a rehabilitative intervention strategy. However, due to their narrowness they lack of a general perspective of the construct. Moreover, these reviews do not include in their criteria the search term “music therapy”, thereby excluding studies that support the effectiveness of music therapy in rehabilitation. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to solve this issue including and reviewing findings of published research that have been excluded from previous reviews over the last ten years. There were two research questions: For which disorders is music therapy more effective? What are the benefits of music therapy in rehabilitation? In order to answer these questions, we conducted a literature review in academic databases, such as Academic Search Complete, Medline, and Science Direct, including the search term "music therapy".   Furthermore, papers fulfilling inclusion criteria, such as empirical studies, written in English, which used music as therapeutic stimulation were reviewed. We found twenty-four studies in which we analyzed the participants (experimental vs. control, the results, and limitations. We conclude, cautiously, that music therapy may help in the rehabilitation of cognitive, motor, and sensory functions of brain damage, the rehabilitation of schizophrenia and primary depression; and amelioration of neurodegenerative disorders, autism spectrum disorders, substance abuse and other pathologies. We recommend overcoming the methodological limitations of these studies and the suitability of cross-cultural studies.

  20. Amantadine as treatment for dyskinesias and motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen Metman, L.; del Dotto, P.; van den Munckhof, P.; Fang, J.; Mouradian, M. M.; Chase, T. N.

    1998-01-01

    To determine the effects of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist amantadine on levodopa-associated dyskinesias and motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease (PD). NMDA receptor blockade can ameliorate levodopa-induced dyskinesias in primates and PD patients. Amantadine, a well-tolerated and

  1. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  2. Transposed firing activation of motor units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Carlo J; Kline, Joshua C; Contessa, Paola

    2014-08-15

    Muscles are composed of groups of muscle fibers, called motor units, each innervated by a single motoneuron originating in the spinal cord. During constant or linearly varying voluntary force contractions, motor units are activated in a hierarchical order, with the earlier-recruited motor units having greater firing rates than the later-recruited ones. We found that this normal pattern of firing activation can be altered during oscillatory contractions where the force oscillates at frequencies ≥2 Hz. During these high-frequency oscillations, the activation of the lower-threshold motor units effectively decreases and that of the higher-threshold motor units effectively increases. This transposition of firing activation provides means to activate higher-threshold motor units preferentially. Our results demonstrate that the hierarchical regulation of motor unit activation can be manipulated to activate specific motoneuron populations preferentially. This finding can be exploited to develop new forms of physical therapies and exercise programs that enhance muscle performance or that target the preferential atrophy of high-threshold motor units as a result of aging or motor disorders such as stroke and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  3. The performance of maize crop during acid amelioration with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated acid ameliorative potential and their effects on maize growth of four organic residues namely wild spikenard, cordia, cowpea and pigeon peas through incubations with or without sulphur. This was done in order to recommend potential organic residue source that could ameliorate soil acidity associated ...

  4. the performance of maize crop during acid amelioration with organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    amelioration compared to senescent cowpea and wild spikenard, which had lower alkalinity. The performance of maize grown in respective soil incorporated with the organic residues followed the same pattern. The finding suggests different acid ameliorating potential of residues, pigeon peas and cordia being the most ...

  5. Use of Coffee Pulp and Minerals for Natural Soil Ameliorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiyanto Pujiyanto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In coffee plantation, solid waste of coffee pulp is usually collected as heap nearby processing facilities for several months prior being used as compost. The practice is leading to the formation of odor and liquid which contaminate the environment. Experiments to evaluate the effect of natural soil ameliorant derived from coffee pulp and minerals were conducted at The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember, East Java. The experiments were intended to optimize the use of coffee pulp to support farming sustainability and minimize negative impacts of solid waste disposal originated from coffee cherry processing. Prior to applications, coffee pulp was hulled to organic paste. The paste was then mixed with 10% minerals (b/b. Composition of the minerals was 50% zeolite and 50% rock phosphate powder. The ameliorant was characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedling. The experiments were arranged according to Randomized Completely Design with 2 factors, consisted of natural ameliorant and inorganic fertilizer respectively. Natural ameliorant derived from coffee pulp was applied at 6 levels: 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 g dry ameliorant/seedling of 3 kg soil, equivalent to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (b/b of ameliorant respectively. Inorganic fertilizer was applied at 2 levels: 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15 respectively. The inorganic fertilizer was applied 4 times during nursery of coffee and cocoa. The result of the experiment indicated that coffee pulp may be used as natural soil ameliorant. Composition of ameliorant of 90% coffee pulp and 10% of minerals has good physical and chemical characteristics for soil amelioration. The composition has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, organic carbon and phosphorus contents which are favorable to increase soil capacity to support plant growth. Application of

  6. Listening to classical music ameliorates unilateral neglect after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Luen; Chen, Mei-Ching; Huang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Keh-Chung; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Hsu, Yung-Wen

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We determined whether listening to excerpts of classical music ameliorates unilateral neglect (UN) in stroke patients. METHOD. In this within-subject study, we recruited and separately tested 16 UN patients with a right-hemisphere stroke under three conditions within 1 wk. In each condition, participants were asked to complete three subtests of the Behavioral Inattention Test while listening to classical music, white noise, or nothing. All conditions and the presentation of the tests were counterbalanced across participants. Visual analog scales were used to provide self-reported ratings of arousal and mood. RESULTS. Participants generally had the highest scores under the classical music condition and the lowest scores under the silence condition. In addition, most participants rated their arousal as highest after listening to classical music. CONCLUSION. Listening to classical music may improve visual attention in stroke patients with UN. Future research with larger study populations is necessary to validate these findings. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  7. Virtual reality for physical and motor rehabilitation

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Patrice L (Tamar); Levin, Mindy F

    2014-01-01

    While virtual reality (VR) has influenced fields as varied as gaming, archaeology, and the visual arts, some of its most promising applications come from the health sector. Particularly encouraging are the many uses of VR in supporting the recovery of motor skills following accident or illness. Virtual Reality for Physical and Motor Rehabilitation reviews two decades of progress and anticipates advances to come. It offers current research on the capacity of VR to evaluate, address, and reduce motor skill limitations, and the use of VR to support motor and sensorimotor function, from the most basic to the most sophisticated skill levels. Expert scientists and clinicians explain how the brain organizes motor behavior, relate therapeutic objectives to client goals, and differentiate among VR platforms in engaging the production of movement and balance. On the practical side, contributors demonstrate that VR complements existing therapies across various conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic bra...

  8. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  9. Fetal drug therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, M I; Pryde, P G; Reichler, A; Bardicef, M; Johnson, M P

    1993-01-01

    Fetal drug therapy encompasses several areas, including the prevention of external genital masculinization in 21-hydroxylase deficiency syndrome (congenital adrenal hyperplasia), biochemical amelioration of methylmalonic acidemia, and biotin-responsive multiple carboxylase deficiency. The correction of cardiac arrhythmias has become relatively commonplace, and a reduction in the risks of neural tube defects is now possible with the use of preconceptual and early conceptual folic acid. Similar...

  10. Efeitos da fisioterapia motora em pacientes críticos: revisão de literatura Effects of motor physical therapy in critically ill patients: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Pereira da Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de fraqueza generalizada relacionada ao paciente crítico é uma complicação recorrente em pacientes admitidos em uma unidade de terapia intensiva. A redução da força muscular aumenta o tempo de desmame, internação, o risco de infecções e conseqüentemente morbimortalidade. A fisioterapia é usada nesses pacientes como recurso para prevenção da fraqueza muscular, hipotrofia e recuperação da capacidade funcional. O objetivo deste estudo foi rever a literatura relacionada ao uso da cinesioterapia em pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva. A pesquisa da literatura foi realizada por meio das bases eletrônicas de dados MedLine, LILACS, CINAHL, Cochrane, High Wire Press e SciELO, de janeiro de 1998 a julho de 2009 e capítulos de livros utilizando palavras-chave incluindo: "critical illness", "cinesiotherapy", "physical therapy", "physiotherapy", "exercises", "training", "force", "active mobilization", "mobilization", "ICU", "rehabilitation", "mobility", "muscle strength" e "weakness". Apesar da escassez de estudos e da diversidade metodológica dos estudos encontrados demonstrando o uso da cinesioterapia como recurso terapêutico, o seu uso, inclusive precocemente parece uma alternativa à prevenção e reversão da fraqueza muscular adquirida na unidade de terapia intensiva.The development of critical patient-related generalized weakness is a common complication in patients admitted to an intensive care unit. The reduced muscle strength increases the time for weaning, hospitalization, the risk of infections and consequent mortality. Physiotherapy is used in these patients as a resource for the prevention of muscle weakness, atrophy and functional capacity recovery. The aim of this study was to review the literature regarding the use of exercise alone in intensive care units staying patients. Literature searches were performed using the electronic databases Medline, LILACS, CINAHL, Cochrane, High Wire

  11. The effect of whole-body vibration therapy on bone metabolism, motor function, and anthropometric parameters in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaotian; Zhang, Jifeng; Zhang, Chi; He, Chengqi; Wang, Pu

    2017-11-01

    To review the research literature on the effectiveness of whole-body vibration (WBV) therapy in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. A systematic review was conducted by two independent reviewers. Mean differences (MDs), standardized mean differences (SMDs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, and heterogeneity was assessed with the I 2 test. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the selected studies. Nine randomized controlled trials involving 625 patients met the inclusion criteria. No significant improvement was found in bone mineral density (BMD) (SMD = -0.06, 95%CI= -0.22-0.11, p = 0.50); bone turnover markers (MD = -0.25, 95%CI= -0.54-0.03, p = 0.08); anthropometric parameters, including muscle mass, fat mass, body mass index (BMI), and weight (SMD = 0.02, 95%CI= -0.16-0.21, p = 0.81); or maximal isotonic knee extensor strength (SMD = 0.16, 95%CI= -0.63-0.95, p = 0.69). However, maximal isometric knee extensor strength improved (SMD = 0.71, 95%CI = 0.34-1.08, p = 0.0002). WBV is beneficial for enhancing maximal isometric knee extensor strength, but it has no overall treatment effect on BMD, bone turnover markers, anthropometric parameters, or maximal isotonic knee extensor strength in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Implication of rehabilitation Osteoporosis is the leading underlying cause of fractures in postmenopausal women, whole body vibration (WBV) has received much attention as a potential intervention for the management of osteoporosis in recent years. Whole body vibration is beneficial for enhancing maximal isometric knee extensor strength in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Whole body vibration has no overall treatment effect on bone mineral density, bone turnover markers, anthropometric parameters and maximal isotonic knee extensor strength in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  12. Medical therapy in acromegaly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sherlock, Mark

    2011-05-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disease characterized by excess secretion of growth hormone (GH) and increased circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentrations. The disease is associated with increased morbidity and premature mortality, but these effects can be reduced if GH levels are decreased to <2.5 μg\\/l and IGF-1 levels are normalized. Therapy for acromegaly is targeted at decreasing GH and IGF-1 levels, ameliorating patients\\' symptoms and decreasing any local compressive effects of the pituitary adenoma. The therapeutic options for acromegaly include surgery, radiotherapy and medical therapies, such as dopamine agonists, somatostatin receptor ligands and the GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant. Medical therapy is currently most widely used as secondary treatment for persistent or recurrent acromegaly following noncurative surgery, although it is increasingly used as primary therapy. This Review provides an overview of current and future pharmacological therapies for patients with acromegaly.

  13. Rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in an alpha-synuclein mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine H Petit

    Full Text Available Impaired olfaction is an early pre-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease. The neuropathology underlying olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is unknown, however α-synuclein accumulation/aggregation and altered neurogenesis might play a role. We characterized olfactory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease expressing human wild-type α-synuclein under the control of the mouse α-synuclein promoter. Preliminary clinical observations suggest that rasagiline, a monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, improves olfaction in Parkinson's disease. We therefore examined whether rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in this Parkinson's disease model and investigated the role of olfactory bulb neurogenesis. α-Synuclein mice were progressively impaired in their ability to detect odors, to discriminate between odors, and exhibited alterations in short-term olfactory memory. Rasagiline treatment rescued odor detection and odor discrimination abilities. However, rasagiline did not affect short-term olfactory memory. Finally, olfactory changes were not coupled to alterations in olfactory bulb neurogenesis. We conclude that rasagiline reverses select olfactory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease. The findings correlate with preliminary clinical observations suggesting that rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in Parkinson's disease.

  14. Electric motor handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, B J

    2013-01-01

    Electric Motor Handbook aims to give practical knowledge in a wide range of capacities such as plant design, equipment specification, commissioning, operation and maintenance. The book covers topics such as the modeling of steady-state motor performance; polyphase induction, synchronous, and a.c. commutator motors; ambient conditions, enclosures, cooling and loss dissipation; and electrical supply systems and motor drives. Also covered are topics such as variable-speed drives and motor control; materials and motor components; insulation types, systems, and techniques; and the installation, sit

  15. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles ameliorate inflammation-induced preterm brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drommelschmidt, Karla; Serdar, Meray; Bendix, Ivo; Herz, Josephine; Bertling, Frederik; Prager, Sebastian; Keller, Matthias; Ludwig, Anna-Kristin; Duhan, Vikas; Radtke, Stefan; de Miroschedji, Kyra; Horn, Peter A; van de Looij, Yohan; Giebel, Bernd; Felderhoff-Müser, Ursula

    2017-02-01

    Preterm brain injury is a major cause of disability in later life, and may result in motor, cognitive and behavioural impairment for which no treatment is currently available. The aetiology is considered as multifactorial, and one underlying key player is inflammation leading to white and grey matter injury. Extracellular vesicles secreted by mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC-EVs) have shown therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine. Here, we investigated the effects of MSC-EV treatment on brain microstructure and maturation, inflammatory processes and long-time outcome in a rodent model of inflammation-induced brain injury. 3-Day-old Wistar rats (P3) were intraperitoneally injected with 0.25mg/kg lipopolysaccharide or saline and treated with two repetitive doses of 1×10 8 cell equivalents of MSC-EVs per kg bodyweight. Cellular degeneration and reactive gliosis at P5 and myelination at P11 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Long-term cognitive and motor function was assessed by behavioural testing. Diffusion tensor imaging at P125 evaluated long-term microstructural white matter alterations. MSC-EV treatment significantly ameliorated inflammation-induced neuronal cellular degeneration reduced microgliosis and prevented reactive astrogliosis. Short-term myelination deficits and long-term microstructural abnormalities of the white matter were restored by MSC-EV administration. Morphological effects of MSC-EV treatment resulted in improved long-lasting cognitive functions INTERPRETATION: MSC-EVs ameliorate inflammation-induced cellular damage in a rat model of preterm brain injury. MSC-EVs may serve as a novel therapeutic option by prevention of neuronal cell death, restoration of white matter microstructure, reduction of gliosis and long-term functional improvement. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Motor imagery and stroke rehabilitation : A critical discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Sjoerd; Mulder, Theo

    Motor disorders are a frequent consequence of stroke and much effort is invested in the re-acquisition of motor control. Although patients often regain some of their lost function after therapy, most remain chronically disabled. Functional recovery is achieved largely through reorganization

  17. Reliability of a New Lower-Extremity Motor Coordination Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antosiak-Cyrak Katarzyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Motor coordination is a basic motor ability necessary for daily life, which also allows athletes to win a sports rivalry and patients to assess their recovery progress after therapy and rehabilitation. The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of a new lower-extremity rate of movements test and testing apparatus.

  18. Current Nondopaminergic Therapeutic Options for Motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Juan Du

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Targeting nondopaminergic transmission could improve some motor symptoms in PD, especially the discomfort of dyskinesia. Although nondopaminergic treatments show great potential in PD treatment as an adjunct therapy to levodopa, further investigation is required to ensure their success.

  19. MSCs ameliorates DPN induced cellular pathology via [Ca2+]ihomeostasis and scavenging the pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramoorthy, Harish C; Bin-Jaliah, Ismaeel; Karari, Hussian; Rajagopalan, Prasanna; Ahmed Shariff, Mohammed Eajaz; Al-Hakami, Ahmed; Al-Humayad, Suliman M; Baptain, Fawzi A; Ahmed, Humeda Suekit; Yassin, Hanaa Z; Haidara, Mohamed A

    2018-02-01

    The MSCs of various origins are known to ameliorate or modulate cell survival strategies. We investigated, whether UCB MSCs could improve the survival of the human neuronal cells and/or fibroblast assaulted with DPN sera. The results showed, the co-culture of UCB MSCs with human neuronal cells and/or fibroblasts could effectively scavenge the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-ɤ and IL - 12 and control the pro-apoptotic expression of p53/Bax. Further co-culture of UCB MSCs have shown to induce anti-inflammatory cytokines like IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-β and anti-apoptotic Bclxl/Bcl2 expression in the DPN sera stressed cells. Amelioration of elevated [Ca 2+ ] i and cROS, the portent behind the NFκB/Caspase-3 mediated inflammation in DPN rescued the cells from apoptosis. The results of systemic administration of BM MSCs improved DPN pathology in rat as extrapolated from human cell model. The BM MSCs ameliorated prolonged distal motor latency (control: 0.70 ± 0.06, DPN: 1.29 ± 0.13 m/s DPN + BM MSCs: 0.89 ± 0.02 m/s, p cytokine signaling and [Ca 2+ ] i homeostasis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. PEG minocycline-liposomes ameliorate CNS autoimmune disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    Full Text Available Minocycline is an oral tetracycline derivative with good bioavailability in the central nervous system (CNS. Minocycline, a potent inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9, attenuates disease activity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS. Potential adverse effects associated with long-term daily minocycline therapy in human patients are concerning. Here, we investigated whether less frequent treatment with long-circulating polyethylene glycol (PEG minocycline liposomes are effective in treating EAE.Performing in vitro time kinetic studies of PEG minocycline-liposomes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, we determined that PEG minocycline-liposome preparations stabilized with CaCl(2 are effective in diminishing MMP-9 activity. Intravenous injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes every five days were as effective in ameliorating clinical EAE as daily intraperitoneal injections of minocycline. Treatment of animals with PEG minocycline-liposomes significantly reduced the number of CNS-infiltrating leukocytes, and the overall expression of MMP-9 in the CNS. There was also a significant suppression of MMP-9 expression and proteolytic activity in splenocytes of treated animals, but not in CNS-infiltrating leukocytes. Thus, leukocytes gaining access to the brain and spinal cord require the same absolute amount of MMP-9 in all treatment groups, but minocycline decreases the absolute cell number.Our data indicate that less frequent injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes are an effective alternative pharmacotherapy to daily minocycline injections for the treatment of CNS autoimmune diseases. Also, inhibition of MMP-9 remains a promising treatment target in EAE and patients with MS.

  1. PEG minocycline-liposomes ameliorate CNS autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Metselaar, Josbert; Ben, Li-Hong; Cravens, Petra D; Singh, Mahendra P; Frohman, Elliot M; Eagar, Todd N; Racke, Michael K; Kieseier, Bernd C; Stüve, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Minocycline is an oral tetracycline derivative with good bioavailability in the central nervous system (CNS). Minocycline, a potent inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, attenuates disease activity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Potential adverse effects associated with long-term daily minocycline therapy in human patients are concerning. Here, we investigated whether less frequent treatment with long-circulating polyethylene glycol (PEG) minocycline liposomes are effective in treating EAE. Performing in vitro time kinetic studies of PEG minocycline-liposomes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), we determined that PEG minocycline-liposome preparations stabilized with CaCl(2) are effective in diminishing MMP-9 activity. Intravenous injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes every five days were as effective in ameliorating clinical EAE as daily intraperitoneal injections of minocycline. Treatment of animals with PEG minocycline-liposomes significantly reduced the number of CNS-infiltrating leukocytes, and the overall expression of MMP-9 in the CNS. There was also a significant suppression of MMP-9 expression and proteolytic activity in splenocytes of treated animals, but not in CNS-infiltrating leukocytes. Thus, leukocytes gaining access to the brain and spinal cord require the same absolute amount of MMP-9 in all treatment groups, but minocycline decreases the absolute cell number. Our data indicate that less frequent injections of PEG minocycline-liposomes are an effective alternative pharmacotherapy to daily minocycline injections for the treatment of CNS autoimmune diseases. Also, inhibition of MMP-9 remains a promising treatment target in EAE and patients with MS.

  2. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Therapies for Cervical Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulames, Vanessa M; Plant, Giles W

    2016-04-09

    Cervical-level injuries account for the majority of presented spinal cord injuries (SCIs) to date. Despite the increase in survival rates due to emergency medicine improvements, overall quality of life remains poor, with patients facing variable deficits in respiratory and motor function. Therapies aiming to ameliorate symptoms and restore function, even partially, are urgently needed. Current therapeutic avenues in SCI seek to increase regenerative capacities through trophic and immunomodulatory factors, provide scaffolding to bridge the lesion site and promote regeneration of native axons, and to replace SCI-lost neurons and glia via intraspinal transplantation. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a clinically viable means to accomplish this; they have no major ethical barriers, sources can be patient-matched and collected using non-invasive methods. In addition, the patient's own cells can be used to establish a starter population capable of producing multiple cell types. To date, there is only a limited pool of research examining iPSC-derived transplants in SCI-even less research that is specific to cervical injury. The purpose of the review herein is to explore both preclinical and clinical recent advances in iPSC therapies with a detailed focus on cervical spinal cord injury.

  3. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Therapies for Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulames, Vanessa M.; Plant, Giles W.

    2016-01-01

    Cervical-level injuries account for the majority of presented spinal cord injuries (SCIs) to date. Despite the increase in survival rates due to emergency medicine improvements, overall quality of life remains poor, with patients facing variable deficits in respiratory and motor function. Therapies aiming to ameliorate symptoms and restore function, even partially, are urgently needed. Current therapeutic avenues in SCI seek to increase regenerative capacities through trophic and immunomodulatory factors, provide scaffolding to bridge the lesion site and promote regeneration of native axons, and to replace SCI-lost neurons and glia via intraspinal transplantation. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a clinically viable means to accomplish this; they have no major ethical barriers, sources can be patient-matched and collected using non-invasive methods. In addition, the patient’s own cells can be used to establish a starter population capable of producing multiple cell types. To date, there is only a limited pool of research examining iPSC-derived transplants in SCI—even less research that is specific to cervical injury. The purpose of the review herein is to explore both preclinical and clinical recent advances in iPSC therapies with a detailed focus on cervical spinal cord injury. PMID:27070598

  4. Oxidative Stress, Motor Abilities, and Behavioral Adjustment in Children Treated for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockenberry, Marilyn J; Krull, Kevin R; Insel, Kathleen C; Harris, Lynnette L; Gundy, Patricia M; Adkins, Kristin B; Pasvogel, Alice E; Taylor, Olga A; Koerner, Kari M; Montgomery, David W; Ross, Adam K; Hill, Adam; Moore, Ida M

    2015-09-01

    To examine associations among oxidative stress, fine and visual-motor abilities, and behavioral adjustment in children receiving chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)
. A prospective, repeated-measures design
. Two pediatric oncology settings in the southwestern United States. 89 children with ALL were followed from diagnosis to the end of chemotherapy. Serial cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected during scheduled lumbar punctures and analyzed for oxidative stress biomarkers. Children completed fine motor dexterity, visual processing speed, and visual-motor integration measures at three time points. Parents completed child behavior ratings at the same times. Oxidative stress, fine motor dexterity, visual processing, visual-motor integration, and behavioral adjustment
. Children with ALL had below-average fine motor dexterity, visual processing speed, and visual-motor integration following the induction phase of ALL therapy. By end of therapy, visual processing speed normalized, and fine motor dexterity and visual-motor integration remained below average. Oxidative stress measures correlated with fine motor dexterity and visual-motor integration. Decreased motor functioning was associated with increased hyperactivity and anxiety
. Oxidative stress occurs following chemo-therapy for childhood ALL and is related to impaired fine motor skills and visual symptoms
. Early intervention should be considered to prevent fine motor and visual-spatial deficits, as well as behavioral problems.

  5. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  6. Cannabidiol ameliorates cognitive and motor impairments in mice with bile duct ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, Iddo; Avraham, Yosefa; Ackerman, Zvi; Vorobiev, Lia; Mechoulam, Raphael; Berry, Elliot M

    2009-09-01

    The endocannabinoid system in mice plays a role in models of human cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy (HE), induced by a hepatotoxin. We report now the therapeutic effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa, on HE caused by bile duct ligation (BDL), a model of chronic liver disease. CBD (5mg/kg; i.p.) was administered over 4weeks to mice that had undergone BDL. Cognitive function in the eight arm maze and the T-maze tests, as well as locomotor function in the open field test were impaired by the ligation and were improved by CBD. BDL raised hippocampal expression of the TNF-alpha-receptor 1 gene, which was reduced by CBD. However, BDL reduced expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, which was increased by CBD. The effects of CBD on cognition, locomotion and on TNF-alpha receptor 1 expression were blocked by ZM241385, an A(2)A adenosine receptor antagonist. BDL lowers the expression of this receptor. The effects of BDL apparently result in part from down-regulation of A(2)A adenosine receptor. CBD reverses these effects through activation of this receptor, leading to compensation of the ligation effect.

  7. Pomegranate: a fruit that ameliorates metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate is an ancient fruit that is still part of the diet in the Mediterranean area, the Middle East, and India. Health-promoting effects have long been attributed to this fruit. Modern research corroborates the use of pomegranate as a folk remedy for diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and is responsible for a new evaluation of nutritional and pharmaceutical aspects of pomegranate in the general public. In the last decade, industry and agricultural production have been adapted to meet higher market demands for pomegranate. In vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated that pomegranate exerts hypoglycaemic effects, including increased insulin sensitivity, inhibition of α-glucosidase, and impact on glucose transporter type 4 function, but is also responsible for a reduction of total cholesterol, and the improvement of blood lipid profiles, as well as anti-inflammatory effects through the modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor pathways. These effects may also explain how pomegranate-derived compounds function in the amelioration of adverse health effects caused by metabolic syndrome. Pomegranate contains polyphenols such as ellagitannins and anthocyanins, as well as phenolic acids, fatty acids and a variety of volatile compounds. Ellagitannins are some of the most prevalent compounds present in pomegranate, and may be responsible for certain benevolent characteristics associated with pomegranate. A brief overview of rising health problems due to obesity will be provided, followed by characterisation of the biological activity, bioavailability, and safety of pomegranate and pomegranate-derived compounds. Although the fruit is consumed in many countries, epidemiological and clinical studies are unavailable. Additional research is necessary to corroborate the promise of current in vivo and in vitro findings.

  8. Black ginseng extract ameliorates hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Evelyn; Jeon, Bo Ra; Jeong, Da-Hye; Lee, Kija; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Sung, Chang-Keun; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Sung Dae; Kim, Hyun-Kyoung; Rhee, Man-Hee

    2016-04-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a well-characterized medicinal herb listed in the classic oriental herbal dictionary as "Shin-nong-bon-cho-kyung." Ginseng has diverse pharmacologic and therapeutic properties. Black ginseng (BG, Ginseng Radix nigra) is produced by repeatedly steaming fresh ginseng nine times. Studies of BG have shown that prolonged heat treatment enhances the antioxidant activity with increased radical scavenging activity. Several recent studies have showed the effects of BG on increased lipid profiles in mice. In this study report the effects of water and ethanol extracts of BG on hypercholesterolemia in rats. To our knowledge, this is the first time such an effect has been reported. Experiments were conducted on male Sprague Dawley rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet supplemented with the water and ethanol extracts of BG (200 mg/kg). Their blood cholesterol levels, serum white blood cell levels, and cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were determined. Liver and adipose tissues were histologically analyzed. We found that BG extracts efficiently reduced the total serum cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels with increased food efficiency ratio and increased number of neutrophil cells. It also attenuated the key genes responsible for lipogenesis, that is, acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) acetyltransferase 2, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, at the mRNA level inside liver cells. Furthermore, the BG extract also reduced the accumulation of fat in adipose tissues, and inhibited the neutral fat content in liver cells stained with hematoxylin and eosin and oil red O. Administration of BG extracts to Sprague Dawley rats fed with high-cholesterol diet ameliorated hypercholesterolemia, which was mediated via modulation of cholesterol-metabolizing marker genes. This data throw a light on BG's cardioprotective effects.

  9. Optimal Control Strategy for Marine Ssp Podded Propulsion Motor Based on Strong Tracking-Epf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wenlong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the non-linearity of state equation and observation equation of SSP (Siemen Schottel Propulsor propulsion motor, an improved particle filter algorithm based on strong tracking extent Kalman filter (ST-EKF was presented, and it was imported into the marine SSP propulsion motor control system. The strong tracking filter was used to update particles in the new algorithm and produce importance densities. As a result, the problems of particle degeneracy and sample impoverishment were ameliorated, the propulsion motor states and the rotor resistance were estimated simultaneously using strong track filter (STF, and the tracking ability of marine SSP propulsion motor control system was improved. Simulation result shown that the improved EPF algorithm was not only improving the prediction accuracy of the motor states and the rotor resistance, but also it can satisfy the requirement of navigation in harbor. It had the better accuracy than EPF algorithm.

  10. Motor/generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickam, Christopher Dale [Glasford, IL

    2008-05-13

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  11. Piezoelectric Motors, an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Spanner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric motors are used in many industrial and commercial applications. Various piezoelectric motors are available in the market. All of the piezoelectric motors use the inverse piezoelectric effect, where microscopically small oscillatory motions are converted into continuous or stepping rotary or linear motions. Methods of obtaining long moving distance have various drive and functional principles that make these motors categorized into three groups: resonance-drive (piezoelectric ultrasonic motors, inertia-drive, and piezo-walk-drive. In this review, a comprehensive summary of piezoelectric motors, with their classification from initial idea to recent progress, is presented. This review also includes some of the industrial and commercial applications of piezoelectric motors that are presently available in the market as actuators.

  12. Motor degradation prediction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.R.; Kelly, J.F.; Delzingaro, M.J.

    1996-12-01

    Motor Operated Valve (MOV) squirrel cage AC motor rotors are susceptible to degradation under certain conditions. Premature failure can result due to high humidity/temperature environments, high running load conditions, extended periods at locked rotor conditions (i.e. > 15 seconds) or exceeding the motor`s duty cycle by frequent starts or multiple valve stroking. Exposure to high heat and moisture due to packing leaks, pressure seal ring leakage or other causes can significantly accelerate the degradation. ComEd and Liberty Technologies have worked together to provide and validate a non-intrusive method using motor power diagnostics to evaluate MOV rotor condition and predict failure. These techniques have provided a quick, low radiation dose method to evaluate inaccessible motors, identify degradation and allow scheduled replacement of motors prior to catastrophic failures.

  13. Neuroplasticity & Motor Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye

    Practice of a new motor task is usually associated with an improvement in performance. Indeed, if we stop practicing and return the next day to the same task, we find that our performance has been maintained and may even be better than it was at the start of the first day. This improvement...... is a measure of our ability to form and store a motor memory of the task. However, the initial memory of the task is labile and may be subject to interference. During and following motor learning plastic changes occur within the central nervous system. On one hand these changes are driven by motor practice......, on the other hand the changes underlie the formation of motor memory and the retention of improved motor performance. During motor learning changes may occur at many different levels within the central nervous system dependent on the type of task and training. Here, we demonstrate different studies from our...

  14. Occupational therapy for multiple sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steultjens, E.M.J.; Dekker, J.; Bouter, L.M.; Cardol, M.; Nes, J.C.M. van de; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2003-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are referred to occupational therapy with complaints about fatigue, limb weakness, alteration of upper extremity fine motor coordination, loss of sensation and spasticity that causes limitations in performance of activities of daily living and social

  15. Ameliorative potential of Artemisia Capillaris Formula on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Artemisia Capillaris Formula (ACF), a traditional Chinese medicinal therapy, has been used clinically in China to treat Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) for many years. However, the mechanism of action of this treatment on NAFLD is still unknown. The goal of the present study is to test whether ...

  16. Perk Ablation Ameliorates Myelination in S63del-Charcot–Marie–Tooth 1B Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolò Musner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In peripheral nerves, P0 glycoprotein accounts for more than 20% of myelin protein content. P0 is synthesized by Schwann cells, processed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and enters the secretory pathway. However, the mutant P0 with S63 deleted (P0S63del accumulates in the ER lumen and induces a demyelinating neuropathy in Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1B (CMT1B–S63del mice. Accumulation of P0S63del in the ER triggers a persistent unfolded protein response. Protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK is an ER stress sensor that phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2alpha in order to attenuate protein synthesis. We have shown that increasing phosphophorylated-eIF2alpha (P-eIF2alpha is a potent therapeutic strategy, improving myelination and motor function in S63del mice. Here, we explore the converse experiment: Perk haploinsufficiency reduces P-eIF2alpha in S63del nerves as expected, but surprisingly, ameliorates, rather than worsens S63del neuropathy. Motor performance and myelin abnormalities improved in S63del//Perk+/− compared with S63del mice. These data suggest that mechanisms other than protein translation might be involved in CMT1B/S63del neuropathy. In addition, Perk deficiency in other cells may contribute to demyelination in a non–Schwann-cell autonomous manner.

  17. The potential mechanisms for motor complications of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Sheng-gang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a common neurodegenerative disease. Dopaminergic replacement therapy is still considered as a major treatment for PD. However, long-term dopaminergic replacement therapy for PD patients is frequently associated with the development of motor complications. To date, the mechanisms underlying motor complications have not been completely understood yet. Moreover, parts of motor complications are lack of therapeutic alternatives. All these characters make this disorder difficult and challenging to manage. Increasing number of researches have been proposed in recent years for elucidating the underlying mechanisms of levodopa-related motor complications, resulting in much progression. For better understanding the management of motor complications, here we provide an overview of the current knowledge of the potential mechanisms, including the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic mechanisms of levodopa and levodopa-associated neurotransmitter systems.

  18. Zinc Deficiency in Humans and its Amelioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashbir Singh Shivay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in blood does not decrease in proportion of the Zn deficiency. Adverse effects of Zn deficiency vary with age: low weight gain, diarrhoea, aneroxia and neurobehavioral disturbances are observed in infants, while skin changes and dwarfism are frequent in toddlers and adolescents. Common manifestations of Zn deficiency among elderly include hypogeusia, chronic non-healing ulcers and recurrent infections.Ameliorative measures of Zn deficiency in humans can be classified in two groups, namely, nutraceutical and biofortification of food grains. Nutraceutical interventions include pharmaceutical supplements, dietary supplements and dietary diversification, while biofortification of food grains can be achieved by genetic modification (GM of crops or by agronomic techniques that include soil or/and foliar fertilization of crops.The major disadvantage of nutraceutical approaches is that the major beneficiaries are urban people and the poor rural masses that need adequate Zn nutrition most are left out. Genetic biofortification of food grains requires large amounts of funds and a fairly long-period of time. Further, a large number of countries have not yet accepted genetically modified (GM foods. On the other hand agronomic biofortification of food grains yields immediate effects and rural and urban people are equally benefitted. Our studies have shown that Zn concentration in cereals (rice, wheat etc and pulses can be considerably increased by soil or/and foliar

  19. Amelioration of fetal alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders in rats: exploring pharmacological and environmental treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, J H; Berman, R F

    2000-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorders (ARNDs) in children are characterized by life-long compromises in learning, memory, and adaptive responses. Until the advent of effective prevention measures, it will remain necessary to seek ways to treat the life-long neurobehavioral consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure. To date, there are no clinical remedies to recommend for either specific or global fetal alcohol effects. This article reviews our basic research in animal models that assesses the potential of global environmental manipulations or specific psychopharmacological treatments to ameliorate the neurobehavioral effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol. Postweaning environmental enrichment can improve behavioral performance and ameliorate or even eliminate deficits in prenatal alcohol-exposed rats, although there is persistent impairment in neuronal plasticity, as indicated by the failure of hippocampal pyramidal cells to increase dendrite spine density. Behavioral and neural responses to CNS stimulants differ in rats exposed prenatally to alcohol, although it is not clear that these shifts in dose-response curves would predict benefit to children. Although the present results may sound a note of optimism for the development of effective treatment strategies for children with FAS or ARNDs, it is important to consider that application of these findings in rodents may not be straightforward. We also need to know the critical features of specific environments that influence brain development, and the limits of pharmacotherapy, as well as critical periods of exposure. Continued study of the beneficial, ameliorative effects of environmental enrichment, rehabilitative training, and of pharmacological therapies in animal models, will remain a valuable source of information for eventually devising treatments specific for children with FAS and ARNDs.

  20. Active Theater as a Complementary Therapy for Parkinson's Disease Rehabilitation: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Modugno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most medical treatments of Parkinson's disease (PD are aimed at the reduction of motor symptoms. However, even when motor improvements are evident, patients often report a deterioration of their daily lives. Thus, to achieve a global improvement in personal well-being, not only drugs, but also complementary therapies, such as physical exercise, occupational and speech therapy, and active music therapy, have been used. We hypothesized that theater could reduce clinical disability and improve the quality of life of PD patients (primary end points more efficiently than other complementary therapies because (1 in order to impersonate a character, patients are forced to regain the control of their bodies; and (2 while being part of a group, patients have a high degree of social interaction. The need to regain the control of their bodies and their social functioning is very likely to deeply motivate patients. To assess this hypothesis, we ran a randomized, controlled, and single-blinded study that lasted 3 years, on 20 subjects affected by a moderate form of idiopathic PD, in stable treatment with L-dopa and L-dopa agonists, and without severe sensory deficits. Ten patients were randomly assigned to an active theater program (in which patients were required to participate, while the others underwent physiotherapy (control group, the most common nonpharmacological treatment for PD rehabilitation. Patients of both groups were evaluated at the beginning of each year, using five clinical rating scales (Unified ParkinsonParkinson'ss Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS], Schwab and England Scale, ParkinsonParkinson'ss Disease Quality of Life [PDQ39] Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The theater patients showed progressive improvements and, at the end of the third year, they showed significant improvements in all clinical scales. Conversely, the control patients did not exhibit significant ameliorations with time. Thus, the

  1. Motor learning: its relevance to stroke recovery and neurorehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakauer, John W

    2006-02-01

    Much of neurorehabilitation rests on the assumption that patients can improve with practice. This review will focus on arm movements and address the following questions: (i) What is motor learning? (ii) Do patients with hemiparesis have a learning deficit? (iii) Is recovery after injury a form of motor learning? (iv) Are approaches based on motor learning principles useful for rehabilitation? Motor learning can be broken into kinematic and dynamic components. Studies in healthy subjects suggest that retention of motor learning is best accomplished with variable training schedules. Animal models and functional imaging in humans show that the mature brain can undergo plastic changes during both learning and recovery. Quantitative motor control approaches allow differentiation between compensation and true recovery, although both improve with practice. Several promising new rehabilitation approaches are based on theories of motor learning. These include impairment oriented-training (IOT), constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT), electromyogram (EMG)-triggered neuromuscular stimulation, robotic interactive therapy and virtual reality (VR). Motor learning mechanisms are operative during spontaneous stroke recovery and interact with rehabilitative training. For optimal results, rehabilitation techniques should be geared towards patients' specific motor deficits and possibly combined, for example, CIMT with VR. Two critical questions that should always be asked of a rehabilitation technique are whether gains persist for a significant period after training and whether they generalize to untrained tasks.

  2. Modularity for Motor Control and Motor Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    How the central nervous system (CNS) overcomes the complexity of multi-joint and multi-muscle control and how it acquires or adapts motor skills are fundamental and open questions in neuroscience. A modular architecture may simplify control by embedding features of both the dynamic behavior of the musculoskeletal system and of the task into a small number of modules and by directly mapping task goals into module combination parameters. Several studies of the electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from many muscles during the performance of different tasks have shown that motor commands are generated by the combination of a small number of muscle synergies, coordinated recruitment of groups of muscles with specific amplitude balances or activation waveforms, thus supporting a modular organization of motor control. Modularity may also help understanding motor learning. In a modular architecture, acquisition of a new motor skill or adaptation of an existing skill after a perturbation may occur at the level of modules or at the level of module combinations. As learning or adapting an existing skill through recombination of modules is likely faster than learning or adapting a skill by acquiring new modules, compatibility with the modules predicts learning difficulty. A recent study in which human subjects used myoelectric control to move a mass in a virtual environment has tested this prediction. By altering the mapping between recorded muscle activity and simulated force applied on the mass, as in a complex surgical rearrangement of the tendons, it has been possible to show that it is easier to adapt to a perturbation that is compatible with the muscle synergies used to generate hand force than to a similar but incompatible perturbation. This result provides direct support for a modular organization of motor control and motor learning.

  3. CREB overexpression in dorsal CA1 ameliorates long-term memory deficits in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Wen; Curlik, Daniel M; Oh, M Matthew; Yin, Jerry CP; Disterhoft, John F

    2017-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying age-related cognitive deficits are not yet fully elucidated. In aged animals, a decrease in the intrinsic excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons is believed to contribute to age-related cognitive impairments. Increasing activity of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in young adult rodents facilitates cognition, and increases intrinsic excitability. However, it has yet to be tested if increasing CREB expression also ameliorates age-related behavioral and biophysical deficits. To test this hypothesis, we virally overexpressed CREB in CA1 of dorsal hippocampus. Rats received CREB or control virus, before undergoing water maze training. CREB overexpression in aged animals ameliorated the long-term memory deficits observed in control animals. Concurrently, cells overexpressing CREB in aged animals had reduced post-burst afterhyperpolarizations, indicative of increased intrinsic excitability. These results identify CREB modulation as a potential therapy to treat age-related cognitive decline. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19358.001 PMID:28051768

  4. Ginsenoside Rd ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongliang; Liu, Mei; Yang, Yaowu; Ma, Lili; Jiang, Ying; Zhou, Linli; Huang, Qiling; Pi, Rongbiao; Chen, Xiaohong

    2014-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common disabling autoimmune disease without an effective treatment in young adults. Ginsenoside Rd, extracted from Panax notoginseng, has multiple pharmacological effects and potential therapeutic applications in diseases of the central nervous system. In this study, we explore the efficacy of ginsenoside Rd in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an established model of MS. EAE was induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55-amino-acid peptide. Ginsenoside Rd (10-80 mg/kg/day) or vehicle was intraperitoneally administered on the disease onset day, and the therapy persisted throughout the experiments. The dose of 40 mg/kg/day of ginsenoside Rd was selected as optimal. Ginsenoside Rd effectively ameliorated the clinical severity in EAE mice, reduced the permeability of the blood-brain barrier, regulated the secretion of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4, promoted the Th2 shift in vivo (cerebral cortex) and in vitro (splenocytes culture supernatants), and prevented the reduction in expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor in both cerebral cortex and lumbar spinal cord of EAE mice. This study establishes the potency of ginsenoside Rd in inhibiting the clinical course of EAE. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rd could be a promising agent for amelioration of neuroimmune dysfunction diseases such as MS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Treatment with Anti-EGF Ab Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis via Induction of Neurogenesis and Oligodendrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifat Amir-Levy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The neural stem cells (NSCs migrate to the damaged sites in multiple sclerosis (MS and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. However, the differentiation into neurons or oligodendrocytes is blocked. Epidermal growth factor (EGF stimulates NSC proliferation and mobilization to demyelinated lesions but also induces astrogenesis and glial scar. Objective. To examine the clinical and histopathological effects of EGF neutralization on EAE. Methods. EAE-induced SJL mice were intravenously treated with either anti-EGF neutralizing antibody (Ab or isotype control or PBS. On day 9 after immunization, 3 mice of each group were daily treated for 9 days with BrdU and then sacrificed for immunohistochemical analysis. Results. Treatment with anti-EGF Ab significantly ameliorated EAE symptoms during the second relapse. Anti-EGF Ab induced a shift from BrdU+GFAP+ NSCs to BrdU+DCX+ neuroblasts in the subventricular zone (SVZ, increased BrdU+NeuN+ neurons in the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus, and increased BrdU+O4+ oligodendrocytes in the SVZ. There was no change in the inflammatory infiltrates in response to anti-EGF Ab. Conclusions. Therapy with anti-EGF Ab ameliorates EAE via induction of neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis. No immunosuppressive effect was found. Further investigation is needed to support these notions of beneficial effect of anti-EGF Ab in MS.

  6. A mucoactive drug carbocisteine ameliorates steroid resistance in rat COPD model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun; Yu, Ping; Lu, Juan-Juan; Lu, Hao-Zhong; Zhu, Liang; Yu, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Hong-Zhuan; Cui, Yong-Yao

    2016-08-01

    Steroid insensitivity has been commonly found in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, which is mediated by the reduction of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 2. Here we aimed to establish a steroid resistant model on experimental COPD rats and evaluate the effect of carbocisteine (S-CMC), a mucoactive drug. Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) caused marked pathological features of COPD which are insensitive to DEX associated with the down-regulation of HDAC2 expression/activity. The DEX insensitivity observed in COPD featured rats was improved by S-CMC in the aspects of inhibiting chronic lung inflammation (total and differential inflammatory cell counts, inflammatory cytokines release and inflammatory cells infiltration); ameliorating airway remodeling (thickness of airway epithelium and smooth muscle, airway fibrosis, and the level of α-SMA and TGF-β1); improving emphysema (emphysema index D2, level of MMP-9 in BALF and the expression of alpha-1 antitrypsin) and preventing impairments of lung function (PEF, IP and IP-slope). Simultaneously, down-regulation of HDAC2 expression/activity was ameliorated by S-CMC treatment. These results indicate that the rat COPD model with steroid resistance was established by active smoking in a short time frame and demonstrate that the failure of steroid therapy can be restored by S-CMC accompanied by increasing HDAC2 expression/activity, providing additional evidence that S-CMC might be used for GC resistance in COPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of G0/G1 Switch 2 Ameliorates Renal Inflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Naoya; Ikeda, Eriko; Kakimoto, Keisuke; Watanabe, Miyako; Shindo, Naoya; Tsuruta, Akito; Ikeyama, Hisako; Hamamura, Kengo; Higashi, Kazuhiro; Yamashita, Tomohiro; Kondo, Hideaki; Yoshida, Yuya; Matsuda, Masaki; Ogino, Takashi; Tokushige, Kazutaka; Itcho, Kazufumi; Furuichi, Yoko; Nakao, Takaharu; Yasuda, Kaori; Doi, Atsushi; Amamoto, Toshiaki; Aramaki, Hironori; Tsuda, Makoto; Inoue, Kazuhide; Ojida, Akio; Koyanagi, Satoru; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2016-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem, and novel therapies to treat CKD are urgently needed. Here, we show that inhibition of G0/G1 switch 2 (G0s2) ameliorates renal inflammation in a mouse model of CKD. Renal expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (Ccl2) was increased in response to p65 activation in the kidneys of wild-type 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx) mice. Moreover, 5/6Nx Clk/Clk mice, which carry homozygous mutations in the gene encoding circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK), did not exhibit aggravation of apoptosis or induction of F4/80-positive cells. The renal expression of G0s2 in wild-type 5/6Nx mice was important for the transactivation of Ccl2 by p65. These pathologies were ameliorated by G0s2 knockdown. Furthermore, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of G0s2 expression was identified by high-throughput chemical screening, and the inhibitor suppressed renal inflammation in 5/6Nx mice. These findings indicated that G0s2 inhibitors may have applications in the treatment of CKD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Control motor brushless sensorless

    OpenAIRE

    Solchaga Pérez de Lazárraga, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    El proyecto consiste en la creación de un circuito capaz de controlar la velocidad de un motor brushless sensorless. Este tipo de motores eléctricos tienen como característica que no tienen escobillas para cambiar la polaridad del bobinado de su interior y tampoco precisan de un sensor que indique que ha realizado una vuelta. Los motores brushless que son controlados por este tipo de circuitos son específicos para aeronaves no tripuladas y requieren un diseño diferente a un motor brushless pe...

  9. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael Benjamin

    2001-07-03

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  10. Bioenergetic status modulates motor neuron vulnerability and pathogenesis in a zebrafish model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope J Boyd

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Degeneration and loss of lower motor neurons is the major pathological hallmark of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, resulting from low levels of ubiquitously-expressed survival motor neuron (SMN protein. One remarkable, yet unresolved, feature of SMA is that not all motor neurons are equally affected, with some populations displaying a robust resistance to the disease. Here, we demonstrate that selective vulnerability of distinct motor neuron pools arises from fundamental modifications to their basal molecular profiles. Comparative gene expression profiling of motor neurons innervating the extensor digitorum longus (disease-resistant, gastrocnemius (intermediate vulnerability, and tibialis anterior (vulnerable muscles in mice revealed that disease susceptibility correlates strongly with a modified bioenergetic profile. Targeting of identified bioenergetic pathways by enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis rescued motor axon defects in SMA zebrafish. Moreover, targeting of a single bioenergetic protein, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (Pgk1, was found to modulate motor neuron vulnerability in vivo. Knockdown of pgk1 alone was sufficient to partially mimic the SMA phenotype in wild-type zebrafish. Conversely, Pgk1 overexpression, or treatment with terazosin (an FDA-approved small molecule that binds and activates Pgk1, rescued motor axon phenotypes in SMA zebrafish. We conclude that global bioenergetics pathways can be therapeutically manipulated to ameliorate SMA motor neuron phenotypes in vivo.

  11. Concurrent TMS to the primary motor cortex augments slow motor learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Shalini; Zhang, Wei; Rogers, William; Strickland, Casey; Franklin, Crystal; Lancaster, Jack L.; Fox, Peter T.

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has shown promise as a treatment tool, with one FDA approved use. While TMS alone is able to up- (or down-) regulate a targeted neural system, we argue that TMS applied as an adjuvant is more effective for repetitive physical, behavioral and cognitive therapies, that is, therapies which are designed to alter the network properties of neural systems through Hebbian learning. We tested this hypothesis in the context of a slow motor learning paradigm. Healthy right-handed individuals were assigned to receive 5 Hz TMS (TMS group) or sham TMS (sham group) to the right primary motor cortex (M1) as they performed daily motor practice of a digit sequence task with their non-dominant hand for 4 weeks. Resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by H215O PET at baseline and after 4 weeks of practice. Sequence performance was measured daily as the number of correct sequences performed, and modeled using a hyperbolic function. Sequence performance increased significantly at 4 weeks relative to baseline in both groups. The TMS group had a significant additional improvement in performance, specifically, in the rate of skill acquisition. In both groups, an improvement in sequence timing and transfer of skills to non-trained motor domains was also found. Compared to the sham group, the TMS group demonstrated increases in resting CBF specifically in regions known to mediate skill learning namely, the M1, cingulate cortex, putamen, hippocampus, and cerebellum. These results indicate that TMS applied concomitantly augments behavioral effects of motor practice, with corresponding neural plasticity in motor sequence learning network. These findings are the first demonstration of the behavioral and neural enhancing effects of TMS on slow motor practice and have direct application in neurorehabilitation where TMS could be applied in conjunction with physical therapy. PMID:23867557

  12. Effects of Risperidone on Cognitive-Motor Performance and Motor Movements in Chronically Medicated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Michael G.; Hollway, Jill A.; Leone, Sarah; Masty, Jessica; Lindsay, Ronald; Nash, Patricia; Arnold, L. Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the placebo-controlled effects of risperidone on cognitive-motor processes, dyskinetic movements, and behavior in children receiving maintenance risperidone therapy. Sixteen children aged 4-14 years with disruptive behavior were randomly assigned to drug order in a crossover study of risperidone and placebo for 2…

  13. Curcumin ameliorates dopaminergic neuronal oxidative damage via activation of the Akt/Nrf2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qunli; Li, Xin; Zhu, Hongcan

    2016-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related complex neurodegenerative disease that affects ≤ 80% of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). It has previously been suggested that mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and oxidative damage underlie the pathogenesis of PD. Curcumin, which is a major active polyphenol component extracted from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae), has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects on an experimental model of PD. The present study conducted a series of in vivo experiments, in order to investigate the effects of curcumin on behavioral deficits, oxidative damage and related mechanisms. The results demonstrated that curcumin was able to significantly alleviate motor dysfunction and increase suppressed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity in the SNpc of rotenone (ROT)-injured rats. Biochemical measurements indicated that rats pretreated with curcumin exhibited increased glutathione (GSH) levels, and reduced reactive oxygen species activity and malondialdehyde content. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that curcumin significantly restored the expression levels of heme oxygenase-1 and quinone oxidoreductase 1, thus ameliorating ROT-induced damage in vivo, via the phosphorylation of Akt and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Further studies indicated that the Akt/Nrf2 signaling pathway was associated with the protective role of curcumin in ROT-treated rats. Inhibiting the Akt/Nrf2 pathway using a lentiviral vector containing Nrf2-specific short hairpin RNA, or the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, markedly reduced the expression levels of TH and GSH, ultimately attenuating the neuroprotective effects of curcumin against oxidative damage. These results indicated that curcumin was able to significantly ameliorate ROT-induced dopaminergic neuronal oxidative damage in the SNpc of rats via activation of the Akt/Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  14. Celastrol ameliorates liver metabolic damage caused by a high-fat diet through Sirt1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinliang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Celastrol ameliorates NAFLD by decreasing lipid synthesis and improving the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory status. And Sirt1 has an important role in Celastrol-ameliorating liver metabolic damage caused by HFD.

  15. Melatonin Role in Ameliorating Radiation-induced Skin Damage: From Theory to Practice (A Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbaszadeh A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal skin is composed of epidermis and dermis. Skin is susceptible to radiation damage because it is a continuously renewing organ containing rapidly proliferating mature cells. Radiation burn is a damage to the skin or other biological tissues caused by exposure to radiofrequency energy or ionizing radiation. Acute skin reaction is the most frequently occurring side effect of radiation therapy. Generally, any chemical/ biological agent given before or at the time of irradiation to prevent or ameliorate damage to normal tissues is called a radioprotector. Melatonin is a highly lipophilic substance that easily penetrates organic membranes and therefore is able to protect important intracellular structures including mitochondria and DNA against oxidative damage directly at the sites where such a kind of damage would occur. Melatonin leads to an increase in the molecular level of some important antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide, dismotase and glutation-peroxidase, and also a reduction in synthetic activity of nitric oxide. There is a large body of evidence which proves the efficacy of Melatonin in ameliorating UV and X ray-induced skin damage. We propose that, in the future, Melatonin would improve the therapeutic ratio in radiation oncology and ameliorate skin damage more effectively when administered in optimal and non-toxic doses

  16. "Pure" motor hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokroverty, S; Rubino, F A

    1975-01-01

    Attenuation of cerebral evoked responses after stimulation of the median nerve in the hemiplegic limbs suggested that an apparently pure motor hemiplegia in some patients may not have pure involvement of the corticospinal system. Frontoparietal metastasis, infarction in basis pontis and medullary pyramid, and occlusion of internal carotid artery in the neck resulted in pure motor hemiplegia in some individuals. Images PMID:1185228

  17. Artificial molecular motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassem, Salma; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Lubbe, Anouk S.; Wilson, Miriam R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Leigh, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Motor proteins are nature's solution for directing movement at the molecular level. The field of artificial molecular motors takes inspiration from these tiny but powerful machines. Although directional motion on the nanoscale performed by synthetic molecular machines is a relatively new

  18. The Emotional Motor System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, G.

    1992-01-01

    A large number of new descending motor pathways to caudal brainstem and spinal cord have been recognized recently. Nevertheless all the new pathways seem to belong to one of three motor systems in the central nervous system (CNS). This survey gives an overvieuw of the pathways belonging to the

  19. Modeling Induction Motor Imbalances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armah, Kabenla; Jouffroy, Jerome; Duggen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a study into the development of a generalized model for a three-phase induction motor that offers flexibility of simulating balanced and unbalanced parameter scenarios. By analyzing the interaction of forces within the motor, we achieve our main objective of deriving the system...

  20. Information on stepping motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongarland, G.

    1982-04-01

    The principles of the stepping motors which are often used in servomechanisms are reviewed. Variable reluctance as well as permanent magnet stepping motors are considered. Their operation is explained which includes permanent rotation, starting, stopping, and resonance effects. Several application examples, drawn from problems in automation, are outlined.

  1. Brain modulation by event-related desynchronization (ERD) guided neurofeedback: toward a new therapy in acute stroke. thesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangwiriyasakul, Chayanin

    2014-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) therapy is suggested to assist motor (re)learning during stroke rehabilitation. During MI training, part of motor neurons is being recruited similar to motor execution. Repetitive recruitment of motor neurons through mental training leads to enhancement and/or restoration of

  2. Brain modulation by event-related desynchronization (ERD) guided neurofeedback: toward a new therapy in acute stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangwiriyasakul, Chayanin

    2014-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) therapy is suggested to assist motor (re)learning during stroke rehabilitation. During MI training, part of motor neurons is being recruited similar to motor execution. Repetitive recruitment of motor neurons through mental training leads to enhancement and/or restoration of

  3. Definition and classification of negative motor signs in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Terence D; Chen, Daofen; Delgado, Mauricio R; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Hallett, Mark; Mink, Jonathan W

    2006-11-01

    In this report we describe the outcome of a consensus meeting that occurred at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, March 12 through 14, 2005. The meeting brought together 39 specialists from multiple clinical and research disciplines including developmental pediatrics, neurology, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, physical therapy, occupational therapy, physical medicine and rehabilitation, neurophysiology, muscle physiology, motor control, and biomechanics. The purpose of the meeting was to establish terminology and definitions for 4 aspects of motor disorders that occur in children: weakness, reduced selective motor control, ataxia, and deficits of praxis. The purpose of the definitions is to assist communication between clinicians, select homogeneous groups of children for clinical research trials, facilitate the development of rating scales to assess improvement or deterioration with time, and eventually to better match individual children with specific therapies. "Weakness" is defined as the inability to generate normal voluntary force in a muscle or normal voluntary torque about a joint. "Reduced selective motor control" is defined as the impaired ability to isolate the activation of muscles in a selected pattern in response to demands of a voluntary posture or movement. "Ataxia" is defined as an inability to generate a normal or expected voluntary movement trajectory that cannot be attributed to weakness or involuntary muscle activity about the affected joints. "Apraxia" is defined as an impairment in the ability to accomplish previously learned and performed complex motor actions that is not explained by ataxia, reduced selective motor control, weakness, or involuntary motor activity. "Developmental dyspraxia" is defined as a failure to have ever acquired the ability to perform age-appropriate complex motor actions that is not explained by the presence of inadequate demonstration or practice, ataxia, reduced selective motor control

  4. Spasticity, Motor Recovery, and Neural Plasticity after Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Spasticity and weakness (spastic paresis) are the primary motor impairments after stroke and impose significant challenges for treatment and patient care. Spasticity emerges and disappears in the course of complete motor recovery. Spasticity and motor recovery are both related to neural plasticity after stroke. However, the relation between the two remains poorly understood among clinicians and researchers. Recovery of strength and motor function is mainly attributed to cortical plastic reorganization in the early recovery phase, while reticulospinal (RS) hyperexcitability as a result of maladaptive plasticity, is the most plausible mechanism for poststroke spasticity. It is important to differentiate and understand that motor recovery and spasticity have different underlying mechanisms. Facilitation and modulation of neural plasticity through rehabilitative strategies, such as early interventions with repetitive goal-oriented intensive therapy, appropriate non-invasive brain stimulation, and pharmacological agents, are the keys to promote motor recovery. Individualized rehabilitation protocols could be developed to utilize or avoid the maladaptive plasticity, such as RS hyperexcitability, in the course of motor recovery. Aggressive and appropriate spasticity management with botulinum toxin therapy is an example of how to create a transient plastic state of the neuromotor system that allows motor re-learning and recovery in chronic stages.

  5. Person-centred counselling to ameliorate symptoms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on the Beck Depression Inventory.16 In the absence of a systematic approach to treatment, it is apparent that depression and anxiety among patients attending public health clinics, while relatively common, may go. Person-centred counselling to ameliorate symptoms of psychological distress among South African patients ...

  6. The ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the ameliorating effects of Moringa oleifera extract compared to captopril and candesartan cilexetil on cardiovascular functions and osmotic fragility of rats exposed to petrol vapour. Twenty five adult male Wistar rats (130g-200g) were randomly grouped to five with five rats in a ...

  7. Cancer ameliorating potential of Phyllanthus amarus: In vivo and in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also significantly reduced the number of aberrant cells and frequency of aberrations per cell in vivo. Conclusion: Ameliorating potential of P. amarus was dose and duration dependant. These extracts significantly reduced the mutagenicity and genotoxicity that were produced due to AFB1 treatment both in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Using innovation platforms to scale out soil acidity- ameliorating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr V.Kabambe

    2012-01-10

    Jan 10, 2012 ... Using innovation platforms to scale out soil acidity- ameliorating technologies in Dedza ... Area (EPA) (14° 21′ E and 34° 21′ S, 1650 masl, normal annual rainfall of 1300 to 1500 mm) in Dedza. District to scale out lime .... The activities undertaken in this report were collaborative efforts of the Soil Fertility ...

  9. The ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2017-03-13

    Mar 13, 2017 ... *Correspondence: Tel.: +2348033858362; E-mail: misibisol@yahoo.com. Abstract. The present study was aimed at evaluating the ameliorating effects of Moringa oleifera extract compared to ... At the end of the exposure, 0.2ml of blood samples obtained from individual rat in each group were suspended in ...

  10. amelioration de la viscosite et de la densite energetique des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AMELIORATION DE LA VISCOSITE ET DE LA DENSITE. ENERGETIQUE DES BOUILLIES INFANTILES PREPAREES A. PARTIR DE FARINES COMPOSEES A BASE DE RIZ, DE NIEBE,. DE SOJA ET D'ARACHIDE. *S. SIDIBE1, A. COULIBALY1, D. KONE1 ET M. DOUMBIA1. 1Institut d'Economie Rurale, Rue Mohamed V, ...

  11. Ameliorative effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on anaemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of dietary supplementation of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf on anaemia and changes in erythrocyte osmotic fragility in protein energy malnourished rats. Protein energy malnutrition has been associated with anaemia and changes in osmotic fragility, deformability ...

  12. Designing urban parks that ameliorate the effects of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, R.D.; Vanos, J.; Kenny, N.; Lenzholzer, S.

    2015-01-01

    Many inhabitants of cities throughout the world suffer from health problems and discomfort that are caused by overheating of urban areas, and there is compelling evidence that these problems will be exacerbated by global climate change. Most cities are not designed to ameliorate these effects

  13. Orchidectomy Ameliorates the Vascular Hypertrophic Effect of A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye Samuel

    Orchidectomy Ameliorates the Vascular Hypertrophic Effect of A. High Salt Diet in Sprague-Dawley Rats. Oloyo, AK1, Vineetha VP 2 , Anigbogu CN1 and Sofola, OA1. 1Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos. 2Laboratory for Experimental Pathology, Biomedical Technology (BMT) Wing, Sree ...

  14. Dose-Dependent Amelioration of Gentamicin-Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    increase in serum urea and creatine while 3ml/kg of the same drug completely prevented the increase in serum urea and creatine in this model. Conclusion: Vitamin B-complex dose-dependently ameliorated gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in adult Swiss albino rats when given intramuscularly. This finding may have ...

  15. Antibiotics can ameliorate circulatory complications of liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bjørn Stæhr; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

    2011-01-01

    . This review focuses on how broad spectrum antibiotics can ameliorate the haemodynamic consequences of bacterial translocation. It is possible that the use of broad spectrum antibiotics in the future may be used to prevent other complications of liver cirrhosis than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis...

  16. Ameliorative Potential of Morin in Streptozotocin-Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameliorative Potential of Morin in Streptozotocin-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, ...

  17. Ameliorative effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Momordica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mormodica charantia has been shown to possess antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anticancer effects while the kidneys have been shown to be the second largest repository of lead in lead poisoining. This study assessed the ameliorative effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Momordica charantia on lead nitrate induced kidney ...

  18. Oral Metformin-Ascorbic Acid Co-Administration Ameliorates Alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of the present in vivo animal study was to determine whether metformin-ascorbic acid co-administration also prevents alcoholic hepatotoxicity in chronic alcohol exposure. Methods: In the present study, ameliorating effect of 200 mg/kg/day of ascorbic acid (Asc), 500 mg/kg/day of metformin (Met) and ...

  19. Ameliorative effects of salt resistance on physiological parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameliorative effects of salt resistance on physiological parameters in the halophyte Salicornia bigelovii torr. with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Edgar Omar Rueda-Puente, R Prabhaharan, B Murillo-Amador, F Ruiz-Espinoza, M Puente, RD Valdez-Cepeda ...

  20. The Effect of Vitamin E on Ameliorating Primary Dysmenorrhea: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dysmenorrhea or painful menstruation is one of the most common problems of women. Using systematic review and meta‑analysis, this study aimed to determine the effect of vitamin E on ameliorating the intensity of pain of primary dysmenorrhea. Available databases comprising PubMed, Google Scholar, ISI, Science ...

  1. Ginger Essential Oil Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    poessess potential benefits to renal patients. However, further investigations are essential to elucidate the mechanism by which GEO treatment ameliorates the nephrotoxicity. ACKNOWLEDGMENT. This study was supported by grants from the. Coordenadoria de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, Capes, and ...

  2. Gastrodia elata Blume extract ameliorates exercise- induced fatigue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... GEB extract ameliorates exercise-induced fatigue. Key words: Gastrodia elata Blume, exercise, fatigue. INTRODUCTION. Fatigue is a complex phenomenon that can be described as a time-dependent exercise-induced reduction in the maximal force generating capacity of a muscle (Gandevia,. 2001).

  3. Effect of Herbal Mycotoxin Binders in Amelioration of Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of herbal mycotoxin binders in ameliorating induced mycotoxicosis was evaluated in white leghorn laying hens. Birds were randomly divided into six groups containing 15 birds in each group. Group I was served as control fed with basal diet, group II birds were fed with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A at 100 ppb each.

  4. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph

    2018-02-13

    The objective of this project was to design and build a cost competitive, more efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) motor than what is currently available on the market. Though different potential motor architectures among QMP’s primary technology platforms were investigated and evaluated, including through the building of numerous prototypes, the project ultimately focused on scaling up QM Power, Inc.’s (QMP) Q-Sync permanent magnet synchronous motors from available sub-fractional horsepower (HP) sizes for commercial refrigeration fan applications to larger fractional horsepower sizes appropriate for HVAC applications, and to add multi-speed functionality. The more specific goal became the research, design, development, and testing of a prototype 1/2 HP Q-Sync motor that has at least two operating speeds and 87% peak efficiency compared to incumbent electronically commutated motors (EC or ECM, also known as brushless direct current (DC) motors), the heretofore highest efficiency HVACR fan motor solution, at approximately 82% peak efficiency. The resulting motor prototype built achieved these goals, hitting 90% efficiency and .95 power factor at full load and speed, and 80% efficiency and .7 power factor at half speed. Q-Sync, developed in part through a DOE SBIR grant (Award # DE-SC0006311), is a novel, patented motor technology that improves on electronically commutated permanent magnet motors through an advanced electronic circuit technology. It allows a motor to “sync” with the alternating current (AC) power flow. It does so by eliminating the constant, wasteful power conversions from AC to DC and back to AC through the synthetic creation of a new AC wave on the primary circuit board (PCB) by a process called pulse width modulation (PWM; aka electronic commutation) that is incessantly required to sustain motor operation in an EC permanent magnet motor. The Q-Sync circuit improves the power factor of the motor by removing all

  5. To What Extent Can Motor Imagery Replace Motor Execution While Learning a Fine Motor Skill?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Szarkiewicz, Sylwia; Prekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaskowski, Wojciech; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery is generally thought to share common mechanisms with motor execution. In the present study, we examined to what extent learning a fine motor skill by motor imagery may substitute physical practice. Learning effects were assessed by manipulating the proportion of motor execution and

  6. Induction motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  7. Induction motor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  8. Ghrelin ameliorates acute lung injury induced by oleic acid via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiuli; Liu, Zhijun; Yu, Ting; Yang, Haitao; Feng, Linlin

    2018-03-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with excessive mortality and lacks appropriate therapy. Ghrelin is a novel peptide that protects the lung against ALI. This study aimed to investigate whether endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) mediates the protective effect of ghrelin on ALI. We used a rat oleic acid (OA)-induced ALI model. Pulmonary impairment was detected by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, lung mechanics, wet/dry weight ratio, and arterial blood gas analysis. Plasma and lung content of ghrelin was examined by ELISA, and mRNA expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Protein levels were detected by western blot. Rats with OA treatment showed significant pulmonary injury, edema, inflammatory cellular infiltration, cytokine release, hypoxia and CO 2 retention as compared with controls. Plasma and pulmonary content of ghrelin was reduced in rats with ALI, and mRNA expression was downregulated. Ghrelin (10nmol/kg) treatment ameliorated the above symptoms, but treatment with the ghrelin antagonists D-Lys 3 GHRP-6 (1μmol/kg) and JMV 2959 (6mg/kg) exacerbated the symptoms. ERS induced by OA was prevented by ghrelin and augmented by ghrelin antagonist treatment. The ERS inducer, tunicamycin (Tm) prevented the ameliorative effect of ghrelin on ALI. The decreased ratio of p-Akt and Akt induced by OA was improved by ghrelin treatment, and was further exacerbated by ghrelin antagonists. Ghrelin protects against ALI by inhibiting ERS. These results provide a new target for prevention and therapy of ALI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. STEPPING MOTOR - HYDRAULIC MOTOR SERVO DRIVES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    machine tool systems wherever the existing production batch sizes and frequency of manufacture justifies it in a developing country. This is so mainly because numerically controlled (NC) ... Because the NC machine is an expensive item of equipment it is ... electric stepping motor is a very precise unit with. 10k ohms.

  10. Protein-Anchoring Therapy of Biglycan for Mdx Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mikako; Ehara, Yuka; Li, Jin; Inada, Kosuke; Ohno, Kinji

    2017-05-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating muscle disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in DMD encoding dystrophin. No rational therapy is currently available. Utrophin is a paralog of dystrophin and is highly expressed at the neuromuscular junction. In mdx mice, utrophin is naturally upregulated throughout the muscle fibers, which mitigates muscular dystrophy. Protein-anchoring therapy was previously reported, in which a recombinant extracellular matrix (ECM) protein is delivered to and anchored to a specific target using its proprietary binding domains. Being prompted by a report that intramuscular and intraperitoneal injection of an ECM protein, biglycan, upregulates expression of utrophin and ameliorates muscle pathology in mdx mice, protein-anchoring therapy was applied to mdx mice. Recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (rAAV8) carrying hBGN encoding human biglycan was intravenously injected into 5-week-old mdx mice. The rAAV8-hBGN treatment improved motor deficits and decreased plasma creatine kinase activities. In muscle sections of treated mice, the number of central myonuclei and the distribution of myofiber sizes were improved. The treated mice increased gene expressions of utrophin and β1-syntrophin, as well as protein expressions of biglycan, utrophin, γ-sarcoglycan, dystrobrevin, and α1-syntrophin. The expression of hBGN in the skeletal muscle of the treated mice was 1.34-fold higher than that of the native mouse Bgn (mBgn). The low transduction efficiency and improved motor functions suggest that biglycan expressed in a small number of muscle fibers was likely to have been secreted and anchored to the cell surface throughout the whole muscular fibers. It is proposed that the protein-anchoring strategy can be applied not only to deficiency of an ECM protein as previously reported, but also to augmentation of a naturally induced ECM protein.

  11. Improve Motor System Efficiency for a Broad Range of Motors with MotorMaster+ International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-05-01

    Available at no charge, MotorMaster+ International is designed to support motor systems improvement planning at industrial facilities by identifying the most cost-effective choice when deciding to repair or replace older motor models.

  12. ISRO's solid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagappa, R.; Kurup, M. R.; Muthunayagam, A. E.

    1989-08-01

    Solid rocket motors have been the mainstay of ISRO's sounding rockets and the first generation satellite launch vehicles. For the new launch vehicle under development also, the solid rocket motors contribute significantly to the vehicle's total propulsive power. The rocket motors in use and under development have been developed for a variety of applications and range in size from 30 mm dia employing 450 g of solid propellant—employed for providing a spin to the apogee motors—to the giant 2.8 m dia motor employing nearly 130 tonnes of solid propellant. The initial development, undertaken in 1967 was of small calibre motor of 75 mm dia using a double base charge. The development was essentially to understand the technological elements. Extruded aluminium tubes were used as a rocket motor casing. The fore and aft closures were machined from aluminium rods. The grain was a seven-pointed star with an enlargement of the port at the aft end and was charged into the chamber using a polyester resin system. The nozzle was a metallic heat sink type with graphite throat insert. The motor was ignited with a black powder charge and fired for 2.0 s. Subsequent to this, further developmental activities were undertaken using PVC plastisol based propellants. A class of sounding rockets ranging from 125 to 560 mm calibre were realized. These rocket motors employed improved designs and had delivered lsp ranging from 2060 to 2256 Ns/kg. Case bonding could not be adopted due to the higher cure temperatures of the plastisol propellants but improvements were made in the grain charging techniques and in the design of the igniters and the nozzle. Ablative nozzles based on asbestos phenolic and silica phenolic with graphite inserts were used. For the larger calibre rocket motors, the lsp could be improved by metallic additives. In the early 1970s designs were evolved for larger and more efficient motors. A series of 4 motors for the country's first satellite launch vehicle SLV-3 were

  13. Endocannabinoid modulation of dopaminergic motor circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa eMorera-Herreras

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence supporting a role for the endocannabinoid system as a modulator of the dopaminergic activity in the basal ganglia, a forebrain system that integrates cortical information to coordinate motor activity regulating signals. In fact, the administration of plant-derived, synthetic or endogenous cannabinoids produces several effects on motor function. These effects are mediated primarily through the CB1 receptors that are densely located in the dopamine-enriched basal ganglia networks, suggesting that the motor effects of endocannabinoids are due, at least in part, to modulation of dopaminergic transmission.On the other hand, there are profound changes in CB1 receptor cannabinoid signaling in the basal ganglia circuits after dopamine depletion (as happens in Parkinson´s disease and following L-DOPA replacement therapy. Therefore, it has been suggested that endocannabinoid system modulation may constitute an important component in new therapeutic approaches to the treatment of motor disturbances. In this article we will review studies supporting the endocannabinoid modulation of dopaminergic motor circuits.

  14. At the interface of sensory and motor dysfunctions and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Mark W.; Gilmore, Grover C.; Kaye, Jeffrey; Murphy, Claire; Wingfield, Arthur; Bennett, David A.; Boxer, Adam L.; Buchman, Aron S.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Devanand, Davangere P.; Duffy, Charles J.; Gall, Christine M.; Gates, George A.; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Hensch, Takao; Holtzer, Roee; Hyman, Bradley T.; Lin, Frank R.; McKee, Ann C.; Morris, John C.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Silbert, Lisa C.; Struble, Robert G.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Verghese, Joe; Wilson, Donald A.; Xu, Shunbin; Zhang, Li I.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that sensory and motor changes may precede the cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by several years and may signify increased risk of developing AD. Traditionally, sensory and motor dysfunctions in aging and AD have been studied separately. To ascertain the evidence supporting the relationship between age-related changes in sensory and motor systems and the development of AD and to facilitate communication between several disciplines, the National Institute on Aging held an exploratory workshop titled “Sensory and Motor Dysfunctions in Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease”. The scientific sessions of the workshop focused on age-related and neuropathological changes in the olfactory, visual, auditory, and motor systems, followed by extensive discussion and hypothesis generation related to the possible links among sensory, cognitive, and motor domains in aging and AD. Based on the data presented and discussed at this workshop, it is clear that sensory and motor regions of the CNS are affected by Alzheimer pathology and that interventions targeting amelioration of sensory-motor deficits in AD may enhance patient function as AD progresses. PMID:25022540

  15. Motor performance in children with Noonan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croonen, Ellen A; Essink, Marlou; van der Burgt, Ineke; Draaisma, Jos M; Noordam, Cees; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2017-09-01

    Although problems with motor performance in daily life are frequently mentioned in Noonan syndrome, the motor performance profile has never been systematically investigated. The aim of this study was to examine whether a specific profile in motor performance in children with Noonan syndrome was seen using valid norm-referenced tests. The study assessed motor performance in 19 children with Noonan syndrome (12 females, mean age 9 years 4 months, range 6 years 1 month to 11 years and 11 months, SDS 1 year and 11 months). More than 60% of the parents of the children reported pain, decreased muscle strength, reduced endurance, and/or clumsiness in daily functioning. The mean standard scores on the Visual Motor Integration (VMI) test and Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, Dutch version (MABC-2-NL) items differed significantly from the reference scores. Grip strength, muscle force, and 6 min Walking Test (6 MWT) walking distance were significantly lower, and the presence of generalized hypermobility was significantly higher. All MABC-2-NL scores (except manual dexterity) correlated significantly with almost all muscle strength tests, VMI total score, and VMI visual perception score. The 6 MWT was only significantly correlated to grip strength. This is the first study that confirms that motor performance, strength, and endurance are significantly impaired in children with Noonan syndrome. Decreased functional motor performance seems to be related to decreased visual perception and reduced muscle strength. Research on causal relationships and the effectiveness of interventions is needed. Physical and/or occupational therapy guidance should be considered to enhance participation in daily life. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Delivery of Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Ameliorates Ischemia Induced Limb Injury by Immunomodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peripheral artery disease (PAD is a major health burden in the world. Stem cell-based therapy has emerged as an attractive treatment option in regenerative medicine. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that stem cell-based therapy can ameliorate ischemia induced limb injury. Methods: We isolated mesenchymal stem cells derived from human placentas (PMSCs and intramuscularly transplanted them into injured hind limbs. Treatment with PMSCs reduced acute muscle fibers apoptosis induced by ischemia. Results: PMSC treatment significantly enhanced regeneration of the injured hind limb by reducing fibrosis and enhancing running capacity when the animals were subjected to treadmill training. Mechanistically, injected PMSCs can modulate acute inflammatory responses by reducing neutrophil and macrophage infiltration following limb ischemia. ELISA assays further confirmed that PMSC treatment can also reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6, and enhance anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 at the injury sites. Conclusion: Taken together, our results demonstrated that PMSCs can be a potential effective therapy for treatment of PAD via immunomodulation.

  17. Convolutional Neural Network for Stereotypical Motor Movement Detection in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Rad, Nastaran Mohammadian; Bizzego, Andrea; Kia, Seyed Mostafa; Jurman, Giuseppe; Venuti, Paola; Furlanello, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are often associated with specific atypical postural or motor behaviors, of which Stereotypical Motor Movements (SMMs) have a specific visibility. While the identification and the quantification of SMM patterns remain complex, its automation would provide support to accurate tuning of the intervention in the therapy of autism. Therefore, it is essential to develop automatic SMM detection systems in a real world setting, taking care of strong inter-subject and ...

  18. Piezoelectric Rotary Tube Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Charles D.; Badescu, Mircea; Braun, David F.; Culhane, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A custom rotary SQUIGGLE(Registered TradeMark) motor has been developed that sets new benchmarks for small motor size, high position resolution, and high torque without gear reduction. Its capabilities cannot be achieved with conventional electromagnetic motors. It consists of piezoelectric plates mounted on a square flexible tube. The plates are actuated via voltage waveforms 90 out of phase at the resonant frequency of the device to create rotary motion. The motors were incorporated into a two-axis postioner that was designed for fiber-fed spectroscopy for ground-based and space-based projects. The positioner enables large-scale celestial object surveys to take place in a practical amount of time.

  19. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    interneurons and exert a direct (willful) muscle control with the aid of a context-dependent integration of somatosensory and visual information at cortical level. However, spinal networks also play an important role. Sensory feedback through spinal circuitries is integrated with central motor commands...... and contributes importantly to the muscle activity underlying voluntary movements. Regulation of spinal interneurons is used to switch between motor states such as locomotion (reciprocal innervation) and stance (coactivation pattern). Cortical regulation of presynaptic inhibition of sensory afferents may focus...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...

  20. Motor Carrier Crash Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Contains data on large trucks and buses involved in Federally reportable crashes as per Title 49 U.S.C. Part 390.5 (crashes involving a commercial motor vehicle, and...

  1. Molecular motors: Dynein's gearbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, R A

    2004-05-04

    A new optical trapping study shows that the stepsize of cytoplasmic dynein varies according to the applied force, suggesting that this motor can change gear. Complementary biochemical kinetic work on yeast dynein mutants hints at the allosteric mechanisms involved.

  2. Diagnostic method for induction motor using simplified motor simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Doumae, Yukihiro; Konishi, Masami; Imai, Jun; Asada, Hideki; Kitamura, Akira

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, an identification method of motor parameters for the diagnosis of rotor bar defects in the squirrel cage induction motor is proposed. It is difficult to distinguish the degree of deterioration by a conventional diagnostic method such as Fourier analysis. To overcome the difficulty, a motor simulator is used to identify the degree of deterioration of rotors in the squirrel cage induction motor. Using this method, the deterioration of rotor bars in the motor can be estimated quan...

  3. Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Enhances Angiogenesis and Ameliorates Left Ventricular Dysfunction in a Mouse Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Tomohiko; Ito, Kenta; Ogata, Tsuyoshi; Hatanaka, Kazuaki; Kurosawa, Ryo; Eguchi, Kumiko; Kagaya, Yuta; Hanawa, Kenichiro; Aizawa, Kentaro; Shiroto, Takashi; Kasukabe, Sachie; Miyata, Satoshi; Taki, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Kanai, Hiroshi; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2016-06-01

    Left ventricular (LV) remodeling after acute myocardial infarction still remains an important issue in cardiovascular medicine. We have recently demonstrated that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) therapy improves myocardial ischemia in a pig model of chronic myocardial ischemia through enhanced myocardial angiogenesis. In the present study, we aimed to demonstrate whether LIPUS also ameliorates LV remodeling after acute myocardial infarction and if so, to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of LIPUS. We examined the effects of LIPUS on LV remodeling in a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction, where the heart was treated with either LIPUS or no-LIPUS 3 times in the first week (days 1, 3, and 5). The LIPUS improved mortality and ameliorated post-myocardial infarction LV remodeling in mice. The LIPUS upregulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, phosphorylated ERK, and phosphorylated Akt in the infarcted area early after acute myocardial infarction, leading to enhanced angiogenesis. Microarray analysis in cultured human endothelial cells showed that a total of 1050 genes, including those of the vascular endothelial growth factor signaling and focal adhesion pathways, were significantly altered by the LIPUS. Knockdown with small interfering RNA of either β1-integrin or caveolin-1, both of which are known to play key roles in mechanotransduction, suppressed the LIPUS-induced upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor. Finally, in caveolin-1-deficient mice, the beneficial effects of LIPUS on mortality and post-myocardial infarction LV remodeling were absent. These results indicate that the LIPUS therapy ameliorates post-myocardial infarction LV remodeling in mice in vivo, for which mechanotransduction and its downstream pathways may be involved. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. The effect of visual therapy on 7- to 8-year old children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor ocular motor control show relationships with motor coordination problems, which can contribute to academic problems and poor motor skill development needed for successful sport participation. Visual therapy is indicated as a possible way to address poor ocular motor control. The aim of this study was to determine ...

  5. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  6. Infiltration in reclaimed mined land ameliorated with deep tillage treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P.T. [Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Plant Soil and General Agriculture

    1997-12-22

    Reclamation of mined land with heavy machinery can result in soil compaction, which increases soil bulk density and reduces porosity, water infiltrability, root elongation and crop productivity. This paper examines the effect on infiltration in reclaimed surface mined land of a deep tillage treatment, and the subsequent changes in infiltration after the amelioration. The experiment was conducted at the Horse Creek Mine near Conant, Ferry County, IL, USA.

  7. Antibiotics can ameliorate circulatory complications of liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bjørn Stæhr; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

    2011-01-01

    Livercirrhosis can be complicated by a hyperdynamic circulatory syndrome. This is due to translocation of bacteria and bacterial product (bacterial DNA and endotoxins), which stimulate the splanchnic nitric oxide synthase and leads to splanchnic vasodilatation and haemodynamic derangement....... This review focuses on how broad spectrum antibiotics can ameliorate the haemodynamic consequences of bacterial translocation. It is possible that the use of broad spectrum antibiotics in the future may be used to prevent other complications of liver cirrhosis than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis...

  8. Using noise to shape motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Elias B; Kording, Konrad P; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A

    2017-02-01

    Each of our movements is selected from any number of alternative movements. Some studies have shown evidence that the central nervous system (CNS) chooses to make the specific movements that are least affected by motor noise. Previous results showing that the CNS has a natural tendency to minimize the effects of noise make the direct prediction that if the relationship between movements and noise were to change, the specific movements people learn to make would also change in a predictable manner. Indeed, this has been shown for well-practiced movements such as reaching. Here, we artificially manipulated the relationship between movements and visuomotor noise by adding noise to a motor task in a novel redundant geometry such that there arose a single control policy that minimized the noise. This allowed us to see whether, for a novel motor task, people could learn the specific control policy that minimized noise or would need to employ other compensation strategies to overcome the added noise. As predicted, subjects were able to learn movements that were biased toward the specific ones that minimized the noise, suggesting not only that the CNS can learn to minimize the effects of noise in a novel motor task but also that artificial visuomotor noise can be a useful tool for teaching people to make specific movements. Using noise as a teaching signal promises to be useful for rehabilitative therapies and movement training with human-machine interfaces. Many theories argue that we choose to make the specific movements that minimize motor noise. Here, by changing the relationship between movements and noise, we show that people actively learn to make movements that minimize noise. This not only provides direct evidence for the theories of noise minimization but presents a way to use noise to teach specific movements to improve rehabilitative therapies and human-machine interface control. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Curcumin Ameliorates Functional and Structural Abnormalities in Cisplatin-induced Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agthong, Sithiporn; Kaewsema, Athitaya; Charoensub, Thuntawat

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the major side effects of cisplatin; however, effective treatments are lacking. Curcumin is a polyphenol found in the root of Curcuma longa and has been shown neuroprotective against several neurological diseases. Nevertheless, its effects on cisplatin neuropathy remain unclear. This study aimed to clarify this issue by inducing neuropathy in the rats with intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin 2 mg/kg twice a week for 5 consecutive weeks. Curcumin 200 mg/kg/day was given by gavage to a group of cisplatin-treated rats during these five weeks. The results showed that cisplatin induced thermal hypoalgesia in the 5(th) week which could be prevented by curcumin. In the 5(th) and 8(th) weeks, sciatic motor nerve conduction velocity was reduced in the cisplatin compared with the control groups. Curcumin significantly attenuated this deficit. Morphometric analysis of L4 dorsal root ganglia from the cisplatin group revealed nuclear and nucleolar atrophy including loss of neurons in the 8(th) week. These alterations were significantly blocked by curcumin. Moreover, curcumin also ameliorated the reduced myelin thickness in the sciatic nerve of cisplatin-treated rats. Taken together, our findings suggest the favorable effects of curcumin on both functional and structural abnormalities in cisplatin neuropathy. Future studies are needed to clarify the exact underlying mechanisms.

  10. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum – brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma – red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity. PMID:25856799

  11. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum - brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma - red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity.

  12. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of olmesartan medoxomil ameliorate experimental colitis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagib, Marwa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, Cairo (Egypt); Tadros, Mariane G., E-mail: mirogeogo@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); ELSayed, Moushira I. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Misr International University, Cairo (Egypt); Khalifa, Amani E. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-08-15

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) driven through altered immune responses with production of proinflammatory cytokines. Many therapies are used, but side effects and loss of response limit long-term effectiveness. New therapeutic strategies are thus needed for patients who don't respond to current treatments. Recently, there is suggested involvement of the proinflammatory hormone angiotensin II in inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM-M), an angiotensin II receptor blocker in ameliorating ulcerative colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by administration of 5% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water for 5 days. OLM-M (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) was administered orally during 21 days prior to the induction of colitis, and for 5 days after. Sulfasalazine (500 mg/kg) was used as reference drug. All animals were tested for changes in colon length, disease activity index (DAI) and microscopic damage. Colon tissue concentration/activity of tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α), myeloperoxidase (MPO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed. Results showed that the OLM-M dose-dependently ameliorated the colonic histopathological and biochemical injuries, an effect that is comparable or even better than that of the standard sulfasalazine. These results suggest that olmesartan medoxomil may be effective in the treatment of UC through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. - Highlights: • Olmesartan medoximil reduced dextran sodium sulphate- induced colitis. • Mechanism involved anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects dose- dependently. • It suppressed malondialdehyde and restored reduced glutathione levels. • It reduced inflammatory markers levels and histological changes.

  13. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications.

  14. Disruption of Axonal Transport in Motor Neuron Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen Sobue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor neurons typically have very long axons, and fine-tuning axonal transport is crucial for their survival. The obstruction of axonal transport is gaining attention as a cause of neuronal dysfunction in a variety of neurodegenerative motor neuron diseases. Depletions in dynein and dynactin-1, motor molecules regulating axonal trafficking, disrupt axonal transport in flies, and mutations in their genes cause motor neuron degeneration in humans and rodents. Axonal transport defects are among the early molecular events leading to neurodegeneration in mouse models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Gene expression profiles indicate that dynactin-1 mRNA is downregulated in degenerating spinal motor neurons of autopsied patients with sporadic ALS. Dynactin-1 mRNA is also reduced in the affected neurons of a mouse model of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, a motor neuron disease caused by triplet CAG repeat expansion in the gene encoding the androgen receptor. Pathogenic androgen receptor proteins also inhibit kinesin-1 microtubule-binding activity and disrupt anterograde axonal transport by activating c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Disruption of axonal transport also underlies the pathogenesis of spinal muscular atrophy and hereditary spastic paraplegias. These observations suggest that the impairment of axonal transport is a key event in the pathological processes of motor neuron degeneration and an important target of therapy development for motor neuron diseases.

  15. Proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proton beam therapy; Cancer - proton therapy; Radiation therapy - proton therapy; Prostate cancer - proton therapy ... that use x-rays to destroy cancer cells, proton therapy uses a beam of special particles called ...

  16. Vipera russelli venom-induced oxidative stress and hematological alterations: amelioration by crocin a dietary colorant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastin Santhosh, M; Hemshekhar, M; Thushara, R M; Devaraja, S; Kemparaju, K; Girish, K S

    2013-01-01

    Snakebite is a serious medical and socio-economic problem affecting the healthy individuals and agricultural and farming populations worldwide. In India, Vipera russelli snakebite is common, ensuing high morbidity and mortality. The venom components persuade multifactorial stress phenomenon and alter the physiological setting by causing disruption of the blood cells and vital organs. The present study demonstrates the anti-ophidian property of Crocin (Crocus sativus), a potent antioxidant against viper venom-induced oxidative stress. The in vivo oxidative damage induced by venom was clearly evidenced by the increased oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes/molecules along with the proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6. Furthermore, venom depleted the hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and platelet count in experimental animals. Crocin ameliorated the venom-induced oxidative stress, hematological alteration and proinflammatory cytokine levels. At present, administration of antivenom is an effective therapy against systemic toxicity, but it offers no protection against the rapidly spreading oxidative damage and infiltration of pro-inflammatory mediators. These pathologies will continue even after antivenom administration. Hence, a long-term auxiliary therapy is required to treat secondary as well as neglected complications of snakebite. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Resveratrol Ameliorates the Depressive-Like Behaviors and Metabolic Abnormalities Induced by Chronic Corticosterone Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cheng Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic glucocorticoid exposure is known to cause depression and metabolic disorders. It is critical to improve abnormal metabolic status as well as depressive-like behaviors in patients with long-term glucocorticoid therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol on the depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by chronic corticosterone injection. Male ICR mice were administrated corticosterone (40 mg/kg by subcutaneous injection for three weeks. Resveratrol (50 and 100 mg/kg, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg and pioglitazone (10 mg/kg were given by oral gavage 30 min prior to corticosterone administration. The behavioral tests showed that resveratrol significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors induced by corticosterone, including the reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility time in the forced swimming test. Moreover, resveratrol also increased the secretion of insulin, reduced serum level of glucose and improved blood lipid profiles in corticosterone-treated mice without affecting normal mice. However, fluoxetine only reverse depressive-like behaviors, and pioglitazone only prevent the dyslipidemia induced by corticosterone. Furthermore, resveratrol and pioglitazone decreased serum level of glucagon and corticosterone. The present results indicated that resveratrol can ameliorate depressive-like behaviors and metabolic abnormalities induced by corticosterone, which suggested that the multiple effects of resveratrol could be beneficial for patients with depression and/or metabolic syndrome associated with long-term glucocorticoid therapy.

  18. Exclusive enteral nutrition ameliorates mesenteric adipose tissue alterations in patients with active Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yun; Li, Yi; Mei, Shuqin; Zhang, Liang; Gong, Jianfeng; Gu, Lili; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Weiming; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2014-10-01

    Mesenteric adipose tissue hypertrophy is a hallmark of Crohn's disease and can express various adipokines. Exclusive enteral nutrition could effectively induce remission in Crohn's disease with mechanisms largely unknown. We investigated whether exclusive enteral nutrition could modify mesenteric fat in patients with active Crohn's disease. Sixteen patients who underwent resection for ileum Crohn's disease were studied. As a control group, eight patients without inflammatory bowel disease were enrolled. Before operation, eight Crohn's disease patients received exclusive enteral nutrition for four weeks, and the other patients had no nutritional therapy. The mesenteric fat samples were obtained during operation. Adipocyte size, adipokine production and topical C-reactive protein level were assessed. The adipocyte size from patients treated with exclusive enteral nutrition was much larger than that from Crohn's disease patients without nutritional therapy. Furthermore, protein levels of proinflammatory adipokines such as TNF-alpha and leptin were lower while protein level of adiponectin was higher in these patients. As to mRNA level, the expression of adiponctin was up-regulated and leptin was down-regulated in the patients received enteral nutrition. Exclusive enteral nutrition could ameliorate mesenteric fat alterations which are associated with intestinal injury in patients with Crohn's disease by restoring adipocyte morphology and diminishing the inflammatory environment of mesenteric fat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Exercise on Motor and Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khashayar Dashtipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Novel rehabilitation strategies have demonstrated potential benefits for motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD. Objective. To compare the effects of Lee Silverman Voice Therapy BIG (LSVT BIG therapy versus a general exercise program (combined treadmill plus seated trunk and limb exercises on motor and non-motor symptoms of PD. Methods. Eleven patients with early-mid stage PD participated in the prospective, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Both groups received 16 one-hour supervised training sessions over 4 weeks. Outcome measures included the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS. Five patients performed general exercise and six patients performed LSVT BIG therapy. Post-intervention evaluations were conducted at weeks 4, 12 and 24. Results. The combined cohort made improvements at all follow-up evaluations with statistical significance for UPDRS total and motor, BDI, and MFIS (P<0.05. Conclusion. This study demonstrated positive effects of general exercise and LSVT BIG therapy on motor and non-motor symptoms of patients with PD. Our results suggest that general exercise may be as effective as LSVT BIG therapy on symptoms of PD for patients not able to readily access outpatient LSVT BIG therapy.

  20. Improvement in precision grip force control with self-modulation of primary motor cortex during motor imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura eBlefari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Motor imagery (MI has shown effectiveness in enhancing motor performance. This may be due to the common neural mechanisms underlying MI and motor execution (ME. The main region of the ME network, the primary motor cortex (M1, has been consistently linked to motor performance. However, the activation of M1 during motor imagery is controversial, which may account for inconsistent rehabilitation therapy outcomes using MI. Here, we examined the relationship between contralateral M1 (cM1 activation during MI and changes in sensorimotor performance. To aid cM1 activity modulation during MI, we used real-time fMRI neurofeedback-guided MI based on cM1 hand area blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal in healthy subjects, performing kinesthetic MI of pinching. We used multiple regression analysis to examine the correlation between cM1 BOLD signal and changes in motor performance during an isometric pinching task of those subjects who were able to activate cM1 during motor imagery. Activities in premotor and parietal regions were used as covariates. We found that cM1 activity was positively correlated to improvements in accuracy as well as overall performance improvements, whereas other regions in the sensorimotor network were not. The association between cM1 activation during MI with performance changes indicates that subjects with stronger cM1 activation during MI may benefit more from MI training, with implications towards targeted neurotherapy.

  1. Treating the Motor Symptoms of Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John C; Fox, Susan H

    2016-08-01

    After a patient is diagnosed with Parkinson disease (PD), there are many therapeutic options available. This article provides examples of prototypical patients encountered in clinical practice and illustrates the various pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment options for the motor symptoms of PD. Levodopa became available in the late 1960s and remains the gold standard for the treatment of PD even today. Since that time, amantadine, monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors, dopamine agonists, and catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors have emerged as monotherapy, add-on therapies, or both, in the armamentarium against PD. The most appropriate time to start such drugs remains a clinical decision according to patient symptoms. However, earlier use of levodopa is the more common practice due to its superior benefit and the side effects of dopamine agonists. Deep brain stimulation continues to be the most effective treatment for motor symptoms in appropriate patients, and advances in technology may improve efficacy. New ways to deliver levodopa have emerged (effective extended-release oral preparations and levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel), and these medications provide additional options for certain patients. Exercise and neurorehabilitation are increasingly recognized as important tools to combat the motor symptoms of PD. Nondopaminergic drugs may help non-levodopa-responsive motor symptoms. Treatment of PD is multifaceted and requires a tailored pharmacotherapeutic and nonpharmacologic approach for a given patient. Patients should be at the center of care, and clinicians should try to provide optimum benefit through the many treatment options available.

  2. Advanced AC Motor Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmierkowski, M.P. [Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warszawa (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper a review of control methods for high performance PWM inverter-fed induction motor drives is presented. Starting from the description of an induction motor by the help of the space vectors, three basic control strategic are discussed. As first, the most popular Field Oriented Control (FOC) is described. Secondly, the Direct Torque and Flux vector Control (DTFC) method, which - in contrast to FOC - depart from idea of coordinate transformation and analogy with DC motor, is briefly characterized. The last group is based on Feedback Linearization Control (FLC) and can be easy combined with sliding mode control. The simulation and experimental oscillograms that illustrate the performance of the discussed control strategies are shown. (orig.) 35 refs.

  3. Motor neurons and the generation of spinal motor neurons diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eStifani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Motor neurons (MNs are neuronal cells located in the central nervous system (CNS controlling a variety of downstream targets. This function infers the existence of MN subtypes matching the identity of the targets they innervate. To illustrate the mechanism involved in the generation of cellular diversity and the acquisition of specific identity, this review will focus on spinal motor neurons (SpMNs that have been the core of significant work and discoveries during the last decades. SpMNs are responsible for the contraction of effector muscles in the periphery. Humans possess more than 500 different skeletal muscles capable to work in a precise time and space coordination to generate complex movements such as walking or grasping. To ensure such refined coordination, SpMNs must retain the identity of the muscle they innervate.Within the last two decades, scientists around the world have produced considerable efforts to elucidate several critical steps of SpMNs differentiation. During development, SpMNs emerge from dividing progenitor cells located in the medial portion of the ventral neural tube. MN identities are established by patterning cues working in cooperation with intrinsic sets of transcription factors. As the embryo develop, MNs further differentiate in a stepwise manner to form compact anatomical groups termed pools connecting to a unique muscle target. MN pools are not homogeneous and comprise subtypes according to the muscle fibers they innervate.This article aims to provide a global view of MN classification as well as an up-to-date review of the molecular mechanisms involved in the generation of SpMN diversity. Remaining conundrums will be discussed since a complete understanding of those mechanisms constitutes the foundation required for the elaboration of prospective MN regeneration therapies.

  4. Transformers and motors

    CERN Document Server

    Shultz, George

    1991-01-01

    Transformers and Motors is an in-depth technical reference which was originally written for the National Joint Apprenticeship Training Committee to train apprentice and journeymen electricians. This book provides detailed information for equipment installation and covers equipment maintenance and repair. The book also includes troubleshooting and replacement guidelines, and it contains a minimum of theory and math.In this easy-to-understand, practical sourcebook, you'll discover:* Explanations of the fundamental concepts of transformers and motors* Transformer connections and d

  5. [Non-drug therapies for CRPS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, H H; Tanislav, C; Birklein, F

    2012-06-01

    State of the art CRPS therapy comprises medication, interventional therapies and non-pharmaceutical treatments like physiotherapy (PT), occupational therapy, PT with cognitive behavioural elements (mirror therapy, 'motor imagery', and 'graded exposure'), psychotherapeutic methods, local therapies and neurostimulation. These treatments are mostly as successful as medical or interventional treatment. These effects have been demonstrated in small but randomised controlled studies. Adjuvant therapies were shown to reduce pain and the severity of dysfunction in CRPS. Therefore, these non-drug therapies should be an essential part of any multimodal CRPS treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. [Combination therapy with lisuride and L-dopa in the early stages of Parkinson's disease decreases and delays the development of motor fluctuations. Long-term study over 10 years in comparison with L-dopa monotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, U K

    1999-01-01

    A randomized, prospective study was carried out in order to investigate the efficacy of a dopamine agonist, lisuride, alone or in combination with levodopa, to minimize or postpone the development of motor fluctuations, compared with levodopa alone during 10 years' treatment of 90 patients with early Parkinson's disease. Only a small, and with time gradually decreasing number of patients obtained enough therapeutic benefit during long-term treatment with lisuride alone. Consequently, levodopa had to be added to the patients' regimen. During combined treatment with lisuride and levodopa the daily dose of levodopa needed for optimal therapeutic response was significantly lower than when using levodopa alone. The addition of levodopa to the lisuride regimen either from the beginning or at any time during long-term treatment according to clinical need, resulted in a therapeutic response in parkinsonian disability equal to that achieved with levodopa alone, but significantly decreased and postponed the development of motor fluctuations, end-of-dose failure and dyskinesias. Severe dopaminergic adverse events leading to withdrawal of the treatment were more frequent during treatment with lisuride and levodopa than with levodopa alone, but the lower mortality rate did not reach the level of statistical significance. In conclusion, according to the results obtained, it seems reasonable to consider a treatment strategy in early Parkinson's disease using a dopamine agonist, like lisuride, as the primary treatment and to delay the addition of levodopa until parkinsonian disability cannot be adequately controlled by a dopamine agonist.

  7. Mechanical design of electric motors

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Rapid increases in energy consumption and emphasis on environmental protection have posed challenges for the motor industry, as has the design and manufacture of highly efficient, reliable, cost-effective, energy-saving, quiet, precisely controlled, and long-lasting electric motors.Suitable for motor designers, engineers, and manufacturers, as well as maintenance personnel, undergraduate and graduate students, and academic researchers, Mechanical Design of Electric Motors provides in-depth knowledge of state-of-the-art design methods and developments of electric motors. From motor classificati

  8. Randomized controlled comparative study on effect of training to improve lower limb motor paralysis in convalescent patients with post-stroke hemiplegia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kawakami, Kenji; Miyasaka, Hiroyuki; Nonoyama, Sayaka; Hayashi, Kazuya; Tonogai, Yusuke; Tanino, Genichi; Wada, Yosuke; Narukawa, Akihisa; Okuyama, Yuko; Tomita, Yutaka; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The motor paralysis-improving effect on the hemiplegic lower limb was compared among mirror therapy, integrated volitional-control electrical stimulation, therapeutic electrical stimulation...

  9. Randomized controlled comparative study on effect of training to improve lower limb motor paralysis in convalescent patients with post-stroke hemiplegia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KENJI KAWAKAMI; HIROYUKI MIYASAKA; SAYAKA NONOYAMA; KAZUYA HAYASHI; YUSUKE TONOGAI; GENICHI TANINO; YOSUKE WADA; AKIHISA NARUKAWA; YUKO OKUYAMA; YUTAKA TOMITA; SHIGERU SONODA

    2015-01-01

    [Abstract.] [Purpose] The motor paralysis-improving effect on the hemiplegic lower limb was compared among mirror therapy, integrated volitional-control electrical stimulation, therapeutic electrical stimulation...

  10. Brain effective connectivity during motor-imagery and execution following stroke and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Bajaj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain areas within the motor system interact directly or indirectly during motor-imagery and motor-execution tasks. These interactions and their functionality can change following stroke and recovery. How brain network interactions reorganize and recover their functionality during recovery and treatment following stroke are not well understood. To contribute to answering these questions, we recorded blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI signals from 10 stroke survivors and evaluated dynamical causal modeling (DCM-based effective connectivity among three motor areas: primary motor cortex (M1, pre-motor cortex (PMC and supplementary motor area (SMA, during motor-imagery and motor-execution tasks. We compared the connectivity between affected and unaffected hemispheres before and after mental practice and combined mental practice and physical therapy as treatments. The treatment (intervention period varied in length between 14 to 51 days but all patients received the same dose of 60 h of treatment. Using Bayesian model selection (BMS approach in the DCM approach, we found that, after intervention, the same network dominated during motor-imagery and motor-execution tasks but modulatory parameters suggested a suppressive influence of SM A on M1 during the motor-imagery task whereas the influence of SM A on M1 was unrestricted during the motor-execution task. We found that the intervention caused a reorganization of the network during both tasks for unaffected as well as for the affected hemisphere. Using Bayesian model averaging (BMA approach, we found that the intervention improved the regional connectivity among the motor areas during both the tasks. The connectivity between PMC and M1 was stronger in motor-imagery tasks whereas the connectivity from PMC to M1, SM A to M1 dominated in motor-execution tasks. There was significant behavioral improvement (p = 0.001 in sensation and motor movements

  11. Spatial cognitive rehabilitation and motor recovery after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, A.M.; Muzaffar, Tufail

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Stroke rehabilitation needs to take major steps forward to reduce functional disability for survivors. In this article, we suggest that spatial retraining might greatly increase the efficiency and efficacy of motor rehabilitation, directly addressing the burden and cost of paralysis after stroke. Recent findings Combining motor and cognitive treatment may be practical, as well as addressing needs after moderate–to-severe stroke. Spatial neglect could suppress motor recovery and reduce motor learning, even when patients receive appropriate rehabilitation to build strength, dexterity, and endurance. Spatial neglect rehabilitation acts to promote motor as well as visual-perceptual recovery. These findings, and previous underemphasized studies, make a strong case for combining spatial neglect treatment with traditional exercise training. Spatial neglect therapies might also help people who cannot participate in intensive movement therapies because of limited strength and endurance after stroke. Summary Spatial retraining, currently used selectively after right brain stroke, may be broadly useful after stroke to promote rapid motor recovery. PMID:25364954

  12. Current Nondopaminergic Therapeutic Options for Motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan-Juan; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to summarize recent studies on nondopaminergic options for the treatment of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Data Sources: Papers in English published in PubMed, Cochrane, and Ovid Nursing databases between January 1988 and November 2016 were searched using the following keywords: PD, nondopaminergic therapy, adenosine, glutamatergic, adrenergic, serotoninergic, histaminic, and iron chelator. We also reviewed the ongoing clinical trials in the website of clinicaltrials.gov. Study Selection: Articles related to the nondopaminergic treatment of motor symptoms in PD were selected for this review. Results: PD is conventionally treated with dopamine replacement strategies, which are effective in the early stages of PD. Long-term use of levodopa could result in motor complications. Recent studies revealed that nondopaminergic systems such as adenosine, glutamatergic, adrenergic, serotoninergic, histaminic, and iron chelator pathways could include potential therapeutic targets for motor symptoms, including motor fluctuations, levodopa-induced dyskinesia, and gait disorders. Some nondopaminergic drugs, such as istradefylline and amantadine, are currently used clinically, while most such drugs are in preclinical testing stages. Transitioning of these agents into clinically beneficial strategies requires reliable evaluation since several agents have failed to show consistent results despite positive findings at the preclinical level. Conclusions: Targeting nondopaminergic transmission could improve some motor symptoms in PD, especially the discomfort of dyskinesia. Although nondopaminergic treatments show great potential in PD treatment as an adjunct therapy to levodopa, further investigation is required to ensure their success. PMID:28748860

  13. Landscape Planning of Forest Amelioration on Irrigated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruleva Olga Vasilyevna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors study the landscape program which supposes the formation of land use system aimed at connection of protective shelterbelts to geo-morphological watershed elements, relief, unsimilarity of agricultural territories, adapted to the dynamically balanced state of substance and energy within a landscape. Such approach favors the development of agricultural lands estimation system by means of forest amelioration. It happens due to transformation (reorganization of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of energy mass transfer. Consequently, the radiation, heat, soil, hydrophysical and hydrodynamical processes change as well. So, the area adjoining the protective forest belt is the area of determined processes, while further from the forest belt the space is open for changes of all the characteristics. While estimating lands geoecology, the agroforest landscape was considered as a modification of agricultural landscape forming and functioning under the influence of protective shelterbelts. The landscape unsimilarity of the territory should be taken into account during the optimum organization of irrigated farming. It was made by means of desiphering space photos. According to bioclimatical zonal indications, the dry steppe and desert steppe agrolandscape types have been determined. The irrigated soils of the Volgograd region are located mainly in dry steppe agroforest landscapes on dark-chestnut and chestnut soils within natural ameliorative areas of Privolzhskaya and Ergeninskaya Hills and partly in Zavolzhskaya river delta plain; in semi-desert agroforest landscapes on light-chestnut soils within Zavolzhskaya river delta plain and Sarpinskaya lowlands. The favourable hydrogeological ameliorative situation on the territory of southern Privolzhskaya Hill gives the opportunity to revive the irrigation in the Volgograd region and therefore to increase the productivity and sustainability of agricultural production on a higher scientific

  14. Altered ionic currents and amelioration by IGF-1 and PACAP in motoneuron-derived cells modelling SBMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Garduño, Aura M; Juárez-Hernández, Leon J; Polanco, María J; Tosatto, Laura; Michelatti, Daniela; Arosio, Daniele; Basso, Manuela; Pennuto, Maria; Musio, Carlo

    2017-10-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), also known as Kennedy's disease, is a motor neuron disease caused by the expansion of a polymorphic CAG tandem repeat encoding a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. SBMA is triggered by the binding of mutant AR to its natural ligands, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). To investigate the neuronal alterations of motor neuron cell models of SBMA, we applied patch-clamp methods to verify how polyQ expansions in the AR alter cell ionic currents. We used mouse motoneuron-derived MN-1 cells expressing normal AR (MN24Q) and mutant AR (MN100Q treated cells with vehicle EtOH and DHT). We observed a reduction of the current flux mainly at depolarizing potentials in the DHT-treated cells, while the dissection of macroscopic currents showed single different cationic currents belonging to voltage-gated channels. Also, we treated the cells with IGF-1 and PACAP, which have previously been shown to protect MN-1 cells from the toxicity of mutant AR, and we found an amelioration of the altered currents. Our results suggest that the electrophysiological correlate of SBMA is a suitable reference point for the identification of disease symptoms and for future therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Stepping Motor - Hydraulic Motor Servo Drives for an NC Milling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper the retrofit design of the control system of an NC milling machine with a stepping motor and stepping motor - actuated hydraulic motor servo mechanism on the machines X-axis is described. The servo designed in the course of this study was tested practically and shown to be linear - the velocity following errors ...

  16. A note on inventory model for ameliorating items with time dependent second order demand rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobinda Chandra Panda

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper is concerned with the development of ameliorating inventory models. The ameliorating inventory is the inventory of goods whose utility increases over the time by ameliorating activation. Material and Methods: This study is performed according to two areas: one is an economic order quantity (EOQ model for the items whose utility is ameliorating in accordance with Weibull distribution, and the other is a partial selling quantity (PSQ model developed for selling the surplus inventory accumulated by ameliorating activation with linear demand. The aim of this paper was to develop a mathematical model for inventory type concerned in the paper. Numerical examples were presented show the effect of ameliorating rate on inventory polices.  Results and Conclusions:  The inventory model for items with Weibull ameliorating is developed. For the case of small ameliorating rate (less than linear demand rate, EOQ model is developed, and for the case where ameliorating rate is greater than linear demand rate, PSQ model is developed.  .  

  17. 46 CFR 169.684 - Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overcurrent protection for motors and motor branch... motors and motor branch circuits. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, each motor... motor that is responsive to motor current or to both motor current and temperature may be used. (b) The...

  18. Thiokol Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on thiokol solid rocket motors. The topics include: 1) Communications; 2) Military and government intelligence; 3) Positioning satellites; 4) Remote sensing; 5) Space burial; 6) Science; 7) Space manufacturing; 8) Advertising; 9) Space rescue space debris management; 10) Space tourism; 11) Space settlements; 12) Hazardous waste disposal; 13) Extraterrestrial resources; 14) Fast package delivery; and 15) Space utilities.

  19. Aprendizaje y desarrollo motor

    OpenAIRE

    Guillén Guillén, Eva I.

    2006-01-01

    El desarrollo evolutivo general del niño/a en relación con los procesos de maduración motora, procesos de aprendizaje y desarrollo motor. Técnicas de aprendizaje. Técnica de solución de conflictos. Balances musculares.

  20. Spherically Actuated Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeples, Steven

    2015-01-01

    A three degree of freedom (DOF) spherical actuator is proposed that will replace functions requiring three single DOF actuators in robotic manipulators providing space and weight savings while reducing the overall failure rate. Exploration satellites, Space Station payload manipulators, and rovers requiring pan, tilt, and rotate movements need an actuator for each function. Not only does each actuator introduce additional failure modes and require bulky mechanical gimbals, each contains many moving parts, decreasing mean time to failure. A conventional robotic manipulator is shown in figure 1. Spherical motors perform all three actuation functions, i.e., three DOF, with only one moving part. Given a standard three actuator system whose actuators have a given failure rate compared to a spherical motor with an equal failure rate, the three actuator system is three times as likely to fail over the latter. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory reliability studies of NASA robotic spacecraft have shown that mechanical hardware/mechanism failures are more frequent and more likely to significantly affect mission success than are electronic failures. Unfortunately, previously designed spherical motors have been unable to provide the performance needed by space missions. This inadequacy is also why they are unavailable commercially. An improved patentable spherically actuated motor (SAM) is proposed to provide the performance and versatility required by NASA missions.

  1. Switched reluctance motor drives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...

  2. MOTORIZATION IN ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin SENBIL

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Motorization in terms of passenger cars in 14 Asian countries and passenger cars and motorcycles in three metropolitan areas are analyzed in this study. Using country-based data which cover 20 years (1980–2000, a linear regression is conducted by panel estimation with random and fixed effects. As a result from the model, fixed income elasticity for the region was found to be 1.75. Fixed effect estimated separately for each country characterizes the motorization pace in the countries. Two groups of countries were detected with a significant difference in motorization paces—Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Philippines, Pakistan, Indonesia and Thailand have motorization paces higher than the rest of the countries. Additionally, using a cross-sectional data household car and motorcycle ownerships were analyzed for three metropolitan areas characterizing South-East Asia that are Jabotabek (Indonesia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia and Manila (Philippines metropolitan areas. Results indicate that ownership of cars and motorcycles are independent of each other in Jabotabek and Manila, but negatively correlated in Kuala Lumpur; and generally, income is more influential on car ownership than motorcycle ownership.

  3. Treatment with dimethyl fumarate ameliorates liver ischemia/reperfusion injury

    OpenAIRE

    Takasu, Chie; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Li, Shiri; Robles, Lourdes; Vo, Kelly; Takasu, Mizuki; Pham, Christine; Farzaneh, Seyed H; Shimada, Mitsuo; Stamos, Michael J; Ichii, Hirohito

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the hypothesis that treatment with dimethyl fumarate (DMF) may ameliorate liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/RI). METHODS Rats were divided into 3 groups: sham, control (CTL), and DMF. DMF (25 mg/kg, twice/d) was orally administered for 2 d before the procedure. The CTL and DMF rats were subjected to ischemia for 1 h and reperfusion for 2 h. The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), NO ? metabolites, anti-oxid...

  4. Assessment of motor skills of adolescents with cerebral palsy during hydrotherapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zoya Varfolomeeva; Oleg Podolyaka; Natalia Panova; Valeria Dobryakova

    2017-01-01

    .... Hydrotherapy, as a new method of therapy, needs an efficiency evaluation too. The main feature of our approach is understanding of hydrotherapy as acquiring of certain motor skills of persons with CP in water...

  5. The effects of reflexology on constipation and motor functions in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Elbasan

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: NGT improved motor performance in both groups and adding reflexology to therapy had a positive effect on constipation. We suggest applying reflexology to children with cerebral palsy who experience constipation problems.

  6. Beneficial effects of a pyrroloquinolinequinone-containing dietary formulation on motor deficiency, cognitive decline and mitochondrial dysfunction in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell Sawmiller

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is linked to oxidative stress, altered amyloid precursor protein (APP proteolysis, tau hyperphosphorylation and the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT. A growing body of evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction can be a key promoter of all of these pathologies and predicts that restoration of mitochondrial function might be a potential therapeutic strategy for AD. Therefore, in the present study, we tested the beneficial effect of a nutraceutical formulation Nutrastem II (Nutra II, containing NT020 (a mitochondrial restorative and antioxidant proprietary formulation and pyrroloquinolinequinone (PQQ, a stimulator of mitochondria biogenesis in 5XFAD transgenic mice. Animals were fed Nutra II for 12 weeks, starting at 3 months of age, after which behavioral and neuropathological endpoints were determined. The data from behavioral test batteries clearly revealed that dietary supplementation of Nutra II effectively ameliorated the motor deficiency and cognitive impairment of 5XFAD mice. In addition, Nutra II also protected mitochondrial function in 5XFAD mice brain, as evidenced by declined ROS levels and membrane hyperpolarization, together with elevated ATP levels and respiratory states. Interestingly, while Nutra II treatment only slightly reduced soluble Aβ42 levels, this formulation significantly impacted tau metabolism, as shown by reduced total and phosphorylated tau levels of 5XFAD mouse brain. Taken together, these preclinical findings confirm that mitochondrial function may be a key treatment target for AD and that Nutra II should be further investigated as a potential candidate for AD therapy.

  7. Deafness and motor abilities level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zwierzchowska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The audition injury hinders some motor motions and the organised coordination at the higher level and may be a cause of disturbances and disorder in some motor abilities adoption. It was assumed that deafness including its aetiology and injury mechanism may significantly influence the motor development of human being. The study aimed in checking if the deafness, as a result of various unfavourable factors, determines the motor development of children and youngsters. Consequently the dependency between qualitative features i.e.: signed motor level and aetiology, audition injury mechanism and the deafness degree was examined. The mechanism and aetiology of hearing correlated with the motor abilities displayed statistically significant dependencies in few motor trials only. Revealed correlations regarded mostly the coordination trials excluding the flexibility one. Statistically significant dependencies between the audition diminution and the motor abilities level were not found.

  8. iPad applications that required a range of motor skills promoted motor coordination in children commencing primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axford, Caitlin; Joosten, Annette V; Harris, Courtenay

    2018-01-21

    Children are reported to spend less time engaged in outdoor activity and object-related play than in the past. The increased use and mobility of technology, and the ease of use of tablet devices are some of the factors that have contributed to these changes. Concern has been raised that the use of such screen and surface devices in very young children is reducing their fine motor skill development. We examined the effectiveness of iPad applications that required specific motor skills designed to improve fine motor skills. We conducted a two-group non-randomised controlled trial with two pre-primary classrooms (53 children; 5-6 years) in an Australian co-educational school, using a pre- and post-test design. The effectiveness of 30 minutes daily use of specific iPad applications for 9 weeks was compared with a control class. Children completed the Beery Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI) and observation checklist, the Shore Handwriting Screen, and self-care items from the Hawaii Early Learning Profile. On post testing, the experimental group made a statistically and clinically significant improvement on the VMI motor coordination standard scores with a moderate clinical effect size (P motor skill-specific applications as an intervention in occupational therapy practice and as part of at home or school play. © 2018 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  9. Phonological Therapy in Jargon Aphasia: Effects on Naming and Neologisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Arpita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Jargon aphasia is one of the most intractable forms of aphasia with limited recommendation on amelioration of associated naming difficulties and neologisms. The few naming therapy studies that exist in jargon aphasia have utilized either semantic or phonological approaches, but the results have been equivocal. Moreover, the effect of…

  10. Low-dose add-back therapy during postoperative GnRH agonist treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Wen Tsai

    2016-02-01

    Conclusion: Low dose add-back therapy could effectively ameliorate hypoestrogenic side effects and simultaneously maintain the therapeutic response of GnRH agonist treatment. The treatment dropout was lower compared with a regular dose. Therefore, low dose add-back therapy can be considered a treatment choice during postoperative GnRH agonist treatment.

  11. Long-term outcome of olfactory ensheathing cell therapy for patients with complete chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongyun; Xi, Haitao; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yancheng

    2012-01-01

    The neurorestorative effect of the parenchymal transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) for cord trauma remains clinically controversial. The aim of this article is to study the long-term result of OECs for patients with complete chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). One hundred and eight patients suffered from complete chronic SCI were followed up successfully within the period of 3.47 ± 1.12 years after OEC therapy. They were divided into two groups based on the quality and quantity of their rehabilitative training: group A (n = 79) in sufficient rehabilitation (or active movement-target enhancement-neurorehabilitation therapy, AMTENT) and group B (n = 29) in insufficient rehabilitation. All patients were assessed by using the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) standard and the International Association of Neurorestoratology Spinal Cord Injury Functional Rating Scale (IANR-SCIFRS). Thirty-one patients were evaluated by the tests of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electromyography (EMG), and paravertebral sensory evoked potential (PVSEP). We found the following. 1) According to ASIA and IANR-SCIFRS assessment for all 108 patients, averaged motor scores increased from 37.79 ± 18.45 to 41.25 ± 18.18 (p terms of motor, light touch, pin prick, and IANR-SCIFRS in group A were remarkably different (all p terms of motor (p 0.05). 3) Comparing group A with group B, the increased scores in terms of motor, light touch, and pin prick were remarkably different (all p 0.05). 4) Fourteen of 108 patients (12.96%) became ASIA B from ASIA A; 18 of 108 (16.67%) became ASIA C from ASIA A. Nine of them (8.33%) improved their walk ability or made them rewalk by using a walker with or without assistance; 12 of 84 men (14.29%) improved their sex function. 5) MRI examinations were taken for 31 patients; there were no neoplasm, bleeding, swelling, cysts, neural tissue destruction or infection (abscess) or any other pathological changes in or around OEC transplant

  12. Genetic heterogeneity of motor neuropathies

    OpenAIRE

    Bansagi, Boglarka; Griffin, Helen; Whittaker, Roger G.; Antoniadi, Thalia; Evangelista, Teresinha; Miller, James; Greenslade, Mark; Forester, Natalie; Duff, Jennifer; Bradshaw, Anna; Kleinle, Stephanie; Boczonadi, Veronika; Steele, Hannah; Ramesh, Venkateswaran; Franko, Edit

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence, molecular cause, and clinical presentation of hereditary motor neuropathies in a large cohort of patients from the North of England. Methods: Detailed neurologic and electrophysiologic assessments and next-generation panel testing or whole exome sequencing were performed in 105 patients with clinical symptoms of distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN, 64 patients), axonal motor neuropathy (motor Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease [CMT2], 16 patients), or complex...

  13. MOTORIC STIMULATION RELATED TO FINE MOTORIC DEVELOPMENT ON CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Triharini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motor developmental stimulation is an activity undertaken to stimulate the children basic skills and so they can grow and develop optimally. Children who obtain a direct stimulus will grow faster than who get less stimulus. Mother’s behavior of stimulation is very important for children, it is considering as the basic needs of children and it must be fulfilled. Providing good stimulation could optimize fine motor development in children. The purpose of this study was to analyze mother’s behavior about motor stimulation with fine motor development in toddler age 4-5 years old. Method: Design have been  used in this study was cross sectional. Population were mothers and their toddler in Group A of Dharma Wanita Persatuan Driyorejo Gresik Preschool. Sample were 51 respondents recruited by using purposive sampling technique according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The independent variable was mother’s behavior about motor stimulation whereas dependent variable was fine motor development in toddler. The data were collected using questionnaire and conducting observation on fine motor development based on Denver Development Screening Test (DDST. Data then analyzed using Spearman Rho (r test to find relation between mother’s behaviors about stimulation motor on their toddler fine motor development. Result: Results  of this study showed that there were correlations between mother’s knowledge and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, between mother’s attitude and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000, and between mother’s actions and fine motor development in toddler (p=0.000. Analysis: In sort study found that there were relation between fine motor development and mother’s behavior. Discussion: Therefore mother’s behavior needed to be improved. Further research about stimulation motor and fine motor development aspects in toddler is required.

  14. Focal dystonia in musicians: Linking motor symptoms to somatosensory dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen eKonczak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Musician’s dystonia (MD is a neurological motor disorder characterized by involuntary contractions of those muscles involved in the play of a musical instrument. It is task-specific and initially only impairs the voluntary control of highly practiced musical motor skills. MD can lead to a severe decrement in a musician’s ability to perform. While the etiology and the neurological pathomechanism of the disease remain unknown, it is known that MD like others forms of focal dystonia is associated with somatosensory deficits, specifically a decreased precision of tactile and proprioceptive perception. The sensory component of the disease becomes also evident by the patients’ use sensory tricks such as touching dystonic muscles to alleviate motor symptoms. The central premise of this paper is that the motor symptoms of MD have a somatosensory origin and are not fully explained as a problem of motor execution. We outline how altered proprioceptive feedback ultimately leads to a loss of voluntary motor control and propose two scenarios that explain why sensory tricks are effective. Sensory tricks are effective, because the sensorimotor system either recruits neural resources normally involved in tactile-proprioceptive (sensory integration, or utilizes a fully functioning motor efference copy mechanism to align experienced with expected sensory feedback. We argue that an enhanced understanding of how a primary sensory deficit interacts with mechanisms of sensorimotor integration in musician’s dystonia provides helpful insights for the design of more effective behavioral therapies.

  15. Impairments of Motor Function While Multitasking in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronemer, Sharif I; Mandel, Jordan A; Sacktor, Ned C; Marvel, Cherie L

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) became a treatable illness with the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). As a result, patients with regular access to CART are expected to live decades with HIV. Long-term HIV infection presents unique challenges, including neurocognitive impairments defined by three major stages of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The current investigation aimed to study cognitive and motor impairments in HIV using a novel multitasking paradigm. Unlike current standard measures of cognitive and motor performance in HIV, multitasking increases real-world validity by mimicking the dual motor and cognitive demands that are part of daily professional and personal settings (e.g., driving, typing and writing). Moreover, multitask assessments can unmask compensatory mechanisms, normally used under single task conditions, to maintain performance. This investigation revealed that HIV+ participants were impaired on the motor component of the multitask, while cognitive performance was spared. A patient-specific positive interaction between motor performance and working memory recall was driven by poor HIV+ multitaskers. Surprisingly, HAND stage did not correspond with multitask performance and a variety of commonly used assessments indicated normal motor function among HIV+ participants with poor motor performance during the experimental task. These results support the use of multitasks to reveal otherwise hidden impairment in chronic HIV by expanding the sensitivity of clinical assessments used to determine HAND stage. Future studies should examine the capability of multitasks to predict performance in personal, professional and health-related behaviors and prognosis of patients living with chronic HIV.

  16. Impairments of Motor Function While Multitasking in HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie L. Marvel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV became a treatable illness with the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART. As a result, patients with regular access to CART are expected to live decades with HIV. Long-term HIV infection presents unique challenges, including neurocognitive impairments defined by three major stages of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. The current investigation aimed to study cognitive and motor impairments in HIV using a novel multitasking paradigm. Unlike current standard measures of cognitive and motor performance in HIV, multitasking increases real-world validity by mimicking the dual motor and cognitive demands that are part of daily professional and personal settings (e.g., driving, typing and writing. Moreover, multitask assessments can unmask compensatory mechanisms, normally used under single task conditions, to maintain performance. This investigation revealed that HIV+ participants were impaired on the motor component of the multitask, while cognitive performance was spared. A patient-specific positive interaction between motor performance and working memory recall was driven by poor HIV+ multitaskers. Surprisingly, HAND stage did not correspond with multitask performance and a variety of commonly used assessments indicated normal motor function among HIV+ participants with poor motor performance during the experimental task. These results support the use of multitasks to reveal otherwise hidden impairment in chronic HIV by expanding the sensitivity of clinical assessments used to determine HAND stage. Future studies should examine the capability of multitasks to predict performance in personal, professional and health-related behaviors and prognosis of patients living with chronic HIV.

  17. Motor Vehicle Theft. Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Caroline Wolf

    Thirteen years of data from the National Crime Survey were analyzed to examine the characteristics of motor vehicle theft, to identify trends during the past 13 years, and to determine who are most likely to be victims of motor vehicle theft. All motor vehicle thefts reported to the National Crime Survey from 1973 through 1985 were examined.…

  18. Synthesis of functionalized molecular motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Wiel, MKJ; Feringa, BL

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic routes to two molecular motors are reported. The sterically hindered central olefinic bond connecting the two halves of these C,symmetric molecules was prepared by a McMurry reaction. In this way, a motor with two five-membered rings and a motor with two six-membered rings were prepared,

  19. Brushless direct-current motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahm, E. J.

    1970-01-01

    Survey results are presented on the use of unconventional motor windings and switching sequences to optimize performance of brushless dc motors. A motor was built, each coil terminal having a separate, accessible lead. With the shaft and all electronics excluded, length and outside diameter measured 1.25 and 0.75 in., respectively.

  20. Phytoceramide Shows Neuroprotection and Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seikwan Oh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER and phytosphingosine (PSO in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o. recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  1. Particle-induced oxidative damage is ameliorated by pulmonary antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwell, Leona L; Moreno, Teresa; Jones, Timothy P; Richards, Roy J

    2002-05-01

    This investigation focuses on the application of an in vitro assay in elucidating the role of lung lining fluid antioxidants in the protection against inhaled particles, and to investigate the source of bioreactivity in urban PM10 collections from South Wales. The Plasmid Assay is an in vitro method of assessing and comparing the oxidative bioreactivity of inhalable particles. This method has provided the basis of limited toxicological studies into various inhaled xenobiotics including asbestos, and more recently PM10. Carbon Black M120 and Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEP) were tested as PM10 surrogates, DEP displaying the greatest oxidative bioreactivity. Both urban PM2.5 (fine fraction) and PM2.5-10 (coarse fraction) (Cardiff, S. Wales, UK) caused significant damage, the coarse fraction displaying higher oxidative capacity. The soluble components were found to be responsible for most of the bioreactivity in both PM sizes. Low molecular components of fresh lung lavage were found to offer most antioxidant protection, and surrogate Epithelial Lining Fluid (sELF) showed significant amelioration of DNA damage by the coarse fraction but less effect against the fine. Overall, the coarse, soluble fraction of PM10 is a great source of oxidative bioreactivity, but natural pulmonary low molecular weight antioxidants can significantly ameliorate its effects.

  2. Gemigliptin ameliorates Western-diet-induced metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Hee; Leem, Jaechan; Park, Sungmi; Lee, Chong-Kee; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

    2017-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are widely used antihyperglycemic agents for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the pleiotropic actions of DPP-4 inhibitors. The aim of the present study was to examine whether gemigliptin, a recently developed DPP-4 inhibitor, could ameliorate features of metabolic syndrome. Mice were fed a Western diet (WD) for 12 weeks and were subsequently divided into 2 groups: mice fed a WD diet alone or mice fed a WD diet supplemented with gemigliptin for an additional 4 weeks. Gemigliptin treatment attenuated WD-induced body mass gain, hypercholesterolemia, adipocyte hypertrophy, and macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, which were accompanied by an increased expression of uncoupling protein 1 in subcutaneous fat. These events contributed to improved insulin sensitivity, as assessed by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test. Furthermore, gemigliptin reduced WD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation via inhibition of de novo lipogenesis and activation of fatty acid oxidation, which was accompanied by AMP-dependent protein kinase activation. Gemigliptin ameliorated WD-induced hepatic inflammation and fibrosis through suppression of oxidative stress. These results suggest that DPP-4 inhibitors may represent promising therapeutic agents for metabolic syndrome beyond their current role as antihyperglycemic agents.

  3. Arginase inhibition ameliorates hepatic metabolic abnormalities in obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoung Moon

    Full Text Available We examined whether arginase inhibition influences hepatic metabolic pathways and whole body adiposity in diet-induced obesity.After obesity induction by a high fat diet (HFD, mice were fed either the HFD or the HFD with an arginase inhibitor, Nω-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA. Nor-NOHA significantly prevented HFD-induced increases in body, liver, and visceral fat tissue weight, and ameliorated abnormal lipid profiles. Furthermore, nor-NOHA treatment reduced lipid accumulation in oleic acid-induced hepatic steatosis in vitro. Arginase inhibition increased hepatic nitric oxide (NO in HFD-fed mice and HepG2 cells, and reversed the elevated mRNA expression of hepatic genes in lipid metabolism. Expression of phosphorylated 5' AMPK-activated protein kinase α was increased by arginase inhibition in the mouse livers and HepG2 cells.Arginase inhibition ameliorated obesity-induced hepatic lipid abnormalities and whole body adiposity, possibly as a result of increased hepatic NO production and subsequent activation of metabolic pathways involved in hepatic triglyceride metabolism and mitochondrial function.

  4. IL-12p35 Inhibits Neuroinflammation and Ameliorates Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Kyeong Choi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory demyelinating disease in which cytokines produced by immune cells that infiltrate the brain and spinal cord play a central role. We show here that the IL-12p35, the alpha subunit of IL-12 or IL-35 cytokine, might be an effective biologic for suppressing neuroinflammatory responses and ameliorating the pathology of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, the mouse model of human MS. We further show that IL-12p35 conferred protection from neuropathy by inhibiting the expansion of pathogenic Th17 and Th1 cells and inhibiting trafficking of inflammatory cells into the brain and spinal cord. In addition, in vitro exposure of encephalitogenic cells to IL-12p35 suppressed their capacity to induce EAE by adoptive transfer. Importantly, the IL-12p35-mediated expansion of Treg and Breg cells and its amelioration of EAE correlated with inhibition of cytokine-induced activation of STAT1/STAT3 pathways. Moreover, IL-12p35 inhibited lymphocyte proliferation by suppressing the expressions of cell-cycle regulatory proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that IL-12p35 can be exploited as a novel biologic for treating central nervous system autoimmune diseases and offers the promise of ex vivo production of large amounts of Tregs and Bregs for immunotherapy.

  5. Incremental Beliefs About Ability Ameliorate Self-Doubt Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Past research has typically shown negative effects of self-doubt on performance and psychological well-being. We suggest that these self-doubt effects largely may be due to an underlying assumption that ability is innate and fixed. The present research investigated the main hypothesis that incremental beliefs about ability might ameliorate negative effects of self-doubt. We examined our hypotheses using two lab tasks: verbal reasoning and anagram tasks. Participants’ self-doubt was measured and beliefs about ability were measured after participants read articles advocating either for incremental or entity theories of ability. American College Testing (ACT scores were obtained to index actual ability level. Consistent with our hypothesis, for participants who believed ability was relatively fixed, higher self-doubt was associated with increased negative affect and lower task performance and engagement. In contrast, for participants who believed that ability was malleable, negative self-doubt effects were ameliorated; self-doubt was even associated with better task performance. These effects were further moderated by participants’ academic ability. These findings suggest that mind-sets about ability moderate self-doubt effects. Self-doubt may have negative effects only when it is interpreted as signaling that ability is immutably low.

  6. Structural Equation Modeling of Motor Impairment, Gross Motor Function, and the Functional Outcome in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Young; Kim, Won-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Physical therapy intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) is focused on reducing neurological impairments, improving strength, and preventing the development of secondary impairments in order to improve functional outcomes. However, relationship between motor impairments and functional outcome has not been proved definitely. This study…

  7. Variation in motor output and motor performance in a centrally generated motor pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Angela; Norris, Brian J; Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2014-07-01

    Central pattern generators (CPGs) produce motor patterns that ultimately drive motor outputs. We studied how functional motor performance is achieved, specifically, whether the variation seen in motor patterns is reflected in motor performance and whether fictive motor patterns differ from those in vivo. We used the leech heartbeat system in which a bilaterally symmetrical CPG coordinates segmental heart motor neurons and two segmented heart tubes into two mutually exclusive coordination modes: rear-to-front peristaltic on one side and nearly synchronous on the other, with regular side-to-side switches. We assessed individual variability of the motor pattern and the beat pattern in vivo. To quantify the beat pattern we imaged intact adults. To quantify the phase relations between motor neurons and heart constrictions we recorded extracellularly from two heart motor neurons and movement from the corresponding heart segments in minimally dissected leeches. Variation in the motor pattern was reflected in motor performance only in the peristaltic mode, where larger intersegmental phase differences in the motor neurons resulted in larger phase differences between heart constrictions. Fictive motor patterns differed from those in vivo only in the synchronous mode, where intersegmental phase differences in vivo had a larger front-to-rear bias and were more constrained. Additionally, load-influenced constriction timing might explain the amplification of the phase differences between heart segments in the peristaltic mode and the higher variability in motor output due to body shape assumed in this soft-bodied animal. The motor pattern determines the beat pattern, peristaltic or synchronous, but heart mechanics influence the phase relations achieved. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Robot-assisted Therapy in Stroke Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Won Hyuk; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2013-09-01

    Research into rehabilitation robotics has grown rapidly and the number of therapeutic rehabilitation robots has expanded dramatically during the last two decades. Robotic rehabilitation therapy can deliver high-dosage and high-intensity training, making it useful for patients with motor disorders caused by stroke or spinal cord disease. Robotic devices used for motor rehabilitation include end-effector and exoskeleton types; herein, we review the clinical use of both types. One application of robot-assisted therapy is improvement of gait function in patients with stroke. Both end-effector and the exoskeleton devices have proven to be effective complements to conventional physiotherapy in patients with subacute stroke, but there is no clear evidence that robotic gait training is superior to conventional physiotherapy in patients with chronic stroke or when delivered alone. In another application, upper limb motor function training in patients recovering from stroke, robot-assisted therapy was comparable or superior to conventional therapy in patients with subacute stroke. With end-effector devices, the intensity of therapy was the most important determinant of upper limb motor recovery. However, there is insufficient evidence for the use of exoskeleton devices for upper limb motor function in patients with stroke. For rehabilitation of hand motor function, either end-effector and exoskeleton devices showed similar or additive effects relative to conventional therapy in patients with chronic stroke. The present evidence supports the use of robot-assisted therapy for improving motor function in stroke patients as an additional therapeutic intervention in combination with the conventional rehabilitation therapies. Nevertheless, there will be substantial opportunities for technical development in near future.

  9. Motor fuel prices in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2013-01-01

    The world’s most expensive motor fuel (gasoline, diesel and LPG) is sold most likely in the Republic of Turkey. This paper investigates the key issues related to the motor fuel prices in Turkey. First of all, the paper analyses the main reason behind high prices, namely motor fuel taxes in Turkey. Then, it estimates the elasticity of motor fuel demand in Turkey using an econometric analysis. The findings indicate that motor fuel demand in Turkey is quite inelastic and, therefore, not responsi...

  10. The human motor corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Mathias; Ziemann, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest white matter fiber bundle to connect the two hemispheres of the brain. It is thought to be essential for interhemispheric transfer of information. The motor CC is that part of the CC which connects the primary motor cortices. Relatively little is known, in particular in humans, about where these fibers are located in the CC, what their function is, and how the structure of the motor CC relates to its function. This review surveys current knowledge about the human motor CC, with a focus on recent studies which assessed the motor CC by multimodal advanced neurophysiological and neuroimaging techniques.

  11. Libert-E Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieloff, Susan F.; Kinnunen, Raymond; Chevarley, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Kei Yun Wong has big dreams. She has been entrusted with the United States launch of Libert-E Motor, a new line of Chinese-manufactured electric scooters. With only $750,000 of her original budget of $3 million left, she needs to make sure that the launch succeeds, as it represents the initial step in her desire to create the first Chinese global…

  12. 350 KVA motor generators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    Each logic circuit in the central computers consumes only a fraction of a watt: however, the final load constituted by many such circuits plus peripheral equipment is nearly half a million watts. Shown here are two 350 KVA motor generators used to convert 50 Hz mains to 60 Hz (US standard). Flywheels on the M.G. shafts remove power dropouts of up to 0.5 s.

  13. Fluoxetine Ameliorates Behavioral and Neuropathological Deficits in a Transgenic Model Mouse of α-synucleinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubhi, Kiren; Inglis, Chandra; Mante, Michael; Patrick, Christina; Adame, Anthony; Spencer, Brian; Rockenstein, Edward; May, Verena; Winkler, Juergen; Masliah, Eliezer

    2013-01-01

    The term α-synucleinopathies refers to a group of age-related neurological disorders including Parkinson’s disease (PD), Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) and Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) that display an abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn). In contrast to the neuronal α-syn accumulation observed in PD and DLB, MSA is characterized by a widespread oligodendrocytic α-syn accumulation. Transgenic mice expressing human α-syn under the oligodendrocyte-specific myelin basic protein promoter (MBP1-hαsyn tg mice) model many of the behavioral and neuropathological alterations observed in MSA. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has been shown to be protective in toxin-induced models of PD, however its effects in an in vivo transgenic model of α-synucleinopathy remain unclear. In this context, this study examined the effect of fluoxetine in the MBP1-hαsyn tg mice, a model of MSA. Fluoxetine adminstration ameliorated motor deficits in the MBP1-hαsyn tg mice, with a concomitant decrease in neurodegenerative pathology in the basal ganglia, neocortex and hippocampus. Fluoxetine adminstration also increased levels of the neurotrophic factors, GDNF (glial-derived neurotrophic factor) and BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) in the MBP1-hαsyn tg mice compared to vehicle-treated tg mice. This fluoxetine-induced increase in GDNF and BDNF protein levels was accompanied by activation of the ERK signaling pathway. The effects of fluoxetine adminstration on myelin and serotonin markers were also examined. Collectively these results indicate that fluoxetine may represent a novel therapeutic intervention for MSA and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22281106

  14. [Functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2015-09-01

    This article discusses the most interesting studies on functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders presented at Digestive Diseases Week (DDW), 2015. Researchers are still seeking biomarkers for irritable bowel syndrome and have presented new data. One study confirmed that the use of low-dose antidepressants has an antinociceptive effect without altering the psychological features of patients with functional dyspepsia. A contribution that could have immediate application is the use of transcutaneous electroacupuncture, which has demonstrated effectiveness in controlling nausea in patients with gastroparesis. New data have come to light on the importance of diet in irritable bowel syndrome, although the effectiveness of a low-FODMAP diet seems to be losing momentum with time. Multiple data were presented on the long-term efficacy of rifaximin therapy in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and diarrhoea. In addition, among other contributions, and more as a curiosity, a study evaluated the effect of histamine in the diet of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Motor rehabilitation using virtual reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sveistrup Heidi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Virtual Reality (VR provides a unique medium suited to the achievement of several requirements for effective rehabilitation intervention. Specifically, therapy can be provided within a functional, purposeful and motivating context. Many VR applications present opportunities for individuals to participate in experiences, which are engaging and rewarding. In addition to the value of the rehabilitation experience for the user, both therapists and users benefit from the ability to readily grade and document the therapeutic intervention using various systems. In VR, advanced technologies are used to produce simulated, interactive and multi-dimensional environments. Visual interfaces including desktop monitors and head-mounted displays (HMDs, haptic interfaces, and real-time motion tracking devices are used to create environments allowing users to interact with images and virtual objects in real-time through multiple sensory modalities. Opportunities for object manipulation and body movement through virtual space provide frameworks that, in varying degrees, are perceived as comparable to similar opportunities in the real world. This paper reviews current work on motor rehabilitation using virtual environments and virtual reality and where possible, compares outcomes with those achieved in real-world applications.

  16. Motor rehabilitation using virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveistrup, Heidi

    2004-12-10

    Virtual Reality (VR) provides a unique medium suited to the achievement of several requirements for effective rehabilitation intervention. Specifically, therapy can be provided within a functional, purposeful and motivating context. Many VR applications present opportunities for individuals to participate in experiences, which are engaging and rewarding. In addition to the value of the rehabilitation experience for the user, both therapists and users benefit from the ability to readily grade and document the therapeutic intervention using various systems. In VR, advanced technologies are used to produce simulated, interactive and multi-dimensional environments. Visual interfaces including desktop monitors and head-mounted displays (HMDs), haptic interfaces, and real-time motion tracking devices are used to create environments allowing users to interact with images and virtual objects in real-time through multiple sensory modalities. Opportunities for object manipulation and body movement through virtual space provide frameworks that, in varying degrees, are perceived as comparable to similar opportunities in the real world. This paper reviews current work on motor rehabilitation using virtual environments and virtual reality and where possible, compares outcomes with those achieved in real-world applications.

  17. 75 FR 58415 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Prevention, Prophylaxis, Cure, Amelioration, and/or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ..., Prophylaxis, Cure, Amelioration, and/or Treatment of Infection and/or the Effects Thereof of Chikungunya... mosquitoes. The disease caused by CHIKV resembles infection by dengue virus, characterized by rash, high..., prophylaxis, cure, amelioration, and/or treatment of infection and/or the effects thereof of Chikungunya...

  18. Motor Fuel Excise Taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    A new report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explores the role of alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles in motor fuel taxes. Throughout the United States, it is common practice for federal, state, and local governments to tax motor fuels on a per gallon basis to fund construction and maintenance of our transportation infrastructure. In recent years, however, expenses have outpaced revenues creating substantial funding shortfalls that have required supplemental funding sources. While rising infrastructure costs and the decreasing purchasing power of the gas tax are significant factors contributing to the shortfall, the increased use of alternative fuels and more stringent fuel economy standards are also exacerbating revenue shortfalls. The current dynamic places vehicle efficiency and petroleum use reduction polices at direct odds with policies promoting robust transportation infrastructure. Understanding the energy, transportation, and environmental tradeoffs of motor fuel tax policies can be complicated, but recent experiences at the state level are helping policymakers align their energy and environmental priorities with highway funding requirements.

  19. Resistance training and hawthorn extract ameliorate cognitive deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrinkalam, Ebrahim; Ranjbar, Kamal; Salehi, Iraj; Kheiripour, Nejat; Komaki, Alireza

    2018-01-01

    It has been shown that diabetic rats display cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance training and natural antioxidants on learning and memory in type 1 diabetic rats. For this purpose, fifty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: (i) Control (Con, n=10), (ii) Diabetic (D, n=10), (iii) Diabetic+Resistance training (DRT, n=10), (iv) Diabetic+natural antioxidants (DHE, n=10), and (v) Diabetic+Resistance training+ natural antioxidants (DRH, n=10). Climbing the ladder for a period of 5days/week for 10 consecutive weeks was considered as the resistance training model in our study. Natural antioxidants (100mg/kg per day) were administered to natural antioxidant groups for a period of 10 weeks. Moreover, spatial and passive avoidance learning and memory function were evaluated by Morris Water Maze (MWM) and shuttle box tests. The results showed that, mean of total escape latency decreased 25% (Prats as well. Therefore, the current study indicated that exercise training and natural antioxidants synergistically ameliorated learning and memory deficits in type 1 diabetic rats via reducing oxidative stress. Hence, it may propose a potential role of resistance training and natural antioxidants as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment with antioxidants ameliorates oxidative damage in a mouse model of propionic acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Barahona, Ana; Alonso-Barroso, Esmeralda; Pérez, Belén; Murphy, Michael P; Richard, Eva; Desviat, Lourdes R

    2017-09-01

    Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of propionic acidemia (PA), a life threatening disease caused by the deficiency of propionyl CoA-carboxylase, in the catabolic pathway of branched-chain amino acids, odd-number chain fatty acids and cholesterol. Patients develop multisystemic complications including seizures, extrapyramidal symptoms, basal ganglia deterioration, pancreatitis and cardiomyopathy. The accumulation of toxic metabolites results in mitochondrial dysfunction, increased reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage, all of which have been documented in patients' samples and in a hypomorphic mouse model. Here we set out to investigate whether treatment with a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, MitoQ, or with the natural polyphenol resveratrol, which is reported to have antioxidant and mitochondrial activation properties, could ameliorate the altered redox status and its functional consequences in the PA mouse model. The results show that oral treatment with MitoQ or resveratrol decreases lipid peroxidation and the expression levels of DNA repair enzyme OGG1 in PA mouse liver, as well as inducing tissue-specific changes in the expression of antioxidant enzymes. Notably, treatment decreased the cardiac hypertrophy marker BNP that is found upregulated in the PA mouse heart. Overall, the results provide in vivo evidence to justify more in depth investigations of antioxidants as adjuvant therapy in PA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate parotid injury in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Haleem, Manal R; Selim, Assmaa O; Attia, Ghalia M

    2018-02-01

    Parotid hypofunction causes life-disrupting effects, and there are no effective medications for xerostomia. We hypothesized that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have repairing effects on parotid glands of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Forty-five adult female rats were divided into three equal groups: group I (Control group), group II (OVX-group) and group III (OVX rats that received MSCs at 4 and 8 weeks post-ovariectomy). At 12 weeks post-ovariectomy, histological (Masson's trichrome and periodic acid-Schiff with alcian blue stains), immunohistochemical (caspase-3 and CD44) and morphometric studies and salivary flow rate and saliva pH determination were carried out. Histologically, the OVX group displayed numerous irregular vacuolated acini, thickened septa with marked cellular infiltration and vascular congestion. Degenerated organelles and few or irregular secretory granules with a different density were observed. Caspase-3-positive cells were highly expressed. MSC-treated glands exhibited a considerable degree of preservation of glandular architecture with numerous CD44-expressing and few caspase-3-expressing cells. Significant decrease of the salivary flow rate in the OVX group was detected, which reverted to normal levels in group III. MSCs ameliorated the damaging effects of ovariectomy on the parotid glands. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 1-Methylnicotinamide ameliorates lipotoxicity-induced oxidative stress and cell death in kidney proximal tubular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuki; Kume, Shinji; Araki, Hisazumi; Nakazawa, Jun; Chin-Kanasaki, Masami; Araki, Shin-ichi; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Koya, Daisuke; Haneda, Masakazu; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Uzu, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    Free fatty acid-bound albumin (FFA-albumin)-related oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of proximal tubular cell (PTC) damage and subsequent renal dysfunction in patients with refractory proteinuria. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) metabolism has recently been focused on as a novel therapeutic target for several modern diseases, including diabetes. This study was designed to identify a novel molecule in NAD metabolism to protect PTCs from lipotoxicity-related oxidative stress. Among 19 candidate enzymes involved in mammalian NAD metabolism, the mRNA expression level of nicotinamide n-methyltransferase (NNMT) was significantly increased in both the kidneys of FFA-albumin-overloaded mice and cultured PTCs stimulated with palmitate-albumin. Knockdown of NNMT exacerbated palmitate-albumin-induced cell death in cultured PTCs, whereas overexpression of NNMT inhibited it. Intracellular concentration of 1-Methylnicotinamide (1-MNA), a metabolite of NNMT, increased and decreased in cultured NNMT-overexpressing and -knockdown PTCs, respectively. Treatment with 1-MNA inhibited palmitate-albumin-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation and cell death in cultured PTCs. Furthermore, oral administration of 1-MNA ameliorated oxidative stress, apoptosis, necrosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in the kidneys of FFA-albumin-overloaded mice. In conclusion, NNMT-derived 1-MNA can reduce lipotoxicity-mediated oxidative stress and cell damage in PTCs. Supplementation of 1-MNA may have potential as a new therapy in patients with refractory proteinuria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The novel PPARγ modulator GED-0507-34 Levo ameliorates inflammation-driven intestinal fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvia, Speca; Christel, Rousseaux; Caroline, Dubuquoy; Florian, Rieder; Antonella, Vetuschi; Roberta, Sferra; Ilaria, Giusti; Benjamin, Bertin; Laurent, Dubuquoy; Eugenio, Gaudio; Pierre, Desreumaux; Giovanni, Latella

    2015-01-01

    Background Intestinal fibrosis is mainly associated with Crohn's disease (CD) and is defined as a progressive and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. No specific anti-fibrotic therapies are available. In this study we evaluate the anti-fibrotic effect of GED, a novel PPARγ modulator[1-4]. Methods Colonic fibrosis was induced in 110 C57BL/6 mice by three cycles of 2.5% (w/v) DSS administration for 6 weeks. The preventive effects of oral daily GED (30mg/kg/d) administration were evaluated using a macroscopic and histologic score as well as through biologic endpoints. Expression of main markers of myofibroblasts activation was determined in TGF-β-stimulated intestinal fibroblasts and epithelial cells (IECs). Results GED improved macroscopic and microscopic intestinal lesions in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) treated animals and reduced the profibrotic gene expression of Acta2, COL1a1 and Fn1 by 1.48 folds (pfibrosis (α-SMA and Collagen I-II), as well as the main TGFβ/Smad pathway components. GED also decreased the IL-13 and CTGF expression by 1.89 folds (pintestinal fibroblasts from ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Conclusions GED ameliorates intestinal fibrosis in DSS-induced chronic colitis in mice and regulates major pro-fibrotic cellular and molecular mechanisms. PMID:26535766

  4. Dietary Chlorella vulgaris Ameliorates Altered Immunomodulatory Functions in Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunosuppressive Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Cheng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the well-known toxicity of cyclophosphamide (CYP on the immune system, this research investigated the modulating effects of the long-term dietary Chlorella vulgaris (CV supplementation on the immunosuppression induced by CYP in mice, in order to provide a novel dietary design to mitigate the side effects of CYP therapy. Control, CYP-treated, CYP + CV (6%, CYP + CV (12% and CYP + CV (24% were used for 6 weeks, CV supplement in diet recovered the significantly reduced immunological function in CYP treated mice. As CV may have a modulating function through the inducible expression of cytokines, we assayed the expressions of interleukin-2 (IL-2, interleukin-12 (IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interferon-γ (IFN-γ. Our results suggested that CYP significantly reduced the lymphocytes proliferation and phagocytic activities of macrophages, and stimulated the production of IL-2, IL-12, TNF-α and IFN-γ and that this impairment has been successfully adjusted by CV supplementation. Treatment with the algae also enhanced the natural killer (NK cells cytotoxicity, and ameliorate histological changes of the spleen in CYP-treated mice. Therefore, as we found in this study, a diet supplemented with whole CV has beneficial effects on CVP-induced immunosuppression, through its immunomodulatory potential.

  5. Amelioration of Atherosclerosis by the New Medicinal Mushroom Grifola gargal Singer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Etsuko; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Toda, Masaaki; Morizono, Toshihiro; Chelakkot-Govindalayathil, Ayshwarya-Lakshmi; Roeen, Ziaurahman; Urawa, Masahito; Yasuma, Taro; Yano, Yutaka; Sumiya, Toshimitsu; Gabazza, Esteban C

    2015-08-01

    The beneficial effects of edible mushrooms for improving chronic intractable diseases have been documented. However, the antiatherogenic activity of the new medicinal mushroom Grifola gargal is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated whether Grifola gargal can prevent or delay the progression of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis was induced in ApoE lipoprotein-deficient mice by subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II. Grifola gargal extract (GGE) was prepared and intraperitoneally injected. The weight of heart and vessels, dilatation/atheroma formation of thoracic and abdominal aorta, the percentage of peripheral granulocytes, and the blood concentration of MCP-1/CCL2 were significantly reduced in mice treated with GGE compared to untreated mice. By contrast, the percentage of regulatory T cells and the plasma concentration of SDF-1/CXCL12 were significantly increased in mice treated with the mushroom extract compared to untreated mice. In vitro, GGE significantly increased the secretion of SDF-1/CXCL12, VEGF, and TGF-β1 from fibroblasts compared to control. This study demonstrated for the first time that Grifola gargal therapy can enhance regulatory T cells and ameliorate atherosclerosis in mice.

  6. Ameliorating effects of antioxidative compounds from four plant extracts in experimental models of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinić Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Given that oxidative stress plays a major role in pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and ultimate destruction, as well as in different complications of diabetes, therapy with antioxidants has assumed an important place in diabetes management. The relatively limited effects of established antioxidant compounds have stimulated efforts to develop new therapeutic strategies, e.g. to increase the endogenous antioxidant defenses through pharmacological modulation of key antioxidant enzymes. Plant extracts are gaining popularity in treating diabetes because many substances synthesized by higher plants and fungi possess antioxidant activities and can prevent or protect tissues against the damaging effects of free radicals. This review summarizes experimental models of diabetes and possible mechanisms that lie behind the antioxidative effects of α-lipoic acid (LA, a powerful antioxidant and compound that stimulates cellular glucose uptake, as well as of plant extracts from sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa, edible mushroom (Lactarius deterrimus and natural products containing β-glucans in the treatment of diabetes. Their roles in preventing pancreatic β-cell death and in ameliorating the effects of severe diabetic complications are discussed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173020

  7. Physalis alkekengi and Alhagi maurorum ameliorate the side effect of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changizi-Ashtiyani, S; Alizadeh, M; Najafi, H; Babaei, S; Khazaei, M; Jafari, M; Hossaini, N; Avan, A; Bastani, B

    2016-07-01

    Cisplatin is frequently being used for the treatment of different tumors, although the application of this agent is associated with nephrotoxicity. Here, we explored the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Physalis alkekengi and Alhagi maurorum; 400 mg kg(-1) per day P. alkekengi and 100 mg kg(-1) per day A. maurorum were administered in rats, orally for 10 days after a single dose of 7 mg kg(-1) intraperitoneal cisplatin. The concentrations of creatinine, urea-nitrogen, and relative and absolute excretion of sodium/potassium were evaluated before/after therapy. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured to assess the oxidative stress induced by cisplatin. Moreover, tissues sections were used for histological analyses and evaluation of the degree of tissue damage. Cisplatin increased serum levels of creatinine and urea-nitrogen, relative/absolute excretion of sodium/potassium, and MDA, whereas decreased FRAP level. Interestingly, P. alkekengi or A. maurorum were able to reduce the level of the renal function markers as well as the levels of sodium/potassium. This effect was more pronounced by P. alkekengi. Moreover, cisplatin induced pathological damage in kidney, whereas treatment with these agents improved this condition. Our findings demonstrate the potential therapeutic impact of P. alkekengi and A. maurorum for improving cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, supporting further investigations on the novel potential clinical application of these agents for patients being treated with cisplatin to ameliorate cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

  8. Targeting of the pulmonary capillary vascular niche promotes lung alveolar repair and ameliorates fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhongwei; Lis, Raphael; Ginsberg, Michael; Chavez, Deebly; Shido, Koji; Rabbany, Sina Y; Fong, Guo-Hua; Sakmar, Thomas P; Rafii, Shahin; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-02-01

    Although the lung can undergo self-repair after injury, fibrosis in chronically injured or diseased lungs can occur at the expense of regeneration. Here we study how a hematopoietic-vascular niche regulates alveolar repair and lung fibrosis. Using intratracheal injection of bleomycin or hydrochloric acid in mice, we show that repetitive lung injury activates pulmonary capillary endothelial cells (PCECs) and perivascular macrophages, impeding alveolar repair and promoting fibrosis. Whereas the chemokine receptor CXCR7, expressed on PCECs, acts to prevent epithelial damage and ameliorate fibrosis after a single round of treatment with bleomycin or hydrochloric acid, repeated injury leads to suppression of CXCR7 expression and recruitment of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1)-expressing perivascular macrophages. This recruitment stimulates Wnt/β-catenin-dependent persistent upregulation of the Notch ligand Jagged1 (encoded by Jag1) in PCECs, which in turn stimulates exuberant Notch signaling in perivascular fibroblasts and enhances fibrosis. Administration of a CXCR7 agonist or PCEC-targeted Jag1 shRNA after lung injury promotes alveolar repair and reduces fibrosis. Thus, targeting of a maladapted hematopoietic-vascular niche, in which macrophages, PCECs and perivascular fibroblasts interact, may help to develop therapy to spur lung regeneration and alleviate fibrosis.

  9. Interleukin-7 ameliorates immune dysfunction and improves survival in a 2-hit model of fungal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsinger, Jacqueline; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; McDonough, Jacquelyn; Morre, Michel; Prakash, Priya S; Caldwell, Charles C; Dunne, W Michael; Hotchkiss, Richard S

    2012-08-15

    Secondary hospital-acquired fungal infections are common in critically-ill patients and mortality remains high despite antimicrobial therapy. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a potent immunotherapeutic agent that improves host immunity and has shown efficacy in bacterial and viral models of infection. This study examined the ability of IL-7, which is currently in multiple clinical trials (including hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus), to improve survival in a clinically relevant 2-hit model of fungal sepsis. Mice underwent cecal ligation and puncture to induce peritonitis. Four days later, surviving mice had intravenous injection with Candida albicans. Following Candida infection, mice were treated with IL-7 or saline control. The effect of IL-7 on host immunity and survival was recorded. IL-7 ameliorated the loss of immune effector cells and increased lymphocyte functions, including activation, proliferation, expression of adhesion molecules, and interferon-γ production. These beneficial effects of IL-7 were associated with an increase in global immunity as reflected by an enhanced delayed type hypersensitivity response and a 1.7-fold improvement in survival. The present findings showing that IL-7 improves survival in fungal sepsis, together with its previously reported efficacy in bacterial and viral infectious models, further supports its use as a novel immunotherapeutic in sepsis.

  10. Examining contemporary motor control theories from the perspective of degrees of freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kuan-Yi

    2013-04-01

    Occupational therapy aims to restore independent living skills and to improve social participation for clients; therefore, optimising motor ability can be a major goal during intervention in clinical practice. Choosing the adequate approach for each client is critical to achieve treatment goals. As frame of reference is based on contemporary theories related to human behaviours, it is crucial to synthesise current theories of motor control for clinical application. In this review, four motor control theories were examined by the Bernstein's classical question: redundant degrees of freedom. By addressing the central issue in motor control theories, the strengths and weaknesses for each theory were discussed in detail. Classical literatures were selected for each theory and related references were reviewed as evidence to support the potential biological plausibility. The research of motor control theories have been developed for over centuries, researchers still strive to discover how human beings execute movements. To date, motor control theories were mainly proposed by three disciplines: biology, psychology and engineering. Each discipline has unique perspective to develop solutions for understanding the processes behind the execution of movement. For occupational therapists in clinics, it is imperative to integrate current knowledge and motor control theories into practice and to explore new approaches to treat clients with motor disability. © 2012 The Author Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2012 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate impaired wound healing through enhancing keratinocyte functions in diabetic foot ulcerations on the plantar skin of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Jiro; Kamiya, Hideki; Himeno, Tatsuhito; Shibata, Taiga; Kondo, Masaki; Okawa, Tetsuji; Fujiya, Atsushi; Fukami, Ayako; Uenishi, Eita; Seino, Yusuke; Tsunekawa, Shin; Hamada, Yoji; Naruse, Keiko; Oiso, Yutaka; Nakamura, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    Although the initial healing stage involves a re-epithelialization in humans, diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) has been investigated using rodent models with wounds on the thigh skin, in which a wound contraction is initiated. In this study, we established a rodent model of DFU on the plantar skin and evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in this model. The wounds made on the hind paws or thighs of streptozotocin induced diabetic or control rats were treated with BM-MSCs. Expression levels of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (pFAK), matrix metaroprotease (MMP)-2, EGF, and IGF-1, were evaluated in human keratinocytes, which were cultured in conditioned media of BM-MSCs (MSC-CM) with high glucose levels. Re-epithelialization initiated the healing process on the plantar, but not on the thigh, skin. The therapy utilizing BM-MSCs ameliorated the delayed healing in diabetic rats. In the keratinocytes cultured with MSC-CM, the decreased pFAK levels in the high glucose condition were restored, and the MMP2, EGF, and IGF-1 levels increased. Our study established a novel rat DFU model. The impaired healing process in diabetic rats was ameliorated by transplantation of BM-MSCs. This amelioration might be accounted for by the modification of keratinocyte functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Using non-invasive brain stimulation to augment motor training-induced plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual-Leone Alvaro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Therapies for motor recovery after stroke or traumatic brain injury are still not satisfactory. To date the best approach seems to be the intensive physical therapy. However the results are limited and functional gains are often minimal. The goal of motor training is to minimize functional disability and optimize functional motor recovery. This is thought to be achieved by modulation of plastic changes in the brain. Therefore, adjunct interventions that can augment the response of the motor system to the behavioural training might be useful to enhance the therapy-induced recovery in neurological populations. In this context, noninvasive brain stimulation appears to be an interesting option as an add-on intervention to standard physical therapies. Two non-invasive methods of inducing electrical currents into the brain have proved to be promising for inducing long-lasting plastic changes in motor systems: transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS. These techniques represent powerful methods for priming cortical excitability for a subsequent motor task, demand, or stimulation. Thus, their mutual use can optimize the plastic changes induced by motor practice, leading to more remarkable and outlasting clinical gains in rehabilitation. In this review we discuss how these techniques can enhance the effects of a behavioural intervention and the clinical evidence to date.

  13. Using non-invasive brain stimulation to augment motor training-induced plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognini, Nadia; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Fregni, Felipe

    2009-03-17

    Therapies for motor recovery after stroke or traumatic brain injury are still not satisfactory. To date the best approach seems to be the intensive physical therapy. However the results are limited and functional gains are often minimal. The goal of motor training is to minimize functional disability and optimize functional motor recovery. This is thought to be achieved by modulation of plastic changes in the brain. Therefore, adjunct interventions that can augment the response of the motor system to the behavioural training might be useful to enhance the therapy-induced recovery in neurological populations. In this context, noninvasive brain stimulation appears to be an interesting option as an add-on intervention to standard physical therapies. Two non-invasive methods of inducing electrical currents into the brain have proved to be promising for inducing long-lasting plastic changes in motor systems: transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). These techniques represent powerful methods for priming cortical excitability for a subsequent motor task, demand, or stimulation. Thus, their mutual use can optimize the plastic changes induced by motor practice, leading to more remarkable and outlasting clinical gains in rehabilitation. In this review we discuss how these techniques can enhance the effects of a behavioural intervention and the clinical evidence to date.

  14. Neuroimaging in pre-motor Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Barber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease begins long before the onset of clinical motor symptoms, resulting in substantial cell loss by the time a diagnosis can be made. The period between the onset of neurodegeneration and the development of motoric disease would be the ideal time to intervene with disease modifying therapies. This pre-motor phase can last many years, but the lack of a specific clinical phenotype means that objective biomarkers are needed to reliably detect prodromal disease. In recent years, recognition that patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD are at particularly high risk of future parkinsonism has enabled the development of large prodromal cohorts in which to investigate novel biomarkers, and neuroimaging has generated some of the most promising results to date. Here we review investigations undertaken in RBD and other pre-clinical cohorts, including modalities that are well established in clinical Parkinson's as well as novel imaging methods. Techniques such as high resolution MRI of the substantia nigra and functional imaging of Parkinsonian brain networks have great potential to facilitate early diagnosis. Further longitudinal studies will establish their true value in quantifying prodromal neurodegeneration and predicting future Parkinson's.

  15. 77 FR 11598 - Thermal Overload Protection for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... COMMISSION Thermal Overload Protection for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves AGENCY: Nuclear... for Electric Motors on Motor-Operated Valves.'' This regulatory guide describes a method acceptable to... devices that are integral with the motor starter for electric motors on motor-operated valves. ADDRESSES...

  16. Interference in motor learning - is motor interference sensory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Petersen, Tue Hvass; Rothwell, John C

    Skill gained after a short period of practice in one motor task can be abolished if a second task is learned shortly afterwards, but not all motor activities cause interference. After all it is not necessary to remain completely still after practicing a task for learning to occur. Here we ask which...... mechanisms determine whether or not interference occurs. We hypothesised that interference requires the same neural circuits to be engaged in the two tasks and provoke competing processes of synaptic plasticity. To test this, subjects learned a ballistic ankle plantarflexion task. Early motor memory...... learning of the primary task, no interference was observed. Previous studies have suggested that primary motor cortex (M1) may be involved in early motor memory consolidation. 1Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) of corticospinal motor output at intensities below ankle movement threshold...

  17. High-power downhole motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J.H.; Maurer, W.C.; Evans, C.R. [Maurer Engineering Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Westcott, P.A. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    New high power motors are being developed by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in an attempt to reduce drilling costs in deep gas wells. Conventional 2 3/8-in. (60-mm) and 3 3/8-in. (86-mm) motors operated in overpowered conditions (i.e., high flow rates and high differential pressures) drill 2 to 3 times faster than conventional motors. A new high-power 3 3/8-in. (86-mm) motor is being developed that utilizes additional stages and tighter interference between the rotor and stator to increase motor pressure drop, torque, and power output. This new high-power motor delivers up to 238 hp (177 kW) compared to 50 hp (37 kW) for a conventional 3 3/8-in. (86-mm) motor operating at rated operating conditions. Temperature probes showed that temperatures in different stages of motors vary considerably, showing that some sections do more work than others. A better understanding of temperatures within the stators is needed because thermal degradation and ``chunking`` of the rubber is a leading cause of failures in motors operating at high power levels. These tests were very encouraging, demonstrating the feasibility of developing reliable, high-power motors.

  18. Amelioration of estrogen deficiency-induced obesity by collagen hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Tsay-I; Chang, I-Chang; Lee, Hsueh-Hui; Hsieh, Kuang Hui; Chiu, Yung-Wei; Lai, Te-Jen; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Hsu, Li-Sung; Kao, Shao-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Menopausal transition with declining estrogen levels significantly affects the physiological properties of women and consequently contributes to a series of medical conditions, including obesity. Obesity is a crucial risk factor associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and breast cancer. Increasing dietary protein content improves satiety and energy expenditure. Thus, we hypothesize that supplementing with collagen, a common dietary protein, may alleviate menopause-induced obesity. Methods: We used ovariectomized (OVX) rats to mimic a menopausal human. The body weight of OVX rats significantly increased compared with that of sham-operated rats (Pbody weight gain and adipocyte enlargement (Pbody weight gain and adipocyte enlargement in response to ovariectomy but slightly affected blood lipids, calcium, and glucose in both sham-operated and OVX rats. Collagen hydrolysate supplementation is beneficial in ameliorating estrogen deficiency-induced obesity and its associated risk factors.

  19. Pleurotus eryngii Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Kawai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii is consumed as a fresh cultivated mushroom worldwide and demonstrated to have multiple beneficial effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of P. eryngii in mice with acute lung injury (ALI. Intranasal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS (10 μg/site/mouse induced marked lung inflammation (increase in the number of inflammatory cells, protein leakage, and production of nitric oxide in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as histopathological damage in the lung, 6 h after treatment. Mice administered heat-treated P. eryngii (0.3–1 g/kg, p.o. (HTPE 1 h before LPS challenge showed decreased pulmonary inflammation and ameliorated histopathological damage. These results suggest that HTPE has anti-inflammatory effects against ALI. Thus, P. eryngii itself may also have anti-inflammatory effects and could be a beneficial food for the prevention of ALI induced by bacterial infection.

  20. Flemingia macrophylla Extract Ameliorates Experimental Osteoporosis in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ya Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flemingia macrophylla (Leguminosae, a native plant of Taiwan, is used as folk medicine. An in vitro study showed that a 75% ethanolic extract of F. macrophylla (FME inhibited osteoclast differentiation of cultured rat bone marrow cells, and the active component, lespedezaflavanone A (LDF-A, was isolated. It was found that oral administration of FME for 13 weeks suppressed bone loss in ovariectomized rats, an experimental model of osteoporosis. In addition, FME decreased urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations but did not inhibit serum alkaline phosphatase activities, indicating that it ameliorated bone loss via inhibition of bone resorption. These results suggest that FME may represent a useful remedy for the treatment of bone resorption diseases, such as osteoporosis. In addition, LDF-A could be used as a marker compound to control the quality of FME.

  1. Biochar Ameliorate Drought and Salt Stress in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib

    of plant with halophytic plant growth promoting bacteria) approaches. The results showed that: - Biochar mitigated drought stress in plants by enhancing soil moisture availability due to its high porosity and large surface area - Biochar ameliorated salinity stress in plant by a high transient Na+ binding...... moisture content, improve nutrient acquisition and reduce Na+ uptake under drought and salinity stress, respectively - Biochar had long-term positive residual effect on plant growth and performance under salinity stress - Positive responses of biochar on plants could be further enhanced by adopting....... Drought and salinity are the two most crucial abiotic stresses that limit crops production worldwide. In this PhD project, it was hypothesized that biochar could be used to effectively mitigate drought and salinity stresses in crop plants due to its putative physiochemical properties. The overall...

  2. Ameliorating the effects of global crisis on human resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred UKPERE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Capitalist globalisation has produced certain negative consequences for human resources, industrial democracy and humanity in general. Globalisation is a powerful force that cannot be denied, however, conversely, it has also threatened life, in a broader sense. Globalisation was perceived by globalisers as a worldwide remedy for worldwide problems, but is viewed with great pessimism amongst proletariat (workers. In fact, current globalisation has an enormous negative impact on human resources, industrial democracy and humanity, at large. Hence, the aim of this paper is to proffer mechanisms, which can ameliorate negative impacts of globalisation on human resources, industrial democracy and humanity. It is the author’s belief that if current postulates are considered, globalisation might present a different picture, which could have positive effects on human resources, industrial democracy and humanity, in general.

  3. Comparison of capabilities of reluctance synchronous motor and induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štumberger, Gorazd; Hadžiselimović, Miralem; Štumberger, Bojan; Miljavec, Damijan; Dolinar, Drago; Zagradišnik, Ivan

    2006-09-01

    This paper compares the capabilities of a reluctance synchronous motor (RSM) with those of an induction motor (IM). An RSM and IM were designed and made, with the same rated power and speed. They differ only in the rotor portion while their stators, housings and cooling systems are identical. The capabilities of both motors in a variable speed drive are evaluated by comparison of the results obtained by magnetically nonlinear models and by measurements.

  4. Biologically Synthesized Gold Nanoparticles Ameliorate Cold and Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Feng Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to their unique physical, chemical, and optical properties, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs have recently attracted much interest in the field of nanomedicine, especially in the areas of cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy. Because of the enormous potential of these nanoparticles, various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted for their synthesis. Synthetic antioxidants are dangerous to human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with effective antioxidative properties is essential. Although AuNPs have been studied for use in various biological applications, exploration of AuNPs as antioxidants capable of inhibiting oxidative stress induced by heat and cold stress is still warranted. Therefore, one goal of our study was to produce biocompatible AuNPs using biological methods that are simple, nontoxic, biocompatible, and environmentally friendly. Next, we aimed to assess the antioxidative effect of AuNPs against oxidative stress induced by cold and heat in Escherichia coli, which is a suitable model for stress responses involving AuNPs. The response of aerobically grown E. coli cells to cold and heat stress was found to be similar to the oxidative stress response. Upon exposure to cold and heat stress, the viability and metabolic activity of E. coli was significantly reduced compared to the control. In addition, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA and leakage of proteins and sugars were significantly elevated, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH and adenosine triphosphate (ATP significantly lowered compared to in the control. Concomitantly, AuNPs ameliorated cold and heat-induced oxidative stress responses by increasing the expression of antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH, glutathione S-transferase (GST, super oxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. These consistent physiology and biochemical data suggest that AuNPs can ameliorate cold and

  5. Bamboo leaf extract ameliorates diabetic nephropathy through activating the AKT signaling pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Changjiang; Mao, Yizhen; Chen, Lei; Wang, Shanshan; Ling, Hongwei; Li, Wei; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2017-12-01

    Cleaved Caspase-3 levels in STZ-diabetic rats. In conclusion, our study suggested that bamboo leaf extract ameliorated DN in diabetic rats, and this protective effect is possibly related to suppressing oxidative stress through activating AKT signaling pathway. Bamboo leaf extract treatment may be a potential promising therapy for DN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancing Endocannabinoid Neurotransmission Augments The Efficacy of Extinction Training and Ameliorates Traumatic Stress-Induced Behavioral Alterations in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morena, Maria; Berardi, Andrea; Colucci, Paola; Palmery, Maura; Trezza, Viviana; Hill, Matthew N; Campolongo, Patrizia

    2017-12-21

    Exposure to a traumatic event may result in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Endocannabinoids are crucial modulators of the stress response, interfere with excessive retrieval and facilitate the extinction of traumatic memories. Exposure therapy, combined with pharmacotherapy, represents a promising tool for PTSD treatment. We investigated whether pharmacological manipulations of the endocannabinoid system during extinction learning ameliorates the behavioral changes induced by trauma exposure. Rats were exposed to inescapable footshocks paired with social isolation, a risk factor for PTSD. One week after trauma, rats were subjected to three spaced extinction sessions, mimicking human exposure therapy. The anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor URB597, the 2-arachidonoylglycerol hydrolysis inhibitor JZL184 or the cannabinoid agonist WIN55,212-2 were administered before or after the extinction sessions. Rats were tested for extinction retention 16 or 36 days after trauma and 24-h later for social interaction. Extinction training alone reduced fear of the trauma-associated context but did not restore normal social interaction. Traumatized animals not exposed to extinction sessions exhibited reductions in hippocampal anandamide content with respect to home-cage controls. Noteworthy, all drugs exerted beneficial effects, but URB597 (0.1 mg/kg) induced the best improvements by enhancing extinction consolidation and restoring normal social behavior in traumatized rats through indirect activation of CB1 receptors. The ameliorating effects remained stable long after treatment and trauma exposure. Our findings suggest that drugs potentiating endocannabinoid neurotransmission may represent promising tools when combined to exposure-based psychotherapies in the treatment of PTSD.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 24 January 2018; doi:10.1038/npp.2017.305.

  7. Adequate sizing and motor exploitation: Motor energy management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miloje M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor energy management includes adequate sizing, control and improvement of electric energy quality, i.e. voltage quality (reducing voltage unbalance and harmonics distortion, and the proper maintenance. The specific motor price per kW is approximately constant for motors rated from 5 kW to 20 kW. By adequate sizing, or by proper replacement of the old motor with the new one, with rated output power reduced by 20% to 50% the smaller motor will be also cheaper by 20% to 50%. When the 22 kW motor is replaced with the new 15 kW that costs 64% of the price of a new 22 kW motor, the efficiency is increased by 3.6% (Example in paper. On the basis of our investigation results, it is confirmed that there are significant possibilities for energy savings by setting voltage values within the ±5% voltage band (Un±5%, since more than 80% induction motors are under loaded (£70%, especially small and medium rated power (1-30 kW motors.

  8. 75 FR 76692 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ..., and 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY... passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, incomplete vehicles, motorcycles, and motor vehicle equipment...

  9. Control of synchronous motors

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Synchronous motors are indubitably the most effective device to drive industrial production systems and robots with precision and rapidity. Their control law is thus critical for combining at the same time high productivity to reduced energy consummation. As far as possible, the control algorithms must exploit the properties of these actuators. Therefore, this work draws on well adapted models resulting from the Park's transformation, for both the most traditional machines with sinusoidal field distribution and for machines with non-sinusoidal field distribution which are more and more used in

  10. Bearingless switched reluctance motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A switched reluctance motor has a stator with a first set of poles directed toward levitating a rotor horizontally within the stator. A disc shaped portion of a hybrid rotor is affected by the change in flux relative to the current provided at these levitation poles. A processor senses the position of the rotor and changes the flux to move the rotor toward center of the stator. A second set of poles of the stator are utilized to impart torque upon a second portion of the rotor. These second set of poles are driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by the processor.

  11. Torque-Summing Brushless Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    Torque channels function cooperatively but electrically independent for reliability. Brushless, electronically-commutated dc motor sums electromagnetic torques on four channels and applies them to single shaft. Motor operates with any combination of channels and continues if one or more of channels fail electrically. Motor employs single stator and rotor and mechanically simple; however, each of channels electrically isolated from other so that failure of one does not adversely affect others.

  12. High-performance motor drives

    OpenAIRE

    Kazmierkowski, Marian P.; García Franquelo, Leopoldo; Rodríguez, José; Pérez, Marcelo; León Galván, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the present state and trends in the development of key parts of controlled induction motor drive systems: converter topologies, modulation methods, as well as control and estimation techniques. Two- and multilevel voltage-source converters, current-source converters, and direct converters are described. The main part of all the produced electric energy is used to feed electric motors, and the conversion of electrical power into mechanical power involves motors ranges from...

  13. Motor development of blind toddler

    OpenAIRE

    Likar, Petra

    2013-01-01

    For blind toddlers, development of motor skills enables possibilities for learning and exploring the environment. The purpose of this graduation thesis is to systematically mark the milestones in development of motor skills in blind toddlers, to establish different factors which affect this development, and to discover different ways for teachers for visually impaired and parents to encourage development of motor skills. It is typical of blind toddlers that they do not experience a wide varie...

  14. Systemically administered anti-TNF therapy ameliorates functional outcomes after focal cerebral ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Bettina Hjelm; Degn, Matilda; Martin, Nellie Anne

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundThe innate immune system contributes to the outcome after stroke, where neuroinflammation and post-stroke systemic immune depression are central features. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which exists in both a transmembrane (tm) and soluble (sol) form, is known to sustain complex inflammat...

  15. Motor cortical plasticity induced by motor learning through mental practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eAvanzino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Several investigations suggest that actual and mental actions trigger similar neural substrates. Motor learning via physical practice results in long-term potentiation (LTP-like plasticity processes, namely potentiation of M1 and a temporary occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. However, whether this neuroplasticity process contributes to improve motor performance through mental practice remains to be determined. Here, we tested skill learning-dependent changes in primary motor cortex (M1 excitability and plasticity by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation in subjects trained to physically execute or mentally perform a sequence of finger opposition movements. Before and after physical practice and motor-imagery practice, M1 excitability was evaluated by measuring the input-output (IO curve of motor evoked potentials. M1 long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD-like plasticity was assessed with paired-associative stimulation (PAS of the median nerve and motor cortex using an interstimulus interval of 25 ms (PAS25 or 10 ms (PAS10, respectively. We found that even if after both practice sessions subjects significantly improved their movement speed, M1 excitability and plasticity were differentially influenced by the two practice sessions. First, we observed an increase in the slope of IO curve after physical but not after motor-imagery practice. Second, there was a reversal of the PAS25 effect from LTP-like plasticity to LTD-like plasticity following physical and motor-imagery practice. Third, LTD-like plasticity (PAS10 protocol increased after physical practice, whilst it was occluded after motor-imagery practice. In conclusion, we demonstrated that motor-imagery practice lead to the development of neuroplasticity, as it affected the PAS25- and PAS10- induced plasticity in M1. These results, expanding the current knowledge on how motor-imagery training shapes M1 plasticity, might have a potential impact in

  16. Overview of Bearingless Induction Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearingless induction motors combining functions of both torque generation and noncontact magnetic suspension together have attracted more and more attention in the past decades due to their definite advantages of compactness, simple structure, less maintenance, no wear particles, high rotational speed, and so forth. This paper overviews the key technologies of the bearingless induction motors, with emphasis on motor topologies, mathematical models, and control strategies. Particularly, in the control issues, the vector control, independent control, direct torque control, nonlinear decoupling control, sensorless control, and so forth are investigated. In addition, several possible development trends of the bearingless induction motors are also discussed.

  17. Comparison of objectively measured motor behavior with ratings of the motor behavior domain of the Bern Psychopathology Scale (BPS) in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracht, Tobias; Heidemeyer, Kristine; Koschorke, Philipp; Horn, Helge; Razavi, Nadja; Wopfner, Alexander; Strik, Werner; Walther, Sebastian

    2012-07-30

    Motor symptoms in schizophrenia occur frequently and are relevant to diagnosis and antipsychotic therapy. To date motor symptoms are difficult to assess and their pathobiology is a widely unresolved issue. The Bern Psychopathology Scale for the assessment of system-specific psychotic symptoms (BPS) was designed to identify homogenous patient groups by focusing on three domains: language, affectivity and motor behavior. The present study aimed to validate the motor behavior domain of the BPS using wrist actigraphy. In total, 106 patients were rated with the BPS and underwent 24 h continuous actigraphy recording. The ratings of the global severity of the motor behavior domain (GSM) as well as the quantitative and the subjective items of the motor behavior domain of the BPS were significantly associated with actigraphic variables. In contrast, the qualitative items of the motor domain failed to show an association with actigraphy. Likewise, scores of the language and the affectivity domains were not related to actigraphic measures. In conclusion, we provided substantial external validity for global, quantitative and subjective ratings of the BPS motor behavior domain. Thus, the BPS is suitable to assess the dimension of quantitative motor behavior in the schizophrenia spectrum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cannabidiol ameliorates cognitive and motor impairments in bile-duct ligated mice via 5-HT1A receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, I; Avraham, Y; Ackerman, Z; Vorobiev, L; Mechoulam, R; Berry, E M

    2010-02-01

    We aimed to demonstrate the involvement of 5-HT(1A) receptors in the therapeutic effect of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa, in a model of hepatic encephalopathy induced by bile-duct ligation (BDL) in mice. Cannabidiol (5 mg x kg(-1); i.p.) was administered over 4 weeks to BDL mice. Cognition and locomotion were evaluated using the eight-arm maze and the open field tests respectively. Hippocampi were analysed by RT-PCR for expression of the genes for tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor 1, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and 5-HT(1A) receptor. N-(2-(4-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-1-piperazin-1-yl)ethyl)-N-(2-pyridyl) cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY-100635), a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist (0.5 mg x kg(-1)), was co-administered with cannabidiol. Liver function was evaluated by measuring plasma liver enzymes and bilirubin. Cannabidiol improved cognition and locomotion, which were impaired by BDL, and restored hippocampal expression of the tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptor 1 and the BDNF genes, which increased and decreased, respectively, following BDL. It did not affect reduced 5-HT(1A) expression in BDL mice. All the effects of cannabidiol, except for that on BDNF expression, were blocked by WAY-100635, indicating 5-HT(1A) receptor involvement in cannabidiol's effects. Cannabidiol did not affect the impaired liver function in BDL. The behavioural outcomes of BDL result from both 5-HT(1A) receptor down-regulation and neuroinflammation. Cannabidiol reverses these effects through a combination of anti-inflammatory activity and activation of this receptor, leading to improvement of the neurological deficits without affecting 5-HT(1A) receptor expression or liver function. BDNF up-regulation by cannabidiol does not seem to account for the cognitive improvement.

  19. Cannabidiol ameliorates cognitive and motor impairments in bile-duct ligated mice via 5-HT1A receptor activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, I; Avraham, Y; Ackerman, Z; Vorobiev, L; Mechoulam, R; Berry, EM

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: We aimed to demonstrate the involvement of 5-HT1A receptors in the therapeutic effect of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa, in a model of hepatic encephalopathy induced by bile-duct ligation (BDL) in mice. Experimental approach: Cannabidiol (5 mg·kg−1; i.p.) was administered over 4 weeks to BDL mice. Cognition and locomotion were evaluated using the eight-arm maze and the open field tests respectively. Hippocampi were analysed by RT-PCR for expression of the genes for tumour necrosis factor-α receptor 1, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and 5-HT1A receptor. N-(2-(4-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-1-piperazin-1-yl)ethyl)-N-(2-pyridyl) cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY-100635), a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist (0.5 mg·kg−1), was co-administered with cannabidiol. Liver function was evaluated by measuring plasma liver enzymes and bilirubin. Key results: Cannabidiol improved cognition and locomotion, which were impaired by BDL, and restored hippocampal expression of the tumour necrosis factor-α receptor 1 and the BDNF genes, which increased and decreased, respectively, following BDL. It did not affect reduced 5-HT1A expression in BDL mice. All the effects of cannabidiol, except for that on BDNF expression, were blocked by WAY-100635, indicating 5-HT1A receptor involvement in cannabidiol's effects. Cannabidiol did not affect the impaired liver function in BDL. Conclusions and implications: The behavioural outcomes of BDL result from both 5-HT1A receptor down-regulation and neuroinflammation. Cannabidiol reverses these effects through a combination of anti-inflammatory activity and activation of this receptor, leading to improvement of the neurological deficits without affecting 5-HT1A receptor expression or liver function. BDNF up-regulation by cannabidiol does not seem to account for the cognitive improvement. PMID:20128798

  20. Metformin as adjunct antituberculosis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Amit; Jie, Liu; Kumar, Pavanish; Hong, Gan Suay; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Paleja, Bhairav; Tsenova, Liana; Kurepina, Natalia; Chen, Jinmiao; Zolezzi, Francesca; Kreiswirth, Barry; Poidinger, Michael; Chee, Cynthia; Kaplan, Gilla; Wang, Yee Tang; De Libero, Gennaro

    2014-11-19

    The global burden of tuberculosis (TB) morbidity and mortality remains immense. A potential new approach to TB therapy is to augment protective host immune responses. We report that the antidiabetic drug metformin (MET) reduces the intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in an AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase)-dependent manner. MET controls the growth of drug-resistant Mtb strains, increases production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, and facilitates phagosome-lysosome fusion. In Mtb-infected mice, use of MET ameliorated lung pathology, reduced chronic inflammation, and enhanced the specific immune response and the efficacy of conventional TB drugs. Moreover, in two separate human cohorts, MET treatment was associated with improved control of Mtb infection and decreased disease severity. Collectively, these data indicate that MET is a promising candidate host-adjunctive therapy for improving the effective treatment of TB. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Motor Control and Neural Plasticity through Interhemispheric Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki Takeuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The corpus callosum, which is the largest white matter structure in the human brain, connects the 2 cerebral hemispheres. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the independent processing of the hemispheres and in integrating information between both hemispheres. The functional integrity of interhemispheric interactions can be tested electrophysiologically in humans by using transcranial magnetic stimulation, electroencephalography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging. As a brain structural imaging, diffusion tensor imaging has revealed the microstructural connectivity underlying interhemispheric interactions. Sex, age, and motor training in addition to the size of the corpus callosum influence interhemispheric interactions. Several neurological disorders change hemispheric asymmetry directly by impairing the corpus callosum. Moreover, stroke lesions and unilateral peripheral impairments such as amputation alter interhemispheric interactions indirectly. Noninvasive brain stimulation changes the interhemispheric interactions between both motor cortices. Recently, these brain stimulation techniques were applied in the clinical rehabilitation of patients with stroke by ameliorating the deteriorated modulation of interhemispheric interactions. Here, we review the interhemispheric interactions and mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these interactions and propose rehabilitative approaches for appropriate cortical reorganization.

  2. Segmented motor drive - with multi-phase induction motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Flemming Buus

    to various sources bearing currents, which in worst case conditions can destroy the bearings, on a multi-phase motor can be reduced considerably by using special pulse wide modulation strategies. This topic is however not analyzed further in this thesis. A six-phase motor drive system is built...

  3. Motor power control circuit for ac induction motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A motor power control of the type which functions by controlling the power factor wherein one of the parameters of power factor current on time is determined by the on time of a triac through which current is supplied to the motor. By means of a positive feedback circuit, a wider range of control is effected.

  4. Motor vehicle drivers' injuries in train-motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Khattak, Aemal

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to: (1) identify a more suitable model for modeling injury severity of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at highway-rail grade crossings from among three commonly used injury severity models and (2) to investigate factors associated with injury severity levels of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at such crossings. The 2009-2013 highway-rail grade crossing crash data and the national highway-rail crossing inventory data were combined to produce the analysis dataset. Four-year (2009-2012) data were used for model estimation while 2013 data were used for model validation. The three injury severity levels-fatal, injury and no injury-were based on the reported intensity of motor-vehicle drivers' injuries at highway-rail grade crossings. The three injury severity models evaluated were: ordered probit, multinomial logit and random parameter logit. A comparison of the three models based on different criteria showed that the random parameter logit model and multinomial logit model were more suitable for injury severity analysis of motor vehicle drivers involved in crashes at highway-rail grade crossings. Some of the factors that increased the likelihood of more severe crashes included higher train and vehicle speeds, freight trains, older drivers, and female drivers. Where feasible, reducing train and motor vehicle speeds and nighttime lighting may help reduce injury severities of motor vehicle drivers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The gut-brain axis in Parkinson's disease : Possibilities for food-based therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez-Pardo, Paula|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338040900; Kliest, Tessa; Dodiya, Hemraj B.; Broersen, Laus M; Garssen, Johan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/086369962; Keshavarzian, Ali; Kraneveld, Aletta D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126612838

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is usually characterized by cardinal motor impairments. However, a range of non-motor symptoms precede the motor-phase and are major determinants for the quality of life. To date, no disease modifying treatment is available for PD patients. The gold standard therapy of

  6. Visually- and motor-based knowledge of letters: evidence from a pure alexic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomeo, Paolo; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne Catherine; Chokron, Sylvie; Degos, Jean-Denis

    2002-01-01

    We describe a patient, VSB, whose reading was impaired as a consequence of a left temporal-parietal lesion, whereas writing was relatively preserved. At variance with other pure alexic patients described in the literature, VSB claimed to have become unable to mentally visualise letters and words. Indeed, his performance on a series of tests tapping visual mental imagery for orthographic material was severely impaired. However, performance on the same tests was dramatically ameliorated by allowing VSB to trace each item with his finger. Visual mental imagery for non-orthographic items was comparatively spared. The pattern of dissociation shown by VSB between impaired visual mental imagery and relatively preserved motor-based knowledge for orthographic material lends support to the view that separate codes, respectively based on visual appearance and on motor engrams, may be used to access knowledge of the visual form of letters and words.

  7. Circuit changes in motor cortex during motor skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, Andrew E; Hooks, Bryan M

    2018-01-01

    Motor cortex is important for motor skill learning, particularly the dexterous skills necessary for our favorite sports and careers. We are especially interested in understanding how plasticity in motor cortex contributes to skill learning. Although human studies have been helpful in understanding the importance of motor cortex in learning skilled tasks, animal models are necessary for achieving a detailed understanding of the circuitry underlying these behaviors and the changes that occur during training. We review data from these models to try to identify sites of plasticity in motor cortex, focusing on rodents asa model system. Rodent neocortex contains well-differentiated motor and sensory regions, as well as neurons expressing similar genetic markers to many of the same circuit components in human cortex. Furthermore, rodents have circuit mapping tools for labeling, targeting, and manipulating these cell types as circuit nodes. Crucially, the projection from rodent primary somatosensory cortex to primary motor cortex is a well-studied corticocortical projection and a model of sensorimotor integration. We first summarize some of the descending pathways involved in making dexterous movements, including reaching. We then describe local and long-range circuitry in mouse motor cortex, summarizing structural and functional changes associated with motor skill acquisition. We then address which specific connections might be responsible for plasticity. For insight into the range of plasticity mechanisms employed by cortex, we review plasticity in sensory systems. The similarities and differences between motor cortex plasticity and critical periods of plasticity in sensory systems are discussed. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Impact of Physical Activity on Non-Motor Symptoms in Parkinson?s Disease: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Cusso, Melanie E.; Donald, Kenneth J.; Khoo, Tien K.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurological disorder that is associated with both motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS). The management of PD is primarily via pharmaceutical treatment; however, non-pharmaceutical interventions have become increasingly recognized in the management of motor and NMS. In this review, the efficacy of physical activity, including physiotherapy and occupational therapy, as an intervention in NMS will be assessed. The papers were extracted between the 20th and 22nd of Ju...

  9. Amount and Focus of Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy for Young Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisano, Robert J.; Begnoche, Denise M.; Chiarello, Lisa A.; Bartlett, Doreen J.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Chang, Hui-Ju

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe physical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) services for a cohort of 399 children with cerebral palsy (CP), 2-6 years old, residing in the United States and Canada. Parents completed a services questionnaire by telephone interview. Therapists classified children's Gross Motor Function Classification…

  10. Motor Coordination and Executive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Since Piaget, the view that motor and cognitive development are interrelated has gained wide acceptance. However, empirical research on this issue is still rare. Few studies show a correlation of performance in cognitive and motor tasks in typically developing children. More specifically, Diamond A. (2000) hypothesizes an involvement of executive…

  11. Persistent Motor Deficits in DAMP

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2000-01-01

    Motor control in ability to perform everyday and spare-time activities was assessed at 11 to 12 years of age in 10 boys with deficits in attention, motor control and perception (DAMP) and compared with a group of 20 boys without DAMP.

  12. Energy-saving motor; Energiesparmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindegger, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development and testing of an advanced electrical motor using a permanent-magnet rotor. The aims of the project - to study the technical feasibility and market potential of the Eco-Motor - are discussed and the three phases of the project described. These include the calculation and realisation of a 250-watt prototype operating at 230 V, the measurement of the motor's characteristics as well as those of a comparable asynchronous motor on the test bed at the University of Applied Science in Lucerne, Switzerland, and a market study to establish if the Eco-Motor and its controller can compete against normal asynchronous motors. Also, the results of an analysis of the energy-savings potential is made, should such Eco-Motors be used. Detailed results of the three phases of the project are presented and the prospects of producing such motors in Switzerland for home use as well as for export are examined.

  13. Power control for ac motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, R. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A motor controller employing a triac through which power is supplied to a motor is described. The open circuit voltage appearing across the triac controls the operation of a timing circuit. This timing circuit triggers on the triac at a time following turn off which varies inversely as a function of the amplitude of the open circuit voltage of the triac.

  14. Shape memory alloy based motor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/sadh/033/05/0699-0712. Keywords. Shape Memory Alloy (SMA); poly phase; rotary actuator; torque; ripple. Abstract. Design and characterization of a new shape memory alloy wire based Poly Phase Motor has been reported in this paper. The motor can be used either in stepping mode or ...

  15. Motors and Bulbs in Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    One of Paul Hewitt's "Figuring Physics" that appeared in this journal dealt with the heating of a motor. This phenomenon can be demonstrated with a miniature motor and a bulb as part of a series of activities with "batteries and bulbs." Students examine the effect on the brightness of a single bulb when a second, identical bulb is placed in series…

  16. Piezoelectric wave motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2001-07-17

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  17. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor controllers and motor-control centers. 111.70-3... controllers and motor-control centers. (a) General. The enclosure for each motor controller or motor-control... motor controller for a vital propulsion auxiliary which can be restarted from a central control station...

  18. Molecular Motors: A Theorist's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Fisher, Michael E.

    Individual molecular motors, or motor proteins, are enzymatic molecules that convert chemical energy, typically obtained from the hydrolysis of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), into mechanical work and motion. Processive motor proteins, such as kinesin, dynein, and certain myosins, step unidirectionally along linear tracks, specifically microtubules and actin filaments, and play a crucial role in cellular transport processes, organization, and function. In this review some theoretical aspects of motor-protein dynamics are presented in the light of current experimental methods that enable the measurement of the biochemical and biomechanical properties on a single-molecule basis. After a brief discussion of continuum ratchet concepts, we focus on discrete kinetic and stochastic models that yield predictions for the mean velocity, V(F, [ATP],…), and other observables as a function of an imposed load force F, the ATP concentration, and other variables. The combination of appropriate theory with single-molecule observations should help uncover the mechanisms underlying motor-protein function.

  19. Acute exercise improves motor memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Kasper Christen; Roig, Marc; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We have recently shown that a single bout of acute cardiovascular exercise improves motor skill learning through an optimization of long-term motor memory. Here we expand this previous finding, to explore potential exercise-related biomarkers and their association with measures of motor memory...... and skill acquisition. Thirty-two healthy young male subjects were randomly allocated into either an exercise or control group. Following either an intense bout of cycling or rest subjects practiced a visuomotor tracking task. Motor skill acquisition was assessed during practice and retention 1 hour, 24...... hours and 7 days after practice. Plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and lactate were analyzed at baseline, immediately after exercise or rest and during motor...

  20. Motor-operated gearbox efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Weidenhamer, G.H.

    1996-12-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently conducted tests investigating the operating efficiency of the power train (gearbox) in motor-operators typically used in nuclear power plants to power motor-operated valves. Actual efficiency ratios were determined from in-line measurements of electric motor torque (input to the operator gearbox) and valve stem torque (output from the gearbox) while the operators were subjected to gradually increasing loads until the electric motor stalled. The testing included parametric studies under reduced voltage and elevated temperature conditions. As part of the analysis of the results, the authors compared efficiency values determined from testing to the values published by the operator manufacturer and typically used by the industry in calculations for estimating motor-operator capabilities. The operators they tested under load ran at efficiencies lower than the running efficiency (typically 50%) published by the operator manufacturer.