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Sample records for therapeutic radionuclides making

  1. Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article

  2. Introduction [Nuclear data for the production of therapeutic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaim, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactivity plays an important role in medical science in terms of beneficial applications in both diagnosis and therapy. The former entails the introduction of a short lived radionuclide attached to a suitable pharmaceutical into the patient, and measurement of the accumulation and movement of activity from outside. This process is called emission tomography and involves the measurement of either a single low energy γ ray (i.e. single photon computed emission tomography) or coincidences between the two 511 keV photons formed in the annihilation of a positron (i.e. positron emission tomography (PET)). The major governing principle in all diagnostic studies is that the radiation dose to the patient is as low as possible. Two modalities exist in the therapeutic use of radioactivity. The first and most commonly followed procedure involves the use of external beams of electrons, X rays and γ rays from radioactive sources (e.g. 60 Co), high energy γ rays from accelerators, and hadrons (e.g. neutrons, protons and heavy ions). The second modality involves the introduction of certain radionuclides to a given part of the body (e.g. joints, organ and tumour) either mechanically or via a biochemical pathway. Mechanical introduction is called brachytherapy, whereas the biochemical pathway is known as endoradiotherapy. External radiation therapy is outside the scope of the present studies. The concerted and collaborative efforts described here deal specifically with the production and use of radionuclides. An earlier coordinated research project (CRP) of the IAEA was devoted to diagnostic radionuclides. The present effort is related to therapeutic radionuclides.

  3. Metallic radionuclides: applications in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, R.E.; Thakur, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a medical modality that utilizes radioactivity (radiopharmaceutical) to diagnose and treat disease. Radiopharmaceuticals contain a component which directs the radionuclide to the desire physiological target. For diagnostic applications, these nuclides must emit a γ ray that can penetrate the body and can be detected externally while for therapeutic purposes nuclides are preferred that emit β particles and deliver highly localized tissue damage. 67 Ga citrate is employed to detect chronic occult abscesses, Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, lung cancer, hepatoma and melanoma and localizes in these tissues utilizing iron-binding proteins. 201 Thallous chloride, a potassium analogue, used to diagnosis coronary artery disease, is incorporated in muscle tissue via the Na + -K + -ATPase. 111 In labeled autologous white blood cells, used for the diagnosis of acute infections and inflammations, takes advantage of the white cell's role in fighting infections. 111 In is incorporated in other radiopharmaceuticals e.g. polyclonal IgG, OncoScint CR/OV, OctreoScan and Myoscint by coupling diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, a chelate, covalently to these molecules. OncoScint CR/OV and Myoscint localize by antigen-antibody interactions while OctreoScan is taken up by malignant cells in a receptor based process. Polyclonal IgG may share some localization characteristics with 67 Ga. 89 Sr, a pure β emitter, is used for palliation of bone pain due to metastatic bone lesions. Bone salts [Ca(PO) 4 ] are increased in these lesions and this radionuclide is taken up similarly to Ca 2+ . 186 Re and 153 Sm bound to polydentate phosphonate chelates are used similarly and follow the phosphate pathway in lesion incorporation. (orig.)

  4. Metallic radionuclides: Applications in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, R.E.; Thakur, M. L.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a medical modality that utilizes radioactivity (radiopharmaceutical) to diagnose and treat disease. Radiopharmaceuticals contain a component which directs the radionuclide to the desire physiological target. For diagnostic applications, these nuclides must emit a gamma ray that can penetrate the body and can be detected externally while for therapeutic purposes nuclides are preferred that emit beta particles and deliver highly localized tissue damage. sup 6 sup 7 Ga citrate is employed to detect chronic occult abscesses, Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, lung cancer, hepatoma and melanoma and localizes in these tissues utilizing iron-binding proteins. sup 2 sup 0 sup 1 Thallous chloride, a potassium analogue, used to diagnosis coronary artery disease, is incorporated in muscle tissue via the Na sup + -K sup + -ATPase. sup 1 sup 1 sup 1 In labeled autologous white blood cells, used for the diagnosis of acute infections and inflammations, takes advantage of the white cell's role in fighting infections. sup 1 sup 1 sup 1 In is incorporated in other radiopharmaceuticals e.g. polyclonal IgG, OncoScint CR/OV, OctreoScan and Myoscint by coupling diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, a chelate, covalently to these molecules. OncoScint CR/OV and Myoscint localize by antigen-antibody interactions while OctreoScan is taken up by malignant cells in a receptor based process. Polyclonal IgG may share some localization characteristics with sup 6 sup 7 Ga. sup 8 sup 9 Sr, a pure beta emitter, is used for palliation of bone pain due to metastatic bone lesions. Bone salts [Ca(PO) sub 4] are increased in these lesions and this radionuclide is taken up similarly to Ca sup 2 sup +. sup 1 sup 8 sup 6 Re and sup 1 sup 5 sup 3 Sm bound to polydentate phosphonate chelates are used similarly and follow the phosphate pathway in lesion incorporation. (author)

  5. Dosimetric studies of anti-CD20 labeled with therapeutic radionuclides at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, G.; Dias, C.R.B.R.; Osso Junior, J.A., E-mail: gracielabarrio@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) makes use of monoclonal antibodies (MAb) labeled with alpha/beta radionuclides for therapeutical purposes, leading to tumor irradiation and destruction, preserving the normal organs on the radiation excess. The therapeutic activity to be injected in a specific patient is based on information obtained in dosimetric studies. Beta emitting radionuclides such as {sup 131}I, {sup 188}Re, {sup 90}Y, {sup 177}Lu and {sup 166}Ho are useful for the development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Anti-CD20 (Rituximab) is a chimeric MAb directed against antigen surface CD20 on B-lymphocytes, used in non-Hodgkin lymphoma treatment (NHL). The association with beta radionuclides have shown greater therapeutic efficacy. Currently, two radiopharmaceuticals with Anti-CD20 for radioimmunotherapy have FDA approval for NHL treatment: {sup 131}I-AntiCD20 (Bexar) and {sup 90}Y-AntiCD20 (Zevalin). Techniques for the radiolabeling of {sup 188}Re-antiCD20 have been recently developed by IPEN-CNEN/SP in order to evaluate the clinical use of this radionuclide in particular. The use of {sup 188}Re (T{sub 1/2} 17h) produced by the decay of {sup 188}W (T{sub 1/2} 69d), from an {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator system, has represented an alternative to RIT. Beyond high energy beta emission for therapy, {sup 188}Re also emits gamma rays (155keV) suitable for image. The aim of this new project is to compare the labeling of anti-CD20 with {sup 188}Re with the same MAb labeled with {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 90}Y and even {sup 99m}Tc. The first step in this project is the review of the published data available concerning the labeling of this MAb with different radionuclides, along with data obtained at IPEN, taking into account labeling procedures, labeling yields, reaction time, level and kind of impurities and biodistribution studies. The pharmacokinetic code will be developed in Visual Studio.NET platform through VB.NET and C{sup ++} for biodistribution and dosimetric

  6. THERAPEUTIC DECISION-MAKING OF PHYSICIANS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DENIG, P; HAAIJER-RUSKAMP, FM

    1992-01-01

    In this review the therapeutic decision-making process of physicians is described. This process is divided into two steps: the generation of a limited set of possible options (the 'evoked set') and the selection from this evoked set of a treatment for a specific patient. Factors that are important

  7. Novel diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides for the development of innovative radiopharmaceuticals

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose the exploration of novel radionuclides with diagnostic or therapeutic properties from ISOLDE. Access to such unique isotopes will enable the fundamental research in radiopharmaceutical science towards superior treatment, e.g. in nuclear oncology. The systematic investigation of the biological response to the different characteristics of the decay radiation will be performed for a better understanding of therapeutic effects. The development of alternative diagnostic tools will be applied for the management and optimization of radionuclide therapy.

  8. Optimal beta-ray shielding thicknesses for different therapeutic radionuclides and shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong In; Kim, Ja Mee; Kim, Jung Hoon

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the distribution of deposited energy of beta and gamma rays according to changes in shielding materials and thicknesses when radionuclides are used for therapeutic nuclear medicine, a simulation was conducted. The results showed that due to the physical characteristics of each therapeutic radionuclide, the thicknesses of shielding materials at which beta-ray shielding takes place varied. Additional analysis of the shielding of gamma ray was conducted for radionuclides that emit both beta and gamma rays simultaneously with results showing shielding effects proportional to the atomic number and density of the shielding materials. Also, analysis of bremsstrahlung emission after beta-ray interactions in the simulation revealed that the occurrence of bremsstrahlung was relatively lower than theoretically calculated and varied depending on different radionuclides. (authors)

  9. Report of the consultants' meeting on comparative laboratory evaluation of therapeutic radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    Therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals consist of two components - the radionuclide and the biological carrier. With regard to the radionuclide, an advantage of targeted radiotherapy is that there are a wide variety of radionuclides with different physical half-lives and radiation qualities that can be applied for this purpose. An important task is to select a radionuclide that is compatible with the needs of a particular clinical application. The identification of the ideal targeted radiotherapeutic for each potential clinical application is a difficult task because of the multitude of variables that must be considered, some relating to the radioisotope, and others to the biological carrier. Hence it is recommended that a Co-ordinated Research Programme be established by the Agency to enable participants to acquire and intercompare the methodological expertise to evaluate the relative merit of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. These studies will be performed using a model system selected either from those described in this report or a promising agent that has emerged in the time since this meeting. The molecular carrier will be labelled with 131 I, 125 I as well as other therapeutic radionuclides available to the participant (for example, 90 Y, 186 Re, 188 Re, 153 Sm, 166 Ho, 165 Dy). The potential radiopharmaceuticals will then be compared in a progression of studies evaluating biological integrity after labelling, internalisation and residualization of radioactivity in the tumour cell, in vitro cytotoxicity, tissue distribution, normal organ toxicity (determination of the maximum tolerated dose) and finally, therapeutic efficacy

  10. Nuclear data for the production of therapeutic radionuclides. Summary report of third research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sublet, J.-Ch.; Capote Noy, R.

    2006-08-01

    A summary is given of the Third Research Coordination Meeting on Nuclear Data for the Production of Therapeutic Radionuclides. The new library of evaluated cross-section will cover reactor and accelerator production of therapeutic radionuclides to appropriate specific activities and purity, along with the relevant decay data. A few new reactions were added at this meeting. Technical discussions and the resulting work plan to conclude the data evaluation activities are summarized for every reaction path. Timescales and agreed actions to deliver the database and Technical Report are also given. (author)

  11. Nuclear data for production of therapeutic radionuclides. Summary report of second research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sublet, J.-Ch.; Capote Noy, R.

    2004-11-01

    A summary is given of the Second Research Coordination Meeting on Nuclear Data for Production of Therapeutic Radionuclides. The new library of evaluated cross section will cover the reactor and/or accelerator production of therapeutic radionuclides to appropriate specific activities and purity along with the relevant decay data. There are a significant number of radioisotopes in use or being proposed for therapeutic applications. As a consequence of the work undertaken during the course of this CRP, the resulting completeness and accuracy of the nuclear data for the production of these nuclides to appropriate specific activities and purity along with the re-definition of their decay data should be adequate for safe and efficient medical applications. The radioisotopes to be considered in the CRP were divided into two categories: Established Radioisotopes (therapeutic radioisotopes that have established clinical uses) and Emerging Radioisotopes (less-commonly used but potentially interesting radioisotopes for which medical applications have been demonstrated). Experimental data compilations and selection and preliminary evaluations for each of the reactions were extensively discussed during the meeting. The recommendations for both established and emerging radionuclides, and validation/testing of the cross section library are summarized. Technical discussions and the resulting work plan of the Coordinated Research Programme are summarized for every reaction path to be evaluated, along with actions and deadlines. Participants' contributions to the RCM are also attached. (author)

  12. Effect of Some Therapeutic Agents on the Radionuclides Excretion from Internally Contaminated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, M.; Mangood, Sh.A.; Sohsah, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The present work was oriented to investigate the effectiveness of Prussian blue (PB), vermiculite and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (CaDTPA) as therapeutic agents for the elimination of either 134 Cs or 60 Co from contaminated rats after intake of one of the isotopes. The study was performed by using 48 adult rats divided into 8 identical groups each of six rats having approximately the same body weight. The groups included a reference group, without isotope or therapeutic agent administration, four groups given one of the isotopes and four groups given the isotopes and treated with different therapeutic regimes. The isotope content of the treated and untreated contaminated rats were followed by daily whole body radiometric counting for three weeks. On plotting log % radionuclide retained as a function of time, elapsed between radionuclide administration and radiometric counting, straight lines were obtained. The results indicate that excretion can mostly be represented by two stages; the first is fast followed by a second slow stage. The % radionuclide excreted, the corresponding rate constant and the biological half-life of each stage was estimated. It was found that the application of PB + vermiculite is more efficient, to remove 134 Cs, from contaminated rats, than PB only and CaDTPA is more efficient to remove 60Co. Therefore, it is recommended to use the three therapeutic agents to remove both isotopes when taken simultaneously

  13. Nuclear data for the production of therapeutic radionuclides. Summary report of first research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sublet, J.-Ch.; Paviotti-Corcuera, R.

    2003-06-01

    Presentations, discussions and conclusions from the First Co-ordination Meeting on Nuclear Data for the Production of Therapeutic Radionuclides are summarised in this report. The main purpose of the meeting was to discuss scientific and technical matters related to the subject and to co-ordinate related tasks. Programmes of work were agreed and assigned, and deadlines were set. Participants emphasized the importance of the completeness and accuracy of the resulting nuclear data for the production of these radionuclides to appropriate specific activities and purity along with the relevant decay data. The recommended data from this Coordinated Research Project should meet the requirements for the safe and efficacious application of therapeutic treatments in nuclear medicine. (author)

  14. Radionuclides for therapeutic applications: Biological and medical aspects (present status, development and expectations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambersie, A.; Gahbauer, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Different multidisciplinary therapeutic strategies and technical approaches are used today in cancer therapy. Among the techniques involving ionizing radiation, therapeutic applications of radioactive nuclides deserve a particular interest ; some clinical indications are well established, while several others are now being investigated, and some of them are promising. The efficacy of radionuclides in therapy often depends on technical factors such as specific activity, purity, chemical presentation, availability, etc. These factors are closely related, at least partly, to the production methods. This justifies the organization of the present Consultant's meeting by the IAEA. Brief information on cancer, its socio-economic aspects, and some data concerning cure rate are presented first

  15. Report of the 2. research coordination meeting on development of generator technologies for therapeutic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this CRP are to evaluate various generator and concentration technologies for 188 W- 188 Re, 99 Mo- 99 mTc and 90 Sr- 90 Y generators, to optimize generator fabrication and use, to standardize quality control techniques for the eluted radionuclides and to provide standardized procedures to participating laboratories. The following issues will be addressed during the CRP. - Development of reproducible methodologies for the preparation of 188 W- 188 Re, 99 Mo- 99 mTc and 90 Sr- 90 Y generators. - Development and evaluation of chromatography adsorbents (Zr/Ti composites) having higher binding capacities and demonstration of their utility in the preparation of column generators for 188 Re and 99 mTc. - Comparison and optimization of technologies for post elution concentration of 188 Re and 99 mTc in order to improve the radioactive concentration. - Development of quality control techniques and specifications for generator eluted therapeutic radionuclides

  16. Report on the 1. research coordination meeting on 'Development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on {sup 177}Lu for radionuclide therapy'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Radionuclide therapy (RNT) employing radiopharmaceuticals labelled with emitting radionuclides is fast emerging as an important part of nuclear medicine. Radionuclide therapy is effectively utilized for bone pain palliation, thus providing significant improvement in quality of life of patients suffering from pain resulting from bone metastasis. Targeting primary diseases by using specific carrier molecules labelled with radionuclides is also widely investigated and efficacious products have been emerging for the treatment of Lymphoma and Neuroendocrine tumours. In order to ensure the wider use of radiopharmaceuticals, it is essential to carefully consider the choice of radionuclides that together with the carrier molecules will give suitable pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy. The criteria for the selection of a radionuclide for radiotherapy are suitable decay characteristics and amenable chemistry. However, the practical considerations in selecting a radionuclide for targeted therapy are availability in high radionuclidic purity as well as high specific activity and low production cost and comfortable delivery logistics. {sup 177}Lu is one of the isotopes emerging as a clear choice for therapy. Worldwide, the isotope is under investigation for approximately 30 different clinical applications, including treatment of colon cancer, metastatic bone cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and lung cancer. {sup 177}Lu decays with a half-life of 6.71 d by emission of particles with E{sub max} of 497 keV (78.6%), 384 keV (9.1%) and 176 keV (12.2%). It also emits photons of 113 keV (6.4%) and 208 keV (11%), that are ideally suited for imaging the in-vivo localization and dosimetric calculations applying a gamma camera. The physical half-life of {sup 177}Lu is comparable to that of {sup 131}I, the most widely used therapeutic radionuclide. The long halflife of {sup 177}Lu provides logistic advantage for production, QA/QC of the products as well as feasibility to

  17. Report on the 1. research coordination meeting on 'Development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on 177Lu for radionuclide therapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy (RNT) employing radiopharmaceuticals labelled with emitting radionuclides is fast emerging as an important part of nuclear medicine. Radionuclide therapy is effectively utilized for bone pain palliation, thus providing significant improvement in quality of life of patients suffering from pain resulting from bone metastasis. Targeting primary diseases by using specific carrier molecules labelled with radionuclides is also widely investigated and efficacious products have been emerging for the treatment of Lymphoma and Neuroendocrine tumours. In order to ensure the wider use of radiopharmaceuticals, it is essential to carefully consider the choice of radionuclides that together with the carrier molecules will give suitable pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy. The criteria for the selection of a radionuclide for radiotherapy are suitable decay characteristics and amenable chemistry. However, the practical considerations in selecting a radionuclide for targeted therapy are availability in high radionuclidic purity as well as high specific activity and low production cost and comfortable delivery logistics. 177 Lu is one of the isotopes emerging as a clear choice for therapy. Worldwide, the isotope is under investigation for approximately 30 different clinical applications, including treatment of colon cancer, metastatic bone cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and lung cancer. 177 Lu decays with a half-life of 6.71 d by emission of particles with E max of 497 keV (78.6%), 384 keV (9.1%) and 176 keV (12.2%). It also emits photons of 113 keV (6.4%) and 208 keV (11%), that are ideally suited for imaging the in-vivo localization and dosimetric calculations applying a gamma camera. The physical half-life of 177 Lu is comparable to that of 131 I, the most widely used therapeutic radionuclide. The long halflife of 177 Lu provides logistic advantage for production, QA/QC of the products as well as feasibility to supply the products to places

  18. Therapeutic Doll Making in Art Psychotherapy for Complex Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stace, Sonia M.

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic doll making can hold diverse functions for clients in therapy, particularly for those clients who are working through complex trauma histories. Recent literature pertaining to the treatment of complex trauma suggests that talking treatments have their limits; supplementary therapeutic approaches that focus on sensory, physical,…

  19. Decision making algorithm of the rehabilitation of agricultural lands contaminated with heavy natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomutyinyin, Yu.V.; Yivanov, Yu.O.; Kirichenko, V.K.

    2013-01-01

    Problem of rehabilitation of agricultural land contaminated with heavy natural radionuclides ( 210 Pb, 210 Po, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 238 U) was considered. Algorithm of decision making support on advisability of rehabilitation of mentioned land was suggested. Proposed algorithm was tested on the base of agricultural farmlands located in the affected zone of Pridneprovsky Chemicals Plant and its tailing dumps

  20. Measurement of natural radionuclides in bricks and brick-making clays from Cuddalore district, Tamilnadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viruthagirl, G.; Rajamanan, B.; Ravisankar, R.; Thilaivelavan, K.; Chandrasekaran, A.; Meenkshisundram, V.

    2010-01-01

    In India, bricks as building materials are mainly prepared by clay using the deposited sediments of rivers, and the radionuclide contents in bricks and brick-making clays should vary with origin and geological condition. In this paper, the radionuclide contents of these materials from river bank areas of Cuddalore district, Tamilnadu India are measured by gamma ray spectrometer using NaI (Tl) detector, and compared with those of other countries. The radiation hazard indices, which are evaluated by radium-equivalent (Raeq) activity, are lower than that of NEA-OECD. (authors)

  1. Combined anti-tumor therapeutic effect of targeted gene, hyperthermia, radionuclide brachytherapy in breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daozhen; Tang Qiusha; Xiang Jingying; Xu Fei; Zhang Li; Wang Junfeng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antitumor therapeutic effect of combined therapy of magnetic induction heating by nano-magnetic particles, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (HSV-tk suicide gene) and internal radiation in mice bearing MCF-7 breast carcinoma. Methods: The transfection reagents, plasmids heat shock protein-HSV-tk (pHSP-HSV-tk), ferroso-ferric oxide nano-magnetic fluid flow and 188 Re-ganciclovir-bovine serum albumin-nanopaticles (GCV-BSA-NP) were prepared. The heating experiments in vivo were carried out using ferroso-ferric oxide nano-magnetic fluid flow. Sixty mice tumor models bearing MCF-7 breast carcinoma were established and randomly divided into six groups. Group A was the control group, B was gene transfection therapy group, C was hyperthermia group, D was gene transfection therapy combined with radionuclide brachytherapy group, E was gene therapy combined with hyperthermia group, and F was gene therapy, hyperthermia combined with radionuclide brachytherapy group. The tumor growth, tumor mass and histopathological changes were evaluated. The expression of HSV-tk in the groups of B, D, E and F was detected by RT-PCR. Poisson distribution and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for statistical analysis by SPSS 10.0 software. Results: In the animal heating experiments, the temperature of tumor increased up to 39.6 degree C, 43.2 degree C, and 48.1 degree C quickly with different injected doses (2, 4 and 6 mg respectively) of nano-magnetic particles and maintained for 40 min. The temperature of tumor tissue reduced to 36.8 degree C, 37.5 degree C and 37.8 degree C in 10 min when alternating magnetic field (AMF) stopped. The tumor mass in Groups C ((452.50±30.29) mg), D ((240.98±35.32)mg), E((231.87±27.41) mg) and F ((141.55±23.78) mg) were much lower than that in Group A ((719.12±22.65) mg) (F=800.07, P<0.01), with the most significant treatment effect in Group F.The tumor mass in Group B((684.05±24.02) mg) was higher than

  2. [Parapneumonic pleural effusion: difficulties in making therapeutic decisions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzicka, Aleksandra; Chciałowski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Pneumonia is the second most common cause of pleural effusion. The presence of pleural fluid makes the prognosis in patients with pneumonia worse and causes a higher mortality rate. This is why it is very important to undertake suitable treatment as soon as possible. Most parapneumonic pleural effusions resolve with antibiotic alone, but sometimes more invasive treatment is necessary. Therapeutic decisions are based on different criteria. For many years determining biochemical fluid characteristics has been used for this purpose. Presentlythe usefullness of new parameters is being evaluated. Their application in diagnostics was possible thanks to better knowledge of mechanisms that participate in the development of parapneumonic pleural effusion.

  3. Report on the 2nd Research Coordination Meeting on The Development of Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals Based on 188Re and 90Y for Radionuclide. Working Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy is practiced for the treatment of malignant disorders of various organs and tissues as well as for treating certain other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Advances in understanding tumor biology as well as developments in peptide chemistry and monoclonal antibody technology are opening new opportunities for the development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals, thereby widening the scope of radionuclide therapy. In addition, particulate based radiopharmaceuticals are useful for treating hepatocarcinoma as well as in radiation synovectomy. With the establishment of new products the demand and application of therapeutic nuclear medicine is expected to grow rapidly. While there are a large number of radioisotopes proposed for targeted therapy, practical considerations had been limiting the number of usable isotopes. Generator-produced radionuclides are an attractive option for the large scale on-site availability of therapeutic isotopes. The IAEA’s CRP on the ‘Development of generator technologies for therapeutic radionuclides’ (2004-2007) was successful in developing technologies for the preparation of 188 W/ 188 Re and 90 Sr/ 90 Y generators for eluting 188 Re and 90 Y of high radionuclidic and chemical purity usable for research applications in the development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. The IAEA’s CRP on ‘The development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on 188 Re and 90 Y for radionuclide therapy’ was formulated to focus on enhancing the capacity of the 90 Sr/ 90 Y generator; to develop and validate quality control methods for the generator eluate; and to develop therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on 188 Re and 90 Y. The first RCM of the CRP was held in Polatom, Warsaw, Poland from 30 June to 4 July 2008. The meeting reviewed the work going on in the different participating laboratories, and the facilities, expertise and capabilities of the different participating groups, and formulated the work plan of

  4. Report on the 2{sup nd} Research Coordination Meeting on The Development of Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals Based on {sup 188}Re and {sup 90}Y for Radionuclide. Working Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Radionuclide therapy is practiced for the treatment of malignant disorders of various organs and tissues as well as for treating certain other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Advances in understanding tumor biology as well as developments in peptide chemistry and monoclonal antibody technology are opening new opportunities for the development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals, thereby widening the scope of radionuclide therapy. In addition, particulate based radiopharmaceuticals are useful for treating hepatocarcinoma as well as in radiation synovectomy. With the establishment of new products the demand and application of therapeutic nuclear medicine is expected to grow rapidly. While there are a large number of radioisotopes proposed for targeted therapy, practical considerations had been limiting the number of usable isotopes. Generator-produced radionuclides are an attractive option for the large scale on-site availability of therapeutic isotopes. The IAEA’s CRP on the ‘Development of generator technologies for therapeutic radionuclides’ (2004-2007) was successful in developing technologies for the preparation of {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re and {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y generators for eluting {sup 188}Re and {sup 90}Y of high radionuclidic and chemical purity usable for research applications in the development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. The IAEA’s CRP on ‘The development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on {sup 188}Re and {sup 90}Y for radionuclide therapy’ was formulated to focus on enhancing the capacity of the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y generator; to develop and validate quality control methods for the generator eluate; and to develop therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals based on {sup 188}Re and {sup 90}Y. The first RCM of the CRP was held in Polatom, Warsaw, Poland from 30 June to 4 July 2008. The meeting reviewed the work going on in the different participating laboratories, and the facilities, expertise and capabilities of the different

  5. First meeting on the CRP 'standardized high current solid targets for cyclotron production of diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkel, P. van den

    2000-01-01

    The Cyclotron Department of the VUB has three groups performing research in the field of target development, production of radionuclides and their application in nuclear medicine. 1. The Physics Group is busy on the optimization of beam parameters, on the determination of cross sections and on neutron spectrometry. 2. The Inorganic Radiochemistry Group performs research on solid target electroplating (Tl, Zn, Cd, Rh ... ), on optimisation of target carrier geometry and cooling and on automated PC-controlled radiochemistry (Tl-201, Ga-67, In-111) and recovery systems and the associated software written in Modula-2 and Visual Basic. 3. The Organic Radiochemistry Group develops new techniques for radiolabelling of organic molecules (fatty acids, neuroleptics, synthetic polypeptides...) useful in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. All three groups take part in bulk productions of radionuclides

  6. Formulary decision-making about cephalosporins with similar therapeutic uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabe, Don M

    2003-05-15

    The various costs and intangible factors that enter into formulary decisions in an era of increasingly frequent drug product shortages that can adversely affect patient care and increase treatment costs are described. Pharmacy administration at Carolinas HealthCare System analyzed the costs associated with making a formulary switch from the third-generation cephalosporin ceftriaxone to cefotaxime, which recently became available in generic form and has a similar spectrum of antimicrobial activity and therapeutic uses. Hard dollar costs for purchasing drugs and the supplies needed to administer them; soft dollar costs for staff time spent acquiring, preparing, and administering doses; and intangible factors were considered. A reliable supply of drug product from the manufacturer was an important intangible factor because of frequent drug shortages in the past few years and the adverse effect on patient care and the increased soft dollar costs associated with these shortages. Administrators at Carolinas HealthCare System decided not to make the proposed formulary change after weighing the many factors and costs.

  7. An Overview of the Production, Quality Control and Feasibility of Using 90Y as a Therapeutic Radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, M.

    2009-01-01

    , have been some impediments that have delayed the availability of large scale 90 Sr/ 90 Y generators and consequently the wide spread use of 90 Y. Further, the bone seeking nature of the long lived 90 Sr+2 has resulted in the very low tolerance limits for 90 Sr (≤ 74 MBq life time dose), necessitating use of extremely pure 90 Y. Considering that a patient may require treatment with ∼3.7 GBq 90 Y several times in life-time, the permissible levels for 90 Sr is well below 10-4%. Hence, a very clean separation of 90 Y from 90 Sr is essential and it is also essential to ensure the quality of the 90 Y using a reliable, real-time quality control technique. Absence of γ rays in both the nuclides, makes it difficult to quantitate the nuclides, particularly when sub-ppm levels of 90 Sr has to be measured in 90 Y. Very few methods have been reported for QC of 90 Y. Measurement of 90 Sr levels after decay of 90 Y, though simple, does not enable QC before clinical use. Use of specific crown ether based resin for retention of trace levels of 90 Sr enables real-time QC, but is cumbersome and expensive. In this context, the IAEA's CRPs on 'The Development of Therapeutic Radionuclide Generators' and it's sequel 'Development of radiopharmaceuticals based on 188 Re and 90 Y for radionuclide therapy' have been highly impactive and heartening. Two types of novel generators, namely the 'Supported Liquid Membrane' based generators and the 'Electrochemical Generators' have been developed by us. The latter one, named as 'Kamadhenu', the mythological cow that yields milk eternally, has been developed further as an automated model and ready for deployment. QC of 90 Y for quantitative estimation of sub- ppb levels of 90 Sr using a novel simple technique of 'Extraction Paper Chromatography' has also been achieved by us, primarily as a result of the CRP. These important developments have enabled several Member States to start/augment their programs on 90 Y based radiopharmaceuticals, which is a

  8. Remote monitoring of heart failure: benefits for therapeutic decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, Mihran; Caliskan, Kadir; Theuns, Dominic A M J; Szili-Torok, Tamas

    2017-07-01

    Chronic heart failure is a cardiovascular disorder with high prevalence and incidence worldwide. The course of heart failure is characterized by periods of stability and instability. Decompensation of heart failure is associated with frequent and prolonged hospitalizations and it worsens the prognosis for the disease and increases cardiovascular mortality among affected patients. It is therefore important to monitor these patients carefully to reveal changes in their condition. Remote monitoring has been designed to facilitate an early detection of adverse events and to minimize regular follow-up visits for heart failure patients. Several new devices have been developed and introduced to the daily practice of cardiology departments worldwide. Areas covered: Currently, special tools and techniques are available to perform remote monitoring. Concurrently there are a number of modern cardiac implantable electronic devices that incorporate a remote monitoring function. All the techniques that have a remote monitoring function are discussed in this paper in detail. All the major studies on this subject have been selected for review of the recent data on remote monitoring of HF patients and demonstrate the role of remote monitoring in the therapeutic decision making for heart failure patients. Expert commentary: Remote monitoring represents a novel intensified follow-up strategy of heart failure management. Overall, theoretically, remote monitoring may play a crucial role in the early detection of heart failure progression and may improve the outcome of patients.

  9. Application of radionuclide imaging in grading and therapeutic evaluation in patients with fallopian tube dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhixiang; Zhang Yanhua; Li Guangzhou; Zhang Peisen; Xie Hai; Sun Tao; Ren Chun'e; Zhang Shizhuang; Jiang Aifang

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the conception status of patients with fallopian tube dysfunction after medical treatment and to guide treatment strategy for patients with different degrees of tubal injury by radionuclide imaging. Methods Six hundred and two patients with at least one side of patent fallopian tube underwent modified fallopian tube radionuclide imaging. The patients were graded as: mild, moderate or severe injury, non-functioning or tubal obstruction. The conception status was analyzed after medical treatment, including abdominal hot pack with Chinese medicine, oral intake of Guizhi tuckahoe capsules,and Kangfu anti-inflammatory anal suppository. The constituent ratios of conception in different groups were compared using χ 2 test and the curative and effective rates were calculated. Results: After 1-6 cycles of medical treatment,patients with fallopian tube dysfunction had a curative rate of 29.5% (46/156) and effective rate of 71.8% (112/156). There was a statistically significant difference among the different degrees of oviduct injury (χ 2 =166.4, P<0.05). After medical treatment,the natural pregnancy rate for patients with bilateral mild, moderate and severe injury was 52.6% (102/194), 42.6% (46/108) and 13.8% (16/116), respectively. The rate for patients with one side of normal tubal function was 78.3% (144/184), which was significantly higher than that of patients with bilateral mild, moderate and severe injury (χ 2 =37.86, 52.09 and 121.71, all P<0.05). The natural pregnancy rates of both mild and moderate injury groups were significantly different from the severe injury group (χ 2 =67.29, 42.82, both P<0.05), but there was no difference between the mild and moderate injury groups (χ 2 =3.29, P>0.05). In the severe injury group, 32.8% (38/116) patients were naturally infertile after the medical treatment, while 53.4% (62/116) patients underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) and 51.6% (32/62) of them succeeded in pregnancy. Conclusions: The natural

  10. Cyclotron produced {sup 67}Ga, a potential radionuclide for diagnostic and therapeutic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin, E-mail: mu-khandaker@um.edu.my; Kassim, Hasan Abu [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Haba, Hiromitsu [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-04-29

    Production cross-sections of the {sup nat}Zn(d,x){sup 67}Ga reactions have been measured from a 24-MeV deuteron energy down to the threshold by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with HPGe γ-ray spectrometry. An overall good agreement is found with some of the earlier measurements, whereas a partial agreement is obtained with the theoretical data extracted from the TENDL-2013 library. Physical thick target yield for the {sup 67}Ga radionuclide was deduced using the measured cross-sections, and found in agreement with the directly measured yield available in the literature. This study reveals that a low deuteron energy (<11 MeV) cyclotron and an enriched {sup 66}Zn target could be used to obtain {sup 67}Ga in no carrier added form.

  11. Calculation and Evaluation of Fission Yields and Capture Cross Sections Leading to the Production of Therapeutic Radionuclide by Means of Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sublet, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Much progress has been made in nuclear medicine that involves the use of radionuclides for both diagnosis and therapy. Because of this qualitative and quantitative growth, the adoption of a set of established radionuclides for various applications, the methods of nuclide production need to be addressed and consideration given to other, emerging radionuclides that are judged to be developing in importance. The methods involved are characterized by the transmutation of isotopes by neutron-induced reactions and decays. Therefore, newly evaluated cross sections, fission yields and decay characteristics of relevance to the reactor production of those therapeutic radionuclides have been reviewed. Considerations of the decay schemes of all the nuclides involved are also included. (author)

  12. The therapeutic threesome, Iodine 131, Lutetium-111 and Rhenium-188 Radionuclide Trifecta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Affordable, available, cost-effective, safe, efficacious therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals are required for clinical application throughout the world. In-house preparation of non-proprietary therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals at tertiary referral hospitals in all countries following appropriate technology transfer and training at key research and development centres can potentially supply this need. Illustrative examples of novel therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals currently under development in physician sponsored phase II clinical trials and candidates for contemplation of translation to developing countries include: (1) I-131 Rituximab radioimmunotherapy of relapsed/refractory and first-line treatment of non- Hodgkin's lymphoma; (2) Lu-177 octreotate radiopeptide therapy of neuroendocrine malignancy with capecitabine tumour radiosensitization; (3) Re-188 lipiodol intrahepatic arterial therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition to presentation of preliminary clinical results, the logistics and techniques of preparation, quality control and administration of each of these therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals will be described and the calculation of individual patient dosimetry and issues of radiation safety will also be addressed. 1. Iodine-131 rituximab: I-131 rituximab may be prepared in a hospital department of nuclear medicine equipped with a shielded fume cupboard, using commercially available single-use sterile pyrogen-free labelling kits (Go Medical Industries Pty Ltd, Subiaco, Australia) (1). Individualized prospective dosimetry is performed on each patient by quantitative whole body gamma imaging, to determine the therapeutic administered activity, to provide a maximum safe whole body radiation absorbed dose of 0.75 Gy, which equates to less than 2 Gy to red marrow (2). More than 200 patients with relapsed/refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma have been treated at Fremantle Hospital without infection or haemorrhagic incident. Myelosuppression is self

  13. Antimicrobials and therapeutic decision making: an historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintiliani, R; Nightingale, C H

    1991-01-01

    In an effort to remedy inappropriate and excessive use of antimicrobials and to control costs, most hospitals have developed some type of antimicrobial management program. At Hartford Hospital, our most effective approaches have been those that reduce the chances for physician error, decrease the burden on ancillary services, and encourage short hospital stays. These include automatic correction of dose and dosing intervals of antimicrobials and, if possible, their conversion by pharmacy to cost-effective alternative agents; daily review of patients who are taking the drugs by an antimicrobial team; and replacement of parenteral with oral agents as soon as possible. Physician acceptance of these approaches will require significant changes in traditional prescribing styles and willingness to allow pharmacists to implement the recommendations of therapeutic and medical staff committees.

  14. Optimization of production and quality control of therapeutic radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1994-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The `renaissance` of the therapeutic applications of radiopharmaceuticals during the last few years was in part due to a greater availability of radionuclides with appropriate nuclear decay properties, as well as to the development of carrier molecules with improved characteristics. Although radionuclides such as {sup 32}P, {sup 89}Sr and {sup 131}I, were used from the early days of nuclear medicine in the late 1930s and early 1940s, the inclusion of other particle emitting radionuclides into the nuclear medicine armamentarium was rather late. Only in the early 1980s did the specialized scientific literature start to show the potential for using other beta emitting nuclear reactor produced radionuclides such as {sup 153}Sm, {sup 166} Ho, {sup 165}Dy and {sup 186-188}Re. Bone seeking agents radiolabelled with the above mentioned beta emitting radionuclides demonstrated clear clinical potential in relieving intense bone pain resulting from metastases of the breast, prostate and lung of cancer patients. Therefore, upon the recommendation of a consultants meeting held in Vienna in 1993, the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Optimization of the Production and quality control of Radiotherapeutic Radionuclides and Radiopharmaceuticals was established in 1994. The CRP aimed at developing and improving existing laboratory protocols for the production of therapeutic radionuclides using existing nuclear research reactors including the corresponding radiolabelling, quality control procedures; and validation in experimental animals. With the participation of ten scientists from IAEA Member States, several laboratory procedures for preparation and quality control were developed, tested and assessed as potential therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals for bone pain palliation. In particular, the CRP optimised the reactor production of {sup 153}Sm and the preparation of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP (ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate), as well as radiolabelling

  15. Optimization of production and quality control of therapeutic radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1994-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The 'renaissance' of the therapeutic applications of radiopharmaceuticals during the last few years was in part due to a greater availability of radionuclides with appropriate nuclear decay properties, as well as to the development of carrier molecules with improved characteristics. Although radionuclides such as 32 P, 89 Sr and 131 I, were used from the early days of nuclear medicine in the late 1930s and early 1940s, the inclusion of other particle emitting radionuclides into the nuclear medicine armamentarium was rather late. Only in the early 1980s did the specialized scientific literature start to show the potential for using other beta emitting nuclear reactor produced radionuclides such as 153 Sm, 166 Ho, 165 Dy and 186-188 Re. Bone seeking agents radiolabelled with the above mentioned beta emitting radionuclides demonstrated clear clinical potential in relieving intense bone pain resulting from metastases of the breast, prostate and lung of cancer patients. Therefore, upon the recommendation of a consultants meeting held in Vienna in 1993, the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Optimization of the Production and quality control of Radiotherapeutic Radionuclides and Radiopharmaceuticals was established in 1994. The CRP aimed at developing and improving existing laboratory protocols for the production of therapeutic radionuclides using existing nuclear research reactors including the corresponding radiolabelling, quality control procedures; and validation in experimental animals. With the participation of ten scientists from IAEA Member States, several laboratory procedures for preparation and quality control were developed, tested and assessed as potential therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals for bone pain palliation. In particular, the CRP optimised the reactor production of 153 Sm and the preparation of the radiopharmaceutical 153 Sm-EDTMP (ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate), as well as radiolabelling techniques and quality control methods for

  16. Studies on therapeutic method of liver cancer(hapatocellular carcinome)by Holmium-166 radionuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, H. S.; Kim, M. J.; Han, K. H.; Park, C. I. [Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    As the study of radioactive nuclide, Holmium-166 in the treatment of liver cancer(hepatocellular carcinoma), this study was performed under the base of animal experimental. Using dog liver, percutaneous injection of Ho-166 MAA or chitosan with premade dose was done under the ultrasound guidance. Continuously the same procedure as previous one was performed in the skin hapatoma, which was developed by the injection of hepatocellular carcinoma cell in the nude mouse, In case of injected normal liver of dog, imaging study including ultrasound, CT and MRI was done in order to evaluate effect of Ho-166 and pathologic reaction. The result showed well defined nectosis of normal liver as well as skin hepatoma. The area of nectosis is dependent on the dose of injected Ho-166. Generally, pathologic reaction is tissue coagulation nectosis, Ho-166 particles, fibrosis and hemorrhage. In the clinical study, 50 patients with hapatoma was selected for this study under the agreement of patient. Under ultrasound guidance percutaneous injection of Ho-166 Maa or chitosan to tumor was performed and follow-up study was extended from 6 to 12 month. The result showed that 64% of patient were completely treated. Overall, the effect of treatment could be obtained in 41 patient (82%) among 50 hepatoma patient. Conclusively Ho-166 is thought to be a compromising agent in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and one of therapeutic modality, if it is established internally and world-wide. In the future, the popular percutaneous ethanol injection method will be replaced to this method. 19 refs., 1 tabs., 14 figs. (author)

  17. Clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches in osteopathy - a qualitative grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Oliver P; Petty, Nicola J; Moore, Ann P

    2014-02-01

    There is limited understanding of how osteopaths make decisions in relation to clinical practice. The aim of this research was to construct an explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of experienced osteopaths in the UK. Twelve UK registered osteopaths participated in this constructivist grounded theory qualitative study. Purposive and theoretical sampling was used to select participants. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews which were audio-recorded and transcribed. As the study approached theoretical sufficiency, participants were observed and video-recorded during a patient appointment, which was followed by a video-prompted interview. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyse and code data. Data analysis resulted in the construction of three qualitatively different therapeutic approaches which characterised participants and their clinical practice, termed; Treater, Communicator and Educator. Participants' therapeutic approach influenced their approach to clinical decision-making, the level of patient involvement, their interaction with patients, and therapeutic goals. Participants' overall conception of practice lay on a continuum ranging from technical rationality to professional artistry, and contributed to their therapeutic approach. A range of factors were identified which influenced participants' conception of practice. The findings indicate that there is variation in osteopaths' therapeutic approaches to practice and clinical decision-making, which are influenced by their overall conception of practice. This study provides the first explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of osteopaths. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radionuclide cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cisternography are discussed, followed by a description of the normal and abnormal radionuclide cisternograms. The dynamics of CFS by means of radionuclide cisternography were examined in 188 patients in whom some kind of hydrocephalus was suspected. This study included findings of anomalies associated with hydrocephalus in a number of cases, such as nasal liquorrhea, hygromas, leptomeningeal or porencephalic cysts. The investigation substantiates the value of radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of disturbances of CSF flow. The retrograde flow of radiopharmaceutical into the ventricular system (ventricular reflux) is an abnormal phenomenon indicating the presence of communicating hydrocephalus. (Auth.)

  19. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The status of radionuclide generators for chemical research and applications related to the life sciences and biomedical research are reviewed. Emphasis is placed upon convenient, efficient and rapid separation of short-lived daughter radionuclides in a chemical form suitable for use without further chemical manipulation. The focus is on the production of the parent, the radiochemistry associated with processing the parent and daughter, the selection and the characteristic separation methods, and yields. Quality control considerations are briefly noted. The scope of this review includes selected references to applications of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and the life sciences, particularly in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. The 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generator was excluded. 202 references are cited. (orig.)

  20. Effect of shared decision-making on therapeutic alliance in addiction health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EAG Joosten

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available EAG Joosten1,2, GH de Weert3, T Sensky4, CPF van der Staak5, CAJ de Jong1,21Novadic-Kentron, Network for Addiction Treatment Services, Vught, the Netherlands; 2Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction (NISPA, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 3Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Health Care, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 4Department of Psychological Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom; 5Academic Centre for Social Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, the NetherlandsBackground: In recent decades, shared decision-making (SDM models have been developed to increase patient involvement in treatment decisions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a shared decision-making intervention (SDMI for substance-dependent patients on patients’ and clinicians’ perceptions of therapeutic alliance.Methods: Clinicians were randomly assigned to SDMI or usual procedures to reach a treatment agreement. SDMI is a structured, manualized, 5-session procedure to facilitate treatment agreement and consists of five standardized sessions.Results: Patients’ perceptions of the therapeutic alliance were very favorable at start of treatment, and no differences were found between intervention groups. Clinicians’ scores on perceived helpfulness and on the overall therapeutic alliance were higher in the SDMI group than in the controls, after 8 weeks of treatment and at the end of treatment.Conclusion: The present study has shown that a specific intervention to enhance shared decision-making results in favorable changes in clinicians’ perceptions of the therapeutic alliance.Keywords: therapeutic alliance, helping alliance, shared decision-making, addiction, substance-dependence

  1. Consumer satisfaction with psychiatric services: The role of shared decision making and the therapeutic relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Medoff, Deborah R; Park, Stephanie G; Brown, Clayton H; Fang, Lijuan; Dixon, Lisa B; Hack, Samantha M; Tapscott, Stephanie L; Walsh, Mary Brighid; Kreyenbuhl, Julie A

    2015-09-01

    Although dissatisfaction is a primary reason for disengagement from outpatient psychiatric care among consumers with serious mental illnesses, little is known about predictors of their satisfaction with medication management visits. The primary purpose of this study was to explore how dimensions of consumer preferences for shared decision making (i.e., preferences for obtaining knowledge about one's mental illness, being offered and asked one's opinion about treatment options, and involvement in treatment decisions) and the therapeutic relationship (i.e., positive collaboration and type of clinician input) were related to visit satisfaction. Participants were 228 Veterans with serious mental illnesses who completed a 19-item self-report questionnaire assessing satisfaction with visits to prescribers (524 assessments) immediately after visits. In this correlational design, a 3-level mixed model with the restricted maximum likelihood estimation procedure was used to examine shared decision-making preferences and therapeutic alliance as predictors of visit satisfaction. Preferences for involvement in treatment decisions was the unique component of shared decision making associated with satisfaction, such that the more consumers desired involvement, the less satisfied they were. Positive collaboration and prescriber input were associated with greater visit satisfaction. When consumers with serious mental illnesses express preferences to be involved in shared decision making, it may not be sufficient to only provide information and treatment options; prescribers should attend to consumers' interest in involvement in actual treatment decisions. Assessment and tailoring of treatment approaches to consumer preferences for shared decision making should occur within the context of a strong therapeutic relationship. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Consumer Satisfaction with Psychiatric Services: The Role of Shared Decision-Making and the Therapeutic Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingaman, Elizabeth A.; Medoff, Deborah R.; Park, Stephanie G.; Brown, Clayton H.; Fang, Lijuan; Dixon, Lisa B.; Hack, Samantha M.; Tapscott, Stephanie L.; Walsh, Mary Brighid; Kreyenbuhl, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Although dissatisfaction is a primary reason for disengagement from outpatient psychiatric care among consumers with serious mental illnesses, little is known about predictors of their satisfaction with medication management visits. The primary purpose of the present study was to explore how dimensions of consumer preferences for shared decision-making (i.e., preferences for obtaining knowledge about one’s mental illness, being offered and asked one’s opinion about treatment options, and involvement in treatment decisions) and the therapeutic relationship (i.e., positive collaboration and type of clinician input) were related to visit satisfaction. Methods Participants were 228 Veterans with serious mental illnesses who completed a 19-item self-report questionnaire assessing satisfaction with visits to prescribers (n=524 assessments) immediately after visits. In this correlational design, a 3-level mixed model with the restricted maximum likelihood estimation procedure was used to examine shared decision-making preferences and therapeutic alliance as predictors of visit satisfaction. Results Preferences for involvement in treatment decisions was the unique component of shared decision-making associated with satisfaction, such that the more consumers desired involvement, the less satisfied they were. Positive collaboration and prescriber input were associated with greater visit satisfaction. Conclusions and Implications for Practice When consumers with serious mental illnesses express preferences to be involved in shared decision-making, it may not be sufficient to only provide information and treatment options; prescribers should attend to consumers’ interest in involvement in actual treatment decisions. Assessment and tailoring of treatment approaches to consumer preferences for shared decision-making should occur within the context of a strong therapeutic relationship. PMID:25664755

  3. Experimental study and nuclear model calculations on the $^{192}Os (p, n)^{192}$Ir reaction Comparison of reactor and cyclotron production of the therapeutic radionuclide $^{192}$Ir

    CERN Document Server

    Hilgers, K; Sudar, S; 10.1016/j.apradiso.2004.12.010

    2005-01-01

    In a search for an alternative route of production of the important therapeutic radionuclide /sup 192/Ir (T/sub 1/2/=78.83 d), the excitation function of the reaction /sup 192/Os(p, n)/sup 192/Ir was investigated from its threshold up to 20MeV. Thin samples of enriched /sup 192/Os were obtained by electrodeposition on Ni, and the conventional stacked-foil technique was used for cross section measurements. The experimental data were compared with the results of theoretical calculations using the codes EMPIRE-II and ALICE-IPPE. Good agreement was found with EMPIRE-II, but slightly less with the ALICE-IPPE calculations. The theoretical thick target yield of /sup 192/Ir over the energy range E/sub p/=16 to 8MeV amounts to only 0.16MBq/ mu A.h. A comparison of the reactor and cyclotron production methods is given. In terms of yield and radionuclidic purity of /sup 192/Ir the reactor method appears to be superior; the only advantage of the cyclotron method could be the higher specific activity of the product.

  4. Neoliberal reform and health dilemmas: social hierarchy and therapeutic decision making in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Ellen E

    2008-09-01

    In this article, I trace the links among neoliberalism, regional ecological decline, and the dynamics of therapeutic processes in rural Senegal. By focusing on illness management in a small rural community, the article explores how economic reform is mediated by existing social structures, and how household social organization in turn influences therapeutic decision making. The illness episodes relayed here demonstrate how the acute economic and social crisis facing the Ganjool region becomes written on the bodies of young men, and how the fault lines of gender and generation shape illness experiences. These narratives also illuminate the tremendous discrepancy between the lived realities of sickness and death, and the idealized models of health participation and empowerment envisioned by the state. Rather than "neoliberal subjects" who behave as rational economic actors, men and women coping with illness are social beings embedded in fields of power characterized by highly stratified household social relations.

  5. Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography-Derived Fractional Flow Reserve for Therapeutic Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesche, Christian; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Duguay, Taylor M; De Cecco, Carlo N; Albrecht, Moritz H; De Santis, Domenico; Langenbach, Marcel C; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Jacobs, Brian E; Jochheim, David; Baquet, Moritz; Bayer, Richard R; Litwin, Sheldon E; Hoffmann, Ellen; Steinberg, Daniel H; Schoepf, U Joseph

    2017-12-15

    This study investigated the performance of coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) with cCTA-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR) compared with invasive coronary angiography (ICA) with fractional flow reserve (FFR) for therapeutic decision making in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Seventy-four patients (62 ± 11 years, 62% men) with at least 1 coronary stenosis of ≥50% on clinically indicated dual-source cCTA, who had subsequently undergone ICA with FFR measurement, were retrospectively evaluated. CT-FFR values were computed using an on-site machine-learning algorithm to assess the functional significance of CAD. The therapeutic strategy (optimal medical therapy alone vs revascularization) and the appropriate revascularization procedure (percutaneous coronary intervention vs coronary artery bypass grafting) were selected using cCTA-CT-FFR. Thirty-six patients (49%) had a functionally significant CAD based on ICA-FFR. cCTA-CT-FFR correctly identified a functionally significant CAD and the need of revascularization in 35 of 36 patients (97%). When revascularization was deemed indicated, the same revascularization procedure (32 percutaneous coronary interventions and 3 coronary artery bypass grafting) was chosen in 35 of 35 patients (100%). Overall, identical management strategies were selected in 73 of the 74 patients (99%). cCTA-CT-FFR shows excellent performance to identify patients with and without the need for revascularization and to select the appropriate revascularization strategy. cCTA-CT-FFR as a noninvasive "one-stop shop" has the potential to change diagnostic workflows and to directly inform therapeutic decision making in patients with suspected CAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of perfusion and ventilation scans on therapeutic decision making and outcome in cases of possible embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercandetti, A.J.; Kipper, M.S.; Moser, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of perfusion (Q) and ventilation (V) scans on therapeutic decision making and outcome among 229 patients referred for lung scans because embolism was suggested and found that specific V/Q scan patterns strongly influenced postscan decisions regarding initiation, maintenance or cessation of heparin therapy. These therapeutic decisions bore a relationship to outcome (recurrences and death) and disclosed decision-making deficits that need remedy by future investigational and educational efforts. 25 references, 5 tables

  7. Whole-body MR imaging in psoriatic arthritis: Additional value for therapeutic decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weckbach, Sabine; Schewe, Stefan; Michaely, Henrik J.; Steffinger, Denise; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Glaser, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In psoriatic arthritis (PsA) multiple locations may show inflammatory changes not always readily accessible to clinical exam. Often, clinical exam is inconclusive and the decision to initiate or adapt therapy is difficult. Whole body (WB)-MRI may help in this situation by providing a comprehensive overview of affected areas/joints. The purpose of this study was to make a proof of concept whether WB-MRI in psoriatic arthritis is feasible and can provide additional information compared to clinical examination alone with regard to therapeutic decision making in patients with PsA and inconclusive clinical situation. Materials and Methods: 30 patients with PsA and diffuse musculoskeletal pain were examined. A WB-MRI protocol was implemented on a 1.5 Tesla scanner using coronal and sagittal STIR- (TR: 5800, TE: 54, matrix 384 2 pixels, FOV 400 mm) and pre- and steady-state-post-Gadolinium-VIBE sequences (TR: 9.82, TE: 4.53, matrix 384 x 307 pixels, FOV: 400 mm). MRI was evaluated for image quality and inflammatory findings by two readers in consensus and compared to clinical exam. Results: The WB-MR-exam was well tolerated by all patients. Image quality was rated good to excellent in 26 of 30 patients (86.6%). WB-MRI detected significantly (p < 0.001) more areas of synovitis/enthesitis than clinical exam except for the hands and feet. MRI was able to detect unknown destructive bony changes in 10 patients (53%). In 22 patients (73.3%) the therapy regimen was modified, in 18 patients (62%) TNF-alpha-inhibitors were started. Conclusion: Whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) may be integrated in the diagnostic work-up of patients with psoriatic arthropathy facilitating individual adaptation of therapeutic strategy.

  8. Evaluation of 188Re-labeled PEGylated nanoliposome as a radionuclide therapeutic agent in an orthotopic glioma-bearing rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang FYJ

    2015-01-01

    lifespan of glioma-bearing rats treated with 188Re-liposome was prolonged 10.67% compared to the control group.Conclusion: The radiotherapeutic evaluation by dosimetry and survival studies have demonstrated that passive targeting 188Re-liposome via systemic administration can significantly prolong the lifespan of orthotopic glioma-bearing rats while maintaining reasonable systemic radiation safety. Therefore, 188Re-liposome could be a potential therapeutic agent for glioblastoma multiforme treatment. Keywords: 188Re, liposome, radionuclide therapy, bioluminescent imaging, glioma

  9. Reliability of the MDi Psoriasis® Application to Aid Therapeutic Decision-Making in Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ramírez, D; Herrerías-Esteban, J M; Ojeda-Vila, T; Carrascosa, J M; Carretero, G; de la Cueva, P; Ferrándiz, C; Galán, M; Rivera, R; Rodríguez-Fernández, L; Ruiz-Villaverde, R; Ferrándiz, L

    2017-09-01

    Therapeutic decisions in psoriasis are influenced by disease factors (e.g., severity or location), comorbidity, and demographic and clinical features. We aimed to assess the reliability of a mobile telephone application (MDi-Psoriasis) designed to help the dermatologist make decisions on how to treat patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. We analyzed interobserver agreement between the advice given by an expert panel and the recommendations of the MDi-Psoriasis application in 10 complex cases of moderate to severe psoriasis. The experts were asked their opinion on which treatments were most appropriate, possible, or inappropriate. Data from the same 10 cases were entered into the MDi-Psoriasis application. Agreement was analyzed in 3 ways: paired interobserver concordance (Cohen's κ), multiple interobserver concordance (Fleiss's κ), and percent agreement between recommendations. The mean percent agreement between the total of 1210 observations was 51.3% (95% CI, 48.5-54.1%). Cohen's κ statistic was 0.29 and Fleiss's κ was 0.28. Mean agreement between pairs of human observers only, excluding the MDi-Psoriasis recommendations, was 50.5% (95% CI, 47.6-53.5%). Paired agreement between the recommendations of the MDi-Psoriasis tool and the majority opinion of the expert panel (Cohen's κ) was 0.44 (68.2% agreement). The MDi-Psoriasis tool can generate recommendations that are comparable to those of experts in psoriasis. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of pulmonary hypertension and surgical therapeutic efficacy using first-pass radionuclide pulmonary perfusion imaging in patients with pulmonary hypertension of valvular heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuemei; Shi Rongfang; Fang Wei; Wang Daoyu; Zhou Baogui; Wang Qi; Pan Shiwei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate pulmonary hypertension (PH) and surgical therapeutic efficacy using first-pass radionuclide pulmonary perfusion imaging (FPPPI) and pulmonary perfusion imaging (PPI) in patients with PH of valvular heart disease. Methods: One hundred and sixteen patients with valvular disease were included in the study. Swan-Ganz catheterization, echocardiography, FPPPI and PPI were performed on all patients before surgery. The patients were divided into four groups. Results: 1) Correlation coefficients were 0.856, 0.503 and 0.572 (P<0.01) between lung equilibrium time (LET) by FPPPI, superior lung/low lung ratio (S/L) by PPI , systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (SPAP) from echocardiography and SPAP from the catheter manometer. 2)The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PAP using FPPPI measuring were 94.7%, 68.3% and 85.3%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PAP using PPI measuring were 78.8%, 52.8% and 70.7%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PAP using FPPPI plus PPI measuring were 96.4%, 72.7% and 89.7%, respectively. 3)LET by FPPPI before surgery and 5-14 d after surgery were (27.71 ± 10.85) and (20.96 ± 6.25) s, respectively (P<0.001). SPL by PPI were 1.43 ± 0.41 and 1.30 ± 0.35, respectively (P<0.001). 4) Complete improvement rates of LET in the PAP slightly risen group, moderately risen group and weightily risen group were 47.6%, 34.5% and 1/4, respectively; part improvement rates of LET for corresponding groups were 40.5%, 62.1% and 3/4, respectively (P<0.001). Complete improvement rates of SPL were 31.0%, 34.5% and 0/4, respectively; part improvement rates of SPL were 35.7%, 55.2% and 3/4, respectively (P<0.05). Complete improvement rates of LET + SPL were 57.1%, 58.6% and 1/4; part improvement rates of LET+SPL were 38.1%, 41.4% and 3/4, respectively (P<0.01). Conclusions: 1)FPPPI is better than PPI and echocardiography for evaluating PH in valvular heart disease. 2)Combined FPPPI and PPI can

  11. Decision making strategy on rehabilitation of wide territories of the Republic of Belarus contaminated by long-lived radionuclides following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenigsberg, J.; Ternov, V.

    2002-01-01

    In the remote period following radiation accidents accompanied by wide scaled contamination of the territory by long-lived radionuclides inevitably problem of the territory rehabilitation is raised. Actually, we are speaking about difficulties, for state authorities and for society, in a decision making process aimed at taking out territories, settlements, residing and/or working people from the status of accident and at return to 'normality'. Difficulty in the decision making is caused by insufficient development of dose criteria, levels of intervention when really existing annual effective doses is less than 5 mSv, justification of usage, scales and duration of countermeasures. The laws accepted in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident are practicing privileges and compensation of damage to population, residing in territories with density of soil contamination by 137 Cs exceeding 37 kBq/sq.m or annual effective dose exceeding 1 mSv. This makes the idea of rehabilitation unattractive. To simplify the process of decisions making perception by society, it is suggested a step by step way of decision making aimed at rehabilitation, based on radiological and non-radiological criteria. As to radiological criteria, it is necessary to refer to a level of annual effective dose and derived values (exposure dose rate, permissible levels of contamination for foodstuffs and environment). Nonradiological criteria include psychological and social-economic factors (attractiveness of rehabilitating territories for residing and making business, reservation of some privileges, maintenance of high level of medical service). (author)

  12. Radionuclide trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition

  13. Biological toxicity of intracellular radionuclide decay. Part of a coordinated programme on radiation biology of Auger emitters and their therapeutic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, K.G.

    1980-06-01

    Internal radiotherapy should be performed with short-lived radionuclides which emit high LET radiation and short ranged radiation, and accumulated within cancers. Based on these considerations, several radionuclides (tritium, copper-64, gallium-67, iodine-123, iodine 125, iodine-131 and astatine-211) were chosen and their toxicity was assessed using cell division in mammalian cultured cells as a criterion. It was apparent that the toxic effects obtained with 125 I greatly exceeded those observed in cells treated with any other radionuclides. The possible hypotheses to explain the excessive radiosensitivity of 125 I were discussed in relation to microdosimetry calculation. It was also found that the division delay induced by radionuclide decay is primarily due to damage to the cell nucleus but not to the plasma membrane. The key problem remains the development of agents which can serve as carriers for radionuclide accumulation within tumors. Although several promising approaches (Synkavit, tamoxifen, iododeoxyuridine, antibodies, liposomes) were investigated, only 125 I-labelled Synkavit would be desirable for clinical application

  14. Ethical Decision Making, Therapeutic Boundaries, and Communicating Using Online Technology and Cellular Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonan, Jesay; Bardick, Angela D.; Willment, Jo-Anne H.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular telephones and social networking sites pose new challenges to the maintenance of therapeutic boundaries. One such difficulty is the possible development of dual relationships between clients and counselling professionals as a result of communicating by these means. Most regulatory bodies advise professional counsellors and psychologists…

  15. Radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  16. Environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.

    1982-01-01

    The environmental behaviour of the radionuclides making the major contribution to man's irradiation through diet is described. The following stages are emphasized: transfer of radionuclides to plants; transfer of radionuclides to animals; metabolism of inhaled or ingested radionuclides in animals providing food for man; transfer of radionuclides through the aquatic environment; application of food chain models. (43 references)

  17. The effect of cone beam CT (CBCT) on therapeutic decision-making in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota de Almeida, F J; Knutsson, K; Flygare, L

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to assess to what extent cone beam CT (CBCT) used in accordance with current European Commission guidelines in a normal clinical setting has an impact on therapeutic decisions in a population referred for endodontic problems. The study includes data of consecutively examined patients collected from October 2011 to December 2012. From 2 different endodontic specialist clinics, 57 patients were referred for a CBCT examination using criteria in accordance with current European guidelines. The CBCT examinations were performed using similar equipment and standardized among clinics. After a thorough clinical examination, but before CBCT, the examiner made a preliminary therapy plan which was recorded. After the CBCT examination, the same examiner made a new therapy plan. Therapy plans both before and after the CBCT examination were plotted for 53 patients and 81 teeth. As four patients had incomplete protocols, they were not included in the final analysis. 4% of the patients referred to endodontic clinics during the study period were examined with CBCT. The most frequent reason for referral to CBCT examination was to differentiate pathology from normal anatomy, this was the case in 24 patients (45% of the cases). The primary outcome was therapy plan changes that could be attributed to CBCT examination. There were changes in 28 patients (53%). CBCT has a significant impact on therapeutic decision efficacy in endodontics when used in concordance with the current European Commission guidelines.

  18. [Test your decision-making. When to do endodontic retreatment? Some therapeutic alternatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanpour, S; D'Hoore, W; Van Nieuwenhuysen, J P

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present article was to propose examples of treatment alternatives for the management of 14 clinical cases. All these cases involved endodontically treated teeth and have been managed by the same practitioner. In this paper, the authors tried to show the variety of treatment alternatives as well as the complexity of the decision-making process and, not to consider that proposed alternatives were the most adequate.

  19. Therapeutic Decision-Making in Endoscopically Unmanageable Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defreyne, Luc; Schrijver, Ignace De; Decruyenaere, Johan; Maele, Georges Van; Ceelen, Wim; Looze, Danny De; Vanlangenhove, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify endoscopic and clinical parameters influencing the decision-making in salvage of endoscopically unmanageable, nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH) and to report the outcome of selected therapy. We retrospectively retrieved all cases of surgery and arteriography for arrest of endoscopically unmanageable UGIH. Only patients with overt bleeding on endoscopy within the previous 24 h were included. Patients with preceding nonendoscopic hemostatic interventions, portal hypertension, malignancy, and transpapillar bleeding were excluded. Potential clinical and endoscopic predictors of allocation to either surgery or arteriography were tested using statistical models. Outcome and survival were regressed on the choice of rescue and clinical variables. Forty-six arteriographed and 51 operated patients met the inclusion criteria. Univariate analysis revealed a higher number of patients with a coagulation disorder in the catheterization group (41.4%, versus 20.4% in the laparotomy group; p = 0.044). With multivariate analysis, the identification of a bleeding peptic ulcer at endoscopy significantly steered decision-making toward surgical rescue (OR = 5.2; p = 0.021). Taking into account reinterventions, hemostasis was achieved in nearly 90% of cases in both groups. Overall therapy failure (no survivors), rebleeding within 3 days (OR = 3.7; p = 0.042), and corticosteroid use (OR = 5.2; p = 0.017) had a significant negative impact on survival. The odds of dying were not different for embolotherapy or surgery. In conclusion, decision-making was endoscopy-based, with bleeding peptic ulcer significantly directing the choice of rescue toward surgery. Unsuccessful hemostasis and corticosteroid use, but not the choice of rescue, negatively affected outcome.

  20. Clinical holistic medicine: factors influencing the therapeutic decision-making. From academic knowledge to emotional intelligence and spiritual "crazy" wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2007-12-10

    Scientific holistic medicine is built on holistic medical theory, on therapeutic and ethical principles. The rationale is that the therapist can take the patient into a state of salutogenesis, or existential healing, using his skills and knowledge. But how ever much we want to make therapy a science it remains partly an art, and the more developed the therapist becomes, the more of his/her decisions will be based on intuition, feeling and even inspiration that is more based on love and human concern and other spiritual motivations than on mental reason and rationality in a simple sense of the word. The provocative and paradoxal medieval western concept of the "truth telling clown", or the eastern concepts of "crazy wisdom" and "holy madness" seems highly relevant here. The problem is how we can ethically justify this kind of highly "irrational" therapeutic behavior in the rational setting of a medical institution. We argue here that holistic therapy has a very high success rate and is doing no harm to the patient, and encourage therapists, psychiatrists, psychologist and other academically trained "helpers" to constantly measure their own success-rate. This paper discusses many of the important factors that influence clinical holistic decision-making. Sexuality could, as many psychoanalysts from Freud to Reich and Searles have believed, be the most healing power that exists and also the most difficult for the mind to comprehend, and thus the most "crazy-wise" tool of therapy.

  1. Considerations of net present value in policy making regarding diagnostic and therapeutic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califf, Robert M; Rasiel, Emma B; Schulman, Kevin A

    2008-11-01

    The pharmaceutical and medical device industries function in a business environment in which shareholders expect companies to optimize profit within legal and ethical standards. A fundamental tool used to optimize decision making is the net present value calculation, which estimates the current value of cash flows relating to an investment. We examined 3 prototypical research investment decisions that have been the source of public scrutiny to illustrate how policy decisions can be better understood when their impact on societally desirable investments by industry are viewed from the standpoint of their impact on net present value. In the case of direct, comparative clinical trials, a simple net present value calculation provides insight into why companies eschew such investments. In the case of pediatric clinical trials, the Pediatric Extension Rule changed the net present value calculation from unattractive to potentially very attractive by allowing patent extensions; thus, the dramatic increase in pediatric clinical trials can be explained by the financial return on investment. In the case of products for small markets, the fixed costs of development make this option financially unattractive. Policy decisions can be better understood when their impact on societally desirable investments by the pharmaceutical and medical device industries are viewed from the standpoint of their impact on net present value.

  2. Heart Team therapeutic decision-making and treatment in severe aortic valve stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyregod, Hans Gustav Hørsted; Holmberg, Fredrik; Gerds, Thomas Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: After transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been available for high-risk patients with severe aortic valve stenosis (AVS), the decision-making of the Heart Team (HT) has not been examined. Design: All adult patients with severe AVS referred to a large tertiary medical......%), and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in 392 (81%) of patients. In patients referred to intervention, TAVI compared with SAVR patients were older (OR = 1.17 per year, 95% CI 1.09-1.26; p obesity (OR = 4.69, 1.......51-13.77; p disease (COPD) (OR = 3.66, 1.21-10.75; p = 0.02). MT patients compared with patients referred to any intervention were older, had a higher prevalence of COPD, peripheral arterial disease, previous myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular disease...

  3. Radionuclide carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.; Tofe, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable particulate radionuclide carrier is described. It comprises a modified anionic starch derivative with 0.1% to 1.5% by weight of a reducing agent and 1 to 20% by weight of anionic substituents

  4. Radionuclide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Chapter 8 presents tables on selected alpha, beta, gamma and x-ray emitters by increasing energy; information on specific activity for selected radionuclides; naturally occurring radionuclides; the natural decay series; and the artificially produced neptunium series. A table of alpha emitters is listed by increasing atomic number and by energy. The table of β emitters presented is useful in identifying β emitters whose energies and possibly half-lives have been determined by standard laboratory techniques. It is also a handy guide to β-emitting isotopes for applications requiring specific half-lives and/or energies. Gamma rays for radionuclides of importance to radiological assessments and radiation protection are listed by increasing energy. The energies and branching ratios are important for radionuclide determinations with gamma spectrometry detectors. This section also presents a table of x-ray energies which are useful for radiochemical analyses. A number of nuclides emit x-rays as part of their decay scheme. These x-rays may be counted with Ar proportional counters, Ge planar or n-type Ge co-axial detectors, or thin crystal NaI(T1) scintillation counters. In both cases, spectral measurements can be made and both qualitative and quantitative information obtained on the sample. Nuclear decay data (energy and probability by radiation type) for more than one hundred radionuclides that are important to health physicists are presented in a schematic manner

  5. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadev, V.

    1980-01-01

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  6. Radionuclides deposition over Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourchet, M.; Magand, O.; Frezzotti, M.; Ekaykin, A.; Winther, J.-G.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive map of the distribution patterns for both natural and artificial radionuclides over Antarctica has been established. This work integrates the results of several decades of international programs focusing on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides in snow and ice cores from this polar region. The mean value (37±20 Bq m -2 ) of 241 Pu total deposition over 28 stations is determined from the gamma emissions of its daughter 241 Am, presenting a long half-life (432.7 yrs). Detailed profiles and distributions of 241 Pu in ice cores make it possible to clearly distinguish between the atmospheric thermonuclear tests of the fifties and sixties. Strong relationships are also found between radionuclide data ( 137 Cs with respect to 241 Pu and 210 Pb with respect to 137 Cs), make it possible to estimate the total deposition or natural fluxes of these radionuclides. Total deposition of 137 Cs over Antarctica is estimated at 760 TBq, based on results from the 90-180 deg. East sector. Given the irregular distribution of sampling sites, more ice cores and snow samples must be analyzed in other sectors of Antarctica to check the validity of this figure

  7. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wollongong Univ.; Tomiyoshi, K.; Sekine, T.

    1997-01-01

    The present status and future directions of research and development on radionuclide generator technology are reported. The recent interest to develop double-neutron capture reactions for production of in vivo generators; neutron rich nuclides for radio-immunotherapeutic pharmaceuticals: and advances with ultra-short lived generators is highlighted. Emphasis is focused on: production of the parent radionuclide; the selection and the evaluation of support materials and eluents with respect to the resultant radiochemical yield of the daughter, and the breakthrough of the radionuclide parent: and, the uses of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, biomedical and industrial applications. The 62 Zn → 62 Cu, 66 Ni → 66 Cu, 103m Rh → 103 Rh, 188 W → 188 Re and the 225 Ac → 221 Fr → 213 Bi generators are predicted to be emphasized for future development. Coverage of the 99 Mo → 99m Tc generator was excluded, as it the subject of another review. The literature search ended June, 1996. (orig.)

  8. Radionuclide scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is the production of images of normal and diseased tissues and organs by means of the gamma-ray emissions from radiopharmaceutical agents having specific distributions in the body. The gamma rays are detected at the body surface by a variety of instruments that convert the invisible rays into visible patterns representing the distribution of the radionuclide in the body. The patterns, or images, obtained can be interpreted to provide or to aid diagnoses, to follow the course of disease, and to monitor the management of various illnesses. Scanning is a sensitive technique, but its specificity may be low when interpreted alone. To be used most successfully, radionuclide scanning must be interpreted in conjunction with other techniques, such as bone radiographs with bone scans, chest radiographs with lung scans, and ultrasonic studies with thyroid scans. Interpretation is also enhanced by providing pertinent clinical information because the distribution of radiopharmaceutical agents can be altered by drugs and by various procedures besides physiologic and pathologic conditions. Discussion of the patient with the radionuclide scanning specialist prior to the study and review of the results with that specialist after the study are beneficial

  9. Measurement of circulating transcripts and gene cluster analysis predicts and defines therapeutic efficacy of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodei, L.; Kidd, M.; Modlin, I.M.; Severi, S.; Nicolini, S.; Paganelli, G.; Drozdov, I.; Kwekkeboom, D.J.; Krenning, E.P.; Baum, R.P.

    2016-01-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is an effective method for treating neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). It is limited, however, in the prediction of individual tumor response and the precise and early identification of changes in tumor size. Currently, response prediction is based on somatostatin receptor expression and efficacy by morphological imaging and/or chromogranin A (CgA) measurement. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of circulating NET transcripts as a measure of PRRT efficacy, and moreover to identify prognostic gene clusters in pretreatment blood that could be interpolated with relevant clinical features in order to define a biological index for the tumor and a predictive quotient for PRRT efficacy. NET patients (n = 54), M: F 37:17, median age 66, bronchial: n = 13, GEP-NET: n = 35, CUP: n = 6 were treated with 177 Lu-based-PRRT (cumulative activity: 6.5-27.8 GBq, median 18.5). At baseline: 47/54 low-grade (G1/G2; bronchial typical/atypical), 31/49 18 FDG positive and 39/54 progressive. Disease status was assessed by RECIST1.1. Transcripts were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and multianalyte algorithmic analysis (NETest); CgA by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Gene cluster (GC) derivations: regulatory network, protein:protein interactome analyses. Statistical analyses: chi-square, non-parametric measurements, multiple regression, receiver operating characteristic and Kaplan-Meier survival. The disease control rate was 72 %. Median PFS was not achieved (follow-up: 1-33 months, median: 16). Only grading was associated with response (p < 0.01). At baseline, 94 % of patients were NETest-positive, while CgA was elevated in 59 %. NETest accurately (89 %, χ 2 = 27.4; p = 1.2 x 10 -7 ) correlated with treatment response, while CgA was 24 % accurate. Gene cluster expression (growth-factor signalome and metabolome) had an AUC of 0.74 ± 0.08 (z-statistic = 2.92, p < 0.004) for predicting

  10. Measurement of circulating transcripts and gene cluster analysis predicts and defines therapeutic efficacy of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in neuroendocrine tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodei, L. [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); LuGenIum Consortium, Milan, Rotterdam, Bad Berka, London, Italy, Netherlands, Germany (Country Unknown); Kidd, M. [Wren Laboratories, Branford, CT (United States); Modlin, I.M. [LuGenIum Consortium, Milan, Rotterdam, Bad Berka, London, Italy, Netherlands, Germany (Country Unknown); Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Severi, S.; Nicolini, S.; Paganelli, G. [Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Nuclear Medicine and Radiometabolic Units, Meldola (Italy); Drozdov, I. [Bering Limited, London (United Kingdom); Kwekkeboom, D.J.; Krenning, E.P. [LuGenIum Consortium, Milan, Rotterdam, Bad Berka, London, Italy, Netherlands, Germany (Country Unknown); Erasmus Medical Center, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Baum, R.P. [LuGenIum Consortium, Milan, Rotterdam, Bad Berka, London, Italy, Netherlands, Germany (Country Unknown); Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Theranostics Center for Molecular Radiotherapy and Imaging, Bad Berka (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is an effective method for treating neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). It is limited, however, in the prediction of individual tumor response and the precise and early identification of changes in tumor size. Currently, response prediction is based on somatostatin receptor expression and efficacy by morphological imaging and/or chromogranin A (CgA) measurement. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of circulating NET transcripts as a measure of PRRT efficacy, and moreover to identify prognostic gene clusters in pretreatment blood that could be interpolated with relevant clinical features in order to define a biological index for the tumor and a predictive quotient for PRRT efficacy. NET patients (n = 54), M: F 37:17, median age 66, bronchial: n = 13, GEP-NET: n = 35, CUP: n = 6 were treated with {sup 177}Lu-based-PRRT (cumulative activity: 6.5-27.8 GBq, median 18.5). At baseline: 47/54 low-grade (G1/G2; bronchial typical/atypical), 31/49 {sup 18}FDG positive and 39/54 progressive. Disease status was assessed by RECIST1.1. Transcripts were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and multianalyte algorithmic analysis (NETest); CgA by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Gene cluster (GC) derivations: regulatory network, protein:protein interactome analyses. Statistical analyses: chi-square, non-parametric measurements, multiple regression, receiver operating characteristic and Kaplan-Meier survival. The disease control rate was 72 %. Median PFS was not achieved (follow-up: 1-33 months, median: 16). Only grading was associated with response (p < 0.01). At baseline, 94 % of patients were NETest-positive, while CgA was elevated in 59 %. NETest accurately (89 %, χ{sup 2} = 27.4; p = 1.2 x 10{sup -7}) correlated with treatment response, while CgA was 24 % accurate. Gene cluster expression (growth-factor signalome and metabolome) had an AUC of 0.74 ± 0.08 (z-statistic = 2.92, p < 0

  11. Radiological and physiological studies on the role of some therapeutic agents used for internal decontamination of radionuclides from male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangood, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    With the earths increasing nuclear arsenal and the growing use of nuclear energy, the possibility of radiological accidents involving release of radioactive materials, internal contamination may consequently occurs via inhalation, ingestion or absorption of radioisotopes.Therefore, the present work was oriented to deal with four topics related to the internal decontamination of two of the most widely used isotopes, namely 134 Cs and 60 Co from contaminated rats:-In vitro study aimed to select agents that can strongly bind the two metal ions and elucidate the best conditions and the factors affecting this binding. The tested agents were bentonite, vermiculite and Prussian blue (PB). The sorption capacity of PB and vermiculite for both metal ions was high and equivalent to more than 10 11 Bq 137 Cs or 60 Co per gram sorbent. As bentonite has lower capacity to both isotopes, further in vivo experiments were performed with PB and vermiculite.-In vivo studies, via 5 groups of rats, devoted to investigate the kinetics of excretion of 134 Cs and/or 60 Co from contaminated rats. The biological half lives of excretion, excretion stages for both isotopes and the effect of route of entry on the excretion were estimated.-In vivo studies aimed to investigate the effectiveness of PB + vermiculite and CaDTPA as therapeutic agents for accelerating the elimination of 134 Cs and/or 60 Co from contaminated rats. The study was performed via 6 groups of rats given different regimes of therapy. The results showed the high efficiency of PB + vermiculite for accelerating elimination of 134 Cs and orally administrated 60 Co while CaDTPA succeeded in accelerating intraperitoneally administrated 60 Co. The study proved that oral administration of PB + vermiculite and injection with CaDTPA at the same time is very effective in accelerating elimination of both contaminants simultaneously.-The physiological studies aimed to evaluate the hazardous effects of 134 Cs and/or 60 Co incorporation and

  12. Radionuclide examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on radionuclide examinations of the pancreas. The pancreas, situated retroperitonally high in the epigastrium, was a particularly difficult organ to image noninvasively before ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) became available. Indeed the organ still remains difficult to examine in some patients, a fact reflected in the variety of methods available to evaluate pancreatic morphology. It is something of a paradox that the pancreas is metabolically active and physiologically important but that its examination by radionuclide methods has virtually ceased to have any role in day-to-day clinical practice. To some extent this is caused by the tendency of the pancreas's commonest gross diseases emdash carcinoma and pancreatitis, for example emdash to result in nonfunction of the entire organ. Disorders of pancreatic endocrine function have generally not required imaging methods for diagnosis, although an understanding of diabetes mellitus and its nosology has been advanced by radioimmunoassay of plasma insulin concentrations

  13. Radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Radionuclide radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarsbrook, A.F.; Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.; Bradley, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of short reviews of internet-based radiological educational resources, and will focus on radionuclide radiology and nuclear medicine. What follows is a list of carefully selected websites to save time in searching them out. Most of the sites cater for trainee or non-specialist radiologists, but may also be of interest to specialists for use in teaching. This article may be particularly useful to radiologists interested in the rapidly expanding field of positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (February 2006)

  15. Radionuclide assessment of vascular complications in renal transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanard, J.; Clavel, P.; Loboguerreros, A.; Toupance, O.; Lepailleur, A.; Brandt, B.; Liehn, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear medicine can make an efficient contribution to the diagnosis and monitoring of renal disease and to the assessment of therapeutic interventions in the field of renal transplantation. The new radio pharmaceutical MAG 3 labelled with 99m Tc provides renal imaging of quality in patients with impaired renal function and enables quantitative evaluation of renal function. We report on radionuclide evaluation, with special emphasis on the analysis of the vascular component of the scintigram, in the different clinical situations (i.e. renal failure) that may compromise the outcome of a successful renal transplant. (authors)

  16. Mechanisms of radionuclide transition in natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacyna, J.

    1974-01-01

    Mechanisms of radionuclide transition in various elements of the environment have been dealt with in an ecological aspect. The knowledge of the radionuclide propagation tracks will make possible to ascertain precisely causes and effects of the radiation and to reduce the contamination value. Particular attention has been paid to test methods. (author)

  17. Make

    CERN Document Server

    Frauenfelder, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The first magazine devoted entirely to do-it-yourself technology projects presents its 29th quarterly edition for people who like to tweak, disassemble, recreate, and invent cool new uses for technology. MAKE Volume 29 takes bio-hacking to a new level. Get introduced to DIY tracking devices before they hit the consumer electronics marketplace. Learn how to build an EKG machine to study your heartbeat, and put together a DIY bio lab to study athletic motion using consumer grade hardware.

  18. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... beta particle and photon radioactivity from man-made radionuclides in drinking water must not produce.../year). (2) Except for the radionuclides listed in table A, the concentration of man-made radionuclides... may make this technology too complex for small surface water systems. e Removal efficiencies can vary...

  19. Report of the consultants' meeting on target and processing technologies for cyclotron production of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    is not widely available. New target technology could make this radionuclide available from even low energy cyclotrons. The same technology can be applied to the production of I-124, which is a PET radionuclide, which also has potential as a therapeutic agent. Pd-103 has become an extremely important radionuclide for the treatment of prostate cancer when incorporated into sealed sources. The target preparation technology requires further research including the chemical processing of the target materials. The entire above target systems use either enriched or very expensive target materials thus the importance of target recover procedures is recognised. This technology has direct application in other target systems

  20. Decision making under uncertainty, therapeutic inertia, and physicians' risk preferences in the management of multiple sclerosis (DIScUTIR MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saposnik, Gustavo; Sempere, Angel Perez; Raptis, Roula; Prefasi, Daniel; Selchen, Daniel; Maurino, Jorge

    2016-05-04

    The management of multiple sclerosis (MS) is rapidly changing by the introduction of new and more effective disease-modifying agents. The importance of risk stratification was confirmed by results on disease progression predicted by different risk score systems. Despite these advances, we know very little about medical decisions under uncertainty in the management of MS. The goal of this study is to i) identify whether overconfidence, tolerance to risk/uncertainty, herding influence medical decisions, and ii) to evaluate the frequency of therapeutic inertia (defined as lack of treatment initiation or intensification in patients not at goals of care) and its predisposing factors in the management of MS. This is a prospective study comprising a combination of case-vignettes and surveys and experiments from Neuroeconomics/behavioral economics to identify cognitive distortions associated with medical decisions and therapeutic inertia. Participants include MS fellows and MS experts from across Spain. Each participant will receive an individual link using Qualtrics platform(©) that includes 20 case-vignettes, 3 surveys, and 4 behavioral experiments. The total time for completing the study is approximately 30-35 min. Case vignettes were selected to be representative of common clinical encounters in MS practice. Surveys and experiments include standardized test to measure overconfidence, aversion to risk and ambiguity, herding (following colleague's suggestions even when not supported by the evidence), physicians' reactions to uncertainty, and questions from the Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) related to risk preferences in different domains. By applying three different MS score criteria (modified Rio, EMA, Prosperini's scheme) we take into account physicians' differences in escalating therapy when evaluating medical decisions across case-vignettes. The present study applies an innovative approach by combining tools to assess medical decisions with experiments from

  1. Therapeutic nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Discusses all aspects of radionuclide therapy, including basic principles, newly available treatments, regulatory requirements, and future trends. Provides the knowledge required to administer radionuclide therapy safely and effectively in the individual patient. Explains the role of the therapeutic nuclear physician in effectively coordinating a diverse multidisciplinary team. Written by leading experts. The recent revolution in molecular biology offers exciting new opportunities for targeted radionuclide therapy. The selective irradiation of tumor cells through molecular biological mechanisms is now permitting the radiopharmaceutical control of tumors that are unresectable and unresponsive to either chemotherapy or conventional radiotherapy. In this up-to-date, comprehensive book, world-renowned experts discuss the basic principles of radionuclide therapy, explore in detail the available treatments, explain the regulatory requirements, and examine likely future developments. The full range of clinical applications is considered, including thyroid cancer, hematological malignancies, brain tumors, liver cancer, bone and joint disease, and neuroendocrine tumors. The combination of theoretical background and practical information will provide the reader with all the knowledge required to administer radionuclide therapy safely and effectively in the individual patient. Careful attention is also paid to the important role of the therapeutic nuclear physician in delivering the effective coordination of a diverse multidisciplinary team that is essential to the safe provision of treatment.

  2. Therapeutic nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, Richard P. (ed.) [ENETS Center of Excellence, Bad Berka (Germany). THERANOSTICS Center for Molecular Radiotherapy and Molecular Imaging

    2014-07-01

    Discusses all aspects of radionuclide therapy, including basic principles, newly available treatments, regulatory requirements, and future trends. Provides the knowledge required to administer radionuclide therapy safely and effectively in the individual patient. Explains the role of the therapeutic nuclear physician in effectively coordinating a diverse multidisciplinary team. Written by leading experts. The recent revolution in molecular biology offers exciting new opportunities for targeted radionuclide therapy. The selective irradiation of tumor cells through molecular biological mechanisms is now permitting the radiopharmaceutical control of tumors that are unresectable and unresponsive to either chemotherapy or conventional radiotherapy. In this up-to-date, comprehensive book, world-renowned experts discuss the basic principles of radionuclide therapy, explore in detail the available treatments, explain the regulatory requirements, and examine likely future developments. The full range of clinical applications is considered, including thyroid cancer, hematological malignancies, brain tumors, liver cancer, bone and joint disease, and neuroendocrine tumors. The combination of theoretical background and practical information will provide the reader with all the knowledge required to administer radionuclide therapy safely and effectively in the individual patient. Careful attention is also paid to the important role of the therapeutic nuclear physician in delivering the effective coordination of a diverse multidisciplinary team that is essential to the safe provision of treatment.

  3. Radionuclides in the environment: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzerman, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental chemistry plays a critical role in the open-quotes nuclear ageclose quotes. It makes a vital contribution to understanding of the sources, fate and effects of radionuclides in the environment, both man-made and natural. Risk assessment of radionuclides in the environment relies heavily on the tools of environmental chemistry. On the other hand, radionuclides provide unique opportunities to exploit in environmental chemistry investigations due to their well-defined sources, traceability in environmental processes, analytical sensitivities, and open-quotes built-inclose quotes radioactive decay open-quotes clocksclose quotes. In some cases naturally present radionuclides are utilized, while in others tracers are deliberately added or have already been added by the nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear testing. Several examples in each of these categories are discussed to spotlight the current status of environmental chemistry and radionuclides in the environment as an example application

  4. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.E.; Horrill, A.D.; Howard, B.J.; Lowe, V.P.W.; Parkinson, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: concentration and spatial distribution of radionuclides in grazed and ungrazed saltmarshes; incorporation of radionuclides by sheep grazing on an estuarine saltmarsh; inland transfer of radionuclides by birds feeding in the estuaries and saltmarshes at Ravenglass; radionuclides in contrasting types of coastal pastures and taken up by individual plant species found in west Cumbria; procedures developed and used for the measurement of alpha and gamma emitters in environmental materials. (U.K.)

  5. Dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccabona, G.

    2001-01-01

    While it is known that therapeutic effects of radionuclides are due to absorbed radiation dose and to radiosensitivity, individual dosimetry in 'Gy' is practiced rarely in clinical Nuclear Medicine but 'doses' are described in 'mCi' or 'MBq', which is only indirectly related to 'Gy' in the target. To estimate 'Gy', the volume of the target, maximum concentration of the radiopharmaceutical in it and residence time should be assessed individually. These parameters can be obtained usually only with difficulty, involving possibly also quantitative SPET or PET, modern imaging techniques (sonography, CT, MRT), substitution of y- or positron emitting radiotracers for β - emitting radiopharmaceuticals as well as whole-body distribution studies. Residence time can be estimated by obtaining data on biological half-life of a comparable tracer and transfer of these data in the physical characteristics of the therapeutic agent. With all these possibilities for gross dosimetry the establishment of a dose-response-relation should be possible. As distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in lesions is frequently inhomogenous and microdosimetric conditions are difficult to assess in vivo as yet, it could be observed since decades that empirically set, sometimes 'fixed' doses (mCi or MBq) can also be successful in many diseases. Detailed dosimetric studies, however, are work- and cost-intensive. Nevertheless, one should be aware at a time when more sophisticated therapeutic possibilities in Nuclear Medicine arise, that we should try to estimate radiation dose (Gy) in our new methods even as differences in individual radiosensitivity cannot be assessed yet and studies to define individual radiosensitivity in lesions should be encouraged. (author)

  6. The main trends in clinical use of radionuclides in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agranat, V.Z.

    1979-01-01

    The main trends of using radionuclide methods in clinical oncology are shown. Two main aspects of using radionuclide methods are pointed out: radionuclide investigation of the primary tumour as ''local'' manifestation of the cancer disease, radionuclide investigation of the body ''response'' to the tumour process. Each of the aspects of the problem is briefly considered on some examples. Examples of positive scintigraphy of tumours are given. It is shown that tumorotropic properties of some radionuclides make possible using visualization methods realizing the differential diagnosis of some tumours. Considered are direct and indirect signs which allow determining the presence of metastases and testifying to the tumour process spread

  7. The anaemia control model: Does it help nephrologists in therapeutic decision-making in the management of anaemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucalo, María Laura; Barbieri, Carlo; Roca, Susana; Ion Titapiccolo, Jasmine; Ros Romero, Maria Soledad; Ramos, Rosa; Albaladejo, Mercedes; Manzano, Diana; Mari, Flavio; Molina, Manuel

    2018-06-03

    Anaemia is common in haemodialysis patients and treating it with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) is complex due to many factors. To assess the usefulness of the Anaemia Control Model (ACM) in the treatment of anaemia in haemodialysis. ACM is a software that predicts the optimal dose of darbepoetin and iron sucrose to achieve target haemoglobin (Hb) and ferritin levels, and makes prescription suggestions. Study conducted in dialysis clinics lasting 18months with two intervention phases (IPs) with ACM (IP1, n:213; IP2, n:218) separated by a control phase (CP, n:219). The primary outcome was the percentage of Hb in range and the median dose of ESAs, and the secondary outcomes were transfusion, hospitalisation and cardiovascular events. Clinical and patient analyses were performed. Hb variability was assessed by the standard deviation (SD) of the Hb. We also analysed the patients with most of the suggestions confirmed (ACM compliant group). ACM increased the percentage of Hb in range: 80.9% in IP2, compared with 72.7% in the CP and reduced the intake of darbepoetin (IP1: 20 [70]; CP 30 [80] μg P=0.032) with less Hb fluctuation (0.91±0.49 in the CP to 0.82±0.37g/dl in IP2, P<0.05), improving in the ACM compliant group. The secondary outcomes decreased with the use of ACM. ACM helps to obtain better anaemia results in haemodialysis patients, minimising the risks of treatment with ESAs and reducing costs. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. End-of-life decision making in respiratory failure. The therapeutic choices in chronic respiratory failure in a 7-item questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Elfriede Rinnenburger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The transition from paternalistic medicine to a healthcare culture centred on the patient's decision making autonomy presents problems of communication and understanding. Chronic respiratory failure challenges patients, their families and caregivers with important choices, such as invasive and non-invasive mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy, which, especially in the case of neuromuscular diseases, can significantly postpone the end of life. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A 7-item questionnaire was administered to 100 patients with advanced COPD, neuromuscular diseases and pulmonary fibrosis, all of them on oxygen therapy and receiving day-hospital treatment for respiratory failure. The objective was to find out whether or not patients, if faced with a deterioration of their health condition, would want to take part in the decision making process and, if so, how and with whom. RESULTS. Results showed that: 90% of patients wanted to be interviewed, 10% preferred not to be interviewed, 82% wanted to be regularly updated on their clinical situation, 75% wanted to be intubated, if necessary, and 56% would also agree to have a tracheostomy. These choices have been confirmed one year later, with 93% of respondents accepting the questionnaire and considering it useful. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to conclude that a simple questionnaire can be a useful tool contributing to therapeutic decision making in respiratory failure.

  9. Metabolic Diseases Downregulate the Majority of Histone Modification Enzymes, Making a Few Upregulated Enzymes Novel Therapeutic Targets--"Sand Out and Gold Stays".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ying; Chernaya, Valeria; Johnson, Candice; Yang, William Y; Cueto, Ramon; Sha, Xiaojin; Zhang, Yi; Qin, Xuebin; Sun, Jianxin; Choi, Eric T; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-feng

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether the expression of histone modification enzymes is regulated in physiological and pathological conditions, we took an experimental database mining approach pioneered in our labs to determine a panoramic expression profile of 164 enzymes in 19 human and 17 murine tissues. We have made the following significant findings: (1) Histone enzymes are differentially expressed in cardiovascular, immune, and other tissues; (2) our new pyramid model showed that heart and T cells are among a few tissues in which histone acetylation/deacetylation, and histone methylation/demethylation are in the highest varieties; and (3) histone enzymes are more downregulated than upregulated in metabolic diseases and regulatory T cell (Treg) polarization/ differentiation, but not in tumors. These results have demonstrated a new working model of "Sand out and Gold stays," where more downregulation than upregulation of histone enzymes in metabolic diseases makes a few upregulated enzymes the potential novel therapeutic targets in metabolic diseases and Treg activity.

  10. Metabolic Diseases Downregulate the Majority of Histone Modification Enzymes, Making a Few Upregulated Enzymes Novel Therapeutic Targets – “Sand out and Gold Stays”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ying; Chernaya, Valeria; Johnson, Candice; Yang, William Y.; Cueto, Ramon; Sha, Xiaojin; Zhang, Yi; Qin, Xuebin; Sun, Jianxin; Choi, Eric T.; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-feng

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether the expression of histone modification enzymes is regulated in physiological and pathological conditions, we took an experimental database mining approach pioneered in our labs to determine a panoramic expression profile of 164 enzymes in 19 human and 17 murine tissues. We have made the following significant findings: 1) Histone enzymes are differentially expressed in cardiovascular, immune and other tissues; 2) Our new pyramid model showed that heart and T cells are among a few tissues in which histone acetylation/deacetylation, histone methylation/demethylation are in the highest varieties; and 3) Histone enzymes are more downregulated than upregulated in metabolic diseases and Treg polarization/differentiation, but not in tumors. These results have demonstrated a new working model of “sand out and gold stays,” where more downregulation than upregulation of histone enzymes in metabolic diseases makes a few upregulated enzymes the potential novel therapeutic targets in metabolic diseases and Treg activity. PMID:26746407

  11. Speciation analysis of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides in the environment can be present in different physico-chemical forms (i. e. radionuclide species) varying in size (nominal molecular mass), charge properties and valence, oxidation state, structure and morphology, density, complexing ability etc. Low molecular mass (LMM) species are believed to be mobile and potentially bioavailable, while high molecular mass (HMM) species such as colloids, polymers, pseudocolloids and particles are considered inert. Due to time dependent transformation processes such as mobilization of radionuclide species from solid phases or interactions of mobile and reactive radionuclide species with components in soils and sediments, however, the original distribution of radionuclides deposited in ecosystems will change over time and influence the ecosystem behaviour. To assess the environmental impact from radionuclide contamination, information on radionuclide species deposited, interactions within affected ecosystems and the time-dependent distribution of radionuclide species influencing mobility and biological uptake is essential. The development of speciation techniques to characterize radionuclide species in waters, soils and sediments should therefore be essential for improving the prediction power of impact and risk assessment models. The present paper reviews fractionation techniques which should be utilised for radionuclide speciation purposes. (author)

  12. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Factors Influencing The Therapeutic Decision-Making. From Academic Knowledge to Emotional Intelligence and Spiritual “Crazy” Wisdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific holistic medicine is built on holistic medical theory, on therapeutic and ethical principles. The rationale is that the therapist can take the patient into a state of salutogenesis, or existential healing, using his skills and knowledge. But how ever much we want to make therapy a science it remains partly an art, and the more developed the therapist becomes, the more of his/her decisions will be based on intuition, feeling and even inspiration that is more based on love and human concern and other spiritual motivations than on mental reason and rationality in a simple sense of the word. The provocative and paradoxal medieval western concept of the “truth telling clown”, or the eastern concepts of “crazy wisdom” and “holy madness” seems highly relevant here. The problem is how we can ethically justify this kind of highly “irrational” therapeutic behavior in the rational setting of a medical institution. We argue here that holistic therapy has a very high success rate and is doing no harm to the patient, and encourage therapists, psychiatrists, psychologist and other academically trained “helpers” to constantly measure their own success-rate. This paper discusses many of the important factors that influence clinical holistic decision-making. Sexuality could, as many psychoanalysts from Freud to Reich and Searles have believed, be the most healing power that exists and also the most difficult for the mind to comprehend, and thus the most “crazy-wise” tool of therapy.

  13. Correlations of CTLA-4 exon-1 49 A/G and promoter region 318C/T polymorphisms with the therapeutic efficacy of 131 I radionuclide in graves' disease in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xin-Rui; Wen, Xin; Wang, Shan; Fan, Shao-Hua; Zhuang, Juan; Wang, Yong-Jian; Zhang, Zi-Feng; Li, Meng-Qiu; Hu, Bin; Shan, Qun; Sun, Chun-Hui; Bao, Ya-Xing; Wu, Dong-Mei; Lu, Jun; Zheng, Yuan-Lin

    2017-08-04

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune process in which the thyroid gland is triggered by autoantibodies, resulting in hyperthyroidism. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate whether exon-1 49 A/G and promoter region 318C/T polymorphisms in the CTLA-4 gene. This study consisted of 653 eligible patients with Graves' disease. After receiving 131I radionuclide therapy, these patients were classified into the remission and non-remission groups. A logistic regression-based model was used to analyze independent factors affecting the patient response to 131I radionuclide therapy. The results showed that CTLA-4 49 A/G was closely related to the efficacy of 131 I treatment for Graves' disease (AG + GG vs. AA: OR = 6.543, 95%CI = 2.611 ∼ 16.40, P Graves' disease. Logistic regression analysis indicated that thyroid weight (OR = 0.963, 95%CI = 0.944 ∼ 0.982, P Graves' disease. These data indicated that CTLA-4 exon-1 49 A/G polymorphism may be associated with patient response to radionuclide 131 I therapy in Graves' disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Radionuclide therapy practice and facilities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagel, C.A.; Clarke, S.E.M.; Fischer, M.; Chatal, J.F.; Lewington, V.J.; Nilsson, S.; Troncone, L.; Vieira, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Using a questionnaire the EANM Task Group Radionuclide Therapy in 1993 collected data on the current practice of radionuclide therapy in European countries. Subsequently, at the request of the EANM Executive Committee, the EANM Radionuclide Therapy Committee has made an inventory of the distribution of facilities for radionuclide therapy and undertaken an assessment of the total number of patients treated throughout Europe and of the types of treatment provides, with the aim of supporting the development of policy to adjust the available capacity to the needs by the year 2000. For this purpose, a second, more detailed questionnaire was sent out the members and national advisors of the Committee (see below), who gathered the data for each country that was a member of the EANM at the time. It is concluded that a wide bariation in therapy practice exists across Europe, particularly in the utilisation of radionuclide therapy, the requirement and availability of proper isolation facilities and the background training of those undertaking therapy. More uniform guidelines and legislation are required, although changes in legislation may have a significant impact in some countries. Although there is wide variation in the therapies used in each country, one the whole it appears that there is an underutilisation of nuclear medicine as a therapeutic modality. A rapidly increasing role may be expected, in particular for oncological indications requiring high-dose radionuclide treatment. Therefore there is an urgent need for a greater number of isolation beds in dedicated centers throughout Europe

  15. Quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, P.M.; Rerych, S.K.; Moran, J.F.; Newman, G.E.; Douglas, J.M.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Jones, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This study introduces a new method for calculating actual left ventricular volumes and cardiac output from data recorded during a single transit of a radionuclide bolus through the heart, and describes in detail current radionuclide angiocardiography methodology. A group of 64 healthy adults with a wide age range were studied to define the normal range of hemodynamic parameters determined by the technique. Radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed in patients undergoing cardiac catherization to validate the measurements. In 33 patients studied by both techniques on the same day, a close correlation was documented for measurement of ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume. To validate the method of volumetric cardiac output calcuation, 33 simultaneous radionuclide and indocyanine green dye determinations of cardiac output were performed in 18 normal young adults. These independent comparisons of radionuclide measurements with two separate methods document that initial transit radionuclide angiocardiography accurately assesses left ventricular function

  16. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    oxygen retention of the tissue and the significantly greater retention amounting in hypoxic tissue. This hypothesis was confirmed in a series of animal studies. Cu-64 can be used both as an imaging radionuclide and a therapeutic radionuclide. The therapeutic efficacy of Cu-64 ATSM was proven in hamsters bearing the CW39 human colorectal tumors. The administration of Cu-64 ATSM significantly increased the survival time of tumor-bearing animals with no acute toxicity. This copper agent therefore shows promise for radiotherapy. The flow tracer Cu-64 PTSM also demonstrates therapeutic potential by inhibiting cancer cells implanted in animal models. Again, this inhibition occurred at doses which showed no sign of toxicity to the animals. Cu-ATSM was translated to humans, under other support a series of tumors were investigated; these included head and neck cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, cervical cancer and renal cancer. Another radionuclide that was investigated was titanium 45. This radionuclide was successfully produced by radiation of a scandium foil with 15 MeV protons. The titanium 45 was processed and separated from residual scandium by high exchange chomotrophy. Titanium titanocene has been utilized as a therapeutic agent; this compound was prepared and studied in vitro and in vivo. Another project was the preparation of cyclodextrin dimers as a new pre-targeting approach for tumor uptake. Beta-cyclodextradin and two other dimers were synthesized. These dimers were studied for the in vivo application. Work continued on the application of the radionuclide already discussed. Technetium 94m, a positron emitting radionuclide of the widely used 99m Tc nuclide was also prepared. This allows the quantification of the uptake of technetium radiopharmaceuticals. In collaboration with Professor David Piwnica-Worms, technetium 94m, sestamibi was studied in animal models and in a limited number of human subjects.

  17. Radionuclide cinematography of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.E.; Sigel, H.; Geffers, H.; Bitter, F.; Meyer, G.; Kampmann, H.; Stauch, M.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclide cinematography is described as a procedure making use of radiation-level variations above the heart after equipartitioning of sup(99m)Tc-labelled human serum albumin in the blood pool. Regional ventricular and vestibular variations are phase-shifted. This procedure permits delineation of aneurysmas with interphasic course, cicatrization of the cardiac wall not producing any cyclical variation. The study included normal subjects and 16 patients with full course infarction. Characteristic disturbances of motility distribution were found in all cases of scarred or aneurysmic alterations in the frontal and side walls of the left ventricle. The procedure was unable to detect two small infarction scars on the rear wall. The possibility of using radionuclide cinematography to prove coronary insufficiency as well as a comparison with other methods are discussed

  18. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  19. Radionuclides and maternal lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    The increase in the number of nuclear medicine centers, both official and private in the country, as well as the increase in the number of patients, due to the effectiveness of their diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, brings out new situations that must be studied from the point of view of radioprotection. This work makes a revision in the medical literature about procedures with radioisotopes during the maternal nursing period. In general, it is recommended to stop nursing for 24 hours for 99mtc test, and to resume it after the draining of the milky content. This can be done in spite of the sensitivity of the target organ of the baby, because the dosage will be below permissible limits accepted by international agencies with respect to diagnostic test and I-131 treatment, and if continuing nursing is desired, it is recommended to use other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures before discontinuing the most important nutritional resource at this age

  20. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  1. Nuclear data for production of the therapeutic radionuclides {sup 32}P, {sup 64}Cu, {sup 67}Cu, {sup 89}Sr, {sup 9}Y and {sup 153}Sm via the (n,p) reaction: Evaluation of excitation function and its validation via integral cross-section measurement using a 14 MeV d(Be) neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Abyad, M. [Institut fuer Nuklearchemie, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Cyclotron Facility, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759 (Egypt); Spahn, I. [Institut fuer Nuklearchemie, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary); Sudar, S. [Institut fuer Nuklearchemie, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary); Morsy, M. [Cyclotron Facility, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759 (Egypt); Comsan, M.N.H. [Cyclotron Facility, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo 13759 (Egypt); Csikai, J. [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary); Qaim, S.M. [Institut fuer Nuklearchemie, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: s.m.qaim@fz-juelich.de; Coenen, H.H. [Institut fuer Nuklearchemie, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    Nuclear data for production of the therapeutic radionuclides {sup 32}P, {sup 64}Cu, {sup 67}Cu, {sup 89}Sr, {sup 9}Y and {sup 153}Sm via (n,p) reactions on the target nuclei {sup 32}S, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 67}Zn, {sup 89}Y, {sup 9}Zr and {sup 153}Eu, respectively, are discussed. The available information on each excitation function was analysed. From the recommended data set for each reaction the average integrated cross section for a standard 14 MeV d(Be) neutron field was deduced. The spectrum-averaged cross section was also measured experimentally. A comparison of the integrated value with the integral measurement served to validate the excitation function within about 15%. A fast neutron source appears to be much more effective than a fission reactor for production of the above-mentioned radionuclides in a no-carrier-added form via the (n,p) process. In particular, the possibility of production of high specific activity {sup 153}Sm is discussed.

  2. Interdisciplinary expert consultation via a teleradiology platform. Influence on therapeutic decision-making and patient referral rates to an academic tertiary care center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helck, Andreas; Matzko, M.; Trumm, C.G.; Grosse, C.; Reiser, M.; Ertl-Wagner, B.; Piltz, S.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to teleradiological reporting as a nighthawking or a regular service, teleradiological communication can be used for interdisciplinary expert consultation. We intended to evaluate an interdisciplinary consultation system based on a teleradiology platform with regard to its impact on therapeutic decision-making, directed patient referrals to an academic tertiary care center and the economic benefit for the hospital providing the service. Therefore, consultations from five secondary care centers and consecutive admissions to an academic tertiary care center were prospectively evaluated over a time period of six months. A total of 69 interdisciplinary expert consultations were performed. In 54% of the cases the patients were consecutively referred to the university hospital for further treatment. In all acutely life-threatening emergencies (n=9), fast and focused treatment by referral to the academic tertiary care center was achieved (average time to treat 130 min). The admissions to the academic tertiary care center led to improved utilization of its facilities with additional revenue of more than 1 000 000 Euro p.a. An interdisciplinary expert consultation via a teleradiology platform enables fast and efficient expert care with improved and accelerated patient management and improved utilization of the service providing hospital. (orig.)

  3. Recurrent anterior shoulder instability: accuracy of estimations of glenoid bone loss with computed tomography is insufficient for therapeutic decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huijsmans, Polydoor Emile [Haga Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Hague (Netherlands); Witte, Pieter Bas de [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Leiden (Netherlands); Villiers, Richard V.P. de; Kruger, Niel Ruben [Van Wageningen and Partners, Radiology Department, Somerset West (South Africa); Wolterbeek, Derk Willem; Warmerdam, Piet [Haga Hospital, Department of Radiology, The Hague (Netherlands); Beer, Joe F. de [Cape Shoulder Institute, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2011-10-15

    To evaluate the reliability of glenoid bone loss estimations based on either axial computed tomography (CT) series or single sagittal (''en face'' to glenoid) CT reconstructions, and to assess their accuracy by comparing with actual CT-based bone loss measurements, in patients with anterior glenohumeral instability. In two separate series of patients diagnosed with recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability, glenoid bone loss was estimated on axial CT series and on the most lateral sagittal (en face) glenoid view by two blinded radiologists. Additionally, in the second series of patients, glenoid defects were measured on sagittal CT reconstructions by an independent observer. In both series, larger defects were estimated when based on sagittal CT images compared to axial views. In the second series, mean measured bone loss was 11.5% (SD = 6.0) of the total original glenoid area, with estimations of 9.6% (SD = 7.2) and 7.8% (SD = 4.2) for sagittal and axial views, respectively. Correlations of defect estimations with actual measurements were fair to poor; glenoid defects tended to be underestimated, especially when based on axial views. CT-based estimations of glenoid bone defects are inaccurate. Especially for axial views, there is a high chance of glenoid defect underestimation. When using glenoid bone loss quantification in therapeutic decision-making, measuring the defect instead of estimating is strongly advised. (orig.)

  4. Process for encapsulating radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, L.E.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclides are immobilized in virtually an insoluble form by reacting at a temperature of at least 90 0 C as an aqueous alkaline mixture having a solution pH of at least 10, containing a source of silicon, the radionuclide waste, and a metal cation. The molar ratio of silicon to the metal cation is on the order of unity to produce a gel from which complex metalosilicates crystallize to entrap the radionuclides within the resultant condensed crystal lattice. The product is a silicious stone-like material which is virtually insoluble and nonleachable in alkaline or neutral environment. One embodiment provides for the formation of the complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by gel formation with subsequent calcination to the solid product; another embodiment utilizes a hydrothermal process, either above ground or deep within basalt caverns, at greater than atmospheric pressures and a temperature between 90 and 500 0 C to form complex metalo-silicates, such as strontium aluminosilicate. Another embodiment provides for the formation of complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by slurrying an alkaline mixture of bentonite or kaolinite with a source of silicon and the radionuclide waste in salt form. In each of the embodiments a mobile system is achieved whereby the metalo-silicate constituents reorient into a condensed crystal lattice forming a cage structure with the condensed metalo-silicate lattice which completely surrounds the radionuclide and traps the radionuclide therein; thus rendering the radionuclide virtually insoluble

  5. Evaluation of Pharmacy and Therapeutic (P&T) Committee member knowledge, attitudes and ability regarding the use of comparative effectiveness research (CER) in health care decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D H; Warholak, T L; Hines, L E; Hurwitz, J; Brown, M; Taylor, A M; Brixner, D; Malone, D C

    2014-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is a constellation of research methods designed to improve health care decision making. Educational programs that improve health care decision makers' CER knowledge and awareness may ultimately lead to more cost-effective use of health care resources. This study was conducted to evaluate changes in CER knowledge, attitudes, and ability among Pharmacy and Therapeutics (P&T) Committee members and support staff after attending a tailored educational program. Physicians and pharmacists from two professional societies and the Indian Health Service who participated in the P&T process were invited via email to participate in this study. Participants completed a questionnaire, designed specifically for this study, prior to and following the 4-hour live, educational program on CER to determine the impact on their related knowledge, attitudes, and ability to use CER in decision-making. Rasch analysis was used to assess validity and reliability of subsections of the questionnaire and regression analysis was used to assess programmatic impact on CER knowledge, attitude, and ability. One hundred and forty of the 199 participants completed both the pre- and post-CER session questionnaires (response rate = 70.4%). Most participants (>75%) correctly answered eight of the ten knowledge items after attending the educational session. More than 60% of the respondents had a positive attitude toward CER both before and after the program. Compared to baseline (pretest), participants reported significant improvements in their perceived ability to use CER after attending the session in these areas: using CER reviews, knowledge of CER methods, identifying problems with randomized controlled trials, identifying threats to validity, understanding of evidence synthesis approaches, and evaluating the quality of CER (all P values CER educational program was effective in increasing participants' CER knowledge and self-perceived ability to evaluate

  6. 68Ga-PSMA 11 ligand PET imaging in patients with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy - diagnostic performance and impact on therapeutic decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubmueller, B.; D'Andrea, D.; Korn, S.; Seitz, C.; Fajkovic, H.; Kramer, G.; Baltzer, P.; Haug, A.R.; Hacker, M.; Pfaff, S.; Hartenbach, Markus; Grubmueller, K.H.; Goldner, G.M.; Wadsak, W.; Babich, J.; Susani, M.; Mazal, P.; Shariat, S.F.

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of [ 68 Ga]Ga-PSMA HBED-CC conjugate 11 positron emission tomography (PSMA-PET) in the early detection of metastases in patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) for clinically non-metastatic prostate cancer, to compare it to CT/MRI alone and to assess its impact on further therapeutic decisions. We retrospectively assessed 117 consecutive hormone-naive BCR patients who had 68 Ga-PSMA 11 PET/CT (n = 46) or PET/MRI (n = 71) between May 2014 and January 2017. BCR was defined as two PSA rises above 0.2 ng/ml. Two dedicated uro-oncological imaging experts (radiology/nuclear medicine) reviewed separately all images. All results were presented in a blinded sequential fashion to a multidisciplinary tumorboard in order to assess the influence of PSMA-PET imaging on decision-making. The median time from RP to BCR was 36 months (IQR 16-72). Overall, 69 (59%) patients received postoperative radiotherapy. Median PSA level at the time of imaging was 1.04 ng/ml (IQR 0.58-1.87). PSMA-positive lesions were detected in 100 (85.5%) patients. Detection rates were 65% for a PSA value of 0.2 to <0.5 ng/ml, 85.7% for 0.5 to <1, 85.7% for 1 to <2 and 100% for ≥2. PSMA-positive lesions could be confirmed by either histology (16%), PSA decrease in metastasis-directed radiotherapy (45%) or additional information in diffusion-weighted imaging when PET/MRI was performed (18%) in 79% of patients. PSMA-PET detected lesions in 67 patients (57.3%) who had no suspicious correlates according to the RECIST 1.1 criteria on MRI or CT. PSMA-PET changed therapeutic decisions in 74.6% of these 67 patients (p < 0.001), with 86% of them being considered for metastases-directed therapies. We confirm the high performance of PSMA-PET imaging for the detection of disease recurrence sites in patients with BCR after RP, even at relatively low PSA levels. Moreover, it adds significant information to standard CT/MRI, changing treatment

  7. {sup 68}Ga-PSMA 11 ligand PET imaging in patients with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy - diagnostic performance and impact on therapeutic decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubmueller, B.; D' Andrea, D.; Korn, S.; Seitz, C.; Fajkovic, H.; Kramer, G. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Urology, Vienna (Austria); Baltzer, P. [Medical University of Vienna, Division of General and Pediatric Radiology, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Haug, A.R.; Hacker, M.; Pfaff, S.; Hartenbach, Markus [Medical University of Vienna, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Grubmueller, K.H. [University Hospital Krems, Karl Landsteiner University of Health Sciences, Department of Urology and Andrology, Krems (Austria); Goldner, G.M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiation Oncology, Vienna (Austria); Wadsak, W. [Medical University of Vienna, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Center for Biomarker Research in Medicine, CBmed GmbH, Graz (Austria); Babich, J. [Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Division of Radiopharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Susani, M.; Mazal, P. [Medical University of Vienna, Clinical Institute of Pathology, Vienna (Austria); Shariat, S.F. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Urology, Vienna (Austria); University of Texas Southwestern, Department of Urology, Dallas, TX (United States); Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Department of Urology and Division of Medical Oncology, New York, NY (United States)

    2018-02-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of [{sup 68}Ga]Ga-PSMA{sup HBED-CC} conjugate 11 positron emission tomography (PSMA-PET) in the early detection of metastases in patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP) for clinically non-metastatic prostate cancer, to compare it to CT/MRI alone and to assess its impact on further therapeutic decisions. We retrospectively assessed 117 consecutive hormone-naive BCR patients who had {sup 68}Ga-PSMA 11 PET/CT (n = 46) or PET/MRI (n = 71) between May 2014 and January 2017. BCR was defined as two PSA rises above 0.2 ng/ml. Two dedicated uro-oncological imaging experts (radiology/nuclear medicine) reviewed separately all images. All results were presented in a blinded sequential fashion to a multidisciplinary tumorboard in order to assess the influence of PSMA-PET imaging on decision-making. The median time from RP to BCR was 36 months (IQR 16-72). Overall, 69 (59%) patients received postoperative radiotherapy. Median PSA level at the time of imaging was 1.04 ng/ml (IQR 0.58-1.87). PSMA-positive lesions were detected in 100 (85.5%) patients. Detection rates were 65% for a PSA value of 0.2 to <0.5 ng/ml, 85.7% for 0.5 to <1, 85.7% for 1 to <2 and 100% for ≥2. PSMA-positive lesions could be confirmed by either histology (16%), PSA decrease in metastasis-directed radiotherapy (45%) or additional information in diffusion-weighted imaging when PET/MRI was performed (18%) in 79% of patients. PSMA-PET detected lesions in 67 patients (57.3%) who had no suspicious correlates according to the RECIST 1.1 criteria on MRI or CT. PSMA-PET changed therapeutic decisions in 74.6% of these 67 patients (p < 0.001), with 86% of them being considered for metastases-directed therapies. We confirm the high performance of PSMA-PET imaging for the detection of disease recurrence sites in patients with BCR after RP, even at relatively low PSA levels. Moreover, it adds significant information to standard CT/MRI, changing

  8. Foodstuffs, radionuclides, monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisikov, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination of water and food stuffs as a result of the Chernobyl accident and permissible contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs are considered in brief. A method of radiation monitoring of food stuffs and water for the radionuclides mentioned is suggested. The method permits employment of the simplest and cheapest radiometric equipment for analysis, whole the high degree of radionuclide concentration using fiber sorbents permits using the instrumentation without expensive shields against external radiation. A description of ion-exchange unit for radiation monitoring of liquid samples of food stuffs or water, is provided [ru

  9. Generator for radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisner, P.S.; Forrest, T.R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides a radionuclide generator of the kind in which a parent radionuclide, adsorbed on a column of particulate material, generates a daughter radionuclide which is periodically removed from the column. This invention is particularly concerned with technetium generators using single collection vials. The generator comprises a column, a first reservoir for the eluent, a second reservoir to contain the volume of eluent required for a single elution, and means connecting the first reservoir to the second reservoir and the second reservoir to the column. Such a generator is particularly suitable for operation by vacuum elution

  10. Miscellaneous applications of radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.; Freeman, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    The procedures discussed in this chapter are either developmental, in limited clinical use, or frankly moribund. A number of radionuclide imaging techniques have proved disappointing when approached from a purely anatomic point of view. This is particularly evident to our colleagues with the explosive growth of the noninvasive imaging procedures, magnetic resonance imaging (NMR), CT, and ultrasound, and the introduction of the less invasive digital radiographic approach to vascular opacification, all of which are capable of providing exquisite anatomic or tissue detail beyond the reach of current or reasonably priced nuclear medicine imaging systems. Yet, most nuclear medicine procedures possess the unique advantage of portraying a physiologic function without interfering with that function. Moreover, the procedures can be employed under conditions of stress, which are likely to bring out pathophysiologic abnormalities that remain masked when unchallenged. Information concerning form without functional data has less meaning than both together. The physiologic information inherent in nuclear medicine imaging may often provide not only key diagnostic information but also illuminate a therapeutic trail. Yet, it is often slighted in favor of the anatomic quest. While mastery of the nuances of imaging details remains critical, radionuclide image interpretation must rest upon a firm physiologic foundation. For this reason, this chapter emphasizes the physiologic approach

  11. Radionuclides in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tousset, J.

    1984-01-01

    Applications of radionuclides in analytical chemistry are reviewed in this article: tracers, radioactive sources and activation analysis. Examples are given in all these fields and it is concluded that these methods should be used more widely [fr

  12. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  13. Abscess detection with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclide studies may aid in the diagnosis and localization of intra-abdominal infections. Despite the introduction of new radiographic and ultrasound methods, there are several clinical situations in which radionuclide scans have proved useful. Those include detection of postoperative intra-abdominal abscess, evaluation of liver abscess, differentiation between pancreatic pseudocyst or abscess, evaluation of fever of unknown origin, and evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease. Each clinical situation is discussed separately here

  14. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, S.

    1991-01-01

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  15. Radioactivity: radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.E.; Baratta, E.J.; Jelinek, C.F.

    1977-01-01

    The results are summarized of the analysis for strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-131, ruthenium-106, and potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, in samples of total diet and selected import commodities in the foods compliance program of the Food and Drug Administration. On the basis of the radionuclide intake guidelines established by the Federal Radiation Council (FRC), the low content of radionuclides found in the total diet samples for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 demonstrates the need for surveillance only at the present level. The low levels of radionuclides found in a limited number of edible imported commodities indicate that their contribution to the total diet would not increase the levels of these radionuclides above those recommended for only periodic surveillance by the FRC. The potassium levels, determined from potassium-40 activity, found in meats and fish agree with the value for normal muscle tissue for the reference man reported by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. Of the other commodities, nuts contained the highest levels, while sugar, beverages, and processed foods contained the lowest levels of potassium. Although cesium and potassium are chemical analogs with similar metabolic properties, because of their variable content in some leafy samples as a result of surface contamination, a correlation between cesium-137 levels and the cesium-137-to-potassium ratio was inconclusive

  16. Trends in cyclotrons for radionuclide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera Ruiz, H.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The IAEA recently concluded a worldwide survey of the cyclotrons used for radionuclide production. Most of the institutions responded to the questionnaire. The responses identified technical, utilisation and administrative information for 206 cyclotrons. Compiled data includes the characteristics, performance and popularity of each of the different commercial cyclotrons. Over 20 cyclotrons are scheduled for installation in 1998. The expansion in the number of cyclotron installations during the last decade was driven by the advent of advances in medical imaging instrumentation (namely, positron emission tomography (PET), and more recently by 511 KeV emission tomography); introduction of user friendly compact medical cyclotrons; and recent governmental decisions that permit reimbursement for cyclotron radiopharmaceutical studies by the government or insurance companies. The priorities for the production of clinical, commercial and research radionuclides were identified. The emphasis is on radionuclides used for medical diagnosis with SPET (e.g. 123 I, 201 Tl) and PET (e.g. 11 C, 13 N, 15 O, 18 F) radiopharmaceuticals, and for individualized patient radiation treatment planning (e.g. 64 Cu, 86 Y, 124 I) with PET. There is an emerging trend to advance the cyclotron as an alternative method to nuclear reactors for the production of neutron-rich radionuclides (e.g. 64 Cu, 103 Pd, 186 Re) needed for therapeutic applications. (authors)

  17. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, J.S.; Larson, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    This new DOE proposal appropriately builds on past developments. The development and application of radionuclides for diagnosis, treatment and research has been a continuing concern for more than the past three decades. A brief description of this development and previous achievements was considered important in order to provide a frame of reference for the evolving program here. Earlier, the use of certain radionuclides, radon progeny and I-131 in particular, and also x-rays, had been developed by the work of such pioneers as Failla, Quimby and Marinelli. In 1952, at the instigation of Dr. C.P. Rhoads, Director of both Memorial Hospital and Sloan-Kettering Institute, the restoration of the Department of Physics and Biophysics was undertaken in response to a perceived need to promote the utilization of radionuclides and of high energy radiations for therapeutic, diagnostic and research purposes. This resulted in several research and developmental projects with close clinical collaboration in areas of radiation treatment; medical studies with radionuclides and labeled compounds; the diagnostic uses of x-rays; and some projects in surgery and other clinical areas. Aspects of some of these projects that have had some relevance for the evolving AEC-DOE projects are outlined briefly. 34 refs

  18. The development and use of radionuclide generators in nuclear medicine - recent advances and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    Although the trend in radionuclide generator research has declined, radionuclide generator systems continue to play an important role in nuclear medicine. Technetium-99m obtained from the molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator system is used in over 80% of all diagnostic clinical studies and there is increasing interest and use of therapeutic radioisotopes obtained from generator systems. This paper focuses on a discussion of the major current areas of radionuclide generator research, and the expected areas of future research and applications

  19. Therapeutic applications of radiopharmaceuticals. Proceedings of an international seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    The potential of radionuclides in therapy has been recognised for many decades. A number of radionuclides such as iodine-131, phosphorous-32, yttrium-90 and 1-131 MIBG have been in use for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, however, there has been a significant growth of this branch of nuclear medicine with the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain, neuroendocrine and other tumours. The prospect of localising or treating neoplastic diseases using specific antibodies labelled with radioactive isotopes capable of delivering large amounts of internally administered radiation may have the potential to fulfil the promise of EhrIich's 'magic bullet', which has tantalised investigators worldwide for the past sixty years. Recent success in this area has been largely due to genetic and molecular techniques that now permit production of a large number of suitable peptides and monoclonal antibodies directed against specific epitopes individually characteristic of specific tumours. The input of the radiochemist and the development of labelling techniques that do not destroy the immunological integrity of the monoclonal antibodies have also been essential ingredients of the success story. Recent significant advances in monoclonal antibody techniques for pretargeting make it very likely that radiopharmaceuticals will become an important part of therapy for various cancers. It may also be possible that in addition to the use of beta particles, alpha particles may soon become a mainstay of therapeutic nuclear medicine. Cancer researchers, looking for an extremely potent and highly specific way to target cancer cells, are investigating the use of monoclonal antibodies and peptides attached to alpha emitting radionuclides in early clinical trials. Today the field of radionuclide therapy is going through an extremely interesting and exciting phase and is poised for greater growth

  20. Therapeutic applications of radiopharmaceuticals. Proceedings of an international seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    The potential of radionuclides in therapy has been recognised for many decades. A number of radionuclides such as iodine-131, phosphorous-32, yttrium-90 and 1-131 MIBG have been in use for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, however, there has been a significant growth of this branch of nuclear medicine with the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain, neuroendocrine and other tumours. The prospect of localising or treating neoplastic diseases using specific antibodies labelled with radioactive isotopes capable of delivering large amounts of internally administered radiation may have the potential to fulfil the promise of EhrIich's 'magic bullet', which has tantalised investigators worldwide for the past sixty years. Recent success in this area has been largely due to genetic and molecular techniques that now permit production of a large number of suitable peptides and monoclonal antibodies directed against specific epitopes individually characteristic of specific tumours. The input of the radiochemist and the development of labelling techniques that do not destroy the immunological integrity of the monoclonal antibodies have also been essential ingredients of the success story. Recent significant advances in monoclonal antibody techniques for pretargeting make it very likely that radiopharmaceuticals will become an important part of therapy for various cancers. It may also be possible that in addition to the use of beta particles, alpha particles may soon become a mainstay of therapeutic nuclear medicine. Cancer researchers, looking for an extremely potent and highly specific way to target cancer cells, are investigating the use of monoclonal antibodies and peptides attached to alpha emitting radionuclides in early clinical trials. Today the field of radionuclide therapy is going through an extremely interesting and exciting phase and is poised for greater growth

  1. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  2. Tumour therapy with radionuclides: assessment of progress and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Joergen; Forssell Aronsson, Eva; Hietala, Sven-Ola; Stigbrand, Torgny; Tennvall, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy is a promising modality for treatment of tumours of haematopoietic origin while the success for treatment of solid tumours so far has been limited. The authors consider radionuclide therapy mainly as a method to eradicate disseminated tumour cells and small metastases while bulky tumours and large metastases have to be treated surgically or by external radiation therapy. The promising therapeutic results for haematological tumours give hope that radionuclide therapy will have a breakthrough also for treatment of disseminated cells from solid tumours. New knowledge related to this is continuously emerging since new molecular target structures are being characterised and the knowledge on pharmacokinetics and cellular processing of different types of targeting agents increases. There is also improved understanding of the factors of importance for the choice of appropriate radionuclides with respect to their decay properties and the therapeutic applications. Furthermore, new methods to modify the uptake of radionuclides in tumour cells and normal tissues are emerging. However, we still need improvements regarding dosimetry and treatment planning as well as an increased knowledge about the tolerance doses for normal tissues and the radiobiological effects on tumour cells. This is especially important in targeted radionuclide therapy where the dose rates often are lower than 1 Gy/h

  3. Radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains data on the levels of radionuclides in the UK foodchain. Most data derive from monitoring programmes that exist around nuclear sites, and in some cases date back to the 1960s. Some comparative data from site operator and government-run programmes are included. Data from monitoring undertaken after the Chernobyl accident are summarised. General monitoring of the foodchain for both artificial and natural radionuclides, and the results of relevant government-sponsored research are also described. The report includes basic information on radioactivity in the environment, radiation protection standards and describes what measures are taken to routinely monitor the foodchain and assess public risk. (Author)

  4. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  5. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersahin, Devrim, E-mail: devrimersahin@yahoo.com; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2011-10-11

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  6. Radionuclide deposition control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for controlling the deposition, on to the surfaces of reactor components, of the radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from a liquid stream containing the radionuclides. The method consists of disposing a getter material (nickel) in the liquid stream, and a non-getter material (tantalum, tungsten or molybdenum) as a coating on the surfaces where deposition is not desired. The process is described with special reference to its use in the coolant circuit in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. (U.K.)

  7. Radionuclide examination in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streda, A.; Kolar, J.; Valesova, M.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of twenty years of experience with the use of radionuclides in bone and articular rheumatic diseases indications for such examinations are summed up. The main advantage of the use of radionuclide methods is that they bring forward early diagnosis of tissue reconstruction which can thus be detected at the stage of microstructural changes. They also provide earlier and more reliable detection of the degree of the pathological process than is provided by X-ray examination. In some cases scintiscan may also be found useful as a method for following up the results of treatment of rheumatic diseases. (author)

  8. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

    2011-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose

  9. [How I treat: from specialized pharmacology to drug therapy: a plea for an optimal educational program for rational therapeutics, from decision making to drug prescription].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, A J

    2000-09-01

    Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics are two complementary disciplines which should lead the medical student, through an optimized training, to a rational prescription of drugs, ultimate and important step of the medical approach. Such a learning should occur progressively throughout the medical education, focusing, first, on the therapeutic reasoning ("why?") and, second, on the practical application leading to the prescription ("how?"). The medical student should learn the difficult task of integrating disease, drug and patient, in order to optimize the benefit/risk ratio, while being informed about new concepts such as "Evidence-Based Medicine" and pharmacoeconomics.

  10. Radionuclide diagnostics of right ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaorska-Rajca, J.

    1993-01-01

    Difficulties in evaluating the right ventricle function motivate to making research into new non-invasive methods. Four radionuclide methods that are used to access the right ventricle have been discussed in this paper: first-pass angiocardiography, gated equilibrium ventriculography with red blood cells labelled in vivo technetium- 99 Tc, ventriculography with radioactive xenon 133 and a computerized single probe. Advantages and disadvantages of using each method have been discussed. RNV 99m Tc method has been recognized as the best one to evaluate RV function. Results of the right ventricle assessment in patients have been discussed in the following clinical groups: chronic cor pulmonale (CP), chronic lung disease without pulmonary arterial hypertension (LD), coronary artery disease (CAD), in patients after infarction (IMA and IMi), dilated cardiomyopathy (KZ) and valvular heart diseases (Wm and Wa). Abnormals in right ventricle function occur with different intensity in all groups, although they no specificity. The highest abnormality occurs in patients with KZ, CP, IMi and Wm, the lowest one - in patients with CAD. Abnormalities are higher in patients with congestive heart failure. In most pathological groups the right ventricle dysfunction is connected with the left ventricle insufficiency. The interdependence between the dysfunction of both ventricles is differs in particular diseases. Assessment of right ventricle function with radionuclide methods plays an important role in diagnosis and control therapy of cardiopulmonary diseases. (author). 385 refs, 48 figs, 6 tabs

  11. New radionuclide generator systems for use in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atcher, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A current emphasis in nuclear medicine is to better match the physical lifetime of the radionuclides used in vivo for diagnosis and treatment to the biological lifetime of the diagnostic procedure or to minimize radiation dose to areas other than those to be treated. In many cases the biological lifetime is on the order of minutes. Since the direct production of radionuclides with half lives of minutes requires the user to be near a suitable reactor or accelerator, this study was undertaken to produce short-lived radionuclides indirectly. If a long-lived radionuclide decays into a short-lived radionuclide, quick separation of the daughter activity from the parent enables the user to have a short-lived daughter while freeing him from the constraint of proximity to a cyclotron. Systems where a short-lived daughter is separated from a long-lived parent are called radionuclide generators. Two generator systems were developed for use in nuclear medicine, one in diagnostic work and the other for therapeutic work. The yield and breakthrough characteristics were within the limits required to minimize unnecessary radiation exposure in patients. Two parent radionuclides were produced using 4 He beams available from medium energy cyclotrons. The yield was high enough to produce generators that would be useful in clinical applications

  12. Radionuclide synovectomy – essentials for rheumatologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek M. Chojnowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Radionuclide synovectomy is a minimally invasive method of treating persistent joint inflammation. It involves intra-articular injection of radioactive colloids which induce necrosis and fibrosis of hypertrophic synovial membrane. The most common indication for radiosynovectomy is rheumatoid arthritis, although patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies, unclassified arthritis, haemophilic arthropathy and other less common arthropathies can also benefit from this method. Radiosynovectomy is safe, well tolerated and efficacious. About 70–80% of patients respond well to the therapy. However, the therapeutic effects are considerably worse in patients with co-existent osteoarthritis and advanced joint degeneration. Despite its advantages, radionuclide synovectomy is not performed as often as it could be, so greater knowledge and understanding of this method are needed. The authors present the most important facts about radiosynovectomy that may help rheumatologists in their daily clinical practice.

  13. Report on the 1st research co-ordination meeting of the co-ordinated research project on standardized high current solid targets for cyclotron production of diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Radioisotopes produced with a cyclotron and their corresponding radiopharmaceuticals have already been shown to be extremely valuable in basic medical research, disease diagnosis and radiotherapy treatment. There are more than 200 cyclotron facilities worldwide and the number is growing every year. A number of the Member States have acquired cyclotrons for the purpose of producing radioisotopes for nuclear medicine and a number of others have expressed an interest in acquiring such facilities. This report is concerned with the production of four radiotracers: Iodine-123, Iodine-124, Thallium-201 and Palladium-103. Iodine-123 is already widely used in SPECT studies, I-124 has shown great promise and can be used for PET studies as well as in radiotherapy. Tl-201 is widely used throughout the world as 201 Tl + for measuring cardiac blood flow. It is a routine tool that is needed for the Nuclear Medicine communities and can be made available by those countries possessing a cyclotron facility with 30 MeV protons. Moreover, as preliminary results dealing with the labelling of chelated polypeptides with trivalent cationic Tl-201 are very promising; the nuclide can also be tried as a potential substitute for Indium tracers in SPECT diagnosis involving polypeptides. Palladium-103, an Auger electron emitter, has become an extremely important radionuclide for therapy. The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) focuses on the optimisation and standardisation of solid phase cyclotron target technology for the production of I-123, I-124, Tl-201 and Pd-103. In particular, as originally proposed and further discussed and agreed upon during the 1st Research Co-ordination Meeting, the main technical goals of the CRP are described as follows: (i) to investigate the possibility of using electrodeposited tellurium and melted tellurium oxide as target material for the production of I-123 and I-124. For the oxide target, the following parameters and techniques will be explored: 1) methods

  14. Taking radionuclides to heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleynhans, P.H.T.; Lotter, M.G.; Van Aswegen, A.; Minnaar, P.C.; Iturralde, M.; Herbst, C.P.; Marx, D.

    1980-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease is a main cause of death in South Africa. Non-invasive ECG gated radionuclide bloodpool imaging plays an increasingly useful role in the evalution of the function of the heart as a pump, and the extent of heart muscle perfusion defects is further pinpointed by invasive krypton-81m studies to improve patient management

  15. Soil burden by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, W.E.H.; Wenzel, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    Natural radioactivity - half-lifes and radiation type of man-made nuclides, radionuclide behaviour in soils, effects on soil condition and soil functions are described. The only mode of decontamination is by decay and thus primarily dependent on the half-life of nuclides

  16. Radionuclides in house dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Dodd, N J; Hammond, D J

    1985-04-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate authorising Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, although radionuclides originating rom the BNFL site can be detected in house dust, this source of contamination is a negligible route of exposure for members of the public in West Cumbria. This report presents the results of the Board's study of house dust in twenty homes in Cumbria during the spring and summer of 1984. A more intensive investigation is being carried out by Imperial College. (author)

  17. Radionuclide body function imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1983-01-01

    A transverse radionuclide scan field imaging apparatus is claimed. It comprises: a plurality of highly focused closely laterally adjacent collimators arranged inwardly focused in an array which surrounds a scan field, each collimator being moveable relative to its adjacent collimator; means for rotating the array about the scan field and means for imparting travel to the collimators

  18. Radionuclide cardiography in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strangfeld, D.; Mohnike, W.; Schmidt, J.; Heine, H.; Correns, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a compendium on all aspects of radionuclide diagnostics concerning cardiovascular system diseases. Starting with introductory remarks on the control of cardiovascular diseases the contribution of radionuclide cardiology to functional cardiovascular diagnostics as well as pathophysiological and pathobiochemical aspects of radiocardiography are outlined. Radiopharmaceuticals used in radiocardiography, physical and technical problems in application of radionuclides and their measuring techniques are discussed. In individual chapters radionuclide ventriculography, myocardial scintiscanning, circulatory diagnostics, radionuclide diagnostics of arterial hypertension, of thrombosis and in vitro diagnostics of thrombophilia are treated in the framework of clinical medicine

  19. The IAEA Activities on Supporting Development of Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals and Capacity Building in Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, M.R.A.; Haji-Saeid, M.; Zaknun, J.; Ramamoorthy, N.

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA activities on supporting development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals are focused on identified radionuclides that can be produced in large quantities and making use of carrier molecules which can be synthesized locally or procured from commercial sources or already available in MS from other related programs. The main emphasis is on 90 Y and 177 Lu based products, which cover the hard beta energy and soft beta energy range respectively, and also since both these radionuclides can be produced in large quantities with very high specific activity and high radionuclidic purity. The services to MS are provided through implementing Coordinated Research Projects (CRP), Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, technical meetings and regional training courses in addition to documenting practically useful technical information related to these products though IAEA publications. The CRP is a group activity in which nearly 15 participants from as many countries come together to work towards an identified objective. Two of the completed CRPs in this area are: (i) Comparative evaluation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals (2002-2005) that focussed on the development of 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' techniques for evaluating new generation therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals; and (ii) Development of generator technologies for therapeutic radionuclides (2004-2007) that addressed technologies for 90 Sr/ 90 Y and 188 W/ 188 Re generators and which can be easily adapted by MS. The participants in the CRP on 'Comparative evaluation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals' used the somatostatin analogue, DOTATATE as the lead molecule for developing radiopharmaceuticals and testing the efficacy by in vitro biological assays and animal biodistribution studies. A significant outcome of the CRP was that 177 Lu-DOTATATE therapy is now practised in several of the CRP participating countries including Brazil, India, Italy, and Poland. The major outcome of the CRP on 'Development of generator

  20. Radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  1. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  2. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  3. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  4. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement

  5. Therapeutic applications of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.J.; Datz, F.L.; Beightol, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Whether a radiopharmaceutical has diagnostic or therapeutic application depends on both the isotope and pharmaceutical used. For diagnostic applications, the isotope should undergo only γ-decay, since usually only γ-radiation is detected by nuclear medicine cameras. The half-life should be just long enough to allow the procedure to be performed. In contrast, the isotope needed for therapeutic purposes should have particulate radiation, such as a β-particle (electron), since these are locally absorbed an increase the local radiation dose. γ-Radiation, which penetrates the tissues, produces less radiation dose than do Β-particles. Several references dealing with radioactive decay, particulate interactions, and diagnostic and therapeutic applications of radiopharmaceuticals are available. Radiopharmaceuticals can legally be used only by physicians who are qualified by specific training in the safe handling of radionuclides. The experience and training of these physicians must be approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or Agreement State Agency authorized to license the use of radiopharmaceuticals. A list of all byproduct material and procedures is available in the Code of Federal Regulations. Of the many radiopharmaceuticals available for diagnostic and therapeutic use, only those commonly used are discussed in this chapter

  6. Radionuclide esophageal emptying study before and after pneumatic dilatation in achalasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujiie, Hiroaki; Hongo, Michio; Lin, Yih-Fong; Satake, Kenzo; Asaki, Shigeru; Goto, Yoshio; Okuyama, Shinichi

    1987-11-01

    The therapeutic effect of pneumatic dilatation was evaluated quantitatively by radionuclide transit study in 11 achalasia patients. Before pneumatic dilatation, marked retention with more than 80 % of isotope in the esophagus at 15 minutes after ingestion was noted in all patients. Marked improvement in emptying was shown after pneumatic dilatation. Pneumatic dilatation is a safe and effective therapeutic aid for achalasia treatment, and radionuclide transit study is not only noninvasive and physiologic but also its procedure is easily performed. We conclude that radionuclide transit study is a good method to evaluate the result of the treatment quantitatively in achalasia patients.

  7. Fukushima Daiichi Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jankovsky, Zachary Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Radionuclide inventories are generated to permit detailed analyses of the Fukushima Daiichi meltdowns. This is necessary information for severe accident calculations, dose calculations, and source term and consequence analyses. Inventories are calculated using SCALE6 and compared to values predicted by international researchers supporting the OECD/NEA's Benchmark Study on the Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (BSAF). Both sets of inventory information are acceptable for best-estimate analyses of the Fukushima reactors. Consistent nuclear information for severe accident codes, including radionuclide class masses and core decay powers, are also derived from the SCALE6 analyses. Key nuclide activity ratios are calculated as functions of burnup and nuclear data in order to explore the utility for nuclear forensics and support future decommissioning efforts.

  8. Radionuclide table. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, Jean; Perolat, J.-P.; Lagoutine, Frederic; Le Gallic, Yves.

    The evaluation of the following 29 radionuclides is presented: 22 Na, 24 Na, sup(24m)Na, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 57 Co, 58 Co, sup(58m)Co, 60 Co, sup(60m)Co, 75 Se, 103 Ru, sup(103m)Rh, sup(110m)Ag- 110 Ag, 109 Cd, 125 Sb, sup(125mTe), 125 I, 133 Xe, sup(133m)Xe, 131 Cs, 134 Cs, sup(134m)Cs, 139 Ce, 144 Ce- 144 Pr, 144 Pr, 169 Er, 186 Re, 203 Hg. The introduction contains a brief description of radioactive processes and the evaluation rules followed. The best values and associated uncertainties are given for each radionuclide for the major parameters of the decay scheme and the radiation intensities emitted, together with a decay table. Gamma, X-rays and sometimes conversion electron spectra are also provided [fr

  9. A basic toxicity classification of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    In the course of its work in the field of health and safety the International Atomic Energy Agency has often met the practical requirement for grading radionuclides in order of their relative radiotoxicities. This need was particularly evident when the Agency's Basic Safety Standards for the protection of health against ionizing radiation were in preparation, when it was necessary to exempt quantities of radionuclides from inclusion in the norms. A basic toxicity grading might be of help to laboratories in meeting some of their requirements in problems related to waste management as well as for the design of experimental facilities. It should also serve as a basis for the development of safety criteria for laboratory equipment and procedures for handling and transporting various quantities and kinds of radionuclides. The purpose of the present Report is to make a toxicity grading of the radionuclides according to the risk of biological injury which they may cause when they have become incorporated in the human body. 4 refs, 4 tabs

  10. Oral intake of radionuclides in the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, L.

    1982-10-01

    Dose factors of some radionuclides have been reviewed with respect to a chronic oral intake by means of the public. The radionuclides taken into account are Pu-239, Np-237, Ra-226, Th-230, Pa-231, Tc-99 and I-129, all of which might be of potential hazard at a long term storage disposal. The parameter that have the major influence on the dose factor, for most of the radionuclides studied, is the uptake from the gut. In order to assess the dose factor it is therefore essential to make a good estimate of the gastrointestinal uptake of the radionuclides under the actual conditions. The 'annual limit of intake' (ALI) given in ICRP 30, is intended to be applicable on a population of workers, and for a single intake. Since the gut uptake in the ICRP-publication are based mainly on uptake values recieved in experimental animals, given single relatively large oral doses of the isotope studied. From a review of current literature, gut absorbtion factors and dose factors, to be used for members of the public at a chronic oral intake, are suggested. Compared with those for workers in ICRP 30, the dose factors increase for plutonium and protactinium, and decrease for neptunium. An attempt to predict possible future changes of the ALI for members of the general public is also made. (Author)

  11. A basic toxicity classification of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-04-01

    In the course of its work in the field of health and safety the International Atomic Energy Agency has often met the practical requirement for grading radionuclides in order of their relative radiotoxicities. This need was particularly evident when the Agency's Basic Safety Standards for the protection of health against ionizing radiation were in preparation, when it was necessary to exempt quantities of radionuclides from inclusion in the norms. A basic toxicity grading might be of help to laboratories in meeting some of their requirements in problems related to waste management as well as for the design of experimental facilities. It should also serve as a basis for the development of safety criteria for laboratory equipment and procedures for handling and transporting various quantities and kinds of radionuclides. The purpose of the present Report is to make a toxicity grading of the radionuclides according to the risk of biological injury which they may cause when they have become incorporated in the human body. 4 refs, 4 tabs.

  12. Oral intake of radionuclides in the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, L.

    1982-11-01

    Dose factors of some radionuclides have been reviewed with respect to a chronic oral intake by members of the public. The radionuclides taken into account are Pu-239, Np-237, Ra-226, Th-230, Pa-231, Tc-99 and I-129, all of which might be of potential hazard at a long term storage disposal. The parameter which has the major influence on the dose factor, for most of the radionuclides studied, is the uptake from the gut. In order to assess the dose factor it is therefore essential to make a good estimate of the gastrointestinal uptake of the radionuclides under the actual conditions. The annual limit of intake (ALI) given in ICRP 30, is intended to be applicable on a population of workers, and for a single intake. Since the gut uptake figures in the ICRP-publication are based mainly on uptake values recieved in experiment animals, given single relatively large oral doses of the isotope studied. From a review of current literature, gut absorbation factors and dose factors, to be used for members of the public at a chronic oral intake, are suggested. Compared with those for workers in ICRP 30, the dose factors increases for plutonium and protactinium, and decreases for neptunium. (Author)

  13. Radionuclide co-precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, J.; Sandino, A.

    1987-12-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic behaviour of the minor components of the spent fuel matrix has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. Two different situations have been studied: Part I, the near field scenario, where the release and migration of the minor components is dependent on the solubility behaviour of UO 2 (s); Part II, the far field, where the solubility and transport of the radionuclides is related to the major geochemical processes occurring. (orig.)

  14. Radionuclide fate and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The studies reported here deal with the full range of contaminant behavior and fate, from the initial physicochemical factors that govern radionuclide availability in terrestrial and aquatic environments to studies of contaminant transport by biological means. By design, we focus more on the biologically and chemically mediated transport processes and food-chain pathways than on the purely physical forms of contaminant transport, such as transport by wind and water

  15. Geochemistry and radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, D.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretically, the geochemical barrier can provide a major line of defense in protecting the biosphere from the hazards of nuclear waste. The most likely processes involved are easily identified. Preliminary investigations using computer modeling techniques suggest that retardation is an effective control on radionuclide concentrations. Ion exchange reactions slow radionuclide migration and allow more time for radioactive decay and dispersion. For some radionuclides, solubility alone may limit concentrations to less than the maximum permissible now considered acceptable by the Federal Government. The effectiveness of the geochemical barrier is ultimately related to the repository site characteristics. Theory alone tells us that geochemical controls will be most efficient in an environment that provides for maximum ion exchange and the precipitation of insoluble compounds. In site selection, consideration should be given to rock barriers with high ion exchange capacity that might also act as semi-permeable membranes. Also important in evaluating the site's potential for effective geochemical controls are the oxidation potentials, pH and salinity of the groundwater

  16. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Kennedy, V.H.; Nelson, A.

    1983-06-01

    A bibliographical database has been developed to provide quick access to research and background literature in the field of radioecology. This is a development of an earlier database described by Nelson (Bocock 1981). ITE's particular fields of interest have led to a subject bias in the bibliography towards studies in Cumbria, especially those concerned with radionuclides originating from the reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and towards ecological research studies that are complementary to radionuclide studies. Other subjects covered, include the chemistry of radionuclides, budgets and transfers within ecosystems and techniques for the analysis of environmental samples. ITE's research objectives have led to the establishment of a specialized database which is intended to complement rather than compete with the large international databases made available by suppliers such as IRS-DIALTECH or DIALOG. Currently the database holds about 1900 references which are stored on a 2 1/2 megabyte hard disk on a Digital PDP11/34 computer operating under a time shared system. The references follow a standard format. (author)

  17. Radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki

    2001-01-01

    The concentration and accumulation of radionuclides in marine organisms were explained in this paper. Secular change of the radioactivity concentration of 137 Cs in seaweed in coastal area of Japan showed more than 5Bq/kg-fresh in the first half of 1960, but decreased less than 1 Bq/kg-fresh after then and attained to less than 0.1 Bq/kg-fresh in 1990s. However, the value increased a while in 1986, which indicated the effect of Chernobyl accident. The accident increased 137 Cs of shellfish near Japan. The concentration of 239+240 Pu was the lowest value in muscles of fish, but increased from 1.7 to 42.3 mBq/kg wet wt in seaweed in 1999. 99 Tc concentration of seaweed showed from 100 to 1000 times as much as that of seawater. Radionuclides in the Irish Sea are originated from Sellafield reprocessing plant. The concentration factors of macro-algae and surface water fish (IAEA,1985) were shown. Analytical results of U in 61 kinds of marine organs showed that the concentration was different in the part of organ. The higher concentration of U was observed in hard tissue of fish. The concentration factor was different between chemical substances with the same radionuclides. (S.Y.)

  18. Proficiency testing for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faanhof, A.; Kotze, O.; Louw, I.

    2010-01-01

    Proficiency testing in general is only useful when it suites a certain purpose. With regards to radionuclides basically three fields of interest can be identified: (I)Foodstuffs-Introduced in the early 1960's to monitor the fall-out of nuclear tests and eventually the pathway to foodstuffs fit for human consumption. The demand for analysis increased substantially after the Chernobyl accident. (II) Natural radioactivity-Associated with mining and mineral processing of uranium and thorium baring mineral resources throughout the world where the radionuclides from the natural uranium and thorium decay series are found to pose concern for professional and public exposure. (III) Artificial radioactivity-This category covers mostly the long-lived nuclides generated by nuclear fission of the fuel used in nuclear power plants, research reactors and nuclear bomb tests. All three categories require a specific approach for laboratories to test their ability to analyze specific radio nuclides of interest in a variety of matrices. In this lecture I will give a compiled overview of the required radioanalytical skills, analysis sensitivity needed and radionuclides of interest, with more specific emphasis on QAQC of water sources and the recommended monitoring approach. And provide information on available reference materials and organizations/institutes that provide regular exercises for participating laboratories. I will also briefly communicate on the advantages and disadvantages of ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation for test laboratories, which is these days a prerequisite in national and international trade especially where foodstuffs and mineral products are concerned.

  19. Application of the linear-quadratic model with incomplete repair to radionuclide directed therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, W.T.; Glasgow Univ.

    1991-01-01

    The LQ model has now been extended to include a general time varying dose rate profile, and the equations can be readily evaluated if an exponential radiation damage repair process is assumed. These equations are applicable to radionuclide directed therapy, including brachytherapy. Kinetic uptake data obtained during radionuclide directed therapy may therefore be used to determine the radiobiological dosimetry of the target and non-target tissues. Also, preliminary tracer studies may be used to pre-plan the radionuclide directed therapy, provided that tracer and therapeutic amounts of the radionuclide carrier are identically processed by the tissues. It is also shown that continuous radionuclide therapy will induce less damage in late-responding tissues than 2 Gy/fraction external beam therapy if the ratio of the maximum dose rate and the sublethal damage repair half-life in the tissue is less than 1.0 Gy. Similar inequalities may be derived for β-particle radionuclide directed therapy. (author)

  20. Radionuclide therapy: regional and systemic routes of administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1991-01-01

    The optimal sequencing and integration of radiopharmaceutical therapy with respect to the multiple and competing therapeutic modalities is examined. It is estimated that the central goal of therapeutic nuclear medicine is to increase radiopharmaceutical delivery to tumour targets while sparing sensitive normal tissues. Among the factors to be considered in the choice of therapeutic radionuclides are: the decay mode, gamma-ray yield, half-lives and chemical reactivity. Several routes of administration are discussed and a number of manipulations which may be used to further improve radioparmaceutical delivery are outlined. The difficulty to perform accurate radiation dosimetry is also briefly examined. 14 refs., 1 tab

  1. Development of medical application methods using radiation. Radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E.H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Choi, T. H.; Hong, S. W.; Chung, H. Y.; No, W. C.; Oh, B. H.; Hong, H. J.

    1999-04-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. development of monoclonal antibodies and radiopharmaceuticals 2. clinical applications of radionuclide therapy 3. radioimmunoguided surgery 4. prevention of restenosis with intracoronary radiation. The results can be applied for the following objectives: 1) radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial. 2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research. 3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology

  2. Development of medical application methods using radiation. Radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E.H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lim, S. J.; Choi, T. H.; Hong, S. W.; Chung, H. Y.; No, W. C. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Oh, B. H. [Seoul National University. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, H. J. [Antibody Engineering Research Unit, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. development of monoclonal antibodies and radiopharmaceuticals 2. clinical applications of radionuclide therapy 3. radioimmunoguided surgery 4. prevention of restenosis with intracoronary radiation. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial. (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research. (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology.

  3. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    retention of the tissue and the significantly greater retention amounting in hypoxic tissue. This hypothesis was confirmed in a series of animal studies. Cu-64 can be used both as an imaging radionuclide and a therapeutic radionuclide. The therapeutic efficacy of Cu-64 ATSM was proven in hamsters bearing the CW39 human colorectal tumors. The administration of Cu-64 ATSM significantly increased the survival time of tumor-bearing animals with no acute toxicity. This copper agent therefore shows promise for radiotherapy. The flow tracer Cu-64 PTSM also demonstrates therapeutic potential by inhibiting cancer cells implanted in animal models. Again, this inhibition occurred at doses which showed no sign of toxicity to the animals. Cu-ATSM was translated to humans, under other support a series of tumors were investigated; these included head and neck cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, cervical cancer and renal cancer. Another radionuclide that was investigated was titanium 45. This radionuclide was successfully produced by radiation of a scandium foil with 15 MeV protons. The titanium 45 was processed and separated from residual scandium by high exchange chomotrophy. Titanium titanocene has been utilized as a therapeutic agent; this compound was prepared and studied in vitro and in vivo. Another project was the preparation of cyclodextrin dimers as a new pre-targeting approach for tumor uptake. Beta-cyclodextradin and two other dimers were synthesized. These dimers were studied for the in vivo application. Work continued on the application of the radionuclide already discussed. Technetium 94m, a positron emitting radionuclide of the widely used 99m Tc nuclide was also prepared. This allows the quantification of the uptake of technetium radiopharmaceuticals. In collaboration with Professor David Piwnica-Worms, technetium 94m, sestamibi was studied in animal models and in a limited number of human subjects.

  4. Chapter 2. Radionuclides in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with role of radionuclides in the biosphere. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radionuclides in biosphere; (2) Man-made radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) Ecologically important radionuclides; (4) Natural background; (5) Radiotoxicity and (6) Paths of transfer of radionuclides from the source to human

  5. Radionuclide diagnosis of emergency states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishmukhametov, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Solution of emergency state radionuclide diagnostics from the technical point of view is provided by the application of the mobile quick-operating equipment in combination with computers, by the use of radionuclides with acceptable for emergency medicine characteristics and by development of radionuclide investigation data propcessing express-method. Medical developments include the study of acute disease and injury radioisotope semiotics, different indication diagnostic value determining, comparison of the results, obtained during radionuclide investigation, with clinicolaboratory and instrumental data, separation of methodical complex series

  6. History of medical radionuclide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radionuclide production for medical use originally was incidental to isotope discoveries by physicists and chemists. Once the available radionuclides were identified they were evaluated for potential medical use. Hevesy first used 32P in 1935 to study phosphorous metabolism in rats. Since that time, the development of cyclotrons, linear accelerators, and nuclear reactors have produced hundreds of radionuclides for potential medical use. The history of medical radionuclide production represents an evolutionary, interdisciplinary development of applied nuclear technology. Today the technology is represented by a mature industry and provides medical benefits to millions of patients annually.

  7. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  8. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  9. Macrocyclic complexes of radionuclides in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majkowska, A.; Bilewicz, A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of radiometal-labeled small complexes and biomolecules as diagnostic and therapeutic agents is a relatively new area of medical research. Radiopharmaceuticals are radiolabeled molecules designed to deliver ionizing radiation doses to specific disease sites. Between the targeting biomolecule and a radionuclide a bifunctional ligand is inserted, one end of which is covalently attached to the targeting molecule either directly or through a linker whereas the other strongly coordinates a metallic radionuclide. Selection of a bifunctional ligand is largely determined by the nature and oxidation state of a metal ion. The metal chelate can significantly affect the tumor uptake and biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals based on small biomolecules. This is because in many cases the metal chelate contributes greatly to the overall size and lipophilicity of the radiopharmaceutical. Therefore, the design and selection of the ligand is very important for the development of a clinically useful therapeutic agent. The requirement for high thermodynamic and kinetic stability of the metal complex is often achieved through the use of macrocyclic ligands with a functionalized arm for covalent bonding to the biomolecule. In this review synthesis of bifunctional macrocyclic ligands and properties of radionuclide macrocyclic complexes used in nuclear medicine are presented. We describe results in two areas: substituted macrocyclic aza ligands for chelation of hard metal cations, and macrocycles containing sulphur for complexation of soft metal cations. Special attention was paid to stability of the complexes as well as to their lipophilicity, which affect biological properties of the formed radiopharmaceuticals. We also include a forecast of the near-term opportunities that are likely to determine practice in the next few years. (authors)

  10. Osteopetrosis: Radiological & Radionuclide Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis

  11. Modifying radionuclide effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasser, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    This project involves a study of the relationship of physiological and environmental factors to the metabolism and effects of radionuclides. We have studied placental transfer and suckling as pathways of americium entry into the newborn or juvenile rat. Rats were injected intravenously with 5 μCi of 241 Am while nulliparous (30 days prior to mating), pregnant (day 19 of gestation), or lactating (1 day after parturition), and subsequent litters were killed to determine 241 Am retention. A deficit in reproductive performance was observed in the group injected before mating, as evidenced by reduced number and weight of offspring

  12. Radionuclides in the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-07-01

    Water covers a little more than two-thirds of the earth's surface. What is thrown into the sea from a ship may be washed up on a shore thousands of miles away; wastes discharged into the seas or into rivers flowing into them can affect marine life and possibly also the health of man. The study, prevention and control of pollution of the seas and oceans by radionuclides introduced as by-products of man's use of nuclear energy is thus of global interest. (author)

  13. Sherlock Holmes for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.

    2002-01-01

    At the end of 2001 ARC Seibersdorf research has taken the management of the first worldwide certified laboratory to control the realization of the international Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Altogether there will be 16 CTBT certified laboratories worldwide; therefore a global network of radionuclides measurements stations and test laboratories as well as seismic, radiation and hydroacustic measurements stations is necessary . In the future air samples will be taken from these stations and analyzed in one of these certified laboratories, when appears the suspicion that an atomic test was carried out. (nevyjel)

  14. Colloidal nature of radionuclides in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, I.

    1976-01-01

    There is considerable doubt that equilibrium calculations, i.e., employing solubility products and complex-ion stability constants, are valid for the submicro concentrations of radionuclides in seawater. The existence of radiocolloids should be expected in seawater. The great tendency of radiocolloids to adsorb onto finely-divided hydrous oxides makes their formation of significance in seawater, especially for artificial radionuclides. The subject of radiocolloid formation is reviewed in this chapter. It is shown that the 226 Ra/ 230 Th/U relationship found in seawater can be explained from the fact that the tendencies of these elements to form radiocolloids in seawater should decrease in order thorium > radium much greater than uranium. This explanation is much simpler than the prevailing oceanographic one. The theories for radiocolloid formation are discussed. The recent theory of Jones and Healy for the adsorption of hydrolyzable metal ions onto hydrous oxides is reviewed briefly, and its relevance to radiocolloid formation is pointed out

  15. Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flux, G.; Du, Yong [Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Cancer has been treated with radiopharmaceuticals since the 1940s. The radionuclides originally used, including 131I and 32P, are still in use. The role of the physicist in radionuclide therapy encompasses radiation protection, imaging and dosimetry. Radiation protection is of particular importance given the high activities of the unsealed sources that are often administered, and must take into account medical staff, comforters and carers, and, as patients are discharged while still retaining activity, members of the public. Regulations concerning acceptable levels of exposure vary from country to country. If the administered radiopharmaceutical is a γ emitter, then imaging can be performed which may be either qualitative or quantitative. While a regular system of quality control must be in place to prevent misinterpretation of image data, qualitative imaging does not usually rely on the image corrections necessary to determine the absolute levels of activity that are localized in the patient. Accurate quantitative imaging is dependent on these corrections and can permit the distribution of absorbed doses delivered to the patient to be determined with sufficient accuracy to be clinically beneficial.

  16. Intervention procedures for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelstein, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    As in the case of smoking and lung cancer, for large radionuclide releases, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. On the other hand, we feel compelled to do something sensible after an accident even if the principal benefit of intervention may be to comfort the population at risk. Of course, for populations near the site of an accident, evacuation should be considered, but it is unreasonable to apply this measure to distant populations, e.g., large segments of the European community could not be moved about as we observe the shifting of a radioactive cloud in response to changing winds. If the radionuclides are delivered as particulates, bringing people indoors and employing primitive air filters can temporarily reduce exposures, but these stratagems are not very effective against gaseous or volatile elements. What, then, can be done for populations downwind of a radioactive release whose air, water, and/or food supply are, or are about to become contaminated? 5 refs

  17. Impact of geriatric assessment for the therapeutic decision-making of breast cancer: results of a French survey. AFSOS and SOFOG collaborative work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandry, Claire; Krakowski, Ivan; Curé, Hervé; Carola, Elisabeth; Soubeyran, Pierre; Guérin, Olivier; Gaudin, Hélène; Freyer, Gilles

    2018-04-01

    Cancer management in the elderly is often considered as suboptimal, highly variable, and rarely evidence-based. Data are needed to understand decision-making processes in this population. A survey was performed in France to describe decision-making in gynaecologic patients over 70. It followed a three-step method: (1) 101 representative physicians questioned about treatment decision criteria; (2) simplified individual data were collected; (3) as well as detailed data patients receiving chemotherapy. This analysis refers to breast cancer subgroup of patients. Main decision criteria were performance status, comorbidities, and renal function. In adjuvant setting, the main concern was life expectancy, whereas it was quality of life in metastatic setting. Of the 631 patients entered in the simplified analysis, 41% had been evaluated by a geriatrician, 67% received chemotherapy. In the detailed analysis, patients older than 75 were more likely to receive a monochemotherapy and to be treated with weekly/divided dose. In adjuvant setting, respectively, 19, 55, and 26% of the patients were treated with regimen validated in the elderly, validated in a younger population, and not validated. A G-CSF was prescribed in 48% of the patients, as primary prophylaxis in 78 and in 41% of patients with a risk of febrile neutropenia < 10%. Geriatric covariates become an increasing concern in the decision-making process. This survey also suggests an insufficient use of validated chemotherapy regimens. To date, age remains a risk factor for heterogeneity in oncologic practice justifying a persistent effort for elaborating and disclosing specific recommendations.

  18. New aspects of radionuclide therapy of bone and joint diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.

    2001-01-01

    Whereas in developing countries P-32 is widely used for radionuclide therapy of painful bone metastases, in Europe three radionuclides or radiopharmaceutical agents are available for pain palliation: Sr-89, Sm-153-EDTMP, and Re-186-HEDP. Radionuclide therapy for pain palliation is indicated for bone pain due to metastatic malignancy that has involved multiple skeletal sites and has evoked an osteoblastic response on bone scintigraphy. Response rates of about 70-80% in patients with breast or prostate cancer is reported in the literature, less in metastatic lesions of other primary malignancies. Sm-153-EDTMP may also be used for curative treatment of primary bone tumours or their metastases. Radiosynovectomy as therapeutic procedure or rheumatoid arthritis, other inflammatory joint diseases, persistent synovial perfusion, and other joint diseases is widely used. Using Y-90 for the knee joint, Re-186 for middle sized joints, and Er-169 for small joints an improvement of symptoms may be observed in about 70-80%. (author)

  19. Treatment of metastasis localizations by intratumoral injection of radionuclide microsphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuo Peiyu; Pang Yan; Zhu Dianqing; Chang Keli; Zhu Yanjia

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of radionuclide-labeled microsphere by intratumoral injection into 18 patients with superficial metastasis tumor for treatment. Methods: 18 patients with superficial metastasis were treated with radionuclide-labeled microsphere ( 90 Y-GTMS and 32 P-GTMS) by multi-point intratumoral injection. Each injection dose was 11.1-18.5 MBq/g (tumor). Results: 1 patient was relieved completely, 9 were relieved partly, 5 were improved and 3 kept stable. The total rate of relief and virtual value were 55.6% and 83.3% respectively. Conclusion: Topical treatment by using radionuclide may help diminish the tumor, control its progress and ease the symptoms. Thus it can be used as a supplement of routine treatment of tumors and it should do some work in therapy of malignant tumors in late stages

  20. Some parameters of radionuclide kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokof'ev, O.N.; Smirnov, V.A.; Belen'kij, E.I.

    1978-01-01

    Numerical values of the rates of radionuclide absorption into, and elimination from, bovine organs were determined. Kinetic rate constants of radionuclides such as 89 Sr, 99 Mo, 131 I, 132 Tl, and 140 Be were calculated. The calculations were done for muscle, liver, and kidney

  1. Radionuclide - Soil Organic Matter Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between soil organic matter, i.e. humic and fulvic acids, and radionuclides of primary interest to shallow land burial of low activity solid waste have been reviewed and to some extent studied experimentally. The radionuclides considered in the present study comprise cesium, strontium...

  2. Chapter 13. Radionuclides in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in medicine. Methods of treatment with using of radionuclides are reviewed. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Remotion of thyroid gland; (2) Treatment of cerebrally tumour in nuclear reactor; (3) Artificial heart

  3. Radionuclide transverse section imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    A radioisotope scanning apparatus for use in nuclear medicine is described in detail. The apparatus enables the quantification and spatial location of the radioactivity in a body section of a patient to be determined with high sensitivity. It consists of an array of highly focussed collimators arranged such that adjacent collimators move in the same circumferential but opposite radial directions. The explicit movements of the gantry are described in detail and may be controlled by a general purpose computer. The use of highly focussed collimators allows both a reasonable solid angle of acceptance and also high target to background images; additionally, dual radionuclide pharmaceutical studies can be performed simultaneously. It is claimed that the high sensitivity of the system permits the early diagnosis of pathological changes and the images obtained show accurately the location and shape of physiological abnormalities. (UK)

  4. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  5. Deep sea radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanisch, G.; Vobach, M.

    1993-01-01

    Every year since 1979, either in sping or in summer, the fishing research vessel 'Walther Herwig' goes to the North Atlantic disposal areas of solid radioactive wastes, and, for comparative purposes, to other areas, in order to collect water samples, plankton and nekton, and, from the deep sea bed, sediment samples and benthos organisms. In addition to data on the radionuclide contents of various media, information about the plankton, nekton and benthos organisms living in those areas and about their biomasses could be gathered. The investigations are aimed at acquiring scientifically founded knowledge of the uptake of radioactive substances by microorganisms, and their migration from the sea bottom to the areas used by man. (orig.) [de

  6. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung Joon

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases

  7. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung Joon [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases.

  8. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The U-234 and Th-230 radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas and geothermal brine from the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. Pb-210 is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The U-234/Th-230 ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. 19 refs., 3 figs

  9. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The 234 U and 230 Th radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas, and geothermal brine form the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions, and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. 210 Pb is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The 234 U/ 230 Th ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. (author) 19 refs.; 3 figs

  10. Therapy with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; Hotze, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    Radioiodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid diseases is a well-established procedure in Nuclear Medicine. However, the therapeutic use of radioisotopes in other diseases is relatively unknown among our refering physicians. The therapeutic effects of intraarticular (rheumatoid arthritis) and intracavitary (pleural and peritoneal carcinosis) applications yields good results. The radiophosphorus therapy in polycythemia vera rubra has always to be considered as an alternative to chemotherapy. The use of analgetics may be reduced by pain therapy of bone metastasis by injection of bone-seeking beta emitters like Rh-186 HEDP. Other procedures like therapeutic application of meta-iodo-benzylguanidine in neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma resulted in at least remissions of the disease. Radioimmunotherapy needs further evaluation before it can be recommended as a routine procedure. (orig.) [de

  11. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  12. Radionuclide calibrators performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Ramirez, E.; Zeledon Fonseca, P.; Jimenez Cordero, M.

    2008-01-01

    Radionuclide calibrators are used to estimate accurately activity prior to administration to a patient, so it is very important that this equipment meets its performance requirements. The purpose of this paper is to compare the commercially available 'Calicheck' (Calcorp. Inc), used to assess linearity, versus the well-known source decay method, and also to show our results after performing several recommended quality control tests. The parameters that we wanted to evaluate were carried on using the Capintec CRC-15R and CRC-15 β radionuclide calibrators. The evaluated tests were: high voltage, display, zero adjust, background, reproducibility, source constancy, accuracy, precision and linearity. The first six tests were evaluated on the daily practice, here we analyzed the 2007 recorded data; and the last three were evaluated once a year. During the daily evaluation both calibrators performance were satisfactory comparing with the manufacture's requirements. The accuracy test show result within the ± 10% allowed for a field instrument. Precision performance is within the ± 1 % allowed. On the other hand, the linearity test shows that using the source decay method the relative coefficient is 0.9998, for both equipment and using the Calicheck the relative coefficient is 0.997. However, looking the percentage of error, during the 'Calicheck' test, its range goes from 0.0 % up to -25.35%, and using the source decay method, the range goes from 0.0 % up to -31.05 %, taking into account both instruments. Checking the 'Calicheck' results we can see that the results varying randomly, but using the source decay method the percentage of error increase as the source activity decrease. We conclude that both devices meet its manufactures requirements, in the case of the linearity using the decay method, decreasing the activity source, increasing the percentage of error, this may happen because of the equipment age. (author)

  13. Nanotargeted Radionuclides for Cancer Nuclear Imaging and Internal Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gann Ting

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Current progress in nanomedicine has exploited the possibility of designing tumor-targeted nanocarriers being able to deliver radionuclide payloads in a site or molecular selective manner to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer imaging and therapy. Radionuclides of auger electron-, α-, β-, and γ-radiation emitters have been surface-bioconjugated or after-loaded in nanoparticles to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of cancer imaging and therapy in preclinical and clinical studies. This article provides a brief overview of current status of applications, advantages, problems, up-to-date research and development, and future prospects of nanotargeted radionuclides in cancer nuclear imaging and radiotherapy. Passive and active nanotargeting delivery of radionuclides with illustrating examples for tumor imaging and therapy are reviewed and summarized. Research on combing different modes of selective delivery of radionuclides through nanocarriers targeted delivery for tumor imaging and therapy offers the new possibility of large increases in cancer diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic index. However, further efforts and challenges in preclinical and clinical efficacy and toxicity studies are required to translate those advanced technologies to the clinical applications for cancer patients.

  14. The role of particulates in radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilks, P.; Bachinski, D.B.; Vandergraaf, T.T.

    1991-01-01

    The colloid program at AECL Research is focused on characterizing natural particles in groundwater to evaluate their potential role in radiocolloid formation and to form a database for particle migration studies. The main objective of this program has been the study of colloids (1 to 450 nm) and suspended particles (> 450 nm) in fractured granites and sandstone in various locations in Canada and Switzerland. Groundwater particles were found to consist of clay minerals, micas, quartz, feldspar, iron-silica oxides and organic material. In groundwaters from granite, sandstone and clay-rich rock colloid concentrations were less than 5 mg/L. Some of these groundwaters may contain up to 260 mg/L of suspended particles. However, these particles are not expected to be mobile under the natural flow regimes of deep groundwaters. Provided radiocolloid formation is reversible, it is shown that the colloid concentrations observed in groundwaters from granites will have a negligible effect on radionuclide transport even when making the conservative assumption that these particles travel with the velocity of groundwater. For the case of irreversible radiocolloid formation, an equation is presented to calculate the fraction of total radionuclides in the geosphere which will form radiocolloids. The significance of these radiocolloids will depend upon the total amount of radionuclides released to the geosphere and on particle migration properties. (author)

  15. Development of a portable equipment for identification of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Marcos Santana; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R. de; Nedjah, Nadia; Mourelle, Luiza de Macedo

    2014-01-01

    The rapid and automatic identification of radionuclides present in a radioactive sample detected in the field, is information that helps in decision making. In areas of high traffic of people and materials, such as ports and airports as well as at major events, radiation monitoring, together with the identification of the radionuclide, it is advisable within protective standards to the public. The correct identification of radionuclides depends on the ability to determine whether specific peaks energy sources are present in the spectrum of gamma radiation sources. Radionuclides can be identified by these energy characteristics in the sense that the energy value associated with these peaks in the spectrum corresponds to the radiation sources present in the sample. There are many methods that can be used for automatic identification of radionuclides. Most of them are based on software algorithms for the detection of peaks in the energy spectrum. Processing time of these tasks can be very long for applications requiring quick responses, as in equipment portable. A dedicated digital hardware offers better performance for tasks with high processing demand like this. This work shows the development of a handle Portable radionuclides based on a digital hardware solution using a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) for implementing a clustering algorithm for the detection of energy peaks. (author)

  16. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quine, T.A.; Walling, D.

    1998-01-01

    Geomorphologists have shown increasing interest in environmental radionuclides since pioneering studies by Ritchie and McHenry in the USA and Campbell, Longmore and Loughran in Australia. Environmental radionuclides have attracted this interest because they provide geomorphologists with the means to trace sediment movement within the landscape. They, therefore, facilitate investigation of subjects at the core of geomorphology, namely the rates and patterns of landscape change. Most attention has been focussed on the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) but more recently potential applications of the natural radionuclides lead-210 ( 210 Pb) and beryllium-7( 7 Be) have been investigated (Walling et al., 1995; Wallbrink and Murray, 1996a, 1996b). The origin, characteristics and applications of these radionuclides are summarised. These radionuclides are of value as sediment tracers because of three important characteristics: a strong affinity for sediment; a global distribution and the possibility of measurement at low concentration. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides provide unique access to detailed qualitative data concerning landscape change over a range of timescales

  17. Molecular Targets for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular targeted radionuclide cancer therapy is becoming of increasing importance, especially for disseminated diseases. Systemic chemotherapies often lack selectivity while targeted radionuclide therapy has important advantages as the radioactive cytotoxic unit of the targeting vector is specifically directed to the cancer, sparing normal tissues. The principle strategy to improve cancer selectivity is to couple therapeutic agents to tumour-targeting vectors. In targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT), the cytotoxic portion of the conjugates normally contains a therapeutic radiometal immobilised by a bifunctional chelator. The aim is therefore to use as ligand-targeted therapeutics vectors coupled to Auger-, alpha- and/or beta-emitting radionuclides. An advantage of using radiation instead of chemotherapeutics as the cytotoxic agent is the so called 'crossfire effect'. This allows sterilisation of tumour cells that are not directly targeted due to heterogeneity in target molecule expression or inhomogeneous vector delivery. However, before the targeting ligands can be selected, the target molecule on the tumour has to be selected. It should be uniquely expressed, or at least highly overexpressed, on or in the target cells relative to normal tissues. The target should be easily accessible for ligand delivery and should not be shed or down- regulated after ligand binding. An important property of a receptor (or antigen) is its potential to be internalized upon binding of the ligand. This provides an active uptake mechanism and allows the therapeutic agent to be trapped within the tumour cells. Molecular targets of current interest include: Receptors: G-protein coupled receptors are overexpressed on many major human tumours. The prototype of these receptors are somatostatin receptors which show very high density in neuroendocrine tumours, but there are many other most interesting receptors to be applied for TRT. The targeting ligands for these receptors are

  18. Alpha Emitting Radionuclides and Radiopharmaceuticals for Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Today, cancer treatments mainly rely on surgery or external beam radiation to remove or destroy bulky tumors. Chemotherapy is given when tumours cannot be removed or when dissemination is suspected. However, these approaches cannot permanently treat all cancers and relapse occurs in up to 50% of the patients’ population. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) are effective against some disseminated and metastatic diseases, although they are rarely curative. Most preclinical and clinical developments in this field have involved electron-emitting radionuclides, particularly iodine-131, yttrium-90 and lutetium-177. The large range of the electrons emitted by these radionuclides reduces their efficacy against very small tumour cell clusters or isolated tumour cells present in residual disease and in many haematological tumours (leukaemia, myeloma). The range of alpha particles in biological tissues is very short, less than 0.1 mm, which makes alpha emitters theoretically ideal for treatment of such isolated tumour cells or micro-clusters of malignant cells. Thus, over the last decade, a growing interest for the use of alpha-emitting radionuclides has emerged. Research on targeted alpha therapy (TAT) began years ago in Nantes through cooperation between Subatech, a nuclear physics laboratory, CRCNA, a cancer research centre with a nuclear oncology team and ITU (Karlsruhe, Germany). CD138 was demonstrated as a potential target antigen for Multiple Myeloma, which is a target of huge clinical interest particularly suited for TAT because of the disseminated nature of the disease consisting primarily of isolated cells and small clusters of tumour cells mainly localized in the bone marrow. Thus anti-CD138 antibodies were labelled with bismuth-213 from actinium-225/bismuth-213 generators provided by ITU and used to target multiple myeloma cells. In vitro studies showed cell cycle arrest, synergism with chemotherapy and very little induction

  19. Discussion on monitoring items of radionuclides in influents from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanxia; Li Jin; Liu Jiacheng; Han Shanbiao; Yu Zhengwei

    2014-01-01

    For the radionuclide monitoring items of effluents from nuclear power plant, this paper makes some comparisons and analysis from three aspects of the international atomic energy general requirements, the routine radionuclide measurement items of China's nuclear power plant and effluents low level radionuclide experimental research results. Finally, it summarizes the necessary items and recommended items of the radionuclide monitoring of effluents from nuclear power plant, which can provide references for the radioactivity monitoring activities of nuclear power plant effluent and the supervisions of regulatory departments. (authors)

  20. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Sweany, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation. Potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg contents and egg shell. Strontium-90 was incorporated into egg shells and cesium-137 into inner egg contents. Manganese-54, cobalt-60, and zinc-65 were more abundant in inner egg contents than in egg shell. Cerium-144 was detected in egg shell but not in inner shell

  1. Radionuclide migration in water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    Toxicity degree and radiation effect of different radionuclides depend on multiple factors, whose interaction can strengthen or weaken the effects through the mechanism of nuclide accumulation by hydrobiontes. Stage of development of an aquatic organism, its age, mass and sex as well as lifetime and residence time of the organism in the given medium are of importance. The radionuclide build up depends on illumination, locale of the bioobject residence, on the residence nature. The concentration of radionuclides in aquatic organisms and bionts survival depend on a season, temperature of the residence medium, as well as salinity and mineral composition of water influence

  2. Chemonuclear studies for identification for new production routes for the therapeutically useful radionuclides {sup 140}Nd, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 191}Pt, {sup 193m}Pt, und {sup 195m}Pt; Kernchemische Studien zur Entwicklung neuerer Produktionsverfahren fuer die therapierelevanten Radionuklide {sup 140}Nd, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 191}Pt, {sup 193m}Pt, und {sup 195m}Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilgers, K.

    2005-12-15

    New production routes for the therapeutically useful radionuclides {sup 140}Nd, {sup 192}Ir, {sup 191}Pt, {sup 193m}Pt and {sup 195m}Pt were investigated. Cross section data were measured using the stacked-foil technique and compared with theoretical calculations. A production method for the platinum nuclides was developed. The {sup 141}Pr(p, 2n){sup 140}Nd and {sup nat}Ce({sup 3}He, xn){sup 140}Nd reactions were investigated for production of {sup 140}Nd. Cross section data of nuclear reactions leading to the side products {sup 141}Nd, {sup 139}Nd and {sup 139}Ce could also be achieved. The experimental data were compared with theoretical calculations using the code ALICE-IPPE. A comparison of the calculated thick target yields showed that the {sup 141}Pr(p, 2n){sup 140}Nd reaction gives a higher yield. The {sup 192}Os(p, n){sup 192}Ir reaction was examined in the context of the production of {sup 192}Ir. Cross section data were determined and compared with theoretical calculations using the codes ALICE-IPPE and EMPIRE II. The yield of this reaction was compared with the yield of the reactor production of this nuclide. The reactor production seems to be more suitable because of a higher purity and yield. Cross section data were measured for the {sup 192}Os({alpha}, n){sup 195m}Pt, {sup 192}Os({alpha}, 3n){sup 193m}Pt and {sup 192}Os({sup 3}He, 4n){sup 191}Pt reactions. The activity of {sup 193m}Pt and {sup 195m}Pt was determined by X-ray spectroscopy after a chemical separation procedure. The ALICE-IPPE code was found to be inappropriate to reproduce the experimental values. The calculated yields were compared with the yields of other reactions, especially the reactor production of {sup 195m}Pt. The yield of the {sup 192}Os({alpha}, n){sup 195m}Pt reaction is lower compared to the yield of the reactor production, but offers lower target costs and higher specific activity. A production method for {sup 193m}Pt and {sup 195m}Pt was developed. Batch yields of 0.9 MBq

  3. Long-lived radionuclides partitioned at Will

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boullis, B.

    2002-01-01

    The differences between the most important radionuclides making up nuclear waste in terms of toxicity and lifetime call for the use of special processing methods for actinides or fission products, which represent most of the long-term potential harmful effects involved. In order to transmute them or condition them as extremely stable compounds, they must first be sorted. CEA research teams, in cooperation with the scientific community not only in France and Europe, but also in Russia and Japan, are working to develop a comprehensive range of hydrometallurgical processes to implement the advanced separation methods required - whatever the management strategies adopted downstream. (author)

  4. Macromolecular therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2014-09-28

    This review covers water-soluble polymer-drug conjugates and macromolecules that possess biological activity without attached low molecular weight drugs. The main design principles of traditional and backbone degradable polymer-drug conjugates as well as the development of a new paradigm in nanomedicines - (low molecular weight) drug-free macromolecular therapeutics are discussed. To address the biological features of cancer, macromolecular therapeutics directed to stem/progenitor cells and the tumor microenvironment are deliberated. Finally, the future perspectives of the field are briefly debated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Artificial radionuclides in soil, flora and fauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Sources and ways of soil contamination by radionuclides, as well as the main regularities of radionuclide behaviour in soils, are discussed. Ways of radionuclide uptake by plants are discussed in detail, since radionuclide contamination of vegetation, and agricultural plants and pastures in particular, is one of the main factors, determining sanitary value of environmental contamination by radioactive substances

  6. The development and use of radionuclide generators in nuclear medicine. Recent advances and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Although the trend in radionuclide generator research has declined, radionuclide generator systems continue to play an important role in nuclear medicine. Technetium-99m obtained from the molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator system is used in over 80 per cent of all diagnostic clinical studies and there is increasing interest and use of therapeutic radioisotopes obtained from generator systems. This paper focuses on a discussion of the major current areas of radionuclide generator research, and the expected areas of future research and application. (author)

  7. Quality control of radionuclide calibrators used in nuclear medicine services in the Brazilian northeast region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso, Maria C.F.; Albuquerque, Antonio M.S.; Oliveira, Mercia L.; Lima, Ricardo A.; Lima, Fabiana F.

    2011-01-01

    The radionuclide calibrators are essential instruments in nuclear medicine services in order to activity determination of radiopharmaceuticals which will be administered to the patients. Inappropriate performance of these equipment could provide underestimation or overestimation of the activity, compromising the success of diagnosis or therapeutic procedures. To ensure the satisfactory performance of the radionuclide calibrators, quality control tests are recommended by national and international guides. The aim of this work was evaluate the establishment of the quality control program in the radionuclide calibrators at medicine nuclear services in the Brazilian northeast region, highlighting the tests and their frequencies. (author)

  8. Radionuclides and the normal bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Monsein, L.; Rosenberg, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    Recently, Eisenhut and co-workers have described development of iodine-131 labeled diphosphonates for palliative treatment of bone metastases. The compound labeled was alpha-amino (4-hydroxybenzylidene) diphosphonate (BDP3). Other beta-emitting radionuclides have been used for treatment of intractable pain secondary to bone metastases. These include strontium-89, which has some difficulties, particularly in terms of disposal of the excretions due to the long physical half-life of the life of the radionuclide. Yttrium-90 has also been used but has a relatively high hepatic uptake. Phosphorus-32 labeled compounds have also been used. Although palliation has been described, bone marrow depression has also occurred. Rhenium-186 also has been suggested, however, high renal uptake is a problem. At present, the iodine-131 labeled BDP3 appears to be the best of the available therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. One of the major disadvantages in use of this compound is the production of gamma photons. While undesirable from a dosimetry viewpoint, gamma photons do, however, permit imaging if desired

  9. Radionuclide methods in pediatric cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, O.; Ruth, C.; Samanek, M.

    1990-01-01

    The use of radionuclide methods in pediatric cardiology is discussed for non-invasive evaluation of myocardial function and perfusion, regional lung perfusion and ventilation, and for measuring central and peripheral hemodynamics. (H.W.). 16 refs

  10. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  11. Radionuclides in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.; Schmidt, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclides in the Food Chain reviews past experience in meeting the challenge of radionuclide contamination of foodstuffs and water sources and, in the wake of the reactor accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island, presents current concepts and programs relating to measurement, surveillance, effects, risk management, evaluation guidelines, and control and regulatory activities. This volume, based on a symposium sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute in association with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, which brought together both radiation experts and food industry policymakers, examines such vital topics as structural problems in large-scale crisis-managment systems; dose assessment from man-made sources; international recommendations on radiation protection; airborne contamination, as well as aquatic and soilborne radionuclides; food-chain contamination from testing nuclear devices; long-term health effects of radionuclides in food and water supplies; and use of mathematical models in risk assessment and management. (orig.)

  12. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houseworth, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  13. Surface diffusion of sorbed radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.A.; Bond, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Surface diffusion has in the past been invoked to explain rates of radionuclide migration which were greater than those predicted. Results were generally open to interpretation but the possible existence of surface diffusion, whereby sorbed radionuclides could potentially migrate at much enhanced rates, necessitated investigation. In this work through-diffusion experiments have shown that although surface diffusion does exist for some nuclides, the magnitude of the phenomenon is not sufficient to affect repository safety assessment modelling. (author)

  14. Radionuclide generators for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, R.D.; Molinski, V.J.; Hupf, H.B.; Kramer, H.

    1983-10-01

    This document reviews the chemical literature of those radionuclide generators that have gained or appear to possess utility in medical imaging. The text represents a conscientious effort to peruse the scientific literature through 1980. The intent of this work is to provide a reference point for the investigator who is interested in the development of a particular generator system and the refinements which have been reported. Moreover, the incorporation of the particular daughter radionuclide into a suitable radiodiagnostic agent is presented

  15. Loading technique for preparing radionuclide containing nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    associated with leaky blood vessels. The composition and methods of the invention find particular use in diagnosing and imaging cancerous tissue and, in general, pathological conditions associated with leaky blood vessels in a subject. The present invention provides a new diagnostic tool for the utilization......Source: US2012213698A The present invention relates to a novel composition and method for loading delivery systems such as liposome compositions with radionuclides useful in targeted diagnostic and/or therapy of target site, such as cancerous tissue and, in general, pathological conditions...... of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique. One specific aspect of the invention is directed to a method of producing nanoparticles with desired targeting properties for diagnostic and/or radio-therapeutic applications....

  16. Prospects for the methods of radionuclide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamyan, S.A.; Dmitriev, S.N.

    2014-01-01

    Methods of radionuclide production for the nuclear-medicine purposes are described. In a budget approach, the application of low-energy accelerators is especially advantageous. Intense flux of bremsstrahlung at electron accelerators or high-current cyclotron beams of alpha particles must supply a great yield for many isotopes. The choice of a target material and of the projectile energy provides enough variation for concrete species formation. The innovating procedures are here proposed for optimizing of methods, for instance, application of the noble-gas target for production and transport of activities. The known and new variants of the 'generator' scheme are discussed. Many isotopes are listed as promising in the context of the therapeutic and theragnostic applications. Among them are isotopes/isomers emitting soft radiation for the selective and careful body treatment, also the positron emitters for PET, and the halogen and alkali-metal species convenient for chemical separation.

  17. Therapeutic Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen; Ruegsegger, Mark; Barnes, Philip; Smith, Bryan; Ferrari, Mauro

    Therapeutic nanotechnology offers minimally invasive therapies with high densities of function concentrated in small volumes, features that may reduce patient morbidity and mortality. Unlike other areas of nanotechnology, novel physical properties associated with nanoscale dimensionality are not the raison d'être of therapeutic nanotechnology, whereas the aggregation of multiple biochemical (or comparably precise) functions into controlled nanoarchitectures is. Multifunctionality is a hallmark of emerging nanotherapeutic devices, and multifunctionality can allow nanotherapeutic devices to perform multistep work processes, with each functional component contributing to one or more nanodevice subroutine such that, in aggregate, subroutines sum to a cogent work process. Cannonical nanotherapeutic subroutines include tethering (targeting) to sites of disease, dispensing measured doses of drug (or bioactive compound), detection of residual disease after therapy and communication with an external clinician/operator. Emerging nanotherapeutics thus blur the boundaries between medical devices and traditional pharmaceuticals. Assembly of therapeutic nanodevices generally exploits either (bio)material self-assembly properties or chemoselective bioconjugation techniques, or both. Given the complexity, composition, and the necessity for their tight chemical and structural definition inherent in the nature of nanotherapeutics, their cost of goods (COGs) might exceed that of (already expensive) biologics. Early therapeutic nanodevices will likely be applied to disease states which exhibit significant unmet patient need (cancer and cardiovascular disease), while application to other disease states well-served by conventional therapy may await perfection of nanotherapeutic design and assembly protocols.

  18. Radionuclide migration in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demir, M [Ingenieurgesellschaft Bonnenberg und Drescher, Juelich (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-01-01

    Unplanned releases from a nuclear installation - e.g., leakage from a storage tank or other incident - can result in the escape of contaminants such as U, Pu, Cs, Sr, T etc. Nuclide transport through the ground is governed by characteristics of the subsurface hydrology and the specific nuclides under consideration. Unsaturated soil layers result in a transport rate so low as to negligible. Radionuclides reaching the ground water are assumed to endanger human life because of potential uncontrolled ingestion. The most dangerous nuclides are long-lived and not absorbed, or very poorly absorbed, in the soil. During migration of nuclides through saturated soil layers, the concentration can be reduced by dilution. Preliminary results indicate that tritium is spread with ground water velocity. Its concentration can be reduced only by diffusion, dispersion and radioactive decay. Alpha-emitters are strongly retained velocities of alpha-emitters are approximately one thousandth (10/sup -3/) that of T. Transport velocities of Cs and Sr are approximately one hundreth (10/sup -2/) and one tenth (10/sup -1/) that of T respectively.

  19. Radionuclide migration in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, M.

    1979-01-01

    Unplanned releases from a nuclear installation - e.g., leakage from a storage tank or other incident - can result in the escape of contaminants such as U, Pu, Cs, Sr, T etc. Nuclide transport through the ground is governed by characteristics of the subsurface hydrology and the specific nuclides under consideration. Unsaturated soil layers result in a transport rate so low as to negligible. Radionuclides reaching the ground water are assumed to endanger human life because of potential uncontrolled ingestion. The most dangerous nuclides are long-lived and not absorbed, or very poorly absorbed, in the soil. During migration of nuclides through saturated soil layers, the concentration can be reduced by dilution. Preliminary results indicate that tritium is spread with ground water velocity. Its concentration can be reduced only by diffusion, dispersion and radioactive decay. Alpha-emitters are strongly retained velocities of alpha-emitters are approximately one thousandth (10 -3 ) that of T. Transport velocities of Cs and Sr are approximately one hundreth (10 -2 ) and one tenth (10 -1 ) that of T respectively. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  1. Radionuclide brain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Dayem, H.

    1992-01-01

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ''allied advances'' with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  2. Radionuclides migration or isolation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulhoat, P.; Grambow, B.; Simoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    After 20 years of research, the chemical behaviour of actinides and fission products in nuclear waste disposal environments is much better understood. Consistent thermodynamic data have been gathered and allow much more accurate previsions. Through the considerable development of analytical spectroscopy, including time resolved laser fluorescence and X ray absorption, a better understanding of the chemical reactivity (complexation, sorption) of actinides and fission products at a molecular scale has been possible. Chemically reducing conditions are found in most selected disposal host rock formations, generally chosen for their high sorption capacity (clays); such conditions favour the chemical confinement of most radionuclides through precipitation or sorption. Low permeability host rocks participate to this confinement, as convective fluxes are lower than diffusive fluxes. The most recent performance assessment exercises have taken into account the recent progress of knowledge in the chemical evolution of the near field. They show that the dose rates at the outlet are far lower than existing recommendations for normal and most altered evolution scenarios. (authors)

  3. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

  4. Radionuclide brain scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Dayem, H

    1993-12-31

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ``allied advances`` with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  5. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  6. Beyond effective half-life characterization of radionuclide dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanska, J.; Blazek, T.; Karny, M.

    1996-01-01

    A refined model was set up and tested of the effective radionuclide half-life in nuclear medicine, making allowance for the fact that the basic assumption that the observed data can be fitted by a mono-exponential, as well as some other assumptions, is not true. The results are discussed. (P.A.). 1 tab., 32 refs

  7. State of uranium and radium radionuclides in the soil medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojnikova, E.V.; Sokolik, G.A.; Ovsyannikova, S.V.; Popenya, M.V.

    2010-01-01

    The reserves of migratory active, potentially mobile and potentially biologically available forms of uranium and radium in the mineral and organic soils of Belarus have been established. The uranium and radium species in the soil pore waters have been also studied. The received data makes possible the estimation of the radionuclide ability to participate in the processes of biogeochemical migration in terrestrial ecosystems. (authors)

  8. Rhenium radioisotopes for therapeutic radiopharmaceutical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Pinkert, J.; Kropp, J.; Lin, W.Y.; Wang, S.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Rhenium-186 and rhenium-188 represent two important radioisotopes which are of interest for a variety of therapeutic applications in oncology, nuclear medicine and interventional cardiology. Rhenium-186 is directly produced in a nuclear reactor and the 90 hour half-life allows distribution to distant sites. The relatively low specific activity of rhenium-186 produced in most reactors, however, permits use of phosphonates, but limits use for labelled peptides and antibodies. Rhenium-188 has a much shorter 16.9 hour half-life which makes distribution from direct reactor production difficult. However, rhenium-188 can be obtained carrier-free from a tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator, which has a long useful shelf-life of several months which is cost-effective, especially for developing regions. In this paper we discuss the issues associated with the production of rhenium-186- and rhenium-188 and the development and use of various radiopharmaceuticals and devices labelled with these radioisotopes for bone pain palliation, endoradiotherapy of tumours by selective catheterization and tumour therapy using radiolabelled peptides and antibodies, radionuclide synovectomy and the new field of vascular radiation therapy. (author)

  9. Introduction to radiobiology of targeted radionuclide therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre ePOUGET

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, new radionuclide-based targeted therapies have emerged as efficient tools for cancer treatment. Targeted radionuclide therapies (TRT are based on a multidisciplinary approach that involves the cooperation of specialists in several research fields. Among them, radiobiologists investigate the biological effects of ionizing radiation, specifically the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the radiation response. Most of the knowledge about radiation effects concerns external beam radiation therapy (EBRT and radiobiology has then strongly contributed to the development of this therapeutic approach. Similarly, radiobiology and dosimetry are also assumed to be ways for improving TRT, in particular in the therapy of solid tumors which are radioresistant. However, extrapolation of EBRT radiobiology to TRT is not straightforward. Indeed, the specific physical characteristics of TRT (heterogeneous and mixed irradiation, protracted exposure and low absorbed dose rate differ from those of conventional EBRT (homogeneous irradiation, short exposure and high absorbed dose rate, and consequently the response of irradiated tissues might be different. Therefore, specific TRT radiobiology needs to be explored. Determining dose-effect correlation is also a prerequisite for rigorous preclinical radiobiology studies because dosimetry provides the necessary referential to all TRT situations. It is required too for developing patient-tailored TRT in the clinic in order to estimate the best dose for tumor control, while protecting the healthy tissues, thereby improving therapeutic efficacy. Finally, it will allow to determine the relative contribution of targeted effects (assumed to be dose-related and non-targeted effects (assumed to be non-dose-related of ionizing radiation. However, conversely to EBRT where it is routinely used, dosimetry is still challenging in TRT. Therefore, it constitutes with radiobiology, one of the main

  10. Radionuclide therapy for true polycythemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasieva, N.I.; Grushka, G.V.; Vasiliev, L.Ya.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: True polycythemia (Vaquez' disease) is the disease of the hemopoietic system of an unknown origin accompanied by increase of erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood with absolute and relative increase in the mass of circulating erythrocytes. True polycythemia is treated with bloodletting and myelosuppressing drugs. This treatment is not always effective. A special place among myelo-depressants is occupied by P-32. Its main therapeutic effect is mediated by the participation in the metabolic processes. Besides DNA damage with beta-radiation, P-32 incorporation by DNA followed by decay and transformation to a stable sulphur isotope (S-32) results in the damage of the structure of nucleic acids, which is main mechanism of cellular proliferation inhibition. Therefore, P-32 is considered a powerful myelosuppressive agent. The indication to P-32 administration is true polycythemia, which, in contrast to secondary polycythemia accompanying numerous diseases, requires special cytostatic treatment. The study involved 152 patients with true polycythemia (76 men and 76 women aged 48) treated with P-32. The treatment was administered in case when bloodletting proved to be ineffective and hematocrit level exceeded 75%. P-32 was administered orally in 100 ml of 10% glucose solution on an empty stomach at a dose of 37-111 MBq with a 4-10-day intervals (mean 6 days). The blood count was checked for 12 weeks. If the number of thrombocytes and leukocytes decreased less than by 25% and the level of hematocrit did not normalize, repeated P-32 treatments were performed. In 13 (8.6%) patients, haematocrit parameters became normal after a single P-32 administration, in 15 (9.9%) patients two treatments with P-32 were necessary to normalize the blood count. In 134 (88.1%) cases P-32 treatment was administered more then two times (maximum 10 treatments). Total P-32 activity ranged from 37 to 740 MBq. Of all the patients who were administered P- 32 treatment, hematological

  11. Patients who make terrible therapeutic choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzer, Howard J

    2014-01-01

    The traditional approaches to dental ethics include appeals to principles, duties (deontology), and consequences (utilitarianism). These approaches are often inadequate when faced with the case of a patient who refuses reasonable treatment and does not share the same ethical framework the dentist is using. An approach based on virtue ethics may be helpful in this and other cases. Virtue ethics is a tradition going back to Plato and Aristotle. It depends on forming a holistic character supporting general appropriate behavior. By correctly diagnosing the real issues at stake in a patient's inappropriate oral health choices and working to build effective habits, dentists can sometimes respond to ethical challenges that remain intractable given rule-based methods.

  12. Natural radionuclides in ground water in western Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, F.; Lozano, J.C.; Gomez, J.M.G.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of natural radioactivity in drinking water was carried out in a granitic area in western Spain covering the so-called greywacke-schist complex. This region is known to be rich in uranium ores, such that natural radionuclides should be expected in the groundwater. During 1988, 345 water samples were collected from the water supplies of 115 different villages. These samples were analysed for gross alpha U, Th and Ra. The average concentrations of radionuclides were found to be 5-30 times higher in groundwater from bedrock than in groundwater from soil. The results indicate that Ra makes the highest contribution to the effective dose equivalent. (author)

  13. Natural radionuclides in ground water in western Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, F.; Lozano, J.C.; Gomez, J.M.G. (Salamanca Univ. (Spain). Lab. de Radioactividad Ambiental)

    1992-01-01

    A survey of natural radioactivity in drinking water was carried out in a granitic area in western Spain covering the so-called greywacke-schist complex. This region is known to be rich in uranium ores, such that natural radionuclides should be expected in the groundwater. During 1988, 345 water samples were collected from the water supplies of 115 different villages. These samples were analysed for gross alpha U, Th and Ra. The average concentrations of radionuclides were found to be 5-30 times higher in groundwater from bedrock than in groundwater from soil. The results indicate that Ra makes the highest contribution to the effective dose equivalent. (author).

  14. Transfer of radionuclides into and their removal from agricultural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisamatsu, Shun-ichi [Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Takizawa, Yukio

    1996-12-31

    Transfer of radionuclides to agricultural products and their removal before ingestion are reviewed briefly. Ingestion of {sup 137}Cs through various food groups were intensively has been studied from 1960s. The results of these studies indicated that cereals were relatively important food groups in Japan, while dairy products were a critical food group in Western countries. However, Westernization of Japanese diet and other factors recently make dairy products more important. In the case of {sup 137}Cs ingestion from the Chernobyl accident, 43% of total {sup 137}Cs intake was ingested through dairy products. The removal of radionuclides from food by washing, preparing and cooking is also discussed. (author)

  15. Model for radionuclide transport in running waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Karin; Elert, Mark [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-11-15

    . Therefore, transport calculations by a model with the appropriate exchange processes included are important. To be able to make certain statements about the transport of radionuclides in the current streams, further investigations are recommended in the report where field measurements of site-specific parameters is an important component. An updated more complete sensitivity analysis of the model is also suggested to be performed after the inclusion of site-specific information.

  16. Model for radionuclide transport in running waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Karin; Elert, Mark

    2005-11-01

    . Therefore, transport calculations by a model with the appropriate exchange processes included are important. To be able to make certain statements about the transport of radionuclides in the current streams, further investigations are recommended in the report where field measurements of site-specific parameters is an important component. An updated more complete sensitivity analysis of the model is also suggested to be performed after the inclusion of site-specific information

  17. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for loW--level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particle s in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements

  18. Structurally Based Therapeutic Evaluation: A Therapeutic and Practical Approach to Teaching Medicinal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharif, Naser Z.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Explains structurally based therapeutic evaluation of drugs, which uses seven therapeutic criteria in translating chemical and structural knowledge into therapeutic decision making in pharmaceutical care. In a Creighton University (Nebraska) medicinal chemistry course, students apply the approach to solve patient-related therapeutic problems in…

  19. Geotrap: radionuclide migration in geologic, heterogeneous media. Summary of accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    GEOTRAP - the OECD/NEA Project on Radionuclide Migration in Geologic, Heterogeneous Media - was carried out in the context of site evaluation and safety assessment of deep repository systems for long-lived radioactive waste. The project was created in 1996 with the aim of developing an understanding of, and modelling capability for, potential radionuclide migration. This report provides an overview of the project's main findings and accomplishments over its five-year life. This summary should help make the valuable information collected and generated by the GEOTRAP project accessible to a wide readership both within and outside the radioactive waste community.It is a reflection of the careful attention paid by this community to the question of radionuclide transport. (authors)

  20. Removal of dissolved heavy metals and radionuclides by microbial spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revis, N.W.; Hadden, C.T.; Edenborn, H.

    1997-01-01

    Microbial systems have been shown to remove specific heavy metals from contaminated aqueous waste to levels acceptable to EPA for environmental release. However, systems capable of removing a variety of heavy metals from aqueous waste to environmentally acceptable levels remain to be reported. The present studies were performed to determine the specificity of spores of the bacterium Bacillus megaterium for the adsorption of dissolved metals and radionuclides from aqueous waste. The spores effectively adsorbed eight heavy metals from a prepared metal mix and from a plating rinse waste to EPA acceptable levels for waste water. These results suggest that spores have multiple binding sites for the adsorption of heavy metals. Spores were also effective in adsorbing the radionuclides 85 strontium and 197 cesium. The presence of multiple sites in spores for the adsorption of heavy metals and radionuclides makes this biosorbent a good candidate for the treatment of aqueous wastes associated with the plating and nuclear industries. 17 refs., 4 tabs

  1. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab

  2. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  3. Radionuclide injury to the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Sanders, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequently observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. 88 references

  4. Anthropogenic radionuclides in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of data base of IAEA-MEL (International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratory) and other organizations, the distribution and behavior of anthropogenic radionuclides in sea water, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am and 3 H, are explained. 137 Cs (β - , γ: 30.2 y half life) is the most important pollution source and tracer to make clear mixture and diffusion process in seawater. The concentration of 137 Cs in surface seawater of Northern Hemisphere is larger than that of Southern Hemisphere, because many inner space nuclear tests were carried out in the Northern Hemisphere. Especially, the concentration of Northern-east Ocean and Mediterranean Sea are 21 Bq/m 3 and 13 Bq/m 3 , respectively, ten times as much as the other, because of discharge of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and Chernobyl accident. 2.5 Bq/m 3 137 Cs was observed in North Atlantic Ocean. Behavior of 90 Sr (β - : 29.0 y half life) is the same as 137 Sr in seawater. Secular change of 137 Sr and 90 Sr in seawater in coastal areas of Japan shows decrease of the values from 1964 and reached to 2 to 4 mBq/l and 1 to 3 mBq/l, respectively. 239+240 Pu is the most large load of transuranic elements (TRU) in the earth and originated from nuclear tests. The concentration of 239+240 Pu is 20 to 30 (10 -4 pCi/l, 1968) in the Pacific Ocean and 2.5 to 10.0 μBq/l (1982 to 1993). 241 Am (α: 433 y half life) is generated by decay of 241 Pu. Accordingly, the maximum value is observed after about 100 years. 241 Am/ 239+240 Pu showed less than about 0.3 of fall out, so that emission of 241 Am increases much more than 239+240 Pu. 3 H (β - : 12.3 y half life) has the most short half life in the anthropogenic radionuclides and exists the form as water (HTO) in the sea. The origin of 3 H is hydrogen bomb tests during 1952 and 1975. The concentration of 3 H in sea is average 3.6 TU (1994). The vertical profile of 137 Cs and 90 Sr is similar to each other since both nuclides become ions such

  5. Method of preparing radionuclide doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperus, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described of preparing aliquot dosea of a tracer material useful in diagnostic nuclear medicine comprising: storing discrete quantities of a lyophilized radionuclide carrier in separate tubular containers from which air and moisture is excluded, selecting from the tubular containers a container in which is stored a carrier appropriate for a nuclear diagnostic test to be performed, interposing the selected container between the needle and the barrel of a hypodermic syringe, and drawing a predetermined amount of a liquid containing a radionuclide tracer in known concentration into the hypodermic syringe barrel through the hypodermic needle and through the selected container to dissolve the discrete quantity of lyophilized carrier therein to combine the carrier with the radionuclide tracer to form an aliquot dose of nuclear diagnostic tracer material, as needed

  6. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of 223 Ra and 225 Ac, from a radionuclide ''cow'' of 227 Ac or 229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ''cow'' forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ''cow'' from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ''cow''. In one embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 227 Th and the product radionuclide is the 223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the 227 Ac and retains the 227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the 225 Ac and the 225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the 229 Th and passes the 225 Ra/Ac. 8 figs

  7. Therapeutic ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, Lawrence A

    2004-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in medicine is now quite commonplace, especially with the recent introduction of small, portable and relatively inexpensive, hand-held diagnostic imaging devices. Moreover, ultrasound has expanded beyond the imaging realm, with methods and applications extending to novel therapeutic and surgical uses. These applications broadly include: tissue ablation, acoustocautery, lipoplasty, site-specific and ultrasound mediated drug activity, extracorporeal lithotripsy, and the enhancement of natural physiological functions such as wound healing and tissue regeneration. A particularly attractive aspect of this technology is that diagnostic and therapeutic systems can be combined to produce totally non-invasive, imageguided therapy. This general lecture will review a number of these exciting new applications of ultrasound and address some of the basic scientific questions and future challenges in developing these methods and technologies for general use in our society. We shall particularly emphasize the use of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors as well as the introduction of acoustic hemostasis, especially in organs which are difficult to treat using conventional medical and surgical techniques. (amum lecture)

  8. Producing new radionuclides for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Arronax cyclotron, a new particle accelerator dedicated to the production of radionuclides for medicine and research has been commissioned in Nantes (France). Because of its unique features: an energy of 70 MeV and an intensity of 750 μA, Arronax will produce radionuclides that can not be produce in present cyclotrons. Among others it will produce Strontium-82 and Germanium-68 that are the precursors for Rubidium-82 and Gallium-68 respectively. 20 per cent of the research works will be dedicated to other domains like radioactive wastes, the radiation biological damage and the radiation damage on electronic devices. (A.C.)

  9. Radionuclide migration in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbreau, A.; Heremans, R.; Skytte Jensen, B.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal into geological formation is based on the capacity of rocks to confine radioactivity for a long period of time. Radionuclide migration from the repository to the environment depends on different mechanisms and phenomena whose two main ones are groundwater flow and the retention and ion-exchange property of rocks. Many studies are underway presently in EEC countries concerning hydrodynamic characteristics of deep geological formations as well as in radionuclide retention capacity and modelling. Important results have already been achieved which show the complexity of some phenomena and further studies shall principally be developed taking into account real conditions of the repository and its environment

  10. Automatic alignment of radionuclide images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    The variability of the position, dimensions and orientation of a radionuclide image within the field of view of a gamma camera hampers attempts to analyse the image numerically. This paper describes a method of using a set of training images of a particular type, in this case right lateral brain images, to define the likely variations in the position, dimensions and orientation for that type of image and to provide alignment data for a program that automatically aligns new images of the specified type to a standard position, size and orientation. Examples are given of the use of this method on three types of radionuclide image. (author)

  11. Radionuclide techniques for brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, R.J.; Moody, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past decade, many of the prime indications for radionuclide brain scanning have become instead indications for CCT, and nuclear medicine studies of the brain have assumed more of a complementary, supportive role. However, there is great promise for improvement in central nervous system radionuclide applications with advances anticipated in both radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation. Nuclear medicine is continuing to function as a powerful research tool and, in the relatively near future, may regain its role as a major clinical test of the central nervous system

  12. Reactor-produced therapeutic radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The significant worldwide increase in therapeutic radioisotope applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology requires the dependable production of sufficient levels of radioisotopes for these applications (Reba, 2000; J. Nucl. Med., 1998; Nuclear News, 1999; Adelstein and Manning, 1994). The issues associated with both accelerator- and reactor-production of therapeutic radioisotopes is important. Clinical applications of therapeutic radioisotopes include the use of both sealed sources and unsealed radiopharmaceutical sources. Targeted radiopharmaceutical agents include those for cancer therapy and palliation of bone pain from metastatic disease, ablation of bone marrow prior to stem cell transplantation, treatment modalities for mono and oligo- and polyarthritis, for cancer therapy (including brachytherapy) and for the inhibition of the hyperplastic response following coronary angioplasty and other interventional procedures (For example, see Volkert and Hoffman, 1999). Sealed sources involve the use of radiolabeled devices for cancer therapy (brachytherapy) and also for the inhibition of the hyperplasia which is often encountered after angioplasty, especially with the exponential increase in the use of coronary stents and stents for the peripheral vasculature and other anatomical applications. Since neutron-rich radioisotopes often decay by beta decay or decay to beta-emitting daughter radioisotopes which serve as the basis for radionuclide generator systems, reactors are expected to play an increasingly important role for the production of a large variety of therapeutic radioisotopes required for these and other developing therapeutic applications. Because of the importance of the availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes for these applications, an understanding of the contribution of neutron spectra for radioisotope production and determination of those cross sections which have not yet been established is important. This

  13. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Pottery, Ceramic and Glasswares Produced in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, M.I.; Reaz, Rafia; Kamal, M.; Alam, M.N.; Mustafa, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides were measured using gamma spectrometry in the finished products of pottery, glass, ceramic and tiles. Ceramic and pottery utensils, tiles, basin and glassware contained naturally occurring radionuclides. Pottery is produced from local clay materials, but ceramic, tiles, basin and glassware's are made from both local and imported raw materials. Radium and thorium radionuclides are concentrated during the making of pottery from the clay materials due to calcination. Radionuclides concentrated more in the highly calcined pottery products than the low calcined products. Glassware products contained very low quantities of radionuclides comparing with the ceramic and pottery products. Study on radioactivity in the pottery, ceramic and glassware products is important in the assessment of possible radiological hazards to human health. The knowledge is essential for the development of standards and guidelines for the use and management of these materials. (author)

  14. Derived intervention levels for radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    After the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in 1986, many countries were affected by widespread radioactive contamination. It became clear that the available guidance on dealing with the consequences of a nuclear accident was inappropriate for the long term and for areas far removed from the accident site. A particular concern was the safety of radioactively contaminated food and drinking-water in the ''far field'' region. The present guidelines, based on health protection principles, have been prepared by the World Health Organization in response to this concern. For various food categories, recommendations are made on levels of contamination by radionuclides at which corrective action might be justified to reduce the health risk to the population. The guidelines are based on accepted radiation dose criteria, on food consumption data from different parts of the world, and on dosimetric information for the relevant radionuclides. They are intended to assist in national decision-making in the event of another major nuclear accident. Refs, 1 fig., 14 tabs

  15. Radionuclide exercise testing for coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    It is obvious that the indication and clinical applications of radionuclide stress testing have been expanded and that both techniques described in this article are useful for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. The sensitivity and specificity of noninvasive stress testing have been significantly enhanced by the introduction of these radionuclide approaches for detecting ischemia in patients with undiagnosed chest pain. High-risk patients with either stable CAD or recent myocardial infarction can be identified by the severity of the abnormal response elicited. Patients with multiple thallium defects, particularly of the redistribution type, appear to be at the highest risk for subsequent cardiac events. Similarly, patients with a greater than 10 per cent fall in ejection fraction with development of multiple wall motion abnormalities and an increase in end-systolic volume seem to be in a high risk subset. Further developments with single photon emission tomography and computer quantitation of thallium or ventriculographic images should make these tests even more reliable in obtaining useful information in patients with CAD. 34 references

  16. History of Discharge of Radionuclide from Nuclear Malaysia Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Nahar Othman; Ismail Sulaiman

    2013-01-01

    After more than 40 years the operation of Malaysian Nuclear Agency research reactor, this is the first time, the discharge emission radionuclide to environment is recorded and analyzed in detail. Starting from 1984, radionuclide Ar-41 had been analyzed manually by Research Officers but their finding is not recorded in any Journal. That is responsible of Safety and Health Division to make sure the safety of the workers and public living around Malaysian Nuclear Agency receive safe dose. This paper will report dose that had been discharge to the environment starting from 1984 to 2012 and it detail calculations.After more than 40 years the operation of Malaysian Nuclear Agency research reactor, this is the first time, the discharge emission radionuclide to environment is recorded and analyzed in detail. Starting from 1984, radionuclide Ar-41 had been analyzed manually by Research Officers but their finding is not recorded in any Journal. That is responsible of Safety and Health Division to make sure the safety of the workers and public living around Malaysian Nuclear Agency receive safe dose. This paper will report dose that had been discharge to the environment starting from 1984 to 2012 and it detail calculations. (author)

  17. Applications of extraction chromatography in the development of radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    Numerous methods have been described for the separation and purification of radionuclides for application in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine, among them ion exchange, solvent extraction, and various forms of chromatography. Although extraction chromatography has previously been shown to provide a means of performing a number of separations of potential use in radionuclide generator systems, the application of the technique to generator development has thus far been limited. Recent work directed at improved methods for the determination of radionuclides in biological and environmental samples has led to the development of a series of novel extraction chromatographic resins exhibiting enhanced metal ion retention from strongly acidic media and excellent selectivity, among them materials suitable for the isolation of 212 Bi, 90 Y, and 213 Bi. These resins, along with extraction chromatographic materials employing functionalized supports to improve their physical stability or metal ion retention properties, are shown to offer promise in the development of improved radionuclide generators

  18. Determination of alpha radionuclides in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, L.; Matel, L.; Rosskopfova, O.

    2001-01-01

    In atmospheric water, external water and undercurrent the occurrence of radionuclides is usual. It is an important factor of quality of the environment. Plants ingest radionuclides from water and with they everyone. And it arises radioactivity infest food-chain. Radiotoxicity of this radionuclides is very deer sometimes. The sensitive radiochemical procedures for their determination are necessarily important. The poster presents the combined procedure used at our laboratory for determination of alpha radionuclides in biological samples. (authors)

  19. Dosimetry techniques for applications of incorporated radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.W.; Rao, D.V.; Haydock, C.

    1989-01-01

    Beta particle emitters are attracting attention as the radiolabels of choice for therapeutic radiopharmaceutical. Their use in cancer therapy has drawn attention to a variety of problems in estimating the absorbed dose to primary tumors and metastases from incorporated Β-emitters. Experimental evidence indicates that the distribution of radiopharmaceutical, such as radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, is highly nonuniform in tumor tissue. Three levels of nonuniformity may be noted: (1) inhomogeneity at the macroscopic level due to poor penetration of the radiopharmaceutical into the tumor, (2) microscopic inhomogeneity due to large variations in the number of binding sites on the tumor cells, and (3) nonuniformity at the subcellular level. Conventional application of the MIRD Schema for calculating absorbed doses from incorporated radionuclides may be inadequate under these circumstances since this approach assumes that the, distribution of radioactivity in the organ is uniform. The conventional dosimetry may be modified to handle inhomogeneous activity distributions by dividing the tumor into a number of subregions. At the macroscopic level a spherical tumor may be broken up into a group of concentric annular regions of tissue. At the microscopic level the tumor or metastasis may be considered as a multicellular cluster which in essence divides the tumor into many subtumors of cellular dimensions. Finally, at the subcellular level, a cancer cell may be viewed as consisting of several compartments: the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. In each case absorbed fractions, and therefore the total absorbed doses, may be calculated for the various subregions of the tumor using standard MIRD procedures. Using macroscopic and multicellular dosimetry models, the relative importance of these various levels of inhomogeneity in radionuclide distribution is examined. A dosimetry model which accounts for the possible time dependence of the tumor mass is formulated

  20. Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy with (90)Y-DOTATOC and (177)Lu-DOTATOC in Advanced Neuroendocrine Tumors: Results from a Danish Cohort Treated in Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeifer, Andreas Klaus; Gregersen, Tine; Grønbæk, Henning

    2011-01-01

    Limited therapeutic options have highlighted the demand for new treatment modalities for patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Promising results of initial studies have warranted the implementation of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in clinical practice. However, this t...

  1. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with Y-DOTATOC and (177)Lu-DOTATOC in advanced neuroendocrine tumors: results from a Danish cohort treated in Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeifer, Andreas Klaus; Gregersen, Tine; Grønbæk, Henning

    2011-01-01

    Limited therapeutic options have highlighted the demand for new treatment modalities for patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Promising results of initial studies have warranted the implementation of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in clinical practice. However, this t...

  2. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djujic, I.

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides are the major source of radiation exposure to humans. The principal way of natural radiation exposure is the inhalation of 222 Rn decay products (about 85% of the total). The remainder is equally divided between internally deposited radionuclides, cosmic and terrestrial sources. In the present study, the content of 40 K, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 230 Th, 232 Th and 238 U in representative food samples (milk, pork, beef, potatoes, wheat and corn flour) and samples of different food items that do not represent entire national production but provide interesting additional data for approximative calculation of naturally occurring radionuclide intake is presented. Daily weight of food eaten, participation of food groups, as well as daily intake by food of mentioned naturally occurring radionuclides in the Serbian diet was obtained on the base of house hold budget surveys. The result obtained for daily intake estimates in mBq for Serbian population are 78.1 ( 40 K), 38.2( 210 Pb), 52.3( 226 Ra), 2.0( 230 Th) and 12.5( 238 U). (author)

  3. 100 Years of radionuclide metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, S.M.; Arnold, D.; Chauvenet, B.; Collé, R.; De Felice, P.; García-Toraño, E.; Wätjen, U.

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics. - Highlights: • The driving forces for the development of radionuclide metrology. • Radium standards to facilitate trade of this valuable commodity in the early years. • After 1950, focus changes to healthcare and industrial applications. • National Measurement Institutes develop new techniques, standards, and disseminate the best practice in measurement. • Challenges in nuclear medicine, radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics

  4. Chemistry and analysis of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Lehto, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Written by chemists for chemists, this is a comprehensive guide to the important radionuclides as well as techniques for their separation and analysis. It introduces readers to the important laboratory techniques and methodologies in the field, providing practical instructions on how to handle nuclear waste and radioactivity in the environment.

  5. Radionuclide migration studies in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    In this work a brief description about retention and migration parameters of radionuclides in soil, including main methods to determine the distribution coefficient (K) are given. Some of several factors that can act on the migration are also mentioned. (author) [pt

  6. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

    1984-09-12

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  7. Performance and quality control of radionuclide calibrators in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.J.; Baker, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The use of ionising radiations in nuclear medicine has traditionally divided itself into two specific areas. The diagnostic usage has generally been dominated by the injection or ingestion of radionuclides. The therapeutic applications, on the other hand, have usually been accomplished by the application of ionising radiation, both from machines and radionuclide sources, whereby the radiation source is external to the patient. Over recent years, this divide has become increasingly blurred and the science between diagnosis and therapy has become significantly closer. This is particularly the situation in respect of the instruments used to determine the activity or dose delivered by the radiation source. In the ideal therapeutic situation, the radiation dose would be delivered solely to the malignant tissue. With external radiation therapy, this can never be achieved completely but this ideal can be approached more closely with targeted radiotherapy wherein radionuclides are introduced directly into the malignancy either as a solid, physical source or as a solution that, by its chemistry, concentrates into the area of interest. In order to achieve the optimum efficacy of treatment, there is an associated requirement to determine accurately the activity or dose rate of the radioactive source being used. It is here that the technology used in the diagnostic field can also be used to advantage for therapeutic applications. For diagnosis, the instrument of choice is the radionuclide calibrator and this equipment is increasingly finding parallel usage for the characterisation of therapeutic sources. Despite their appearances however, radionuclide calibrators are not 'black boxes' and need to be used with care, subjected to a robust level of quality control and operated by personnel who have a fundamental understanding of their operational characteristics. A measure of the level of performance of operational radionuclide calibrators and the competence of their

  8. Status report on radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    At the suggestion of the Federal Minstry of the Interior, in June 1978, a group of scientists from several institutions who are active in the field of radionuclide transfer or are interested in these problems got together. During the discussions of the work team, especially the transfer soil/plants was emphasized. Then the work team set up a status report on the transfer of the radionuclides relevant in the sense of the radiation protection act. The nuclides H 3 and C14, the isotopes of the Sr, J, and Cs, Tc99, the so-called corrosion nuclides Mn54, Fe59, co-isotopes and Zn65, and isotopes of Pu, Am, and Cm were regarded as important for a possible radiation exposition. Recent investigations revealed that also the natural radionuclides Ra226, Po210, and Pb210 should be covered by the investigations. The goal of this status report is to present the level of knowledge on the transfer of these radionuclides to man in a brief form, giving hints at the most important literature. It was requested by the Federal Ministry of the Interior, as fas as possible, to indicate transfer factors which are necessary for the radio-occology act to be decreed according to Para. 45 of the radiation protection act. Another goal of the report was to show the gap in the knowledge on the radio nuclide transfer. This was thought to help to create a basis for the decisions of the Federal Ministry concerning the support of other investigation projects in the field of transfer of radionuclides. (orig./MG) [de

  9. SPECIFICITY OF ACCUMULATION OF VARIOUS RADIONUCLIDES (137Cs и 90Sr IN SPINACH (Spinacia oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Soldatenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the specificity of accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr by plants and limits of accumulation by plant fruits plays a key role at breeding of vegetable crops, which make demand for ecological safety of the product. The article is concerned with the study of varietal sources of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. aimed at development of ecological safety product on the territory polluted by radionuclides.The specificity of accumulation of radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr was studied in 54 varieties of spinach at industrial contaminated and polluted lands. Experimental tests were conducted in the Moscow and Bryansk regions in 2012 and 2014. The absolute value of radionuclide 90Sr was higher than absolute value of radionuclide 137Cs in all studied zones. It was found that the hazard rate of 90Sr is higher because the level of pollution of product reaches up to 76% from maximum permissible concentration (MPC, while the level of product pollution by 137Cs is 26,4% from MPC. The spinach genotype differentiation for 90Sr in the most environments is lower than differentiation for 137Cs. The histograms of distribution 90Sr and 137Cs showed that samples amount in the groups of accumulation for both radionuclides are equal. Statistically significant data for radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr in spinach were not obtained. The evaluation of spinach for low content of radionuclides should be conducted separately for each radionuclide on various backgrounds.

  10. Dosimetric characterization of radionuclides for systemic tumor therapy: Influence of particle range, photon emission, and subcellular distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uusijaervi, Helena; Bernhardt, Peter; Ericsson, Thomas; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2006-01-01

    emitters, photon emitters, and alpha emitters. The TND values of the beta emitters were not affected by the subcellular distribution of the radionuclide. The TND values of the Auger electron emitters were affected by the subcellular radionuclide distribution. The photon emitters showed low TND values that were only slightly affected by the subcellular radionuclide distribution. The alpha emitters showed high TND values that were only slightly affected by the subcellular radionuclide distribution. This dosimetric characterization of radionuclides may be valuable in choosing the appropriate radionuclides for specific therapeutic applications

  11. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of host rocks, secondary minerals, and fluids would affect the transport of radionuclides from a previously proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Minerals in the Yucca Mountain tuffs that are important for retarding radionuclides include clinoptilolite and mordenite (zeolites), clay minerals, and iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides. Water compositions along flow paths beneath Yucca Mountain are controlled by dissolution reactions, silica and calcite precipitation, and ion-exchange reactions. Radionuclide concentrations along flow paths from a repository could be limited by (1) low waste-form dissolution rates, (2) low radionuclide solubility, and (3) radionuclide sorption onto geological media.

  12. Peptide Based Targeted Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals: A Focus on the Synthesis of Radiolabelled Nanobodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impens, N.; Campsteyn, A.; Aerts, A.; Baatout, S.; Devoogdt, N.; Caveliers, V.; Xavier, C.; Lahoutte, T.

    2009-01-01

    In 1993, the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Brussels, Belgium) discovered in the blood of camelidae antibodies consisting of only a heavy chain. Due to the lack of the light chain only the variable part of the heavy chain is important for antigen binding. This variable part of these heavy-chain-only antibodies is a good candidate as a targeted therapeutic radiopharmaceutical and was called a nanobody, having a molecular weight of about 15 kDa. Its dimensions are included in between the small peptides like derived from e.g. somatostatin, and the classical monoclonal antibodies. This makes that some characteristics like the physical behaviour, the chemical stability, the penetration in tumour and in healthy tissues, and the blood clearance lie in between the characteristics of the small peptides and the monoclonal antibodies, therefore taking advantage of both extremes. Nanobodies have been humanised to decrease the immunogenic response. The building blocks of molecules such as the octreotide, nanobodies and monoclonal antibodies are amino acids linked via peptide bonds. The modification reactions are therefore all based on the same 'peptide chemistry'. The functional groups on the present amino acids will determine the possible reactions. In order to link a radionuclide to the nanobodies, we opted to use bifunctional ligands containing DOTA, because this is a suitable chelating agent for the diagnostic radionuclide Ga-68, and for therapeutic radionuclides such as Lu-177 and Y-90, covering short and long range β-particle emitters suitable for attacking a wide range of tumour sizes. The ratio of bifunctional ligand to nanobody can be varied by carefully selecting the functional groups of the peptide involved in the reaction with the bifunctional ligand, avoiding the complementarity determining region (CDR), i.e. the part of the molecule binding to the antigen. This is a first way to predetermine the amount of radionuclides that can be linked to the peptide, or the

  13. Radionuclide transfer from mother to embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.; Scridon, R.; Toader, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    The transfer of radionuclides from mother to embryo is still a matter of high interest. Therefore, the relation was investigated between the amount of radionuclides in the embryo and the dietary intake of the mother, this for two scenarios: a recurrent intake of variable amounts of radionuclides, and a long-term intake of a relatively constant amount of radionuclides, the radionuclide being 137 Cs. In the first case, the amount of radionuclides present in the embryo increases with the age of the embryo and with the intake of the mother. In the second case, no correlation could be found between the age of the embryo and its radioactive content; only the correlation between the intake of the mother and the radionuclide content of the embryo remained. (A.K.)

  14. Radionuclide migration through porous cement-waste composition in semi-real conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plecas, I.; Peric, A.; Kostadinovic, A.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, result of examination of Leakage rate or radionuclides Co-60 and Cs-137 in semi-real conditions are given. Radionuclides Co-60 and Cs-137 were immobilized by cement process and conditioned in concrete containers trying to make similar scenario for storing radioactive waste materials as in engineering trench system, repository. Experiments were realized with two waste water, evaporator bottom and reactor cooling system, (EB) and (RCS), from Nuclear Power Plants Krsko, in which the main radionuclides are Co-60 and Cs-137. These results will be used for future Yugoslav radioactive waste storing center (author)

  15. Modeling of radionuclide migration and a temperature dynamics in underground disposal of liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larin, V.K.; Zubkov, A.A.; Balakhonov, V.G.; Sukhorukov, V.A.; Zhiganov, A.N.; Noskov, M.D.; Istomin, A.D.; Kesler, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Mathematical model of radionuclide migration and temperature field dynamics during underground disposal of liquid radioactive wastes is presented. The model involves the description of filtration, convective-dispersion mass transfer, sorption and desorption of radionuclides, radioactive decay, convective heat transport and hear transfer. Software making possible to conduct prognosis calculations of changing state of stratum-collector of radioactive wastes was made. Results of the simulation of temperature field dynamics and behaviour of radionuclides on underground disposal of liquid radioactive wastes of the Siberian chemical plant are performed [ru

  16. Sequential radionuclide bone imaging in avascular pediatric hip conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minikel, J.; Sty, J.; Simons, G.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging was performed on six patients with various hip conditions. Initial bone images revealed diminished uptake of isotope /sup 99m/Tc-MDP in the capital femoral epiphysis. Following therapeutic intervention, repeat bone scans revealed normal uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-MDP in the capital femoral epiphysis. Subsequent radiographs revealed that avascular necrosis had not occurred. There are two types of avascularity: the potentially reversible, and the irreversible. Attempts should be made toward early recognition of the potentially reversible avascular insult. With early recognition, surgical reconstruction prior to osteophyte death may result in revascularization. If this can be accomplished, avascular necrosis can be avoided

  17. Guidelines for Rational Cancer Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byunghee Yoo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cancer therapy has relied on surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. In recent years, these interventions have become increasingly replaced or complemented by more targeted approaches that are informed by a deeper understanding of the underlying biology. Still, the implementation of fully rational patient-specific drug design appears to be years away. Here, we present a vision of rational drug design for cancer that is defined by two major components: modularity and image guidance. We suggest that modularity can be achieved by combining a nanocarrier and an oligonucleotide component into the therapeutic. Image guidance can be incorporated into the nanocarrier component by labeling with a specific imaging reporter, such as a radionuclide or contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. While limited by the need for additional technological advancement in the areas of cancer biology, nanotechnology, and imaging, this vision for the future of cancer therapy can be used as a guide to future research endeavors.

  18. Diabetic Gastroparesis: Role of Radionuclide Procedures- A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afroz, S.; Rashid, H.; Hossain, S.; Ali, N.F.; Khan, M.S.R.; Taher, A.

    2006-01-01

    Abnormal gastric motility in disordered gastric emptying, called diabetic gastroparesis or gatroparesis diabeticorum, affect up to 50% of diabetics. In diabetic gastroparesis, the normal physiology of gastric emptying is grossly disturbed. Radionuclide scintigraphy is an accurate and sensitive measure of gastric emptying. It is a simple, cheap, efficient and acceptable modality. In this review study, the ability of nuclear medicine was highlighted, which can make general and specific contribution to the management of patients with diabetes and its consequences.(authors)

  19. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  20. Choice of radionuclides for radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, S.J.; Jungerman, J.A.; DeNardo, G.L.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Cole, W.C.; Meares, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Innumerable questions need to be answered and obstacles overcome before radioimmunotherapy can be generally successful in cancer patients. Major developments have greatly enhanced the likelihood of success. The important development of appropriate radionuclides and radiochemistry for this therapy must be intimately linked with the biological and biochemical realities. All aspects must be considered, such as the specific nature of the antigenic target, the pharmacokinetics of the antibody fragment carrier, the capability of in vivo quantitation of tumor uptake and turnover time, as well as total body kinetics. With this knowledge, then, practical radiochemistry methods can be integrated with the suitable radionuclide choices, and production methods can be developed which will deliver effective and dependable products for patient therapy

  1. Radionuclide transfer in terrestrial animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGregorio, D.; Kitchings, T.; Van Voris, P.

    1978-01-01

    The analysis of dispersion of radionuclides in terrestrial food chains, generally, is a series of equations identifying the fractional input and outflow rates from trophic level to trophic level. Data that are prerequisite inputs for these food chain transport models include: (1) identification of specific transport pathway, (2) assimilation at each pathway link, and (3) the turnover rate or retention function by successive receptor species in the appropriate food chain. In this report, assimilation coefficients, biological half-lives, and excretion rates for a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species and radionuclides have been compiled from an extensive search of the available literature. Using the information accumulated from the literature, correlations of nuclide metabolism and body weight are also discussed. (author)

  2. Applications of radionuclides in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, P.

    1955-01-01

    After a brief recall of a few concepts (mass number, charge and beams properties) and the description of used detectors (ionization chamber, Geiger-Mueller counter, scintillation counters), some radionuclides applications are described. In a first part, the well-developed applications are presented in three distinct groups: continuous applications such as β and γ gauges (determination hydrogen content of an hydrocarbon and content of an emulsion; discharge of static electricity), discontinuous applications such as radiography and autoradiography, wear or manufacture problems (distribution of a fungicide on tobacco) and finally, applications in research laboratories such as diffusion, exchange and solubility. It also describes the applications which are still in development such as the action of beams on matter (reticulation and degradation of polymers, monomers polymerisation, cold sterilization). In conclusion, few advices on the opportunity of such applications and the choice of the radionuclides are given. (M.P.)

  3. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestr, Christopher J.; North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY; Love, Charito

    2007-01-01

    Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of 'complicating osteomyelitis' such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose. (author)

  4. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  5. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestr, Christopher J. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; E-mail: palestro@lij.edu; Love, Charito [North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2007-09-15

    Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of 'complicating osteomyelitis' such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose. (author)

  6. Terrestrial pathways of radionuclide particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, F.W.; Ng, Y.C.

    1981-01-01

    Formulations are developed for computing potential human intake of 13 radionuclides via the terrestrial food chains. The formulations are an extension of the NRC methodology. Specific regional crop and livestock transfer and fractional distribution data from the southern part of the U.S.A. are provided and used in the computation of comparative values with those computed by means of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 formulations. In the development of the model, emphasis was also placed on identifying the various time-delay compartments of the food chains and accounting for all of the activity initially deposited. For all radionuclides considered, except 137 Cs, the new formulations predict lower potential intakes from the total of all food chains combined than do the comparable Regulatory Guide formulations by as much as a factor of 40. For 137 Cs the new formulations predict 10% higher potential intakes. (author)

  7. Content of naturally occurring radionuclides in samples taken from world historical sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, J.; Jankovic, M.; Todorovic, D.; Sarap, N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the investigation of naturally occurring radionuclides content in different samples taken from the historical sites in Iran, China, Syria and Jordan. Samples contained different natural materials used in masonry, for making artefacts for personal use as well as water, sand and mud from the Dead sea. The aim was to ascertain the content of naturally occurring radionuclides, calculation of hazard indexes and their comparison to the values recommended and obtained in modern days materials [sr

  8. Radionuclide 252Cf neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolevatov, Yu.I.; Trykov, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of radionuclide neutron sourses of 252 Cf base with the activity from 10 6 to 10 9 n/s have been investigated. Energetic distributions of neutrons and gamma-radiation have been presented. The results obtained have been compared with other data available. The hardness parameter of the neutron spectrum for the energy range from 3 to 15 MeV is 1.4 +- 0.02 MeV

  9. Radionuclide diagnosis of Meckel's diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.; Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL

    1980-01-01

    Meckel's diverticulum can be detected with a high degree of accuracy by radionuclide scintigraphy using technetium-99m pertechnetate. The technique is without risk and should precede roentgenographic studies when the diagnosis is suspected. The method is described and the causes for false positive and false negative examinations are discussed. False negatives are rare and false positives are usually secondary to other surgical entities. Overall accuracy is 85 to 90%. (orig.) [de

  10. Radionuclides for therapy: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesler, H.; Noelpp, U.; Triller, K.J.; Steffen, R.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in angiographic techniques has been a gradual evolutionary development which now permits the selective and superselective access to a tumor's vascular bed. A diagnostic angiographic procedure can be supplemented by a one-step, quick application of embolizing radioactive material. This endoarterial radionuclide embolizing tumor therapy has the maximum selectivity among radiotherapeutic methods, with the highest radiation doses to the tumor and neglectible exposure of normal tissue. Spread of radioactivity by diffusion or leaching can be prevented

  11. Radionuclide dispersion in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Amorim, E.S. do; Panetta, J.

    1979-05-01

    The instantaneous liberation of radionuclides in the atmosphere is studied in three dimensions, according to the formalism of the diffusion theory. The analytical solution, expose to gravitational and an atmospherical effects, is combined with the discretization of space and time in the calculation of levels of exposure. A typical inventory (for a PWR) was considered in the calculation of immersion doses, and the results permitted a comparative analysis among the different existing models. (Author) [pt

  12. Radiation protection in radionuclide investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; radiation and radioactivity; alpha particles; beta particles; neutrons; electromagnetic radiation; units of radioactivity and radiation; biological effects of radiation; the philosophy of radiation protection (ALARA principle); practical aspects of radiation protection; work with unsealed radiation sources; radionuclide studies in experimental animals; radiation safety during clinical investigations; legislative control of radiation work; radioactive waste disposal; emergency procedures; conclusion. (U.K.)

  13. Radionuclide evaluation of renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Zhao Deshan

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide renal imaging and plasma clearance methods can quickly quantitate renal blood flow and function in renal transplants. They can diagnose acute tubular necrosis and rejection, renal scar, surgical complications such as urine leaks, obstruction and renal artery stenosis after renal transplants. At the same time they can assess the therapy effect of renal transplant complications and can also predict renal transplant survival from early post-operative function studies

  14. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs

  15. TH-AB-206-01: Advances in Radionuclide Therapy - From Radioiodine to Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humm, J.

    2016-01-01

    In the past few decades, the field of nuclear medicine has made long strides with the continued advancement of related sciences and engineering and the availability of diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides. Leveraging these advancements while combining the advantages of therapeutic and diagnostic radionuclides into one radiopharmaceutical has also created a new subfield “theranostics” in nuclear medicine that has the potential to further propel the field into the future. This session is composed of two talks; one focused on the physics principles of theranostics from properties of beta and alpha emitting radionuclides to dosimetric models and quantification; while the second describes preclinical and clinical applications of theranostics and discusses the challenges and opportunities of bringing them to the clinic. At the end of the session the listener should be able to identify: The different properties of beta and alpha emitting radionuclides Which radionuclides are selected for which nuclear medicine therapies and why How PET can be used to accurately quantify the uptake of tumor targeting molecules How individualized dosimetry can be performed from the management of thyroid cancer to novel radiolabeled antibody therapies Promising pre-clinical radiopharmaceutical pairs in prostate cancer and melanoma. Promising clinical Theranostics in neuroendocrine cancers. Challenges of bringing Theranostics to the clinic. E. Delpassand, RITA Foundation -Houston; SBIR Grant; CEO and share holder of RadioMedix.

  16. TH-AB-206-01: Advances in Radionuclide Therapy - From Radioiodine to Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humm, J. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (United States)

    2016-06-15

    In the past few decades, the field of nuclear medicine has made long strides with the continued advancement of related sciences and engineering and the availability of diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides. Leveraging these advancements while combining the advantages of therapeutic and diagnostic radionuclides into one radiopharmaceutical has also created a new subfield “theranostics” in nuclear medicine that has the potential to further propel the field into the future. This session is composed of two talks; one focused on the physics principles of theranostics from properties of beta and alpha emitting radionuclides to dosimetric models and quantification; while the second describes preclinical and clinical applications of theranostics and discusses the challenges and opportunities of bringing them to the clinic. At the end of the session the listener should be able to identify: The different properties of beta and alpha emitting radionuclides Which radionuclides are selected for which nuclear medicine therapies and why How PET can be used to accurately quantify the uptake of tumor targeting molecules How individualized dosimetry can be performed from the management of thyroid cancer to novel radiolabeled antibody therapies Promising pre-clinical radiopharmaceutical pairs in prostate cancer and melanoma. Promising clinical Theranostics in neuroendocrine cancers. Challenges of bringing Theranostics to the clinic. E. Delpassand, RITA Foundation -Houston; SBIR Grant; CEO and share holder of RadioMedix.

  17. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs

  18. Radionuclide migration test using undisturbed aerated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Ohtsuka, Yoshiro; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1988-01-01

    As one of the most important part of safety assessment on the shallow land disposal of lowlevel radioactive waste, the radionuclide migration was studied using undisturbed soil samples, in order to evaluate an exact radionuclide migration in an aerated soil layer. Soil samples used in the migration test were coastal sand and loamy soil which form typical surface soil layers in Japan. The aqueous solution containing 60 CoCl 2 , 85 SrCl 2 and 137 CsCl was fed into the soil column and concentration of each radionuclide both in effluent and in soil was measured. Large amount of radionuclides was adsorbed on the surface of soil column and small amount of radionuclides moved deep into the soil column. Difference in the radionuclide profile was observed in the low concentration portion particularly. It is that some fractions of 60 Co and 137 Cs are stable in non-ionic form and move downward through the soil column together with water. The radionuclide distribution in the surface of soil column can be fairly predicted with a conventional migration equation for ionic radionuclides. As a result of radionuclide adsorption, both aerated soil layers of coastal sand and loamy soil have large barrier ability on the radionuclide migration through the ground. (author)

  19. Metabolism of radionuclides in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, E.; Leising, C.

    1986-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl has shown that shortly after the contamination of the environment radionuclides can be found in animal products. The main contamination pathways of domestic animas are: uptake of radionuclides by foodstuffs; uptake of radionuclides by contaminated drinking water; uptake of radionuclides by inhalation; uptake of radionuclides through skin; uptake of radionuclides by ingestion of soil particles. Generally the uptake of radionuclides by food is the dominant exposure pathway. In rare cases the inhalation of radionuclides or the uptake by drinking water may be of importance. The metabolism of incorporated radionuclides is comparable to the respective metabolism of essential mass or trace elements or heavy metals. Radioisotopes of essential elements are for instance iron 55, manganese 54, cobalt 58 and cobalt 60. Other elements are typical antagonists to essential elements, e.g. strontium 90 is an antagonist to calcium or cesium 137 to potassium. Lead 210 and plutonium 239 behave similarly as heavy metals. Generally the knowledge of the metabolism of trace and mass elements, of antagonistic and synergistic elements and heavy metals can be applied to these radionuclides

  20. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

  1. The potential of 211Astatine for NIS-mediated radionuclide therapy in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willhauck, Michael J.; Sharif Samani, Bibi-Rana; Goeke, Burkhard; Wolf, Ingo; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard; Stark, Hans-Juergen; Meyer, Geerd J.; Knapp, Wolfram H.; Morris, John C.; Spitzweg, Christine

    2008-01-01

    We reported recently the induction of selective iodide uptake in prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) promoter-directed sodium iodide symporter (NIS) expression that allowed a significant therapeutic effect of 131 I. In the current study, we studied the potential of the high-energy alpha-emitter 211 At, also transported by NIS, as an alternative radionuclide after NIS gene transfer in tumors with limited therapeutic efficacy of 131 I due to rapid iodide efflux. We investigated uptake and therapeutic efficacy of 211 At in LNCaP cells stably expressing NIS under the control of the PSA promoter (NP-1) in vitro and in vivo. NP-1 cells concentrated 211 At in a perchlorate-sensitive manner, which allowed a dramatic therapeutic effect in vitro. After intrapertoneal injection of 211 At (1 MBq), NP-1 tumors accumulated approximately 16% ID/g 211 At (effective half-life 4.6 h), which resulted in a tumor-absorbed dose of 1,580 ± 345 mGy/MBq and a significant tumor volume reduction of up to 82 ± 19%, while control tumors continued their growth exponentially. A significant therapeutic effect of 211 At has been demonstrated in prostate cancer after PSA promoter-directed NIS gene transfer in vitro and in vivo suggesting a potential role for 211 At as an attractive alternative radioisotope for NIS-targeted radionuclide therapy, in particular in smaller tumors with limited radionuclide retention time. (orig.)

  2. Stable isotopes as tracers for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giussani, A.; Bartolo, D. de; Cantone, M.C.; Zilker, T.; Greim, H.; Roth, P.; Werner, E.

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of internal dose after incorporation of radionuclides requires as input data the knowledge of the uptake into the systemic circulation, the distribution and retention in selected organs, the excretion pathways. Realistic biokinetic models are needed for reliable estimates, correct interpretation of bioassay measurements, appropriate decision-making in radiological emergencies. For many radionuclides, however, the biokinetic models currently recommended are often generic, with very few specific parameters, due to the lack of experimental human data. The use of stable isotopes as tracers enables to determine important biokinetic parameters such as the fractional uptake, the clearance from the transfer compartment, the excretion patterns under experimentally controlled conditions. The subjects investigated are not exposed to any radiation risk, so this technique enables to obtain biokinetic information also for sensitive groups of the population, such as children or pregnant women, and to determine age- and gender-specific model parameters. Sophisticated analytical method, able to discriminate and quantitate different isotopes of the same element in complex matrices such as biological fluids, have to be purposely developed and optimized. Activation analysis and mass spectrometry are the most proper techniques of choice. Experiments were conducted with molybdenum, tellurium, ruthenium and zirconium. Activation analysis with protons, thermal ionization mass spectrometry and inductively coupled mass spectrometry were employed for the determination of stable isotopes of these elements in blood plasma and urine samples. Several deviations from the predictions of the ICRP models were observed. For example, modifications to the current model for molybdenum have been suggested on the basis of these results. The dose coefficients to the target regions calculated with this proposed model are even of one order of magnitude different than the ICRP estimates

  3. 188Re(V) Nitrido Radiopharmaceuticals for Radionuclide Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Alessandra; Martini, Petra; Uccelli, Licia

    2017-01-19

    The favorable nuclear properties of rhenium-188 for therapeutic application are described, together with new methods for the preparation of high yield and stable 188 Re radiopharmaceuticals characterized by the presence of the nitride rhenium core in their final chemical structure. 188 Re is readily available from an 188 W/ 188 Re generator system and a parallelism between the general synthetic procedures applied for the preparation of nitride technetium-99m and rhenium-188 theranostics radiopharmaceuticals is reported. Although some differences between the chemical characteristics of the two metallic nitrido fragments are highlighted, it is apparent that the same general procedures developed for the labelling of biologically active molecules with technetium-99m can be applied to rhenium-188 with minor modification. The availability of these chemical strategies, that allow the obtainment, in very high yield and in physiological condition, of 188 Re radiopharmaceuticals, gives a new attractive prospective to employ this radionuclide for therapeutic applications.

  4. 188Re(V) Nitrido Radiopharmaceuticals for Radionuclide Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Alessandra; Martini, Petra; Uccelli, Licia

    2017-01-01

    The favorable nuclear properties of rhenium-188 for therapeutic application are described, together with new methods for the preparation of high yield and stable 188Re radiopharmaceuticals characterized by the presence of the nitride rhenium core in their final chemical structure. 188Re is readily available from an 188W/188Re generator system and a parallelism between the general synthetic procedures applied for the preparation of nitride technetium-99m and rhenium-188 theranostics radiopharmaceuticals is reported. Although some differences between the chemical characteristics of the two metallic nitrido fragments are highlighted, it is apparent that the same general procedures developed for the labelling of biologically active molecules with technetium-99m can be applied to rhenium-188 with minor modification. The availability of these chemical strategies, that allow the obtainment, in very high yield and in physiological condition, of 188Re radiopharmaceuticals, gives a new attractive prospective to employ this radionuclide for therapeutic applications. PMID:28106830

  5. Phytoremediation of radionuclides: an emerging alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shraddha

    2013-01-01

    Proliferation of nuclear power industry, nuclear weapon testing, dismantling of existing nuclear weapons and occasional accidents have contributed to an enhancement in the level of radionuclides in the environment. The radionuclides due to their long half life and transfer through the food chain effect adversely to normal biological systems. Hence, it is essential to effectively remove the radionuclides from contaminated soils and solutions. Phytoremediation - the use of plants for remediation of toxic metals and radionuclides has been recognized as an aesthetically pleasing, low cost and environment friendly in situ method. Phytoremediation is an umbrella term which covers several plant based approaches. Plants have shown the potential of remediation of these radionuclides from spiked solutions, low level nuclear waste and soil. Various aspects of phytoremediation as well as potential of various plants for remediation of radionuclides will be discussed here. (author)

  6. Radionuclide transport processes in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Some major principles and the status of knowledge concerning the transport of radionuclides through terrestrial ecosystems are reviewed. Fundamental processes which control the flow of radionuclides between ecosystem components such as air, soil, plants, and animals are described, with emphasis on deposition, resuspension, plant uptake, ingestion, and assimilation. Properties of radionuclides, organisms, and ecosystems are examined in relation to their influence on the accumulation of radioactive materials by plants and animals. The effects of the physicochemical nature of the radionuclide; morphology, physiology, and behavior of the organism; and soil, nutrient, and trophic characteristics of the ecosystem are highlighted. Observations in natural ecosystems on radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 131 I, 3 H, and 239 Pu are used to illustrate current concepts. An assessment of the degree to which the processes controlling radionuclide behavior are understood and of our ability to simulate and predict such behavior with computerized models is offered. Finally, brief comments are made on research needs

  7. Radionuclides in the study of marine processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, P.J.; Woodhead, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    For many years, the radioactive properties of the naturally occurring radionuclides have been used to determine their distributions in the marine environment and, more generally, to gain an understanding of the dynamic processes which control their behaviour in attaining these distributions. More recently the inputs from human activities of both natural and artificial (i.e. man-made) radionuclides have provided additional opportunities for the study of marine processes on local, regional and global scales. The primary objective of the symposium is to provide a forum for an open discussion of the insights concerning processes in the marine environment which can be gained from studies of radionuclide behaviour. Papers have been grouped within the following principal themes; the uses of radionuclides as tracers of water transport; scavenging and particulate transport processes in the oceans as deduced from radionuclide behaviour; processes in the seabed and radionuclides in biological systems. (Author)

  8. Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S.; Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R.

    1994-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., 60 Co and 106 Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters

  9. Model of metastatic growth valuable for radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, Peter; Ahlman, Haakan; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2003-01-01

    The aim was to make a Monte Carlo simulation approach to estimate the distribution of tumor sizes and to study the curative potential of three candidate radionuclides for radionuclide therapy: the high-energy electron emitter 90 Y, the medium-energy electron emitter 177 Lu and the low-energy electron emitter 103m Rh. A patient with hepatocellular carcinoma with recently published serial CT data on tumor growth in the liver was used. From these data the growth of the primary tumor, and the metastatis formation rate, were estimated. Assuming the same tumor growth of the primary and all metastases and the same metastatis formation rate from both primary and metastases the metastatic size distribution was simulated for various time points. Tumor cure of the metastatic size distribution was simulated for uniform activity distribution of three radionuclides; the high-energy electron emitter 90 Y, the mean-energy electron emitter 177 Lu and the low-energy electron emitter 103m Rh. The simulation of a tumor cure was performed for various time points and tumor-to-normal tissue activity concentrations, TNC. It was demonstrated that it is important to start therapy as early as possible after diagnosis. It was of crucial importance to use an optimal radionuclide for therapy. These simulations demonstrated that 90 Y was not suitable for systemic radionuclide therapy, due to the low absorbed fraction of the emitted electrons in small tumors ( 103m Rh was slightly better than 177 Lu. For high TNC values low-energy electron emitters, e.g., 103m Rh was the best choice for tumor cure. However, the short half-life of 103m Rh (56 min) might not be optimal for therapy. Therefore, other low-energy electron emitters, or alpha emitters, should be considered for systemic targeted therapy

  10. Production of radionuclides with generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khujaev, S.; Egamediev, S.Kh.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The radionuclide generator provides a convenient means for researchers and clinicians to obtain a source of radionuclides without dependence on nuclear facilities (nuclear reactor or cyclotron). It should be noted that radionuclide generator technique yields products of very high purity and it offers moreover the only possible way of obtaining very short-lived radionuclides for practical applications. Therefore at present radionuclide generators have found important uses in nuclear medicine. This talk reviews the development of preparation methods for radionuclide generators of current interest: 99 Mo- 99m Tc, 188 W- 188 Re and 68 Ge- 68 Ga. 99 Mo- 99m Tc generator. 99m Tc is presently the most widely used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The reason for such a preeminent position of 99m Tc in clinical uses is its extremely favorable nuclear properties with γ-energy of 140 keV and short half-life of 6 hours. Chromatographic generator of 99 Mo- 99m Tc based on aluminium oxide using as eluent of isotonic saline solution, containing nitrate-ions has been produced in INP AS RU. However, the main disadvantage of this generator is that the eluent-saline solution contains some amount of nitrate-ions. Nitrate-ions added to maximize and stabilize 99m Tc yields would interfere with the chemical reactions which involve Sn(II) reduction of the pertechnetate ion and which are used subsequently in the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. Therefore we proposed the new method for preliminary treatment of aluminium oxide by the external gamma (Co-60) irradiation. It is found that the aluminium oxide has got electron-acceptor properties after gamma-irradiation. Adsorption of 99 Mo radionuclide as isopolymolybdate on gamma-irradiated aluminium oxide is very high and molybdenum is firmly retained. Adsorption capacity of gamma-irradiated aluminium oxide at pH 2-4 is 60-80 mg Mo per gram of Al 2 O 3 . The yields of 99m Tc from experimental generators remained high

  11. DKPRO: A radionuclide decay and reprocessing code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, D.; Schmittroth, F.A.

    1997-01-01

    The DKPRO code solves the general problem of modeling complex nuclear wastes streams using ORIGEN2 radionuclide production files. There is a continuing need for estimates of Hanford radionuclides. Physical measurements are one basis; calculational estimates, the approach represented here, are another. Given a known nuclear fuel history, it is relatively straightforward to calculate radionuclide inventories with codes such as the widely-used Oak Ridge National Laboratory code ORIGEN2

  12. Radionuclide usage survey 1979-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.J.

    1980-08-01

    Details of a survey by the Life Sciences Working Group of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM) on radionuclide usage by medical physicists in 11 countries are presented. The results indicate that the radionuclide which will be of most significance in the future will be F-18, Fe-52, Ga-67, Ga-68, Kr-81m, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, Xe-127 and Tl-201, (U.K.)

  13. Preparation of porous materials for radionuclides capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajzikova, Anna; Smrcek, Stanislav; Kozempel, Jan; Vlk, Martin; Barta, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Porous materials showing promise for radionuclide capture from water at contaminated sites were prepared. Nanoporous materials (size of pores 1-100 nm) and some polymers are well suited to this purpose owing their affinity for selected radionuclides. Nanoporous metal oxides and silica gel with styrene-divinylbenzene-TODGA-modified surface were prepared, characterized and tested for radionuclide ( 227 Ac, 227 Th, 223 Ra) capture efficiency. (orig.)

  14. Report on the Technical Meeting on Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the TM was to provide an experts' platform to facilitate exploring the current status and future directions on therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. The invited talks and presentations in the TM were in the following topics: - Radionuclide Production; - Production and availability of alpha emitters and their radiopharmaceuticals; - Therapeutic radiopharmaceutical chemistry; - Targets and biological evaluation; - Medical physics and dosimetry; - Clinical applications including radioimmunotherapy and clinical needs; - Peptide receptor mediated therapy Panel discussions: - Radionuclide therapy using alpha emitters; - Regulatory challenges with therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals; - International activities in radionuclide therapy. he technical meeting generated a large interest among scientists and physicians working in the field of targeted therapy using radiopharmaceuticals. Participants from both developed and developing MS reported on recent developments on the research work and clinical studies going on in the field and provided their views on the future developments in this field. The unexpected high number of participants and the high number of presentations with exceptional quality underlines the great interest of scientists and professionals in therapeutic applications using radiolabelled drugs / biomolecules. The intensive discussions including panels specified the challenges in the future on developing novel agents and to finally use them for the benefit of patients. The IAEA can play as vital role in streamlining developments and to provide tools to overcome scientific, professional and regulatory challenges in the field of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals

  15. Report on the Technical Meeting on Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the TM was to provide an experts' platform to facilitate exploring the current status and future directions on therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. The invited talks and presentations in the TM were in the following topics: - Radionuclide Production; - Production and availability of alpha emitters and their radiopharmaceuticals; - Therapeutic radiopharmaceutical chemistry; - Targets and biological evaluation; - Medical physics and dosimetry; - Clinical applications including radioimmunotherapy and clinical needs; - Peptide receptor mediated therapy Panel discussions: - Radionuclide therapy using alpha emitters; - Regulatory challenges with therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals; - International activities in radionuclide therapy. he technical meeting generated a large interest among scientists and physicians working in the field of targeted therapy using radiopharmaceuticals. Participants from both developed and developing MS reported on recent developments on the research work and clinical studies going on in the field and provided their views on the future developments in this field. The unexpected high number of participants and the high number of presentations with exceptional quality underlines the great interest of scientists and professionals in therapeutic applications using radiolabelled drugs / biomolecules. The intensive discussions including panels specified the challenges in the future on developing novel agents and to finally use them for the benefit of patients. The IAEA can play as vital role in streamlining developments and to provide tools to overcome scientific, professional and regulatory challenges in the field of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals

  16. Characterization of radionuclide-chelating agent complexes found in low-level radioactive decontamination waste. Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; Felmy, A.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Krupka, K.M.; Campbell, J.A.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K.

    1996-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is responsible for regulating the safe land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes that may contain organic chelating agents. Such agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), picolinic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid, and can form radionuclide-chelate complexes that may enhance the migration of radionuclides from disposal sites. Data from the available literature indicate that chelates can leach from solidified decontamination wastes in moderate concentration (1--100 ppm) and can potentially complex certain radionuclides in the leachates. In general it appears that both EDTA and DTPA have the potential to mobilize radionuclides from waste disposal sites because such chelates can leach in moderate concentration, form strong radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be recalcitrant to biodegradation. It also appears that oxalic acid and citric acid will not greatly enhance the mobility of radionuclides from waste disposal sites because these chelates do not appear to leach in high concentration, tend to form relatively weak radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be readily biodegraded. In the case of picolinic acid, insufficient data are available on adsorption, complexation of key radionuclides (such as the actinides), and biodegradation to make definitive predictions, although the available data indicate that picolinic acid can chelate certain radionuclides in the leachates

  17. Characterization of radionuclide-chelating agent complexes found in low-level radioactive decontamination waste. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Felmy, A.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Krupka, K.M.; Campbell, J.A.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is responsible for regulating the safe land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes that may contain organic chelating agents. Such agents include ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), picolinic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid, and can form radionuclide-chelate complexes that may enhance the migration of radionuclides from disposal sites. Data from the available literature indicate that chelates can leach from solidified decontamination wastes in moderate concentration (1--100 ppm) and can potentially complex certain radionuclides in the leachates. In general it appears that both EDTA and DTPA have the potential to mobilize radionuclides from waste disposal sites because such chelates can leach in moderate concentration, form strong radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be recalcitrant to biodegradation. It also appears that oxalic acid and citric acid will not greatly enhance the mobility of radionuclides from waste disposal sites because these chelates do not appear to leach in high concentration, tend to form relatively weak radionuclide-chelate complexes, and can be readily biodegraded. In the case of picolinic acid, insufficient data are available on adsorption, complexation of key radionuclides (such as the actinides), and biodegradation to make definitive predictions, although the available data indicate that picolinic acid can chelate certain radionuclides in the leachates.

  18. Radionuclide therapy in Russia: Experience, problems, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyb, A.F.; Drozdovsky, B. Ya.; Garbuzov, P.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Radionuclide therapy in Russia has more than 50-years history. Radioiodine has been successfully used for the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer and toxic goiter. Au-198 colloidal solution was used in the therapy of synovitis as well as mesothelioma. P-32 was used for polycythemia vera and metastatic bone pain palliation. The treatment was routinely performed in various radiological clinics. However, after the Chernobyl accident and due to more stringent radiation safety measures, it is now exclusively performed in the clinic of Medical Radiological Research Center RAMS, Obninsk. For the last 20 years, more than 10000 patients have been treated in the clinic including 200 children, mainly from the contaminated regions of Chernobyl accident. The palliative treatment of bone metastases is performed with home-produced 89Sr chloride in outpatient clinics and 153Sm-oxabifore in the clinic of MRRC. Nowadays majority of the 160 radionuclides of 80 chemical elements are produced in Russia and exported. Of these, only three are commonly used for therapy purposes, most common being the 131I for treatment of toxic goiter and thyroid differentiated cancer (about 2000 GBq annually). In Russia more than 50 thousand patients suffer from thyroid diseases. Other therapies include bone metastases with marked pain syndrome and hard bone and joint diseases. Radionuclide therapy in Russia is being expanded with the creation of radionuclide therapy departments in each region including Center of Nuclear Medicine and Radiopharmaceutics (CNMAR) in Obninsk. This city has many research and medical institutes, nuclear-physical and radiochemical departments with highly skilled personnel and industrial production of medical radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals. Obninsk has a convenient geographical location for easy transportation of radiopharmaceuticals and patients. Under the aegis of CNMAR, many research works are being carried out to make radionuclide therapy more

  19. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging for cardiac gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inubushi, Masayuki; Tamaki, Nagara

    2007-01-01

    In the field of cardiac gene therapy, angiogenic gene therapy has been most extensively investigated. The first clinical trial of cardiac angiogenic gene therapy was reported in 1998, and at the peak, more than 20 clinical trial protocols were under evaluation. However, most trials have ceased owing to the lack of decisive proof of therapeutic effects and the potential risks of viral vectors. In order to further advance cardiac angiogenic gene therapy, remaining open issues need to be resolved: there needs to be improvement of gene transfer methods, regulation of gene expression, development of much safer vectors and optimisation of therapeutic genes. For these purposes, imaging of gene expression in living organisms is of great importance. In radionuclide reporter gene imaging, ''reporter genes'' transferred into cell nuclei encode for a protein that retains a complementary ''reporter probe'' of a positron or single-photon emitter; thus expression of the reporter genes can be imaged with positron emission tomography or single-photon emission computed tomography. Accordingly, in the setting of gene therapy, the location, magnitude and duration of the therapeutic gene co-expression with the reporter genes can be monitored non-invasively. In the near future, gene therapy may evolve into combination therapy with stem/progenitor cell transplantation, so-called cell-based gene therapy or gene-modified cell therapy. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging is now expected to contribute in providing evidence on the usefulness of this novel therapeutic approach, as well as in investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying neovascularisation and safety issues relevant to further progress in conventional gene therapy. (orig.)

  20. The IAEA Activities on Supporting Development of Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals and Capacity Building in Member States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillai, M R.A.; Haji-Saeid, M; Zaknun, J; Ramamoorthy, N [Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    The IAEA activities on supporting development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals are focused on identified radionuclides that can be produced in large quantities and making use of carrier molecules which can be synthesized locally or procured from commercial sources or already available in MS from other related programs. The main emphasis is on {sup 90}Y and {sup 177}Lu based products, which cover the hard beta energy and soft beta energy range respectively, and also since both these radionuclides can be produced in large quantities with very high specific activity and high radionuclidic purity. The services to MS are provided through implementing Coordinated Research Projects (CRP), Technical Cooperation (TC) projects, technical meetings and regional training courses in addition to documenting practically useful technical information related to these products though IAEA publications. The CRP is a group activity in which nearly 15 participants from as many countries come together to work towards an identified objective. Two of the completed CRPs in this area are: (i) Comparative evaluation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals (2002-2005) that focussed on the development of 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' techniques for evaluating new generation therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals; and (ii) Development of generator technologies for therapeutic radionuclides (2004-2007) that addressed technologies for {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generators and which can be easily adapted by MS. The participants in the CRP on 'Comparative evaluation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals' used the somatostatin analogue, DOTATATE as the lead molecule for developing radiopharmaceuticals and testing the efficacy by in vitro biological assays and animal biodistribution studies. A significant outcome of the CRP was that {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE therapy is now practised in several of the CRP participating countries including Brazil, India, Italy, and Poland. The major outcome of the CRP

  1. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruk, A.V.; Goncharenko, G.G.; Kilchevsky, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  2. Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, V.H.

    1981-03-01

    In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain

  3. Targeted radionuclide therapy for solid tumors: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Nardo, Sally J.; De Nardo, Gerald L.

    2006-01-01

    Although radioimmunotherapy (RIT) has been effective in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) as a single agent, solid tumors have shown less clinically significant therapeutic response to RIT alone. The clinical impact of RIT or other forms of targeted radionuclide therapy for solid tumors depends on the development of a high therapeutic index (TI) for the tumor vs. normal tissue effect, and the implementation of RIT as part of synergistic combined modality therapy (CMRIT). Preclinical and clinical studies have provided a wealth of information, and new prototypes or paradigms have shed light on future possibilities in many instances. Evidence suggests that combination and sequencing of RIT in CMRIT appropriately can provide effective treatment for many solid tumors. Vascular targets provide RIT enhancement opportunities and nanoparticles may prove to be effective carriers for RIT combined with intracellular drug delivery or alternating magnetic frequency (AMF) induced thermal tumor necrosis. The sequence and timing of combined modality treatments will be of critical importance to achieve synergy for therapy while minimizing toxicity. Fortunately, the radionuclide used for RIT also provides a signal useful for nondestructive quantitation of the influence of sequence and timing of CMRIT on events in animals and patients. This can be readily accomplished clinically using quantitative high-resolution imaging (e.g., positron emission tomography [PET])

  4. Radionuclide transport through heteogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadermann, J.

    1980-01-01

    One-dimensional radionuclide migration for conevective water transport with sorption and longitudinal dispersion is investigated. A semianalytic solution for layered media with piecewise constant parametes can be written when taking into account mass conservation and approximate flux conservation at interlayer boundaries. The solution is analytic in the first layer and allows for a recursive calculation in the following layers. Scaling laws for the relevant parameters can be formulated. Numerical examples exhibit the importance of at least a single highly sorbing layer. Small values of dispersivity may not lead to a conservative estimate of conservation at the geological column's end

  5. Radionuclide transfer to meadow vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.; Matsko, N.; Zhebrakova, I.; Montik, T.

    1999-01-01

    In the paper results of radioecological monitoring of natural plant populations in the 30 km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Polesky State Radioecological Reserve) during the period from 1987 to 1998 are presented. The level of radiation background in experimental areas varied from 0.1 to 30 mR/h that correspond to the total soil activity of 300-24000 kBq/m 2 (for May 1997). Monitoring was carried out including the radionuclide migration in natural plant complexes and transfer of 137 Cs between some plant organs. Refs. 3 (author)

  6. Dosimetry of incorporated transuranic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loessner, V.

    1983-01-01

    Modern in vivo and in vitro techniques for detecting transuranic radionuclides within the human body are described with special emphasis on multiparameter measuring methods developed at the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. Furthermore, problems related to calibration and interpretation of measuring data are discussed and new methods presented for the calculation of committed dose equivalents on the basis of data from ICRP Publication 30. Also included is an introductory chapter on radiobiological fundamentals of intake, translocation and metabolism of these nuclides. (author)

  7. Dietary intake of natural radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Briggs, J L; Bradley, E J [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (UK)

    1984-09-01

    The levels of the natural radionuclides, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 were measured in food samples collected for a National Food Survey, thus reflecting current consumption patterns in the UK. Daily intakes of radium-226, lead-210 and inferred values of polonium-210 were calculated for 20 food groups. From these data, the annual effective dose equivalents from radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in the UK diet were estimated to be 3..mu..Sv, 41..mu..Sv and 13..mu..Sv respectively.

  8. Dietary intake of natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith-Briggs, J.L.; Bradley, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    The levels of the natural radionuclides, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 were measured in food samples collected for a National Food Survey, thus reflecting current consumption patterns in the UK. Daily intakes of radium-226, lead-210 and inferred values of polonium-210 were calculated for 20 food groups. From these data, the annual effective dose equivalents from radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in the UK diet were estimated to be 3μSv, 41μSv and 13μSv respectively. (U.K.)

  9. Organic migration forms of radionuclides and performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Gouqing

    2010-01-01

    Much attention is paid to inorganic migration forms of radionuclides in groundwater during performance assessment before and organic migration forms, are seldom noted. Therefore some question may come into confidence level in performance assessment. This paper mainly discusses the distribution of organic substances in groundwater and their potential effect on performance assessment. The results obtained in recent years show that clay rocks are generally impermeable to water, but in some cases the interstitial water may be observed in them and the concentration of DOC, HA and FA is rather higher than that in granitic groundwater. The concentration of DOC is relatively low in granitic groundwater, but up to now the effect of organic migration forms of radionuclides in granitic groundwater on performance assessment is not finally determined, it is necessary to make further investigations. (authors)

  10. Metals, Metalloids and Radionuclides in the Baltic Sea Ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szefer, P.

    2002-01-01

    The state of knowledge of the distribution, bioavailability, biomagnification, discrimination, fate and sources of chemical pollutants (metals, metalloids, radionuclides and nutrients) in all compartments (atmosphere, water, deposits, biota) of the Baltic environment is presented. Particular components of the Baltic ecosystem are considered as potential monitors of pollutants. Budgets of chemical elements and the ecological status of the Baltic Sea in the past, present and future are presented. Estimates of health risks to man in respect to some toxic metals and radionuclides in fish and seafood are briefly discussed. The content of the book makes possible the identification of gaps in our environmental knowledge of the Baltic Sea, with certain sections establishing possible priorities, key areas or strategies for future research

  11. Considering clay rock heterogeneity in radionuclide retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, B.; Montavon, G.; Tournassat, C.; Giffaut, E.; Altmann, S.

    2010-01-01

    considering the measured mass fraction of illite, I/S, and kaolinite. Five values were fitted simultaneous in the overall fit: the CECs of the kaolinite, the smectite and illite components as well as the illite fraction in both R0 and R1 I/S. For transport calculations of radionuclides it is important to know which part of the overall porosity belongs to the micropores and which to the interlayers of the smectite layers in the inter-stratified I/S. Making the hypothesis that, at the given degree of compaction, these interlayers are hydrated by two water layers one could calculate the fraction of micropores in total porosity from the measured I/S content and the fitted I/S ratio given for either R0 or R1. For high smectite contents there is about twice as much water in interlayers than in the micropores, while there is much more water in the micropores in case of low smectite contents. The retention and porosity models for Bentonite have been adapted successfully to argillite samples for various drill cores assuming additivity of the various mineralogical contributions, in particular illite and I/S and of the illite to smectite ratio in I/S. The approach leads to a reasonable quantitative representation of the CEC as well as of surface complexation site densities as a function of depth and mineralogical composition. Ratios of micropores to interlayer pore space were obtained as well. The good correlation of calculated and measured retention data for Cs and for Ni gave reasonable justification to apply the model for the prediction of K d variations of Cs all along a drill core. Predicted values vary by about a factor of 10. (authors)

  12. Interaction of radionuclides with diluvium loams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martyanov, V.V.; Guskov, A.V.; Tkachenko, A.V.; Prozorov, L.B.; Karlina, O.K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Primary goal of this research was to study the interaction of radioactive liquid waste with diluvium loams. A geology-hydro-geological characterisation of the RADON-site facility, located in the Southern Region of Russia, is given. According to the results of laboratory and field studies, the hydro-geological parameters of diluvium loams were designed, and their mineral and grain structures were investigated. It was established, that loams have low filtration properties. Definition of filtration coefficients (Kf) under laboratory conditions has shown low values (hydraulic gradient J=10, Kf = 8.10 -4 m/day). But the field experiment has shown, that Kf values vary from 0.1 up to 0.04 m/day with a gradient of J=1! (It is important to point at the selection of the initial data for modelling migration). Mineral structure: quartz - 43 %, montmorillonite - 28 %, hydro-micas - 17 %, iron hydroxides - 5 %, feldspar - 3,7 %, kaolinite - 2 %, carbonates - 1 %, organics - 0,3 %. The content of minerals known as good sorbents, makes up to 52 %. Laboratory experiments dedicated to the determination of sorption isotherms for various radionuclides were carried out. As a result, distribution coefficients (Kd) for 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co, 238 Pu were determined. Geology-hydro-geological and radiochemical data were used for the schematization of the system. Then, the mathematical modelling and forecasting of radionuclide migration was carried out. Two conservative scenarios were considered - full destruction of the waste matrices + water flow (lateral and vertical direction). As migrating components 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co, 238 Pu were considered. 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co, 238 Pu have different mobility due to their Kd ranging from tens and hundreds up to thousand ml/g depending on the properties of the diluvium loams. Initial radionuclide concentrations were as follow: 137 Cs -1.32.10 8 Bq/l, 60 Co - 2.52.10 7 Bq/l, 90 Sr - 1.81.10 7 Bq/l, 238 Pu - 7.78.10 6

  13. The speciation, stability, solubility and biodegradation of organic co-contaminant radionuclide complexes: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keith-Roach, Miranda J.

    2008-01-01

    The potential migration of radionuclides is of concern at contaminated land sites and, in the long term, waste repositories. Pathways of migration need to be characterised on a predictive level so that management decisions can be made with confidence. A pathway that is relatively poorly understood at present is radionuclide solubilisation due to complexation by organic complexing agents that are present in mixed radioactive wastes, and at radioactively contaminated land sites. Interactions of the complexing agents with radionuclides and the host environment, and the response to changes in the physicochemical conditions make their role far from simple to elucidate. In addition, chemical and biodegradation of the organic materials may be important. In this paper, key co-contaminant organics are reviewed with emphasis on their environmental fate and impact on radionuclide migration

  14. The speciation, stability, solubility and biodegradation of organic co-contaminant radionuclide complexes: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith-Roach, Miranda J. [Biogeochemistry and Environmental Analytical Chemistry Group/Consolidated Radio-isotope Facility, School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: mkeith-roach@plymouth.ac.uk

    2008-06-15

    The potential migration of radionuclides is of concern at contaminated land sites and, in the long term, waste repositories. Pathways of migration need to be characterised on a predictive level so that management decisions can be made with confidence. A pathway that is relatively poorly understood at present is radionuclide solubilisation due to complexation by organic complexing agents that are present in mixed radioactive wastes, and at radioactively contaminated land sites. Interactions of the complexing agents with radionuclides and the host environment, and the response to changes in the physicochemical conditions make their role far from simple to elucidate. In addition, chemical and biodegradation of the organic materials may be important. In this paper, key co-contaminant organics are reviewed with emphasis on their environmental fate and impact on radionuclide migration.

  15. Realistic assessment of the radiological impact due to radionuclide releases to the terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proehl, G.

    2007-01-01

    Radioecological models are inherently associated with uncertainties, since ecological parameters are subject to a more or less pronounced variability; furthermore, the knowledge of the exposure conditions is - even in the best case - incomplete. To keep models simple and widely applicable and to avoid at the same time underestimations, parameters are selected with a conservative bias. However, conservative results are not appropriate for decision making and optimisation. To discuss the prevention of overly conservative models, in this paper, some selected processes are analysed that are involved in the transfer of radionuclides in the environment as e.g. interception of radionuclides deposited during precipitation by vegetation, systemic transport of radionuclides, migration of radionuclides in soil and speciation in soil. These processes are characterized, and it is discussed which factors should be integrated in modelling to achieve more realistic results. (author)

  16. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Park, Hyun Soo

    2003-04-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. This project is composed of 6 subjects such as data production required for safety assessments, sorption properties and mechanisms, nuclide migration in the fractured rock, colloid formation and migration, nuclide speciation in deep geological environments, and total evaluation of geochemical behaviors considering multi-factors. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  17. Stochastic approach for radionuclides quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, A.; Saurel, N.; Perrin, G.

    2018-01-01

    Gamma spectrometry is a passive non-destructive assay used to quantify radionuclides present in more or less complex objects. Basic methods using empirical calibration with a standard in order to quantify the activity of nuclear materials by determining the calibration coefficient are useless on non-reproducible, complex and single nuclear objects such as waste packages. Package specifications as composition or geometry change from one package to another and involve a high variability of objects. Current quantification process uses numerical modelling of the measured scene with few available data such as geometry or composition. These data are density, material, screen, geometric shape, matrix composition, matrix and source distribution. Some of them are strongly dependent on package data knowledge and operator backgrounds. The French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) is developing a new methodology to quantify nuclear materials in waste packages and waste drums without operator adjustment and internal package configuration knowledge. This method suggests combining a global stochastic approach which uses, among others, surrogate models available to simulate the gamma attenuation behaviour, a Bayesian approach which considers conditional probability densities of problem inputs, and Markov Chains Monte Carlo algorithms (MCMC) which solve inverse problems, with gamma ray emission radionuclide spectrum, and outside dimensions of interest objects. The methodology is testing to quantify actinide activity in different kind of matrix, composition, and configuration of sources standard in terms of actinide masses, locations and distributions. Activity uncertainties are taken into account by this adjustment methodology.

  18. Infusion of radionuclides throughout pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford-Lister, P.G.; Lambert, B.E.; Milner, A.C.; Kang, X.Z.

    1992-01-01

    This work is part of a long-term study to examine the cancer incidence in the offspring of mice exposed to 239 Pu or 147 Pm throughout pregnancy. The need to model the human intake scenario and the possibility of a critical period during uterine development necessitates constant availability of radionuclides throughout pregnancy. Various methods (multiple daily injections, infusion by external cannula and infusion by indwelling osmotic pump) have been examined and osmotic infusion pumps chosen. These pumps result in a near-constant blood concentration for up to 21 days. Part of the study is the estimation of dose to the critical haemopoietic tissues of the pup from a knowledge of the radionuclide distribution and kinetics. At present the distribution has been followed from birth to 180 days. Activity in the suckling pups at 7 days old is around 1 percent of the infused activity, though most of this is accounted for by the contents of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract. The liver and femur account for around 0.025 percent and 0.012 percent respectively per pup. Activity increases in both liver and femur during lactation after which both concentration and activity fall with time. Long-term studies with the pups of dams exposed to a range of 239 Pu concentrations between 0-70 kBq/kg are underway. Correlation of average organ dose with tumour incidence will be determined at completion of the life-span study. (Author) 39 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  19. Sedimentary Processes. Quantification Using Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, J.; Lerche, I.

    2003-01-01

    The advent of radionuclide methods in geochronology has revolutionized our understanding of modern sedimentary processes in aquatic systems. This book examines the principles of the method and its use as a quantitative tool in marine geology, with emphasis on the Pb-210 method. The assumptions and consequences of models and their behaviour are described providing the necessary background to assess the advantages and trade-offs involved when choosing a particular model for application. One of the purposes of this volume is to disentangle the influences of complicating factors, such as sediment flux variations, post-depositional diffusion of radionuclides, and bio-irrigation of sediments, to arrive at sediment ages and to properly assess the attendant data uncertainty. Environmental impacts of chemical, nuclear, or other waste material are of concern in a variety of areas around the world today. A number of relevant examples are included, demonstrating how dating models are useful for determining sources of contaminants and interpreting their influence on the environment. The book is set at a level so that an able student or professional should have no difficulty in following the procedures and methods developed. Each chapter includes case histories showing the strengths and weaknesses of a given procedure with respect to a data example. Included with this volume is the computer source code of a new generation of modelling tools based on inverse numerical analysis techniques. This first generation of the modelling tool is included, along with detailed instructions and examples for its use, in an appendix

  20. Radionuclide transit in esophageal varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, S.H.; Wang, S.J.; Wu, L.C.; Liu, R.S.; Tsai, Y.T.; Chiang, T.T.

    1985-01-01

    This study assessed esophageal motility in patients with esophageal varices by radionuclide transit studies. Data were acquired in list mode after an oral dose of 0.5 mCi Tc-99m sulfur colloid in 10 ml of water in the supine position above a low-energy all-purpose collimator of a gamma camera. The condensed image (CI) superimposed with a centroid curve was also produced in each case. Twenty-five normal subjects (N) and 32 patients (pts) with esophageal varices by endoscopy (large varices in Grades IV and V in 8 and small varices in Grade III or less in 24) were studied. TMTT, RTT, RF, and RI were all significantly increased in pts as compared to N. Especially, the transit time for the middle third (6.7 +- 2.6 sec vs 3.5 +- 0.9 sec in N, rho < 0.005) had the optimal sensitivy and specificity of 88% each at the cutoff value of 4.2 sec as determined by ROC analysis. In summary, radionuclide transit disorders occur in the majority of pts with esopageal varices. The middle RTT and CI are both optimal in sensitivity and specificity for detecting the abnormalities

  1. Radionuclide analysis of bush food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koperski, J.; Bywater, J.

    1985-01-01

    A model diet for an Aboriginal adult living entirely on bush foods collected from the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has been established. Results of investigations of the specific activities of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in 123 samples of bush foods collected by Ranger Uranium Mines Pty Ltd during pre-production and production periods are presented. For all the investigated bush food items, excluding freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi), no systematic differences were found between the specific activities of the radionuclides monitored in food items sampled during preproduction and production periods. Preliminary estimates of annual effective dose equivalent (DE) rates for stochastic effects on an adult living entirely on the model bush diet are presented. Of the four radionuclides monitored the major contributor to the effective DE rates appears to be lead-210 followed by radium-226. Among the selected nine components of the diet the major contributor to the effective DE rates appear to be mussels, water lilies and fish

  2. Radionuclide analysis of bush food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koperski, J; Bywater, J [Ranger Uranium Mines Proprietary Ltd., Chatswood (Australia)

    1985-04-01

    A model diet for an Aboriginal adult living entirely on bush foods collected from the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has been established. Results of investigations of the specific activities of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in 123 samples of bush foods collected by Ranger Uranium Mines Pty. Ltd. during pre-production and production periods are presented. For all the investigated bush food items, excluding freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi), no systematic differences were found between the specific activities of the radionuclides monitored in food items sampled during preproduction and production periods. Preliminary estimates of annual effective dose equivalent (DE) rates for stochastic effects on an adult living entirely on the model bush diet are presented. Of the four radionuclides monitored the major contributor to the effective DE rates appears to be lead-210 followed by radium-226. Among the selected nine components of the diet the major contributor to the effective DE rates appear to be mussels, water lilies and fish.

  3. Determining of leakage rate of radionuclides Co-60 and Cs-137 in real conditioning; Odredjivanje brzine procurivanja radionuklida Co-60 i Cs-137 u realnim uslovima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plecas, I; Peric, A; Kostadinovic, A [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1989-07-01

    In this paper, results of examination of LEAKAGE rate of radionuclides Co-60 and Cs-137 in real condition are given. Radionuclides Co-60 and Cs-137 were immobilized by cement process and conditioned in concrete containers trying to make similar scenario for repository of radioactive waste materials as in engineering trench systems. Experiments were realized with evaporator bottom concentrate (EB) from Nuclear Power Plant Krsko in which the main radionuclides are Co-60 and Cs-137. (author)

  4. The radionuclide migration model in river system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukova, O.M.; Shiryaeva, N.M.; Myshkina, M.K.; Shagalova, Eh.D.; Denisova, V.V.; Skurat, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    It was propose the model of radionuclide migration in river system based on principle of the compartmental model at hydraulically stationary and chemically equilibrium conditions of interaction of radionuclides in system water-dredge, water-sediments. Different conditions of radioactive contamination entry in river system were considered. The model was verified on the data of radiation monitoring of Iput' river

  5. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  6. Fire fighting in a radionuclide laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, H.

    1991-01-01

    A fire-brigade was called to a laboratory which held a handling licence for the radionuclides C-14, T, P-32, Se-75, Mo-99, and S-35. The fire-brigade was unaware of a release of radionuclides. Therefore they used respiratory equipment, and all persons present were subsequently examined for contamination. (DG) [de

  7. Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-01-01

    The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less

  8. Speciation of radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunten, H.R. von; Benes, P.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the determination of the speciation of radionuclides in aerosols, in aquatic solutions, in sediments, soils and rocks are reviewed. At present, most of the results about speciation are deduced from model calculations, model experiments, and separation of species (forms) of radionuclides, e.g., by sequential extraction procedures. Methods of direct determination of speciation of radionuclides (e.g. by laser induced spectroscopy) are in general not yet sensitive enough for a measurement of the very low concentrations of radionuclides in the environment. The methodological part of this paper is followed by a review of the very abundant literature about speciation of important radionuclides in the environment, i.e. in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The review does not include the biosphere. Literature up to spring 1993 is included (with a few more recent additions). (author)

  9. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide migration have been studied in natural fissures orieted parallel to the axis of granite drill cores. A short pulse of the radionuclides solution was injected at one end of the fissure and the temporal change in radionuclide concentration of the eluate measured. After several hundred fissure volumes water had been pumped through the fissure following the radionuclide pulse the activity distribution on the fissure surfaces was measured. From the retardation of 152 Eu, 235 Np and 237 Pu it is concluded that these radionuclides are transported in the oxidation states Eu(III), Pu(IV) and Np(V). The distribution coefficients K sub (d) calculated from flow and activity distribution data on the basis of geometric surface area/volume ratios are of the same order as published K sub (d) values obtained from batch equilibrium experiments. (Author)

  10. Mobility and Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iurian, A.; Olufemi Phaneuf, M.; Mabit, L.

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to understand the behavior of radionuclides in the environment, their potential mobility and bioavailability related to long-term persistence, radiological hazards, and impact on human health. Such key information is used to develop strategies that support policy decisions. The environmental behavior of radionuclides depends on ecosystem characteristics. A given soil’s capacity to immobilize radionuclides has been proved to be the main factor responsible for their resulting activity concentrations in plants. The mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides in soils is complex, depending on clay-sized soil fraction, clay mineralogy, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, pH and quantities of competing cations. Moreover, plant species have different behaviors regarding radionuclide absorption depending on soil and plan characteristics

  11. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmel, Filip; Dumarey, Nicolas; Palestro, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor 99m Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and 67 Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [ 18 F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including radiolabelled

  12. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmel, Filip [Ghent Maria-Middelares, General Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Medical Center Leeuwarden (MCL), Division of Nuclear Medicine, Henri Dunantweg 2, Postbus 888, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Dumarey, Nicolas [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Brussels (Belgium); Palestro, Christopher J. [Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Long Island, NY (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor {sup 99m}Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and {sup 67}Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including

  13. Radionuclide interactions with marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.W.

    1987-09-01

    A critical review of the literature on the subject of the interactions of radionuclides with marine sediments has been carried out. On the basis of the information available, an attempt has been made to give ranges and 'best estimates' for the distribution ratios between seawater and sediments. These estimates have been based on an understanding of the sediment seawater system and the porewater chemistry and mineralogy. Field measurements, laboratory measurements and estimates based on stable-element geochemical data are all taken into account. Laboratory measurements include distribution-ratio and diffusion-coefficient determinations. The elements reviewed are carbon, chlorine, calcium, nickel, selenium, strontium, zirconium, niobium, technetium, tin, iodine, caesium, lead, radium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium. (author)

  14. Expert system based radionuclide identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarnio, P.A.; Ala-Heikkil, J.J.; Hakulinen, T.T.; Nikkinen, M.T.

    1998-01-01

    An expert system coupled with the gamma spectrum analysis system SAMPO has been developed for automating the qualitative identification of radionuclides as well as for determining the quantitative parameters of the spectrum components. The program is written in C-language and runs in various environments ranging from PCs to UNIX workstations. The expert system utilizes a complete gamma library with over 2600 nuclides and 80,000 lines, and a rule base of about fifty criteria including energies, relative peak intensities, genesis modes, half lives, parent-daughter relationships, etc. The rule base is furthermore extensible by the user. This is not an original contribution but a somewhat updated version of papers and reports previously published elsewhere. (author)

  15. Radionuclide diagnosis of allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Interaction with one or more anatomical and physiopathological characteristics of the rejecting renal allograft is suggested by those radioagents utilized specifically for the diagnosis of allograft rejection. Rejection, the most common cause of declining allograft function, is frequently mimicked clinically or masked by other immediate or long term post transplant complications. Understanding of the anatomical pathological features and kinetics of rejection and their modification by immunosuppressive maintenance and therapy are important for the proper clinical utilization of these radioagents. Furthermore, in selecting these radionuclides, one has to consider the comparative availability, preparatory and procedural simplicity, acquisition and display techniques and the possibility of timely report. The clinical utilities of radiofibrinogen, /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid and 67 Ga in the diagnosis of allograft rejection have been evaluated to a variable extent in the past. The potential usefulness of the recently developed preparations of 111 In labeled autologous leukocytes and platelets are presently under investigation

  16. Quality assurance in radionuclide laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, R.; Voelkle, H.; Wershofen, H.; Wilhelm, C.

    2003-01-01

    The authors are members of an ad-hoc working group preparing a contribution to the procedures manual (''Loseblattsammlung'') dealing with quality assurance and quality control in radionuclide laboratories. The Loseblattsammlung is edited by the working group ''Environmental Monitoring'' of the German-Swiss Radiological Protection Association. The intention of the manual under preparation is not to give a procedure on how to establish a quality management system allowing for an accreditation in accordance with the international standard DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2000 04 (''ISO 17025'') [1] but to compile routine quality control procedures necessary for reliable measurements and to give tips to the practitioner on how to keep both the extent and the frequency of procedures on a reasonable level. A short version of the Loseblatt is presented here. (orig.)

  17. Placental transfer of other radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, F.-E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper comments upon some basic principles of the transfer of radioactive substances in human beings to the embryo and fetus and their age-dependence. These principles may apply to the main effects currently known from the uptake, accumulation, retention and excretion of those radioactive substances, which may be of special interest in assessing the dose and therefore the risk of exposure in nuclear medicine, in connection with environmental problems of nuclear power production as well as nuclear explosions. As an example the age-dependence of several typical radionuclides and their age-dependence during the development of the human embryo and fetus and its correlation to observations on several animal species are presented. 30 refs.; 5 figs

  18. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, D.E.; Edwards, R.Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program. 5 claims, 11 figures

  19. Radionuclide evaluation of brain death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pjura, G.A.; Kim, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    The criteria employed for clinical determination of death have evolved in response to advances in life support and other medical technology. The technical feasibility of organ transplantation has amplified the need for a definition of brain death that can be applied in the shortest possible time in the presence of artificial maintenance of vegetative functions, including circulation. Radionuclide cerebral angiography is one of a group of diagnostic procedures that can be employed to confirm the clinical diagnosis of brain death through demonstration of absence of cerebral blood flow. The focus of this work is to assess its use as a confirmatory test for determination of brain death in the context of currently available alternative technologies

  20. Radionuclide diagnosis of vasculogenic impotence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, A.I.; Gerasimov, V.G.; Lenskaya, O.P.; Narkevich, B.Ya.; Bogdasarov, Yu.B.; Krotovskij, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    Pathogenesis of vasculogenic impotence is most adequately revealed by modern methods of the investigation of the hemodynamic mechanisms of erection with the enhancement of arterial perfusion of corpora cavernosa by artificial sexual stimulation. Radionuclide diagnostic methods effectively differ from the methods of radiocontrast phalloangiography by the simplicity of investigation and the absence of traumatism for a patient. The authors have proposed a mathematical model of a process of filling in the functioning volume of the penile vascular bed with a radiopharmaceutical prepation against the background of erection induced by intracavernous administration of papaverine hydrochloride solution. Parameters of the model determine the ratio of blood flow volumetric rates in the penis at rest and when erect

  1. Radionuclides of Chernobyl origin in the plants of Western Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrabovskyy, V.; Dzendzelyuk, O.; Kateryncuk, I.; Furgala, Yu.

    2004-01-01

    fact, the radionuclide accumulation values inherent for the leaf and perennial corms of the berries differ more than twice. The radiocaesium content variations taking place during the vegetation period have been also observed for the leaves of plants. In the course of all the monitoring period, we have found that the temporal rates of radiocaesium content decrease characteristic of the vegetative organs of plants are several times larger than those of the relevant soils. This fact might be explained by 'fixing' the radionuclide on the soil complexes, thus making it less accessible for absorbing by plants. The vegetation conditions, first of all the humidity and the soil wetting degree, influence hard the radionuclide content in the berry bodies. Against a background of continuous decrease in the radiocaesium content in all the other blueberry organs, the latter content in the berry bodies has been slightly growing during 1996-98 and then has began to decrease notably the next years. It is evident that the mentioned dependence may be explained by both a higher soil humidity occurred in the years of increasing radionuclide accumulation by the blueberry and an additional entry of the radionuclide into soil originated from the forest litter, first of all the 'Chernobyl' needles. The specific radiocaesium activities for different moss and lichen species vary in a rather wide range, exceeding more than order of magnitude the corresponding values for the soils. Among the mosses, representatives of the sphagnous (Sphagnum sp.) exhibit the largest capacity for accumulation of radionuclides, while the least one is characteristic for Bryum argenteum. It is the mosses and lichens that may be used as a biological indicator of the radioactive environmental contamination, due to their capacity to accumulate efficiently radionuclides. (authors)

  2. Decontamination of radionuclides in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Aomori (Japan)

    1994-03-01

    The release of radionuclides arising from the Chernobyle accident led to widespread contamination of the northern hemisphere through fallout. This accident provided again an opportunity to investigate how and to what extent the radionuclides contamination in crops and animal derived foods could be reduced. The following topics are included in this paper. (1) How to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium and/or cesium from soil to crops: A pH increase of soil is effective for reducing their plant uptake. (2) How to reduce the transfer of radiocesium to animal derived foods: Ammonium-ferric-cyanoferrate (AFCF) should be the most effective compound for radiocesium excretion in the feces. Experiments with lactating cows and/or poultry gave extremely good results with respect to low radiocesium concentrations in milk, meat and eggs. (3) Removal coefficients of radiostrontium, cesium and iodine from contaminated leaf vegetables and cereals during food processing and culinary preparation: Though different by species, more than 80% of cesium and about 50% of strontium and iodine can be removed during culinary preparation of washing and boiling. (4) Simultaneous decontamination of radiocesium and iodine from drinking water and liquid milk: Metal ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin, specifically Fe ferrocyanide one, was successfully used for a rapid and simple decontamination of radiocesium and iodine in the liquid samples arising from the Chernobyle accident. (5) Removal of radiocesium from meat: The meat structurally contaminated with radiocesium is easily and very successfully decontaminated by pickling in NaCl solution and the decontamination is much speeded up by freezing meat before pickling. (author).

  3. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-01-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium ( 20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces

  4. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  5. Decontamination of radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1994-01-01

    The release of radionuclides arising from the Chernobyle accident led to widespread contamination of the northern hemisphere through fallout. This accident provided again an opportunity to investigate how and to what extent the radionuclides contamination in crops and animal derived foods could be reduced. The following topics are included in this paper. (1) How to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium and/or cesium from soil to crops: A pH increase of soil is effective for reducing their plant uptake. (2) How to reduce the transfer of radiocesium to animal derived foods: Ammonium-ferric-cyanoferrate (AFCF) should be the most effective compound for radiocesium excretion in the feces. Experiments with lactating cows and/or poultry gave extremely good results with respect to low radiocesium concentrations in milk, meat and eggs. (3) Removal coefficients of radiostrontium, cesium and iodine from contaminated leaf vegetables and cereals during food processing and culinary preparation: Though different by species, more than 80% of cesium and about 50% of strontium and iodine can be removed during culinary preparation of washing and boiling. (4) Simultaneous decontamination of radiocesium and iodine from drinking water and liquid milk: Metal ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin, specifically Fe ferrocyanide one, was successfully used for a rapid and simple decontamination of radiocesium and iodine in the liquid samples arising from the Chernobyle accident. (5) Removal of radiocesium from meat: The meat structurally contaminated with radiocesium is easily and very successfully decontaminated by pickling in NaCl solution and the decontamination is much speeded up by freezing meat before pickling. (author)

  6. UCBNE25, Radionuclide Migration in Geologic Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilshtok, G.

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: UCBNE25 estimates the maximum concentration of nuclides occurring during the migration of three-member radionuclide chains in geologic media without axial dispersion. Unlike other migration codes, the release rate in UCBNE25 is the independent variable, and time is the dependent variable. The extrema in concentrations are determined without having to calculate the entire concentration history. The program assumes one-dimensional water transport and sorption equilibrium for the nuclides in the soil and in the water. The water velocity is held constant, and the leach times are smaller than the half-lives of the nuclides involved. UCBNE25 calculates for each nuclide the time of the maxima at a specified position, the maximum dimensionless concentration, the corresponding water dilution rate, and the contamination time for that position. The closed form solutions can be easily checked by hand, making it a useful calibration tool for other codes. 2 - Method of solution: The method concentrates on the estimation of the extrema positions in space at a fixed time and their occurrence at a fixed position

  7. Coincidence method for determination of radionuclides activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrukhovich, S.K.; Berestov, A.V.; Rudak, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    The radon and radium activity measurements using six-crystal gamma-gamma coincidence, 4 -spectrometer PRIPJAT and radioactivity measurements in different samples of meat and vegetation by 32-crystal spectrometer ARGUS, are described. Radiation detector with 4 -geometry provides higher efficiency, and therefore shorter counting time than a detector without such geometry. However, its application is limited by the fact that obtained spectrum contains summing peaks of all γ-quanta registered in coincidence. Multiparameter information on coincident photon emission can be obtained only by a detection system where the 4 -geometry is made by many detectors, such are both the PRIPJAT and the ARGUS - γ-coincidence spectrometer of the Crystal Ball type in the Institute of Physics, Minsk [1,2]. There are other characteristics, as background conditions, energy and time resolution, makes it ve suitable for investigation of rare decays and interactions, cascade transitions, k intensity radiations etc. We are developing a method of 2 26R a and 2 26 Rn measurement by a multidetector 4 -spectrometer. The method is based on coincidence counting of γ-rays from two step cascade transitions that follow - decay of 2 14 Bi. Its application to the PRIPL spectrometer, which has 6 Nal(Tl) detectors, is presented here, as well as the method of the determination of radionuclide activities based on the registration of the cascades intensity of γ-rays of different multiplicity using ARGUS

  8. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the marine environment: Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, R.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter discusses three case studies of greatly different types of discharges of anthropogenic radionuclides to the marine environment. The SNAP 9A satellite burnup dispersed almost pure 238 Pu into the atmosphere over the Mozambique channel at about 25 deg. S latitude in 1964. A much more heterogeneous mixture of liquids and solids containing a variety of radionuclides of low activity levels were packaged in steel drums and sunk to the sea floor near the Farallon Islands off San Francisco, California, USA between 1994 and 1964. An extensive series of tests of nuclear and thermonuclear devices with a total yield of many megatons was conducted by the U.S. at the remote coral atolls of the Marshall Islands at 110 deg. N and 160-165 deg. E, making them the most radioactively contaminated parts of the marine environment. The chapter briefly summarizes each of these cases, and stresses the major points learned about radionuclide cycling and about environmental processes from each of them. (author)

  9. Characterisation of discharge areas of radionuclides originating from nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, L.; Woerman, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigate if there are certain landscape elements that will generally act as discharge areas for radio-nuclides leaking from a subsurface deposit of nuclear waste. We also characterize the typical properties that distinguish these areas from others. Understanding the processes controlling the clustering of discharge to certain areas is an additional topic of study. Landscape topography is the most important driving force for groundwater flow. Because groundwater is the main transporting agent for migrating radio-nuclides, the topography will determine the flow paths of leaking radionuclides. How topography and heterogeneities in the subsurface affect the discharge distribution of the radionuclides is the main scope of this study. An analytical and a numerical model are used. Conclusions are: Our results suggest that the varieties of landscape elements which have potential for receiving significant amounts of radio-nuclides are limited. To save recourses, the surficial radiological assessments should therefore be focused in these areas. Furthermore, the discharge areas of groundwater from repository depth have defining characteristics that distinguish them from discharge areas of shallower groundwater flow cells. Due to the similarities within deep groundwater discharge areas, one can make site-specific analyses of those areas, which have a broad applicability for migration of radio-nuclides originating from a nuclear waste repository (author)(tk)

  10. The uptake of radionuclides from inadvertent consumption of soil by grazing animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, N.; Dodd, N.J.

    1988-01-01

    Investigations of the transfer to man of artificially-produced radionuclides through food chains have shown that the inadvertent consumption of soil by grazing animals can give variations in estimates of transfer coefficients, especially for radionuclides that are poorly absorbed by plant roots. Even small masses of soil adhering to herbage or directly ingested can make a significant contribution to the intake inventory in terms of activity. Although the activity concentrations of soil-contaminated herbage are elevated, the radionuclides associated with the soil may not necessarily be in a form which is easily absorbed by the animal. Attempts must be made, therefore, to quantify soil intake and the subsequent radionuclide uptake by this mechanism. A field investigation of the uptake of radionuclides by farm animals grazing near the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant has been pursued. The aims of the study were to estimate the transfer to muscle and other tissues. This paper describes the methods used to estimate both the soil intake and the consequent availability of radionuclides associated with the soil. The measurements were used to evaluate the contribution to tissue content of inadvertent consumption of soil by cows and sheep. 10 refs.; 2 tabs

  11. Human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.

    2009-01-01

    Forest soil, understorey vegetation and trees are all sources of radionuclides and human radiation doses after contaminating atmospheric deposition. People are exposed to radiation externally from sources outside the body and internally via ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides. Understorey vegetation contributes to ingestion doses through berries, herbs, wild honey, mushrooms and game meat; also trees provide feed to terrestrial birds and big game. During stay in forests people are subject to external radiation from forest floor and overstorey, and they may inhale airborne radioactive aerosol or gaseous radionuclides in ground level air. In the early phase of contamination also resuspended radionuclides may add to the internal dose of people via inhalation. People in Nordic countries are most exposed to radiation via ingestion of radionuclides in wild foods. The distribution of radionuclides in forests is changed by environmental processes, and thereby also the significance of various dose pathways to humans will change with time. External exposure is received in living environment from contaminated stemwood used as building timber and for manufacturing of furniture and other wood products. The aim of this paper is to outline the significance of various human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests considering the public and workers in forestry and production of bioenergy. Examples on effective doses are given based on two historical events, atmospheric nuclear weapon tests (mostly in 1950's and in 1960's) and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. (au)

  12. Radionuclides: Accumulation and Transport in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D K; Chatterjee, S; Datta, S; Voronina, A V; Walther, C

    Application of radioactive elements or radionuclides for anthropogenic use is a widespread phenomenon nowadays. Radionuclides undergo radioactive decays releasing ionizing radiation like gamma ray(s) and/or alpha or beta particles that can displace electrons in the living matter (like in DNA) and disturb its function. Radionuclides are highly hazardous pollutants of considerable impact on the environment, food chain and human health. Cleaning up of the contaminated environment through plants is a promising technology where the rhizosphere may play an important role. Plants belonging to the families of Brassicaceae, Papilionaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Poaceae, and Asteraceae are most important in this respect and offer the largest potential for heavy metal phytoremediation. Plants like Lactuca sativa L., Silybum marianum Gaertn., Centaurea cyanus L., Carthamus tinctorius L., Helianthus annuus and H. tuberosus are also important plants for heavy metal phytoremediation. However, transfer factors (TF) of radionuclide from soil/water to plant ([Radionuclide]plant/[Radionuclide]soil) vary widely in different plants. Rhizosphere, rhizobacteria and varied metal transporters like NRAMP, ZIP families CDF, ATPases (HMAs) family like P1B-ATPases, are involved in the radio-phytoremediation processes. This review will discuss recent advancements and potential application of plants for radionuclide removal from the environment.

  13. Radionuclides in air, water, and biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, A.H.; Nelson, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Air, water, and biological samples collected before and after the 1965, 1969, and 1971 underground nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island were analyzed for natural and fallout radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. Selected samples were also analyzed for tritium, 55 Fe, and 90 Sr. The objectives were to search for and identify radionuclides of Amchitka origin in the samples and to contribute to the general knowledge of the distribution of radionuclides in the environment. The studies showed that there has been no escape of radionuclides from the underground sites of the three nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island except for trace quantities of radionuclides, principally tritium, in water and soil gas samples from the immediate vicinity of the surface ground zero for the 1965 event. Two naturally occurring radionuclides, 40 K and 7 Be, were the most abundant radionuclides in the samples, usually by a factor of 10 or more, except for 137 Cs in lichen samples. All levels were well below applicable Radiation Protction Guides, often being near the statistical limit of detection

  14. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Radionuclide transport. Final Report - Volume 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golian, C.; Lever, D.A.; Baker, A.J.; Connell, L.D.; Bennett, D.G.; Read, D.; Lindgreen, M.; Pers, K.; Skagius, K.; Murakami, T.; Ohnuki, T.

    1992-01-01

    The Koongarra orebody and its associated dispersion fan are examined as a geological analogue for the transport of radionuclides from waste repositories. The aim is to build a consistent picture of the transport that has been taking place in the orebody and the important processes controlling the retardation of uranium series isotopes and to test models of radionuclide transport. A particularly distinctive feature of the Koongarra system is the strong seasonal dependence of the groundwater flow. However, the Koongarra system is similar to a radioactive waste disposal system in that mobilization of uranium is taking place as a result of the infiltration of groundwaters that are in gross chemical disequilibrium with the mineralogy of the primary ore body. There are considerable differences between the Koongarra uranium orebody and a radioactive waste repository, particularly a deep waste repository. The Koongarra system is shallow, affected by seasonal hydrogeological changes as well as climatic variations on a longer timescale and transport is taking place in a zone of active weathering. Some of these features make the Koongarra system harder to characterise than a deep repository. However, there are nevertheless many analogies between the processes occurring at Koongarra and those occurring around a deep or shallow waste repository. The difficulties encountered because of the heterogeneity of the Koongarra weathered zone mirror those to be addressed in assessing radionuclide transport in repository systems. The 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios in rock samples from the dispersion fan decrease in the direction of groundwater transport, whereas in many other systems it has been reported that 234 U is preferentially mobile relative to 238 U (Osmond and Cowart, 1982; Osmond et al., 1983). As most uranium resides in the rock rather than in the groundwater, the net recoil flux of uranium daughter radionuclides is usually from the rock to the groundwater, thus leading to ( 234

  15. Regulatory Technology Development Plan - Sodium Fast Reactor. Mechanistic Source Term - Metal Fuel Radionuclide Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabaskas, David; Bucknor, Matthew; Jerden, James

    2016-01-01

    The development of an accurate and defensible mechanistic source term will be vital for the future licensing efforts of metal fuel, pool-type sodium fast reactors. To assist in the creation of a comprehensive mechanistic source term, the current effort sought to estimate the release fraction of radionuclides from metal fuel pins to the primary sodium coolant during fuel pin failures at a variety of temperature conditions. These release estimates were based on the findings of an extensive literature search, which reviewed past experimentation and reactor fuel damage accidents. Data sources for each radionuclide of interest were reviewed to establish release fractions, along with possible release dependencies, and the corresponding uncertainty levels. Although the current knowledge base is substantial, and radionuclide release fractions were established for the elements deemed important for the determination of offsite consequences following a reactor accident, gaps were found pertaining to several radionuclides. First, there is uncertainty regarding the transport behavior of several radionuclides (iodine, barium, strontium, tellurium, and europium) during metal fuel irradiation to high burnup levels. The migration of these radionuclides within the fuel matrix and bond sodium region can greatly affect their release during pin failure incidents. Post-irradiation examination of existing high burnup metal fuel can likely resolve this knowledge gap. Second, data regarding the radionuclide release from molten high burnup metal fuel in sodium is sparse, which makes the assessment of radionuclide release from fuel melting accidents at high fuel burnup levels difficult. This gap could be addressed through fuel melting experimentation with samples from the existing high burnup metal fuel inventory.

  16. Regulatory Technology Development Plan - Sodium Fast Reactor. Mechanistic Source Term - Metal Fuel Radionuclide Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabaskas, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bucknor, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jerden, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The development of an accurate and defensible mechanistic source term will be vital for the future licensing efforts of metal fuel, pool-type sodium fast reactors. To assist in the creation of a comprehensive mechanistic source term, the current effort sought to estimate the release fraction of radionuclides from metal fuel pins to the primary sodium coolant during fuel pin failures at a variety of temperature conditions. These release estimates were based on the findings of an extensive literature search, which reviewed past experimentation and reactor fuel damage accidents. Data sources for each radionuclide of interest were reviewed to establish release fractions, along with possible release dependencies, and the corresponding uncertainty levels. Although the current knowledge base is substantial, and radionuclide release fractions were established for the elements deemed important for the determination of offsite consequences following a reactor accident, gaps were found pertaining to several radionuclides. First, there is uncertainty regarding the transport behavior of several radionuclides (iodine, barium, strontium, tellurium, and europium) during metal fuel irradiation to high burnup levels. The migration of these radionuclides within the fuel matrix and bond sodium region can greatly affect their release during pin failure incidents. Post-irradiation examination of existing high burnup metal fuel can likely resolve this knowledge gap. Second, data regarding the radionuclide release from molten high burnup metal fuel in sodium is sparse, which makes the assessment of radionuclide release from fuel melting accidents at high fuel burnup levels difficult. This gap could be addressed through fuel melting experimentation with samples from the existing high burnup metal fuel inventory.

  17. Aspects of uranium/thorium series disequilibrium applications to radionuclide migration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanovich, M.

    1989-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to consider the contribution which the uranium/thorium series disequilibrium concept can make to understanding the retardation and transport of radionuclides in the far-field of a radioactive waste repository. In principle, naturally occurring isotopes of uranium, thorium and radium can be regarded as geochemical analogues of the divalent radionuclides and multivalent actinides expected to be present in the radioactive waste inventory. The study of their retardation and/or transport in real rock/water systems which have taken place over geological timescales, can make an important contribution to establishing a rational basis for long-term predictive modelling of radionuclide transport required for safety assessments. (author)

  18. Summary report of the consultants' meeting on nuclear data for production of therapeutic radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.; Paviotti-Corcuera, R.

    2002-04-01

    This report summarizes the presentations, recommendations and conclusions of the Consultants' Meeting on Nuclear Data for Production of Therapeutic Radioisotopes. The purpose of this meeting was to discuss scientific and technical matters related to the subject and to advise the IAEA Nuclear Data Section (NDS) on the need and possible formation of a Coordinated Research Programme (CRP). Accurate and complete knowledge of nuclear data are essential for the production of radionuclides for therapy to achieve the specific activity and purity required for efficient and safe clinical application. The Consultants recommended updating and completing the data for production of radionuclides that are recognized to be important in therapy. In addition, the consultants recommend investigating other radionuclides that have a potential interest and for which there exists a medical rationale for therapeutic use. To date no serious effort has been devoted to evaluation of nuclear data for the reactor and accelerator production of therapeutic radionuclides. The IAEA is in the unique and privileged position to address this important public health related problem. Therefore, the consultants highly recommend the formation of a CRP with the title: 'Nuclear Data for Production of Therapeutic Radionuclides.' (author)

  19. Gastroesophageal reflux in children: radionuclide gastroesophagography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumhagen, J.D.; Rudd, T.G.; Christie, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sixty-five symptomatic infants and children underwent radionuclide gastroesophagography, acid reflux testing, and barium esophagography with water-siphon testing to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the scintigraphic technique in detecting gastroesophageal reflux. After ingesting /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid in fruit juice, patients rested beneath the gamma camera for 30 to 60 min while esophageal activity was monitored continuously. By using the acid reflux test as a standard of comparison, the senstivity of radionuclide gastroesophagography was 75%. Because of its physiologic nature, low radiation exposure, and convenience, radionuclide gastroesophagography warrants further evaluation as a screening test for gastroesophageal reflux

  20. Determination of natural occurring radionuclides concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stajic, J.; Markovic, V.; Krstic, D.; Nikezic, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains certain concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from radioactive chains of uranium and thorium - 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, 208 Tl, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. Inhaling of tobacco smoke leads to internal exposure of man. In order to estimate absorbed dose of irradiation it is necessary to determine concentrations of radionuclides present in the tobacco leaves. In this paper specific activities of naturally occurring radionuclides were measured in tobacco samples from cigarettes which are used in Serbia. [sr

  1. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  2. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  3. Manual of bioassay procedures for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleskach, S.; Petkau, A.

    1986-06-01

    A monitoring program is described by which atomic radiation workers ar monitored for internal contamination with radionuclides in the workplace. The program involves analytical procedures for measuring alpha, beta and gamma activity in biological specimens, usually urine. Radionuclides are identified by their characteristic radiation using liquid scintillation counting, and alpha, beta and gamma spectrometry. Examples of calculating the minimum detectable activity for specific radionuclides are given and used to derive call-in-criteria in accordance with which the different groups of workers are monitored each month

  4. Solubility limited radionuclide transport through geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Susumu; Iwamoto, Fumio; Pigford, T.H.

    1980-11-01

    Prior analyses for the migration of radionuclides neglect solubility limits of resolved radionuclide in geologic media. But actually some of the actinides may appear in chemical forms of very low solubility. In the present report we have proposed the migration model with no decay parents in which concentration of radionuclide is limited in concentration of solubility in ground water. In addition, the analytical solutions of the space-time-dependent concentration are presented in the case of step release, band release and exponential release. (author)

  5. Soil - plant experimental radionuclide transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrin, R.I.; Dulama, C.N.; Toma, Al.

    2006-01-01

    Some experimental research was performed in our institute to assess site specific soil-plant transfer factors. A full characterization of an experimental site was done both from pedo-chemical and radiological point of view. Afterwards, a certain number of culture plants were grown on this site and the evolution of their radionuclide burden was then recorded. Using some soil amendments one performed a parallel experiment and the radionuclide root uptake was evaluated and recorded. Hence, transfer parameters were calculated and some conclusions were drawn concerning the influence of site specific conditions on the root uptake of radionuclides. (authors)

  6. DNA damage induced by radionuclide internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Fengmei; Zhao Jingyong; Hong Chengjiao; Lao Qinhua; Wang Liuyi; Yang Shuqin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the DNA damage of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) in rats exposed to radionuclide internal irradiation. Methods: The radionuclides were injected into the rats and single cell get electrophoresis (SCGE) was performed to detect the length of DNA migration in the rat PBMC. Results: DNA migration in the rat PBMC increased with accumulative dose or dose-rate. It showed good relationship of dose vs. response and of dose-rate vs. response, both relationship could be described as linear models. Conclusion: Radionuclide internal irradiation could cause DNA damage in rat PBMC. (authors)

  7. Informal workshop on radionuclide laboratories. Issue 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The network of radionuclide stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will be comprised of 80 monitoring stations and 16 laboratories acting in support of the monitoring stations. The 16 radionuclide laboratories have been designated but there are issues to resolve in several areas: - Fee structure and payments to the laboratories from the PTS; - Agreement on Detailed requirements for certification of the laboratories; - Duties of the laboratory To help provide technical information in these and other areas an Informal Workshop was held on January 29th - February 2nd 2001 at Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) United Kingdom. It was agreed that a common fee structure would make for a more efficient operation if one could be agreed. One possible fee structure for payment to the laboratories was considered to be an annual fixed fee for service (estimated at $38,000) plus a charge for each individual analysis (estimated at $1,200). These estimated values were based on the laboratory replies to a questionnaire organised by the PTS in December 2000. An average of 40 samples/year/ laboratory was considered to be the number required to maintain support to the monitoring station network and also maintain the laboratory capability. Based on this number the overall cost, payable to the laboratories, of running a network of 16 radionuclide laboratories was estimated at $1.38M per year, when all 80 radionuclide stations are operational. The first proficiency test exercise had been carried out in November 2000 and was discussed. Overall the results were highly encouraging and any minor problems found were being addressed. The technical areas requiring further consideration were uncertainty values and cascade summing corrections. The basis for an ongoing programme of such exercises was discussed and agreed by participants. One recommendation that came out of this meeting was the desirability of using a common nuclear data

  8. Applications of radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging in acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Pingping; Tian Yueqin

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, acute coronary syndrome(ACS) has been getting more and more attentions. Radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) can make a quick accurate diagnosis for patients with acute chest pain who cann't be diagnosed by conventional methods. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of MPI are relatively high. Besides, MPI can be applicated in the detection of ischemic and infarct size and degree, the risk stratification and the assessment of prognosis of the patients with ACS, and the appraisal of the effect of strategies. (authors)

  9. Methodology for determination of activity of radionuclides by gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias; Oliveira, Victor Rogerio S. de; Oliveira, Mercia L.; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Due to the growth in the number of procedures that make use of the positron emission tomography (PET), there is a need for standard solutions for the calibration of the systems used for the measurement of the PET radiopharmaceutical (activimeter) in radiopharmacies and in nuclear medicine services. Among the existing alternatives for the standardization of radioactive sources, the method known as gamma spectrometry is widely used for short-lived radionuclides. The purpose of this study was to implement the methodology for standardization of the 18 F solutions by gamma spectrometry at the Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences of the Northeast (CRCN-NE/CNEN-NE), Brazil. (author)

  10. Research progess on treatment of cancer with targeted radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jiawen; Zhang Caixia

    2008-01-01

    The new development and situation of targeted radionuclide therapy in oncology is described, which include radioimmunotherapy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, gene therapy and radionuclide labled chemotherapeutics therapy. The application research on labled carrier of those therapy is emphasized. Meanwhile, the research progess of indomethacin and its combined with targeted radionuclide therapy is also described. (authors)

  11. SR 97 - Radionuclide transport calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, Maria [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Lindstroem, Fredrik [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    An essential component of a safety assessment is to calculate radionuclide release and dose consequences for different scenarios and cases. The SKB tools for such a quantitative assessment are used to calculate the maximum releases and doses for the hypothetical repository sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg for the initial canister defect scenario and also for the glacial melting case for Aberg. The reasonable cases, i.e. all parameters take reasonable values, results in maximum biosphere doses of 5x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Aberg, 3x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Beberg and 1x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Ceberg for peat area. These doses lie significantly below 0.15 mSv/yr. (A dose of 0.15 mSv/yr for unit probability corresponds to the risk limit of 10{sup -5} per year for the most exposed individuals recommended in regulations.) The conclusion that the maximum risk would lie well below 10{sup -5} per year is also demonstrated by results from the probabilistic calculations, which directly assess the resulting risk by combining dose and probability estimates. The analyses indicate that the risk is 2x10{sup -5} Sv/yr for Aberg, 8x10{sup -7} Sv/yr for Beberg and 3x10{sup -8} Sv/yr for Ceberg. The analysis shows that the most important parameters in the near field are the number of defective canisters and the instant release fraction. The influence from varying one parameter never changes the doses as much as an order of magnitude. In the far field the most important uncertainties affecting release and retention are associated with permeability and connectivity of the fractures in the rock. These properties affect several parameters. Highly permeable and well connected fractures imply high groundwater fluxes and short groundwater travel times. Sparsely connected or highly variable fracture properties implies low flow wetted surface along migration paths. It should, however, be remembered that the far-field parameters have little importance if the near-field parameters take their reasonable

  12. SR 97 - Radionuclide transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, Maria; Lindstroem, Fredrik

    1999-12-01

    An essential component of a safety assessment is to calculate radionuclide release and dose consequences for different scenarios and cases. The SKB tools for such a quantitative assessment are used to calculate the maximum releases and doses for the hypothetical repository sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg for the initial canister defect scenario and also for the glacial melting case for Aberg. The reasonable cases, i.e. all parameters take reasonable values, results in maximum biosphere doses of 5x10 -8 Sv/yr for Aberg, 3x10 -8 Sv/yr for Beberg and 1x10 -8 Sv/yr for Ceberg for peat area. These doses lie significantly below 0.15 mSv/yr. (A dose of 0.15 mSv/yr for unit probability corresponds to the risk limit of 10 -5 per year for the most exposed individuals recommended in regulations.) The conclusion that the maximum risk would lie well below 10 -5 per year is also demonstrated by results from the probabilistic calculations, which directly assess the resulting risk by combining dose and probability estimates. The analyses indicate that the risk is 2x10 -5 Sv/yr for Aberg, 8x10 -7 Sv/yr for Beberg and 3x10 -8 Sv/yr for Ceberg. The analysis shows that the most important parameters in the near field are the number of defective canisters and the instant release fraction. The influence from varying one parameter never changes the doses as much as an order of magnitude. In the far field the most important uncertainties affecting release and retention are associated with permeability and connectivity of the fractures in the rock. These properties affect several parameters. Highly permeable and well connected fractures imply high groundwater fluxes and short groundwater travel times. Sparsely connected or highly variable fracture properties implies low flow wetted surface along migration paths. It should, however, be remembered that the far-field parameters have little importance if the near-field parameters take their reasonable values. In that case almost all

  13. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Palestro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of "complicating osteomyelitis" such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose.Estudos através de imagens com o uso de radionuclídeos são rotineiramente usadas para avaliar pacientes suspeitos de terem infecção músculo-esquelética. A imagem óssea em tridimensional é facilmente avaliável, relativamente de baixo custo, e muito precisa na localização de alterações ósseas. Imagem com leucócito marcado poderia ser usada nos casos de "osteomielite com complicações" tais como infecção prostética articular. Esse teste também é útil na não suspeita clinica de osteomielite associada ao pé diabético tanto quanto nas junções neuropáticas. É sempre necessário, por outro lado, realizar imagem complementar da medula óssea para aumentar a precisão da imagem com leucócito marcado. Em contraste com outras regiões no esqueleto, imagem com leucócito marcado não é útil para diagnosticar osteomielite da coluna vertebral. Até agora, o gálio é o radionuclídeo preferido para

  14. Enhancing the effect of radionuclide tumor targeting, using lysosomotropic weak bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundberg, Asa Liljegren; Steffen, Ann-Charlott

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate if treatment with lysosomotropic weak bases could increase the intracellular retention of radiohalogens and thereby increase the therapeutic effect of radionuclide tumor targeting. Methods and Materials: Four different lysosomotropic bases, chloroquine, ammonium chloride, amantadine, and thioridazine, were investigated for their ability to increase radiohalogen retention in vitro. The two most promising substances, chloroquine and ammonium chloride, were studied in several cell lines (A431, U343MGaCl2:6, SKOV-3, and SKBR-3) in combination with radiolabeled epidermal growth factor (EGF) or the HER2 binding affibody (Z HER2:4 ) 2 . Results: The uptake and retention of radionuclides was found to be substantially increased by simultaneous treatment with the lysosomotropic bases. The effect was, however, more pronounced in the epidermal growth factor:epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF:EGFR) system than in the (Z HER2:4 ) 2 :HER2 system. The therapeutic effect of ammonium chloride treatment combined with 211 At-EGF was also studied. The effect obtained after combined treatment was found to be much better than after 211 At-EGF treatment alone. Conclusions: The encouraging results from the present study indicate that the use of lysosomotropic weak bases is a promising approach for increasing the therapeutic effect of radionuclide targeting with radiohalogens

  15. Aligning physics and physiology: Engineering antibodies for radionuclide delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Ting K; Wu, Anna M

    2018-03-14

    The exquisite specificity of antibodies and antibody fragments renders them excellent agents for targeted delivery of radionuclides. Radiolabeled antibodies and fragments have been successfully used for molecular imaging and radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of cell surface targets in oncology and immunology. Protein engineering has been used for antibody humanization essential for clinical applications, as well as optimization of important characteristics including pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and clearance. Although intact antibodies have high potential as imaging and therapeutic agents, challenges include long circulation time in blood, which leads to later imaging time points post-injection and higher blood absorbed dose that may be disadvantageous for RIT. Using engineered fragments may address these challenges, as size reduction and removal of Fc function decreases serum half-life. Radiolabeled fragments and pretargeting strategies can result in high contrast images within hours to days, and a reduction of RIT toxicity in normal tissues. Additionally, fragments can be engineered to direct hepatic or renal clearance, which may be chosen based on the application and disease setting. This review discusses aligning the physical properties of radionuclides (positron, gamma, beta, alpha, and Auger emitters) with antibodies and fragments and highlights recent advances of engineered antibodies and fragments in preclinical and clinical development for imaging and therapy. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Determination of alpha radionuclides in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, L.; Matel, L.; Rosskopfova, O.

    2002-01-01

    The specific activity of alpha radionuclides was determined in biological samples. The biological samples were chosen in kinds of fish, concretely mackerels, herrings and haddocks. Experimental data were presented on the poster

  17. Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Isamu

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at efficient phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides, we examined the effect of soil microbes on the uptake ability of plants using the multitracer technique to find that tomato rhizofungi in Fusarium spp. can stimulate the uptake of 85 Sr and 137 Cs by the plants. The synergic effect of a nonpathogenic strain of F. oxysporum on the uptake of radionuclides by plants proved to be enhanced by introducing a phytochelatin synthase gene into the fungus. Since soil contamination by radionuclides is still an unsolved problem in many parts of the world. Studies on phytoremediation of polluted soil environment will be important for developing effective strategies and devising adequate techniques to reduce human risks caused by food contamination of radionuclides. (author)

  18. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide lays down the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive substances are used or stored as unsealed sources. In addition, some general instructions concerning work in radionuclide laboratories are set out

  19. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is given on the actual knowledge about occurence and environmental relevancy of the most important radionuclides from natural and anthropogenic origin. The contribution of AGF installation is emphasized. (orig.) [de

  20. Application of radionuclides in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1983-07-01

    Four main applications of radionuclides in nuclear technology are presented which are level-, density- and thickness gauging and moisture determination. Each method is surveyed for its general principle, various designs, accuracy, errors and practical designs. (Author)

  1. Transfer of radionuclides into human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.; Wirth, E.

    1998-01-01

    Up until now the potential radiation exposure to breast-fed babies due to contaminated human milk has not been taken into account, when deriving international limit values and reference levels for radionuclides in foodstuffs, in air at monitored work places or for exposures in the medical field. It was the aim of the research project 'Transfer of radionuclides into human milk' to quantify the transfer of incorporated radionuclides into mother's milk, and develop simple models to estimate the radiation exposure of babies through the ingestion of human milk. The study focused on considerations of the radiation exposure due to the ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs by the mother, the inhalation of radionuclides at monitored work places, and the administration of radiopharmaceuticals to breast-feeding mothers. The blocking of infant thyroid glands by stable iodine in the case of accidental releases of radioiodine was considered as well. (orig.) [de

  2. Radiation safety requirements for radionuclide laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide lays down the requirements for laboratories and storage rooms in which radioactive substances are used or stored as unsealed sources. In addition, some general instructions concerning work in radionuclide laboratories are set out.

  3. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide migration has been studied in natural fissures running parallel to the axes of granitic drill cores. A short pulse of radionuclide solution was injected at one end of the fissure and the temporal change in radionuclide concentration of the eluate measured. At the end of each experiment the fissure was opened and the radionuclide distribution on the fissure surfaces measured. The retardation of 241 Am(III) at pH 8.2 as well as the variation in 235 Np(V) retardation with pH are found to be in good agreement with K d-values obtained in batch experiments. The reduction of (TcO - 4 ) to Tc(IV) leads as expected to increasing retardation.(author)

  4. Metabolic transformation of radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku

    1987-01-01

    Physico-chemical form of radionuclides is one of the important factors governing the concentration by marine organisms, whereas biological activities affect the existing states of radionuclides especially in coastal waters. Radioiodine in the form of iodate which is predominant species in seawater is reduced to iodide ion by biological activities and concentration factor of iodide is an order of magnitude higher than those of iodate. Extremely high accumulation of transition elements, actinides, or natural radionuclides in branchial heart of octopus is explained by the fuction of adenochrome, a glandular pigment in the organ as a natural complexing agent, and similar metal-binding proteins with relatively low molecular weight have been found in various marine invertebrates. High accumulation of some elements also found in mollusk kidney is considered to be caused by the intracellular concretions composed of calcium phosphate. All these biological processes suggest the significance of further investigations on metabolic transformation of radionuclides in marine organisms. (author)

  5. Relating β+ radionuclides' properties by order theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero, N.Y.; Guillermo Restrepo; Cohen, I.M.; Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Buenos Aires

    2013-01-01

    We studied 27 β + radionuclides taking into account some of their variants encoding information of their production, such as integral yield, threshold energy and energy of projectiles used to generate them; these radionuclides are of current use in clinical diagnostic imaging by positron emission tomography (PET). The study was conducted based on physical, physico-chemical, nuclear, dosimetric and quantum properties, which characterise the β + radionuclides selected, with the aim of finding meaningful relationships among them. In order to accomplish this objective the mathematical methodology known as formal concept analysis was employed. We obtained a set of logical assertions (rules) classified as implications and associations, for the set of β + radionuclides considered. Some of them show that low mass defect is related to high and medium values of maximum β + energy, and with even parity and low mean lives; all these parameters are associated to the dose received by a patient subjected to a PET analysis. (author)

  6. Behaviour of the radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, Dejanira da Costa

    2007-01-01

    This chapter approaches the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment, the isotopes of the natural radioactive series, some aspects of the isotope behaviour on the environment and fission and activation radioactive isotopes

  7. Natural and Synthetic Barriers to Immobilize Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, W.

    2011-01-01

    The experiments of weathering of glass waste form and the reacted sediments with simulated glass leachates show that radionuclide sequestration can be significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of secondary precipitates. In addition, synthetic phosphate-bearing nanoporous material exhibits high stability at temperature and has a very high K d value for U(VI) removal. Both natural and synthetic barrier materials can be used as additional efficient adsorbents for retarding transport of radionuclides for various contaminated waste streams and waste forms present at U. S. Department of Energy clean-up sites and the proposed geologic radioactive waste disposal facility. In the radioactive waste repository facility, natural or synthetic materials are planned to be used as a barrier material to immobilize and retard radionuclide release. The getter material can be used to selectively scavenge the radionuclide of interest from a liquid waste stream and subsequently incorporate the loaded getters in a cementitious or various monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides from monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides from monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides form monolithic waste forms by being emplaced as a backfill barrier material around the wastes or waste form to minimize the potential around the wastes or waste form to minimize the potential hazard of leached radioactive wastes. The barrier material should be highly efficient to sequester radionuclides and possess physical and chemical stability for long-term exposure to severe weathering conditions. Because potential leaching of radionuclides depends on various environmental and weathering conditions of the near-field repository, the barrier materials must be durable and not disintegrate under a range of moisture, temperature, pressure, radiation, Eh, ph. and

  8. Radionuclides in plants in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, D.; Ajtic, J.; Popovic, D.; Nikolic, J.

    2009-01-01

    The results of a long-term study (from 2002 to 2008) on the concentrations of natural ( 7 Be, 210 Pb, 40 K) and fission ( 137 Cs) radionuclides in leaves of higher plants (linden and chestnut) in an urban area (city of Belgrade) are presented. The activity of the radionuclides was determined on an HPGe detector by standard gamma spectrometry. The study is a part of the ongoing air quality monitoring programme in urban areas in the Republic of Serbia. (author) [sr

  9. Limit of the radionuclides in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shaling; Jiang Rangrong

    2003-01-01

    Granite is an important sort of building materials. Their radionuclide contents are limited by the national standard GB6566-2001 just as other building materials. This standard divides them into main materials and decorative materials, and relaxes the limit of the latter obviously. Owing to the consideration of public dose limit and environment protection, this method needs discussion. Otherwise, red granite contains high radionuclide contents relatively, especially the sort of Indian Red, and need be paid more attention

  10. Biogeochemistry of radionuclides in ecosystems (historical aspect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.I.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents the most important results of the study on the radionuclides' behaviour in natural and model biogeocenoses(ecosystems) obtained by N.W.Timofeev-Ressovskij and co-workers during the period 1947-1968. As early as at that period, radionuclides were classified according to the types of distribution, accumulation and migration within the surface and freshwater ecosystems, and the methods of biological purification of radioactive sewage were proposed

  11. Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Scott [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bleuel, Darren [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Johnson, Micah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rusnak, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soltz, Ron [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tonchev, Anton [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-05

    The Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS) will generate intense photon and neutron beams to address important gaps in the study of radionuclide science that directly impact Stockpile Stewardship, Nuclear Forensics, and Nuclear Material Detection. The co-location of MeV-scale neutral and photon sources with radiochemical analytics provides a unique facility to meet current and future challenges in nuclear security and nuclear science.

  12. The uptake of radionuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawse, P.A.; Turner, G.S.

    1982-02-01

    A review of the literature, since 1970, on the research into the uptake of radionuclides by plants, with references to earlier soil and plant studies on the fate of nuclear weapons fallout. Experimental data on the uptake of plutonium isotopes, americium 241, cesium 137, radium 226, curium 244 and neptunium 237 and details of the chemical form of the radionuclide, soil type and plant growth period are tabulated. (U.K.)

  13. Transport of radionuclides from the LAMPF lagoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Purtymun, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring of the discharge water from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility lagoons continued during June and December of 1983. The list of radionuclides being monitoring includes 7 Be, 57 Co, 134 Cs, 3 H, 54 Mn, 22 Na, and 83 Rb. The sampling locations and the data obtained to date are presented. Movement of radionuclides around the lagoons has been described in a previous report. 1 reference, 1 table

  14. Targeted radionuclide therapy for neuroendocrine tumours: principles and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Maralyn R; Lewington, Val; Grossman, Ashley B

    2010-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours comprise a group of neoplasms with variable clinical behaviour. Their growth and spread is often very slow and initially asymptomatic, and thus they are often metastatic at the time of diagnosis and incurable by surgery. An exciting therapeutic strategy for cytoreduction, both for stabilisation of tumour growth and inhibition of hormone production, is the use of targeted radionuclide therapy. Evidence from large-scale, randomised, placebo-controlled trials is very difficult to obtain in these rare diseases, but current data appear promising. It is timely to review the principles underlying the use of these therapies, together with the clinical outcomes to date and potential directions for future research. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Radionuclides in forest biogeocenose elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulavik, I.M.; Zhuchenko, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    In 1991 year investigations are made on a studying of the radionuclide distribution (CS-137 and Sr-90) through the main forest biogeocenose elements (a litter a mineral soil layer, overground trees parts) on 5 experimental objects of Gomel' region with a various contamination. Radiation characters of the objects are done. As compared with 1989 year cesium and strontium migration from tress into the litter and from the litter to the soil is shown. In the litter and upper soil layer (5 m) contents of Cs-137 and Sr-90 are 95 and 80% accordingly. The Sr-90 concentration in the wood and the isotope concentration change through yearly layers (1986-1991 years) are studied. Wood layers formed to the accident have a lesser cesium concentration, especially in the oax-tree. The highest Cs and Se translocation, into the wood is noted in the pine the lesse one in the oax-tree. Among all elements of the biogeocenose the highest Cs-137 concentration the litter has and then one-year-old shoots, needles, lives, the bark and the wood go on. Even on the sixth year after the accident Cs concentration in the wood was 20-30 times less, than the one in needes and one-year-old shoot of this year. 4 refs.; 5 tabs

  16. Radionuclide transport in fractured media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, the classical advective-dispersive transport equation was considered to be an adequate model for describing the motion of a solute (e.g. radionuclides) in porous and fractured media. In this model, the dispersion coefficient is either obtained from a microscopic model of the porous medium or by carefully controlled experiments. As a result of such experiments, a large body of data has been accumulated on the dispersivity. Detailed examination of these data has resulted in a curious phenomenon being discovered; namely, that the longitudinal dispersion length is 'scale-dependent'. That is to say the value deduced depends on the 'size' of the experiment, i.e. on the distance over which measurements are made. Several interesting attempts have been made to develop theories which explain this phenomenon, all based on treating the velocity of the water in the porous medium as a spatially random variable, but retaining the advective-dispersive balance equation. In this work we present an entirely new approach to the problem of solute transport in fractured media based upon an analogy with neutron transport. The new method has several advantages over the previous theories and these will be explained below. Results from the new theory are in agreement with experimental trends and do not require any further adjustment to explain the scale-dependent effect

  17. Monitoring radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, T.; Matsuba, M.; Kurosawa, M.; Koyanagi, T.

    1990-01-01

    Concentration of stable elements corresponding to important radionuclides was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for various marine organisms to find indicator organisms for environmental monitoring. Both analytical techniques indicated linearity over a range of concentrations covering 2-4 orders of magnitude. Detection limits of elements by ICP-MS were 10 or 100 times higher than those of ICP-AES, although the precision and accuracy of ICP-MS was slightly inferior to that of ICP-AES. For quantitative analysis of elements with medium mass numbers (chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, etc.), matrix interferences in ICP-MS were caused mainly by overlaps of spectra from coexisting elements in biological samples. The presence of background ions from atmosphere, water, and argon plasma interfered with determination of some isotopes. Most elements of high mass number could not be determined by ICP-AES because of its poor detection limits, whereas ICP-MS indicated high sensitivity and low background for elements of interest. We used ICP-MS analysis to determine the specific accumulation of certain elements in organs or tissues of 30 marine organisms

  18. Gut-related radionuclide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    This project is concerned with the behavior of radioactive materials that may be ingested as a consequence of a reactor accident, unavoidable occupational exposure, or after release to the environment and incorporation into the food chain. Current emphasis is directed toward evaluating hazards from ingested actinides as a function of animal age, species, nutrition, and diet, or chemicophysical state of the actinide. Recent observations indicate that the influence of chemical form on plutonium absorption observed at high mass levels does not occur at low mass concentrations. For example, at doses of 0.6 μg/kg there was no difference between absorption of the carbonate, citrate or nitrate forms of plutonium. However, at 1.5 mg/kg, the citrate was absorbed in quantities 30 times higher than the nitrate. The opposite effect occurred for neptunium GI absorption. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that materials such as citrus fruit juices and calcium, as well as drugs that affect GI function (such as aspirin and DTPA), markedly influence GI absorption of plutonium. Such studies provide evidence that diet and nutritional state should be considered in establishing safe limits for radionuclides that may be ingested

  19. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  20. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ''experiments'' conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes

  1. Radionuclides sorption in clay soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siraky, G.; Lewis, C.; Hamlat, S.; Nollmann, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    The sorption behaviour of clay soils is examined through a parametric study of the distribution coefficient (Kd) for the radionuclides of interest, Cs and Sr. This work is a preliminary stage of the migration studies of these nuclides in a porous medium (ground of Ezeiza, Argentina) and the evaluation of radiologic impact of the removal of low and intermediate activity wastes in shallow trenches. The determination of Kd is performed by a static technique or batch. The phases are separated by centrifugation at 20000 g during 1 hour. The activity of supernatant solution of Cs-137 and Sr-85 is measured in a detecting system of I Na(Tl) well-type. Two types of parameters were changed: a) those related to the determination method: phase separation (centrifugation vs. centrifugation plus filtration); equilibrium period, ratio solid/liquid; b) those related to the geochemical system: pH of contact solution, carrier concentration, competitive ions, ionic strength, desorption. It was observed that the modification of parameters in the Kd-measurement does not change the order of magnitude of results. (Author)

  2. Migration of radionuclides through a river system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    Migration behavior of several atmospherically-derived radionuclides in a river watershed was studied. A main interest was in their relocation from the ground soil of the watershed to a downstream region through a river. Studied radionuclides are: {sup 137}Cs generated by weapon tests in the atmosphere; {sup 210}Pb and {sup 7}Be of naturally occurring radionuclides; {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am released by the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Dominance of the form in suspended solid in river water (particulate form) was qualified for the radionuclides in the Kuji river watershed. An importance of discharge in flooding was also confirmed. A historical budget analysis for weapon test derived {sup 137}Cs was presented for the Hi-i river watershed and its accompanied lake sediment (Lake Shinji). The work afforded a scheme of a fate of {sup 137}Cs after falling on the ground soil and on the lake surface. Several controlling factors, which can influence on the chemical form of radionuclides discharged to a river, were also investigated in the vicinity of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. A special attention was paid on the association of the radionuclides with dissolved species in water. Preferential association of Pu and Am isotopes to a large molecular size of dissolved matrices, probably of humic substances, was suggested. (author)

  3. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Linnea [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are produced, handled, store d, and potentially emitted . These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989a). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2012, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]) . These minor sources include d about 140 stack sources and no diffuse sources . T here were no unplanned airborne radionuclide emissions from Berkeley Lab operations . Emissions from minor sources were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building- specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA -approved computer code s, CAP88-PC and COMPLY , to calculate doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) at any offsite point where there is a residence, school, business, or office. Because radionuclides are used at three noncontiguous locations (the main site, Berkeley West Bio center, and Joint BioEnergy Institute), three different MEIs were identified.

  4. Inventories of selected radionuclides in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    In March 1984 an ad hoc Review Committee composed of senior experts in the marine radioactivity field made recommendations that ''the Monaco Laboratory should be engaged in compiling and evaluating the input of radionuclides into the marine environment''. The Committee recommended that work should commence on selected radionuclides, viz., 14 C, caesium isotopes, plutonium isotopes, 210 Po and 210 Pb followed by 226 Ra. Depending on the radionuclides involved the assistance of competent experts from outside as well as inside the IAEA was sought. The present document is a product of the work carried out within the framework of the above-mentioned task and contains reports on 14 C, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 210 Pb, 210 Po and 226 Ra. Although the estimation of the inventory in the marine environment and related input and output fluxes, is the same for all radionuclides concerned, different approaches were followed to achieve this objective. These approaches depended on the geochemical characteristics of the radionuclides and the availability of data for different times and locations. For regions where data were lacking, extrapolation on the basis of specific assumptions has often been necessary. As the work was initiated during the pre-Chernobyl period, the radionuclides derived from the Chernobyl incident were not, in general, considered. Since the work for preparing the forthcoming report of the UNSCEAR is scheduled to be completed by 1991, it is hoped that the information contained in this volume will be beneficial. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Using radionuclide imaging for monitoring repairment of bone defect with tissue-engineered bone graft in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Changsuo; Ye Fagang; Zou Yunwen; Ji Shixiang; Wang Dengchun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of tissue-engineered bone grafts in repairing bone defect in rabbits, and assess the value of radionuclide for monitoring the therapeutic effect of this approach. Methods: Bilateral radial defects of 15 mm in length in 24 rabbits were made. The tissue-engineered bone grafts (composite graft) contained bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) of rabbits and calcium phosphate cement (CPC) were grafted in left side defects, CPC only grafts (artificial bone graft) in right defects. After the operation, radionuclide was used to monitor the therapeutic effects at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Results: 99 Tc m -methylene diphosphonic acid (MDP) radionuclide bone imaging indicated that there was more radionuclide accumulation in grafting region of composite than that of CPC. There was significant difference between 99 Tc m -MDP uptake of the region of interest (ROI) and scintillant counts of composite bone and the artificial bone (P<0.01). Conclusion: Tissue-engineered bone grafts is eligible for repairing radial bone defects, and radionuclide imaging may accurately monitor the revascularization and bone regeneration after the bone graft implantation. (authors)

  6. Bio-inspired digital signal processing for fast radionuclide mixture identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenin, M.; Bichler, O.; Thiam, C.; Bobin, C.; Lourenço, V.

    2015-05-01

    Countries are trying to equip their public transportation infrastructure with fixed radiation portals and detectors to detect radiological threat. Current works usually focus on neutron detection, which could be useless in the case of dirty bomb that would not use fissile material. Another approach, such as gamma dose rate variation monitoring is a good indication of the presence of radionuclide. However, some legitimate products emit large quantities of natural gamma rays; environment also emits gamma rays naturally. They can lead to false detections. Moreover, such radio-activity could be used to hide a threat such as material to make a dirty bomb. Consequently, radionuclide identification is a requirement and is traditionally performed by gamma spectrometry using unique spectral signature of each radionuclide. These approaches require high-resolution detectors, sufficient integration time to get enough statistics and large computing capacities for data analysis. High-resolution detectors are fragile and costly, making them bad candidates for large scale homeland security applications. Plastic scintillator and NaI detectors fit with such applications but their resolution makes identification difficult, especially radionuclides mixes. This paper proposes an original signal processing strategy based on artificial spiking neural networks to enable fast radionuclide identification at low count rate and for mixture. It presents results obtained for different challenging mixtures of radionuclides using a NaI scintillator. Results show that a correct identification is performed with less than hundred counts and no false identification is reported, enabling quick identification of a moving threat in a public transportation. Further work will focus on using plastic scintillators.

  7. E1B-attenuated onco lytic adenovirus enhances antitumor effect of radionuclide therapy by P53-independent way: cellular basic for radionuclide-viral therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhenwei, Zhang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Hua, Wu; Xuemei, Zhang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Xinyuan, Liu [Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China)

    2004-07-01

    Purpose: Chemotherapy or external radiation therapy can potentiate the therapeutic effect of E1 B-attenuated oncolytic adenovirus. In this study, the antitumor efficacy of oncolytic adenovirus combined with internal radionuclide therapy was evaluated. Methods: Firstly, viral replication was examined by plaque assay and Southern blotting, after oncolytic adenovirus, ZD55, was exposed to iodine-131. Cell viability was evaluated qualitatively by crystal violet staining and quantitatively by MTT assay. FACS analysis was performed to determine the synergic proapoptotic effect of iodine-131 combined with ZD55. Results: Irradiation of iodine-131 does not influence ZD55 viral DNA replication. In combination with ZD55, iodine-131 can efficiently kill tumor cells in a p53-independent model. ZD55 augments the proapoptotic effect of iodine-131. Conclusion: Radionuclide-viral therapy might be a novel tool for treatment of hepatocarcinoma. (authors)

  8. Production cross sections of short-lived silver radionuclides from natPd(p,xn) nuclear processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Guinyun

    2012-01-01

    Production cross-sections of short-lived 103 Ag, 104m Ag and 104g Ag radionuclides from proton-induced reactions on natural palladium (Pd) were measured up to 41 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. The present results are compared with the available literature values as well as theoretical data calculated by the TALYS and the ALICE-IPPE computer codes. Note that production cross-sections of the 104m Ag radionuclide from nat Pd(p,xn) processes has been measured here for the first time. Physical thick target yields for the investigated radionuclides were deduced from the respective threshold energy to 41 MeV taking into account that the total energy is absorbed in the targets. Measured data of the short-lived 103 Ag radionuclide are noteworthy due to its possible applications as a precursor for the indirect production of widely used therapeutic 103 Pd radionuclide via nat Pd(p,xn) 103 Ag → 103 Pd processes. On the other hand, the investigated 104 Ag radionuclide finds importance due to its potential use as a diagnostic and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging analogue. Above all, measured data will enrich the literature database leading to various applications in science and technology.

  9. Techniques for rapid determination of effects of synergy between radionuclides and pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.; Grauby, A.

    1975-01-01

    The authors present a number of chromatographic techniques for rapid determination of synergy between radionuclides and various compounds in water. The first technique consists in studying how the chemical equilibrium of iodine varies in the presence of various organic and mineral compounds. The second makes it possible to define the effects of synergy within a given hydrographic basin. A third technique deals with the effects of synergy in ground water in the presence of various types of irrigation water. Finally, to complete this set of techniques, the authors define the mobility potential of a radionuclide in a given aqueous effluent

  10. External exposure from airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Grand, J.; Roux, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Shielding factors have been calculated by the point kernel method by Riso National Laboratory for indoor residences in selected European single-family and multistory houses and outdoor residences in built-up urban areas. Parametric variations (thickness of outer and inner walls, floors and roofs) have been performed to identify the most important factors responsible for affording protection indoors against plume gamma radiation. Recommendations have been made for representative shielding factors. G S F considers three types of buildings: a house of prefabricated parts, a two storey semi-detached house, and a houseblock in two different urban surroundings. The calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo photon transport code SAM-CE. Shielding factors are calculated for the living rooms, basements and outside locations of the buildings. In France a representative sample of about twenty dwellings is defined in each of the 31 French 'departements' where a survey on housing characteristics has been conducted. Using Monte-Carlo techniques the shielding factors are calculated in these houses. The shielding factor distribution for a radionuclide is summarized in each 'departement' by a conservative average and by the two extreme values: the worst shielded apartment and the best one's. Furthermore two experimental campaigns have been made to validate the computer codes. These results are discussed not only according to the respective calculation method, but also to the considered housing characteristics. The differences which come from the methods are not negligible, but they are small compared to those which come from the housing characteristics. For similar main house parameters, a relatively good agreement between the results from the different calculation methods is found

  11. Hydrology and radionuclide migration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents results from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's participation in the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during fiscal year 1988. The report discusses studies at a new well 100 m down the hydrologic gradient from the previous sampling point at the Cheshire site; laboratory investigations of the mineralogical composition of NTS colloids; the strength of colloidal deposits and parameters affecting their formation and release; accelerator mass spectrometric measurements of 129 I in water from the Cheshire stie; 222 Rn concentrations in water from several pumped wells at the NTS; and a description of a new well (PM3) drilled off the NTS near Area 20. Further studies on groundwater sampled show that both technetium and iodine are quite mobile; both closely track the trend of the decreasing tritium concentration with increasing distance. Antimony and cesium concentrations decrease much more rapidly than tritium, and europium was not detected at all in the new well. Colloidal particles found in water collected from the Cheshire cavity are in size range of 0.050 to 0.003 μm and are dominated by quartz and (Ca, K) feldspars. A new well was drilled on US Air Force land adjacent to the NTS Area 20. Static water level measurements and geochemical data from this well will help to determine the extent to which Pahute Mesa base flow infiltrates Oasis Valley. Preliminary results indicate tritium concentrations in water samples from this well to be in the range of 0.1 to 0.4 pCi/ml as measured under field conditions

  12. Patient-Specific Dosimetry and Radiobiological Modeling of Targeted Radionuclide Therapy Grant - final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Sgouros, Ph.D.

    2007-03-20

    radionuclide therapy to obtain normal organ and tumor dose vs. response correlations. Completion of the aims outlined above will make it possible to perform patient-specific dosimetry that incorporates considerations likely to provide robust dose-response relationships. Such an advance will improve targeted radionuclide therapy by making it possible to adopt treatment planning methodologies.

  13. [Limitation of the therapeutic effort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreros, B; Palacios, G; Pacho, E

    2012-03-01

    The limitation of the therapeutic effort (LTE) consists in not applying extraordinary or disproportionate measures for therapeutic purposes that are proposed for a patient with poor life prognosis and/or poor quality of life. There are two types. The first is to not initiate certain measures or to withdraw them when they are established. A decision of the LTE should be based on some rigorous criteria, so that we make the following proposal. First, it is necessary to know the most relevant details of the case to make a decision: the preferences of the patient, the preferences of the family when pertinent, the prognosis (severity), the quality of life and distribution of the limited resources. After, the decision should be made. In this phase, participatory deliberation should be established to clarify the end of the intervention. Finally, if it is decided to perform an LTE, it should be decided how to do it. Special procedures, disproportionate measures, that are useless and vain should not be initiated for the therapeutic objective designed (withdraw them if they have been established). When it has been decided to treat a condition (interim measures), the treatment should be maintained. This complex phase may need stratification of he measures. Finally, the necessary palliative measures should be established. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Short-lived radionuclide production capability at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mausner, L.F.; Richards, P.

    1985-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Linac Isotope Producer is the first facility to demonstrate the capability of a large linear accelerator for efficient and economical production of difficult-to-make, medically useful radionuclides. The linac provides a beam of 200-MeV protons at an integrated beam current of up to 60 μA. The 200-MeV proton energy is very suitable for isotope production because the spallation process can create radionuclides unavailable at lower energy accelerators or reactors. Several medically important short-lived radionuclides are presently being prepared for on-site and off-site collaborative research programs. These are iodine-123, iron-52, manganese-52m, ruthenium-97, and the rubidium-81-krypton-81m system. The production parameters for these are summarized

  15. Assessment of atmospherically-released radionuclides using the computerized radiological risk investigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C.B.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Miller, C.W.; Baes, C.F. III.

    1986-01-01

    For radionuclides, the standards are in terms of an annual dose, and the regulations require assurance that no member of the general public receives a dose in excess of that standard. Thus, spatial variations in the population around an emission source must be considered. Furthermore, for most chemical pollutants the standards are written in terms of an air concentration while for radionuclides other pathways of exposure, e.g., uptake of the airborne emissions by terrestrial food chains must also be considered. The remainder of this paper discusses the computer codes that make up the CRRIS and how they are used to perform an assessment of the health impacts on man of radionuclides released to the atmosphere

  16. Recent developments in the integrated approach toward characterization of radionuclide transport, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, A.M.; Canepa, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The radionuclide migration program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) includes studies of radionuclide solubility, sorption, diffusion, and transport. The study plans incorporate all possible parameters of investigation; decision-making strategies for prioritizing the parameters and evaluating their significance were developed in conjunction with the study plans. After definition of explicit research goals for each study, YMP evaluated the applicability of existing data and formulated experimental approaches for obtaining additional data. This resulted in development of individual testing strategies that were integrated into an overall strategy for the radionuclide migration program designed to provide input to credible performance assessments. The strategies allow for decision points at various steps of data collection and testing. They provide a streamlined process toward a defensible level of understanding of chemical retardation and transport processes that will be used to predict the mountain's ability to isolate waste. (author)

  17. Unconscious emotional reasoning and the therapeutic misconception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charuvastra, A; Marder, S R

    2008-03-01

    The "therapeutic misconception" describes a process whereby research volunteers misinterpret the intentions of researchers and the nature of clinical research. This misinterpretation leads research volunteers to falsely attribute a therapeutic potential to clinical research, and compromises informed decision making, therefore compromising the ethical integrity of a clinical experiment. We review recent evidence from the neurobiology of social cognition to provide a novel framework for thinking about the therapeutic misconception. We argue that the neurobiology of social cognition should be considered in any ethical analysis of how people make decisions about participating in clinical trials. The neurobiology of social cognition also suggests how the complicated dynamics of the doctor-patient relationship may unavoidably interfere with the process of obtaining informed consent. Following this argument we suggest new ways to prevent or at least mitigate the therapeutic misconception.

  18. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2013-10-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  19. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2010-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  20. Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1987-10-01

    Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily 210 Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report

  1. Accumulation of radionuclides by lichen symbionts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifontova, M G; Kulikov, N V [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehkologii Rastenij i Zhivotnykh

    1983-01-01

    The aim of investigation is the quantitative estimation of ability and role of separate symbionts in the accumulation of radionuclides. As investigation volumes, durably cultivated green lichen alga Trebouxia erici and lichen fungi extracted from Cladonia rangiferina, Parmelia caperata and Acarospora fuscata are used. The accumulation of radioactive isotopes with fungi and seaweeds is estimated according to accumulation coefficients (AC) which are the ratio of radiation concentration in plants and agarized medium. Radionuclide content (/sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs) is determined radiometrically. A special series of experiments is done to investigate radionuclide accumulation dependences with lichen seaweed and fungi on light conditions. It is shown that both symbionts of lichen-seaweed and fungus take part in the accumulation of radionuclide from outer medium (atmospheric fall-out and soil). However fungus component constituting the base of structural organization of thallus provides the greater part of radionuclides accumulated by the plant. Along with this the violation of viability of seaweed symbionts particularly in the case of light deficiency brings about the reduction of /sup 137/Cs sorption by seaweeds and tells on the total content of radiocesium in plant thallus.

  2. Radionuclides incorporation in activated natural nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose Parra

    2016-01-01

    Natural palygorskite nanotubes show suitable physical and chemical properties and characteristics to be use as potential nanosorbent and immobilization matrix for the concentration and solidification of radionuclides present in nuclear wastes. In the development process of materials with sorption properties for the incorporation and subsequent immobilization of radionuclides, the most important steps are related with the generation of active sites simultaneously to the increase of the specific surface area and suitable heat treatment to producing the structural folding. This study evaluated the determining parameters and conditions for the activation process of the natural palygorskite nanotubes aiming at the sorption of radionuclides in the nanotubes structure and subsequent evaluation of the parameters involve in the structural folding by heat treatments. The optimized results about the maximum sorption capacity of nickel in activated natural nanotubes show that these structures are apt and suitable for incorporation of radionuclides similar to nickel. By this study is verified that the optimization of the acid activation process is fundamental to improve the sorption capacities for specifics radionuclides by activated natural nanotubes. Acid activation condition optimized maintaining structural integrity was able to remove around 33.3 wt.% of magnesium cations, equivalent to 6.30·10 -4 g·mol -1 , increasing in 42.8% the specific surface area and incorporating the same molar concentration of nickel present in the liquid radioactive waste at 80 min. (author)

  3. Natural radionuclides monitoring in Lombardia drinking water by liquid scintillation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, M.; Rusconi, R.; Bellinsona, S.; Sgorbati, G.

    2002-01-01

    Concern about total radionuclides content in water intended for human consumption has been brought to public attention by the recent Council Directive 98/83/EC, subsequently enforced through an Italian law (DL 31, February 2., 2001). Parameter values have been fixed for Tritium content and total indicative dose: the Directive points out that the total indicative dose must be evaluated excluding Tritium, 4 0K , 1 4C , Radon and its decay products, but including all other natural series radionuclides. Maximum concentration values for Radon are separately proposed in Commission Recommendation 2001/928/Euratom. Tritium determination follows a well established procedure, standardised by International Standard Organisation (ISO 9698, 1989). On the contrary, total indicative dose evaluation requires more specific and cumbersome procedures for the measurement of radioactivity content, with special regard to natural series radionuclides. The large number of possibly involved radionuclides and the good sensitivities required make the application of traditional analytical techniques unsuitable in view of a large scale monitoring program. World Health Organisation (WHO 1993 and 1996) guidelines for drinking water suggest performing an indirect evaluation of committed dose by measuring alpha and beta gross radioactivity and checking compliance to derived limit values; the proposed limit values are 0,1 Bq/l for gross alpha and 1 Bq/l for gross beta radioactivity. Nevertheless, it is desirable to identify single radionuclides contribution to alpha and beta activity in order to perform more accurate measurements of committed dose

  4. Radionuclide Distribution in the Soil on the Stabatishkes Site in the Vicinity of the Ignalina NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevgenij Aliončik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A near surface repository for low and intermediate-level short-lived radioactive waste will be built on the Stabatiškės site in the vicinity of Ignalina NPP during decommissioning works. The reservoir can also be used for the waste stored in the temporary repositories of the Ignalina NPP. Engineering and nature protective barriers are used in the repository for radioactive waste, however, radionuclides can spread into the environment, extend in the biosphere and cause (define the external power light exposure of the environment due to the natural and premature (prescheduled degradation of the engineering barriers of the repository. The properties of the soil (acidity, quantity of organic substances, humidity are being investigated for estimating the possible migration and dispersion of radionuclides. The activity of radionuclides in the soil is also estimated before building the repository. Natural and artificial radionuclides make the pollution of the soil, and therefore the accumulation and vertical migration of artificial (137Cs, 60Co and natural (226Ra, 232Th, 40K radionuclides are being researched in the soil on the Stabatiškės site.Article in Lithuanian

  5. Study of alternative routes for the production of innovative radionuclides for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchemin, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a specialty that uses radioactive nuclei for therapy or diagnosis of diseases such as different types of cancer. These radionuclides are coupled to carrier molecules to target sick cells. Currently, only few isotopes are used in clinical practice. However, many others may be of medical interest due to their emitted radiation and/or their half-life that can be adapted to the carrier molecule transit time and to the pathology. The aim of this PhD thesis is to study the production of innovative radionuclides for therapy and diagnosis applications in collaboration with the GIP ARRONAX, which possesses a multi-particle high energy cyclotron. A fundamental physical parameter to access the production rate of a radionuclide is the production cross section. Experimental data were measured for a selection of radionuclides: photon emitter (Tc-99m) and positron emitter (Sc-44g) for diagnosis, as well as electron emitters (Re-186, Tb-155 and Sn-117m) and α particles emitters (Th-226, Ra-223 and Bi-213) for therapeutic applications. These acquired data are obtained using alternative production routes compared to the commonly used. Data related to the contaminants produced during the irradiations were also extracted. The experimental cross section values are compared with theoretical model predictions. The large set of data obtained contributes to the theoretical physicist studies allowing to constrain their models to improve and/or validate them. (author)

  6. Measurements for modeling radionuclide transfer in the aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, B.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical methods for measuring radionuclides in the aquatic environment are discussed for samples of fresh water and seawater, fish and shellfish, biota such as algae, plankton, seaweed, and aquatic plants, and sediment. Consideration is given to radionuclide collection and concentration, sample preservation, radiochemical and instrumental analysis, and quality assurance. Major problems are the very low environmental levels of the radionuclides of interest, simultaneous occurrence of radionuclides in several chemical and physical forms and the numerous factors that affect radionuclide levels in and transfers among media. Some radionuclides of importance in liquid effluents from nuclear power stations are listed, and sources of radiochemical analytical methods are recommended

  7. [Therapeutic use of cannabis derivatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel

    2014-02-01

    The therapeutic use of cannabis has generated a lot of interest in the past years, leading to a better understanding of its mechanisms of action. Countries like the United States and Canada have modified their laws in order to make cannabinoid use legal in the medical context. It's also the case in France now, where a recent decree was issued, authorizing the prescription of medication containing "therapeutic cannabis" (decree no. 2013-473, June 5, 2013). Cannabinoids such as dronabinol, Sativex and nabilone have been tested for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. These agents are most promising to relieve chronic pain associated with cancer, with human immunodeficiency virus infection and with multiple sclerosis. However, longer-term studies are required to determine potential long-term adverse effects and risks of misuse and addiction.

  8. Radionuclide withdrawal from animal and human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, A.S.; Sidorova, T.F.

    1995-01-01

    The authors review the history of the problem of radionuclide withdrawal from animal and human body and discuss methodological approaches to it. Results of studies of radionuclide elimination by means of chemical and bioactive substances are analyzed. Special attention is paid to decorporation of radioactive elements which are the most hazardous as regards intoxication in connection with the Chernobyl accident: 131 I, 89 St and 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, and 241 Am. The authors analyze the results of studies of radionuclide withdrawal based on the dissolution effect, ionic antagonism, and by means of complexons, carried out in humans and animals. Efficacies of alimentary fibers and other adsorbents, foodstuffs and drinks are demonstrated. 48 refs

  9. Some considerations on the mobility of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gera, F.

    1978-01-01

    The existence of radioactive substances is usually assumed to present some risk for man and the environment. As long as radionuclides are successfully contained, no harm can occur; but every containment system has a finite probability of failure. Therefore, the mobility of radionuclides along the pathways that lead from the locations of large accumulations of radioactive substances to human populations is one of the critical parameters in any realistic risk evaluation. The largest inventories of radioactive substances are in nuclear facilities such as reactors and reprocessing plants and in storage or disposal facilities for waste or spent fuel. Eventually, most radioactive materials will end up in geologic disposal facilities; therefore, the long-term risk is particularly dependent on the mobility of long-lived radionuclides in geological media. (author)

  10. The behaviour of radionuclides in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzl, K.

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclides in soil are of natural as well as of artificial origin. Their migration in the soil and their availability for ecological processes depend considerably on the extent at which they are sorbed. The methods for the determination of the vertical rate of migration are described. For most radionuclides this transport is very slow (a few cm per year). Cs-137 is of especial interest. It is sorbed strongly by most soils and, as a consequence, its root uptake is small. However, as a result of the sorption, this radionuclide is eluted from the root zone only very slowly and its thus available for the root uptake for many years. The Cs-137 concentrations in plants to be expected in the coming years as a result of the fallout from Chernobyl are small. (orig.) [de

  11. Other impacts of soil-borne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Macdonald, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    Soils surround us daily, and humans and animals are exposed to soil in more ways than simply through ingestion of plants. Despite strict personal and food-industry hygiene, some soil will always be present in our diet. This often involves the very fine soil particles known to be especially effective in sorbing radionuclides. The soil we ingest may come through skin contact or through soil adhering to crop plants and other foods. Inhalation of soil particles by humans and other animals must also be considered. Throughout the consideration of the impacts of soil-borne radionuclides, there must be recognition of potential impacts on non-human biota, and of non-radiological impacts. The chemical toxicity of long-lived radionuclides may be just as important as their radiological impact for non-human biota. These issues and associated assessment modelling approaches are discussed, with examples and data drawn from our research programs. (J.P.N.)

  12. Radionuclides in ground-level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.

    1987-01-01

    In the air surveillance programme the concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground to obtain the necessary basic data for estimating the exposure of the Finnish population to fall-out radionuclides and also to detect atmospheric traces of radioactive materials caused by their use or production. Airborne dust is collected on filters with high-volume air samplers and the concentrations of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the air are evaluated. In the first quarter of 1986 only long-lived cesium, caused by earlier atmospheric nuclear explosions was detected. The concentrations of cesium were very low. In January and March a small amount of short-lived, fresh fission and activation products were also observed

  13. 2014 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-21

    This report describes the emissions of airborne radionuclides from operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2014, and the resulting off-site dose from these emissions. This document fulfills the requirements established by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H – Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, commonly referred to as the Radionuclide NESHAP or Rad-NESHAP. Compliance with this regulation and preparation of this document is the responsibility of LANL’s RadNESHAP compliance program, which is part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6.

  14. Peculiarities of radionuclide transfer to plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butkus, D.; Andriulaityte, I.; Luksiene, B.; Druteikiene, R.

    2003-01-01

    The biosphere and its interacting components (air, soil, bottom sediments, flora, fauna, human beings) are constantly affected by ionizing radiation. One of the ionizing radiation sources is noble radioactive gas that is continually released into the environment because of the normal operation of nuclear power plants (short-lived and long-lived noble gas) and nuclear fuel-reprocessing plants (long-lived noble gas). Another source is related to nuclear tests and the Chernobyl NPP accident, when long-lived gaseous and aerosol radionuclides ( 85 Kr, transuranics, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, etc) were spread in all environmental systems. In order to evaluate the mechanism of radionuclide transfer to plants, model experimental investigation using gaseous 85 Kr and ionic state 137 Cs was undertaken. For this purpose specific chambers with defined physical parameters were applied. The gained tentative results show the importance of these experiments for the estimation of radionuclide transfer to plants and for the prognosis of human internal irradiation. (author)

  15. Transport of radionuclides in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundi, A.

    1983-10-01

    The dispersion of radionuclides in the biosphere and their uptake by man via various nutritional pathways is studied using a compartment model. The sample environment is the area of the lower Limmat and Aare valleys. General considerations of the compartmental description of the biosphere are made. The problem of the description of surface features, in particular soil, sediment and water, is studied in detail using the code BIOPATH. This study is intended to be an example of how a model of the biosphere could be constructed. It is shown that this is a reasonable model to calculate the spreading of radionuclides in the biosphere and that it indicates the relative significance of individual compartments, pathways and radionuclides. Calculated values of dose committment, however, should not be used as reference data for safety analyses. (Auth.)

  16. EPA perspective on radionuclide aerosol sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karhnak, J.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is concerned with radionuclide aerosol sampling primarily at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in order to insure compliance with national air emission standards, known as NESHAPs. Sampling procedures are specified in {open_quotes}National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Sites{close_quotes} (Subpart H). Subpart H also allows alternate procedures to be used if they meet certain requirements. This paper discusses some of the mission differences between EPA and Doe and how these differences are reflected in decisions that are made. It then describes how the EPA develops standards, considers alternate sampling procedures, and lists suggestions to speed up the review and acceptance process for alternate procedures. The paper concludes with a discussion of the process for delegation of Radionuclide NESHAPs responsibilities to the States, and responsibilities that could be retained by EPA.

  17. Bone stress: a radionuclide imaging perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roub, L.W.; Gumerman, L.W.; Hanley, E.N. Jr.; Clark, M.W.; Goodman, M.; Herbert, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Thirty-five college athletes with lower leg pain underwent radiography and radionuclide studies to rule out a stress fracture. Their asymptomatic extremities and 13 pain-free athletes served as controls. Four main patterns were observed: (a) sharply marginated scintigraphic abnormalities and positive radiographs; (b) sharply marginated scintigraphic abnormalities and negatives radiographs; (c) ill-defined scintigraphic abnormalities and negative radiographs; and (d) negative radionuclide images and negative radiographs. Since the patients with the first two patterns were otherwise identical medically, the authors feel that this scintigraphic appearance is characterisic of bone stress in the appropriate clinical setting, regardless of the radiographic findings. A schema is proposed to explain the occurrence of positive radionuclide images and negative radiographs in the same patient, using a broad conceptual approach to the problem of bone stress

  18. Radionuclide transfer from contaminated field to crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro; Tanaka, Giichiro

    1987-03-01

    Since the policy for land disposal of radioactive wastes were proposed, the importance of terrestrial radioecology has been re-recognized in Japan. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) held a Two-Day Seminar concerning terrestrial transfer of radionuclides. This is a compilation of papers presented at the seminar. The purpose of the seminar is twofold: firstly, to raise basic problems concerning transfer of not only radionuclides but also elements into crops, as well as to present NIRS's studies on radionuclide transfer; and secondly, to discuss in depth the topics about possible transfer of I-129 into rice plant arising from the commercial fuel reprocessing plant, the construction of which is under planning. Finally, general discussion of further issues on radioecology is given. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Measurement of beta emitting radionuclides in dose calibrators routinely used in nuclear medicine departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tastan, S.; Soylu, A.; Kucuk, O.; Ibis, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Radionuclides for diagnostics purposes like Tc-99m, Tl-201, Ga-67 and In-111 are measured by using ionization type of dose calibrators. Therapeutic radionuclides, which emit both beta and gamma rays are detected by the same type of dose calibrators. Other therapeutic products like Y-90, P-32 and Sr-89 are pure beta emitters and they are gaining wider utility because various new therapy radiopharmaceuticals are being developed. The type of container material, like glass or plastic, may seriously affect radioactivity measurement due to attenuation, Since it is crucial to give the exact amount of radioactivity to the patient for therapy purposes, dedicated dose calibrators are specially manufactured for the measurement of these radionuclides. But these measuring systems are not widely available in nuclear medicine centers where therapy is applied to the patient. It is a known fact that dose calibrators routinely used in nuclear medicine departments can be calibrated for vials and syringes using standard sources of the same radioisotope. The method of calibration of Y-90 measurement for two ionization chamber dose calibrators available in the institute will be summarized in this presentation

  20. Measurement of beta emitting radionuclides in dose calibrators routinely used in nuclear medicine departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tastan, S.; Soylu, A.; Kucuk, O.; Ibis, E.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclides for diagnostics purposes like Tc-99m, Tl-201, Ga-67 and In-111 are measured by using ionization type of dose calibrators. Therapeutic radionuclides, which emit both beta and gamma rays are detected by the same type of dose calibrators. Other therapeutic products like Y-90, P-32 and Sr-89 are pure beta emitters and they are gaining wider utility because various new therapy radiopharmaceuticals are being developed. The type of container material, like glass or plastic, may seriously affect radioactivity measurement due to attenuation, Since it is crucial to give the exact amount of radioactivity to the patient for therapy purposes, dedicated dose calibrators are specially manufactured for the measurement of these radionuclides. But these measuring systems are not widely available in nuclear medicine centers where therapy is applied to the patient. It is a known fact that dose calibrators routinely used in nuclear medicine departments can be calibrated for vials and syringes using standard sources of the same radioisotope. The method of calibration of Y-90 measurement for two ionization chamber dose calibrators available in the institute will be summarized in this presentation. (author)

  1. Field surveying of radionuclide contamination in forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turunen, J.; Rantavaara, A.; Ammann, M.

    2009-01-01

    Field measurements of radionuclides after an accidental contamination of forests assume the capacity for identification of a number of nuclides in varying source geometries. The continuous redistribution of radionuclides in forests through natural processes implies a decrease of prevailing surface contamination of trees and an increase in activity density on the ground. Portable gamma spectrometers have long been based on Na(I) detectors which, due to their low energy resolution, are not the tool for analysis of contamination from accidental releases of fission and activation products in the first days or weeks after a deposition. Data of airborne radionuclides from the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 were used for demonstration of initial and later distribution of radionuclides as sources of air Kerma in forests. Forest model (FDMF, PV. 6.0) of the RODOS system was used for the assessment of time-dependent Kerma rate from different forest compartments. The results show the fast reduction of activities of short-lived nuclides and their contributions to the Kerma rate in the first weeks and months. The results also give an estimate for the time needed until a gamma spectrometer with a low energy resolution would give useful information about long-lived radioactivity on the forest floor. An example is given on a portable high resolution semiconductor spectrometer that has suitable characteristics for field surveying also during occurrence of a great number of radionuclides contributing to the gamma spectrum. The needs for further research of a recently deposited radionuclide contamination on forest vegetation and soil, and the efforts for improvement of portable radiation meters and their use in management planning and radioecological research on contaminated forests are discussed. (au)

  2. TURVA-2012: Formulation of radionuclide release scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, Nuria; Hjerpe, Thomas; Snellman, Margit; Ikonen, Ari; Smith, Paul

    2014-01-01

    TURVA-2012 is Posiva's safety case in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) and application for a construction licence for a repository for disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site in south-western Finland. This paper gives a summary of the scenarios and the methodology followed in formulating them as described in TURVA-2012: Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios (Posiva, 2013). The scenarios are further analysed in TURVA-2012: Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and TURVA-2012: Biosphere Assessment (Posiva, 2012a, 2012b). The formulation of scenarios takes into account the safety functions of the main barriers of the repository system and the uncertainties in the features, events, and processes (FEP) that may affect the entire disposal system (i.e. repository system plus the surface environment) from the emplacement of the first canister until the far future. In the report TURVA-2012: Performance Assessment (2012d), the performance of the engineered and natural barriers has been assessed against the loads expected during the evolution of the repository system and the site. Uncertainties have been identified and these are taken into account in the formulation of radionuclide release scenarios. The uncertainties in the FEP and evolution of the surface environment are taken into account in formulating the surface environment scenarios used ultimately in estimating radiation exposure. Formulating radionuclide release scenarios for the repository system links the reports Performance Assessment and Assessment of Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System. The formulation of radionuclide release scenarios for the surface environment brings together biosphere description and the surface environment FEP and is the link to the assessment of the surface environment scenarios summarised in TURVA-2012: Biosphere Assessment. (authors)

  3. Therapeutic nuclear medicine (vectorized internal radiotherapy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herain, C.; Machacek, C.; Menechal, P.; Aubert, B.; Celier, D.; Rehel, J.L.; Vidal, J.P.; Lahaye, T.; Gauron, C.; Barret, C.; Biau, A.; Donnarieix, D.; Gambini, D.; Gondran, C.; Pierrat, N.; Guerin, C.; Marande, J.L.; Mercier, J.; Paycha, F.

    2012-09-01

    After having evoked the authorization for possessing and using radionuclides which is required to perform therapeutic nuclear medicine, this document indicates the various personnel involved in this activity, the radionuclide implementation process, the different associated hazards and risks (for sealed and non-sealed sources), how risk is assessed and exposure levels are determined (elements of risk assessment, delimitation of controlled and surveyed areas, personnel classification, selection of dosimetric control type between external passive, operational or internal dosimetry). It proposes a detailed risk management strategy which comprises different components: risk reduction, technical measures regarding the installation, protection measures, information and training, prevention measures, treatment of incident and dysfunction. It describes the medical control to be performed or measures to be taken for the different type of personnel and for pregnant women, indicates the content and management of the medical file and how personnel follow-up must me performed, how anomalies and incidents must be handled. It comments how risk management is to be assessed, and briefly evokes other risks. An example of workstation study is given in appendix

  4. Radionuclide exercise ventriculography and levels of workload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynchank, S.

    1982-01-01

    The wealth of useful information made available from the utilization of radionuclide cardiological investigations by non-invasive means is outlined and reasons for investigating results obtained under conditions of increased heart workload are explained. The lack of an accepted protocol for the determination of exercise levels is noted. A format for obtaining increasing heart loads dependent on increasing pulse rate is offered, with justification. Exercise radionuclide ventriculography examinations can be conducted which are simple, reproducible and allow appropriate levels of stress in patients who can benefit from such investigations

  5. Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.

    1994-01-01

    The author's achievements in the title field are summarized and discussed. The following topics are dealt with: (i) principles of radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis; (ii) mathematical methods in X-ray fluorescence analysis; (iii) Ross differential filters; (iv) application of radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis in the coal industry (with emphasis on the determination of the ash content, sulfur content, and arsenic content of coal); and (v) evaluation of the X-ray fluorescence analyzer from the radiological safety point of view. (P.A.)

  6. Migration of radionuclides in fissured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.

    1982-01-01

    Some computed results of radionuclide migration in fissured rock are presented. The computations are based on a model which describes flow as occurring in a multitude of independent fissures (stratified flow). This gives rise to strong dispersion of channeling. The radionuclide migration in the individual fissures is modelled by the advection equation on a parallel walled channel with porous walls. The nuclides may diffuse into the pores and sorb reversibly on the pore surfaces. The effluent rates of 23 important nuclides are presented as functions of distance and time for various of important parameters such as rock permeability, diffusion coefficients, release rates, time of first release, fissure spacing and fissure width distribution. (Author)

  7. Biological effect of radionuclides on plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prister, B.S.; Khal'chenko, V.A.; Polyakova, V.Y.; Shevchenko, V.A.; Shejn, G.P.; Aleksakhin, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Stated are dosimetry principles and given is an analysis of biological radionuclide effect on plants in aerial and root intakes. A comparative barley radiosensitivity characteristic depending on plant development phases during irradiation is given using LD 50 criteria. Considered is a possibility for using generalized bioinformation parameters as sensitive indications for estimating biological effects due to the influence of low radiation doses. On the grounds of data obtained generalization are forecasted probable losses of crops when getting radionuclides into plants during various vegetation periods

  8. Microbiological Transformations of Radionuclides in the Subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Matthew J.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2010-01-01

    Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments although their populations sizes and metabolic activities can vary considerably depending on energy and nutrient inputs. As a result of their metabolic activities and the chemical properties of their cell surfaces and the exopolymers they produce, microorganisms can directly or indirectly facilitate the biotransformation of radionuclides, thus altering their solubility and overall fate and transport in the environment. Although biosorption to cell surfaces and exopolymers can be an important factor modifying the solubility of some radionuclides under specific conditions, oxidation state is often considered the single most important factor controlling their speciation and, therefore, environmental behavior.

  9. Radiation protection for pacemakers with radionuclide batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclide batteries ( 147 Pm, 238 Pu) in pacemakers bring risks for the patient and the environment, if the radioactive material cannot be secured for subsequent application or for safe end storage. This is why the expenditure connected with pacemakers is very high. So the application of such pacemakers is only indicated when the patient's expectation of life is presumably higher than 5-10 years, when there are no other diseases besides cardiac dysrhytmia, and when the securing of the radionuclide batteries is guaranteed. (orig.) [de

  10. External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albin, R.J.; Johnston, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax

  11. Laboratory studies of radionuclide migration in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundberg, R.S.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.; Thompson, J.L.; Triay, I.R.

    1989-01-01

    The movement of selected radionuclides has been observed in crushed tuff, intact tuff, and fractured tuff columns. Retardation factors and dispersivities were determined from the elution profiles. Retardation factors have been compared with those predicted on the basis of batch sorption studies. This comparison forms a basis for either validating distribution coefficients or providing evidence of speciation, including colloid formation. Dispersivities measured as a function of velocity provide a means of determining the effect of sorption kinetics or mass transfer on radionuclide migration. Dispersion is also being studied in the context of scaling symmetry to develop a basis for extrapolating from the laboratory scale to the field. 21 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Instant detection of incorporated radio-nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgirev, E.I.; Porozov, N.V.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for rapid estimation of radionuclides both in the whole human body and in individual human organs beginning from levels equal to 0.1-0.01 of the maxium permissible value of annual absorption by personnel. In post-accident radiation exposure surveys, the whole-body content of gamma-emitting nuclides is monitored by measuring the flow of gamma quanta by use of a gas-discharge counter cassette placed at a distance of 0.5 m from the subject. Relationships for determining radionuclides in the human body are presented

  13. Migration of radionuclide chains in subseabed disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, A.K.; Nuttall, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    In this study of subseabed disposal, the two dimensional (axial and radial) migration of radionuclide chains released from a canister located in a sedimentary layer bounded at the top by the ocean and at the bottom by an impermeable basalt zone is analyzed to determine the escape rate of radionuclides into the seawater. Analytical solutions have been derived to represent the transient concentration profiles within the sediment, flux and discharge rates to the water column of each member present in a decay chain. Using the properties of chain members present in actinide decay systems, the effects of half-life, adsorption equilibrium and other relevant parameters are elucidated. 4 figures, 1 table

  14. Detection of subdural empyema with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKillop, J.H.; Holtzman, D.S.; McDougall, I.R.

    1980-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is now the standard method of confirming a diagnosis of suspected subdural empyema. We report a case in which the radionuclide brain scan was abnormal at a time when the CT scan was normal. An 111 In-labeled leukocyte scan was also performed in this patient and demonstrated abnormal uptake in the empyema. The scintigraphic findings in a second case of subdural empyema are also described. The relative roles of radionuclide studies and CT scans in the patient with suspected subdural empyema are discussed

  15. Granulometric analysis of sediments containing transuranic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.; Additon, M.K.

    1980-11-01

    A dry sieving technique using a sonic sifter was selected for the granulometric analysis of sediment samples containing radionuclide contamination. A sieve facility was established in the 234-5Z building for this purpose. Fifty-two contaminated sediment samples from the 216-Z-1A crib were sieved in the facility at a rate of two to four samples per day with no major problems. A comparison of particle size and radionuclide concentration indicated that there is no obvious benefit to particle size separation as a means of sediment decontamination, though an economic analysis will have to be conducted before a final decision can be made

  16. Radionuclide accumulations in Clinch River fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.

    1976-01-01

    Fish samples were collected from several locations above Melton Hill Dam, which is upstream from the liquid effluent release point of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The sampling locations were chosen to determine the accumulation of natural and man-made radionuclides in fish from areas in the Clinch River not influenced by the Laboratory's liquid effluents. Bass, carp, crappie, shad, bluegill, and other sunfish were collected; ten fish per species were composited to form a single sample for each location. The gamma-emitting radionuclide concentrations were determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Estimates of radiological dose to man subsequent to ingestion of these fish are made

  17. Radionuclide Geomicrobiology of the Deep Biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Craig; Johnsson, Anna; Moll, Henry

    2011-01-01

    aerobic bacterial metabolism, microbial proliferation, biofilm development, and iron oxide formation. In these environments, the stalk-forming bacterium Gallionella may act as a scaffold for iron oxide precipitation on biological material. In situ work in the Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory tunnel indicated......This review summarizes research into interactions between microorganisms and radionuclides under conditions typical of a repository for high-level radioactive waste in deep hard rock environments at a depth of approximately 500 m. The cell-radionuclide interactions of strains of two bacterial...

  18. Assessment of waste management of volatile radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altomare, P.M.; Barbier, M.; Lord, N.; Nainan, D.

    1979-05-01

    This document presents a review of the Technologies for Waste Management of the Volatile Radionuclides of iodine-129, krypton-85, tritium, and carbon-14. The report presents an estimate of the quantities of these volatile radionuclides as are produced in the nuclear power industry. The various technologies as may be used, or which are under investigation, to immobilize these nuclides and to contain them during storage and in disposal are discussed. Also, the alternative disposal options as may be applied to isolate these radioactive wastes from the human environment are presented. The report contains information which was available through approximately January 1978

  19. Application of radionuclide imaging in hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yumin; Yan Jue

    2011-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is overactivity of the parathyroid glands resulting in excess production of parathyroid hormone. Excessive parathyroid hormone secretion may be due to problems in the glands themselves, or may be secondary HPT. The diagnosis is mainly based on the patient's medical history and biochemical tests. The best treatment nowadays is surgical removal of the overactive parathyroid glands or adenoma. The imaging methods for the preoperative localization diagnosis include radionuclide imaging,ultrasonography, CT, MRI, etc. This article was a summary of HPT radionuclide imaging. (authors)

  20. Interpretation of biological-rate coefficients derived from radionuclide content, radionuclide concentration and specific activity experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderploeg, H.A.; Booth, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    Rigorous expressions are derived for the biological-rate coefficients (BRCs) determined from time-dependent measurements of three different dependent variables of radionuclide tracer experiments. These variables, which apply to a single organism, are radionuclide content, radionuclide concentration and specific activity. The BRCs derived from these variables have different mathematical expressions and, for high growth rates, their numerical values can be quite different. The precise mathematical expressions for the BRCs are presented here to aid modelers in selecting the correct parameters for their models and to aid experiments in interpreting their results. The usefulness of these three variables in quantifying elemental uptakes and losses by organisms is discussed. (U.K.)

  1. Water, soil, crops and radionuclides. Studies on the behavior of radionuclides in the terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    In order to predict the migration of artificially-produced radionuclides into a human body and its radiation dose rates of human body and to decrease the exposed radiation doses of human body, the behavior of radionuclides in the environment must be elucidated. In National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), the environmental radioecological research group of Nakaminato Laboratory for Marine Radioecology has progressed the survey and research on the behavior of artificially-produced radionuclides in the terrestrial environment. This article describes the research results (the radioactivity of water, soil, and crops) made so far at Nakaminato Laboratory for Marine Radioecology. (M.H.)

  2. Laboratory methods to evaluate therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteaga de Murphy, C.; Rodriguez-Cortes, J.; Pedraza-Lopez, M.; Ramirez-Iglesias, MT.; Ferro-Flores, G.

    2007-01-01

    The overall aim of this coordinated research project was to develop in vivo and in vitro laboratory methods to evaluate therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Towards this end, the laboratory methods used in this study are described in detail. Two peptides - an 8 amino acid minigastrin analogue and octreotate - were labelled with 177 Lu. Bombesin was labelled with 99 mTc, and its diagnostic utility was proven. For comparison, 99 mTc-TOC was used. The cell lines used in this study were AR42J cells, which overexpress somatostatin receptors found in neuroendocrine cancers, and PC3 cells, which overexpress gastric releasing peptide receptors (GRP-r) found in human prostate and breast cancers. The animal model chosen was athymic mice with implanted dorsal tumours of pathologically confirmed cell cancers. The methodology described for labelling, quality control, and in vitro and in vivo assays can be easily used with other radionuclides and other peptides of interest. (author)

  3. Characterization of Discharge Areas of Radionuclides Originating From Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, L.; Xu, S.; Worman, A.

    2009-05-01

    significant amounts of radionuclides are limited. To limit the radiological dose assessment, analyses should be focused to and more detailed in such landscape areas in which doses are expected to be high. Due to the similarities among deep groundwater discharge areas, one can make site-specific analyses of those areas, which have a broad applicability for migration of radionuclides originating from a nuclear waste repository.

  4. SALTSTONE AND RADIONUCLIDE INTERACTIONS: RADIONUCLIDE SORPTION AND DESORPTION, AND SALTSTONE REDUCTION CAPACITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D; Roberts, Kimberly; Serkiz, Steven; Siegfried, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    the same value as the one measured for 100% blast furnace slag. The cause for this approximately four-fold greater reduction capacity than anticipated is not known, but may be the result of the higher pH of Saltstone (pH ∼11) compared to blast furnace slag (pH ∼8), the presence of reducing minerals in the fly ash used to make the Saltstone, or to the Saltstone possibly having semi-conductor properties. These reduction capacity values will result in a near four-fold increase in the estimated duration that the Saltstone facility will remain in a reduced chemical state. The implication of this result is that oxidation-state-sensitive contaminants, such as Pu, Np, and Tc, will remain for a longer duration in a much less mobile form than previously believed. The reduction capacity of vault concrete, which consisted of 10 wt-% blast furnace slag, was 240 (micro)eq/g. Essentially all Am, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Hg, Sr, and Y was (ad)sorbed within four hours, whereas 10 3 fold slower than (ad)sorption (under reducing conditions). An important implication of this finding is that if groundwater by-passes or short-circuits the reduction capacity of the Saltstone by flowing along a crack, the ability of the oxygenated water to promote Tc desorption is appreciably less than that predicted based on the K d value. Relatively low Tc K d values, 6 to 91 mL/g, were measured in these studies indicating that little if any of the Tc(VII) introduced into the Saltstone or Vault 2 concrete suspensions was reduced to Tc(IV). Such a reduction results in apparent K d values on the order of 10 4 mL/g. As such, these Tc sorption/desorption experiments need additional investigation to fully represent Saltstone environmental conditions. It is important to understand the limits of these data. They do not provide insight into how radionuclides cured and immobilized in Saltstone will leach from the Saltstone. However they do provide insight into how radionuclides once released into porewater will interact

  5. SALTSTONE AND RADIONUCLIDE INTERACTIONS: RADIONUCLIDE SORPTION AND DESORPTION, AND SALTSTONE REDUCTION CAPACITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, D; Kimberly Roberts, K; Steven Serkiz, S; Matthew Siegfried, M

    2008-10-30

    The overall objective of this study was to measure a number of key input parameters quantifying geochemical processes in the subsurface environment of the Savannah River Site's (SRS's) Saltstone Facility. For the first time, sorption (K{sub d}) values of numerous radionuclides were measured with Saltstone and Vault 2 concrete. Particular attention was directed at understanding how Tc adsorbs and desorbs from these cementitious materials with the intent to demonstrate that desorption occurs at a much slower rate than adsorption, thus permitting the use of kinetic terms instead of (or along with) the steady state K{sub d} term. Another very important parameter measured was the reduction capacity of these materials. This parameter is used to estimate the duration that the Saltstone facility remains in a reduced chemical state, a condition that maintains several otherwise mobile radionuclides in an immobile form. Key findings of this study follow. K{sub d} values for Am, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Hg, I, Np, Pa, Pu, Se, Sn, Tc, U, and Y for Saltstone and Vault 2 concrete were measured under oxidized and reduced conditions. Precipitation of several of the higher valence state radionuclides was observed. There was little evidence that the Vault 2 and Saltstone K{sub d} values differed from previous SRS K{sub d} values measured with reducing grout (Kaplan and Coates 2007). These values also supported a previous finding that K{sub d} values of slag-containing cementitious materials, tend to be greater for cations and about the same for anions, than regular cementitious materials without slag. Based on these new findings, it was suggested that all previous reducing concrete K{sub d} values be used in future PAs, except Np(V) and Pu(IV) K{sub d} values, which should be increased, and I values, which should be slightly decreased in all three stages of concrete aging. The reduction capacity of Saltstone, consisting of 23 wt-% blast furnace slag, was 821.8 microequivalents per

  6. Radionuclide migration in crystalline rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelttae, P.

    2002-01-01

    Crystalline rock has been considered as a host medium for the repository of high radioactive spent nuclear fuel in Finland. The geosphere will act as an ultimate barrier retarding the migration of radionuclides to the biosphere if they are released through the technical barriers. Radionuclide transport is assumed to take place along watercarrying fractures, and retardation will occur both in the fracture and within the rock matrix. To be able to predict the transport and retardation of radionuclides in rock fractures and rock matrices, it is essential to understand the different phenomena involved. Matrix diffusion has been indicated to be an important mechanism, which will retard the transport of radionuclides in rock fractures. Both dispersion and matrix diffusion are processes, which can have similar influences on solute breakthrough curves in fractured crystalline rock. In this work, the migration of radionuclides in crystalline rock fractures was studied by means of laboratory scale column methods. The purpose of the research was to gain a better understanding of various phenomena - particularly matrix diffusion - affecting the transport and retardation behaviour of radionuclides in fracture flow. Interaction between radionuclides and the rock matrix was measured in order to test the compatibility of experimental retardation parameters and transport models used in assessing the safety of underground repositories for spent nuclear fuel. Rock samples of mica gneiss and of unaltered, moderately altered and strongly altered tonalite represented different rock features and porosities offering the possibility to determine experimental boundary limit values for parameters describing both the transport and retardation of radionuclides and rock matrix properties. The dominant matrix diffusion behaviour was demonstrated in porous ceramic column and gas diffusion experiments. Demonstration of the effects of matrix diffusion in crystalline rock fracture succeeded for the

  7. Assessment of Radionuclides in the Savannah River Site Environment Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, W.H.

    1999-01-26

    This document summarizes the impact of radionuclide releases from Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities from 1954 through 1996. The radionuclides reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS.

  8. Natural Radionuclides in Private Wells | RadTown USA | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    About 15 percent of Americans use private wells as their main source of drinking water. Those who use private wells should remember: Test for radionuclides every three years. Take appropriate steps if radionuclide levels are higher than EPA's limits.

  9. Cycle of radionuclides released into waters by the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, A.; Grauby, A.

    1975-01-01

    A review is made of the main radionuclides released by nuclear industry into the aquatic environment. The water-sediment interactions, the uptake of radionuclides by aquatic organisms and the problem of irrigation water are considered [fr

  10. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gaseous or volatile radionuclide or a radionuclide-labeled aerosol and permit it to be respired by the patient during nuclear medicine ventilatory tests (testing process of exchange between the lungs and the...

  11. Radionuclide Therapies in Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendi, A Tuba; Moncayo, Valeria M; Nye, Jonathon A; Galt, James R; Halkar, Raghuveer; Schuster, David M

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances and applications of radionuclide therapy. Individualized precision medicine, new treatments, and the evolving role of radionuclide therapy are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Simultaneous maximal exercise radionuclide angiography and thallium stress perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narahara, K.A.; Mena, I.; Maublant, J.C.; Brizendine, M.; Criley, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Gold-195m is a new ultra-short-lived radionuclide that can be used for cardiac studies. Accurate, reproducible ejection fraction and ventricular wall motion studies can be obtained from first-transit angiography using commercially available imaging and image-processing equipment. The short half-life of gold-195m (30.5 seconds) makes simultaneous dual isotope imaging possible and substantially reduces the radiation exposure from the isotope angiography. The feasibility and possible benefits of performing dual radionuclide studies were evaluated during a single exercise stress test in 24 subjects with known coronary artery disease (CAD) and in 20 normal volunteers. High-quality first-transit angiograms were obtained in all subjects. An 83% sensitivity and 95% specificity for detecting CAD with thallium-201 imaging was noted in this investigation, suggesting that its diagnostic accuracy was not altered by simultaneous dual isotone imaging. When segmental left ventricular (LV) wall motion was compared with thallium-201 perfusion imaging, divergent results were noted in 15 of 44 subjects. An analysis of the ejection fraction (EF) results at rest and stress provided additional information that could be useful in assessing the clinical significance of such differences in segmental wall motion and perfusion. Simultaneous dual isotope imaging appears to be appropriate for situations in which both LV perfusion and function require evaluation. The use of gold-195m allows such information to be obtained from a single exercise test and can thereby reduce the cost and time required for noninvasive evaluations of patients for CAD

  13. Calculated distribution of radionuclides in soils and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigdomenech, I.; Bergstroem, U.

    1994-12-01

    The description of the accumulation of radionuclides in some biospheric compartments is in general based on a sorption distribution coefficient K d . This value is very decisive for the concentration of long-lived radionuclides in reservoirs that are important from the dose point of view. Sorption is due to several processes such as ion-exchange and a variety of physical and chemical interactions which are difficult to interpret with the current K d -methodology. In addition, many of the K d values are obtained from laboratory or geospheric conditions not comparable to conditions prevailing in the biosphere. The main objective with this work is to deepen the knowledge about the theoretical background of K d -values. To achieve this purpose, available theoretical models for ion-exchange and surface complexation have been adapted for simulation under biospheric conditions. The elements treated are cesium, radium, neptunium, uranium and plutonium The results show that a triple layer surface complexation model may be used in estimating K d -values for actinides as a function of important chemical parameters such as pH and E H . It is concluded that by estimating some equilibrium constants and making some careful approximations, surface complexation models can be used for performance assessment of radioactive waste repositories. 72 refs, 7 figs

  14. Reference Material IAEA 434: Naturally Occurring Radionuclides in Phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Phosphogypsum is generated as a by-product of the phosphoric acid based fertilizer industry. The discharge of phosphogypsum on earth surface deposits is a potential source of enhanced natural radiation and heavy metals, and the resulting environmental impact should be considered carefully to ensure safety and compliance with environmental regulations. In addition, phosphogypsum can be used to make several building materials and it is used in agriculture as a conditioner to maintain soil productivity in areas where soils are poor and erode easily. A reliable determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with the radiation protection and environmental regulations. The IAEA-434 will assist laboratories in the IAEA Member States in validating their analytical methods for the determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum and to control the quality of the produced analytical results. Reference values for the massic activities and associated standard uncertainties were established for: Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238. During sample production and certification, the requirements for reference material production and certification as stated in ISO guides 34 and 35 were taken into account. This report summarizes the preparation and certification process

  15. Modelling the combined impact of radionuclide discharges reaching rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, J.; Small, S.; Hornby, D.; Scarlett, P.; Harvey, M.; Simmonds, J.; Bexon, A.; Jones, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Agency currently authorises direct and indirect (via sewerage systems) discharges of liquid radioactive wastes to rivers from nuclear sites and other registered users of radioactivity. Discharges are normally authorised on a site-by-site basis, taking into account the radiological assessment. Radiological assessments are normally made using dilution models to estimate radionuclide activities in the effluents themselves and in the receiving rivers. These data are then combined with information on habits and dose factor information to give a dose assessment for individuals exposed to the discharge. For each site the highest radiological impact is expected immediately downstream of the disposal point where concentrations of radionuclides and resulting doses are highest. The concentration and doses are expected to decline with increasing distance downstream of the disposal point. However, if discharges are made into the river from other establishments higher up the catchment, the total dose may be higher. Recent Environment Agency research projects provided evidence of the potential radiological significance of multiple discharges to a single river. In the light of these studies, the Agency require a robust modelling tool to assist in the assessment of the effects of combined discharges to river systems. The aim of this R and D project was to develop and test modelling tools that could be used to make assessments of the impact of multiple radiological discharge into river systems and to trial them on the upper Thames river system

  16. Use of source term uncoupled in radionuclide migration equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Claudia Siqueira da; Lima, Zelmo Rodrigues de; Alvim, Antonio Carlos Marques

    2008-01-01

    Final repositories of high-level radioactive waste have been considered in deep, low permeability and stable geological formations. A common problem found is the migration modeling of radionuclides in a fractured rock. In this work, the physical system adopted consists of the rock matrix containing a single planar fracture situated in water saturated porous rock. The partial differential equations that describe the radionuclide transport were discretized using finite differences techniques, of which the following methods were adopted: Explicit Euler, Implicit Euler and Crank-Nicholson. For each one of these methods, the advective term was discretized with the following numerical schemes: backward differences, centered differences and forward differences. We make a comparison to determine which temporal and space discretization has the best result in relation to a reference solution. The obtained results show that the Explicit Euler Method with forward discretization in the advective term has a good accuracy. Next, with the objective of improving the answer of the Implicit Euler and Crank-Nicholson Methods it was accomplished a source term uncouplement, the diffusive flux. The obtained results were considered satisfactory by comparison with previous studies. (author)

  17. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Radionuclide transport. Final Report - Volume 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golian, C [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Lever, D A; Baker, A J; Connell, L D [AEA Decommissioning and Radwaste, Harwell (United Kingdom); Bennett, D G; Read, D [WS Atkins Science and Technology Epsom Surrey (United Kingdom); Lindgreen, M; Pers, K; Skagius, K [Kemakta Consultants co., Stockholm (Sweden); Murakami, T; Ohnuki, T [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, IBARAKI (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The Koongarra orebody and its associated dispersion fan are examined as a geological analogue for the transport of radionuclides from waste repositories. The aim is to build a consistent picture of the transport that has been taking place in the orebody and the important processes controlling the retardation of uranium series isotopes and to test models of radionuclide transport. A particularly distinctive feature of the Koongarra system is the strong seasonal dependence of the groundwater flow. However, the Koongarra system is similar to a radioactive waste disposal system in that mobilization of uranium is taking place as a result of the infiltration of groundwaters that are in gross chemical disequilibrium with the mineralogy of the primary ore body. There are considerable differences between the Koongarra uranium orebody and a radioactive waste repository, particularly a deep waste repository. The Koongarra system is shallow, affected by seasonal hydrogeological changes as well as climatic variations on a longer timescale and transport is taking place in a zone of active weathering. Some of these features make the Koongarra system harder to characterise than a deep repository. However, there are nevertheless many analogies between the processes occurring at Koongarra and those occurring around a deep or shallow waste repository. The difficulties encountered because of the heterogeneity of the Koongarra weathered zone mirror those to be addressed in assessing radionuclide transport in repository systems. The {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios in rock samples from the dispersion fan decrease in the direction of groundwater transport, whereas in many other systems it has been reported that {sup 234}U is preferentially mobile relative to {sup 238}U (Osmond and Cowart, 1982; Osmond et al., 1983). As most uranium resides in the rock rather than in the groundwater, the net recoil flux of uranium daughter radionuclides is usually from the rock to the groundwater

  18. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Radionuclide transport. Final Report - Volume 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golian, C. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Lever, D.A.; Baker, A.J.; Connell, L.D. [AEA Decommissioning and Radwaste, Harwell (United Kingdom); Bennett, D.G.; Read, D. [WS Atkins Science and Technology Epsom Surrey (United Kingdom); Lindgreen, M.; Pers, K.; Skagius, K. [Kemakta Consultants co., Stockholm (Sweden); Murakami, T.; Ohnuki, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, IBARAKI (Japan)

    1992-12-31

    The Koongarra orebody and its associated dispersion fan are examined as a geological analogue for the transport of radionuclides from waste repositories. The aim is to build a consistent picture of the transport that has been taking place in the orebody and the important processes controlling the retardation of uranium series isotopes and to test models of radionuclide transport. A particularly distinctive feature of the Koongarra system is the strong seasonal dependence of the groundwater flow. However, the Koongarra system is similar to a radioactive waste disposal system in that mobilization of uranium is taking place as a result of the infiltration of groundwaters that are in gross chemical disequilibrium with the mineralogy of the primary ore body. There are considerable differences between the Koongarra uranium orebody and a radioactive waste repository, particularly a deep waste repository. The Koongarra system is shallow, affected by seasonal hydrogeological changes as well as climatic variations on a longer timescale and transport is taking place in a zone of active weathering. Some of these features make the Koongarra system harder to characterise than a deep repository. However, there are nevertheless many analogies between the processes occurring at Koongarra and those occurring around a deep or shallow waste repository. The difficulties encountered because of the heterogeneity of the Koongarra weathered zone mirror those to be addressed in assessing radionuclide transport in repository systems. The {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios in rock samples from the dispersion fan decrease in the direction of groundwater transport, whereas in many other systems it has been reported that {sup 234}U is preferentially mobile relative to {sup 238}U (Osmond and Cowart, 1982; Osmond et al., 1983). As most uranium resides in the rock rather than in the groundwater, the net recoil flux of uranium daughter radionuclides is usually from the rock to the groundwater

  19. Rest and exercise radionuclide angiography for diagnosis in chronic ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Rest and exercise radionuclide angiography is frequently employed for the diagnosis of chest pain syndromes. Its value and limitations in this regard have been well studied, but proper utilization of the technique requires an understanding of five critical concepts: (1) Radionuclide angiography is superior to treadmill exercise testing and probably equivalent to thallium scintigraphy, although the published series did not use current methods. (2) The true specificity of radionuclide angiography is about 80%, intermediate between the early optimistic estimates and the later pessimistic ones. (3) The peak exercise ejection fraction is the preferred test parameter for diagnosis, although exercise hemodynamics, symptoms, and electrocardiographic changes should also be considered. (4) Although radionuclide angiography is clearly helpful for noninvasive diagnosis, significant numbers of patients will continue to fall in an uncertain category. (5) The proper application of the technique requires recognition of its limitations and careful attention to technical details. When properly applied, this modality can make an important contribution to clinical decision making. 58 references

  20. Migration of radionuclides in geologic media: Fundamental research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.T.; Zachara, J.M.; Wildung, R.E.; Wobber, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of the fundamental research needs in understanding and predicting the migration of radionuclides in the subsurface is provided. Emphasis is on the following three technical areas: (1) aqueous speciation of radionuclides, (2) the interaction of radionuclides with substrates, and (3) intermediate-scale interaction studies. This research relates to important issues associated with environmental restoration and remediation of DOE sites contaminated with mixed radionuclide-organic wastes. 64 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab