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Sample records for therapeutic nuclear oncology

  1. [Therapeutic Aggressiveness and Liquid Oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barón Duarte, F J; Rodríguez Calvo, M S; Amor Pan, J R

    2017-01-01

    Aggressiveness criteria proposed in the scientific literature a decade ago provide a quality judgment and are a reference in the care of patients with advanced cancer, but their use is not generalized in the evaluation of Oncology Services. In this paper we analyze the therapeutic aggressiveness, according to standard criteria, in 1.001 patients with advanced cancer who died in our Institution between 2010 and 2013. The results seem to show that aggressiveness at the end of life is present more frequently than experts recommend. About 25% of patients fulfill at least one criterion of aggressiveness. This result could be explained by a liquid Oncology which does not prioritize the patient as a moral subject in the clinical appointment. Medical care is oriented to necessities and must be articulated in a model focused on dignity and communication. Its implementation through Advanced Care Planning, consideration of patient's values and preferences, and Limitation of therapeutic effort are ways to reduce aggressiveness and improve clinical practice at the end of life. We need to encourage synergic and proactive attitudes, adding the best of cancer research with the best clinical care for the benefit of human being, moral subject and main goal of Medicine.

  2. Nuclear medical oncology; Nuklearmedizinische Onkologie

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    Krause, Bernd J.; Buck, Andreas K.; Schwaiger, Markus (eds.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik

    2007-07-01

    Modern nuclear oncology is based on molecular imaging techniques and radiotherapy. The book is aimed to integrate efficiently nuclear medical diagnostics and therapy into oncologic patient management. The book covers the following topics: Chapter 1: basics: instrumentation (SPECT, PET, PET/CT), digital image processing, radiopharmaceuticals, radiation protection, nuclear medical dosimetry, radiotherapy planning. Chapter 2: diagnostics: PET and PET/CT, skeleton metastases diagnostics, lymphoma diagnostics in case of mammary carcinomas and malign melanoma, MIBG (metaiodobenzylguanidin) diagnostics. Chapter 3: therapy: Radiotherapy of thyroid carcinomas, radioimmunotherapy of malign melanomas and in haematology, MIBG therapy, radiotherapy of neuroendocrine tumors, radiotherapy of skeleton metastases, intercavitary and locoregional therapy, 32{sup 3}2 phosphor therapy of polycythaemia vera.

  3. Implementation of nanoparticles in therapeutic radiation oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Erik; Gabani, Prashant; Singh, Om V.

    2017-05-01

    Development and progress of cancer is a very complex disease process to comprehend because of the multiple changes in cellular physiology, pathology, and pathophysiology resulting from the numerous genetic changes from which cancer originates. As a result, most common treatments are not directed at the molecular level but rather at the tissue level. While personalized care is becoming an increasingly aim, the most common cancer treatments are restricted to chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery, each of which has a high likelihood of resulting in rather severe adverse side effects. For example, currently used radiation therapy does not discriminate between normal and cancerous cells and greatly relies on the external targeting of the radiation beams to specific cells and organs. Because of this, there is an immediate need for the development of new and innovative technologies that help to differentiate tumor cells and micrometastases from normal cells and facilitate the complete destruction of those cells. Recent advancements in nanoscience and nanotechnology have paved a way for the development of nanoparticles (NPs) as multifunctional carriers to deliver therapeutic radioisotopes for tumor targeted radiation therapy, to monitor their delivery, and improve the therapeutic index of radiation and tumor response to the treatment. The application of NPs in radiation therapy has aimed to improve outcomes in radiation therapy by increasing therapeutic effect in tumors and reducing toxicity on normal tissues. Because NPs possess unique properties, such as preferential accumulation in tumors and minimal uptake in normal tissues, it makes them ideal for the delivery of radiotherapy. This review provides an overview of the recent development of NPs for carrying and delivering therapeutic radioisotopes for systemic radiation treatment for a variety of cancers in radiation oncology.

  4. [Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning].

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    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Lei, An-Min; Hua, Jin-Lian; Dou, Zhong-Ying

    2005-03-01

    Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning have widespread and attractive prospects in animal agriculture and biomedical applications. We reviewed that the quality of oocytes and nuclear reprogramming of somatic donor cells were the main reasons of the common abnormalities in cloned animals and the low efficiency of cloning and showed the problems and outlets in therapeutic cloning, such as some basic problems in nuclear transfer affected clinical applications of therapeutic cloning. Study on isolation and culture of nuclear transfer embryonic stem (ntES) cells and specific differentiation of ntES cells into important functional cells should be emphasized and could enhance the efficiency. Adult stem cells could help to cure some great diseases, but could not replace therapeutic cloning. Ethics also impeded the development of therapeutic cloning. It is necessary to improve many techniques and reinforce the research of some basic theories, then somatic nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning may apply to agriculture reproduction and benefit to human life better.

  5. Cardio-oncology: the Nuclear Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jorge A; Russell, Raymond R

    2017-04-01

    Cardio-oncology focuses increased effort to decrease cancer treatment-related cardiotoxicity while continuing to improve outcomes. We sought to synthesize the latest in nuclear cardiology as it pertains to the assessment of left ventricular function in preventative guidelines and comparison to other modalities, novel molecular markers of pre-clinical cardiotoxicity, and its role in cardiac amyloid diagnosis. Planar ERNA (equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography) provides a reliable and proven means of monitoring and preventing anthracycline cardiotoxicity, and SPECT ERNA using solid-state gamma cameras may provide reproducible assessments of left ventricular function with reduced radiation exposure. While certain chemotherapeutics have vascular side effects, the use of stress perfusion imaging has still not been adequately studied for routine use. Similarly, markers of apoptosis, inflammation, and sympathetic nerve dysfunction are promising, but are still not ready for uniform usage. SPECT tracers can assist in nonbiopsy diagnosis of cardiac amyloid. Nuclear cardiology is a significant contributor to the multimodality approach to cardio-oncology.

  6. Fish Oncology: Diseases, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Nadeau, Marie-Eve; Groff, Joseph M

    2017-01-01

    The scientific literature contains a wealth of information concerning spontaneous fish neoplasms, although ornamental fish oncology is still in its infancy. The occurrence of fish neoplasms has often been associated with oncogenic viruses and environmental insults, making them useful markers for environmental contaminants. The use of fish, including zebrafish, as models of human carcinogenesis has been developed and knowledge gained from these models may also be applied to ornamental fish, although more studies are required. This review summarizes information available about fish oncology pertaining to veterinary clinicians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase as a Novel Therapeutic Target in Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopinath eSutendra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Current drug development in oncology is non-selective as it typically focuses on pathways essential for the survival of all dividing cells. The unique metabolic profile of cancer, which is characterized by increased glycolysis and suppressed mitochondrial glucose oxidation provides cancer cells with a proliferative advantage, conducive with apoptosis resistance and even increased angiogenesis. Recent evidence suggests that targeting the cancer-specific metabolic and mitochondrial remodeling may offer selectivity in cancer treatment. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK is a mitochondrial enzyme that is activated in a variety of cancers and results in the selective inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH, a complex of enzymes that converts cytosolic pyruvate to mitochondrial acetyl-CoA, the substrate for the Krebs’ cycle. Inhibition of PDK with either small interfering RNAs or the orphan drug dichloroacetate (DCA shifts the metabolism of cancer cells from glycolysis to glucose oxidation and reverses the suppression of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. In addition, this therapeutic strategy increases the production of diffusible Krebs’ cycle intermediates and mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (mROS, activating p53 or inhibiting pro-proliferative and pro-angiogenic transcription factors like nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α. These effects result in decreased tumor growth and angiogenesis in a variety of cancers with high selectivity. In a small but mechanistic clinical trial in patients with glioblastoma, a highly aggressive and vascular form of brain cancer, DCA decreased tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth, suggesting that metabolic targeting therapies can be translated directly to patients. Therefore, reversing the mitochondrial suppression with metabolic-modulating drugs, like PDK inhibitors holds promise in the rapidly expanding field of metabolic oncology.

  8. Dispositional Optimism and Therapeutic Expectations in Early Phase Oncology Trials

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    Jansen, Lynn A.; Mahadevan, Daruka; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Klein, William MP; Weinstein, Neil D.; Mori, Motomi; Daffé, Racky; Sulmasy, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Prior research has identified unrealistic optimism as a bias that might impair informed consent among patient-subjects in early phase oncology trials. Optimism, however, is not a unitary construct – it can also be defined as a general disposition, or what is called dispositional optimism. We assessed whether dispositional optimism would be related to high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit reported by patient-subjects in these trials but not to the therapeutic misconception. We also assessed how dispositional optimism related to unrealistic optimism. Methods Patient-subjects completed questionnaires designed to measure expectations for therapeutic benefit, dispositional optimism, unrealistic optimism, and the therapeutic misconception. Results Dispositional optimism was significantly associated with higher expectations for personal therapeutic benefit (Spearman r=0.333, poptimism was weakly associated with unrealistic optimism (Spearman r=0.215, p=0.005). In multivariate analysis, both dispositional optimism (p=0.02) and unrealistic optimism (poptimism (p=.0001), but not dispositional optimism, was independently associated with the therapeutic misconception. Conclusion High expectations for therapeutic benefit among patient-subjects in early phase oncology trials should not be assumed to result from misunderstanding of specific information about the trials. Our data reveal that these expectations are associated with either a dispositionally positive outlook on life or biased expectations about specific aspects of trial participation. Not all manifestations of optimism are the same, and different types of optimism likely have different consequences for informed consent in early phase oncology research. PMID:26882017

  9. Inconsistent labeling of food effect for oral agents across therapeutic areas: differences between oncology and non-oncology products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Soonmo Peter; Ratain, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Several recent oral oncology drug labels were labeled to be administered in fasted states despite the fact that food increases their bioavailability. Since this was inconsistent with principles of oral drug delivery, we hypothesized that there were inconsistencies across therapeutic areas. Experimental Design Oral agents approved by US FDA from January 2000 to May 2009 were included in our study. Comparison of the food labeling patterns between oncology and non-oncology drugs was made using Fisher's exact test. Results Of 99 drugs evaluated, 34 showed significant food effects on bioavailability. When food markedly enhanced bioavailability, 8 out of 9 non-oncology drugs were labeled “fed” to take advantage of the food-drug interaction while all oncology drugs (n=3) were labeled to be administered in “fasted” states (Fisher's exact; p= 0.01). Conclusions Drug labeling pattern with respect to food-drug interactions observed with oncology drugs is in contradiction to fundamental pharmacological principles, as exemplified in the labeling of non-oncology drugs. PMID:20736327

  10. Phase 3 Oncology Clinical Trials in South Africa: Experimentation or Therapeutic Misconception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Tina; Moodley, Keymanthri

    2016-02-01

    Although clinical research in oncology is vital to improve current understanding of cancer and to validate new treatment options, voluntary informed consent is a critical component. Oncology research participants are a particularly vulnerable population; hence, therapeutic misconception often leads to ethical and legal challenges. We conducted a qualitative study administering semi-structured questionnaires on 29 adult, Phase 3, oncology clinical trial participants at three different private oncology clinical trial sites in South Africa. A descriptive content analysis was performed to identify perceptions of these participants regarding Phase 3 clinical trials. We found that most participants provided consent to be included in the trial for self-benefit. More than half of the participants had a poor understanding of Phase 3 clinical trials, and almost half the participants believed the clinical trial did not pose any significant risk to them. The word "hope" was used frequently by participants, displaying clear optimism with regard to the clinical trial and its outcome. This indicated that therapeutic misconception does occur in the South African oncology research setting and has the potential to lead to underestimation of the risks of a Phase 3 clinical trial. Emphasizing the experimental nature of a clinical trial during the consent process is critical to address therapeutic misconception in oncology research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Established and potential therapeutic applications of cannabinoids in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Declan; Nelson, Kristine A; Mahmoud, Fade Aziz

    2003-03-01

    Cannabis occurs naturally in the dried flowering or fruiting tops of the Cannabis sativa plant. Cannabis is most often consumed by smoking marihuana. Cannabinoids are the active compounds extracted from cannabis. Recently, there has been renewed interest in cannabinoids for medicinal purposes. The two proven indications for the use of the synthetic cannabinoid (dronabinol) are chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and AIDS-related anorexia. Other possible effects that may prove beneficial in the oncology population include analgesia, antitumor effect, mood elevation, muscle relaxation, and relief of insomnia. Two types of cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, have been detected. CB1 receptors are expressed mainly in the central and peripheral nervous system. CB2 receptors are found in certain nonneuronal tissues, particularly in the immune cells. Recent discovery of both the cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoids has opened a new era in research on the pharmaceutical applications of cannabinoids. The use of cannabinoids should be continued in the areas indicated, and further studies are needed to evaluate other potential uses in clinical oncology.

  12. Nuclear medicine in oncology 1: Lymphoma, and cancer of the lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    8. Nuclear medicine in oncology 1: Lymphoma, and cancer of the lung, colon, and oesophagus. Nuclear medicine techniques allow imaging of pathophysiology. A Ellmann, MB ChB, MSc, MMed (NucMed); J Holness, MB ChB, MMed (NucMed), FCNP (SA). Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Medical Imaging and ...

  13. American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Emerging Technology Committee report on electronic brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Catherine C; Yom, Sue S; Podgorsak, Matthew B; Harris, Eleanor; Price, Robert A; Bevan, Alison; Pouliot, Jean; Konski, Andre A; Wallner, Paul E

    2010-03-15

    The development of novel technologies for the safe and effective delivery of radiation is critical to advancing the field of radiation oncology. The Emerging Technology Committee of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology appointed a Task Group within its Evaluation Subcommittee to evaluate new electronic brachytherapy methods that are being developed for, or are already in, clinical use. The Task Group evaluated two devices, the Axxent Electronic Brachytherapy System by Xoft, Inc. (Fremont, CA), and the Intrabeam Photon Radiosurgery Device by Carl Zeiss Surgical (Oberkochen, Germany). These devices are designed to deliver electronically generated radiation, and because of their relatively low energy output, they do not fall under existing regulatory scrutiny of radioactive sources that are used for conventional radioisotope brachytherapy. This report provides a descriptive overview of the technologies, current and future projected applications, comparison of competing technologies, potential impact, and potential safety issues. The full Emerging Technology Committee report is available on the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Web site. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Adequacy of published oncology randomized controlled trials to provide therapeutic details needed for clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Jennifer M; Leather, Helen; Walden, Edmund O; LaPlant, Kourtney D; George, Thomas J

    2010-05-19

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) improve clinical care through evidence-based results. Guidelines exist for RCT result reporting, but specific details of therapeutic administration promote clinical application and reproduction of the trial design. We assess the reporting methodology in RCTs published in major oncology journals. Ten essential elements of RCT reporting were identified and included drug name, dose, route, cycle length, maximum number of cycles, premedication, growth factor support, patient monitoring parameters, and dosing adjustments for hematologic and organ-specific toxicity. All therapy-based oncology RCTs published between 2005 and 2008 in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), Journal of Clinical Oncology (JCO), Journal of the National Cancer Institute (JNCI), Blood, and Cancer were analyzed for inclusion of these 10 elements. Of 339 identified articles, 262 were included in the final analysis (165 from JCO, 31 from NEJM, 27 from Cancer, 20 from JNCI, and 19 from Blood). Premedication, growth factor support, and dose adjustments for toxicities were each reported less than half of the time. Only 30 articles (11%) met the main objective of complete data reporting (ie, all 10 essential elements) and was highest in JNCI (5/20; 25%), followed by Cancer (5/27; 18%), JCO (18/165; 11%), Blood (1/19; 5%), and NEJM (1/31; 3%). The presence of an online appendix did not substantially improve complete reporting. RCTs published in major oncology journals do not consistently report essential therapeutic details necessary for translation of the trial findings to clinical practice. Potential solutions to improve reporting include modification of submission guidelines, use of online appendices, and providing open access to trial protocols.

  15. Immuno-Oncology-The Translational Runway for Gene Therapy: Gene Therapeutics to Address Multiple Immune Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weß, Ludger; Schnieders, Frank

    2017-12-01

    Cancer therapy is once again experiencing a paradigm shift. This shift is based on extensive clinical experience demonstrating that cancer cannot be successfully fought by addressing only single targets or pathways. Even the combination of several neo-antigens in cancer vaccines is not sufficient for successful, lasting tumor eradication. The focus has therefore shifted to the immune system's role in cancer and the striking abilities of cancer cells to manipulate and/or deactivate the immune system. Researchers and pharma companies have started to target the processes and cells known to support immune surveillance and the elimination of tumor cells. Immune processes, however, require novel concepts beyond the traditional "single-target-single drug" paradigm and need parallel targeting of diverse cells and mechanisms. This review gives a perspective on the role of gene therapy technologies in the evolving immuno-oncology space and identifies gene therapy as a major driver in the development and regulation of effective cancer immunotherapy. Present challenges and breakthroughs ranging from chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy, gene-modified oncolytic viruses, combination cancer vaccines, to RNA therapeutics are spotlighted. Gene therapy is recognized as the most prominent technology enabling effective immuno-oncology strategies.

  16. Therapeutic Applications of Monte Carlo Calculations in Nuclear Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Sgouros, George

    2003-01-01

    This book examines the applications of Monte Carlo (MC) calculations in therapeutic nuclear medicine, from basic principles to computer implementations of software packages and their applications in radiation dosimetry and treatment planning. It is written for nuclear medicine physicists and physicians as well as radiation oncologists, and can serve as a supplementary text for medical imaging, radiation dosimetry and nuclear engineering graduate courses in science, medical and engineering faculties. With chapters is written by recognised authorities in that particular field, the book covers the entire range of MC applications in therapeutic medical and health physics, from its use in imaging prior to therapy to dose distribution modelling targeted radiotherapy. The contributions discuss the fundamental concepts of radiation dosimetry, radiobiological aspects of targeted radionuclide therapy and the various components and steps required for implementing a dose calculation and treatment planning methodology in ...

  17. Minutes of the 51. meeting of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (Astro); Compte rendu de la 51. reunion de l'American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO)

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    Mazeron, J.J. [Groupe hospitalier de la Pitie-Salpetriere, AP-HP, Service de radiotherapie oncologique, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-04-15

    The 51. meeting of the American society for therapeutic radiology and oncology occurred in chicago from the 1. to 5 november 2009. More than 1600 works were presented. Among these works, the most striking are presented in this article. The different studies treat prostate cancer, breast cancer, cerebral metastases after bronchi cancer, malignant melanoma, bronchi cancers, bladder cancer, rectum cancer cancer of the head and neck. (N.C.)

  18. Therapeutic Potential, Challenges and Future Perspective of Cancer Stem Cells in Translational Oncology: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Gaurav; Khera, Harvinder Kour; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Khare, Piush; Patidar, Rahul; Saxena, Rajiv

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell research is a rapidly developing field that offers effective treatment for a variety of malignant and non-malignant diseases. Stem cell is a regenerative medicine associated with the replacement, repair, and restoration of injured tissue. Stem cell research is a promising field having maximum therapeutic potential. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the cells within the tumor that posses capacity of selfrenewal and have a root cause for the failure of traditional therapies leading to re-occurrence of cancer. CSCs have been identified in blood, breast, brain, and colon cancer. Traditional therapies target only fast growing tumor mass, but not slow-dividing cancer stem cells. It has been shown that embryonic pathways such as Wnt, Hedgehog and Notch, control self-renewal capacity and involved in cancer stem cell maintenance. Targeting of these pathways may be effective in eradicating cancer stem cells and preventing chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance. Targeting CSCs has become one of the most effective approaches to improve the cancer survival by eradicating the main root cause of cancer. The present review will address, in brief, the importance of cancer stem cells in targeting cancer as better and effective treatment along with a concluding outlook on the scope and challenges in the implication of cancer stem cells in translational oncology. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Giving voice to cancer patients: assessing non-specific effects of an integrative oncology therapeutic program via short patient narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshet, Yael; Schiff, Elad; Samuels, Noah; Ben-Arye, Eran

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess patient perspectives regarding non-specific effects of a complementary medicine (CM) consultation and intervention within an integrative oncology setting. Patients undergoing chemotherapy in a community-based oncology service were referred by oncology healthcare providers to an integrative oncology physician trained in CM-oriented supportive care. Assessment of concerns and well-being was made using the Measure Yourself Concerns and Wellbeing questionnaire, at baseline and after 3 months of CM treatments, which were designed to improve quality of life (QoL) outcomes. Patients were asked to describe the most important aspects of the integrative treatment process. Free-text narratives were examined using content analysis with ATLAS.Ti software for systematic coding. Of 152 patients' narratives analyzed, 44% reported an experience of patient-centered care, including CM practitioners' approach of togetherness, uniqueness, and the invoking of an internal process. CM practitioner approach was experienced within a context of an enhanced sense of confidence; gaining a different perspective; and acquiring emotional resilience and empowerment. Short patient narratives should be considered for patient-reported outcomes, expressing perspectives of both effects and experience of care. CM may promote patient QoL-related outcomes through non-specific effects, enhancing patient-centered care. The benefits of CM dependent on general therapeutic incidental aspects (i.e., common factors) warrant attention regarding non-specific components of treatment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Cancer Stem Cell Hypothesis for Therapeutic Innovation in Clinical Oncology? Taking the Root Out, Not Chopping the Leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzobo, Kevin; Senthebane, Dimakatso Alice; Rowe, Arielle; Thomford, Nicholas Ekow; Mwapagha, Lamech M; Al-Awwad, Nasir; Dandara, Collet; Parker, M Iqbal

    2016-12-01

    Clinical oncology is in need of therapeutic innovation. New hypotheses and concepts for translation of basic research to novel diagnostics and therapeutics are called for. In this context, the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis rests on the premise that tumors comprise tumor cells and a subset of tumor-initiating cells, CSCs, in a quiescent state characterized by slow cell cycling and expression of specific stem cell surface markers with the capability to maintain a tumor in vivo. The CSCs have unlimited self-renewal abilities and propagate tumors through division into asymmetric daughter cells. This differentiation is induced by both genetic and environmental factors. Another characteristic of CSCs is their therapeutic resistance, which is due to their quiescent state and slow dividing. Notably, the CSC phenotype differs greatly between patients and different cancer types. The CSCs may differ genetically and phenotypically and may include primary CSCs and metastatic stem cells circulating within the blood system. Targeting CSCs will require the knowledge of distinct stem cells within the tumor. CSCs can differentiate into nontumorigenic cells and this has been touted as the source of heterogeneity observed in many solid tumors. The latter cannot be fully explained by epigenetic regulation or by the clonal evolution theory. This heterogeneity markedly influences how tumors respond to therapy and prognosis. The present expert review offers an analysis and synthesis of the latest research and concepts on CSCs, with a view to truly disruptive innovation for future diagnostics and therapeutics in clinical oncology.

  1. Onco-epidemiology of domestic animals and targeted therapeutic attempts: perspectives on human oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Palmieri, Beniamino; De Vico, Gionata; Iannitti, Tommaso

    2014-11-01

    The spontaneous tumor biology has been investigated with the support of animalists using animals as a preclinical model allowing translation of results in clinical practice. This review provides an insight into the field of comparative oncology. Evidence shows that companion animal health care is impressively growing in terms of development of new therapies and diagnostic tools, nutrition and disease prevention. However, even if most animal tumors might be a reliable model to study human carcinomas, many open questions, related to the opportunities to select and recruit new models in oncology, along with their legal and ethical implications, remain unanswered.

  2. On the possibility of low cost, adherent therapeutic drug monitoring in oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Marta, Silvia; Fornasaro, Stefano; Jaworska, Aleksandra; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Bonifacio, Alois; Sergo, Valter

    2016-05-01

    A frequent quantification of drugs concentrations in plasma of patients subject to chemotherapy is seldom performed, mostly because the standard methods (Gas or Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectroscopy) are expensive and time consuming. In this paper we report the approach pursued in one of the research units of the EU project RAMAN4CLINICS to tackle the problem of a low cost, time adherent quantification of drugs used for oncological patients using a Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. More specifically, the issues concerning the repeatability of the nanostructured substrates will be presented and some promising results to increase the selectivity of the measures toward specific drugs will be discussed, with examples concerning one cytotoxic agent, Irinotecan and one kinase inhibitor, Sunitinib.

  3. Survivin – biology and potential as a therapeutic target in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung CHA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chun Hei Antonio Cheung,1,2 Chien-Chang Huang,3 Fang-Ying Tsai,4 Jane Ying-Chieh Lee,1 Siao Muk Cheng,2 Yung-Chieh Chang,1 Yi-Chun Huang,1 Shang-Hung Chen,5 Jang-Yang Chang3,6 1Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 2Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 3National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Tainan, 4South East Asian Health Education Center in Taiwan (SEAHECT, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 5Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Liouying, Tainan, 6Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Survivin is a member of the inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins (IAPs family; its overexpression has been widely demonstrated to occur in various types of cancer. Overexpression of survivin also correlates with tumor progression and induces anticancer drug resistance. Interestingly, recent studies reveal that survivin exhibits multiple pro-mitotic and anti-apoptotic functions; the differential functions of survivin seem to be caused by differential subcellular localization, phosphorylation, and acetylation of this molecule. In this review, the complex expression regulations and post-translational modifications of survivin are discussed. This review also discusses how recent discoveries improve our understanding of survivin biology and also create opportunities for developing differential-functioned survivin-targeted therapy. Databases such as PubMed, Scopus® (Elsevier, New York, NY, USA, and SciFinder® (CAS, Columbus, OH, USA were used to search for literature in the preparation of this review. Keywords: survivin, BIRC5, IAP, XIAP, caspase-9, Samc, DIABLO

  4. Separation of nuclear isomers for cancer therapeutic radionuclides based on nuclear decay after-effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, R.; van der Meer, A.; Das, S. K.; de Bruin, M.; Gascon, J.; Wolterbeek, H. T.; Denkova, A. G.; Serra-Crespo, P.

    2017-03-01

    177Lu has sprung as a promising radionuclide for targeted therapy. The low soft tissue penetration of its β- emission results in very efficient energy deposition in small-size tumours. Because of this, 177Lu is used in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours and is also clinically approved for prostate cancer therapy. In this work, we report a separation method that achieves the challenging separation of the physically and chemically identical nuclear isomers, 177mLu and 177Lu. The separation method combines the nuclear after-effects of the nuclear decay, the use of a very stable chemical complex and a chromatographic separation. Based on this separation concept, a new type of radionuclide generator has been devised, in which the parent and the daughter radionuclides are the same elements. The 177mLu/177Lu radionuclide generator provides a new production route for the therapeutic radionuclide 177Lu and can bring significant growth in the research and development of 177Lu based pharmaceuticals.

  5. Psychotherapist countertransference in the nuclear age: Effects on therapeutic interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oderberg, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, there has been considerable attention in the psychology literature to mental health problems related to living in a world threatened by nuclear destruction. Questionnaires were mailed to 630 psychotherapists from the Colorado Psychological Association, California Psychotherapists for Social Responsibility, California Psychologists for Social Responsibility, the US Army, and the APA Division of Military Psychology; 174 questionnaires were returned. It was hypothesized that liberalism, nuclear weapons opposition, nuclear concern, nuclear awareness, and anti-nuclear activism in psychotherapists would facilitate perception of, and openness to working with, a client's nuclear concerns and thus, would be positively correlated with intentions to discuss nuclear issues with clients in three different clinical vignettes. Results indicated that when controlling for subject group, psychotherapy orientation, age, sex, and income, all five independent variables were positively correlated with responses to all three clinical vignettes, with nuclear concern having the strongest unique effect in accounting for variance in responses to the vignettes.

  6. Minutes of the 29. meeting of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO). Barcelona (Spain), 12-16 September 2010; Compte-rendu de la 29e reunion de l'European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO). Barcelone (Espagne), 12-16 septembre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazeron, J.J. [Service de radiotherapie oncologique, groupe hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, AP-HP, 47-83, boulevard de l' Hopital, 75651 Paris cedex (France)

    2011-04-15

    This document proposes overviews and comments of results of randomized trials in the field of therapeutic radiology and oncology. More precisely, it addresses therapeutic trials performed in the cases of breast cancer, endometrial cancer, prostate cancer, bladder cancer, rectal cancer, medulloblastoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, ENT cancers, and bronchial cancers

  7. Improving oncology outcomes through targeted therapeutics will require electronic delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Tibor; Marsh, Sharon

    2011-05-01

    Typically, chemotherapy selection takes into account patient demographic data, including disease symptoms, family history, environmental factors and concurrent medications. Although validated and approved genomics tests are available for targeted therapeutics, a major challenge facing healthcare is the ability to process the genomic data in the patient's context and to return clinically interpretable dosing guidance to the physician in a realistic time frame. Delivery of these targeted therapeutics, made possible by clinical decision support systems connected to an electronic health record may help drive both the acceptance and adaptation of an electronic health record system, as well as provide personalized information at point-of-care, as part of the routine workflow. The realization of targeted therapeutics will depend on the concerted efforts of stakeholder groups as they address political, ethical, socioeconomical and technical challenges to achieve personalized medicine adoption through real-world implementation.

  8. Recruiting Terminally Ill Patients into Non-Therapeutic Oncology Studies: views of Health Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleiderman Erika

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-therapeutic trials in which terminally ill cancer patients are asked to undergo procedures such as biopsies or venipunctures for research purposes, have become increasingly important to learn more about how cancer cells work and to realize the full potential of clinical research. Considering that implementing non-therapeutic studies is not likely to result in direct benefits for the patient, some authors are concerned that involving patients in such research may be exploitive of vulnerable patients and should not occur at all, or should be greatly restricted, while some proponents doubt whether such restrictions are appropriate. Our objective was to explore clinician-researcher attitudes and concerns when recruiting patients who are in advanced stages of cancer into non-therapeutic research. Methods We conducted a qualitative exploratory study by carrying out open-ended interviews with health professionals, including physicians, research nurses, and study coordinators. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Analysis was carried out using grounded theory. Results The analysis of the interviews unveiled three prominent themes: 1 ethical considerations; 2 patient-centered issues; 3 health professional issues. Respondents identified ethical issues surrounding autonomy, respect for persons, beneficence, non-maleficence, discrimination, and confidentiality; bringing to light that patients contribute to science because of a sense of altruism and that they want reassurance before consenting. Several patient-centered and health professional issues are having an impact on the recruitment of patients for non-therapeutic research. Facilitators were most commonly associated with patient-centered issues enhancing communication, whereas barriers in non-therapeutic research were most often professionally based, including the doctor-patient relationship, time constraints, and a lack of education and training in research

  9. Recruiting terminally ill patients into non-therapeutic oncology studies: views of health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiderman, Erika; Avard, Denise; Black, Lee; Diaz, Zuanel; Rousseau, Caroline; Knoppers, Bartha Maria

    2012-12-05

    Non-therapeutic trials in which terminally ill cancer patients are asked to undergo procedures such as biopsies or venipunctures for research purposes, have become increasingly important to learn more about how cancer cells work and to realize the full potential of clinical research. Considering that implementing non-therapeutic studies is not likely to result in direct benefits for the patient, some authors are concerned that involving patients in such research may be exploitive of vulnerable patients and should not occur at all, or should be greatly restricted, while some proponents doubt whether such restrictions are appropriate. Our objective was to explore clinician-researcher attitudes and concerns when recruiting patients who are in advanced stages of cancer into non-therapeutic research. We conducted a qualitative exploratory study by carrying out open-ended interviews with health professionals, including physicians, research nurses, and study coordinators. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Analysis was carried out using grounded theory. The analysis of the interviews unveiled three prominent themes: 1) ethical considerations; 2) patient-centered issues; 3) health professional issues. Respondents identified ethical issues surrounding autonomy, respect for persons, beneficence, non-maleficence, discrimination, and confidentiality; bringing to light that patients contribute to science because of a sense of altruism and that they want reassurance before consenting. Several patient-centered and health professional issues are having an impact on the recruitment of patients for non-therapeutic research. Facilitators were most commonly associated with patient-centered issues enhancing communication, whereas barriers in non-therapeutic research were most often professionally based, including the doctor-patient relationship, time constraints, and a lack of education and training in research. This paper aims to contribute to debates on the overall

  10. Next-generation mTOR inhibitors in clinical oncology: how pathway complexity informs therapeutic strategy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wander, Seth A

    2011-04-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a PI3K-related kinase that regulates cell growth, proliferation, and survival via mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2. The mTOR pathway is often aberrantly activated in cancers. While hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, and DNA damage restrain mTORC1 activity, multiple genetic events constitutively activate mTOR in cancers. Here we provide a brief overview of the signaling pathways up- and downstream of mTORC1 and -2, and discuss the insights into therapeutic anticancer targets - both those that have been tried in the clinic with limited success and those currently under clinical development - that knowledge of these pathways gives us.

  11. Sexuality issues in gynaecological oncology patients: post treatment symptoms and therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavazzo, C; Johnson, K; Savage, H; Gallagher, S; Datta, M; Winter-Roach, B A

    2015-03-01

    According to recent studies up to 80% of patients would like to receive more information about how cancer treatments can affect their sexual functioning. Moreover, 75 % of them would not feel comfortable being the first to bring up the subject. Our Gynaecological Advice Clinic was established in 2006 at the Christie Hospital and offers support to cancer patients who face sexuality issues. A previous evaluation established that the service sees approximately, 200 patients per year. The aims of this study are to evaluate the service by collecting data relating to levels of attendance, type and amount of clinical activity and to explore further patients' experiences and management. This is a retrospective study which was carried out in 2012-2013. Different models are used to evaluate our patients including history taking integrated therapy model, consultations to understand the normal anatomy and physiology with the use of diagrams and photographs, psycho-education and the international classification "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition" (DSMV). The treatment options advised include medications such as hormone replacement treatment, testosterone, antidepressant, local oestrogen, tibolone, aqueous cream, lubrication to introitus, diprobase, dermal cream and advice for massage to areas of discomfort. Moreover, the use of vaginal dilators, the role of pelvic floor exercises, vulval care and self examination are explained. The team works closely with the psycho-oncology department. The most frequently discussed topics that were covered during the consultation are analysed. 41 outpatient clinics were held between 2012 and 2013. 194 patients attended those clinics during the study period. Single and not group therapy was offered to all the participants. 216 patients were offered appointments while 194 patients actually attended (90%). Patients' age ranged from 24 to 91 years with a mean age of 59 years. 45% had endometrial and 32% cervical

  12. [Galen's oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigliani, R

    1995-10-01

    "Claudius Galenus" is the Author of "De tumoribus praeter naturam". The book was studied on the original Greek text with Latin version edited by K.G. Kühn ("Opera omnia Claudii Galeni": VII, 705-732). This Galen's clinical and pathological oncology was examined as far as categorization, classification, morphology, etiology, pathogenesis, morphogenesis, topography, behaviour (with related therapeutic and prognostic implications) and terminology are concerned. Problems, aspects and concepts, more or less clarified by Galen, were extensively discussed with special reference to the Galen's scientific knowledge and compared with the modern oncology.

  13. Preoperative therapeutic programme for elderly patients scheduled for elective abdominal oncological surgery: A randomized controlled pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dronkers, J.J.; Lamberts, H.; Reutelingsperger, I.M.M.D.; Naber, R.H.; Dronkers-Landman, C.M.; Veldman, A.; Meeteren, N.L.U. van

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Investigation of the feasibility and preliminary effect of a short-term intensive preoperative exercise programme for elderly patients scheduled for elective abdominal oncological surgery. Design: Single-blind randomized controlled pilot study. Setting: Ordinary hospital in the

  14. Nanotechnology in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrew Z; Tepper, Joel E

    2014-09-10

    Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter on atomic and molecular scales, is a relatively new branch of science. It has already made a significant impact on clinical medicine, especially in oncology. Nanomaterial has several characteristics that are ideal for oncology applications, including preferential accumulation in tumors, low distribution in normal tissues, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and clearance, that differ from those of small molecules. Because these properties are also well suited for applications in radiation oncology, nanomaterials have been used in many different areas of radiation oncology for imaging and treatment planning, as well as for radiosensitization to improve the therapeutic ratio. In this article, we review the unique properties of nanomaterials that are favorable for oncology applications and examine the various applications of nanotechnology in radiation oncology. We also discuss the future directions of nanotechnology within the context of radiation oncology. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  15. Nuclear medicine in oncology 1: Lymphoma, and cancer of the lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nuclear medicine provides an opportunity to image pathophysiology, while radiology mainly shows morphology. Over the last few decades hybrid imaging modalities have been developed in which nuclear medicine instrumentation has been combined with computed tomography (CT) and, more recently, with magnetic ...

  16. Nanotechnology in Radiation Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrew Z.; Tepper, Joel E.

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter on atomic and molecular scales, is a relatively new branch of science. It has already made a significant impact on clinical medicine, especially in oncology. Nanomaterial has several characteristics that are ideal for oncology applications, including preferential accumulation in tumors, low distribution in normal tissues, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and clearance, that differ from those of small molecules. Because these properties are also well suited for applications in radiation oncology, nanomaterials have been used in many different areas of radiation oncology for imaging and treatment planning, as well as for radiosensitization to improve the therapeutic ratio. In this article, we review the unique properties of nanomaterials that are favorable for oncology applications and examine the various applications of nanotechnology in radiation oncology. We also discuss the future directions of nanotechnology within the context of radiation oncology. PMID:25113769

  17. A new calculation formula of the nuclear cross-section of therapeutic protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Ulmer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We have previously developed for nuclear cross-sections of therapeutic protons a calculation model, which is founded on the collective model as well as a quantum mechanical many particle problem to derive the S matrix and transition probabilities. In this communication, we show that the resonances can be derived by shifted Gaussian functions, whereas the unspecific nuclear interaction compounds can be represented by an error function, which also provides the asymptotic behavior. Method: The energy shifts can be interpreted in terms of necessary domains of energy to excite typical nuclear processes. Thus the necessary formulas referring to previous calculations of nuclear cross-sections will be represented. The mass number AN determines the strong interaction range, i.e. RStrong = 1.2·10-13·AN1/3cm. The threshold energy ETh of the energy barrier is determined by the condition Estrong = ECoulomb. Results and Conclusion: A linear combination of Gaussians, which contain additional energy shifts, and an error function incorporate a possible representation of Fermi-Dirac statistics, which is applied here to nuclear excitations and reaction with release of secondary particles. The new calculation formula provides a better understanding of different types of resonances occurring in nuclear interactions with protons. The present study is mainly a continuation of published papers.1-3--------------------------------Cite this article as: Ulmer W. A new calculation formula of the nuclear cross-section of therapeutic protons. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(2:020211. DOI: 10.14319/ijcto.0202.11

  18. An allogenic site-specific rat model of bone metastases for nuclear medicine and experimental oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesalski, Barbara; Yilmaz, Bengü; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Bausbacher, Nicole; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Thews, Oliver

    2012-05-01

    Bone metastases are a major problem in several tumor entities affecting the therapeutic decision and the patient's prognosis. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are promising techniques for identifying bone tumors using gamma- or positron-emitting labeled radiotracers, but the same tracers if labeled with beta-emitters may also be used to apply therapeutic radionuclides for localized irradiation. For the tracer development specifically accumulating in osseous lesions, animal models of bone metastasis are needed. A technique was developed for tumor cell injection into the circulation of the hind limb of rats. For tumor implantation, the arteria epigastrica caudalis superficialis (a branch of the femoral artery) was cannulated, and 2×10(5) cells were injected. By using the allogenic Walker 256 mammary carcinoma cell line, isolated bone metastases were induced. For visualizing of the tumor growth, PET with 18F-fluoride was performed weekly on a μ-PET system. After 2-3 weeks, tumor invasion was confirmed by histology. Three weeks after tumor cell inoculation, PET images showed signs of bone metastases in 9 out of 11 animals. The tumors were located either in the proximal tibia/fibula or in the distal femur. At this time, the animals showed no restrictions in mobility. The tumors grew constantly over time. The final histological analysis showed tumors growing invasively into the bone matrix. With this model, new SPECT or PET tracers can be evaluated for their potency of accumulating in bone metastases in vivo and to determine which are therefore suitable for diagnosis and/or therapy. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. To improve the quality of the statistical analysis of papers published in the Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Chul; Choi, Doo Ho [Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Song Vogue [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2008-12-15

    To improve the quality of the statistical analysis of papers published in the Journal of the Korean Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JKOSTRO) by evaluating commonly encountered errors. Materials and Methods: Papers published in the JKOSTRO from January 2006 to December 2007 were reviewed for methodological and statistical validity using a modified version of Ahn's checklist. A statistician reviewed individual papers and evaluated the list items in the checklist for each paper. To avoid the potential assessment error by the statistician who lacks expertise in the field of radiation oncology; the editorial board of the JKOSTRO reviewed each checklist for individual articles. A frequency analysis of the list items was performed using SAS (version 9.0, SAS Institute, NC, USA) software. Results: A total of 73 papers including 5 case reports and 68 original articles were reviewed. Inferential statistics was used in 46 papers. The most commonly adopted statistical methodology was a survival analysis (58.7%). Only 19% of papers were free of statistical errors. Errors of omission were encountered in 34 (50.0%) papers. Errors of commission were encountered in 35 (51.5%) papers. Twenty-one papers (30.9%) had both errors of omission and commission. Conclusion: A variety of statistical errors were encountered in papers published in the JKOSTRO. The current study suggests that a more thorough review of the statistical analysis is needed for manuscripts submitted in the JKOSTRO.

  20. Effect of obesity on prostate-specific antigen recurrence after radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer as measured by the 2006 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-American Society for Therapeutic Radiation and Oncology (RTOG-ASTRO) Phoenix consensus definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, Sean P; Cullen, Jennifer; Auge, Brian K; L'Esperance, James O; Kang, Song K

    2007-09-01

    Given the limited data regarding the impact of obesity on treatment outcomes after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for the definitive treatment of prostate cancer, the authors sought to evaluate the effect of obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI) on biochemical disease recurrence (BCR) using the most current 2006 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-American Society for Therapeutic Radiation and Oncology (RTOG-ASTRO) Phoenix consensus definition (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] nadir + 2 ng/mL). A retrospective cohort study identified men who underwent primary EBRT for localized prostate cancer between 1989 and 2003 using the Center for Prostate Disease Research (CPDR) Multi-center National Database. BMI was calculated (in kg/m(2)) and the data were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to determine whether BMI significantly predicted BCR. Of the 1868 eligible patients, 399 (21%) were obese. The median age of the patients and pretreatment PSA level were 70.2 years and 8.2 ng/mL, respectively. Of 1320 patients for whom data were available with which to calculate PSA recurrence (PSA nadir + 2 ng/mL), a total of 554 men (42.0%) experienced BCR. On univariate analysis, BMI was found to be an independent predictor of PSA recurrence (P = .02), as was race, pretreatment PSA level, EBRT dose, clinical T classification, Gleason score, PSA nadir, and the use of androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). On multivariate analysis, BMI remained a significant predictor of BCR (P = .008). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to report the association between obesity and BCR after EBRT for localized prostate cancer as measured by the updated 2006 RTOG-ASTRO definition. A higher BMI is associated with greater odds of BCR after undergoing definitive EBRT.

  1. State-of-the-art and recent advances in quantification for therapeutic follow-up in oncology using PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eCarlier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET is an important tool in oncology. Its use has greatly progressed from initial diagnosis to staging and patient monitoring. The information derived from 18F-FDG-PET allowed the development of a wide range of PET quantitative analysis techniques ranging from simple semi-quantitative methods like the standardised uptake value (SUV to high order metrics that require a segmentation step and additional image processing. In this review, these methods are discussed, focusing particularly on the available methodologies that can be used in clinical trials as well as their current applications in international consensus for PET interpretation in lymphoma and solid tumors.

  2. The European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology-European Institute of Radiotherapy (ESTRO-EIR) report on 3D CT-based in-room image guidance systems: a practical and technical review and guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korreman, Stine; Rasch, Coen; McNair, Helen; Verellen, Dirk; Oelfke, Uwe; Maingon, Philippe; Mijnheer, Ben; Khoo, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    The past decade has provided many technological advances in radiotherapy. The European Institute of Radiotherapy (EIR) was established by the European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) to provide current consensus statement with evidence-based and pragmatic guidelines on topics

  3. Diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives in nuclear medicine: radiolabelled biomolecules; Perspectivas diagnosticas y terapeuticas en medicina nuclear: biomoleculas radiomarcadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro F, G. [Gerencia de Aplicaciones Nucleares en la Salud. ININ, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Murphy, C.A. de; Pedraza L, M. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear. Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Melendez A, L. [Facultad de Medicina, UAEM, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    From their beginning, the radiopharmaceuticals chemistry has gone to the study of the molecular chemistry. The radiopharmaceuticals are only in their capacity to detect such specific biochemical places as the receivers and the enzymes. With the recent obtaining of the complete structural sequence of the genome, it doesn't fit doubt of the importance that they have acquired the molecular images for the study from the genetic information to the alterations phenotypic in the chemistry of the human body. So, the future of the diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine, practically is based in the study of protein fragments, peptide structures and chains of DNA radiolabelled for the study of the metabolism In vivo. These investigations represent a substantial change in those paradigms of the pharmaceutical development, when using the own organic capacities as source of medications, instead of considering to the organism like a simple assay tube where molecules act, like they are most of the traditional medications. The investigation of new techniques to design complex stable of Tc-99m, Re-188, Lu-177, Y-90 and Dy-166/Ho-l66 with biomolecules that don't alter the specificity and in general the molecular properties of the same ones. it is a topic of world interest in the environment of the radiopharmaceutical chemistry. In this work some achievements and perspectives are presented on those main diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals of third generation. (Author)

  4. Nuclear hormone receptor signals as new therapeutic targets for urothelial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, H; Zheng, Y; Izumi, K

    2012-01-01

    Unlike prostate and breast cancers, urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder is not yet considered as an endocrine-related neoplasm, and hormonal therapy for bladder cancer remains experimental. Nonetheless, there is increasing evidence indicating that nuclear hormone receptor signals are implicated in the development and progression of bladder cancer. Androgen-mediated androgen receptor (AR) signals have been convincingly shown to induce bladder tumorigenesis. Androgens also promote the growth of AR-positive bladder cancer cells, although it is controversial whether AR plays a dominant role in bladder cancer progression. Both stimulatory and inhibitory functions of estrogen receptor signals in bladder cancer have been reported. Various studies have also demonstrated the involvement of other nuclear receptors, including progesterone receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, vitamin D receptor, and retinoid receptors, as well as some orphan receptors, in bladder cancer. This review summarizes and discusses available data suggesting the modulation of bladder carcinogenesis and cancer progression via nuclear hormone receptor signaling pathways. These pathways have the potential to be an extremely important area of bladder cancer research, leading to the development of effective chemopreventive/therapeutic approaches, using hormonal manipulation. Considerable uncertainty remains regarding the selection of patients who are likely to benefit from hormonal therapy and optimal options for the treatment.

  5. Nuclear medicine; La medecine nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibille, L. [Hopital Lapeyronie CHU Montpellier, Medecine Nucleaire, 34 - Montpellier (France); Nalda, E.; Collombier, L.; Kotzki, P.O.; Boudousq, V. [CHU de Nimes, Service de Medecine Nucleaire et de biophysique, 30 - Nimes (France)

    2011-05-15

    Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty using the properties of radioactivity. Radioactive markers associated with vectors are used as a tracer or radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic purposes and/or therapy. Since its birth more than half a century ago, it has become essential in the care of many patients, particularly in oncology. After some definitions, this paper presents the main nuclear techniques - imaging for diagnostic, radiopharmaceuticals as therapeutic agents, intra-operative detection, technique of radioimmunoassay - and the future of this field. (authors)

  6. Thermal and resonance neutrons generated by various electron and X-ray therapeutic beams from medical linacs installed in polish oncological centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konefał, Adam; Orlef, Andrzej; Łaciak, Marcin; Ciba, Aleksander; Szewczuk, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Background High-energy photon and electron therapeutic beams generated in medical linear accelerators can cause the electronuclear and photonuclear reactions in which neutrons with a broad energy spectrum are produced. A low-energy component of this neutron radiation induces simple capture reactions from which various radioisotopes originate and in which the radioactivity of a linac head and various objects in the treatment room appear. Aim The aim of this paper is to present the results of the thermal/resonance neutron fluence measurements during therapeutic beam emission and exemplary spectra of gamma radiation emitted by medical linac components activated in neutron reactions for four X-ray beams and for four electron beams generated by various manufacturers’ accelerators installed in typical concrete bunkers in Polish oncological centers. Materials and methods The measurements of neutron fluence were performed with the use of the induced activity method, whereas the spectra of gamma radiation from decays of the resulting radioisotopes were measured by means of a portable high-purity germanium detector set for field spectroscopy. Results The fluence of thermal neutrons as well as resonance neutrons connected with the emission of a 20 MV X-ray beam is ∼106 neutrons/cm2 per 1 Gy of a dose in water at a reference depth. It is about one order of magnitude greater than that for the 15 MV X-ray beams and about two orders of magnitude greater than for the 18–22 MeV electron beams regardless of the type of an accelerator. Conclusion The thermal as well as resonance neutron fluence depends strongly on the type and the nominal potential of a therapeutic beam. It is greater for X-ray beams than for electrons. The accelerator accessories and other large objects should not be stored in a treatment room during high-energy therapeutic beam emission to avoid their activation caused by thermal and resonance neutrons. Half-lives of the radioisotopes originating from

  7. The Nuclear Hormone Receptor PPARγ as a Therapeutic Target in Major Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Victoria Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and regulates gene expression upon heterodimerization with the retinoid X receptor by ligating to peroxisome proliferator response elements (PPREs in the promoter region of target genes. Originally, PPARγ was identified as being essential for glucose metabolism. Thus, synthetic PPARγ agonists, the thiazolidinediones (TZDs, are used in type 2 diabetes therapy as insulin sensitizers. More recent evidence implied an important role for the nuclear hormone receptor PPARγ in controlling various diseases based on its anti-inflammatory, cell cycle arresting, and proapoptotic properties. In this regard, expression of PPARγ is not restricted to adipocytes, but is also found in immune cells, such as B and T lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes. The expression of PPARγ in lymphoid organs and its modulation of macrophage inflammatory responses, lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production, and apoptosis underscore its immune regulating functions. Moreover, PPARγ expression is found in tumor cells, where its activation facilitates antitumorigenic actions. This review provides an overview about the role of PPARγ as a possible therapeutic target approaching major, severe diseases, such as sepsis, cancer, and atherosclerosis.

  8. Bile Acid Nuclear Receptor Farnesoid X Receptor: Therapeutic Target for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Gi Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the causes of fatty liver, occurring when fat is accumulated in the liver without alcohol consumption. NAFLD is the most common liver disorder in advanced countries. NAFLD is a spectrum of pathology involving hepatic steatosis with/without inflammation and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with accumulation of hepatocyte damage and hepatic fibrosis. Recent studies have revealed that NAFLD results in the progression of cryptogenic cirrhosis that leads to hepatocarcinoma and cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure. The main causes of NAFLD have not been revealed yet, metabolic syndromes including obesity and insulin resistance are widely accepted for the critical risk factors for the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Nuclear receptors (NRs are transcriptional factors that sense environmental or hormonal signals and regulate expression of genes, involved in cellular growth, development, and metabolism. Several NRs have been reported to regulate genes involved in energy and xenobiotic metabolism and inflammation. Among various NRs, farnesoid X receptor (FXR is abundantly expressed in the liver and a key regulator to control various metabolic processes in the liver. Recent studies have shown that NAFLD is associated with inappropriate function of FXR. The impact of FXR transcriptional activity in NAFLD is likely to be potential therapeutic strategy, but still requires to elucidate underlying potent therapeutic mechanisms of FXR for the treatment of NAFLD. This article will focus the physiological roles of FXR and establish the correlation between FXR transcriptional activity and the pathogenesis of NAFLD.

  9. The nuclear receptor PPARγ as a therapeutic target for cerebrovascular and brain dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nektaria Nicolakakis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors that regulate peripheral lipid and glucose metabolism. Three subtypes make up the PPAR family (α, γ, β/δ, and synthetic ligands for PPARα (fibrates and PPARγ (Thiazolidinediones, TZDs are currently prescribed for the respective management of dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. In contrast to the well characterized action of PPARs in the periphery, little was known about the presence or function of these receptors in the brain and cerebral vasculature, until fairly recently. Indeed, research in the last decade has uncovered these receptors in most brain cell types, and has shown that their activation, particularly that of PPARγ, is implicated in normal brain and cerebrovascular physiology, and confers protection under pathological conditions. Notably, accumulating evidence has highlighted the therapeutic potential of PPARγ ligands in the treatment of brain disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD, leading to the testing of the TZDs pioglitazone and rosiglitazone in AD clinical trials. This review will focus on the benefits of PPARγ agonists for vascular, neuronal and glial networks, and assess the value of these compounds as future AD therapeutics in light of evidence from transgenic mouse models and recent clinical trials.

  10. Randomized clinical trial of therapeutic music video intervention for resilience outcomes in adolescents/young adults undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Sheri L; Burns, Debra S; Stegenga, Kristin A; Haut, Paul R; Monahan, Patrick O; Meza, Jane; Stump, Timothy E; Cherven, Brooke O; Docherty, Sharron L; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna L; Kintner, Eileen K; Haight, Ann E; Wall, Donna A; Haase, Joan E

    2014-03-15

    To reduce the risk of adjustment problems associated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) for adolescents/young adults (AYAs), we examined efficacy of a therapeutic music video (TMV) intervention delivered during the acute phase of HSCT to: 1) increase protective factors of spiritual perspective, social integration, family environment, courageous coping, and hope-derived meaning; 2) decrease risk factors of illness-related distress and defensive coping; and 3) increase outcomes of self-transcendence and resilience. This was a multisite randomized, controlled trial (COG-ANUR0631) conducted at 8 Children's Oncology Group sites involving 113 AYAs aged 11-24 years undergoing myeloablative HSCT. Participants, randomized to the TMV or low-dose control (audiobooks) group, completed 6 sessions over 3 weeks with a board-certified music therapist. Variables were based on Haase's Resilience in Illness Model (RIM). Participants completed measures related to latent variables of illness-related distress, social integration, spiritual perspective, family environment, coping, hope-derived meaning, and resilience at baseline (T1), postintervention (T2), and 100 days posttransplant (T3). At T2, the TMV group reported significantly better courageous coping (Effect Size [ES], 0.505; P = .030). At T3, the TMV group reported significantly better social integration (ES, 0.543; P = .028) and family environment (ES, 0.663; P = .008), as well as moderate nonsignificant effect sizes for spiritual perspective (ES, 0.450; P = .071) and self-transcendence (ES, 0.424; P = .088). The TMV intervention improves positive health outcomes of courageous coping, social integration, and family environment during a high-risk cancer treatment. We recommend the TMV be examined in a broader population of AYAs with high-risk cancers. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  11. Quantitative PET/CT scanner performance characterization based upon the society of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging clinical trials network oncology clinical simulator phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, John J; Christian, Paul E

    2015-01-01

    The Clinical Trials Network (CTN) of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) operates a PET/CT phantom imaging program using the CTN's oncology clinical simulator phantom, designed to validate scanners at sites that wish to participate in oncology clinical trials. Since its inception in 2008, the CTN has collected 406 well-characterized phantom datasets from 237 scanners at 170 imaging sites covering the spectrum of commercially available PET/CT systems. The combined and collated phantom data describe a global profile of quantitative performance and variability of PET/CT data used in both clinical practice and clinical trials. Individual sites filled and imaged the CTN oncology PET phantom according to detailed instructions. Standard clinical reconstructions were requested and submitted. The phantom itself contains uniform regions suitable for scanner calibration assessment, lung fields, and 6 hot spheric lesions with diameters ranging from 7 to 20 mm at a 4:1 contrast ratio with primary background. The CTN Phantom Imaging Core evaluated the quality of the phantom fill and imaging and measured background standardized uptake values to assess scanner calibration and maximum standardized uptake values of all 6 lesions to review quantitative performance. Scanner make-and-model-specific measurements were pooled and then subdivided by reconstruction to create scanner-specific quantitative profiles. Different makes and models of scanners predictably demonstrated different quantitative performance profiles including, in some cases, small calibration bias. Differences in site-specific reconstruction parameters increased the quantitative variability among similar scanners, with postreconstruction smoothing filters being the most influential parameter. Quantitative assessment of this intrascanner variability over this large collection of phantom data gives, for the first time, estimates of reconstruction variance introduced into trials from allowing

  12. A concise guide to nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Elgazzar, Abdelhamid H

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is an important component of modern medicine. This easy-to-use book is designed to acquaint readers with the basic principles of nuclear medicine, the instrumentation used, the gamut of procedures available, and the basis for selecting specific diagnostic or therapeutic procedures and interpreting results. After an introductory chapter on the history, technical basis, and scope of nuclear medicine, a series of chapters are devoted to the application of nuclear medicine techniques in the different body systems. In addition, the use of nuclear medicine methods within oncology is

  13. The European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology-European Institute of Radiotherapy (ESTRO-EIR) report on 3D CT-based in-room image guidance systems: a practical and technical review and guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine; Rasch, Coen; McNair, Helen

    2010-01-01

    The past decade has provided many technological advances in radiotherapy. The European Institute of Radiotherapy (EIR) was established by the European Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO) to provide current consensus statement with evidence-based and pragmatic guidelines on topics...... of practical relevance for radiation oncology. This report focuses primarily on 3D CT-based in-room image guidance (3DCT-IGRT) systems. It will provide an overview and current standing of 3DCT-IGRT systems addressing the rationale, objectives, principles, applications, and process pathways, both clinical...... demonstrates a wide variability based on local practices. This report whilst comprehensive is not exhaustive as this area of development remains a very active field for research and development. However, it should serve as a practical guide and framework for all professional groups within the field, focussed...

  14. Interim positron emission tomography scans in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: an independent expert nuclear medicine evaluation of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group E3404 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horning, Sandra J; Juweid, Malik E; Schöder, Heiko; Wiseman, Gregory; McMillan, Alex; Swinnen, Lode J; Advani, Ranjana; Gascoyne, Randy; Quon, Andrew

    2010-01-28

    Positive interim positron emission tomography (PET) scans are thought to be associated with inferior outcomes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In the E3404 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma study, PET scans at baseline and after 3 cycles of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone were centrally reviewed by a single reader. To determine the reproducibility of interim PET interpretation, an expert panel of 3 external nuclear medicine physicians visually scored baseline and interim PET scans independently and were blinded to clinical information. The binary Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) study criteria were based on modifications of the Harmonization Criteria; the London criteria were also applied. Of 38 interim scans, agreement was complete in 68% and 71% by ECOG and London criteria, respectively. The range of PET(+) interim scans was 16% to 34% (P = not significant) by reviewer. Moderate consistency of reviews was observed: kappa statistic = 0.445 using ECOG criteria, and kappa statistic = 0.502 using London criteria. These data, showing only moderate reproducibility among nuclear medicine experts, indicate the need to standardize PET interpretation in research and practice. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00274924 [corrected].

  15. A critical analysis of the interpretation of biochemical failure in surgically treated patients using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiation and Oncology criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretzer, Matthew B; Trock, Bruce J; Han, Misop; Walsh, Patrick C

    2002-10-01

    The use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) to indicate biochemical failure has become an accepted procedure to measure the effectiveness of therapy. Because long-term randomized studies comparing radiation modalities to radical prostatectomy are not available, use of biochemical recurrence as a surrogate measure of efficacy is increasing. Unfortunately, the definition of failure is not uniform among therapies. We evaluate how the American Society for Therapeutic Radiation and Oncology (ASTRO) criteria affect the interpretation of failure when applied to radical prostatectomy. We retrospectively reviewed data from 2,691 men who underwent anatomical radical prostatectomy for localized disease between 1985 and 2000. All patients had regular followup visits ranging from 6 months to 15 years (mean 6). No patients were treated with radiation or hormonal therapy preoperatively or postoperatively until clinical recurrence. Biochemical failure was defined as any measurable PSA 0.2 ng./ml. or greater. We evaluated how elements of the ASTRO criteria affected the failure rate when applied to this series. We looked at 1) backdating the failure date to the midpoint between nadir and first PSA greater than 0.2 ng./ml., 2) early censoring if only 1 or 2 increasing values were available and 3) defining failure after 3 consecutive PSA increases and backdating failure time (midpoint of nadir and first PSA increase). Using actuarial analysis of the data defining failure as the first PSA 0.2 ng./ml. or greater, biochemical freedom from failure at 5, 10 and 15 years was 85%, 77% and 68%, respectively. In contrast, when backdating was used in this series, almost all failures occurred early with rare late failures (freedom from failure 82%, 80% and 80% at 5, 10 and 15 years, respectively). The difference in failure became even more pronounced when ASTRO criteria were applied requiring 3 consecutive increases, and backdating failure to the midpoint between nadir and first PSA (freedom from

  16. Systematic in-vitro evaluation of the NCI/NIH Developmental Therapeutics Program Approved Oncology Drug Set for the identification of a candidate drug repertoire for MLL-rearranged leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoeksema KA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Kimberley A Hoeksema1, Aarthi Jayanthan1, Todd Cooper2, Lia Gore3, Tanya Trippett4, Jessica Boklan6, Robert J Arceci5, Aru Narendran11Division of Pediatric Oncology, Alberta Children's Hospital, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Aflac Cancer Center and Blood Disorders Service, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Children's Hospital, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA; 4Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA; 5Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 6Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Phoenix Children's Hospital, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: Despite significant progress made in the overall cure rate, the prognosis for relapsed and refractory malignancies in children remains extremely poor. Hence, there is an urgent need for studies that enable the timely selection of appropriate agents for Phase I clinical studies. The Pediatric Oncology Experimental Therapeutics Investigators' Consortium (POETIC is systematically evaluating libraries of known and novel compounds for activity against subsets of high-risk pediatric malignancies with defined molecular aberrations for future clinical development. In this report, we describe the in-vitro activity of a diverse panel of approved oncology drugs against MLL-rearranged pediatric leukemia cell lines. Agents in the Approved Oncology Drug Set II (National Cancer Institute/National Institutes of Health Developmental Therapeutics Program were evaluated by in-vitro cytotoxicity assays in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia cell lines with MLL gene rearrangements. Validation studies were carried out with patient leukemia cells in culture. Comparative analysis for toxicity against nonmalignant cells was evaluated in normal bone marrow stromal cells and normal human lymphocytes. Results from this study show that 42 of the 89 agents tested have

  17. Computational oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefor, Alan T

    2011-08-01

    Oncology research has traditionally been conducted using techniques from the biological sciences. The new field of computational oncology has forged a new relationship between the physical sciences and oncology to further advance research. By applying physics and mathematics to oncologic problems, new insights will emerge into the pathogenesis and treatment of malignancies. One major area of investigation in computational oncology centers around the acquisition and analysis of data, using improved computing hardware and software. Large databases of cellular pathways are being analyzed to understand the interrelationship among complex biological processes. Computer-aided detection is being applied to the analysis of routine imaging data including mammography and chest imaging to improve the accuracy and detection rate for population screening. The second major area of investigation uses computers to construct sophisticated mathematical models of individual cancer cells as well as larger systems using partial differential equations. These models are further refined with clinically available information to more accurately reflect living systems. One of the major obstacles in the partnership between physical scientists and the oncology community is communications. Standard ways to convey information must be developed. Future progress in computational oncology will depend on close collaboration between clinicians and investigators to further the understanding of cancer using these new approaches.

  18. Nanomedicine in veterinary oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Yin; Rodriguez, Carlos O; Li, Yuanpei

    2015-08-01

    Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines medicine, engineering, chemistry, biology and material sciences to improve disease management and can be especially valuable in oncology. Nanoparticle-based agents that possess functions such as tumor targeting, imaging and therapy are currently under intensive investigation. This review introduces the basic concept of nanomedicine and the classification of nanoparticles. Because of their favorable pharmacokinetics, tumor targeting properties, and resulting superior efficacy and toxicity profiles, nanoparticle-based agents can overcome several limitations associated with conventional diagnostic and therapeutic protocols in veterinary oncology. The two most important tumor targeting mechanisms (passive and active tumor targeting) and their dominating factors (i.e. shape, charge, size and nanoparticle surface display) are discussed. The review summarizes published clinical and preclinical studies that utilize different nanoformulations in veterinary oncology, as well as the application of nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and imaging. The toxicology of various nanoformulations is also considered. Given the benefits of nanoformulations demonstrated in human medicine, nanoformulated drugs are likely to gain more traction in veterinary oncology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Novel diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides for the development of innovative radiopharmaceuticals

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose the exploration of novel radionuclides with diagnostic or therapeutic properties from ISOLDE. Access to such unique isotopes will enable the fundamental research in radiopharmaceutical science towards superior treatment, e.g. in nuclear oncology. The systematic investigation of the biological response to the different characteristics of the decay radiation will be performed for a better understanding of therapeutic effects. The development of alternative diagnostic tools will be applied for the management and optimization of radionuclide therapy.

  20. Important advances in oncology 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 15 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Immunoglobulin and T-Cell Receptor Genes Reveal the Clonality, Lineage, and Translocations of Lymphoid Neoplasms; Patterns of Proto-Oncogene Expression: A Novel Approach to the Development of Tumor Markers; and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Oncology.

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance titration of the interaction between pemphigus vulgaris autoantibodies and REWVKFAKPCRE, a therapeutic desmoglein 3 peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchese, A; Sinha, A A

    2016-08-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune skin disease, the primary autoantigen of which is the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein (Dsg)3. The exact defin-ition of Dsg3 epitopes and their relationship(s) to the pathophysiology of blister formation are important for the advancement of efforts to develop more effective and specific therapies for PV. To characterize the binding of autoantibodies from patients with PV to a Dsg3 peptide, REWVKFAKPCRE, which shows therapeutic effectiveness but does not induce pathogenic antibodies. We carried out a titration experiment of the reaction between PV autoantibodies and the peptide Dsg349-60REWVKFAKPCRE using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The interaction between Dsg349-60REWVKFAKPCRE and PV autoantibodies at concentrations of 20, 40 and 60 mg was found to involve R49 and A55 residues. Our data seem to suggest that the REWVKFAKPCRE peptide may mimic epitopic Dsg3 extracellular sequences related to pathogenic autoantibodies. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Feed-forward transcriptional programming by nuclear receptors: regulatory principles and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Sarah K; Gerber, Anthony N

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are widely targeted to treat a range of human diseases. Feed-forward loops are an ancient mechanism through which single cell organisms organize transcriptional programming and modulate gene expression dynamics, but they have not been systematically studied as a regulatory paradigm for NR-mediated transcriptional responses. Here, we provide an overview of the basic properties of feed-forward loops as predicted by mathematical models and validated experimentally in single cell organisms. We review existing evidence implicating feed-forward loops as important in controlling clinically relevant transcriptional responses to estrogens, progestins, and glucocorticoids, among other NR ligands. We propose that feed-forward transcriptional circuits are a major mechanism through which NRs integrate signals, exert temporal control over gene regulation, and compartmentalize client transcriptomes into discrete subunits. Implications for the design and function of novel selective NR ligands are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Oncology in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eav, S; Schraub, S; Dufour, P; Taisant, D; Ra, C; Bunda, P

    2012-01-01

    Cambodia, a country of 14 million inhabitants, was devastated during the Khmer Rouge period and thereafter. The resources of treatment are rare: only one radiotherapy department, renovated in 2003, with an old cobalt machine; few surgeons trained to operate on cancer patients; no hematology; no facilities to use intensive chemotherapy; no nuclear medicine department and no palliative care unit. Cervical cancer incidence is one of the highest in the world, while in men liver cancer ranks first (20% of all male cancers). Cancers are seen at stage 3 or 4 for 70% of patients. There is no prevention program - only a vaccination program against hepatitis B for newborns - and no screening program for cervical cancer or breast cancer. In 2010, oncology, recognized as a full specialty, was created to train the future oncologists on site at the University of Phnom Penh. A new National Cancer Center will be built in 2013 with modern facilities for radiotherapy, medical oncology, hematology and nuclear medicine. Cooperation with foreign countries, especially France, and international organizations has been established and is ongoing. Progress is occurring slowly due to the shortage of money for Cambodian institutions and the lay public. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Receptor-Activator of Nuclear KappaB Ligand Expression as a New Therapeutic Target in Primary Bone Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Yamagishi

    Full Text Available The receptor-activator of nuclear kappaB ligand (RANKL signaling pathway plays an important role in the regulation of bone growth and mediates the formation and activation of osteoclasts. Osteoclasts are involved in significant bone resorption and destruction. Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody against RANKL that specifically inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. It has been approved for use for multiple myeloma and bone metastases, as well as for giant cell tumor of bone. However, there is no previous report quantitatively, comparing RANKL expression in histologically varied bone tumors. Therefore, we analyzed the mRNA level of various bone tumors and investigated the possibility of these tumors as a new therapeutic target for denosumab. We examined RANKL mRNA expression in 135 clinical specimens of primary and metastatic bone tumors using real-time PCR. The relative quantification of mRNA expression levels was performed via normalization with RPMI8226, a human multiple myeloma cell line that is recognized to express RANKL. Of 135 cases, 64 were also evaluated for RANKL expression by using immunohistochemistry. Among all of the tumors investigated, RANKL expression and the RANKL/osteoprotegerin ratio were highest in giant cell tumor of bone. High RANKL mRNA expression was observed in cases of aneurysmal bone cyst, fibrous dysplasia, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and enchondroma, as compared to cases of multiple myeloma and bone lesions from metastatic carcinoma. RANKL-positive stromal cells were detected in six cases: five cases of GCTB and one case of fibrous dysplasia. The current study findings indicate that some primary bone tumors present new therapeutic targets for denosumab, particularly those tumors expressing RANKL and those involving bone resorption by osteoclasts.

  5. Asians with localized prostate cancer treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy and adjuvant hormonal therapy: comparing Phoenix and American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) definitions in an Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Mohan; Lau, Weber; Tan, Terence; Fook, Stephanie; Ngoi, Francis; Cheng, Christopher

    2008-03-01

    Conformal radiotherapy with adjuvant androgen suppression is used in our center to treat localized prostate cancer. We compare Phoenix as an alternative to American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) for defining biochemical failure. Our primary aim was to assess the Phoenix and ASTRO definitions of biochemical failure in a population of mainly Asian men with early localized prostate cancer treated with conformal radiotherapy with and without androgen ablation. We retrospectively analyzed 141 patients who were treated for T1/T2 cancer of the prostate in our center from January 1997 to June 2002 with a mean duration of follow-up of 62 months. Outcomes were analyzed by using both Phoenix and ASTRO definitions of biochemical failure as well as clinical failure. The Phoenix definition of biochemical failure was superior as measured by sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, and a greater concordance with clinical outcome as measured by Kappa analysis. The ASTRO definition helped to standardize reporting of biochemical failures post-radiotherapy but inadequacies have been identified especially when adjuvant hormone therapy has been given. The Phoenix definition has been noted to be a more accurate and precise description of biochemical failure in international series, and we find this to be true in our Asian population as well.

  6. Neuro-Oncology Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BTTC are experts in their respective fields. Neuro-Oncology Clinical Fellowship This is a joint program with ... can increase survival rates. Learn more... The Neuro-Oncology Branch welcomes Dr. Mark Gilbert as new Branch ...

  7. Inhibition of the Nuclear Export Receptor XPO1 as a Therapeutic Target for Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ying; Camacho, Sandra Catalina; Silvers, Thomas R

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The high fatality-to-case ratio of ovarian cancer is directly related to platinum resistance. Exportin-1 (XPO1) is a nuclear exporter that mediates nuclear export of multiple tumor suppressors. We investigated possible clinicopathologic correlations of XPO1 expression levels and evaluate...

  8. Oncology Nursing Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 21st Century Nursing Leadership , and navigate through the issues of nursing practice that matter most. New to Oncology? Here's ... Nurse Quality-of-Life Issues Quality-of-Life Issues—Oncology ... in Oncology Nursing: Highlights from the ONS 41st Annual Congress Certification ...

  9. [Economic limits in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellriegel, K P

    2000-12-01

    Economic aspects require consideration even in oncology. However, they have to be seen in context with open questions concerning especially the evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness, of methodology, and particularly of ethics. Medical procedures and achievements should primarily be measured against objective results, against effectiveness and benefits. Consequently, the suitability of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies has to be evaluated. Overall objective of medical achievements should be their optimalization, not their maximization. For a physician being aware of his responsibility, the optimal care for his patients always has highest priority. Medical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up are the basis for effective and economic patient care. They have to undergo economic evaluation and permanent updating. For systematic collection, documentation and evaluation, the clinical register is the appropriate instrument. For the assessment of medical care, a continuous monitoring of its processes has to be established. The documentation of medical care processes should lead to sustainable cost reductions together with an optimalization of the quality of care.

  10. Introduction to veterinary clinical oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Veterinary clinical oncology involves a multidisciplinary approach to the recognition and management of spontaneously occurring neoplasms of domestic animals. This requires some knowledge of the causes, incidence, and natural course of malignant disease as it occurs in domestic species. The purpose of this course is to acquaint you with the more common neoplastic problems you will encounter in practice, so that you can offer your clients an informed opinion regarding prognosis and possible therapeutic modalities. A major thrust will be directed toward discussing and encouraging treatment/management of malignant disease. Multimodality therapy will be stressed. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Acute oncological emergencies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gabriel, J

    2012-01-01

    The number of people receiving systemic anti-cancer treatment and presenting at emergency departments with treatment-related problems is rising. Nurses will be the first point of contact for most patients and need to be able to recognise oncological emergencies to initiate urgent assessment of patients and referral to the acute oncology team so that the most appropriate care can be delivered promptly. This article discusses the role of acute oncology services, and provides an overview of the most common acute oncological emergencies.

  12. Oncology of Reptiles: Diseases, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Jane; Devau, Michael; Wilson-Robles, Heather; Hoppes, Sharman; Rech, Raquel; Russell, Karen E; Heatley, J Jill

    2017-01-01

    Based on necropsy review, neoplasia in reptiles has a comparable frequency to that of mammals and birds. Reptile neoplasia is now more frequently diagnosed in clinical practice based on increased use of advanced diagnostic techniques and improvements in reptilian husbandry allowing greater longevity of these species. This article reviews the current literature on neoplasia in reptiles, and focuses on advanced diagnostics and therapeutic options for reptilian patientssuffering neoplastic disease. Although most applied clinical reptile oncology is translated from dog and cat oncology, considerations specific to reptilian patients commonly encountered in clinical practice (turtles, tortoises, snakes, and lizards) are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Checkpoint inhibitors: a cutting edge in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, C

    2017-07-01

    The checkpoint inhibitor field, and indeed the whole of immuno-oncology, is fast-paced and fascinating, with huge clinical and commercial potential. The challenge in the coming years will be to define the best type and combination of immunotherapy, and the best target population to receive it. Keytruda's ground-breaking approval for a biomarker-based rather than location-based indication is a solid step in this direction, and is likely to be followed by other such approvals. As the field develops, it is to be hoped that immuno-oncology therapeutics will continue to deliver the significant improvements in patient outcome that have been seen so far.

  14. A highly efficient method for generation of therapeutic quality human pluripotent stem cells by using naive induced pluripotent stem cells nucleus for nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanal, Madhusudana Girija

    2014-01-01

    Even after several years since the discovery of human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), we are still unable to make any significant therapeutic benefits out of them such as cell therapy or generation of organs for transplantation. Recent success in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) made it possible to generate diploid embryonic stem cells, which opens up the way to make high-quality pluripotent stem cells. However, the process is highly inefficient and hence expensive compared to the generation of iPSC. Even with the latest SCNT technology, we are not sure whether one can make therapeutic quality pluripotent stem cell from any patient's somatic cells or by using oocytes from any donor. Combining iPSC technology with SCNT, that is, by using the nucleus of the candidate somatic cell which got reprogrammed to pluripotent state instead that of the unmodified nucleus of the candidate somatic cell, would boost the efficiency of the technique, and we would be able to generate therapeutic quality pluripotent stem cells. Induced pluripotent stem cell nuclear transfer (iPSCNT) combines the efficiency of iPSC generation with the speed and natural reprogramming environment of SCNT. The new technique may be called iPSCNT. This technique could prove to have very revolutionary benefits for humankind. This could be useful in generating organs for transplantation for patients and for reproductive cloning, especially for childless men and women who cannot have children by any other techniques. When combined with advanced gene editing techniques (such as CRISPR-Cas system) this technique might also prove useful to those who want to have healthy children but suffer from inherited diseases. The current code of ethics may be against reproductive cloning. However, this will change with time as it happened with most of the revolutionary scientific breakthroughs. After all, it is the right of every human to have healthy offspring and it is the question of

  15. Cancer Patients and Oncology Nursing: Perspectives of Oncology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Aim: Burnout and exhaustion is a frequent problem in oncology nursing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the aspects of oncology nurses about their profession in order to enhance the standards of oncology nursing. Materials and Methods: This survey was conducted with 70 oncology nurses working at ...

  16. Improving Patient Safety in Clinical Oncology: Applying Lessons From Normal Accident Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chera, Bhishamjit S; Mazur, Lukasz; Buchanan, Ian; Kim, Hong Jin; Rockwell, John; Milowsky, Matthew I; Marks, Lawrence B

    2015-10-01

    Concerns for patient safety persist in clinical oncology. Within several nonmedical areas (eg, aviation, nuclear power), concepts from Normal Accident Theory (NAT), a framework for analyzing failure potential within and between systems, have been successfully applied to better understand system performance and improve system safety. Clinical oncology practice is interprofessional and interdisciplinary, and our therapies often have narrow therapeutic windows. Thus, many of our processes are, in NAT terms, interactively complex and tightly coupled within and across systems and are therefore prone to unexpected behaviors that can result in substantial patient harm. To improve safety at the University of North Carolina, we have applied the concepts of NAT to our practice to better understand our systems' behavior and adopted strategies to reduce complexity and coupling. Furthermore, recognizing that we cannot eliminate all risks, we have stressed safety mindfulness among our staff to further promote safety. Many specific examples are provided herein. The lessons from NAT are translatable to clinical oncology and may help to promote safety.

  17. Oncology Advanced Practitioners Bring Advanced Community Oncology Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Wendy H

    2016-01-01

    Oncology care is becoming increasingly complex. The interprofessional team concept of care is necessary to meet projected oncology professional shortages, as well as to provide superior oncology care. The oncology advanced practitioner (AP) is a licensed health care professional who has completed advanced training in nursing or pharmacy or has completed training as a physician assistant. Oncology APs increase practice productivity and efficiency. Proven to be cost effective, APs may perform varied roles in an oncology practice. Integrating an AP into an oncology practice requires forethought given to the type of collaborative model desired, role expectations, scheduling, training, and mentoring.

  18. Therapeutic potential of digitoflavone on diabetic nephropathy: nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-dependent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Chen, Gang; Cheng, Xiaolan; Teng, Zhiying; Cai, Xueting; Yang, Jie; Sun, Xiaoyan; Lu, Wuguang; Wang, Xiaoning; Yao, Yuanzhang; Hu, Chunping; Cao, Peng

    2015-07-24

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has emerged as a therapeutic target in many diseases, because it can induce antioxidant enzymes and other cytoprotective enzymes. Moreover, some Nrf2 activators have strong anti-inflammatory activities. Oxidative stress and inflammation are major components involved in the pathology of diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we evaluated the Nrf2-dependent anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of digitoflavone in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. The molecular mechanisms of digitoflavone were investigated in vitro using SV40-transformed mouse mesangial cells (SV40-Mes13). For the in vivo experiment, diabetes was induced in Nrf2+/+ and Nrf2-/- mice by STZ injection, and digitoflavone was administered 2 weeks after the STZ injection. Digitoflavone induced Nrf2 activation and decreased oxidative damage, inflammation, TGF-β1 expression, extracellular matrix protein expression, and mesangial cell hyperplasia in SV40-Mes13 cells. Digitoflavone-treated Nrf2+/+ mice, but not Nrf2-/- mice, showed attenuated common metabolic disorder symptoms, improved renal performance, minimized pathological alterations, and decreased oxidative damage, inflammatory gene expression, inflammatory cell infiltration, TGF-β1 expression, and extracellular matrix protein expression. Our results show that the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of digitoflavone are mediated by Nrf2 activation and that digitoflavone can be used therapeutically to improve metabolic disorders and relieve renal damage induced by diabetes.

  19. A highly efficient method for generation of therapeutic quality human pluripotent stem cells by using naive induced pluripotent stem cells nucleus for nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudana Girija Sanal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Even after several years since the discovery of human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC, we are still unable to make any significant therapeutic benefits out of them such as cell therapy or generation of organs for transplantation. Recent success in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT made it possible to generate diploid embryonic stem cells, which opens up the way to make high-quality pluripotent stem cells. However, the process is highly inefficient and hence expensive compared to the generation of iPSC. Even with the latest SCNT technology, we are not sure whether one can make therapeutic quality pluripotent stem cell from any patient’s somatic cells or by using oocytes from any donor. Combining iPSC technology with SCNT, that is, by using the nucleus of the candidate somatic cell which got reprogrammed to pluripotent state instead that of the unmodified nucleus of the candidate somatic cell, would boost the efficiency of the technique, and we would be able to generate therapeutic quality pluripotent stem cells. Induced pluripotent stem cell nuclear transfer (iPSCNT combines the efficiency of iPSC generation with the speed and natural reprogramming environment of SCNT. The new technique may be called iPSCNT. This technique could prove to have very revolutionary benefits for humankind. This could be useful in generating organs for transplantation for patients and for reproductive cloning, especially for childless men and women who cannot have children by any other techniques. When combined with advanced gene editing techniques (such as CRISPR-Cas system this technique might also prove useful to those who want to have healthy children but suffer from inherited diseases. The current code of ethics may be against reproductive cloning. However, this will change with time as it happened with most of the revolutionary scientific breakthroughs. After all, it is the right of every human to have healthy offspring and it is

  20. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This document is the March 1996 listing of NRC issuances. Included are: (1) NRC orders granting Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company`s petition for review of the ASLB order LBP-95-17, (2) NRC orders relating to the potential disqualification of two commissioners in the matter of the decommissioning of Yankee Nuclear Power Station, (3) ASLB orders pertaining to the Oncology Services Corporation, (4) ASLB orders pertaining to the Radiation Oncology Center, (5) ASLB orders pertaining to the Yankee Nuclear Power Station, and (6) Director`s decision pertaining to the Yankee Nuclear Power Station.

  1. [Experiences and results from standardised observations of conventional and kinaesthetic nursing in a nuclear and radio-therapeutic ward].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Lisanne; Scheidegger, Judit; Grossenbacher, Georgette; Christen, Stephan; Oehninger, Ruth

    2005-02-01

    In the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy, City Hospital Triemli (Zurich, Switzerland), a controlled observational study was carried out. The investigation aimed at comparing conventional and kinaesthetic nursing interventions with respect to the agility and body orientation of the patients, and with respect to their interaction with the nurses. The observations were limited to the interventions washing, positioning, and mobilizing and lasted 20 to 60 minutes. During this time, an experienced nurse, who did not belong to the nursing team, completed a checklist. The checklist items comprise operationalized criteria of the kinaesthetic concept by Hatch and Maietta, as well as two questions directed to the patients. Body motion and orientation were judged by a 12-items scale, identical for observations prior to and immediately after the nursing intervention. The interaction between patients and nurses was judged by means of a 10-items scale. Group 1 (13 patients) was observed during conservative nursing; group 2 (another 13 patients) was observed almost half a year later during kinaesthetic nursing. All observations were recorded with the same instrument. There was a general positive effect of the nursing interventions. Kinaesthetic nursing, however, only showed a trend towards better effects on the patients' agility, body orientation or interaction abilities in comparison to conventional nursing. The results are discussed with respect to a recently published study on objective measurement of kinaesthetic nursing effects. There is a certain discrepancy between the well-known positive valuation of kinaesthetic nursing by the nurses themselves and the measurable effects of the method. This discrepancy cannot simply be explained by sample size, type of measurement, or the nurses'experience with the method.

  2. Metals as radio-enhancers in oncology: The industry perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pottier, Agnés, E-mail: agnes.pottier@nanobiotix.com; Borghi, Elsa; Levy, Laurent

    2015-12-18

    Radio-enhancers, metal-based nanosized agents, could play a key role in oncology. They may unlock the potential of radiotherapy by enhancing the radiation dose deposit within tumors when the ionizing radiation source is ‘on’, while exhibiting chemically inert behavior in cellular and subcellular systems when the radiation beam is ‘off’. Important decision points support the development of these new type of therapeutic agents originated from nanotechnology. Here, we discuss from an industry perspective, the interest of developing radio-enhancer agents to improve tumor control, the relevance of nanotechnology to achieve adequate therapeutic attributes, and present some considerations for their development in oncology. - Highlights: • Oncology is a field of high unmet medical need. • Despites of its widespread usage, radiation therapy presents a narrow therapeutic window. • High density material at the nanoscale may enhance radiation dose deposit from cancer cells. • Metal-based nanosized radio-enhancers could unlock the potential of radiotherapy.

  3. Análise dosimétrica de acompanhantes de pacientes de medicina nuclear internados em quarto terapêutico Dosimetric analysis of persons accompanying nuclear medicine patients in the therapeutic room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jetro Pereira de Oliveira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho avaliou doses recebidas por acompanhantes que compartilharam o mesmo quarto terapêutico com pacientes tratados com câncer de tireóide ingerindo iodo-131 (131I e comparou os resultados obtidos aos limites determinados pelas normas brasileiras de radioproteção. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se seis grupos de pessoas. Cada grupo foi formado por um acompanhante e um paciente, que compartilharam o mesmo quarto terapêutico. Realizaram-se, também, 23 outros experimentos, sendo que nestes um simulador foi usado em substituição à segunda pessoa no quarto terapêutico. As atividades de 131I administradas aos pacientes foram de 3.700 MBq ou 5.550 MBq. Dosímetros termoluminescentes na forma de pó, fluoreto de lítio dopado com magnésio, titânio e sódio foram usados para a avaliação das doses. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que uma pessoa que compartilha o mesmo quarto terapêutico, durante dois dias, com um paciente tratado com 3.700 MBq ou 5.550 MBq de 131I, seguindo as orientações de radioproteção fornecidas pela equipe médica, é exposta a uma dose média de (0,51 ± 0,02 mSv, para um nível de confiança de 99%. CONCLUSÃO: De acordo com as normas brasileiras, do ponto de vista da radioproteção, não há impedimento acompanhar um paciente de medicina nuclear durante esse tratamento.OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the doses received by companions who had shared therapeutic rooms with patients undergoing treatment with 131-iodine (131I. The results were compared with the limits established by the Brazilian radiation protection regulatory standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six pairs of persons (a patient and a companion sharing a same therapeutic room were evaluated. Still, other 23 experiments were accomplished with a phantom replacing the companion. The therapeutic 131I activities given to the patients corresponded to 3700 MBq or 5550 MBq. Powdered lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters

  4. Nuclear oncology with monoclonal antibodies and peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosono, Makoto [Saitama Medical School, Kawagoe (Japan). Saitama Medical Center

    1998-10-01

    Imaging and therapy using radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies have proved useful in many clinical studies. However, immunogenicity of mouse antibodies to human and insufficient tumor-to-normal tissue ratios remained to be solved. Chimerization and humanization by genetic engineering, and multistep targeting techniques have enabled lower immunogenicity and higher tumor-to-normal tissue contrast. Peptides like somatostatin-analogs have been reportedly useful in imaging tumors, which are either somatostatin receptor positive or negative. Elevated normal tissue accumulation of radiolabeled peptides is a drawback in aiming internal radiation therapy. (author). 51 refs.

  5. Advances in radioguided surgery in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés Olmos, Renato A; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Manca, Gianpiero; Mariani, Giuliano; León-Ramírez, Luisa F; Rubello, Domenico; Giammarile, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    The sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is probably the most well-known radioguided technique in surgical oncology. Today SLN biopsy reduces the morbidity associated with lymphadenectomy and increases the identification rate of occult lymphatic metastases by offering the pathologist the lymph nodes with the highest probability of containing metastatic cells. These advantages may result in a change in clinical management both in melanoma and breast cancer patients. The SLN evaluation by pathology currently implies tumor burden stratification for further prognostic information. The concept of SLN biopsy includes pre-surgical lymphoscintigraphy as a "roadmap" to guide the surgeon toward the SLNs and to localize unpredictable lymphatic drainage patterns. In addition to planar images, SPECT/CT improves SLN detection, especially in sites closer to the injection site, providing anatomic landmarks which are helpful in localizing SLNs in difficult to interpret studies. The use of intraoperative imaging devices allows a better surgical approach and SLN localization. Several studies report the value of such devices for excision of additional sentinel nodes and for monitoring the whole procedure. The combination of preoperative imaging and radioguided localization constitutes the basis for a whole spectrum of basic and advanced nuclear medicine procedures, which recently have been encompassed under the term "guided intraoperative scintigraphic tumor targeting" (GOSTT). Excepting SLN biopsy, GOSTT includes procedures based on the detection of target lesions with visible uptake of tumor-seeking radiotracers on SPECT/CT or PET/CT enabling their subsequent radioguided excisional biopsy for diagnostic of therapeutic purposes. The incorporation of new PET-tracers into nuclear medicine has reinforced this field delineating new strategies for radioguided excision. In cases with insufficient lesion uptake after systemic radiotracer administration, intralesional injection of a tracer

  6. Lifetime attributable risk as an alternative to effective dose to describe the risk of cancer for patients in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Martin; Eckerman, Keith; Mattsson, Sören

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to implement lifetime attributable risk (LAR) predictions of cancer for patients of various age and gender, undergoing diagnostic investigations or treatments in nuclear medicine and to compare the outcome with a population risk estimate using effective dose and the International Commission on Radiological Protection risk coefficients. The radiation induced risk of cancer occurrence (incidence) or death from four nuclear medicine procedures are estimated for both male and female between 0 and 120 years. Estimations of cancer risk are performed using recommended administered activities for two diagnostic (18F-FDG and 99mTc-phosphonate complex) and two therapeutic (131I-iodide and 223Ra-dichloride) radiopharmaceuticals to illustrate the use of cancer risk estimations in nuclear medicine. For 18F-FDG, the cancer incidence for a male of 5, 25, 50 and 75 years at exposure is 0.0021, 0.0010, 0.0008 and 0.0003, respectively. For 99mTc phosphonates complex the corresponding values are 0.000 59, 0.000 34, 0.000 27 and 0.000 13, respectively. For an 131I-iodide treatment with 3.7 GBq and 1% uptake 24 h after administration, the cancer incidence for a male of 25, 50 and 75 years at exposure is 0.041, 0.029 and 0.012, respectively. For 223Ra-dichloride with an administration of 21.9 MBq the cancer incidence for a male of 25, 50 and 75 years is 0.31, 0.21 and 0.09, respectively. The LAR estimations are more suitable in health care situations involving individual patients or specific groups of patients than the health detriment based on effective dose, which represents a population average. The detriment consideration in effective dose adjusts the cancer incidence for suffering of non-lethal cancers while LAR predicts morbidity (incidence) or mortality (cancer). The advantages of these LARs are that they are gender and age specific, allowing risk estimations for specific patients or subgroups thus better representing individuals in health care

  7. Guidelines for 18F-FDG PET and PET-CT imaging in paediatric oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauss, J.; Franzius, C.; Pfluger, T.

    2008-01-01

    tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) in paediatric oncology. The Oncology Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) has published excellent procedure guidelines on tumour imaging with (18)F-FDG PET (Bombardieri et al., Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 30:BP115-24, 2003). These guidelines, published...

  8. Pediatric oncology and the future of oncological imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Stephan D

    2011-05-01

    The future of pediatric oncology will be influenced by changes in drug design and treatment strategy, with genomic medicine and molecular-based diagnostics and therapeutics playing increasingly important roles. The role of imaging as a means of measuring response to therapy has also evolved, with the development of new technologies and higher sensitivity means of detecting tumors. Conventional anatomical imaging techniques are being increasingly supplemented with functional techniques, including FDG-PET imaging and diffusion-weighted MR imaging. The risk-adapted treatment regimens of the past, which led to improved event-free and overall survival in many pediatric cancers, have paved the way for new response-based treatment paradigms. Response-based approaches seek to identify patients with a high likelihood of cure, treating them less aggressively, while those not responding to therapy are identified early and redirected into more aggressive therapeutic regimens. These advances will require concurrent development of imaging biomarkers as surrogates of early response to therapy. Incorporating these techniques into new response-directed treatment algorithms will be crucial as personalized medicine and molecular-targeted, tumor-specific therapies gain acceptance for the treatment of children with cancer.

  9. On the importance of multidimensional evaluation of elderly oncologic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mauro, S; Distefano, A; Di Fazio, I; Leotta, C; Malaguarnera, M

    2000-01-01

    The role of comorbidity and the psycho-affective attitudes have been studied in 108 elderly oncological patients, in comparison with 25 elderly subjects without tumor pathologies. The results have revealed positive correlations between the activity of daily living (ADL), as well as the instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) scales and the comorbidity both in the oncological subjects and the controls. The performance status defined by the eastern cooperative oncology group (ECOG-PS) positively correlated with the parameters of ADL and IADL scales, demonstrating an increased vulnerability and fragility of the oncological patients in their everyday activities. An increased psychological fragility of the oncological patients has also been revealed by the scores of the geriatric depression scale (GDS), which might be cause and consequence at the same time of the disease itself. In addition, the polypathologies are not associated with an increased gravity of the tumor stage, although there have been 2.5 accompanying pathologies, mainly diseases of osteoarticular and cardial character. The correction of functional damages of various organs due to aging or concomitant or previous diseases is a period of fundamental importance for an adequate oncological therapy. The principal goal of any intervention in the elderly oncological patient should certainly be an improvement of the quality of life, including an alleviation of the impact of the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures on it.

  10. Constipation in paediatric oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwood, Karen

    2006-02-01

    Constipation is a common problem encountered by many children during treatment for childhood cancer. It can be distressing and impact on the quality of life for the child. However, the advice and information they and their families receive can vary enormously. The clinical practice group (a subgroup of the paediatric oncology nurses forum (PONF)) decided to examine the management of constipation throughout the paediatric oncology units in the UK. This paper presents the findings and the subsequent action taken and highlights the need for further work.

  11. Female Representation in the Academic Oncology Physician Workforce: Radiation Oncology Losing Ground to Hematology Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Awad A; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Holliday, Emma B; Chapman, Christina H; Jagsi, Reshma; Thomas, Charles R; Deville, Curtiland

    2017-05-01

    Our purpose was to assess comparative female representation trends for trainees and full-time faculty in the academic radiation oncology and hematology oncology workforce of the United States over 3 decades. Simple linear regression models with year as the independent variable were used to determine changes in female percentage representation per year and associated 95% confidence intervals for trainees and full-time faculty in each specialty. Peak representation was 48.4% (801/1654) in 2013 for hematology oncology trainees, 39.0% (585/1499) in 2014 for hematology oncology full-time faculty, 34.8% (202/581) in 2007 for radiation oncology trainees, and 27.7% (439/1584) in 2015 for radiation oncology full-time faculty. Representation significantly increased for trainees and full-time faculty in both specialties at approximately 1% per year for hematology oncology trainees and full-time faculty and 0.3% per year for radiation oncology trainees and full-time faculty. Compared with radiation oncology, the rates were 3.84 and 2.94 times greater for hematology oncology trainees and full-time faculty, respectively. Despite increased female trainee and full-time faculty representation over time in the academic oncology physician workforce, radiation oncology is lagging behind hematology oncology, with trainees declining in recent years in radiation oncology; this suggests a de facto ceiling in female representation. Whether such issues as delayed or insufficient exposure, inadequate mentorship, or specialty competitiveness disparately affect female representation in radiation oncology compared to hematology oncology are underexplored and require continued investigation to ensure that the future oncologic physician workforce reflects the diversity of the population it serves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Female Representation in the Academic Oncology Physician Workforce: Radiation Oncology Losing Ground to Hematology Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Awad A. [Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center University of Miami Health System, Miami, Florida (United States); Hwang, Wei-Ting [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Holliday, Emma B. [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chapman, Christina H.; Jagsi, Reshma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Thomas, Charles R. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Deville, Curtiland, E-mail: cdeville@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: Our purpose was to assess comparative female representation trends for trainees and full-time faculty in the academic radiation oncology and hematology oncology workforce of the United States over 3 decades. Methods and Materials: Simple linear regression models with year as the independent variable were used to determine changes in female percentage representation per year and associated 95% confidence intervals for trainees and full-time faculty in each specialty. Results: Peak representation was 48.4% (801/1654) in 2013 for hematology oncology trainees, 39.0% (585/1499) in 2014 for hematology oncology full-time faculty, 34.8% (202/581) in 2007 for radiation oncology trainees, and 27.7% (439/1584) in 2015 for radiation oncology full-time faculty. Representation significantly increased for trainees and full-time faculty in both specialties at approximately 1% per year for hematology oncology trainees and full-time faculty and 0.3% per year for radiation oncology trainees and full-time faculty. Compared with radiation oncology, the rates were 3.84 and 2.94 times greater for hematology oncology trainees and full-time faculty, respectively. Conclusion: Despite increased female trainee and full-time faculty representation over time in the academic oncology physician workforce, radiation oncology is lagging behind hematology oncology, with trainees declining in recent years in radiation oncology; this suggests a de facto ceiling in female representation. Whether such issues as delayed or insufficient exposure, inadequate mentorship, or specialty competitiveness disparately affect female representation in radiation oncology compared to hematology oncology are underexplored and require continued investigation to ensure that the future oncologic physician workforce reflects the diversity of the population it serves.

  13. Practising oncology via telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, G C; Allen, A

    1997-01-01

    Although there are increasing numbers of telemedicine programmes in the USA, few have offered teleoncology services, so that the role of telemedicine in the practice of clinical oncology has yet to be fully defined. Telemedicine has been used successfully for direct patient care in Kansas. It is also a method of providing supportive care for the cancer patient, including assessments of pain and nutrition. In addition, televised tumour conferences and nursing education courses can help smaller communities develop a level of expertise that allows patients to be treated locally. Telemedicine may well be used in future for access to national and international cancer experts, and for participation in new cancer treatment protocols through cooperative group trials. When practising oncology via telemedicine, there are unique problems, including issues regarding technology (interactive video and radiograph review) and practice (patient/oncologist preferences and doctor-patient communication). Very little has been published in the area of tele-oncology so far, and studies concerning its efficacy, cost-effectiveness and the best organizational structure are still in progress. However, telemedicine appears to be a useful technique in the practice of oncology.

  14. The use of 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging for therapeutic decisions in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices and significant neurological, neurosurgical and neuro-oncology diagnostic indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawryluk, Łukasz; Sterliński, Maciej; Marczak, Magdalena; Miśko, Jolanta; Podgórski, Jan Krzysztof; Szwed, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Between September 2009 and May 2014 the classification of 36 patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) in terms of the feasibility of MRI scanning due to strong clinical indications was carried out. Finally MRI examinations were performed in 20 patients, of whom 27 studies were conducted and a total number of 35 anatomical regions were scanned. Neurological, neurosurgical and neuro-oncology indications for MRI were reported in 19 patients (95%) in whom 26 MRI studies (96.3%) were performed, and 34 anatomical regions (97.1%) were scanned. One patient had indications for MRI in the field of cardiology. Medical information obtained from 27 MRI studies allowed decisions to be made regarding the treatment in all patients. After 8 studies (29.6%), patients were classified into 9 different neurosurgical procedures. In the case of the remaining 19 studies (70.4%), there were no indications for surgical treatment and the decisions to implement conservative treatment were made. There were no complications related to the implanted CIEDs observed: neither immediate nor in the follow-up. Copyright © 2014 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. The changing face of clinical trials in the personalized medicine and immuno-oncology era: report from the international congress on clinical trials in Oncology & Hemato-Oncology (ICTO 2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Talia; Milella, Michele; Ackerstein, Aliza; Berger, Ranaan

    2017-12-28

    In the past decade, the oncology community has witnessed major advances in the understanding of cancer biology and major breakthroughs in several different therapeutic areas, from solid tumors to hematological malignancies; moreover, the advent of effective immunotherapy approaches, such as immune-checkpoint blockade, is revolutionizing treatment algorithms in almost all oncology disease areas. As knowledge evolves and new weapons emerge in the "war against cancer", clinical and translational research need to adapt to a rapidly changing environment to effectively translate novel concepts into sustainable and accessible therapeutic options for cancer patients.With this in mind, translational cancer researchers, oncology professionals, treatment experts, CRO and industry leaders, as well as patient representatives gathered in London, 16-17 March 2017, for The International Congress on Clinical Trials in Oncology and Hemato-Oncology (ICTO2017), to discuss the changing face of oncology clinical trials in the new era of personalized medicine and immuno-oncology. A wide range of topics, including clinical trial design in immuno-oncology, biomarker-oriented drug development paths, statistical design and endpoint selection, challenges in the design and conduct of personalized medicine clinical trials, risk-based monitoring, financing and reimbursement, as well as best operational practices, were discussed in an open, highly interactive format, favoring networking among all relevant stakeholders. The most relevant data, approaches and issues emerged and discussed during the conference are summarized in this report.

  16. Molecular imaging in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schober, Otmar; Riemann, Burkhard (eds.) [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2013-02-01

    Considers in detail all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. Examines technological issues and probe design. Discusses preclinical studies in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. Presents current clinical use of PET/CT, SPECT/CT, and optical imagingWritten by acknowledged experts. The impact of molecular imaging on diagnostics, therapy, and follow-up in oncology is increasing significantly. The process of molecular imaging includes key biotarget identification, design of specific molecular imaging probes, and their preclinical evaluation, e.g., in vivo using small animal studies. A multitude of such innovative molecular imaging probes have already entered clinical diagnostics in oncology. There is no doubt that in future the emphasis will be on multimodality imaging in which morphological, functional, and molecular imaging techniques are combined in a single clinical investigation that will optimize diagnostic processes. This handbook addresses all aspects of molecular imaging in oncology, ranging from basic research to clinical applications in the era of evidence-based medicine. The first section is devoted to technology and probe design, and examines a variety of PET and SPECT tracers as well as multimodality probes. Preclinical studies are then discussed in detail, with particular attention to multimodality imaging. In the third section, diverse clinical applications are presented, and the book closes by looking at future challenges. This handbook will be of value to all who are interested in the revolution in diagnostic oncology that is being brought about by molecular imaging.

  17. Clinical trials in nuclear medicine: Present and future; Les essais cliniques en medecine nucleaire: etat et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaumet-Riffaud, P. [Medecine nucleaire, centre hospitalier de Kremlin-Bicetre, Kremlin-Bicetre, (France); Cachin, F. [EA 4231, medecine nucleaire, CRLCC Jean-Perrin, faculte de medecine, Clermont-Ferrand, (France); Couturier, O. [Inserm U646, departement de medecine nucleaire, CHU d Angers, Angers, (France); Desruet, M.D. [Pole d imagerie clinique de biophysique et medecine nucleaire, Paris, (France); Radiopharmacie, unite Inserm 877, hopital Michallon, CHU de Grenoble, BP217, 38043 Grenoble cedex 9, (France); Kraeber-Bodere, F. [Inserm UMR 601, CHU/CLCC Rene-Gauducheau, Nantes, (France); Talbot, J.N. [Medecine nucleaire, hopital Tenon, Paris, (France); Vuillez, J.P. [Radiopharmacie, unite Inserm 877, hopital Michallon, CHU de Grenoble, BP217, 38043 Grenoble cedex 9, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The particular status of radiopharmaceuticals, together with the positioning of nuclear medicine in multidisciplinary approach of oncology, lead to real difficulties for conception, validation and granting of clinical trials which are necessary for demonstrating clinical interest of new compounds, for diagnosis as well as for therapeutic use. This article is a presentation of some recent clinical trials conducted in nuclear medicine in France, showing its dynamism but also pointing out some encountered difficulties. These experiences could lead to reflexion in order to improve the clinical research performances, taking into account a scientific and regulatory context more and more constraining. (authors)

  18. Radiation oncology in the era of precision medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Michael; Krause, Mechthild; Overgaard, Jens

    2016-01-01

    with preservation of health-related quality of life can be achieved in many patients. Two major strategies, acting synergistically, will enable further widening of the therapeutic window of radiation oncology in the era of precision medicine: technology-driven improvement of treatment conformity, including advanced...

  19. Clinical evaluation of vancomycin dosage in pediatric oncology patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Stefan J. W. J.; Bijleveld, Yuma A.; Sinkeler, Fleur; Kemper, Elles M.; Pajkrt, Dasja; van de Wetering, Marianne; van Eijkelenburg, Natasha K. A.; Mathôt, Ron A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Vancomycin trough serum concentrations were below therapeutic range (8-15 mg/L) in 58% of 124 pediatric oncology patients receiving 60 mg/kg/d divided qid. Patients <6 and between 6 and 12 years had significantly lower trough concentrations than patients >12 years. A vancomycin dosage of 60 mg/kg/d

  20. [Introduction to geriatric oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedding, U; Höffken, K

    2002-01-01

    The demographic changes will result in a profound increase of the number of elderly people within the next years. As a consequence of the age dependent increase of the incidence and mortality rate of cancer these changes will bring an increase in the number of elderly people with cancer. There is a number of differences between young and old patients diagnosed with cancer. This must result in an adaption of standardised oncological procedures, mainly designed for younger patients, to the special situation of elderly patients. The differences between young and old patients with cancer may be depicted by a structured geriatric assessment. Suggestions for the structure of such an assessment exist. Ongoing clinical trials have to demonstrate, whether or not the inclusion of a geriatric oncological assessment in the decision making process will result in an improvement of treatment results in elderly cancer patients diagnosed with cancer.

  1. Oncologic outcome and morbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Musik, Thabea

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Compared to laparotomic surgery, laparoscopically assisted radical vaginal hysterectomy (LARVH) offers a decreased blood-loss during surgery and faster convalescence of the patient post-operatively while at the same time delivering similar oncologic results. However, there is no data on outcome and toxicity of LARVH followed by (chemo)radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 55 patients (age: 28-78 years, median: 48 years; BMI:...

  2. Integrative oncology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gary; Cassileth, Barrie

    2014-01-01

    Integrative oncology, the diagnosis-specific field of integrative medicine, addresses symptom control with nonpharmacologic therapies. Known commonly as "complementary therapies" these are evidence-based adjuncts to mainstream care that effectively control physical and emotional symptoms, enhance physical and emotional strength, and provide patients with skills enabling them to help themselves throughout and following mainstream cancer treatment. Integrative or complementary therapies are rational and noninvasive. They have been subjected to study to determine their value, to document the problems they ameliorate, and to define the circumstances under which such therapies are beneficial. Conversely, "alternative" therapies typically are promoted literally as such; as actual antitumor treatments. They lack biologic plausibility and scientific evidence of safety and efficacy. Many are outright fraudulent. Conflating these two very different categories by use of the convenient acronym "CAM," for "complementary and alternative therapies," confuses the issue and does a substantial disservice to patients and medical professionals. Complementary and integrative modalities have demonstrated safety value and benefits. If the same were true for "alternatives," they would not be "alternatives." Rather, they would become part of mainstream cancer care. This manuscript explores the medical and sociocultural context of interest in integrative oncology as well as in "alternative" therapies, reviews commonly-asked patient questions, summarizes research results in both categories, and offers recommendations to help guide patients and family members through what is often a difficult maze. Combining complementary therapies with mainstream oncology care to address patients' physical, psychologic and spiritual needs constitutes the practice of integrative oncology. By recommending nonpharmacologic modalities that reduce symptom burden and improve quality of life, physicians also enable

  3. [Genetic therapy in oncology: ethical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, L M; Fazio, V M

    2001-01-01

    The more advanced oncologic therapies are directing toward new frontiers, on account of the remarkable undesirable effects of chemio- and radio-therapies. This new therapeutic experiences are of type biological (vaccines), or genic (substitution again genes with shutters meaning-tumoral). This therapies involve, to be effected, some ethical shrewdnesses: choice of the patient, the engineering modality of the genes, the transfer of the genes in cells of the exclusively somatic line, the elimination of the pathogenic risk of the vector virus, the obligatory use of sterile rooms, the attention to the administration of the drug, a legal issue of the judgment of notoriety.

  4. Progress in Radio-Oncology 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, K.H. (ed.)

    1988-01-01

    A large number of leading specialists from all over the world report here on their latest findings, and on the practical application of radio-oncology and therapeutic results. A few examples of topical papers and the main subjects covered in these proceedings are confirmation radiotherapy, neutron capture therapy, total body irradiation and immunohemopoietic reconstruction. The following sessions are of particular importance: the laboratory in radiotherapy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, causes of failure in radiotherapy, radiosensitizers and radioprotectors, altered fractionation schemes, radiotherapy and surgery, and finally radiotherapy and hyperthermia. A very imposing list of the most significant topics on which renowned specialists from all over the world have come to Vienna.

  5. Encyclopedia of radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Luther W. [Drexel Univ. College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Yaeger, Theodore E. (eds.) [Wake Forest Univ. School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2013-02-01

    The simple A to Z format provides easy access to relevant information in the field of radiation oncology. Extensive cross references between keywords and related articles enable efficient searches in a user-friendly manner. Fully searchable and hyperlinked electronic online edition. The aim of this comprehensive encyclopedia is to provide detailed information on radiation oncology. The wide range of entries are written by leading experts. They will provide basic and clinical scientists in academia, practice and industry with valuable information about the field of radiation oncology. Those in related fields, students, teachers, and interested laypeople will also benefit from the important and relevant information on the most recent developments. Please note that this publication is available as print only or online only or print + online set. Save 75% of the online list price when purchasing the bundle. For more information on the online version please type the publication title into the search box above, then click on the eReference version in the results list.

  6. Pediatric oncology in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebudi, Rejin

    2012-03-01

    The survival of children with cancer has increased dramatically in the last decades, as a result of advances in diagnosis, treatment and supportive care. Each year in Turkey, 2500-3000 new childhood cancer cases are expected. According to the Turkish Pediatric Oncology Group and Turkish Pediatric Hematology Societies Registry, about 2000 new pediatric cancer cases are reported each year. The population in Turkey is relatively young. One fourth of the population is younger than 15 years of age. According to childhood mortality, cancer is the fourth cause of death (7.2%) after infections, cardiac deaths and accidents. The major cancers in children in Turkey are leukemia (31%), lymphoma (19%), central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms (13%), neuroblastomas (7%), bone tumors (6.1%), soft tissue sarcomas (6%), followed by renal tumors, germ cell tumors, retinoblastoma, carcinomas-epithelial neoplasms, hepatic tumors and others. Lymphomas rank second in frequency as in many developing countries in contrast to West Europe or USA, where CNS neoplasms rank second in frequency. The seven-year survival rate in children with malignancies in Turkey is 65.8%. The history of modern Pediatric Oncology in Turkey dates back to the 1970's. Pediatric Oncology has been accepted as a subspecialty in Turkey since 1983. Pediatric Oncologists are all well trained and dedicated. All costs for the diagnosis and treatment of children with cancer is covered by the government. Education and infrastructure for palliative care needs improvement.

  7. Lymphoscintigraphy in oncology: a rediscovered challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Olmos, R.A.; Hoefnagel, C.A. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Nieweg, O.E.; Jansen, L.; Rutgers, E.J.T.; Kroon, B.B.R. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Surgery; Borger, J. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Horenblas, S. [Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Urology

    1999-04-01

    The validation of the sentinel node concept in oncology has led to the rediscovery of lymphoscintigraphy. By combining preoperative lymphatic mapping with intraoperative probe detection this nuclear medicine procedure is being increasingly used to identify and detect the sentinel node in melanoma, breast cancer, and in other malignancies such as penile cancer and vulvar cancer. In the past lymphoscintigraphy has been widely applied for various indications in oncology, and in the case of the internal mammary lymph-node chain its current use in breast cancer remains essential to adjust irradiation treatment to the individual findings of each patient. In another diagnostic area, lymphoscintigraphy is also useful to document altered drainage patterns after surgery and/or radiotherapy; its use in breast cancer patients with upper limb oedema after axillary lymph-node dissection or in melanoma patients with lower-extremity oedema after groin dissection can provide information for physiotherapy or reconstructive surgery. Finally, the renewed interest in lymphoscintigraphy in oncology has led not only to the rediscovery of findings from old literature reports, but also to a discussion about methodological aspects such as tracer characteristics, image acquisition or administration routes, as well as to discussion on the study of migration patterns of radiolabelled colloid particles in the context of cancer dissemination. All this makes the need for standardized guidelines for lymphoscintigraphy mandatory. (orig.) With 10 figs., 1 tab., 56 refs.

  8. 'Mind the gap' between the development of therapeutic innovations and the clinical practice in oncology: A proposal of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) to optimise cancer clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Emmanuelle; Bogaerts, Jan; Lacombe, Denis; Liu, Lifang

    2017-11-01

    In Europe, most of the cancer clinical research dedicated to therapeutic innovations aims primarily at regulatory approval. Once an anticancer drug enters the common market, each member state determines its real-world use based on its own criteria: pricing, reimbursement and clinical indications. Such an innovation-centred clinical research landscape might neglect patient-relevant issues in real-world setting, such as comparative effectiveness of distinct treatment options or long-term safety monitoring. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) advocates reforming the current 'innovation-centred' system to a truly 'patient-centred' paradigm with systematically coordinated applied clinical research in conjunction with drug development, featuring the following strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Use of a Human Breast Tumor Progression Series and a 3-D Culture Model to Determine if Nuclear Structure Could Provide a Molecular and Therapeutic Marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    NES, and/or by the presence of a al., 1998]. Potential nuclear targets of MAP nuclear retention signal or cytoplasmic reten- kinases include Rb [ Taieb ...antigen 180. J Cell Biol 142:271-284. Taieb F, Karaiskou A, Rime H, Jessus C (1998): Human Schlaepfer DD, Hunter T (1996): Signal transduction from

  10. Cancer Patients and Oncology Nursing: Perspectives of Oncology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... Cancer patients and oncology nursing: Perspectives of oncology nurses in ... burnout, they are insufficient in managing work stress and giving psychological ... problems.[2] A research on exhaustion in 1970s revealed the concept of burnout by Freudenberg,[3] and after introduction of this novel concept, ...

  11. Selection of oncology medicines in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazargani, Y T; de Boer, A; Schellens, J H M; Leufkens, H G M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A K

    2014-01-01

    High cancer mortality rates in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have raised concerns regarding access to oncology medicines. Essential medicines are those which satisfy the primary health care needs and provide a basis for public procurement or reimbursement decisions in LMICs. We explored selection of oncology medicines in LMICs through investigating national essential medicines lists (NEMLs) for cancer treatments. Recently updated NEMLs were retrieved for 76 countries. Oncology medicines were classified based on therapeutic categories. Countries were clustered based on geographic regions, income levels and burden of cancer (mortality and morbidity). Indicators of frequency (number of medicines), diversity (number of therapeutic (sub)categories) and more importantly absence were measured and compared across countries using parametric and nonparametric tests. The overall median number of oncology medicines on NEMLs was 16 (interquartile range = 23) chosen predominantly from subcategories of 'antineoplastic agents', with substantial variation across regions and income groups. Five countries did not select any oncology medicine and 68% did not have any 'hormones and related agents' on their NEMLs. Newer technologies like targeted therapies were infrequently incorporated. The cluster of countries suffering most from the burden of cancer selected more essential oncology medicines and diversified further. The observed selection of oncology essential medicines can reflect insufficiencies and inequalities in access to cancer treatments at least in the public sector of LMICs. Further resources need to be allocated from governments and international organizations to tackle the problem of access to oncology medicines in these countries.

  12. Palliative surgical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Nader N; Bellavance, Emily; Keay, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    Palliative surgical oncology is a relatively new concept, but builds on a long tradition in surgery. As the field of palliative medicine grows and becomes its own specialty, surgeons have been receiving some specialized training in palliative care; devising specific palliative surgical procedures; and reevaluating the ethics of their interactions with patients, especially for the selection of palliative surgical procedures. This is leading to a new form of surgical practice in which the emphasis is on relief of present or anticipated symptoms, even if the interventions do not prolong a patient's life span. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Medicinal cannabis in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Frederike K; de Jong, Floris A; Mathijssen, Ron H J; Erkens, Joëlle A; Herings, Ron M; Verweij, Jaap

    2007-12-01

    In The Netherlands, since September 2003, a legal medicinal cannabis product, constituting the whole range of cannabinoids, is available for clinical research, drug development strategies, and on prescription for patients. To date, this policy, initiated by the Dutch Government, has not yet led to the desired outcome; the amount of initiated clinical research is less than expected and only a minority of patients resorts to the legal product. This review aims to discuss the background for the introduction of legal medicinal cannabis in The Netherlands, the past years of Dutch clinical experience in oncology practice, possible reasons underlying the current outcome, and future perspectives.

  14. Therapeutic reduction mammoplasty in large-breasted women with cancer using superior and superomedial pedicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denewer A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Adel Denewer,1 Fayez Shahatto,1 Waleed Elnahas,1 Omar Farouk,1 Sameh Roshdy,1 Ashraf Khater,1 Osama Hussein,1 Saleh Teima,2 Mohammed Hafez,1 Samir Zidan,1 Nazem Shams,1 Sherif Kotb11Surgical Oncology Department, Oncology Center, 2Clinical Oncology and Nuclear Medicine Department, Mansoura University, Mansoura, EgyptBackground: Surgical management of breast cancer in large-breasted women presents a real challenge. This study aims to evaluate the outcome of therapeutic reduction mammoplasty in large-breasted women with breast cancer using superior and superomedial pedicles, situated at any breast quadrant except for the central and upper medial quadrants.Methods: Fifty women with breast cancer and large breasts underwent simultaneous bilateral reduction mammoplasty. The weight of the tissue removed ranged from 550 g to 1050 g and the tumor-free safety margins by frozen section were in the range of 4 cm to 12 cm.Results: The age of the patients ranged from 36 to 58 (median 43 years and tumor size ranged from 1 cm to 4 cm. The cosmetic outcomes were excellent in 32 patients (64%, good in 15 (30% patients, and fair in three patients (6%. The follow-up period was 8–36 (mean 20 months, with no local recurrence or systemic metastasis.Conclusion: Therapeutic reduction mammoplasty using superior and superomedial pedicles was shown to be oncologically safer than traditional conservative surgery. This oncoplastic procedure yields a satisfactory esthetic outcome with lower morbidity in large-breasted women with breast cancer.Keywords: breast cancer, oncoplastic surgery, reduction mammoplasty, conservation surgery

  15. Music therapy: a valuable adjunct in the oncology setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Emily M; Mahon, Suzanne M

    2011-08-01

    Music therapy is the supervised and therapeutic use of music by a credentialed therapist to promote positive clinical outcomes. It can be a valuable form of complementary medicine in the oncology setting to decrease patient stress and anxiety, relieve pain and nausea, provide distraction, alleviate depression, and promote the expression of feelings. The music therapist assesses the patient and consults other members of the multidisciplinary team to create a therapeutic treatment plan. Music therapists design music sessions based on patients' needs and their intended therapeutic goals. Patients can participate actively or passively in individual or group sessions. Only a credentialed music therapist can provide safe and beneficial music therapy interventions.

  16. Frontiers of biostatistical methods and applications in clinical oncology

    CERN Document Server

    Crowley, John

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the state of the art of biostatistical methods and their applications in clinical oncology. Many methodologies established today in biostatistics have been brought about through its applications to the design and analysis of oncology clinical studies. This field of oncology, now in the midst of evolution owing to rapid advances in biotechnologies and cancer genomics, is becoming one of the most promising disease fields in the shift toward personalized medicine. Modern developments of diagnosis and therapeutics of cancer have also been continuously fueled by recent progress in establishing the infrastructure for conducting more complex, large-scale clinical trials and observational studies. The field of cancer clinical studies therefore will continue to provide many new statistical challenges that warrant further progress in the methodology and practice of biostatistics. This book provides a systematic coverage of various stages of cancer clinical studies. Topics from modern cancer clinical ...

  17. [Music therapy in oncology--concepts and review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jens-Peter; Brandt, Kerstin; Weis, Joachim

    2004-12-01

    The following article is addresses the applications and functions of music therapy in the acute and rehabilitative phases of treatment of adult cancer patients. It is based on a literature review with a focus on the state of empirical research in the oncology sector of music therapy and consequences for the concepts of music therapy. First the basic aspects of music therapy treatment are explained to clarify the different research methods and to examine the special demands of oncology patients. Furthermore, a brief summary of the approaches of music therapy research in the most renowned educational institutions in Germany are outlined. The results of the studies and case histories are summarized and evaluated and provide the basis for the conclusions and recommendations for the music therapeutic practice in oncology.

  18. Molecular radio-oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Michael; Krause, Mechthild; Cordes, Nils (eds.) [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital

    2016-07-01

    This book concisely reviews our current understanding of hypoxia, molecular targeting, DNA repair, cancer stem cells, and tumor pathophysiology, while also discussing novel strategies for putting these findings into practice in daily clinical routine. Radiotherapy is an important part of modern multimodal cancer treatment, and the past several years have witnessed not only substantial improvements in radiation techniques and the use of new beam qualities, but also major strides in our understanding of molecular tumor biology and tumor radiation response. Against this backdrop, the book highlights recent efforts to identify reasonable and clinically applicable biomarkers using broad-spectrum tissue microarrays and high-throughput systems biology approaches like genomics and epigenomics. In particular, it describes in detail how such molecular information is now being exploited for diagnostic imaging and imaging throughout treatment using the example of positron emission tomography. By discussing all these issues in the context of modern radiation oncology, the book provides a broad, up-to-date overview of the molecular aspects of radiation oncology that will hopefully foster its further optimization.

  19. Biosimilars: Considerations for Oncology Nurses
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizgirda, Vida; Jacobs, Ira

    2017-04-01

    Biosimilars are developed to be highly similar to and treat the same conditions as licensed biologics. As they are approved and their use becomes more widespread, oncology nurses should be aware of their development and unique considerations. This article reviews properties of biosimilars; their regulation and approval process; the ways in which their quality, safety, and efficacy are evaluated; their postmarketing safety monitoring; and their significance to oncology nurses and oncology nursing.
. A search of PubMed and regulatory agency websites was conducted for references related to the development and use of biosimilars in oncology. 
. Because biologics are large, structurally complex molecules, biosimilars cannot be considered generic equivalents to licensed biologic products. Consequently, regulatory approval for biosimilars is different from approval for small-molecule generics. Oncology nurses are in a unique position to educate themselves, other clinicians, and patients and their families about biosimilars to ensure accurate understanding, as well as optimal and safe use, of biosimilars.

  20. A Survey of Medical Oncology Training in Australian Medical Schools: Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mathew; Prawira, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Background Oncology is a rapidly evolving field with continuous advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Therefore, it is important that medical students are provided with the knowledge and experience required to care for oncology patients and enable them to diagnose and manage toxicities of novel therapeutic agents. Objective This study was performed to understand the medical students’ perspective of the oncology education provided in universities across Australia and identify areas of education that could potentially be modified or improved to ultimately attract more students to a career in oncology. Methods This pilot cross-sectional study consisted of an 18-question survey that was submitted online to medical students in their final year and interns rotating to the Tamworth Hospital. Results The survey was completed by 94 fifth-year medical students and interns. Oncology was taught both theoretically and clinically for 68% (63/93) of participants, and 48% (44/92) had an exclusive oncology rotation. Both theoretical and clinical oncology assessments were conducted for only 21% (19/92) of participants. Overall, 42% (38/91) of participants were satisfied with their oncology education, and 78% (40/51) were dissatisfied with the number of oncology teaching hours. The importance of a career in oncology was rated as low by 46% (41/90) of participants. Conclusions This pilot study indicates that there are potential areas to improve oncology teaching in Australian universities. The majority of surveyed students were dissatisfied with the number of teaching hours they receive in oncology. More global assessment of students and/or interns from other Australian institutes may yield further useful information. PMID:29233799

  1. Therapeutic cloning in the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombaerts, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear transfer technology can be applied to produce autologous differentiated cells for therapeutic purposes, a concept termed therapeutic cloning. Countless articles have been published on the ethics and politics of human therapeutic cloning, reflecting the high expectations from this new opportunity for rejuvenation of the aging or diseased body. Yet the research literature on therapeutic cloning, strictly speaking, is comprised of only four articles, all in the mouse. The efficiency of derivation of embryonic stem cell lines via nuclear transfer is remarkably consistent among these reports. However, the efficiency is so low that, in its present form, the concept is unlikely to become widespread in clinical practice. PMID:12949262

  2. [Utilization of radionuclide therapy facility and assembly-temporary type therapeutic facility for medical treatment of radioactivity contaminated patients in nuclear emergency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naoyuki; Satro, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Yasuhito

    2011-05-01

    Medical management of patients internally contaminated in nuclear emergency needs, in addition to general medical treatment, to evaluate doses due to intakes of radioactive materials, to conduct effective treatment with stable isotopes and chelating agents and to keep public away from radioactive materials in and excreted from patients. The idea of medical treatment for internal contamination is demonstrated in the general principles on medical management of victims in nuclear emergency issued by the Cabinet Office in Japan. However, if impressive number patients with internal contamination are generated, the current medical management scheme in nuclear emergency is not able to admit them. The utilization of radionuclide therapy facilities where patients with thyroid diseases are treated with radioisotope and assembly-temporary housing type treatment facilities dedicated for internal contaminated patients may be expected to complement the medical management scheme in nuclear emergency. The effect or more medical management system for patients internally contaminated may become one of the safety nets in the contemporary society that inclines to use nuclear energy on account of accessibility.

  3. Multicriteria decision analysis in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adunlin, Georges; Diaby, Vakaramoko; Montero, Alberto J; Xiao, Hong

    2015-12-01

    There has been a growing interest in the development and application of alternative decision-making frameworks within health care, including multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). Even though the literature includes several reviews on MCDA methods, applications of MCDA in oncology are lacking. The aim of this paper is to discuss a rationale for the use of MCDA in oncology. In this context, the following research question emerged: How can MCDA be used to develop a clinical decision support tool in oncology? In this paper, a brief background on decision making is presented, followed by an overview of MCDA methods and process. The paper discusses some applications of MCDA, proposes research opportunities in the context of oncology and presents an illustrative example of how MCDA can be applied to oncology. Decisions in oncology involve trade-offs between possible benefits and harms. MCDA can help analyse trade-off preferences. A wide range of MCDA methods exist. Each method has its strengths and weaknesses. Choosing the appropriate method varies depending on the source and nature of information used to inform decision making. The literature review identified eight studies. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was the most often used method in the identified studies. Overall, MCDA appears to be a promising tool that can be used to assist clinical decision making in oncology. Nonetheless, field testing is desirable before MCDA becomes an established decision-making tool in this field. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Mathematical oncology 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Gandolfi, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    With chapters on free boundaries, constitutive equations, stochastic dynamics, nonlinear diffusion–consumption, structured populations, and applications of optimal control theory, this volume presents the most significant recent results in the field of mathematical oncology. It highlights the work of world-class research teams, and explores how different researchers approach the same problem in various ways. Tumors are complex entities that present numerous challenges to the mathematical modeler. First and foremost, they grow. Thus their spatial mean field description involves a free boundary problem. Second, their interiors should be modeled as nontrivial porous media using constitutive equations. Third, at the end of anti-cancer therapy, a small number of malignant cells remain, making the post-treatment dynamics inherently stochastic. Fourth, the growth parameters of macroscopic tumors are non-constant, as are the parameters of anti-tumor therapies. Changes in these parameters may induce phenomena that a...

  5. Advances in oncologic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towbin, Alexander J; Trout, Andrew T; Roebuck, Derek J

    2014-12-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been an increased reliance on radiologic imaging to diagnose and stage malignancies. This increased reliance on imaging has occurred because the quality of imaging has improved markedly. Currently, modalities such as MRI and CT allow the radiologist to obtain highly detailed images of the human body with a resolution of less than 1mm. More recently, researchers have shifted their focus from anatomic imaging to functional imaging. This burgeoning field of radiology strives to provide quantitative information regarding the behavior of tumors (or other pathology) to deliver patients and clinicians with prognostic information regarding the disease process. The purpose of this article is to describe the recent advances in pediatric oncologic imaging. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Global curriculum in surgical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are, C; Berman, R S; Wyld, L; Cummings, C; Lecoq, C; Audisio, R A

    2016-06-01

    The significant global variations in surgical oncology training paradigms can have a detrimental effect on tackling the rising global cancer burden. While some variations in training are essential to account for the differences in types of cancer and biology, the fundamental principles of providing care to a cancer patient remain the same. The development of a global curriculum in surgical oncology with incorporated essential standards could be very useful in building an adequately trained surgical oncology workforce, which in turn could help in tackling the rising global cancer burden. The leaders of the Society of Surgical Oncology and European Society of Surgical Oncology convened a global curriculum committee to develop a global curriculum in surgical oncology. A global curriculum in surgical oncology was developed to incorporate the required domains considered to be essential in training a surgical oncologist. The curriculum was constructed in a modular fashion to permit flexibility to suit the needs of the different regions of the world. Similarly, recognizing the various sociocultural, financial and cultural influences across the world, the proposed curriculum is aspirational and not mandatory in intent. A global curriculum was developed which may be considered as a foundational scaffolding for training surgical oncologists worldwide. It is envisioned that this initial global curriculum will provide a flexible and modular scaffolding that can be tailored by individual countries or regions to train surgical oncologists in a way that is appropriate for practice in their local environment. Copyright © 2016 Society of Surgical Oncology, European Society of Surgical Oncology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Global Health in Radiation Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodin, Danielle; Yap, Mei Ling; Grover, Surbhi

    2017-01-01

    programs. However, formalized training and career promotion tracks in global health within radiation oncology have been slow to emerge, thereby limiting the sustained involvement of students and faculty, and restricting opportunities for leadership in this space. We examine here potential structures...... and benefits of formalized global health training in radiation oncology. We explore how defining specific competencies in this area can help trainees and practitioners integrate their activities in global health within their existing roles as clinicians, educators, or scientists. This would also help create...... and funding models might be used to further develop and expand radiation oncology services globally....

  8. [Clinical studies in oncology. Relevance, design, ethical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörmann, B; Wulf, G; Hiddemann, W

    1998-03-15

    Clinical research in oncology includes the evaluation of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic parameters in order to establish standards for the different tumor entities. Prerequisite is the retrospective and prospective analysis of large patient groups with established statistical methods. New potentially better strategies have to be compared in randomised studies with the respective "gold standard". The central role of clinical studies for evaluation and optimisation of therapy can be considered as moral obligation to included the maximal possible number of patients in clinical studies. However, only a small number of tumor patients in Germany is treated in controlled clinical studies. Reasons are lack of organisational structures, but also ethical considerations. In this article several models for clinical studies are discussed with respect to their statistical significance, indication, and potential ethical objections. Aim of the discussion is to increase the acceptance of the necessity of clinical studies for evaluation and optimisation of therapeutic options in oncology.

  9. [Oncologic gynecology and the Internet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizler, Robert; Bielanów, Tomasz; Kulikiewicz, Krzysztof

    2002-11-01

    The strategy of World Wide Web searching for medical sites was presented in this article. The "deep web" and "surface web" resources were searched. The 10 best sites connected with the gynecological oncology, according to authors' opinion, were presented.

  10. Exercise Promotion in Geriatric Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhenn, Peggy S; Bryant, Ashley Leak; Mustian, Karen M

    2016-09-01

    Evidence of the benefits of exercise for people with cancer from diagnosis through survivorship is growing. However, most cancers occur in older adults and little exercise advice is available for making specific recommendations for older adults with cancer. Individualized exercise prescriptions are safe, feasible, and beneficial for the geriatric oncology population. Oncology providers must be equipped to discuss the short- and long-term benefits of exercise and assist older patients in obtaining appropriate exercise prescriptions. This review provides detailed information about professionals and their roles as it relates to functional assessment, intervention, and evaluation of the geriatric oncology population. This review addresses the importance of functional status assessment and appropriate referrals to other oncology professionals.

  11. IgA as therapeutic antibody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leusen, Jeanette H W

    2015-01-01

    This review is focused on the promises of IgA as a new therapeutic antibody. For more than 30 years IgG molecules have been used in the clinic in the fields of oncology, hematology, auto immune diseases and infections. However, IgA might be a good alternative, since it recruits different effector

  12. Recommendations of the Spanish Societies of Radiation Oncology (SEOR), Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging (SEMNiM), and Medical Physics (SEFM) on (18)F-FDG PET-CT for radiotherapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Perea, Begoña; Villegas, Antonio Cabrera; Rodríguez, José Miguel Delgado; Velloso, María José García; Vicente, Ana María García; Cabrerizo, Carlos Huerga; López, Rosa Morera; Romasanta, Luis Alberto Pérez; Beltrán, Moisés Sáez

    2012-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is a valuable tool for diagnosing and staging malignant lesions. The fusion of PET and computed tomography (CT) yields images that contain both metabolic and morphological information, which, taken together, have improved the diagnostic precision of PET in oncology. The main imaging modality for planning radiotherapy treatment is CT. However, PET-CT is an emerging modality for use in planning treatments because it allows for more accurate treatment volume definition. The use of PET-CT for treatment planning is highly complex, and protocols and standards for its use are still being developed. It seems probable that PET-CT will eventually replace current CT-based planning methods, but this will require a full understanding of the relevant technical aspects of PET-CT planning. The aim of the present document is to review these technical aspects and to provide recommendations for clinical use of this imaging modality in the radiotherapy planning process.

  13. Principles of molecular oncology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bronchud, Miguel H

    2008-01-01

    ...-threatening diseases. Many new molecularly targeted diagnostics and therapeutics described in this text, developed based on the rapid growth in our understanding of the molecular basis of cancer, already substantially improve survival of patients with previously lethal malignancies, and also improve quality of life because of fewer toxicities. Clearly re...

  14. Micronutrients in Oncological Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröber, Uwe; Holzhauer, Peter; Kisters, Klaus; Holick, Michael F; Adamietz, Irenäus A

    2016-03-12

    Nutritional supplements are widely used among patients with cancer who perceive them to be anticancer and antitoxicity agents. Depending on the type of malignancy and the gender 30%-90% of the cancer patients supplement their diets with antioxidant and immuno-stabilizing micronutrients, such as selenium, vitamin C, and vitamin D, often without the knowledge of the treating physician. From the oncological viewpoint, there are justifiable concerns that dietary supplements decrease the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent studies, however, have provided increasing evidence that treatment is tolerated better-with an increase in patient compliance and a lower rate of treatment discontinuations-when micronutrients, such as selenium, are added as appropriate to the patient's medication. Nutritional supplementation tailored to an individual's background diet, genetics, tumor histology, and treatments may yield benefits in subsets of patients. Clinicians should have an open dialogue with patients about nutritional supplements. Supplement advice needs to be individualized and come from a credible source, and it is best communicated by the physician.

  15. Micronutrients in Oncological Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Gröber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional supplements are widely used among patients with cancer who perceive them to be anticancer and antitoxicity agents. Depending on the type of malignancy and the gender 30%–90% of the cancer patients supplement their diets with antioxidant and immuno-stabilizing micronutrients, such as selenium, vitamin C, and vitamin D, often without the knowledge of the treating physician. From the oncological viewpoint, there are justifiable concerns that dietary supplements decrease the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent studies, however, have provided increasing evidence that treatment is tolerated better—with an increase in patient compliance and a lower rate of treatment discontinuations—when micronutrients, such as selenium, are added as appropriate to the patient’s medication. Nutritional supplementation tailored to an individual’s background diet, genetics, tumor histology, and treatments may yield benefits in subsets of patients. Clinicians should have an open dialogue with patients about nutritional supplements. Supplement advice needs to be individualized and come from a credible source, and it is best communicated by the physician.

  16. [Strategies for improving care of oncologic patients: SHARE Project results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reñones Crego, María de la Concepción; Fernández Pérez, Dolores; Vena Fernández, Carmen; Zamudio Sánchez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Cancer treatment is a major burden for the patient and its family that requires an individualized management by healthcare professionals. Nurses are in charge of coordinating care and are the closest healthcare professionals to patient and family; however, in Spain, there are not standard protocols yet for the management of oncology patients. The Spanish Oncology Nursing Society developed between 2012 and 2014 the SHARE project, with the aim of establishing strategies to improve quality of life and nursing care in oncology patients. It was developed in 3 phases. First, a literature search and review was performed to identify nursing strategies, interventions and tools to improve cancer patients' care. At the second stage, these interventions were agreed within a group of oncology nursing experts; and at the third phase, a different group of experts in oncology care categorized the interventions to identify the ones with highest priority and most feasible to be implemented. As a result, 3 strategic actions were identified to improve nursing care during cancer treatment: To provide a named nurse to carry out the follow up process by attending to the clinic or telephonic consultation, develop therapeutic education with adapted protocols for each tumor type and treatment and ensure specific training for nurses on the management of the cancer patients. Strategic actions proposed in this paper aim to improve cancer patients' healthcare and quality of life through the development of advanced nursing roles based on a higher level of autonomy, situating nurses as care coordinators to assure an holistic care in oncology patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Fixed Dosing of Monoclonal Antibodies in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, Jeroen J M A; Haanen, John B A G; Voest, Emile E; Schellens, Jan H M; Huitema, Alwin D R; Beijnen, Jos H

    2017-10-01

    Most monoclonal antibodies in oncology are administered in body-size-based dosing schedules. This is believed to correct for variability in both drug distribution and elimination between patients. However, monoclonal antibodies typically distribute to the blood plasma and extracellular fluids only, which increase less than proportionally with the increase in body weight. Elimination takes place via proteolytic catabolism, a nonspecific immunoglobulin G elimination pathway, and intracellular degradation after binding to the target. The latter is the primary route of elimination and is related to target expression levels rather than body size. Taken together, the minor effects of body size on distribution and elimination of monoclonal antibodies and their usually wide therapeutic window do not support body-size-based dosing. We evaluated effects of body weight on volume of distribution and clearance of monoclonal antibodies in oncology and show that a fixed dose for most of these drugs is justified based on pharmacokinetics. A survey of the savings after fixed dosing of monoclonal antibodies at our hospital showed that fixed dosing can reduce costs of health care, especially when pooling of preparations is not possible (which is often the case in smaller hospitals). In conclusion, based on pharmacokinetic parameters of monoclonal antibodies, there is a rationale for fixed dosing of these drugs in oncology. Therefore, we believe that fixed dosing is justified and can improve efficiency of the compounding. Moreover, drug spillage can be reduced and medication errors may become less likely. The currently available knowledge of elimination of monoclonal antibodies combined with the publicly available data from clinical trials and extensive population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) modeling justifies fixed dosing. Interpatient variation in exposure is comparable after body weight and fixed dosing and most monoclonal antibodies show relatively flat dose-response relationships

  18. Integrated biophotonics in endoscopic oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Naoki; DaCosta, Ralph S.; Wilson, Brian C.; Marcon, Norman E.

    2009-02-01

    Gastrointestinal endoscopy has made great progress during last decade. Diagnostic accuracy can be enhanced by better training, improved dye-contrast techniques method, and the development of new image processing technologies. However, diagnosis using conventional endoscopy with white-light optical imaging is essentially limited by being based on morphological changes and/or visual attribution: hue, saturation and intensity, interpretation of which depends on the endoscopist's eye and brain. In microlesions in the gastrointestinal tract, we still rely ultimately on the histopathological diagnosis from biopsy specimens. Autofluorescence imaging system has been applied for lesions which have been difficult to morphologically recognize or are indistinct with conventional endoscope, and this approach has potential application for the diagnosis of dysplastic lesions and early cancers in the gastrointestinal tract, supplementing the information from white light endoscopy. This system has an advantage that it needs no administration of a photosensitive agent, making it suitable as a screening method for the early detection of neoplastic tissues. Narrow band imaging (NBI) is a novel endoscopic technique which can distinguish neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions without chromoendoscopy. Magnifying endoscopy in combination with NBI has an obvious advantage, namely analysis of the epithelial pit pattern and the vascular network. This new technique allows a detailed visualization in early neoplastic lesions of esophagus, stomach and colon. However, problems remain; how to combine these technologies in an optimum diagnostic strategy, how to apply them into the algorithm for therapeutic decision-making, and how to standardize several classifications surrounding them. 'Molecular imaging' is a concept representing the most novel imaging methods in medicine, although the definition of the word is still controversial. In the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy, the future of

  19. Geriatric Oncology Program Development and Gero-Oncology Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mary Pat; DeDonato, Dana Marcone; Kutney-Lee, Ann

    2016-02-01

    To provide a critical analysis of current approaches to the care of older adults with cancer, outline priority areas for geriatric oncology program development, and recommend strategies for improvement. Published articles and reports between 1999 and 2015. Providing an interdisciplinary model that incorporates a holistic geriatric assessment will ensure the delivery of patient-centered care that is responsive to the comprehensive needs of older patients. Nursing administrators and leaders have both an opportunity and responsibility to shape the future of geriatric oncology. Preparations include workforce development and the creation of programs that are designed to meet the complex needs of this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Future of Gero-Oncology Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Sarah H

    2016-02-01

    To project the future of gero-oncology nursing as a distinct specialty, framed between analysis of current challenges and explication of prospective solutions. Peer-reviewed literature, policy directives, web-based resources, and author expertise. Oncology nursing faces several challenges in meeting the needs of older people living with cancer. Realigning cancer nursing education, practice, and research to match demographic and epidemiological realities mandates redesign. Viewing geriatric oncology as an optional sub-specialty limits oncology nursing, where older people represent the majority of oncology patients and cancer survivors. The future of gero-oncology nursing lies in transforming oncology nursing itself. Specific goals to achieve transformation of oncology nursing into gero-oncology nursing include assuring integrated foundational aging and cancer content across entry-level nursing curricula; assuring a gero-competent oncology nursing workforce with integrated continuing education; developing gero-oncology nurse specialists in advanced practice roles; and cultivating nurse leadership in geriatric oncology program development and administration along with expanding the scope and sophistication of gero-oncology nursing science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The use of biosimilar medicines in oncology - position statement of the Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology (SBOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, G S; Sternberg, C; Lopes, G; Chammas, R; Gifoni, M A C; Gil, R A; Araujo, D V

    2018-01-11

    A biosimilar is a biologic product that is similar to a reference biopharmaceutical product, the manufacturing process of which hinders the ability to identically replicate the structure of the original product, and therefore, it cannot be described as an absolute equivalent of the original medication. The currently available technology does not allow for an accurate copy of complex molecules, but it does allow the replication of similar molecules with the same activity. As biosimilars are about to be introduced in oncology practice, these must be evaluated through evidence-based medicine. This manuscript is a position paper, where the Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology (SBOC) aims to describe pertinent issues regarding the approval and use of biosimilars in oncology. As a working group on behalf of SBOC, we discuss aspects related to definition, labeling/nomenclature, extrapolation, interchangeability, switching, automatic substitution, clinical standards on safety and efficacy, and the potential impact on financial burden in healthcare. We take a stand in favor of the introduction of biosimilars, as they offer a viable, safe, and cost-effective alternative to the biopharmaceutical products currently used in cancer. We hope this document can provide valuable information to support therapeutic decisions that maximize the clinical benefit for the thousands of cancer patients in Brazil and can contribute to expedite the introduction of this new drug class in clinical practice. We expect the conveyed information to serve as a basis for further discussion in Latin America, this being the first position paper issued by a Latin American Oncology Society.

  2. American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn More Explore career opportunities in pediatric hematology/oncology Visit the ASPHO Career Center. Learn More Join ... Privacy Policy » © The American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as well as a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic interventions. Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine refers to imaging ... top of page Additional Information and Resources The Alliance for Radiation Safety in Pediatric Imaging's "Image Gently" ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as well as a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic interventions. Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine refers to imaging ... be needed for the duration of the exam. Oral: for some exams, the radiotracer is taken by ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic interventions. Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine refers to imaging examinations done in ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic interventions. Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine refers ... Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2018 Radiological Society of North America, ...

  7. Sofalcone upregulates the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2/heme oxygenase-1 pathway, reduces soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, and quenches endothelial dysfunction: potential therapeutic for preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Kenji; Tong, Stephen; Nakahara, Anzu; Kondo, Mei; Monchusho, Hideaki; Hirano, Toshihiko; Kaitu'u-Lino, Tu'uhevaha; Beard, Sally; Binder, Natalie; Tuohey, Laura; Brownfoot, Fiona; Hannan, Natalie J

    2015-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a severe complication of pregnancy, characterized by hypertension, oxidative stress, and severe endothelial dysfunction. Antiangiogenic factors, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and soluble endoglin, play key pathophysiological roles in preeclampsia. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective, antioxidant enzyme reported to be downregulated in preeclampsia. Studies propose that inducing HO-1 may also decrease sFlt-1 production. Sofalcone, a gastric antiulcer agent in clinical use, is known to induce HO-1 in gastric epithelium. We aimed to investigate whether sofalcone induces HO-1 and reduces sFlt-1 release from primary human placental and endothelial cells and blocks endothelial dysfunction in vitro. We isolated human trophoblasts and endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) and also used uterine microvascular cells. We investigated the effects of sofalcone on (1) HO-1 production, (2) activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 pathway, (3) sFlt-1 and soluble endoglin release, (4) tumor necrosis factor α-induced monocyte adhesion and vascular cell adhesion molecule upregulation, and (5) endothelial tubule formation. Sofalcone potently increased HO-1 mRNA and protein in both primary trophoblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, sofalcone treatment caused nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 and transactivation of other nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 responsive genes (NQO1, TXN, and GCLC). Importantly, sofalcone significantly decreased the secretion of sFlt-1 from primary human trophoblasts. Sofalcone potently suppressed endothelial dysfunction in 2 in vitro models, blocking tumor necrosis factor α-induced monocyte adhesion and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. These results indicate that in primary human tissues, sofalcone can potently activate antioxidant nuclear factor

  8. Geriatric oncology in the Netherlands: a survey of medical oncology specialists and oncology nursing specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, J M; Smorenburg, C H; Schiphorst, A H; van Rixtel, B; Portielje, J E A; Hamaker, M E

    2014-11-01

    To identify ways to improve cancer care for older patients, we set out to examine how older patients in the Netherlands are currently being evaluated prior to oncological treatment and to explore the potential obstacles in the incorporation of a geriatric evaluation, using a web-based survey sent to Dutch medical oncology specialists and oncology nursing specialists. The response rate was 34% (183 out of 544). Two-thirds of respondents reported that a geriatric evaluation was being used, although primarily on an ad hoc basis only. Most respondents expressed a desire for a routine evaluation or more intensive collaboration with the geriatrician and 86% of respondents who were not using a geriatric evaluation expressed their interest to do so. The most important obstacles were a lack of time or personnel and insufficient availability of a geriatrician to perform the assessment. Thus, over 30% of oncology professionals in the Netherlands express an interest in geriatric oncology. Important obstacles to a routine implementation of a geriatric evaluation are a lack of time, or insufficient availability of geriatricians; this could be overcome with policies that acknowledge that quality cancer care for older patients requires the investment of time and personnel. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. 76 FR 61713 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of..., are in late stage development for an adult oncology indication, or in late stage development in...

  10. 77 FR 57095 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of... plans for four products that are in development for an adult oncology indication. The subcommittee will...

  11. 75 FR 66773 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of... were either recently approved by FDA or, are in late stage development for an adult oncology indication...

  12. PET/MR in oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balyasnikova, Svetlana; Löfgren, Johan; de Nijs, Robin

    2012-01-01

    of the challenges inherent in this new technology, but focus on potential applications for simultaneous PET/MR in the field of oncology. Methods and tracers for use with the PET technology will be familiar to most readers of this journal; thus this paper aims to provide a short and basic introduction to a number...... be applied together with PET increasing the amount of information about the tissues of interest. The potential clinical benefit of applying PET/MR in staging, radiotherapy planning and treatment evaluation in oncology, as well as the research perspectives for the use of PET/MR in the development of new...

  13. Reconstruction of Peripelvic Oncologic Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichman, Katie E; Matros, Evan; Disa, Joseph J

    2017-10-01

    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Understand the anatomy of the peripelvic area. 2. Understand the advantages and disadvantages of performing peripelvic reconstruction in patients undergoing oncologic resection. 3. Select the appropriate local, pedicled, or free-flap reconstruction based on the location of the defect and donor-site characteristics. Peripelvic reconstruction most commonly occurs in the setting of oncologic ablative surgery. The peripelvic area contains several distinct reconstructive regions, including vagina, vulva, penis, and scrotum. Each area provides unique reconstructive considerations. In addition, prior or future radiation therapy or chemotherapy along with cancer cachexia can increase the complexity of reconstruction.

  14. [Vitamins and Minerals in Oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holch, Julian Walter; Michl, Marlies; Heinemann, Volker; Erickson, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    The use of vitamins and minerals to prevent cancer as well as their supportive use in oncological patients is widespread and often occurs without the knowledge of the treating physician. Beyond general recommendations with regard to a balanced and healthy diet, no evidence exists supporting the use of vitamins and minerals in the prevention of cancer. Furthermore, the diet of oncological patients should contain vitamins and minerals of the same quantity as for healthy individuals. In particular, there is currently no rationale for a high-dosage administration of antioxidants. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Making cancer visible--Dyes in surgical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Kiryu K; Neuhaus, Susan J

    2016-03-01

    Dyes share an intricate relationship with oncology. Dyes can cause cancer as chemical carcinogens, but can also be harnessed against cancer when used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Histopathology, imaging, and newer molecular diagnostics all rely on dyes, and their use in sentinel lymph node biopsies and intra-operative imaging has helped drive a paradigm shift in cancer surgery towards minimally-invasive and organ sparing approaches with enhanced resection accuracy. As therapeutic agents, the cytotoxicity of specific dyes can be employed in direct chemo-ablation or in photodynamic therapy. The same agent can have dual functionalities in cancer detection and treatment, in a novel field known as theranostics. This is facilitated by newer generation dyes conjugated with tumour-targeting probes such as antibodies, and these bio-conjugate agents can also incorporate nanotechnology or radio-isotopes. Further advances will be closely aligned with our increasing understanding of molecular oncology, and will form a new generation of cancer detection and treatment agents that promote precision medicine for cancer. Dyes and their roles have evolved and been reinvented, but they remain relevant as ever. This review explores the fascinating history of dyes, and their place in the state-of-the-art of oncology. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Minimally Invasive Surgery in Pediatric Oncology. Tertiary center experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Chacón Villalba, J; Rodríguez Caraballo, L; Marco Macián, A; Segarra Llido, V; Vila Carbó, J J

    2015-07-20

    To describe our experience using Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) techniques in tertiary center with specific oncological pediatric surgery unit. Retrospective review of patients undergoing MIS techniques in pediatric oncology surgery unit between January 2011 and December 2014. MIS procedures were considered made by both techniques such as laparoscopy and thoracoscopy with both diagnostic and therapeutic intent. 4 procedures were diagnostic and the rest were therapeutic: During the study, 56 procedures were performed by MIS. By type of technique, 13 were thoracoscopic (7 metastasectomies, 6 thoracic masses) and 43 laparoscopic (3 hepatic masses, 3 pancreatic masses 7 abdominal masses, 2 ovarian masses, 2 typhlitis 1 splenic mass and 25 oophorectomy for ovarian cryopreservation). In 5 cases (2 thoracic masses 1 pancreatic mass abdominal masses) conversion to open surgery to complete the procedure (2 for caution in the absence of vascular control bleeding 1 and 2 for lack of space) was necessary. In all cases safety principles of oncological surgery were respected. Providing an adecuate selection of patiens, MIS techniques are safe, reproducible and fulfill the objectives of quality of cancer surgery.

  17. Radiation protection in medical imaging and radiation oncology

    CERN Document Server

    Stoeva, Magdalena S

    2016-01-01

    Radiation Protection in Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology focuses on the professional, operational, and regulatory aspects of radiation protection. Advances in radiation medicine have resulted in new modalities and procedures, some of which have significant potential to cause serious harm. Examples include radiologic procedures that require very long fluoroscopy times, radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, and intravascular brachytherapy. This book summarizes evidence supporting changes in consensus recommendations, regulations, and health physics practices associated with these recent advances in radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiation oncology. It supports intelligent and practical methods for protection of personnel, the public, and patients. The book is based on current recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and is complemented by detailed practical sections and professional discussions by the world’s leading medical and health physics professionals. It also ...

  18. The Mifne Method - ISRAEL. Early intervention in the treatment of autism/PDD: A therapeutic programme for the nuclear family and their child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonim, Hanna

    2004-07-01

    The paper will present the Mifne (turning point) Method for early intervention in the treatment of the Autism spectrum, which has been developed as an intensive, short-term therapy programme for infants: the youngest infant treated at the Center was five months old. The Mifne approach is derived from attachment theory. The programme is designed to treat families with children under the age of five. The sequential programme includes three stages: 1. Intensive system therapy for the nuclear family that continues for a three week period in residence at the Center. 2. Follow-up treatment takes place at the family home. 3. Integration of the child into mainstream education. A retrospective evaluation of the programme undertaken by the Schneider Children's Medical Center revealed that children showed improvement on almost all items of two scales: the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and the Social Behavior Rating Scale (SBRS). Total scores on both scales showed significant improvement after three weeks and after six months. Follow-up data shows that 73% of the children treated at the Center have been integrated in mainstream schools. Clearly, early detection and treatment in the first year of life can redirect the infant's development and might avoid the escalation of autistic symptoms. An illustrative case study is described.

  19. Experimental measurements and nuclear model calculations on the excitation functions of $^{nat}Ce(^{3}He, xn)$ and $^{141}$therapeutic radionuclide $^{140}$Nd

    CERN Document Server

    Hilgers, K; Coenen, H H; Qaim, S M

    2005-01-01

    For production of the therapy related Auger electron emitting neutron deficient nuclide /sup 140/Nd (T/sub fraction 1/2/=3.37d) two routes were investigated: the nuclear reaction range from 15 to 36 MeV and the reaction /sup 141/Pr(p,2n)/sup 140isotopes, namely /sup 139/Nd and /sup 141/Nd, as well as to cerium(IV)-oxide and praseodymium (III)-oxide were obtained by sedimentation and the conventional stacked-foil technique was used for cross section measurements. All the experimental data obtained in this work were compared with the results of theoretical calculations using the exciton model code ALICE-IPPE as well as with literature experimental data, if available. In general, good agreement between experimental and theoretical results was found. The theoretical thick target yields of all the product nuclides were calculated from the measured excitation functions. The theoretical thick target yield of amounts to 12 MBq/mu Acenterdoth and over the energy range E/sub p/=30rightward arrow15 Me V to 210 MBq/mu; A...

  20. Experimental study and nuclear model calculations on the 192Os(p,n)192Ir reaction: Comparison of reactor and cyclotron production of the therapeutic radionuclide 192Ir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgers, K; Sudár, S; Qaim, S M

    2005-07-01

    In a search for an alternative route of production of the important therapeutic radionuclide (192)Ir (T(1/2)=78.83 d), the excitation function of the reaction (192)Os(p,n)(192)Ir was investigated from its threshold up to 20 MeV. Thin samples of enriched (192)Os were obtained by electrodeposition on Ni, and the conventional stacked-foil technique was used for cross section measurements. The experimental data were compared with the results of theoretical calculations using the codes EMPIRE-II and ALICE-IPPE. Good agreement was found with EMPIRE-II, but slightly less with the ALICE-IPPE calculations. The theoretical thick target yield of (192)Ir over the energy range E(p)=16-->8 MeV amounts to only 0.16MBq/muA.h. A comparison of the reactor and cyclotron production methods is given. In terms of yield and radionuclidic purity of (192)Ir the reactor method appears to be superior; the only advantage of the cyclotron method could be the higher specific activity of the product.

  1. Experimental study and nuclear model calculations on the $^{192}Os (p, n)^{192}$Ir reaction Comparison of reactor and cyclotron production of the therapeutic radionuclide $^{192}$Ir

    CERN Document Server

    Hilgers, K; Sudar, S; 10.1016/j.apradiso.2004.12.010

    2005-01-01

    In a search for an alternative route of production of the important therapeutic radionuclide /sup 192/Ir (T/sub 1/2/=78.83 d), the excitation function of the reaction /sup 192/Os(p, n)/sup 192/Ir was investigated from its threshold up to 20MeV. Thin samples of enriched /sup 192/Os were obtained by electrodeposition on Ni, and the conventional stacked-foil technique was used for cross section measurements. The experimental data were compared with the results of theoretical calculations using the codes EMPIRE-II and ALICE-IPPE. Good agreement was found with EMPIRE-II, but slightly less with the ALICE-IPPE calculations. The theoretical thick target yield of /sup 192/Ir over the energy range E/sub p/=16 to 8MeV amounts to only 0.16MBq/ mu A.h. A comparison of the reactor and cyclotron production methods is given. In terms of yield and radionuclidic purity of /sup 192/Ir the reactor method appears to be superior; the only advantage of the cyclotron method could be the higher specific activity of the product.

  2. [Sedation using ketamine for pain procedures in Pediatric Oncology.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, C; Tichit, R; Troncin, R; Bernard, F

    2009-09-01

    Procedural sedation and analgesia for children is widely practiced. Since 2005 to 2007, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of ketamine to control pain induced by diagnostic procedures in pediatric oncology patients. Eight hundred fifty procedures were carried out in 125 patients aged 2 to 16 years. We associated EMNO (inhaled equimolar mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen), atropin (oral or rectal), midazolam (oral or rectal) and ketamin (intravenous). An anesthesiologist injected ketamin. Average dose of ketamine was 0.33 to 2 mg/kg depending on number and invasiveness of procedures. This method requires careful monitoring and proper precautions. With these conditions, no complication was observed. All patients were effectively sedated. These results indicate that ketamine - in association with EMNO, atropine and midazolam - is safe and effective in pain management induced by diagnostic procedures in pediatric oncology patients. The sedative regimen of intravenous ketamine has greatly reduced patient, family and practitioners anxiety for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

  3. [Diagnosis and therapy of pain in pediatric oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothmann, R; Göbel, U

    1986-01-01

    Pain in pediatric oncology must be taken care of after years of neglection. On an average of 62% of tumours pain is of therapeutic relevance. In cancer relapse and final states incidence of pain increases up to 90%. Treatment of acute pain is not difficult, chronic pain however affords a special procedure: individual dosage with optimal suppression of pain whole day long, often combination of different methods, will give sufficient longtime results. Around 4/5 of pediatric cancer pain can be treated by pharmacological regime using central and antiphlogistic analgesics. Additional methods are local anesthesia, transcutaneous nerve stimulation, physiotherapy, psychotherapy and seldom neurosurgical intervention. The optimal treatment of cancer pain is part of a consequent oncological procedure. Some more effort is necessary to reach the most possible quality of life in these children.

  4. Chemical probes targeting epigenetic proteins: Applications beyond oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackloo, Suzanne; Brown, Peter J; Müller, Susanne

    2017-05-04

    Epigenetic chemical probes are potent, cell-active, small molecule inhibitors or antagonists of specific domains in a protein; they have been indispensable for studying bromodomains and protein methyltransferases. The Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC), comprising scientists from academic and pharmaceutical laboratories, has generated most of the current epigenetic chemical probes. Moreover, the SGC has shared about 4 thousand aliquots of these probes, which have been used primarily for phenotypic profiling or to validate targets in cell lines or primary patient samples cultured in vitro. Epigenetic chemical probes have been critical tools in oncology research and have uncovered mechanistic insights into well-established targets, as well as identify new therapeutic starting points. Indeed, the literature primarily links epigenetic proteins to oncology, but applications in inflammation, viral, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases are now being reported. We summarize the literature of these emerging applications and provide examples where existing probes might be used.

  5. Oncological emergencies for the internist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An oncologic emergency is defined as any acute, potentially life-threatening event, either directly or indirectly related to a patient′s cancer (ca or its treatment. It requires rapid intervention to avoid death or severe permanent damage. Most oncologic emergencies can be classified as metabolic, hematologic, structural, or side effects from chemotherapy agents. Tumor lysis syndrome is a metabolic emergency that presents as severe electrolyte abnormalities. The condition is treated with aggressive hydration, allopurinol or urate oxidase to lower uric acid levels. Hypercalcemia of malignancy is treated with aggressive rehydration, furosemide, and intravenous (IV bisphosphonates. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone should be suspected if a patient with ca presents with normovolemic hyponatremia. This metabolic condition usually is treated with fluid restriction and furosemide. Febrile neutropenia is a hematologic emergency that usually requires inpatient therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics, although outpatient therapy may be appropriate for low-risk patients. Hyperviscosity syndrome usually is associated with Waldenstrφm′s macroglobulinemia, which is treated with plasmapheresis and chemotherapy. Structural oncologic emergencies are caused by direct compression of surrounding structures or by metastatic disease. Superior vena cava syndrome is the most common structural oncological emergency. Treatment options include chemotherapy, radiation, and IV stenting. Epidural spinal cord compression can be treated with dexamethasone, radiation, or surgery. Malignant pericardial effusion, which often is undiagnosed in ca patients, can be treated with pericardiocentesis or a pericardial window procedure.

  6. Telemedicine in oncology: European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Telemedicine in oncology or teleoncology integrates many so far well-known telemedicine elements such as teleconsultation, telesupport, telesurgery and telerobotics, teleeducation, and many others and is integral part of many disciplines such as internal medicine, surgery, dermatology, but also dentistry and psychooncology/psychiatry. Changes in ICT, new developments in oncology, the need to think and work interdisciplinarily, geographic and economic challenges as well as the transgression of sectoral boundaries as elements of modern teleoncology. Whereas the northern parts of Europe show a well-developed telemedicine infrastructure with a growing tendency to incorporate teleoncology for documentation, data analysis and quality assurance, in more southern countries this process is still underway and often marked by project status. Modern technology using xDSL and other terrestrial network lines but also satellite connectivity is at hand to cover a wide variety of telemedicine applications and services from which teleoncology benefits. More and more specifically designed software applications can be used to assess the medical workflow of an oncological patient and determine a life-long oncological electronic patient record. The trend, however, goes to the systemic integration of single applications and services into clinical information systems with a telemedicine approach. Although past evaluations of telemedicine applications and services have shown very positive results, only the right financial funding determines their survival and wide-spread usability in daily routine medical use. Formerly identifiable barriers for this use nowadays can be overcome more easily.

  7. Naturopathic Oncology Modified Delphi Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jacob; Hodsdon, Wendy; Schor, Jacob; McKinney, Neil; Rubin, Daniel; Seely, Dugald; Parmar, Gurdev; Birdsall, Tim; Alschuler, Lise; Lamson, Davis; Birdsall, Shauna; Zwickey, Heather

    2016-03-01

    Naturopathic oncology is a relatively new and emerging field capable of providing professional integrative or alternative services to cancer patients. Foundational research is critical to identify topics in the clinical and research development of naturopathic oncology for future growth of the field. This study implements a modified Delphi protocol to develop expert consensus regarding ethics, philosophy, and research development in naturopathic oncology. The modified protocol implements a nomination process to select a panel of 8 physicians and to assist in question formulation. The protocol includes an in-person discussion of 6 questions with multiple iterations to maintain the concept of the Delphi methodology as well as a postdiscussion consensus survey. The protocol identified, ranked, and established consensus for numerous themes per question. Underlying key topics include integration with conventional medicine, evidence-based medicine, patient education, patient safety, and additional training requirements for naturopathic oncologists. The systematic nomination and questioning of a panel of experts provides a foundational and educational resource to assist in clarification of clinical ethics, philosophy, and research development in the emerging field of naturopathic oncology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Proceedings of 2nd Korea-China Congress of Nuclear Medicine and the Korean Society Nuclear Medicine Spring Meeting 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This proceedings contains articles of 2nd Korea-China Congress of Nuclear Medicine and 2000 spring meeting of the Korean Society Nuclear Medicine. It was held on May 17-19, 2000 in Seoul, Korean. This proceedings is comprised of 6 sessions. The subject titles of session are as follows: general nuclear medicine, neurology, oncology, radiopharmacy and biology, nuclear cardiology, nuclear cardiology: physics and instrumentation and so on. (Yi, J. H.)

  9. [Acute renal failure in paediatric oncological disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanowicz, Joanna; Maciejka-Kapuścińska, Lucyna; Rückemann-Dziurdzińska, Katarzyna; Drozyńska-Duklas, Magdalena; Zurowska, Aleksandra; Balcerska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) in children with malignancies is a rare clinical situation, but nonetheless it is a serious life threatening condition. It may arise from different clinical situations and may be caused by various factors. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency, aetiology and the course of ARF in children treated for malignancies in the Department of Pediatrics, Hematology, Oncology and Endocrinology, Medical University of Gdansk. A group of 586 pediatric oncology patients treated between 1992 and 2004 were enrolled in a retrospective study. ARF was diagnosed in 29 cases including: 12 patients with prerenal course of ARF (11 due to septic shock and 1 due to dehydration), 16 patients with intrinsic renal aetiology of ARF (as a complication after cisplatinum and carboplatinum therapy in 2 children, in 2 cases after methotrexate, as a consequence of bilateral nephrectomy due to nephroblastoma in 1 patient and in 11 children with tumour lysis syndrome, including 5 patients with neoplasmatic infiltration of kidneys) and postrenal ARF in 1 patient as a first symptom of a tumour located in the small pelvis (Rhabdomyosarcoma). Renal replacement therapy (dialysis) was necessary in 11 children. Among 29 analysed children, in 20 cases renal failure was reversible. Due to appropriate treatment, ARF in course of tumour lysis syndrome is nowadays reversible. ARF due to septic shock or cytostatics nephrotoxicity is a significant therapeutic problem. In most of the cases it is irreversible. 1. ARF in these studies occurred in 29 out of 586 children with malignancies (4.9%). 2. Prerenal and renal ARF were the most frequent forms. 3. Implementation of tumour lysis prophylaxis in the treatment of children with blood system proliferative diseases reduces the incidence of ARF. 4. In cases of ARF in children's malignancies close cooperation between paediatric oncologist and nephrologist is necessary.

  10. Relative biological effectiveness of the 60-MeV therapeutic proton beam at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (IFJ PAN) in Kraków, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słonina, Dorota; Biesaga, Beata; Swakoń, Jan; Kabat, Damian; Grzanka, Leszek; Ptaszkiewicz, Marta; Sowa, Urszula

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of a 60-MeV proton radiotherapy beam at the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN) in Kraków, the first one to operate in Poland. RBE was assessed at the surviving fractions (SFs) of 0.01, 0.1, and 0.37, for normal human fibroblasts from three cancer patients. The cells were irradiated near the Bragg peak of the pristine beam and at three depths within a 28.4-mm spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). Reference radiation was provided by 6-MV X-rays. The mean RBE value at SF = 0.01 for fibroblasts irradiated near the Bragg peak of pristine beam ranged between 1.06 and 1.15. The mean RBE values at SF = 0.01 for these cells exposed at depths of 2, 15, and 27 mm of the SOBP ranged between 0.95-1.00, 0.97-1.02, and 1.05-1.11, respectively. A trend was observed for RBE values to increase with survival level and with depth in the SOBP: at SF = 0.37 and at the depth of 27 mm, RBE values attained their maximum (1.19-1.24). The RBE values estimated at SF = 0.01 using normal human fibroblasts for the 60-MeV proton radiotherapy beam at the IFJ PAN in Kraków are close to values of 1.0 and 1.1, used in clinical practice.

  11. [Glamour and poverty of oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorlícek, J

    2004-10-01

    The problematics of oncology is staying at the fore of the health problems in our republic. Every third of us falls ill with malignant tumour and every fourth dies of it. There were 37,000 malignant tumours diagnosed in our republic in 1977, in 1999 it was 59,500 and the amount is expected to increase up to 70,000 in 2004. Our results regarding the relative 5-year survival of the patients with all the oncologic diagnoses from 15 to 44 years are below European average. The most frequent tumour is lung cancer and bronchial cancer in males, breast cancer in females and the most frequent malignant tumour in both sexes is the colorectal cancer, the absolute rate of which has unambiguously the leading position. Czech republic stands at the forefront in Europe as for the incidence of all the tumours except the skin tumours. Among all the European males it is just Czech males who have a large probability of colorectal cancer. Moreover, regarding malignant renal cancer our republic is in the first position in both males and females. What do these epidemiologic dates imply? The risk of the development of malignant disease imminently endangers each of us. For Czech republic the malignant disease constitutes a big load as personal hardship and disability, increased need for hospital bed capacities and consequent increased economic costs. In 2003, the Czech oncologic society of Czech medical company of J. E. Purkyne created the National oncologic programme (NOP) of the Czech republic. Further there are named its aims, strategy and tasks. In the conclusion we mention what is the "glamour" and the "poverty" of oncology.

  12. 19. Brazilian congress on biology and nuclear medicine; 19. Congresso brasileiro de biologia e medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The issue contain 97 abstracts of 19 Brazilian congress on biology and nuclear medicine held in Pernambuco, Brazil, from November 4 to 8, 1998. The subjects addressed are diagnostic and therapy nuclear medicine techniques, especially scintiscanning, SPECT and PET and their uses. The main topics were as follows: cardiology, neuro-psychiatry, oncology, endocrinology, radiopharmacy, infectious diseases, radiobiology and others.

  13. Pediatric Oncology Branch - Psychosocial Support and Research Program-Educational Materials | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Resources The Pediatric Oncology Branch has produced a number of educational and therapeutic materials to help the children we serve learn about their condition and cope with the challenges they might face as a result of their illness. If you are interested in any of these resources, contact Lori Wiener, Ph.D., at wienerl@mail.nih.gov.

  14. PET/MR in oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balyasnikova, Svetlana; Löfgren, Johan; de Nijs, Robin

    2012-01-01

    After more than 20 years of research, a fully integrated PET/MR scanner was launched in 2010 enabling simultaneous acquisition of PET and MR imaging. Currently, no clinical indication for combined PET/MR has been established, however the expectations are high. In this paper we will discuss some...... of the challenges inherent in this new technology, but focus on potential applications for simultaneous PET/MR in the field of oncology. Methods and tracers for use with the PET technology will be familiar to most readers of this journal; thus this paper aims to provide a short and basic introduction to a number...... be applied together with PET increasing the amount of information about the tissues of interest. The potential clinical benefit of applying PET/MR in staging, radiotherapy planning and treatment evaluation in oncology, as well as the research perspectives for the use of PET/MR in the development of new...

  15. [Comorbidity oriented oncology - an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanek, Ralph; Wuensch, Michael; Edlinger, Roland; Hammerl-Ferrari, Bernhard; Kramer, Ludwig; Geissler, Klaus

    2010-04-01

    Increasing life expectancy results in an increased number of elderly cancer patients. Comorbidities and functional impairment influence the patient's course of disease and the choice of antineoplastic treatment. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) supports the appraisal of the patient's individual health characteristics, especially due to the fact that chronologic age does not always correlate with the patient's health. Next to the appraisal of comorbidities and functional impairment, nutritional state, cognitive impairment, psychological state, social support, quality of life and the patient's medication are recorded. The Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) recommends the CGA in cancer patients older than seventy years. While planning a systemic antineoplastic therapy, renal, hepatic, cardiac and bone marrow insufficiencies have to be considered. Renal and hepatic impairment often cause in dose reduced antineoplastic treatment, whereas in patients with cardiac insufficiency liposomale substances and in patients with decreased bone marrow function growth factors are available. Additionally to the oncological treatment, an early involvement of palliative care specialists should be considered.

  16. PET/MR in oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balyasnikova, Svetlana; Löfgren, Johan; de Nijs, Robin

    2012-01-01

    be applied together with PET increasing the amount of information about the tissues of interest. The potential clinical benefit of applying PET/MR in staging, radiotherapy planning and treatment evaluation in oncology, as well as the research perspectives for the use of PET/MR in the development of new......After more than 20 years of research, a fully integrated PET/MR scanner was launched in 2010 enabling simultaneous acquisition of PET and MR imaging. Currently, no clinical indication for combined PET/MR has been established, however the expectations are high. In this paper we will discuss some...... of the challenges inherent in this new technology, but focus on potential applications for simultaneous PET/MR in the field of oncology. Methods and tracers for use with the PET technology will be familiar to most readers of this journal; thus this paper aims to provide a short and basic introduction to a number...

  17. A model for rural oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heifetz, Laurence J; Christensen, Scott D; Devere-White, Ralph W; Meyers, Fredrick J

    2011-05-01

    Small rural hospitals in the United States have had challenging issues developing sustainable oncology programs. This is a report on the development of a successful rural oncology program. In 2006, the Tahoe Forest Health System in Truckee, CA, a remote mountain resort town, started a cancer program that was focused on addressing patient and family fears that are common to all cancer patients but more frightening in the rural setting. Four years later, it is a thriving program with significant community support, a creative academic affiliation, and a central focus of the future of the hospital. The Tahoe Forest Cancer Center developed a sustainable model for high quality cancer care that overcomes geographic, cultural and financial barriers. This structure may serve as a model for national rural health care.

  18. Does Cancer Literature Reflect Multidisciplinary Practice? A Systematic Review of Oncology Studies in the Medical Literature Over a 20-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Emma B; Ahmed, Awad A; Yoo, Stella K; Jagsi, Reshma; Hoffman, Karen E

    2015-07-15

    Quality cancer care is best delivered through a multidisciplinary approach requiring awareness of current evidence for all oncologic specialties. The highest impact journals often disseminate such information, so the distribution and characteristics of oncology studies by primary intervention (local therapies, systemic therapies, and targeted agents) were evaluated in 10 high-impact journals over a 20-year period. Articles published in 1994, 2004, and 2014 in New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet Oncology, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, Radiotherapy and Oncology, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, Annals of Surgical Oncology, and European Journal of Surgical Oncology were identified. Included studies were prospectively conducted and evaluated a therapeutic intervention. A total of 960 studies were included: 240 (25%) investigated local therapies, 551 (57.4%) investigated systemic therapies, and 169 (17.6%) investigated targeted therapies. More local therapy trials (n=185 [77.1%]) evaluated definitive, primary treatment than systemic (n=178 [32.3%]) or targeted therapy trials (n=38 [22.5%]; Pliterature. Further research and attention are necessary to guide efforts promoting appropriate representation of all oncology studies in high-impact, broad-readership journals. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Nuclear medicine for photodynamic therapy in cancer: Planning, monitoring and nuclear PDT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharroubi Lakouas, Dris; Huglo, Damien; Mordon, Serge; Vermandel, Maximilien

    2017-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a modality with promising results for the treatment of various cancers. PDT is increasingly included in the standard of care for different pathologies. This therapy relies on the effects of light delivered to photosensitized cells. At different stages of delivery, PDT requires imaging to plan, evaluate and monitor treatment. The contribution of molecular imaging in this context is important and continues to increase. In this article, we review the contribution of nuclear medicine imaging in oncology to PDT for planning and therapeutic monitoring purposes. Several solutions have been proposed to plan PDT from nuclear medicine imaging. For instance, photosensitizer biodistribution has been evaluated with a radiolabeled photosensitizer or with conventional radiopharmaceuticals on positron emission tomography. The effects of PDT delivery have also been explored with specific SPECT or PET radiopharmaceuticals to evaluate the effects on cells (apoptosis, necrosis, proliferation, metabolism) or vascular damage. Finally, the synergy between photosensitizers and radiopharmaceuticals has been studied considering the Cerenkov effect to activate photosensitized cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Interventional Radiology and the Care of the Oncology Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan B. O'Neill

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Interventional Radiology (IR is occupying an increasingly prominent role in the care of patients with cancer, with involvement from initial diagnosis, right through to minimally invasive treatment of the malignancy and its complications. Adequate diagnostic samples can be obtained under image guidance by percutaneous biopsy and needle aspiration in an accurate and minimally invasive manner. IR techniques may be used to place central venous access devices with well-established safety and efficacy. Therapeutic applications of IR in the oncology patient include local tumour treatments such as transarterial chemo-embolisation and radiofrequency ablation, as well as management of complications of malignancy such as pain, organ obstruction, and venous thrombosis.

  1. Generalities of the oncological pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah María Regueira Betancourt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer pain can be caused by a malignant tumor, by the therapy used to treat it, or by both causes. It begins with an acute onset that goes towards healing or chronicity. Together with the manifestations of a chronic pain, acute episodes may appear. A bibliographic study was carried out on the oncological pain, using the resources available in the Infomed network, specifically Ebsco, The Cochrane Librery, PubMed, Hinari and SciELO, by means of which the following databases were accessed: MEDLINE, AcademicSearch Premier and MedicLatina. The presence of pain in an oncological process is variable and it depends on the type and extension of the disease, as well as on each person's own individual tolerance. The terminal intense oncological pain is a circumstance both foreseeable and necessarily avoidable. Its relief is a priority in the cancer program of the World Health Organization. To know the classification of pain, its causes, the assessment scales and the way in which it may be described provides a comprehensive treatment for cancer pain. It also helps to optimize the comprehensive care to the patients suffering from this condition and improve their quality of life.

  2. Ready for a comeback of natural products in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Christian

    2009-05-01

    Since the late 1990s and the rapid expansion of monoclonal antibodies and synthetic protein kinase inhibitors in oncology, anticancer natural products fell out of fashion with the pharmaceutical industry. But in 2007 with the approval of three new drugs derived from natural products, the emergence of promising antitumor compounds from microorganisms (e.g. alvespimycin, salinosporamide) and the growing importance of new formulations of known natural product-derived drugs (nanoparticle formulations, oral forms), we are witnessing a new wave for natural products in oncology. The recent approval of the microtubule-targeted epothilone derivative ixabepilone (Ixempra), the DNA-alkylating marine alkaloid trabectedin (Yondelis) and the inhibitor of mTOR protein kinase temsirolimus (Torisel) is emblematic of the evolution of the field which combines the long established finding of conventional cytotoxic agents and the emergence of molecularly targeted therapeutics. These three examples also illustrate the increasing importance of microbial sources for the discovery of medically useful natural products. The contribution of innovative biological targets is also highlighted here, with references to proteasome inhibitors and novel approaches such as manipulation of mRNA splicing. Altogether, these observations plead for the return of natural products in oncology.

  3. A framework for prescription in exercise-oncology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, John P; Eves, Neil D; Christensen, Jesper F; Koelwyn, Graeme J; Scott, Jessica; Jones, Lee W

    2015-06-01

    The field of exercise-oncology has increased dramatically over the past two decades, with close to 100 published studies investigating the efficacy of structured exercise training interventions in patients with cancer. Of interest, despite considerable differences in study population and primary study end point, the vast majority of studies have tested the efficacy of an exercise prescription that adhered to traditional guidelines consisting of either supervised or home-based endurance (aerobic) training or endurance training combined with resistance training, prescribed at a moderate intensity (50-75% of a predetermined physiological parameter, typically age-predicted heart rate maximum or reserve), for two to three sessions per week, for 10 to 60 min per exercise session, for 12 to 15 weeks. The use of generic exercise prescriptions may, however, be masking the full therapeutic potential of exercise treatment in the oncology setting. Against this background, this opinion paper provides an overview of the fundamental tenets of human exercise physiology known as the principles of training, with specific application of these principles in the design and conduct of clinical trials in exercise-oncology research. We contend that the application of these guidelines will ensure continued progress in the field while optimizing the safety and efficacy of exercise treatment following a cancer diagnosis. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society of Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  4. A framework for prescription in exercise-oncology research†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, John P; Eves, Neil D; Christensen, Jesper F; Koelwyn, Graeme J; Scott, Jessica; Jones, Lee W

    2015-01-01

    The field of exercise-oncology has increased dramatically over the past two decades, with close to 100 published studies investigating the efficacy of structured exercise training interventions in patients with cancer. Of interest, despite considerable differences in study population and primary study end point, the vast majority of studies have tested the efficacy of an exercise prescription that adhered to traditional guidelines consisting of either supervised or home-based endurance (aerobic) training or endurance training combined with resistance training, prescribed at a moderate intensity (50–75% of a predetermined physiological parameter, typically age-predicted heart rate maximum or reserve), for two to three sessions per week, for 10 to 60 min per exercise session, for 12 to 15 weeks. The use of generic exercise prescriptions may, however, be masking the full therapeutic potential of exercise treatment in the oncology setting. Against this background, this opinion paper provides an overview of the fundamental tenets of human exercise physiology known as the principles of training, with specific application of these principles in the design and conduct of clinical trials in exercise-oncology research. We contend that the application of these guidelines will ensure continued progress in the field while optimizing the safety and efficacy of exercise treatment following a cancer diagnosis. PMID:26136187

  5. Industry progress report on neuro-oncology: a biotech update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Jessica S; Banu, Matei A; Ray, Ashley; Kesavabhotla, Kartik; Boockvar, John A

    2013-04-01

    With steadily rising revenue and large numbers of clinical trials utilizing novel treatment strategies, the field of neuro-oncology is at the core of the growing cancer therapy industry. In June 2012, the Weill Cornell Brain and Tumor Center hosted the first Brain Tumor Biotech Summit as a forum for fostering and encouraging collaboration between researches and investors to accelerate novel treatments for brain cancer. This event brought together neuro-oncologists, neurosurgeons, academicians, entrepreneurs, non-profits, CEOs and investors in an attempt to bring innovative treatments and concepts to the fore. Specific subjects presented at the meeting included new surgical devices and delivery techniques, targeted therapeutics, immunotherapy, and stem cell biology. The mission of the summit was to provide opportunities for researchers in neuro-oncology to directly interact with leaders from the investment community with insight into the commercial aspects of our work. Our shared goal is to shorten the time for basic science ideas to be translated into the clinical setting. The following serves as a progress report on the biotech industry in neuro-oncology, as presented at the Brain Tumor Biotech Summit.

  6. Partial laryngectomy in glottic cancer: complications and oncological results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graciano, Agnaldo José; Sonagli, Marina; da Silva, Ana Gabriela Clemente; Fischer, Carlos Augusto; Chone, Carlos Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with laryngeal carcinoma present tumors in the glottis that can be treated by different treatment modalities. Some authors consider open partial laryngectomy as obsolete, while others still deem this as a viable and cost-efficient option. To compare the oncological and functional results of a series of patients undergoing partial laryngectomy vs. external radiotherapy for the treatment of glottic cancer. Historical cohort study with a series of glottic carcinoma patients undergoing partial laryngectomy or external radiotherapy during a period of ten years. Sixty-two patients with glottic carcinoma were included. Group A comprised those submitted to partial laryngectomy (n=30), and Group B, those who underwent radiotherapy (n=32). They were homogeneous in the comparison of mean age, 56.4 vs. 60.4 years (p=0.12) and distribution in pathological stage (p=0.91). With regard to oncological outcome, there were no differences in distant metastasis rates, or second primary tumor between groups (p=1.0), as well as in disease-free time, laryngeal rescue-free time, and overall five-year survival. Severe complication rates were also similar between groups. Open partial laryngectomy had complication rates and oncological results similar to those of radiotherapy for patients with glottic carcinomas and should still be considered among the main available therapeutic options. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. A Primer on Health Economic Evaluations in Thoracic Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Melanie D; Atherly, Adam J; Bocsi, Gregary T; Camidge, D Ross

    2016-08-01

    There is growing interest for economic evaluation in oncology to illustrate the value of multiple new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. As these analyses have started to move from specialist publications into mainstream medical literature, the wider medical audience consuming this information may need additional education to evaluate it appropriately. Here we review standard practices in economic evaluation, illustrating the different methods with thoracic oncology examples where possible. When interpreting and conducting health economic studies, it is important to appraise the method, perspective, time horizon, modeling technique, discount rate, and sensitivity analysis. Guidance on how to do this is provided. To provide a method to evaluate this literature, a literature search was conducted in spring 2015 to identify economic evaluations published in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology. Articles were reviewed for their study design, and areas for improvement were noted. Suggested improvements include using more rigorous sensitivity analyses, adopting a standard approach to reporting results, and conducting complete economic evaluations. Researchers should design high-quality studies to ensure the validity of the results, and consumers of this research should interpret these studies critically on the basis of a full understanding of the methodologies used before considering any of the conclusions. As advancements occur on both the research and consumer sides, this literature can be further developed to promote the best use of resources for this field. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Definition and outline on geriatric oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terret, C; Droz, J-P

    2009-11-01

    Geriatric oncology is the concept for management of elderly cancer patients. It is an equal approach of the health status problems and of cancer in a patient considered as a whole. Therefore it is not a subspecialty but a practice which can be translated in the elderly cancer patient's care. The treatment of cancer is based on the same principles than this of younger patients; recommendations used are those of the scientific oncological societies. Health problems of elderly patients are screened by specific tools. Patients without major health problems are managed by the oncological team in the routine; those for whom screening have demonstrated problems are first evaluated in the geriatrics setting and then oncological decisions are adapted to the patient situation. Decisions are made in specific geriatric oncology conferences. Specific clinical trials are required to build an Evidence Based Medicine background. Geriatric oncology teaching programs are warranted. (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Palliative Care: Delivering Comprehensive Oncology Nursing Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Constance

    2015-11-01

    To describe palliative care as part of comprehensive oncology nursing care. A review of the palliative care, oncology, and nursing literature over the past 10 years. Palliative care is mandated as part of comprehensive cancer care. A cancer diagnosis often results in distress in the physical, psychosocial, spiritual, and emotional domains of care. Oncology nurses are essential in providing palliative care from diagnosis to death to patients with cancer. They address the myriad aspects of cancer. With palliative care skills and knowledge, oncology nurses can provide quality cancer care. There are many opportunities in which oncology nurses can promote palliative care. Oncology nurses must obtain knowledge and skills in primary palliative care to provide comprehensive cancer care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. AMCP Partnership Forum: Driving Value and Outcomes in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Innovation in cancer treatment has provided a wealth of recently available therapeutic agents and a healthy drug pipeline that promises to change the way we approach this disease and the lives of those affected in the years to come. However, the majority of these new agents, many of which are targeted to specific genomic features of various tumors, may challenge the health care system's ability to afford cancer care. This innovation drives the need to focus on the value of the treatments provided to patients with cancer and on methods to optimize the efficiency of the dollars we spend, in addition to the clinical value itself. The Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy (AMCP) convened a Partnership Forum to address how to improve value and outcomes in cancer care. In this multistakeholder forum, several areas were addressed: current methods for assessing the value of oncology products, the need for balancing population management with precision medicine, and the outlook for value-based contracting for oncology medications in managed care settings. Participants recommended ways in which stakeholders can work toward solutions in these areas. The forum brought together stakeholders from health plans, integrated delivery systems, pharmacy benefit managers, clinical practice, biopharmaceutical industry, and laboratory companies. Also participating were representatives from trade and professional associations. During this 1.5-day forum, participants identified current challenges, readiness, and ways to address value and improve outcomes in cancer therapy. Some of the challenges identified include choosing a viable (and practical) outcome target for value-based contracting in oncology, the development and use of value frameworks and clinical pathways, managing cancer diagnostics, utilization of alternative payment systems, moving from a large evidence base to a small clinical trial base in considering targeted treatments, and lack of best practices in value-based payment

  11. Familial cancer in an oncology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, W A; Lynch, H T; Recabaren, J A; Organ, C H; Mailliard, J A; Black, L E; Follett, K L; Lynch, J

    1981-05-01

    Knowledge of cancer genetics provides the physician with a powerful tool for the recognition of patients who might profit from highly targeted cancer surveillance/management programs. Family history was evaluated by registered nurses on 565 consecutively ascertained patients with verified cancer from Creighton's Oncology Clinic. This initial assessment yielded 199 (35.5%) families with two more family members with cancer (all sites) within an informative nuclear component, which constituted parents, grandparents, aunts/uncles, siblings, and children. One or more of the operational criteria for cancer familiality, namely vertical transmission of cancer, bilaterality, and/or multiple primaries, early age of onset, and three or more site specific cancers, were found on physician review in 171 (30.5%) of the families. This group was referred for comprehensive cancer genetic evaluation consisting of pedigree extension and tumor verification through all second degree, and when possible, third degree relatives. It was determined that approximately 4% of the total clinic population demonstrated findings compatible with hereditary cancer syndromes. Its universal extension in clinical practice is advocated because of the potential yield from meticulous surveillance for cancer of highly targeted organs in such high-risk kindreds, as well as the economy and general case of obtaining detailed family history by registered nurses. The physician is able, therefore, to devote his primary effort toward pedigree analysis and syndrome identification.

  12. Applications of coxsackievirus A21 in oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Stephen; Jakes, Adam D; Harrington, Kevin; Pandha, Hardev; Melcher, Alan; Errington-Mais, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    The clinical management of cancer continues to be dominated by macroscopic surgical resection, radiotherapy, and cytotoxic drugs. The major challenge facing oncology is to achieve more selective, less toxic and effective methods of targeting disseminated tumors, a challenge oncolytic virotherapy may be well-placed to meet. Characterization of coxsackievirus A21 (CVA21) receptor-based mechanism of virus internalization and lysis in the last decade has suggested promise for CVA21 as a virotherapy against malignancies which overexpress those receptors. Preclinical studies have demonstrated proof of principle, and with the results of early clinical trials awaited, CVA21 may be one of the few viruses to demonstrate benefit for patients. This review outlines the potential of CVA21 as an oncolytic agent, describing the therapeutic development of CVA21 in preclinical studies and early stage clinical trials. Preclinical evidence supports the potential use of CVA21 across a range of malignancies. Malignant melanoma is the most intensively studied cancer, and may represent a “test case” for future development of the virus. Although there are theoretical barriers to the clinical utility of oncolytic viruses like CVA21, whether these will block the efficacy of the virus in clinical practice remains to be established, and is a question which can only be answered by appropriate trials. As these data become available, the rapid journey of CVA21 from animal studies to clinical trials may offer a model for the translation of other oncolytic virotherapies from laboratory to clinic. PMID:27512662

  13. Theranostic applications of antibodies in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuren, Emmy D G; Versleijen-Jonkers, Yvonne M H; Heskamp, Sandra; van Herpen, Carla M L; Oyen, Wim J G; van der Graaf, Winette T A; Boerman, Otto C

    2014-06-01

    Targeted therapies, including antibodies, are becoming increasingly important in cancer therapy. Important limitations, however, are that not every patient benefits from a specific antibody therapy and that responses could be short-lived due to acquired resistance. In addition, targeted therapies are quite expensive and are not completely devoid of side-effects. This urges the need for accurate patient selection and response monitoring. An important step towards personalizing antibody treatment could be the implementation of theranostics. Antibody theranostics combine the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of an antibody, thereby selecting those patients who are most likely to benefit from antibody treatment. This review focuses on the clinical application of theranostic antibodies in oncology. It provides detailed information concerning the suitability of antibodies for theranostics, the different types of theranostic tests available and summarizes the efficacy of theranostic antibodies used in current clinical practice. Advanced theranostic applications, including radiolabeled antibodies for non-invasive functional imagining, are also addressed. Finally, we discuss the importance of theranostics in the emerging field of personalized medicine and critically evaluate recent data to determine the best way to apply antibody theranostics in the future. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nanoparticles in oncology: the new theragnostic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Alessandro; Penna, Giuseppa; Alonci, Andrea; Rizzo, Vincenzo; Russo, Sabina; Musolino, Caterina

    2011-09-01

    Cancer nanotherapeutics have shown promise in resolving some of the limitations of conventional drug delivery systems such as nonspecific biodistribution and targeting, lack of water solubility, low therapeutic indices, and poor oral bioavailability. Moreover, cancer nanotechnology has the potential of improving current approaches to cancer detection, diagnosis, and imaging. Recently, nanotechnology and molecular imaging have been combined to generate nanoparticles that simultaneously facilitate cancer therapy and diagnosis, the so called theragnostic nanoparticles. The aim of our review is to highlight recent developments within the context of the current knowledge of nanotechnology, to recall the experimental steps that have brought to the clinical development and application of nanoparticles, and explain the biological rationale for their use with oncologic patients. In particular, we summarize recent findings with respect to possible new applications for therapy and diagnosis, and their specific properties. Moreover, we report the more recent prospects in gene therapy, the possibility of using new drug delivery methods, the action of nanoparticles on the immune system and apoptosis, and the concrete possibility of detecting and characterizing circulating tumor cells or of developing new technologies in drug discovery.

  15. Graduate education in oncology nursing for minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houldin, Arlene D; Reville, Barbara; Boland, Barbara A; Jacobs, Linda A; Hayes, Sandra L

    2002-01-01

    Cancer statistics reveal disturbing morbidity and mortality rates among minorities, especially African Americans. A program to recruit and train minority nurses as Oncology Advanced Practice Nurses was developed at the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing. Since 1992, 30 African American, five Asian/Pacific Islander, and five Hispanic nurses have been supported during advanced oncology nursing study. Graduates have assumed positions of clinical and academic leadership in oncology nursing. This project strengthened the ability of a graduate program in oncology nursing to respond to needs related to the education of minority students and to the care of minority populations with cancer.

  16. Oncology patient-reported claims: maximising the chance for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, H; Rofail, D; Caron, M; Emery, M-P

    2011-01-01

    To review Patient Reported Outcome (PRO) labelling claims achieved in oncology in Europe and in the United States and consider the benefits, and challenges faced. PROLabels database was searched to identify oncology products with PRO labelling approved in Europe since 1995 or in the United States since 1998. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) websites and guidance documents were reviewed. PUBMED was searched for articles on PRO claims in oncology. Among all oncology products approved, 22 were identified with PRO claims; 10 in the United States, 7 in Europe, and 5 in both. The language used in the labelling was limited to benefit (e.g. "…resulted in symptom benefits by significantly prolonging time to deterioration in cough, dyspnoea, and pain, versus placebo") and equivalence (e.g. "no statistical differences were observed between treatment groups for global QoL"). Seven products used a validated HRQoL tool; two used symptom tools; two used both; seven used single-item symptom measures (one was unknown). The following emerged as likely reasons for success: ensuring systematic PRO data collection; clear rationale for pre-specified endpoints; adequately powered trials to detect differences and clinically significant changes; adjusting for multiplicity; developing an a priori statistical analysis plan including primary and subgroup analyses, dealing with missing data, pooling multiple-site data; establishing clinical versus statistical significance; interpreting failure to detect change. End-stage patient drop-out rates and cessation of trials due to exceptional therapeutic benefit pose significant challenges to demonstrating treatment PRO improvement. PRO labelling claims demonstrate treatment impact and the trade-off between efficacy and side effects ultimately facilitating product differentiation. Reliable and valid instruments specific to the desired language, claim, and target population are required. Practical

  17. Therapeutic Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen; Ruegsegger, Mark; Barnes, Philip; Smith, Bryan; Ferrari, Mauro

    Therapeutic nanotechnology offers minimally invasive therapies with high densities of function concentrated in small volumes, features that may reduce patient morbidity and mortality. Unlike other areas of nanotechnology, novel physical properties associated with nanoscale dimensionality are not the raison d'être of therapeutic nanotechnology, whereas the aggregation of multiple biochemical (or comparably precise) functions into controlled nanoarchitectures is. Multifunctionality is a hallmark of emerging nanotherapeutic devices, and multifunctionality can allow nanotherapeutic devices to perform multistep work processes, with each functional component contributing to one or more nanodevice subroutine such that, in aggregate, subroutines sum to a cogent work process. Cannonical nanotherapeutic subroutines include tethering (targeting) to sites of disease, dispensing measured doses of drug (or bioactive compound), detection of residual disease after therapy and communication with an external clinician/operator. Emerging nanotherapeutics thus blur the boundaries between medical devices and traditional pharmaceuticals. Assembly of therapeutic nanodevices generally exploits either (bio)material self-assembly properties or chemoselective bioconjugation techniques, or both. Given the complexity, composition, and the necessity for their tight chemical and structural definition inherent in the nature of nanotherapeutics, their cost of goods (COGs) might exceed that of (already expensive) biologics. Early therapeutic nanodevices will likely be applied to disease states which exhibit significant unmet patient need (cancer and cardiovascular disease), while application to other disease states well-served by conventional therapy may await perfection of nanotherapeutic design and assembly protocols.

  18. 78 FR 25304 - Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On-Site Leased Workers From Source Right Solutions, Concord, California, Now Located... 5, 2012, applicable to workers of Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems...

  19. 76 FR 58520 - Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of the Oncologic Drugs... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Pediatric Oncology Subcommittee of...

  20. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  1. The therapeutic effect and mechanism of niacin on acute lung injury in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock: Down-regulation of the reactive oxygen species-dependent nuclear factor κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ki Young; Suh, Gil Joon; Kwon, Woon Yong; Kim, Kyung Su; Jung, Yoon Sun; Kye, Yu Chan

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the protective effect of niacin on acute lung injury by the down-regulation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway in hemorrhagic shock (HS) rats. HS was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by withdrawing blood to maintain a mean arterial pressure of 20 mm Hg to 25 mm Hg for 40 minutes. The rats were resuscitated by the reinfusion of the drawn blood, and a vehicle (HS), a low-dose of niacin (360 mg/kg, HS + LD-NA), or a high dose of niacin (1,080 mg/kg, HS + HD-NA) were administered orally. The survival of the subjects was observed for 72 hours, and a separate set of animals was killed at 6 hours after HS induction. We measured cytoplasmic phosphorylated inhibitor κB-α and inhibitor κB-α expressions, nuclear NF-κB p65 expression, NF-κB p65 DNA-binding activity, MEK partner 1 activity, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced glutathione, glutathione disulfide, malondialdehyde levels, and histologic damage in the lung tissue. We also measured TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 levels in the serum. The survival rates of the sham, HS, HS + LD-NA, and HS + HD-NA groups were 6 of 6 (100%), 0 of 9 (0%), 1 of 9 (11.1%), and 3 of 9 (33.3%), respectively. A high dose of niacin increased lung NAD+, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate levels, and glutathione-glutathione disulfide ratios; decreased lung malondialdehyde levels; down-regulated the NF-κB pathway; suppressed TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 levels in the lung tissue and serum; and attenuated histologic lung damage. A high dose of niacin attenuated lung inflammation, suppressed proinflammatory cytokine release, reduced histologic lung damage, and improved survival after HS in rats. Its therapeutic benefits were associated with the down-regulation of the reactive oxygen species-dependent NF-κB pathway.

  2. [Burn out syndrome in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraub, Simon; Marx, E

    2004-09-01

    SEPS or burnout syndrome was described among health care workers. Oncology care givers--physicians and nurses--can be concerned. Burnout is a chronical stress reaction. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation are more prevalent than low personal accomplishment. Burnout is essentially assessed by questionnaires. Oncologists report an higher level of burnout, than AIDS medical or palliative care staff. Causes of burn out are numerous: insufficient personal time, sense of failure,... followed by poorly management and difficulties in staff or institution relationships. Prevention and therapy of burn out can be considered on three levels: personal, (psychotherapy, advices on health way of life), team (improvement in communication) and institution (support meetings and talking groups).

  3. Personalised medicine in veterinary oncology: one to cure just one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopfleisch, R

    2015-08-01

    The term 'personalised medicine' is frequently used when modern medicine or the future of medicine is being described. Although the term basically implies that patients are individuals and should be treated as such, its modern meaning embraces a major leap by combining diagnostics and therapy. Thus, personalised medicine as presently understood seeks mainly to improve the effectiveness of therapeutic measures by tailoring therapy protocols according to the molecular genotype and phenotype of the individual patient. This has been facilitated by the introduction of new technologies such as next generation sequencing and proteome analysis, which has demonstrated that each tumour is much more distinctive than previously thought. Nevertheless, bioinformatics and experimental assays suggest that only a restricted number of driver genes or molecular pathways contribute to the development of most tumours. So, while tumour genomes have not yet been analysed in veterinary oncology, studies focused on mRNA expression and proteomic profiles of (mainly canine) tumours have already provided clinically relevant biomarkers and gene expression patterns. These data may be the start point for personalised approaches in veterinary oncology leading to better efficacy and safety of therapeutic protocols. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Possibly impossible patients: management of difficult behavior in oncology outpatients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peteet, John R; Meyer, Fremonta L; Miovic, Michael K

    2011-01-01

    .... We offer oncology clinicians guidance in dealing with difficult outpatients by discussing the differential diagnosis and multidisciplinary management of treatment-disrupting behavior in the ambulatory oncology...

  5. Multicentre study of Wilm's tumours treated by different therapeutic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) have helped to improve the clinical management and outcome of patients with Wilm's tumours. In this study, we compared three groups of patients with Wilm's tumours from different racial backgrounds and therapeutic strategies. Patients and methods A clinicopathological ...

  6. A Comprehensive Definition for Integrative Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Claudia M; Balneaves, Lynda G; Cardoso, Maria J; Cohen, Lorenzo; Greenlee, Heather; Johnstone, Peter; Kücük, Ömer; Mailman, Josh; Mao, Jun J

    2017-11-01

    Integrative oncology, which is generally understood to refer to the use of a combination of complementary medicine therapies in conjunction with conventional cancer treatments, has been defined in different ways, but there is no widely accepted definition. We sought to develop and establish a consensus for a comprehensive definition of the field of integrative oncology. We used a mixed-methods approach that included a literature analysis and a consensus procedure, including an interdisciplinary expert panel and surveys, to develop a comprehensive and acceptable definition for the term "integrative oncology." The themes identified in the literature and from the expert discussion were condensed into a two-sentence definition. Survey respondents had very positive views on the draft definition, and their comments helped to shape the final version. The final definition for integrative oncology is: "Integrative oncology is a patient-centered, evidence-informed field of cancer care that utilizes mind and body practices, natural products, and/or lifestyle modifications from different traditions alongside conventional cancer treatments. Integrative oncology aims to optimize health, quality of life, and clinical outcomes across the cancer care continuum and to empower people to prevent cancer and become active participants before,during, and beyond cancer treatment." This short and comprehensive definition for the term integrative oncology will facilitate a better understanding and communication of this emerging field. This definition will also drive focused and cohesive effort to advance the field of integrative oncology.

  7. Adverse event development in clinical oncology trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, I.; Aaronson, N.; Sonke, J.-J.; Verheij, M.; Belderbos, J.

    Gita Thanarajasingam and colleagues' Article1 in The Lancet Oncology reports on a novel longitudinal approach for adverse event analysis and reporting. Comprehensive adverse event reporting in clinical oncology trials is essential to monitor tolerability of new cancer treatments. In view of the

  8. Clinical Oncology Assistantship Program for Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilan, Barbara A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The Clinical Oncology Assistantship Program at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences is described, along with student reactions to the program. The summer elective program involves cancer lectures (one week) and clinical exposure (nine weeks) in medical, surgical, and pediatric oncology services, as well as self-directed learning…

  9. Nursing 436A: Pediatric Oncology for Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Cynthia L.

    A description is provided of "Pediatric Oncology for Nurses," the first in a series of three courses offered to fourth-year nursing students in pediatric oncology. The first section provides a course overview, discusses time assignments, and describes the target student population. Next, a glossary of terms, and lists of course goals, long-range…

  10. Clinical assessment and management of the oral environment in the oncology patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, L J

    2010-06-01

    The dental care of oncology patients is an important component of general dental practice. Oncology patients have additional requirements for their outpatient care in the dental office. Intense involvement of the general dental practitioner in the patient's overall plan of care is essential so that appropriate preventive and therapeutic strategies are followed prior to chemotherapy, radiation and other medical treatments. This paper provides an overview of the role of the dental practitioner in the pre-treatment workup and post-treatment maintenance of oncology patients, and discusses the complications which occur during the intensive and in-hospital phases of care, in the context of approaches that show promise for reducing or preventing these. The role of the general dental practitioner in the maintenance of oral health for the remainder of the patient's life is stressed, with evidence-based recommendations given for optimal use of home care products which support oral health and improve quality-of-life.

  11. Clinical nutrition, body composition and oncology: a critical literature review of the synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquelin-Ravel, Nathalie; Pichard, Claude

    2012-10-01

    Review the oncology and clinical nutrition literature to highlight the synergies between those two subjects. This review focuses on diagnostic of lean body wasting and the recent improvements in measuring body composition to monitor the response to nutrition during optimal oncology treatment. Nutrition support in cancer patients has made major progresses. A variety of advanced tools allow monitoring and explaining weight loss, body composition changes and metabolic alterations. Body composition is more accurate than body surface area to determine chemotherapeutic drug dosing. As with any therapeutic approach, clinical nutrition has a better risk-benefit ratio if implemented when indicated rather than used routinely. Body composition measurements are helpful for a better understanding of the host-tumor interactions during cancer treatment and nutrition support. Nutrition support based on body composition analysis may significantly contribute to optimize current oncology treatment and clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Big data in oncologic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regge, Daniele; Mazzetti, Simone; Giannini, Valentina; Bracco, Christian; Stasi, Michele

    2017-06-01

    Cancer is a complex disease and unfortunately understanding how the components of the cancer system work does not help understand the behavior of the system as a whole. In the words of the Greek philosopher Aristotle "the whole is greater than the sum of parts." To date, thanks to improved information technology infrastructures, it is possible to store data from each single cancer patient, including clinical data, medical images, laboratory tests, and pathological and genomic information. Indeed, medical archive storage constitutes approximately one-third of total global storage demand and a large part of the data are in the form of medical images. The opportunity is now to draw insight on the whole to the benefit of each individual patient. In the oncologic patient, big data analysis is at the beginning but several useful applications can be envisaged including development of imaging biomarkers to predict disease outcome, assessing the risk of X-ray dose exposure or of renal damage following the administration of contrast agents, and tracking and optimizing patient workflow. The aim of this review is to present current evidence of how big data derived from medical images may impact on the diagnostic pathway of the oncologic patient.

  13. E-learning programs in oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degerfält, Jan; Sjöstedt, Staffan; Fransson, Per

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: E-learning is an established concept in oncological education and training. However, there seems to be a scarcity of long-term assessments of E-learning programs in oncology vis-á-vis their structural management and didactic value. This study presents descriptive, nationwide data from...... 2005 to 2014. E-learning oncology programs in chemotherapy, general oncology, pain management, palliative care, psycho-social-oncology, and radiotherapy, were reviewed from our databases. Questionnaires of self-perceived didactic value of the programs were examined 2008-2014. RESULTS: The total number...... of trainees were 4693, allocated to 3889 individuals. The trainees included medical doctors (MDs; n = 759), registered nurses (RNs; n = 2359), radiation therapy technologists (n = 642), and, social and health care assistants (SHCAs; n = 933). The E-learning covered 29 different program classifications...

  14. Surgical Oncology Nursing: Looking Back, Looking Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Patrick C; Selanders, Louise

    2017-02-01

    To provide a historical perspective in the development of oncology nursing and surgical oncology as critical components of today's health care system. Review of the literature and Web sites of key organizations. The evolution of surgical oncology nursing has traversed a historical journey from that of a niche subspecialty of nursing that had very little scientific underpinning, to a highly sophisticated discipline within a very short time. Nursing continues to contribute its expertise to the encyclopedic knowledge base of surgical oncology and cancer care, which have helped improve the lives of countless patients and families who have had to face the difficulties of this diagnosis. An understanding of the historical context for which a nursing specialty such as surgical oncology nursing evolves is critical to gaining an appreciation for the contributions of nursing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Models of Care in Geriatric Oncology Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhenn, Peggy S; Perrin, Sylvie; McCarthy, Alexandra L

    2016-02-01

    To review models of care for older adults with cancer, with a focus on the role of the oncology nurse in geriatric oncology care. International exemplars of geriatric oncology nursing care are discussed. Published peer reviewed literature, Web-based resources, professional society materials, and the authors' experience. Nursing care for older patients with cancer is complex and requires integrating knowledge from multiple disciplines that blend the sciences of geriatrics, oncology, and nursing, and which recognizes the dimensions of quality of life. Oncology nurses can benefit from learning key skills of comprehensive geriatric screening and assessment to improve the care they provide for older adults with cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. ONCOLOGY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012, at the Combined Breast Cancer Clinic at Groote Schuur Hospital. Patients with a ... This may frequently be the first time that the patient has a clinical breast examination, a discussion on breast awareness and risk factors with the ... patients (52%) were noted to have isolated microcalcifications. The average size of the ...

  17. On the Way to New Horizons: Telemedicine in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlag

    1997-01-01

    Breathtaking insights into carcinogenesis and tumor biology have been gained mainly by recent technical advances in molecular-biological and genetic techniques. Thus, dimensions of earlier diagnosis and the development of new concepts in therapy arise, which were previously unavailable. There is no doubt that through these techniques the future role and tasks of surgical oncology will change. New indications will result, for example, in the context of prophylactic therapy of hereditary malignant disease or the removal of tissue predisposed to tumors. However, modes of therapy orientated toward molecular biology will still be dependent on specialist surgical interventions in the future. Examples are such innovative concepts of therapy as transport of a therapeutic device to or into tumor cells (e.g., gene gun), or even simply obtaining the necessary tumor tissue for therapy (vaccination with transfected autologous tumor cells). Therefore, the future of surgical oncology will be influenced quantitatively as well as conceptually by new qualitative requirements. Improving precision of the surgical intervention will have to go hand-in-hand with a further reduction in surgical trauma. The consistent use of laser, video, computer and communication technology can be seen as an important predeterminant here for optimizing diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. If correctly guided, the professional experience of the individual surgeon and his personal efficiency can also be positively influenced by the swift conversion of society to multimedia and information technology. Major advances in interdisciplinary communication, as one important factor in the choice and the course of suitable complex therapies in oncology, will have to target and help to overcome former weak spots. Communication in and outside one department or hospital, as well as external communication between different medical disciplines and specialists, is being developed further and increasingly refined. The

  18. Prophylactic and therapeutic management of oral complications related to chemotherapy and radiotherapy: role of dental oncology in cancer patient supportive therapy; Manejo profilatico e terapeutico das complicacoes orais associadas a quimioterapia e radioterapia: o papel da odontologia oncologica na terapia de suporte ao paciente com cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffarah, Henry Bittar [Hospital Sirio-Libanes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Oncologia. Servico de Medicina Bucal]. E-mail: hbittar@terra.com.br

    2008-07-01

    Cancer patients under treatment of head and neck tumors as well as those under chemotherapy for hematologic cancers, such as lymphoma and leukemia, and those about to receive bone marrow grafts, do require preventive oral and dental care (prior to cancer treatment), as well as oral care during and after oncological treatment. Furthermore, chemo and radiotherapy-related adverse effects are also common in patients with other types of cancer, with an estimated frequency of 10 per cent in adjuvant chemotherapy (QT), 40 per cent in primary QT, 80 per cent in bone marrow transplantation, in which myeloablative regimens are introduced, and 100 per cent in head and neck radiotherapy, in which the targeted fields are those of the oral cavity. The dentist, specialized in dental oncology, works within the multidisciplinary team at the great centers of cancer treatment, contributing to improve the quality of life of these patients. The present review of literature and of the Guidelines for Management of Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head and Neck Radiation (US National Cancer Institute) aims to inform the clinical oncologist, the radio therapist, and other professionals about the resources available in Oral Supportive Therapy in both the prevention and managements of such complications. (author)

  19. The clinical trial landscape in oncology and connectivity of somatic mutational profiles to targeted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Sara E; Liu, Rangjiao; Statz, Cara M; Durkin, Daniel; Lakshminarayana, Anuradha; Mockus, Susan M

    2016-01-16

    Precision medicine in oncology relies on rapid associations between patient-specific variations and targeted therapeutic efficacy. Due to the advancement of genomic analysis, a vast literature characterizing cancer-associated molecular aberrations and relative therapeutic relevance has been published. However, data are not uniformly reported or readily available, and accessing relevant information in a clinically acceptable time-frame is a daunting proposition, hampering connections between patients and appropriate therapeutic options. One important therapeutic avenue for oncology patients is through clinical trials. Accordingly, a global view into the availability of targeted clinical trials would provide insight into strengths and weaknesses and potentially enable research focus. However, data regarding the landscape of clinical trials in oncology is not readily available, and as a result, a comprehensive understanding of clinical trial availability is difficult. To support clinical decision-making, we have developed a data loader and mapper that connects sequence information from oncology patients to data stored in an in-house database, the JAX Clinical Knowledgebase (JAX-CKB), which can be queried readily to access comprehensive data for clinical reporting via customized reporting queries. JAX-CKB functions as a repository to house expertly curated clinically relevant data surrounding our 358-gene panel, the JAX Cancer Treatment Profile (JAX CTP), and supports annotation of functional significance of molecular variants. Through queries of data housed in JAX-CKB, we have analyzed the landscape of clinical trials relevant to our 358-gene targeted sequencing panel to evaluate strengths and weaknesses in current molecular targeting in oncology. Through this analysis, we have identified patient indications, molecular aberrations, and targeted therapy classes that have strong or weak representation in clinical trials. Here, we describe the development and disseminate

  20. Companion diagnostics and molecular imaging-enhanced approaches for oncology clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heertum, Ronald L; Scarimbolo, Robert; Ford, Robert; Berdougo, Eli; O'Neal, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In the era of personalized medicine, diagnostic approaches are helping pharmaceutical and biotechnology sponsors streamline the clinical trial process. Molecular assays and diagnostic imaging are routinely being used to stratify patients for treatment, monitor disease, and provide reliable early clinical phase assessments. The importance of diagnostic approaches in drug development is highlighted by the rapidly expanding global cancer diagnostics market and the emergent attention of regulatory agencies worldwide, who are beginning to offer more structured platforms and guidance for this area. In this paper, we highlight the key benefits of using companion diagnostics and diagnostic imaging with a focus on oncology clinical trials. Nuclear imaging using widely available radiopharmaceuticals in conjunction with molecular imaging of oncology targets has opened the door to more accurate disease assessment and the modernization of standard criteria for the evaluation, staging, and treatment responses of cancer patients. Furthermore, the introduction and validation of quantitative molecular imaging continues to drive and optimize the field of oncology diagnostics. Given their pivotal role in disease assessment and treatment, the validation and commercialization of diagnostic tools will continue to advance oncology clinical trials, support new oncology drugs, and promote better patient outcomes.

  1. Innovations for phase I dose-finding designs in pediatric oncology clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doussau, Adelaide; Geoerger, Birgit; Jiménez, Irene; Paoletti, Xavier

    2016-03-01

    Phase I oncology clinical trials are designed to identify the optimal dose that will be recommended for phase II trials. In pediatric oncology, the conduct of those trials raises specific challenges, as the disease is rare with limited therapeutic options. In addition, the tolerance profile is known from adult trials. This paper provides a review of the major recent developments in the design of these trials, inspired by the need to cope with the specific challenges of dose finding in cancer pediatric oncology. We reviewed simulation studies comparing designs dedicated to address these challenges. We also reviewed the design used in published dose-finding trials in pediatric oncology over the period 2009-2014. Three main fields of innovation were identified. First, designs that were developed in order to relax the rules for more flexible inclusions. Second, methods to incorporate data emerging from adult studies. Third, designs accounting for toxicity evaluation at repeated cycles in pediatric oncology. In addition to this overview, we propose some further directions for designing pediatric dose-finding trials. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Clinical Pathways and the Patient Perspective in the Pursuit of Value-Based Oncology Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersek, Jennifer L; Nadler, Eric; Freeman-Daily, Janet; Mazharuddin, Samir; Kim, Edward S

    2017-01-01

    The art of practicing oncology has evolved substantially in the past 5 years. As more and more diagnostic tests, biomarker-directed therapies, and immunotherapies make their way to the oncology marketplace, oncologists will find it increasingly difficult to keep up with the many therapeutic options. Additionally, the cost of cancer care seems to be increasing. Clinical pathways are a systematic way to organize and display detailed, evidence-based treatment options and assist the practitioner with best practice. When selecting which treatment regimens to include on a clinical pathway, considerations must include the efficacy and safety, as well as costs, of the therapy. Pathway treatment regimens must be continually assessed and modified to ensure that the most up-to-date, high-quality options are incorporated. Value-based models, such as the ASCO Value Framework, can assist providers in presenting economic evaluations of clinical pathway treatment options to patients, thus allowing the patient to decide the overall value of each treatment regimen. Although oncologists and pathway developers can decide which treatment regimens to include on a clinical pathway based on the efficacy of the treatment, assessment of the value of that treatment regimen ultimately lies with the patient. Patient definitions of value will be an important component to enhancing current value-based oncology care models and incorporating new, high-quality, value-based therapeutics into oncology clinical pathways.

  3. Robotic surgery in gynecologic oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandera, Christina A; Magrina, Javier F

    2009-02-01

    Robotic surgery is rapidly taking the place of laparoscopy in many gynecologic oncology practices. Numerous practitioners have published their experience with this new technology. A review of their findings is timely and relevant. The majority of case series of robotic surgery for hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy show that the procedure is feasible and at least comparable to laparoscopic surgery. Similarly, case series of robotic radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer also compare favorably to laparoscopic surgery. Less common procedures such as robotic trachelectomy, parametrectomy, and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy have also been described. Numerous patient and practitioner advantages are discussed in this review. Robotic surgery is a minimally invasive alternative to laparoscopy for the surgical treatment of endometrial cancer and cervical cancer. Its role in ovarian cancer is just starting to be explored.

  4. [Treatment Refusal in Pediatric Oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špótová, A; Husáková, K; Hrašková, A; Mikesková, M; Puškáčová, J; Hederová, S; Jamárik, M; Rabenseifertová, E; Jalovecká, Z; Kolenová, A; Šubová, Z

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric oncologists are often faced with situations in which parents or guardians refuse recommended treatment for curable childhood cancer. Deciding how to proceed in such situations is an ethical dilemma. The aim of this article is to consider optimal approaches when parents are strongly against oncological treatment, potentially compromising their childrens rights for health care and to the chance for cure. In this paper, we report two cases of treatment refusal from our department and the impact of such decisions on the children themselves. Case no. 1 describes a child with retinoblastoma whose parents refused standard treatment in order to seek alternative treatment abroad. Case no. 2 describes a patient with a primary lymphoma of bone who received treatment by a court order after parental refusal. When parents refuse a treatment for potentially curable cancer, the medical team often focuses on the certainty of death without treatment. In the background, there is a smaller but still significant risk that - even if the treatment is eventually accepted or compelled - the child will still die from treatment-related complications or refractory disease, possibly with considerable suffering. The reasons for refusing a treatment vary. The entire medical team is tasked with trying to respectfully understand the reasoning behind the parents unwillingness to accept the treatment, in order to address all possible misunderstandings and to propose solutions that could be acceptable for the parents. In some situations however, it is necessary to resolve the dilemma by legal means in order to protect the life of the child.Key words: oncology - ethics - decision making - treatment refusal - legal guardians The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.Submitted: 7. 8. 2017Accepted: 7. 9. 2017.

  5. Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1996-08-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article.

  6. The modern trends of the evolution laser information technology in oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikov, A. A.; Svirin, V. N.

    2008-04-01

    Laser-optical information technologies and devices develop since the 70- years at the end of 20 century and are broadly used for diagnostics and treatment of oncological diseases to date. Although such methods as photodynamic therapy (PDT), laser-induce thermotherapy (LITT), fluorescent diagnostics and spectrophotometry already more than 30 years are used for treatment and diagnostics of oncological diseases, nevertheless, they are enough new methods and, as a rule, are used in large scientific centers and medical institutions. This is bound, first of all, with lack of information on modern method of cancer treatment, the absence of widely available laser procedures and corresponding devices in the polyclinics and even in district hospitals, as well as insufficient understanding of application areas, where laser methods has an advantage by comparison, for instance, with beam or chemotherapy. At present day laser methods are fast upcoming direction of the treatment oncological diseases. This is explained by progress in development essentially laser, particularly diode, improvement electronic and computing components and broad introduction software-algorithmic methods of control the undertaking therapeutic and diagnostic procedures. In article are considered new laser methods of the undertaking diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and is shown that introduction multiwave laser radiation for probe and influences on tissue, the different methods of the determination of the functional state of tissues, realization of the on-line diagnostics when carrying out the therapeutic procedures, automatic control systems of the power laser radiation, which depends on state patient tissue, as well as software-algorithmic methods of management session therapeutic and diagnostic procedures greatly raises efficiency of the treatment oncological diseases. On an example of the multipurpose laser therapeutic devices("MLTA") developed and introduced in clinical practice and multipurpose

  7. Dermatological Findings in Turkish Paediatric Haematology-Oncology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uksal, Umit; Ozturk, Pinar; Colgecen, Emine; Taslidere, Nazan; Patiroglu, Turkan; Ozdemir, Mehmet Akif; Torun, Yasemin Altuner; Borlu, Murat

    2016-06-01

    Diagnoses of skin, mucosae, hair and nail manifestations in malignant diseases are often challenging because of life-threatening drug reactions, opportunistic infections or skin involvement of primary processes. Description of morphology, configuration and distribution of lesions is important in order to differentiate the self-healing eruptions from serious side effects of chemotherapy. There are case reports from Turkey including dermatological manifestations of malignancies and case series in adult patients but there are no published large group studies assessing all manifestations in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological features of dermatological findings in children with haemato-oncological diseases. The study was performed at the Erciyes University, Faculty of Medicine Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Clinic, Turkey. Three dermatologists daily consulted all patients admitted to the clinic during a one-year period. The study group comprised of 157 children (79 female/78 male) aged 1-16 years (mean 7.19±4.63). Detailed dermatological examinations were performed, including oral-genital mucosae, hair and nails. Thorough skin examination revealed that 70% of the patients exhibited at least one dermatological finding. Generalized xerosis and hyperpigmentation were the most common findings among patients undergoing chemotherapy (24.19%). Multiple nevi on at least 10 covered areas were very frequent among patients undergoing long-term chemotherapy (18.47%). Three were identified as dysplastic nevus, but malignant transformation was not observed during the one-year study period. Regular dermatological consultation may help resolve the diagnostic and therapeutic problems in paediatric haemato-oncology clinics.

  8. Immuno-oncology Clinical Trial Design: Limitations, Challenges, and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Christina S; Rubin, Eric H; Forde, Patrick M; Mehnert, Janice M; Collyar, Deborah; Butler, Marcus O; Dixon, Erica L; Chow, Laura Q M

    2017-09-01

    Recent advances in immuno-oncology and regulatory approvals have been rapid and paradigm shifting in many difficult-to-treat malignancies. Despite immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy becoming the standard of care across multiple tumor types, there are many unanswered questions that need to be addressed before this therapeutic modality can be fully harnessed. Areas of limitations include treatment of patients not sufficiently represented in clinical trials, uncertainty of the optimal treatment dosing and duration, and lack of understanding regarding long-term immune related toxicities and atypical tumor responses. Patients such as those with autoimmune disease, chronic viral infections, limited performance status, and brain metastases were often excluded from initial trials due to concerns of safety. However, limited data suggest that some of these patients can benefit from therapy with manageable toxicities; thus, future studies should incorporate these patients to clearly define safety and efficacy. There are still controversies regarding the optimal dosing strategy that can vary from weight-based to flat dosing, with undefined treatment duration. Further elucidation of the optimal dosing approach and evaluation of predictive biomarkers should be incorporated in the design of future trials. Finally, there are long-term immune-mediated toxicities, atypical tumor responses such as pseudoprogression and endpoints unique to immuno-oncology that are not adequately captured by traditional trial designs; thus, novel study designs are needed. In this article, we discuss in detail the above challenges and propose needed areas of research for exploration and incorporation in the next generation of immuno-oncology clinical trials. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. [Palliative geriatrics. What are the differences between oncologic and non-oncologic palliative geriatric inpatients?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genz, H; Jenetzky, E; Hauer, K; Oster, P; Pfisterer, M H-D

    2010-12-01

    Analysis of differences between oncologic and non-oncologic patients in the first German hospital-based special care unit for palliative geriatrics. Systematic analysis of patients' records according to a standardized protocol. A total of 217 patients from a hospital-based special care unit for palliative geriatrics (56.7% women, 43.4% men) were included over a retrospective period of 1.5 years. Patients were categorized as non-oncologic (53.4%, n=116) or oncologic (46.5%, n=101). Non-oncologic patients were older than oncologic patients (84.0 vs. 76.8 years, p=0.02), and showed a higher degree of functional dependence (pfeeding (31% vs. 9%, p=0.001). Oncologic patients experienced more often symptoms of pain, constipation, agitation, diarrhea, vomiting, and nausea. There are clinically relevant differences between oncologic and non-oncologic palliative geriatric inpatients regarding the constellation of symptoms, care, mortality, and the prevalence of concerns about hydration and feeding. These differences ought to be taken into account for further education, as well as further improvement of the healthcare system, to enable an appropriate standard of palliative care for geriatric patients.

  10. An interprofessionally developed geriatric oncology curriculum for hematology–oncology fellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ahmed; Hughes, Caren; Karuturi, Meghan; Reyes, Connie; Yorio, Jeffrey; Holmes, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Objective Because the cancer population is aging, interprofessional education incorporating geriatric principles is essential to providing adequate training for oncology fellows. We report the targeted needs assessment, content, and evaluation tools for our geriatric oncology curriculum at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Methods A team comprising a geriatrician, a medical oncologist, an oncology PharmD, an oncology advanced nurse practitioner, and two oncology chief fellows developed the geriatric oncology curriculum. First, a general needs assessment was conducted by reviewing the literature and medical societies’ publications and by consulting experts. A targeted needs assessment was then conducted by reviewing the fellows’ evaluations of the geriatric oncology rotation and by interviewing fellows and recently graduated oncology faculty. Results Geriatric assessment, pharmacology, and psychosocial knowledge skills were the three identified areas of educational need. Curriculum objectives and an evaluation checklist were developed to evaluate learners in the three identified areas. The checklist content was validated by consulting experts in the field. Online materials, including a curriculum, a geriatric pharmacology job aid, and pharmacology cases, were also developed and delivered as part of the curriculum. Conclusion An interprofessional team approach was a successful method for identifying areas of learners’ educational needs, which in turn helped us develop an integrated geriatric oncology curriculum. The curriculum is currently being piloted and evaluated. PMID:25487037

  11. An interprofessionally developed geriatric oncology curriculum for hematology-oncology fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ahmed; Hughes, Caren; Karuturi, Meghan; Reyes, Connie; Yorio, Jeffrey; Holmes, Holly

    2015-03-01

    Because the cancer population is aging, interprofessional education incorporating geriatric principles is essential to providing adequate training for oncology fellows. We report the targeted needs assessment, content, and evaluation tools for our geriatric oncology curriculum at MD Anderson Cancer Center. A team comprising a geriatrician, a medical oncologist, an oncology PharmD, an oncology advanced nurse practitioner, and two oncology chief fellows developed the geriatric oncology curriculum. First, a general needs assessment was conducted by reviewing the literature and medical societies' publications and by consulting experts. A targeted needs assessment was then conducted by reviewing the fellows' evaluations of the geriatric oncology rotation and by interviewing fellows and recently graduated oncology faculty. Geriatric assessment, pharmacology, and psychosocial knowledge skills were the three identified areas of educational need. Curriculum objectives and an evaluation checklist were developed to evaluate learners in the three identified areas. The checklist content was validated by consulting experts in the field. Online materials, including a curriculum, a geriatric pharmacology job aid, and pharmacology cases, were also developed and delivered as part of the curriculum. An interprofessional team approach was a successful method for identifying areas of learners' educational needs, which in turn helped us develop an integrated geriatric oncology curriculum. The curriculum is currently being piloted and evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-02

    This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not? by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens.

  13. NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-02

    This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens.

  14. The Evolution of Gero-Oncology Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Stewart M; Bryant, Ashley Leak; Puts, Martine

    2016-02-01

    This article summarizes the evolution of gero-oncology nursing and highlights key educational initiatives, clinical practice issues, and research areas to enhance care of older adults with cancer. Peer-reviewed literature, position statements, clinical practice guidelines, Web-based materials, and professional organizations' resources. Globally, the older adult cancer population is rapidly growing. The care of older adults with cancer requires an understanding of their diverse needs and the intersection of cancer and aging. Despite efforts to enhance competence in gero-oncology and to develop a body of evidence, nurses and health care systems remain under-prepared to provide high-quality care for older adults with cancer. Nurses must take a leadership role in integrating gerontological principles into oncology settings. Working closely with interdisciplinary team members, nurses should utilize available resources and continue to build evidence through gero-oncology nursing research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. COP - Pet Owners - What is Comparative Oncology | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is Comparative Oncology? Cancer, in the pet population, is a spontaneous disease. Pet owners, motivated by the desire to prolong their animals' quality of life, frequently seek out the specialized care and treatment of veterinary oncologists at private referral veterinary hospitals and veterinary teaching hospitals across the country. Therapeutic modalities for veterinary cancer patients are similar to those for humans, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and biotherapy.

  16. Safety of Intravenous Application of Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Preparations in Oncology: An Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, Megan L.; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this “off-label” application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is describ...

  17. Theranostics in nuclear medicine practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanova A

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anna Yordanova,1 Elisabeth Eppard,2 Stefan Kürpig,2 Ralph A Bundschuh,3 Stefan Schönberger,4 Maria Gonzalez-Carmona,5 Georg Feldmann,6 Hojjat Ahmadzadehfar,1 Markus Essler1 1Department of Nuclear Medicine (Clinical Nuclear Medicine, 2Department of Nuclear Medicine (Radiochemistry, 3Department of Nuclear Medicine (Medical Physics and PET, 4Department of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, 5Department of Medicine 1, 6Department of Medicine 3, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany Abstract: The importance of personalized medicine has been growing, mainly due to a more urgent need to avoid unnecessary and expensive treatments. In nuclear medicine, the theranostic approach is an established tool for specific molecular targeting, both for diagnostics and therapy. The visualization of potential targets can help predict if a patient will benefit from a particular treatment. Thanks to the quick development of radiopharmaceuticals and diagnostic techniques, the use of theranostic agents has been continually increasing. In this article, important milestones of nuclear therapies and diagnostics in the context of theranostics are highlighted. It begins with a well-known radioiodine therapy in patients with thyroid cancer and then progresses through various approaches for the treatment of advanced cancer with targeted therapies. The aim of this review was to provide a summary of background knowledge and current applications, and to identify the advantages of targeted therapies and imaging in nuclear medicine practices. Keywords: theranostics, nuclear medicine, personalized medicine, PET/CT, therapy, diagnostics

  18. [Interests of applied anthropology to oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soum-Pouyalet, Fanny; Hubert, Annie; Dilhuydy, Jean-Marie

    2008-01-01

    From now on the introduction of social and human sciences studies in the field of oncology has not always been conclusive. This article aims to analyze the bounds that border the meeting and the understanding between physicians, patients and anthropologists. It also treats the problems due to the introduction of applied anthropology in the field of oncology and points up the interests and practical contributions that this disciplinary bring and could bring.

  19. Communication problems on an oncology ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Valck, C; Van de Woestijne, K P

    1996-11-01

    Within the field of oncology, the communication of an unfavourable diagnosis is regarded as a stressful event that affects all members of the oncology team, as well as the patient. In this exploratory study we found that the communication problems between doctors, patients and nursing staff were related to insufficient information exchange. A psychosocial registration sheet was developed in order to improve communication on the ward. The effects of the new approach are briefly commented upon.

  20. Safety and esthetic outcomes of therapeutic mammoplasty using medial pedicle for early breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshdy S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sameh Roshdy,1 Osama Hussein,1 Ashraf Khater,1 Mohammad Zuhdy,1 Hend A El-Hadaad,2 Omar Farouk,1 Ahmad Senbel,1 Adel Fathi,1 Emadeldeen Hamed,1 Adel Denewer1 1Department of Surgical Oncology, Mansoura Oncology Center, 2Department of Clinical Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Background: Although therapeutic mammoplasty (TM was introduced for treatment of localized ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive breast carcinoma (stages I and II in females with large breast size, the suitability of medial pedicle TM for treatment of breast tumors at different locations has not been established. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and esthetic outcome of medial pedicle TM for breast tumors at different locations. Methods: The study was conducted from February 2012 to July 2014. Consecutive patients with early breast carcinoma with medium- and large-sized breasts, with or without ptosis, who were offered medial pedicle TM were included in the study. Patients who were not candidates for breast-conserving surgery or those with tumors located along the medial pedicle were excluded. All patients received immediate postoperative adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Results: Thirty patients with a mean age of 48.5 years received medial pedicle TM in the breast harboring the tumor or, additionally, the other breast (N=14. The tumors were in the upper (60.0%, lower (26.7%, and lateral (13.3% quadrants. Minor complications occurred in five cases (5/30, 16.7% in the ipsilateral and in two (2/14, 14.3% contralateral breasts. No wound dehiscence or areolar necrosis was recorded. A total of 22 (73.3% patients were scored as excellent cosmesis. After a median follow-up of 20 months, no locoregional recurrence or distant metastases were observed. Conclusion: TM using a medial pedicle is a safe and appealing technique among women with tumors at different locations. Keywords: therapeutic mammoplasty, medial

  1. [Characterization of oncological disease: racional, objectives and methodology - perfil study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Ana; Andrade, Sofia; Moital, Inês; Moreira, António; Pimentel, Francisco Luís; Barroso, Sérgio; Dinis, José; Afonso, Noémia; Bonfill, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Oncologic disease is one of the main causes of death in Portugal, as well as a high morbidity rate. Over the past few years, these diseases have been targeted with several strategies which aims at optimizing the use of available therapeutic and diagnostic options. Nevertheless, the amount of quantitative information available regarding the disease, patient profile, and treatment and monitoring practices is very low. In order to optimise the implementation of health policies specifically directed at oncologic diseases reliable and up-to-date information is needed, permitting optimisation and balancing of costs and benefits. The PERFIL national epidemiologic study is a multi-centre, retrospective cohort study which aims at evaluating the clinical practice regarding treatment of 6 neoplasias -colorectal, gastric, breast, prostate, lung, and lymphoma, in Portugal, between 2003 and 2007. This study is based upon data collection from the clinical files of patients being followed in the participating centres from 2003 to 2007. Qualitative evaluation (diagnosis and stage) was collected from the clinical records of all patients seen in each participating centre on a given month in each year from 2003 to 2007. The characterization of both patient profile and treatment and monitoring patterns will be based on a far-reaching analysis of 10,000 of those files, selected in a random and stratified sampling. This article describes the PERFIL study rationale, its objectives, and methodology.

  2. Non interventional drug studies in oncology: Why we need them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Mishra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncology is a highly researched therapeutic area with an ever expanding armamentarium of drugs entering the market. It is unique in how the heterogeneity of tumor, patient and treatment factors is critical in determining outcomes of interventions. When it comes to decision making in the clinic, the practicing physician often seeks answers in populations with obvious deviations from the ideal selected populations included in the pivotal phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs. While the randomized nature of the RCT ensures its high internal validity by removing bias, their ′controlled′ nature casts a doubt on their generalizability to the real world population. It is for this reason that trials done in a naturalistic setting post the marketing authorization of a drug are increasingly required. This article discusses the importance of non interventional drug studies in oncology as an important tool in testing the external validity of controlled trial results and its value in generation of new hypothesis. It also discusses the limitations of such studies while outlining the steps in their effective conduct.

  3. DIGITAL ONCOLOGY PATIENT RECORD - HETEROGENEOUS FILE BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Sapundzhiev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oncology patients need extensive follow-up and meticulous documentation. The aim of this study was to introduce a simple, platform independent file based system for documentation of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in oncology patients and test its function.Material and methods: A file-name based system of the type M1M2M3.F2 was introduced, where M1 is a unique identifier for the patient, M2 is the date of the clinical intervention/event, M3 is an identifier for the author of the medical record and F2 is the specific software generated file-name extension.Results: This system is in use at 5 institutions, where a total of 11 persons on 14 different workstations inputted 16591 entries (files for 2370. The merge process was tested on 2 operating systems - when copied together all files sort up as expected by patient, and for each patient in a chronological order, providing a digital cumulative patient record, which contains heterogeneous file formats.Conclusion: The file based approach for storing heterogeneous digital patient related information is an reliable system, which can handle open-source, proprietary, general and custom file formats and seems to be easily scalable. Further development of software for automatic checks of the integrity and searching and indexing of the files is expected to produce a more user-friendly environment

  4. Non interventional drug studies in oncology: Why we need them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Divya; Vora, Jesal

    2010-10-01

    Oncology is a highly researched therapeutic area with an ever expanding armamentarium of drugs entering the market. It is unique in how the heterogeneity of tumor, patient and treatment factors is critical in determining outcomes of interventions. When it comes to decision making in the clinic, the practicing physician often seeks answers in populations with obvious deviations from the ideal selected populations included in the pivotal phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs). While the randomized nature of the RCT ensures its high internal validity by removing bias, their 'controlled' nature casts a doubt on their generalizability to the real world population. It is for this reason that trials done in a naturalistic setting post the marketing authorization of a drug are increasingly required. This article discusses the importance of non interventional drug studies in oncology as an important tool in testing the external validity of controlled trial results and its value in generation of new hypothesis. It also discusses the limitations of such studies while outlining the steps in their effective conduct.

  5. Exploring resilience in paediatric oncology nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Melissa; Hutton, Alison; King, Lindy

    2013-01-01

    Resilience has been suggested as an important coping strategy for nurses working in demanding settings, such as paediatric oncology. This qualitative study explored paediatric oncology nurses' perceptions of their development of resilience and how this resilience underpinned their ability to deal with work-related stressors. Five paediatric oncology nurses were interviewed about their understanding of the concept of resilience, their preferred coping mechanisms, and their day-today work in paediatric oncology. Using thematic analysis, the interviews were subsequently grouped together into seventeen initial themes. These themes were then grouped into seven major aspects that described how the participants perceived resilience underpinned their work. These "seven aspects of forming resilience" contributed to an initial understanding of how paediatric oncology nurses develop resilience in the face of their personal and professional challenges. Several key strategies derived from the findings, such as improved rostering, support to a nurse's friend and family, and a clinical support nursing role, could be implemented at an organizational level to support resilience development within the paediatric oncology setting.

  6. Stress and burnout in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, K M; Holland, J C; Breitbart, W; Berenson, S; Dougherty, J; Ouellette-Kobasa, S; Lesko, L

    2000-11-01

    This article identifies the professional stressors experienced by nurses, house staff, and medical oncologists and examines the effect of stress and personality attributes on burnout scores. A survey was conducted of 261 house staff, nurses, and medical oncologists in a cancer research hospital, and oncologists in outside clinical practices. It measured burnout, psychological distress, and physical symptoms. Each participant completed a questionnaire that quantified life stressors, personality attributes, burnout, psychological distress, physical symptoms, coping strategies, and social support. The results showed that house staff experienced the greatest burnout. They also reported greater emotional exhaustion, a feeling of emotional distance from patients, and a poorer sense of personal accomplishment. Negative work events contributed significantly to level of burnout; however, having a "hardy" personality helped to alleviate burnout. Nurses reported more physical symptoms than house staff and oncologists. However, they were less emotionally distant from patients. Women reported a lower sense of accomplishment and greater distress. The four most frequent methods of relaxing were talking to friends, using humor, drinking coffee or eating, and watching television. One unexpected finding was that the greater the perception of oneself as religious, the lower the level of burnout. Thus, while the rewards of working in oncology are usually sufficient to keep nurses and doctors in the field, they also experience burnout symptoms that vary by gender and personal attributes. House staff are most stressed and report the greatest and most severe symptoms of stress. Interventions are needed that address the specific problems of each group.

  7. Oncology information on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yasushi; Nagase, Takahide

    2012-05-01

    Owing to new developments in Internet technologies, the amount of available oncology information is growing. Both patients and caregivers are increasingly using the Internet to obtain medical information. However, while it is easy to provide information, ensuring its quality is always a concern. Thus, many instruments for evaluating the quality of health information have been created, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The increasing importance of online search engines such as Google warrants the examination of the correlation between their rankings and medical quality. The Internet also mediates the exchange of information from one individual to another. Mailing lists of advocate groups and social networking sites help spread information to patients and caregivers. While text messages are still the main medium of communication, audio and video messages are also increasing rapidly, accelerating the communication on the Internet. Future health information developments on the Internet include merging patients' personal information on the Internet with their traditional health records and facilitating the interaction among patients, caregivers and health-care providers. Through these developments, the Internet is expected to strengthen the mutually beneficial relationships among all stakeholders in the field of medicine.

  8. TU-G-201-00: Imaging Equipment Specification and Selection in Radiation Oncology Departments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    This session will update therapeutic physicists on technological advancements and radiation oncology features of commercial CT, MRI, and PET/CT imaging systems. Also described are physicists’ roles in every stage of equipment selection, purchasing, and operation, including defining specifications, evaluating vendors, making recommendations, and optimal and safe use of imaging equipment in radiation oncology environment. The first presentation defines important terminology of CT and PET/CT followed by a review of latest innovations, such as metal artifact reduction, statistical iterative reconstruction, radiation dose management, tissue classification by dual energy CT and spectral CT, improvement in spatial resolution and sensitivity in PET, and potentials of PET/MR. We will also discuss important technical specifications and items in CT and PET/CT purchasing quotes and their impacts. The second presentation will focus on key components in the request for proposal for a MRI simulator and how to evaluate vendor proposals. MRI safety issues in radiation Oncology, including MRI scanner Zones (4-zone design), will be discussed. Basic MR terminologies, important functionalities, and advanced features, which are relevant to radiation therapy, will be discussed. In the third presentation, justification of imaging systems for radiation oncology, considerations in room design and construction in a RO department, shared use with diagnostic radiology, staffing needs and training, clinical/research use cases and implementation, will be discussed. The emphasis will be on understanding and bridging the differences between diagnostic and radiation oncology installations, building consensus amongst stakeholders for purchase and use, and integrating imaging technologies into the radiation oncology environment. Learning Objectives: Learn the latest innovations of major imaging systems relevant to radiation therapy Be able to describe important technical specifications of CT, MRI

  9. The need to educate primary care physicians to provide oncologic services: a changing focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafla, S; Khafif, R; Ross, P; McGroarty, K

    1997-01-01

    The traditional role of primary care physicians (PCPs) in cancer care has been primarily cancer detection, and their training and education were similarly oriented. Propelled by the changing health care delivery system, this role is now expanding substantially. A survey of 31 health maintenance organizations active in the New York market area was performed. The HMOs were grouped into three main categories according to method of payment of the physician. Patient care responsibilities vary depending on the method of payment but stay constant within the group. Of 19 HMOs that responded to the survey, 13 had shifted much of the responsibilities for diagnosis and treatment decisions to the PCP. A national survey of all academic radiation oncology program directors in the United States, as well as training programs of primary care physicians, showed a unanimous lack of educational or training programs or opportunities to familiarize the PCP with radiation oncology as a therapeutic discipline and with its after-therapy requirements. This deficiency extended also to multimodality training and other aspects. The internal medicine programs surveyed scored only an average of 1.25 out of a possible 5 in education areas directly related to oncology training. These programs comprised 78% of the residents of all programs surveyed. The information gathered from these surveys reveals a shift towards mandating the provision of oncologic services by PCPs, who have inadequate training in oncology, with no system in place to remedy the deficiencies except on-the-job training. The inevitability of the changing role of the PCP must be accompanied by either an expansion of residency programs to encompass training in important aspects of oncology care or expansion and formalization of continuing education programs to achieve the same objective.

  10. The Characteristics of a Research Network for Radiation Oncology in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Hyun; Park, Seo Hyun; Kang, Jin Oh [Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    To evaluate the structural characteristics of a scientific network of radiation oncology society A total of 1,512 articles published from 1986 to April 2010 with the terms 'radiation oncology' or 'therapeutic radiology' were obtained in the Korea Med database. The co-authors were analyzed according to their affiliation, and their relationship was used to build a matrix. With the matrix, centralization indices and the Key Player index were analyzed. We used UCINET 6.0 for the network analysis, Netdraw for determining a sociogram and Key Player 1.44 for the key player analysis. The centralization of the radiation oncology field decreased from 8.29% for the period from 1986-1990 to 1.84% from 2006-2010. However, when the Korean Journal of Medical Physics was excluded, centralization increased from 2.32% for the period from 2001-2005 to 3.80% from 2006-2010. This suggested that the communication in the clinical research field of radiation oncology is decreasing. In a node centralization analysis, Seoul National University was found to be the highest at 7.9%. Seoul National University showed the highest indices in the Outdegree (6.50%) and Indegree (8.54%), in addition to Betweenness (14.94%) and Eigenvector (135.234%). The Key Player analysis indicated that Inha University had the highest index at 0.491, but when the Korean Journal of Medical Physics was excluded, Yonsei University had the highest Key Player index at 0.584. The degree centrality in the network of radiation oncology decreased in the most recent period as more institutions are participating in network. However, the Betweenness centrality is still increasing, suggesting that the communications among research groups (clique) in radiation oncology is warranted.

  11. Can Melatonin Help Us in Radiation Oncology Treatments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Seied Rabie; Aliasgharzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, radiotherapy has become an integral part of the treatment regimen in various malignancies for curative or palliative purposes. Ionizing radiation interacts with biological systems to produce free radicals, which attack various cellular components. Radioprotectors act as prophylactic agents that are administered to shield normal cells and tissues from the harmful effects of radiation. Melatonin has been shown to be both a direct free radical scavenger and an indirect antioxidant by stimulating antioxidant enzymes and suppressing prooxidative enzymes activity. In addition to its antioxidant property, there have also been reports implicating antiapoptotic function for melatonin in normal cells. Furthermore, through its antitumor and radiosensitizing properties, treatment with melatonin may prevent tumor progression. Therefore, addition of melatonin to radiation therapy could lower the damage inflicted to the normal tissue, leading to a more efficient tumor control by use of higher doses of irradiation during radiotherapy. Thus, it seems that, in the future, melatonin may improve the therapeutic gain in radiation oncology treatments. PMID:24900972

  12. Radiolabeled peptides in the diagnosis and therapy of oncological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, Ronald E. E-mail: weiner@adp.uchc.edu; Thakur, Mathew L

    2002-11-01

    There has been an exponential growth in the development of radiolabeled peptides for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in oncology. Peptides have fast clearance, rapid tissue penetration, low antigenicity and can be produced easily and inexpensively. However, peptides have problems with in vivo catabolism, unwanted physiological effects, and chelate attachment. The approved {sup 111}In-DTPA-OctreoScan, a somatostatin receptor binder, is well established for diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors. NeoTect, an approved, {sup 99m}Tc-labeled, somatostatin-receptor-binding analogue has good specificity for lung cancer detection. The receptors for Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Cholecystokinin-B/gastrin, Bombesin, Epidermal Growth Factor, and Alpha Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone and the Integrin, {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}, are under active investigation as targets. Octreotide and its analogues labeled with {sup 111}In, {sup 90}Y, {sup 64}Cu or {sup 177}Lu are under study for the treatment of patients with promising results.

  13. ESMO / ASCO Recommendations for a Global Curriculum in Medical Oncology Edition 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Christian; Kosty, Michael; Jezdic, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    edition 2016 answers to the need for updated recommendations for the training of physicians in medical oncology by defining the standard to be fulfilled to qualify as medical oncologists. At times of internationalisation of healthcare and increased mobility of patients and physicians, the GC aims...... to provide state-of-the-art cancer care to all patients wherever they live. Recent progress in the field of cancer research has indeed resulted in diagnostic and therapeutic innovations such as targeted therapies as a standard therapeutic approach or personalised cancer medicine apart from the revival...

  14. [New concepts in human oncology: is it possible to use them in veterinary medicine as well?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconato, L; Ruess-Melzer, K; Buchholz, J; Kaser-Hotz, B

    2011-08-01

    In human oncology, novel targeted therapy focusing on monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors has become an attractive anticancer strategy. The introduction of antiangiogenetic drugs and metronomic chemotherapy has also increased the therapeutic arsenal. Chemotherapy still plays a key role in the treatment of many tumors affecting dogs and cats. However, novel anticancer strategies (including tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, as well as antiangiogenetic treatments) are becoming relevant in veterinary medicine, too. The goal of this review is to describe new therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment in veterinary medicine, including less well-known chemotherapeutic drugs.

  15. Therapeutic misadventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, N J

    2010-10-01

    Therapeutic misadventure can be defined as an injury or an adverse event caused by medical management rather than by an underlying disease. Within the National Health Service there were over 86,000 reported adverse incidents in 2007. In the USA medication errors have been rated as the fourth highest cause of death. Unfortunately one of the greatest contributors to iatrogenic injury is human error. The potential types of misadventure are infinite. Medication errors are a major part of this, being responsible for over 70% of cases that cause serious harm. However, many medication errors caused by slips, lapses, technical errors and mistakes are preventable; intentional violations of safe operating procedures are not. While medication errors were tolerated by society in the past, the readiness to institute criminal proceedings against health-care professionals has increased greatly in the UK over the last decade. The medication process consists of writing prescriptions, dispensing the product, administering it and monitoring its effects. Prescription errors arise owing to incomplete information, lack of appropriate labelling, environmental factors and human blunders. Even with a perfect prescription the right medication must be dispensed and appropriately labelled. Dispensing errors are not uncommon and may be compounded by non-clinical considerations. Administration of a drug by injection is one of the most dangerous aspects of the medication process, especially in inexperienced hands. The final component of medication supply is monitoring the effect of the medication. With short courses of medication such monitoring is easy, but with long-term medication, particularly with potent drugs where the margin between efficacy and toxicity is small, active procedures may be required to ensure toxicity does not ensue. Despite the endeavour of health-care professions to stick to the rule of 'first, do no harm', in reality this is difficult to achieve all of the time. When

  16. Hematology-Oncology Fellows' Training in Geriatrics and Geriatric Oncology: Findings From an American Society of Clinical Oncology-Sponsored National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiore, Ronald J; Dale, William; Hurria, Arti; Klepin, Heidi D; Chapman, Andrew; Dotan, Efrat; Mohile, Supriya G; Naeim, Arash; Gajra, Ajeet; Buss, Mary K

    2017-11-01

    Older adults compose the majority of patients with cancer in the United States; however, it is unclear how well geriatrics or geriatric oncology training is being incorporated into hematology-oncology (hem-onc) fellowships. A convenience sample of hem-onc fellows completed a (written or electronic) survey assessing their education, clinical experiences, and perceived proficiency in geriatric oncology during training; knowledge base in geriatric oncology; confidence in managing older adults with cancer; and general attitudes toward geriatric oncology principles. Forty-five percent of respondents (N = 138) were female, 67% were based in the United States, and most (60%) were past their first year of training. Most fellows rated geriatric oncology as important or very important (84%); however, only 25% reported having access to a geriatric oncology clinic and more than one half (53%) reported no lectures in geriatric oncology. Fellows reported fewer educational experiences in geriatric oncology than in nongeriatric oncology. For example, among procedure-based activities, 12% learned how to perform a geriatric assessment but 78% learned how to perform a bone marrow biopsy ( P geriatric oncology. The high value fellows place on geriatric oncology suggests that they would be receptive to additional training in this area.

  17. Frailty and cancer: Implications for oncology surgery, medical oncology, and radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethun, Cecilia G; Bilen, Mehmet A; Jani, Ashesh B; Maithel, Shishir K; Ogan, Kenneth; Master, Viraj A

    2017-09-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE The concept of frailty has become increasingly recognized as one of the most important issues in health care and health outcomes and is of particular importance in patients with cancer who are receiving treatment with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. Because both cancer itself, as well as the therapies offered, can be significant additional stressors that challenge a patient's physiologic reserve, the incidence of frailty in older patients with cancer is especially high-it is estimated that over one-half of older patients with cancer have frailty or prefrailty. Defining frailty can be challenging, however. Put simply, frailty is a state of extreme vulnerability to stressors that leads to adverse health outcomes. In reality, frailty is a complex, multidimensional, and cyclical state of diminished physiologic reserve that results in decreased resiliency and adaptive capacity and increased vulnerability to stressors. In addition, over 70 different measures of frailty have been proposed. Still, it has been demonstrated that frail patients are at increased risk of postoperative complications, chemotherapy intolerance, disease progression, and death. Although international standardization of frailty cutoff points are needed, continued efforts by oncology physicians and surgeons to identify frailty and promote multidisciplinary decision making will help to develop more individualized management strategies and optimize care for patients with cancer. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:362-377. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  18. Integrating Geriatrics Into Oncology Ambulatory Care Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overcash, Janine

    2015-08-01

    Geriatric oncology offers specialized care that incorporates comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) and multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) with oncology care. Geriatric syndromes, comorbidities, and caregiver concerns are relevant to the oncology assessment in older adult patients to make treatment decisions, which should be based not on age but on health and functional status, as well as on life expectancy. Developing a geriatric oncology ambulatory care clinic (GOACC) requires numerous resources and entails planning for longer patient encounter times, devising collaboration strategies with community care providers, and establishing dedicated time for team members. The purpose of this article is to provide information regarding the construction and sustainability of a GOACC. A comprehensive review of literature published from 1991-2015 was conducted using the following key words. Oncology primary care nurses and advanced practice nurses have a large role in the development and maintenance of GOACCs. Managing comorbidities, identifying patients who likely would benefit from a CGA, providing caregiver support, conducting a CGA, and creating an MDT are core elements of developing a sustainable GOACC.

  19. Psycho-oncology: Searching for practical wisdom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butlin, Helen

    2015-10-01

    The debate is vigorous in psycho-oncology about whether spiritual, existential, and psychosocial are the most comprehensive terms for academic research discourses investigating meaning and purpose. A call-to-action email from the International Society of Psycho-Oncology included the term soul. The current essay highlights the historical and contemporary uses of "soul" to suggest that the re-emergent soul signifies a tacit quest for an "intangible" that seems missing in current constructs of clinical domains reflected in the vigor of the debates. It is suggested that the re-emergence of the pre-Medieval meaning(s) of the notion of soul affirms a growing need for integrative paradigms on "being human" to guide psycho-oncology practitioners and their research. As a paradigmatic example, a clinical support group entitled Soul Medicine is described as employing the term soul to open up the more marginal discourses about experiences of illness arising from philosophical reflection, arts, humanities, and spirituality within a clinical oncology context. A link between soul and wisdom is suggested for further exploration with the view that phronesis ("the virtue of practical wisdom"), an emerging concept in health professional education research, is of ultimate value to the people psycho-oncology seeks to serve. This group holds that garnering wisdom from the expertise of those living with cancer should be a central aim of our field.

  20. Global geriatric oncology: Achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; de Glas, Nienke A; Hsu, Tina; Kanesvaran, Ravindran; Steer, Christopher; Navarrete-Reyes, Ana Patricia; Battisti, Nicolo Matteo Luca; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin; O'Donovan, Anita; Avila-Funes, Jose Alberto; Hurria, Arti

    2017-09-01

    The aging of the population is a global challenge. The number of older adults is rapidly growing, leading to an increase in the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases associated with aging, such as cancer. Worldwide, older adults account for approximately half of all cancer cases, and this proportion is projected to increase globally. Furthermore, the majority of older adults live in less developed regions, where health systems are generally ill-equipped to provide care for complex chronic conditions. Worldwide, there is paucity of geriatric training, and most of the oncology workforce lacks the skills and knowledge to provide comprehensive care for older patients. Various initiatives aimed at providing adequate clinical care for older adults, increasing the geriatric skills and knowledge of healthcare professionals, and developing geriatric oncology research, have been successfully implemented. However, most developments in geriatric oncology have taken place in high-income countries, and there are still large inequalities in the availability of clinical, educational, and research initiatives across different regions of the world. This article provides an overview of geriatric oncology initiatives in Asia, Europe, Australia and New Zealand, Latin America, and the United States and Canada. Understanding the achievements and challenges of geriatric oncology around the world, and fostering international collaboration in research and training are essential for improving the care of all older adults with cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pharmacovigilance in oncology: pattern of spontaneous notifications, incidence of adverse drug reactions and under-reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Berlofa Visacri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The high toxicity and narrow therapeutic window of antineoplastic agents makes pharmacovigilance studies essential in oncology. The objectives of the current study were to analyze the pattern of spontaneous notifications of adverse drug reactions (ADRs in oncology patients and to analyze the incidence of ADRs reported by outpatients on antineoplastic treatment in a tertiary care teaching hospital. To compose the pattern of ADR, the notification forms of reactions in oncology patients in 2010 were reviewed, and the reactions were classified based on the drug involved, mechanism, causality, and severity. To evaluate the incidence of reactions, a questionnaire at the time of chemotherapy was included, and the severity was classified based on the Common Terminology Criteria. The profiles of the 10 responses reported to the Pharmacovigilance Sector were type B, severe, possible, and they were primarily related to platinum compounds and taxanes. When the incidence of reactions was analyzed, it was observed that nausea, alopecia, fatigue, diarrhea, and taste disturbance were the most frequently reported reactions by oncology patients, and the grade 3 and 4 reactions were not reported. Based on this analysis, it is proposed that health professionals should be trained regarding notifications and clinical pharmacists should increasingly be brought on board to reduce under-reporting of ADRs.

  2. 2016 Updated American Society of Clinical Oncology/Oncology Nursing Society Chemotherapy Administration Safety Standards, Including Standards for Pediatric Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuss, Michael N; Gilmore, Terry R; Belderson, Kristin M; Billett, Amy L; Conti-Kalchik, Tara; Harvey, Brittany E; Hendricks, Carolyn; LeFebvre, Kristine B; Mangu, Pamela B; McNiff, Kristen; Olsen, MiKaela; Schulmeister, Lisa; Von Gehr, Ann; Polovich, Martha

    2016-12-01

    Purpose To update the ASCO/Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) Chemotherapy Administration Safety Standards and to highlight standards for pediatric oncology. Methods The ASCO/ONS Chemotherapy Administration Safety Standards were first published in 2009 and updated in 2011 to include inpatient settings. A subsequent 2013 revision expanded the standards to include the safe administration and management of oral chemotherapy. A joint ASCO/ONS workshop with stakeholder participation, including that of the Association of Pediatric Hematology Oncology Nurses and American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, was held on May 12, 2015, to review the 2013 standards. An extensive literature search was subsequently conducted, and public comments on the revised draft standards were solicited. Results The updated 2016 standards presented here include clarification and expansion of existing standards to include pediatric oncology and to introduce new standards: most notably, two-person verification of chemotherapy preparation processes, administration of vinca alkaloids via minibags in facilities in which intrathecal medications are administered, and labeling of medications dispensed from the health care setting to be taken by the patient at home. The standards were reordered and renumbered to align with the sequential processes of chemotherapy prescription, preparation, and administration. Several standards were separated into their respective components for clarity and to facilitate measurement of adherence to a standard. Conclusion As oncology practice has changed, so have chemotherapy administration safety standards. Advances in technology, cancer treatment, and education and training have prompted the need for periodic review and revision of the standards. Additional information is available at http://www.asco.org/chemo-standards .

  3. Robot-assisted surgery in gynecological oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Steffen E; Mosgaard, Berit J; Rosendahl, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Robot-assisted surgery has become more widespread in gynecological oncology. The purpose of this systematic review is to present current knowledge on robot-assisted surgery, and to clarify and discuss controversies that have arisen alongside the development and deployment. MATERIAL...... AND METHODS: A database search in PubMed and EMBASE was performed up until 4 March 2016. The search strategy was developed in collaboration with an information specialist, and by application of the PRISMA guidelines. Human participants and English language were the only restrictive filters applied. Selection...... was performed by screening of titles and abstracts, and by full text scrutiny. From 2001 to 2016, a total of 76 references were included. RESULTS: Robot-assisted surgery in gynecological oncology has increased, and current knowledge supports that the oncological safety is similar, compared with previous...

  4. The Evolution of Gero-Oncology Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Stewart M.; Bryant, Ashley Leak; Puts, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This article summarizes the evolution of gero-oncology nursing and highlights key educational initiatives, clinical practice issues, and research areas to enhance care of older adults with cancer. Data Sources Peer-reviewed literature, position statements, clinical practice guidelines, web-based materials, and professional organizations’ resources. Conclusion Globally, the older adult cancer population is rapidly growing. The care of older adults with cancer requires an understanding of their diverse needs and the intersection of cancer and aging. Despite efforts to enhance competence in gerooncology and to develop a body of evidence, nurses and healthcare systems remain under-prepared to provide high quality care for older adults with cancer. Implications for Nursing Practice Nurses need to take a leadership role in integrating gerontological principles into oncology settings. Working closely with interdisciplinary team members, nurses should utilize available resources and continue to build evidence through gero-oncology nursing research. PMID:26830263

  5. The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steinbjørn

    2016-01-01

    advantage of reporting indicators is the related multidisciplinary discussions giving a better understanding of what actually is going on, thereby facilitating the work on adjusting the national guidelines in the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group. CONCLUSION: The establishment of DNOR has optimized the quality...... in handling primary brain tumor patients in Denmark by reporting indicators and facilitating a better multidisciplinary collaboration at a national level. DNOR provides a valuable resource for research.......AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) was established by the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group as a national clinical database. It was established for the purpose of supporting research and development in adult patients with primary brain tumors in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: DNOR has...

  6. Palliative care communication in oncology nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Joy; Ferrell, Betty; Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Ragan, Sandra L

    2013-04-01

    Oncology nurses consistently exhibit distress when communicating about end-of-life topics with patients and families. Poor communication experiences and processes correlate with emotional distress, moral distress, and work-related stress. The National Consensus Project (NCP) for Quality Palliative Care developed clinical practice guidelines to establish quality standards for the practice of palliative care. NCP's guidelines are expressly intended as an interdisciplinary document and are representative of the inherent interdisciplinary nature of palliative care. Communication's value to palliative and oncology nursing is unique because those two specialties include a high frequency of challenging interactions for patients, families, and healthcare professionals. The COMFORT communication curriculum, a holistic model for narrative clinical communication in practice developed for use in early palliative care, is posed as a resource for oncology nurses with a series of practice case examples presented against the backdrop of NCP's eight domains of quality palliative care.

  7. [Bipolar disorders in oncology: Characteristics and management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Michel; Kotecki, Nuria

    2017-05-01

    Bipolar disorders belong to the spectrum of mood disorders and represent a serious psychiatric comorbidity. Behaviors adopted by bipolar patients can foster cancer occurrence but also impact its management, especially during acute depressive or manic episode. Oncologists must adapt their protocols in order to obtain the best compliance for treatment and avoid any possible mood destabilization, with the inherent risk of suicidal attempt. Potential interactions between mood-stabilizing agents (lithium, divalproate, atypical antipsychotics, and anticonvulsivants) and oncologic treatment (chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, corticotherapy) will be particularly watched. To do so, a closely collaboration with the oncopsychiatrist but also with the referent or liaison psychiatry team is necessary during the patient's oncologic care. Some clinical vignettes will illustrate the modalities of care of bipolar disorders in oncology. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Board-Certified Oncology Pharmacists: Their Potential Contribution to Reducing a Shortfall in Oncology Patient Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignoffo, Robert; Knapp, Katherine; Barnett, Mitchell; Barbour, Sally Yowell; D'Amato, Steve; Iacovelli, Lew; Knudsen, Jasen; Koontz, Susannah E; Mancini, Robert; McBride, Ali; McCauley, Dayna; Medina, Patrick; O'Bryant, Cindy L; Scarpace, Sarah; Stricker, Steve; Trovato, James A

    2016-04-01

    With an aging US population, the number of patients who need cancer treatment will increase significantly by 2020. On the basis of a predicted shortage of oncology physicians, nonphysician health care practitioners will need to fill the shortfall in oncology patient visits, and nurse practitioners and physician assistants have already been identified for this purpose. This study proposes that appropriately trained oncology pharmacists can also contribute. The purpose of this study is to estimate the supply of Board of Pharmacy Specialties-certified oncology pharmacists (BCOPs) and their potential contribution to the care of patients with cancer through 2020. Data regarding accredited oncology pharmacy residencies, new BCOPs, and total BCOPs were used to estimate oncology residencies, new BCOPs, and total BCOPs through 2020. A Delphi panel process was used to estimate patient visits, identify patient care services that BCOPs could provide, and study limitations. By 2020, there will be an estimated 3,639 BCOPs, and approximately 62% of BCOPs will have completed accredited oncology pharmacy residencies. Delphi panelists came to consensus (at least 80% agreement) on eight patient care services that BCOPs could provide. Although the estimates given by our model indicate that BCOPs could provide 5 to 7 million 30-minute patient visits annually, sensitivity analysis, based on factors that could reduce potential visit availability resulted in 2.5 to 3.5 million visits by 2020 with the addition of BCOPs to the health care team. BCOPs can contribute to a projected shortfall in needed patient visits for cancer treatment. BCOPs, along with nurse practitioners and physician assistants could substantially reduce, but likely not eliminate, the shortfall of providers needed for oncology patient visits. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  9. Gender Opportunities in Psychosocial Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscalzo, Matthew; Clark, Karen

    2018-01-01

    So much has happened since the original publication of this chapter. In some ways, the progress made in appreciating the full spectrum of sexual and gender expression has been uneven and in some nations, there has been serious regression and resulting repression. But overall, especially in the industrialized countries, there is much greater awareness of sex and gender and its importance in health and well being. In this updated chapter, we put sex and gender into a historical context that is relevant to psycho-oncology and that openly accepts that society overall, is highly conflicted when it comes to how women and men get the best out of each other, never mind how to best integrate lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities. With the advent of more tailored treatments and strategic medicine, sex becomes much more important as a variable and this has led to greater scientific requirements to create protocols that integrate sex into all aspects of health from prevention, diagnosis, treatment, survivorship, and death. But we still have a very far way to go. There is a serious dearth of data on sex and gender in science overall and in cancer medicine specifically. Avoidance of discussions of sex and gender in medicine reflects the larger lingering societal discomfort with any discussion that links potential sex and gender differences with superiority. The data shows that there is more intrasexual than intersexual variation in men and women. When speaking about sex and gender the literature reflects that, on average, there are many differences, and although they are small, that when taken together, the impact may be quite robust. Sex and gender differences are relevant to how individuals, couples, and families experience and cope with serious illness; however these important and obvious variables are seldom taken into account when counseling seriously ill patients and their families. Cancer is a complex disease that brings into sharp relief the

  10. Contemporary Trends in Radiation Oncology Resident Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Vivek [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Burt, Lindsay [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Gimotty, Phyllis A. [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ojerholm, Eric, E-mail: eric.ojerholm@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that recent resident research productivity might be different than a decade ago, and to provide contemporary information about resident scholarly activity. Methods and Materials: We compiled a list of radiation oncology residents from the 2 most recent graduating classes (June 2014 and 2015) using the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology annual directories. We queried the PubMed database for each resident's first-authored publications from postgraduate years (PGY) 2 through 5, plus a 3-month period after residency completion. We abstracted corresponding historical data for 2002 to 2007 from the benchmark publication by Morgan and colleagues (Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009;74:1567-1572). We tested the null hypothesis that these 2 samples had the same distribution for number of publications using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. We explored the association of demographic factors and publication number using multivariable zero-inflated Poisson regression. Results: There were 334 residents publishing 659 eligible first-author publications during residency (range 0-17; interquartile range 0-3; mean 2.0; median 1). The contemporary and historical distributions were significantly different (P<.001); contemporary publication rates were higher. Publications accrued late in residency (27% in PGY-4, 59% in PGY-5), and most were original research (75%). In the historical cohort, half of all articles were published in 3 journals; in contrast, the top half of contemporary publications were spread over 10 journals—most commonly International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics (17%), Practical Radiation Oncology (7%), and Radiation Oncology (4%). Male gender, non-PhD status, and larger residency size were associated with higher number of publications in the multivariable analysis. Conclusion: We observed an increase in first-author publications during training compared with historical data from the mid-2000s. These

  11. Contemporary Trends in Radiation Oncology Resident Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vivek; Burt, Lindsay; Gimotty, Phyllis A; Ojerholm, Eric

    2016-11-15

    To test the hypothesis that recent resident research productivity might be different than a decade ago, and to provide contemporary information about resident scholarly activity. We compiled a list of radiation oncology residents from the 2 most recent graduating classes (June 2014 and 2015) using the Association of Residents in Radiation Oncology annual directories. We queried the PubMed database for each resident's first-authored publications from postgraduate years (PGY) 2 through 5, plus a 3-month period after residency completion. We abstracted corresponding historical data for 2002 to 2007 from the benchmark publication by Morgan and colleagues (Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009;74:1567-1572). We tested the null hypothesis that these 2 samples had the same distribution for number of publications using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. We explored the association of demographic factors and publication number using multivariable zero-inflated Poisson regression. There were 334 residents publishing 659 eligible first-author publications during residency (range 0-17; interquartile range 0-3; mean 2.0; median 1). The contemporary and historical distributions were significantly different (Presearch (75%). In the historical cohort, half of all articles were published in 3 journals; in contrast, the top half of contemporary publications were spread over 10 journals-most commonly International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics (17%), Practical Radiation Oncology (7%), and Radiation Oncology (4%). Male gender, non-PhD status, and larger residency size were associated with higher number of publications in the multivariable analysis. We observed an increase in first-author publications during training compared with historical data from the mid-2000s. These contemporary figures may be useful to medical students considering radiation oncology, current residents, training programs, and prospective employers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Anticancer drugs: Which prices for therapeutic innovations?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Anthony; Maraninchi, Dominique; Marino, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    The expanding knowledge of the biological mechanisms underlying tumor development made it possible the recent emergence of new therapeutic approaches that are considered as undoubtedly innovative. Yet, to define and to evaluate the magnitude of a drug innovation require an examination of its intrinsic drug properties, medical utility as well as its mode of emergence. Recently, international academic societies, such as ESMO and ASCO, have proposed practical tools that may help quantifying the medical value of a given innovation. Currently, the sustained flux of therapeutic innovations in oncology is associated with an unprecedented growth of costs, the actual determinants of which remain under debate, but raising the critical issue of drugs pricing, and their potential individual or societal "financial toxicity". Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. The effectiveness of drama therapy on preparation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in children suffering from cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Ilievová

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The integral part of the treatment of pediatric oncological patients is a range of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. These procedures are often associated with the fear and anxiety of the suffering child. We investigated whether a psychological preparation through drama therapy and the therapeutic puppet may reduce the anxiety related to diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the preschool or early school children suffering from cancer.Methods: Twenty consecutive pediatric patients of preschool and early school age, with the diagnosis of lymphoblastic leukemia, were included in the study. The patients were alternatingly assigned to experimental or control group, and subjected or not subjected to drama therapy, respectively. We measured the changes in heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate as indicators of anxiety and fear, before and after the diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.Results: Heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate in pediatric oncological patients before and after the diagnostic or therapeutic procedure were significantly lower in the experimental group of patients.Conclusion: Our results show that psychological preparation using drama therapy and therapeutic puppet reduced the fear and anxiety related to diagnostic or therapeutic procedures in pediatric oncological patients.Key words: drama therapy; therapeutic puppet; children; oncology; psychology 

  14. Integrative oncology in Indian subcontinent: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, Ananthalakshmi; Janardhanan, Sunitha; Jeevakarunyam, Sathiyajeeva; Jeddy, Nadheem; Eagappan, Senthil

    2015-03-01

    Integrative oncology is a combination of one where complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) with conventional cancer treatment modalities is used to manage symptoms, control side-effects and improve the state of mental wellbeing. The ancient Indian medicinal approach in cancer treatment and management has a wide array of herbs and practices. There is an increasing demand for traditional and natural medicine by the cancer patients. The conventional oncologic surgeons and physicians should be aware of the role of cCAM that are available in Indian subcontinent and provide a treatment that focuses on the physical and mental state of wellness in combating cancer.

  15. Role of music therapy in integrative oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, Lucanne

    2006-01-01

    Music therapy is an evidence-based complementary therapy that enhances quality of life in cancer patients and their caregivers. The role of music therapy in integrative oncology encompassed care and treatment of patients and family members , ongoing collaboration with the health care team, and the provision of music therapy services that may benefit the cancer center community. Clinical work includes ongoing assessment and the implementation of specific music therapy techniques aimed at reducing challenging symptoms and enhancing overall well-being and quality of life. This article outlines music therapy methods and the role that the music therapist has in integrative oncology programs.

  16. Three-dimensional bio-printing: A new frontier in oncology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbe, Nitin; McCarron, Paul A; Tambuwala, Murtaza M

    2017-01-01

    Current research in oncology deploys methods that rely principally on two-dimensional (2D) mono-cell cultures and animal models. Although these methodologies have led to significant advancement in the development of novel experimental therapeutic agents with promising anticancer activity in the laboratory, clinicians still struggle to manage cancer in the clinical setting. The disappointing translational success is attributable mainly to poor representation and recreation of the cancer microenvironment present in human neoplasia. Three-dimensional (3D) bio-printed models could help to simulate this micro-environment, with recent bio-printing of live human cells demonstrating that effective in vitro replication is achievable. This literature review outlines up-to-date advancements and developments in the use of 3D bio-printed models currently being used in oncology research. These innovative advancements in 3D bio-printing open up a new frontier for oncology research and could herald an era of progressive clinical cancer therapeutics. PMID:28246583

  17. Nuclear medicine radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Complexities of the requirements for accurate radiation dosimetry evaluation in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine (including PET) have grown over the past decade. This is due primarily to four factors: growing consideration of accurate patient-specific treatment planning for radionuclide therapy as a means of improving the therapeutic benefit, development of more realistic anthropomorphic phantoms and their use in estimating radiation transport and dosimetry in patients, design and use of advanced Monte Carlo algorithms in calculating the above-mentioned radiation transport and

  18. Oncology nursing in Cuba: report of the delegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Lisa Kennedy; Leonard, Kathleen; Gross, Anne; Hartnett, Erin; Poage, Ellen; Squires, Jennifer; Ullemeyer, Vicki; Schueller, Mary; Stary, Susan; Miller, Mary Alice

    2012-08-01

    In December 2011, the first delegation of oncology nurses from the United States visited Havana, Cuba. The delegation included oncology nurses, educators, and leaders from across America and provided opportunities to learn about the healthcare system, cancer, and oncology nursing in Cuba. Delegation members attended lectures, toured facilities, and enjoyed Cuban culture. This exchange highlighted the similarities in cancer care and oncology nursing between countries and opened doors for future collaborations.

  19. The experiential world of the Oncology nurse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia le Roux

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In her experiential world, the oncology nurse experiences unique, challenging and rewarding relationships in a multidimensional, dynamic way. The aim of this study was to describe, from her viewpoint and perspective, how she experiences and reacts to this world. Through this study the researcher wants the oncology nurse’s voice to be heard, the richness of her story acknowledged and the derived data to be applied to the benefit of the field of oncology. In-depth, unstructured phenomenological interviews provided the saturated data from which the uniqueness of the world of the oncology nurse unfolded as the uniqueness of the oncology patients and their world emerged clearly. Findings show that the oncology nurse, attending to the cancer patients and their family, experiences many different relationships. The uniqueness of the oncology nurse-patient relationship is described as unlike any other nurse-patient relationship. The challenging interpersonal relationships with management and other members of the multiprofessional team, as experienced from the perspective of the oncology nurse, are also highlighted. Furthermore, a unifying intrapersonal relationship with the self was identified. This enables the oncology nurse to be both on the giving and receiving end of the intensely emotional environment she works in, explaining, at least partly, the high job satisfaction that permeated the interviews in this study. Recommendations for nursing practice, education and research were formulated. Opsomming In haar leefwêreld ondervind onkologieverpleegkundige unieke, uitdagende en belonende verhoudinge op ‘n multidimensionele en dinamiese wyse. Die doel van hierdie studie was om ‘n beskrywing van die onkologieverpleegkundige se ervarings van en reaksie op haar leefwêreld vanuit haar oogpunt en perspektief. Deur middel van hierdie studie wil die navorser die stem van die onkologieverpleegkundige gehoor laat word, die rykdom van haar verhaal

  20. The experiential world of the Oncology nurse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalena van Rooyen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In her experiential world, the oncology nurse experiences unique, challenging and rewarding relationships in a multidimensional, dynamic way. The aim of this study was to describe, from her viewpoint and perspective, how she experiences and reacts to this world. Through this study the researcher wants the oncology nurse’s voice to be heard, the richness of her story acknowledged and the derived data to be applied to the benefit of the field of oncology. In-depth, unstructured phenomenological interviews provided the saturated data from which the uniqueness of the world of the oncology nurse unfolded as the uniqueness of the oncology patients and their world emerged clearly. Findings show that the oncology nurse, attending to the cancer patients and their family, experiences many different relationships. The uniqueness of the oncology nurse-patient relationship is described as unlike any other nurse-patient relationship. The challenging interpersonal relationships with management and other members of the multiprofessional team, as experienced from the perspective of the oncology nurse, are also highlighted. Furthermore, a unifying intrapersonal relationship with the self was identified. This enables the oncology nurse to be both on the giving and receiving end of the intensely emotional environment she works in, explaining, at least partly, the high job satisfaction that permeated the interviews in this study. Recommendations for nursing practice, education and research were formulated. Opsomming In haar leefwêreld ondervind onkologieverpleegkundige unieke, uitdagende en belonende verhoudinge op ‘n multidimensionele en dinamiese wyse. Die doel van hierdie studie was om ‘n beskrywing van die onkologieverpleegkundige se ervarings van en reaksie op haar leefwêreld vanuit haar oogpunt en perspektief. Deur middel van hierdie studie wil die navorser die stem van die onkologieverpleegkundige gehoor laat word, die rykdom van haar verhaal erken en

  1. 75 FR 81283 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Cancellation AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The meeting of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory... of December 6, 2010 (75 FR 75680). On February 9, 2011, the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee was...

  2. Radiolabelled peptides for oncological diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laverman, Peter; Boerman, Otto C.; Oyen, Wim J.G. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Sosabowski, Jane K. [Queen Mary University of London, Centre for Molecular Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    Radiolabelled receptor-binding peptides targeting receptors (over)expressed on tumour cells are widely under investigation for tumour diagnosis and therapy. The concept of using radiolabelled receptor-binding peptides to target receptor-expressing tissues in vivo has stimulated a large body of research in nuclear medicine. The {sup 111}In-labelled somatostatin analogue octreotide (OctreoScan trademark) is the most successful radiopeptide for tumour imaging, and was the first to be approved for diagnostic use. Based on the success of these studies, other receptor-targeting peptides such as cholecystokinin/gastrin analogues, glucagon-like peptide-1, bombesin (BN), chemokine receptor CXCR4 targeting peptides, and RGD peptides are currently under development or undergoing clinical trials. In this review, we discuss some of these peptides and their analogues, with regard to their potential for radionuclide imaging of tumours. (orig.)

  3. Successful Translation of Fluorescence Navigation During Oncologic Surgery: A Consensus Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Eben L; Warram, Jason M; de Boer, Esther; Basilion, James P; Biel, Merrill A; Bogyo, Matthew; Bouvet, Michael; Brigman, Brian E; Colson, Yolonda L; DeMeester, Steven R; Gurtner, Geoffrey C; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Jacobs, Paula M; Keereweer, Stijn; Liao, Joseph C; Nguyen, Quyen T; Olson, James M; Paulsen, Keith D; Rieves, Dwaine; Sumer, Baran D; Tweedle, Michael F; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L; Weichert, Jamey P; Wilson, Brian C; Zenn, Michael R; Zinn, Kurt R; van Dam, Gooitzen M

    2016-01-01

    Navigation with fluorescence guidance has emerged in the last decade as a promising strategy to improve the efficacy of oncologic surgery. To achieve routine clinical use, the onus is on the surgical community to objectively assess the value of this technique. This assessment may facilitate both Food and Drug Administration approval of new optical imaging agents and reimbursement for the imaging procedures. It is critical to characterize fluorescence-guided procedural benefits over existing practices and to elucidate both the costs and the safety risks. This report is the result of a meeting of the International Society of Image Guided Surgery (www.isigs.org) on February 6, 2015, in Miami, Florida, and reflects a consensus of the participants' opinions. Our objective was to critically evaluate the imaging platform technology and optical imaging agents and to make recommendations for successful clinical trial development of this highly promising approach in oncologic surgery. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  4. AllergoOncology - the impact of allergy in oncology: EAACI position paper

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jensen-Jarolim, E.; Bax, H. J.; Bianchini, R.; Capron, M.; Corrigan, C.; Castells, M.; Dombrowicz, D.; Daniels-Wells, T. R.; Fazekas, J.; Fiebiger, E.; Gatault, S.; Gould, H. J.; Janda, Jozef; Josephs, D. H.; Karagiannis, P.; Levi-Schaffer, F.; Meshcheryaková, A.; Mechtcheriakova, D.; Mekori, Y.; Mungenast, F.; Nigro, E. A.; Penichet, M. L.; Redegeld, F.; Saul, L.; Singer, J.; Spicer, J. F.; Siccardi, A. G.; Spillner, E.; Turner, M. C.; Untersmayr, E.; Vangelista, L.; Karagiannis, S. N.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 6 (2017), s. 866-887 ISSN 0105-4538 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : allergooncology * allergy * atopy Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 7.361, year: 2016

  5. The future of imaging in veterinary oncology: learning from human medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoon, John S; Bryan, Jeffrey N

    2013-09-01

    Imaging technology is critical for adequate diagnosis and staging in human and veterinary oncology. Sensitive detection of lesions is necessary to determine appropriate local or systemic therapy and to monitor therapeutic results. New technology in digital radiography, ultrasound, and computed tomography (CT) scanning are now widely available in veterinary medicine. Advanced imaging with high-detail CT scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron-emission tomography (PET) are now available in academic centers and some private specialty practices. This review describes the current and future applications of these new imaging systems and modalities in veterinary oncology and how advanced imaging contributes to diagnosis, staging, and monitoring of cancers. The potential of molecular imaging for accurate, minimally invasive diagnosis and monitoring is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nuclear medicine in cancer diagnosis and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, V.; Zeltchan, R.; Medvedeva, A.; Sinilkin, I.; Bragina, O.

    2017-09-01

    Early cancer diagnosis remains one of the most actual problems of medicine, since it allows using the most effective methods of cancer treating. Unlike most diagnostic methods used in oncology, the methods of nuclear medicine allow assessing not so much the anatomic changes in the organ as the disturbance of metabolic processes in tumors and surrounding tissues. The authors describe the main radiopharmaceuticals used for diagnose and radiotherapy of malignant tumors.

  7. Japanese structure survey of radiation oncology in 2009 with special reference to designated cancer care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numasaki, Hodaka; Nishio, Masamichi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Koizumi, Masahiko; Tago, Masao; Ando, Yutaka; Tsukamoto, Nobuhiro; Terahara, Atsuro; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Murakami, Masao; Takahashi, Mitsuhiro; Teshima, Teruki

    2013-10-01

    The structure of radiation oncology in designated cancer care hospitals in Japan was surveyed in terms of equipment, personnel, patient load, and geographic distribution, and compared with the structure in other radiotherapy facilities and the previous survey. The Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology surveyed the national structure of radiation oncology in 2009. The structures of 365 designated cancer care hospitals and 335 other radiotherapy facilities were compared. Designated cancer care hospitals accounted for 50.0% of all the radiotherapy facilities in Japan. The patterns of equipment and personnel in designated cancer care hospitals and the other radiotherapy facilities were, respectively, as follows: linear accelerators per facility: 1.4 and 1.0; dual-energy function: 78.6 and 61.3%; three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy function: 88.5 and 70.0%; intensity-modulated radiotherapy function: 51.6 and 25.3%; annual number of patients per linear accelerator: 301.3 and 185.2; Ir-192 remote-controlled after-loading systems: 31.8 and 4.2%; and average number of full-time equivalent radiation oncologists per facility: 1.8 and 0.8. Compared with the previous survey, the ownership ratio of equipment and personnel improved in both designated cancer care hospitals and the other radiotherapy facilities. Annual patient loads per full-time equivalent radiation oncologist in the designated cancer care hospitals and the other radiotherapy facilities were 225.5 and 247.6, respectively. These values exceeded the standard guidelines level of 200. The structure of radiation oncology in designated Japanese cancer care hospitals was more mature than that in the other radiotherapy facilities. There is still a shortage of personnel. The serious understaffing problem in radiation oncology should be corrected in the future.

  8. Energy Therapies in Advanced Practice Oncology: An Evidence-Informed Practice Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced practitioners in oncology want patients to receive state-of-the-art care and support for their healing process. Evidence-informed practice (EIP), an approach to evaluating evidence for clinical practice, considers the varieties of evidence in the context of patient preference and condition as well as practitioner knowledge and experience. This article offers an EIP approach to energy therapies, namely, Therapeutic Touch (TT), Healing Touch (HT), and Reiki, as supportive interventions in cancer care; a description of the author’s professional experience with TT, HT, and Reiki in practice and research; an overview of the three energy healing modalities; a review of nine clinical studies related to oncology; and recommendations for EIP. These studies demonstrate a response to previous research design critiques. Findings indicate a positive benefit for oncology patients in the realms of pain, quality of life, fatigue, health function, and mood. Directionality of healing in immune response and cell line studies affirms the usual explanation that these therapies bring harmony and balance to the system in the direction of health. Foremost, the research literature demonstrates the safety of these therapies. In order to consider the varieties of evidence for TT, HT, and Reiki, EIP requires a qualitative examination of patient experiences with these modalities, exploration of where these modalities have been integrated into cancer care and how the practice works in the oncology setting, and discovery of the impact of implementation on provider practice and self-care. Next steps toward EIP require fleshing out the experience of these modalities by patients and health-care providers in the oncology care setting. PMID:25031994

  9. Comparative oncology: Integrating human and veterinary medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer constitutes the major health problem both in human and veterinary medicine. Comparative oncology as an integrative approach offers to learn more about naturally occurring cancers across different species. Canine models have many advantages as they experience spontaneous disease, have many genes similar ...

  10. Clinical PET/MR Imaging in Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Andreas; Torigian, Drew A.

    2016-01-01

    . The question, therefore, arises regarding what the future clinical applications of PET/MR imaging will be. In this article, the authors discuss ways in which PET/MR imaging may be used in future applications that justify the added cost, predominantly focusing on oncologic applications. The authors suggest...

  11. Managing integrated oncology treatment in virtual networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanicki, Verena; Becker, Matthias; Böckmann, Britta

    2015-01-01

    Interdisciplinary and intersectoral coordinated healthcare management based on Clinical Practice Guidelines is essential to achieve high quality in oncological networks. The objective of our research project is to create a cookbook, which can be used by oncological networks as a template. The cookbook is based on guideline-compliant care processes. To develop these care processes, the three S3-guidelines breast, colon and prostate carcinoma have been formalized. The thus-obtained platform-independent process fragments were transformed into an underlying metamodel, which is based on HL7 and can be used for modeling clinical pathways. Additional, qualitative guided interviews were chosen to capitalize on the experts' (e.g. chief residents, resident specialists) wide knowledge and experience in oncological health care management. One of these use cases (tumor board scheduling) is developed for a healthcare management platform which is linked to a national electronic case record. The projected result of our approach is a cookbook which shows, how the treatment can be controlled by interdisciplinary and intersectoral care processes in an oncological network.

  12. Ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Kely Regina; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Schmidtt, Pablo Henrique; Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; Tomaschewski-Barlem, Jamila Geri; da Rosa, Luciana Martins

    2015-01-01

    To know the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses. Descriptive and exploratory study with a qualitative approach, performed in inpatient units and in chemotherapy out-patients units that provide assistance to oncological patients in two capitals in the South region of Brazil. Eighteen nurses participated in this study, selected by snowball sampling type. For data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out, which were recorded and transcribed, and then analyzed by thematic analysis. Two categories were established: when informing or not becomes a dilemma - showing the main difficulties related to oncological treatment information regarding health staff, health system, and infrastructure; to invest or not - dilemmas related to finitude - showing situations of dilemmas related to pain and confrontation with finitude. For the effective confrontation of the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses to occur, it is important to invest in the training of these professionals, preparing them in an ethical and human way to act as lawyers of the patient with cancer, in a context of dilemmas related mainly to the possibility of finitude.

  13. Ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely Regina da Luz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to know the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses. Method: descriptive and exploratory study with a qualitative approach, performed in inpatient units and in chemotherapy out-patients units that provide assistance to oncological patients in two capitals in the South region of Brazil. Eighteen nurses participated in this study, selected by snowball sampling type. For data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out, which were recorded and transcribed, and then analyzed by thematic analysis. Results: two categories were established: when informing or not becomes a dilemma - showing the main difficulties related to oncological treatment information regarding health staff, health system, and infrastructure; to invest or not - dilemmas related to finitude - showing situations of dilemmas related to pain and confrontation with finitude. Conclusion: for the effective confrontation of the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses to occur, it is important to invest in the training of these professionals, preparing them in an ethical and human way to act as lawyers of the patient with cancer, in a context of dilemmas related mainly to the possibility of finitude.

  14. Employing healthcare assistants in paediatric oncology units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Helen; Coyne, Rachel

    2009-11-01

    This article examines the potential benefits of employing healthcare assistants in paediatric oncology departments. It explores the implications for role definition, workforce planning, training, regulation, accountability and delegation. The article considers whether this alternative to employing more registered nurses is an effective initiative that can improve services for children, young people and their carers.

  15. CHONDROSARCOMA OF BONE - ONCOLOGIC AND FUNCTIONAL RESULTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLOON, CJM; VETH, RPH; PRUSZCZYNSKI, M; WOBBES, T; LEMMENS, JAM; VANHORN, J

    1994-01-01

    A retrospective review of 27 patients (21 males and 6 females) with chondrosarcoma of bone was performed to evaluate the oncologic and functional results. The average age of the patients was 48 years (range: 17-76). The tumor sites were pelvis in 10 cases, distal femur in 2, proximal tibia in 3, rib

  16. [Analysis of hepato-digestive oncology practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, Florence; Cornu, Chloé; Marterer, Justine; Thegarid, Héléne

    2014-09-01

    Help nursing students and new professionals to understand the different facets of care is at the heart of the managerial and pedagogical process coordinated by the health framework. The formalisation and use of learning situations promote the identification of opportunities for learning, modelling and the assessment of practices. Feedback from the hepato-digestive oncology service.

  17. National Survey Among Radiation Oncology Residents Related to Their Needs in Geriatric Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, Rachel; Bristow, Bonnie; Puts, Martine; Alibhai, Shabbir; Cao, Xingshan; Millar, Barbara-Ann; Giuliani, Meredith; Hsu, Tina; Trudeau, Maureen; Mehta, Rajin; Menjak, Ines; Norris, Mireille; Liu, Barbara; Gallant, Francois; Szumacher, Ewa

    2017-06-24

    Currently, there is no formal curriculum addressing geriatric oncology within Canadian radiation oncology (RO) residency programs. Knowledge related to geriatric medicine may help radiation oncologists modify RT based on frailty status and geriatric considerations. Understanding specific learning needs allow program coordinators to align the current curriculum with residents' geriatric oncology learning needs. The purpose of this study is to determine the geriatric oncology educational needs of the Canadian RO residents and to inform Canadian RO residency training. A cross-sectional survey, with Likert, multiple choice, and open-ended questions, was pretested and distributed electronically by program directors to Canadian RO residents over 6 weeks. Responses were analyzed with descriptive statistics and common themes. One-hundred and thirty-five Canadian RO residents were contacted and 63 responded (47%). Half (49%) lacked confidence managing the elderly with multiple comorbidities, polypharmacy, functional and cognitive impairment, and challenging social circumstances;73% agreed additional training would be helpful. Forty-four percent lacked confidence regarding psychogeriatric referrals, fall prevention, palliative and hospice care, and community resources preventing re-hospitalization; 63% agreed additional training would be helpful. Seventy-six percent believed discussion groups, continuing education, geriatric oncology electives, and journal clubs would provide learning opportunities. Seventy-one percent agreed integrating geriatric assessment into RO curricula would improve care. Seventy-nine percent believed geriatric oncology principles have not been adequately integrated into radiation oncology curricula. There are significant gaps specific to geriatric assessment and management of older cancer patients in the current Canadian RO curricula. Most residents agreed that it is important to integrate geriatric oncology training to improve and personalize the

  18. Atlas of PET/MR imaging in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratib, Osman [University Hospital of Geneva (Switzerland). Nuclear Medicine Division; Schwaiger, Markus [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik; Beyer, Thomas (eds.) [General Hospital Vienna (Austria). Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering

    2013-08-01

    Numerous illustrated clinical cases in different oncology domains. Includes digital interactive software matching the cases in the book. Interactive version based on the latest web standard, HTML5, ensuring the widest compatibility. Edited by three international opinion leaders/imaging experts in the field. This new project on PET/MR imaging in oncology includes digital interactive software matching the cases in the book. The interactive version of the atlas is based on the latest web standard, HTML5, ensuring compatibility with any computer operating system as well as a dedicated version for Apple iPad and iPhone. The book opens with an introduction to the principles of hybrid imaging that pays particular attention to PET/MR imaging and standard PET/MR acquisition protocols. A wide range of illustrated clinical case reports are then presented. Each case study includes a short clinical history, findings, and teaching points, followed by illustrations, legends, and comments. The multimedia version of the book includes dynamic movies that allow the reader to browse through series of rotating 3D images (MIP or volume rendered), display blending between PET and MR, and dynamic visualization of 3D image volumes. The movies can be played either continuously or sequentially for better exploration of sets of images. The editors of this state-of-the-art publication are key opinion leaders in the field of multimodality imaging. Professor Osman Ratib (Geneva) and Professor Markus Schwaiger (Munich) were the first in Europe to initiate the clinical adoption of PET/MR imaging. Professor Thomas Beyer (Zurich) is an internationally renowned pioneering physicist in the field of hybrid imaging. Individual clinical cases presented in this book are co-authored by leading international radiologists and nuclear physicians experts in the use of PET and MRI.

  19. ESMO / ASCO Recommendations for a Global Curriculum in Medical Oncology Edition 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Christian; Kosty, Michael; Jezdic, Svetlana; Pyle, Doug; Berardi, Rossana; Bergh, Jonas; El-Saghir, Nagi; Lotz, Jean-Pierre; Österlund, Pia; Pavlidis, Nicholas; Purkalne, Gunta; Awada, Ahmad; Banerjee, Susana; Bhatia, Smita; Bogaerts, Jan; Buckner, Jan; Cardoso, Fatima; Casali, Paolo; Chu, Edward; Close, Julia Lee; Coiffier, Bertrand; Connolly, Roisin; Coupland, Sarah; De Petris, Luigi; De Santis, Maria; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Dizon, Don S; Duff, Jennifer; Duska, Linda R; Eniu, Alexandru; Ernstoff, Marc; Felip, Enriqueta; Fey, Martin F; Gilbert, Jill; Girard, Nicolas; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Gopalan, Priya K; Grothey, Axel; Hahn, Stephen M; Hanna, Diana; Herold, Christian; Herrstedt, Jørn; Homicsko, Krisztian; Jones, Dennie V; Jost, Lorenz; Keilholz, Ulrich; Khan, Saad; Kiss, Alexander; Köhne, Claus-Henning; Kunstfeld, Rainer; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Lichtman, Stuart; Licitra, Lisa; Lion, Thomas; Litière, Saskia; Liu, Lifang; Loehrer, Patrick J; Markham, Merry Jennifer; Markman, Ben; Mayerhoefer, Marius; Meran, Johannes G; Michielin, Olivier; Moser, Elizabeth Charlotte; Mountzios, Giannis; Moynihan, Timothy; Nielsen, Torsten; Ohe, Yuichiro; Öberg, Kjell; Palumbo, Antonio; Peccatori, Fedro Alessandro; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Raut, Chandrajit; Remick, Scot C; Robson, Mark; Rutkowski, Piotr; Salgado, Roberto; Schapira, Lidia; Schernhammer, Eva; Schlumberger, Martin; Schmoll, Hans-Joachim; Schnipper, Lowell; Sessa, Cristiana; Shapiro, Charles L; Steele, Julie; Sternberg, Cora N; Stiefel, Friedrich; Strasser, Florian; Stupp, Roger; Sullivan, Richard; Tabernero, Josep; Travado, Luzia; Verheij, Marcel; Voest, Emile; Vokes, Everett; Von Roenn, Jamie; Weber, Jeffrey S; Wildiers, Hans; Yarden, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) are publishing a new edition of the ESMO/ASCO Global Curriculum (GC) thanks to contribution of 64 ESMO-appointed and 32 ASCO-appointed authors. First published in 2004 and updated in 2010, the GC edition 2016 answers to the need for updated recommendations for the training of physicians in medical oncology by defining the standard to be fulfilled to qualify as medical oncologists. At times of internationalisation of healthcare and increased mobility of patients and physicians, the GC aims to provide state-of-the-art cancer care to all patients wherever they live. Recent progress in the field of cancer research has indeed resulted in diagnostic and therapeutic innovations such as targeted therapies as a standard therapeutic approach or personalised cancer medicine apart from the revival of immunotherapy, requiring specialised training for medical oncology trainees. Thus, several new chapters on technical contents such as molecular pathology, translational research or molecular imaging and on conceptual attitudes towards human principles like genetic counselling or survivorship have been integrated in the GC. The GC edition 2016 consists of 12 sections with 17 subsections, 44 chapters and 35 subchapters, respectively. Besides renewal in its contents, the GC underwent a principal formal change taking into consideration modern didactic principles. It is presented in a template-based format that subcategorises the detailed outcome requirements into learning objectives, awareness, knowledge and skills. Consecutive steps will be those of harmonising and implementing teaching and assessment strategies.

  20. ESMO / ASCO Recommendations for a Global Curriculum in Medical Oncology Edition 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Christian; Kosty, Michael; Jezdic, Svetlana; Pyle, Doug; Berardi, Rossana; Bergh, Jonas; El-Saghir, Nagi; Lotz, Jean-Pierre; Österlund, Pia; Pavlidis, Nicholas; Purkalne, Gunta; Awada, Ahmad; Banerjee, Susana; Bhatia, Smita; Bogaerts, Jan; Buckner, Jan; Cardoso, Fatima; Casali, Paolo; Chu, Edward; Close, Julia Lee; Coiffier, Bertrand; Connolly, Roisin; Coupland, Sarah; De Petris, Luigi; De Santis, Maria; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Dizon, Don S; Duff, Jennifer; Duska, Linda R; Eniu, Alexandru; Ernstoff, Marc; Felip, Enriqueta; Fey, Martin F; Gilbert, Jill; Girard, Nicolas; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Gopalan, Priya K; Grothey, Axel; Hahn, Stephen M; Hanna, Diana; Herold, Christian; Herrstedt, Jørn; Homicsko, Krisztian; Jones, Dennie V; Jost, Lorenz; Keilholz, Ulrich; Khan, Saad; Kiss, Alexander; Köhne, Claus-Henning; Kunstfeld, Rainer; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Lichtman, Stuart; Licitra, Lisa; Lion, Thomas; Litière, Saskia; Liu, Lifang; Loehrer, Patrick J; Markham, Merry Jennifer; Markman, Ben; Mayerhoefer, Marius; Meran, Johannes G; Michielin, Olivier; Moser, Elizabeth Charlotte; Mountzios, Giannis; Moynihan, Timothy; Nielsen, Torsten; Ohe, Yuichiro; Öberg, Kjell; Palumbo, Antonio; Peccatori, Fedro Alessandro; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Raut, Chandrajit; Remick, Scot C; Robson, Mark; Rutkowski, Piotr; Salgado, Roberto; Schapira, Lidia; Schernhammer, Eva; Schlumberger, Martin; Schmoll, Hans-Joachim; Schnipper, Lowell; Sessa, Cristiana; Shapiro, Charles L; Steele, Julie; Sternberg, Cora N; Stiefel, Friedrich; Strasser, Florian; Stupp, Roger; Sullivan, Richard; Tabernero, Josep; Travado, Luzia; Verheij, Marcel; Voest, Emile; Vokes, Everett; Von Roenn, Jamie; Weber, Jeffrey S; Wildiers, Hans; Yarden, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    The European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) are publishing a new edition of the ESMO/ASCO Global Curriculum (GC) thanks to contribution of 64 ESMO-appointed and 32 ASCO-appointed authors. First published in 2004 and updated in 2010, the GC edition 2016 answers to the need for updated recommendations for the training of physicians in medical oncology by defining the standard to be fulfilled to qualify as medical oncologists. At times of internationalisation of healthcare and increased mobility of patients and physicians, the GC aims to provide state-of-the-art cancer care to all patients wherever they live. Recent progress in the field of cancer research has indeed resulted in diagnostic and therapeutic innovations such as targeted therapies as a standard therapeutic approach or personalised cancer medicine apart from the revival of immunotherapy, requiring specialised training for medical oncology trainees. Thus, several new chapters on technical contents such as molecular pathology, translational research or molecular imaging and on conceptual attitudes towards human principles like genetic counselling or survivorship have been integrated in the GC. The GC edition 2016 consists of 12 sections with 17 subsections, 44 chapters and 35 subchapters, respectively. Besides renewal in its contents, the GC underwent a principal formal change taking into consideration modern didactic principles. It is presented in a template-based format that subcategorises the detailed outcome requirements into learning objectives, awareness, knowledge and skills. Consecutive steps will be those of harmonising and implementing teaching and assessment strategies. PMID:27843641

  1. American Society of Clinical Oncology National Census of Oncology Practices: Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Gaetano J.; Hanley, Amy; Hagerty, Karen; Kurup, Anupama; Neuss, Michael N.; Mulvey, Therese M.

    2013-01-01

    In response to reports of increasing financial and administrative burdens on oncology practices and a lack of systematic information related to these issues, American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) leadership started an effort to collect key practice-level data from all oncology practices in the United States. The result of the effort is the ASCO National Census of Oncology Practices (Census) launched in June 2012. The initial Census work involved compiling an inventory of oncology practices from existing lists of oncology physicians in the United States. A comprehensive, online data collection instrument was developed, which covered a number of areas, including practice characteristics (staffing configuration, organizational structure, patient mix and volume, types of services offered); organizational, staffing, and service changes over the past 12 months; and an assessment of the likelihood that the practice would experience organizational, staffing, and service changes in the next 12 months. More than 600 practices participated in the Census by providing information. In this article, we present preliminary highlights from the data gathered to date. We found that practice size was related to having experienced practice mergers, hiring additional staff, and increasing staff pay in the past 12 months, that geographic location was related to having experienced hiring additional staff, and that practices in metropolitan areas were more likely to have experienced practice mergers in the past 12 months than those in nonmetropolitan areas. We also found that practice size and geographic location were related to higher likelihoods of anticipating practice mergers, sales, and purchases in the future. PMID:23633966

  2. Aspirin for Prophylaxis Against Venous Thromboembolism After Orthopaedic Oncologic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Gregory M; Patel, Yash M; Ricketti, Daniel A; Gaughan, John P; Lackman, Richard D; Kim, Tae Won B

    2017-12-06

    Patients who undergo orthopaedic oncologic surgical procedures are at increased risk of developing a venous thromboembolism (VTE). Guidelines from surgical societies are shifting to include aspirin as a postoperative VTE prophylactic agent. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using aspirin as postoperative VTE prophylaxis for orthopaedic oncologic surgical procedures. This study was a retrospective review of patients diagnosed with a primary malignant soft-tissue or bone tumor or metastatic carcinoma. Demographic information, histopathologic diagnosis, VTE history, surgical procedure, and VTE prophylaxis were analyzed. VTE rates in the overall and prophylactic-specific cohorts were recorded and compared. A total of 142 distinct surgical procedures in 130 patients were included. VTE prophylaxis with aspirin was used after 103 procedures, and non-aspirin prophylaxis was used after 39. In 33 cases, imaging was used to investigate for VTE because of clinical signs and symptoms. VTE developed after 7 (4.9%) of the 142 procedures. There were 6 deep venous thromboses (DVTs) and 1 pulmonary embolism, and 2 of the VTEs presented in patients with a VTE history. VTE developed in 2.9% (3) of the 103 aspirin cases and 10.3% (4) of the 39 non-aspirin cases. No patient in the aspirin group who had been diagnosed with metastatic carcinoma, malignant soft-tissue sarcoma, lymphoma, or multiple myeloma developed a VTE. Risk factors for VTE development included diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR] = 10.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.61 to 67.30), a history of VTE (OR = 7.26, 95% CI = 1.19 to 44.25), postoperative transfusion (OR = 34.50, 95% CI = 3.94 to 302.01), and estimated blood losses of 250 mL (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.11 to 2.03), 500 mL (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.23 to 4.13), and 1,000 mL (OR = 5.10, 95% CI = 1.52 to 17.04). Aspirin may be a suitable and effective option for VTE chemoprophylaxis in patients treated with orthopaedic oncologic surgery, especially

  3. Integration of oncology and palliative care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, David; Kim, Yu Jung; Park, Ji Chan; Zhang, Yi; Strasser, Florian; Cherny, Nathan; Kaasa, Stein; Davis, Mellar P; Bruera, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Both the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society for Medical Oncology strongly endorse integrating oncology and palliative care (PC); however, a global consensus on what constitutes integration is currently lacking. To better understand what integration entails, we conducted a systematic review to identify articles addressing the clinical, educational, research, and administrative indicators of integration. We searched Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid EMBase between 1948 and 2013. Two researchers independently reviewed each citation for inclusion and extracted the indicators related to integration. The inter-rater agreement was high (κ = 0.96, p oncology journals (59%) and in or after 2010 (64%, p oncology and PC. ©AlphaMed Press.

  4. Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetty, Indrin J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Martel, Mary K., E-mail: mmartel@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jaffray, David A. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Benedict, Stanley H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California – Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Berbeco, Ross [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Deye, James [Radiation Research Programs, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Jeraj, Robert [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Kavanagh, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Krishnan, Sunil [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, Nancy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Low, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California – Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Mankoff, David [Department of Radiology, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, Washington (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina Hospitals, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Ollendorf, Daniel [Institute for Clinical and Economic Review, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); and others

    2015-11-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective, personalized cancer treatment that has benefited from technological advances associated with the growing ability to identify and target tumors with accuracy and precision. Given that these advances have played a central role in the success of radiation therapy as a major component of comprehensive cancer care, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a workshop entitled “Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology,” which took place at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, on June 13 and 14, 2013. The purpose of this workshop was to discuss emerging technology for the field and to recognize areas for greater research investment. Expert clinicians and scientists discussed innovative technology in radiation oncology, in particular as to how these technologies are being developed and translated to clinical practice in the face of current and future challenges and opportunities. Technologies encompassed topics in functional imaging, treatment devices, nanotechnology, and information technology. The technical, quality, and safety performance of these technologies were also considered. A major theme of the workshop was the growing importance of innovation in the domain of process automation and oncology informatics. The technologically advanced nature of radiation therapy treatments predisposes radiation oncology research teams to take on informatics research initiatives. In addition, the discussion on technology development was balanced with a parallel conversation regarding the need for evidence of efficacy and effectiveness. The linkage between the need for evidence and the efforts in informatics research was clearly identified as synergistic.

  5. Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, Indrin J; Martel, Mary K; Jaffray, David A; Benedict, Stanley H; Hahn, Stephen M; Berbeco, Ross; Deye, James; Jeraj, Robert; Kavanagh, Brian; Krishnan, Sunil; Lee, Nancy; Low, Daniel A; Mankoff, David; Marks, Lawrence B; Ollendorf, Daniel; Paganetti, Harald; Ross, Brian; Siochi, Ramon Alfredo C; Timmerman, Robert D; Wong, John W

    2015-11-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective, personalized cancer treatment that has benefited from technological advances associated with the growing ability to identify and target tumors with accuracy and precision. Given that these advances have played a central role in the success of radiation therapy as a major component of comprehensive cancer care, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a workshop entitled "Technology for Innovation in Radiation Oncology," which took place at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, on June 13 and 14, 2013. The purpose of this workshop was to discuss emerging technology for the field and to recognize areas for greater research investment. Expert clinicians and scientists discussed innovative technology in radiation oncology, in particular as to how these technologies are being developed and translated to clinical practice in the face of current and future challenges and opportunities. Technologies encompassed topics in functional imaging, treatment devices, nanotechnology, and information technology. The technical, quality, and safety performance of these technologies were also considered. A major theme of the workshop was the growing importance of innovation in the domain of process automation and oncology informatics. The technologically advanced nature of radiation therapy treatments predisposes radiation oncology research teams to take on informatics research initiatives. In addition, the discussion on technology development was balanced with a parallel conversation regarding the need for evidence of efficacy and effectiveness. The linkage between the need for evidence and the efforts in informatics research was clearly identified as synergistic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Swiss Society of Nuclear Medicine (SGNM/SSMN) 9th annual congress. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The article covers the abstracts of lectures held during the 9th Annual Congress of the Swiss Society of Nuclear Medicine (SGNM/SSMN) concerning the following topics: conventional diagnostics/SPECT-CT (6 abstracts), radiochemistry/therapy (6 abstracts), varia (8 abstracts), nuclear cardiology (11 abstracts), oncology/PET-CT (5 abstracts), Poster session (6 abstracts).

  7. Targeting nuclear receptors with marine natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunyan; Li, Qianrong; Li, Yong

    2014-01-27

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are important pharmaceutical targets because they are key regulators of many metabolic and inflammatory diseases, including diabetes, dyslipidemia, cirrhosis, and fibrosis. As ligands play a pivotal role in modulating nuclear receptor activity, the discovery of novel ligands for nuclear receptors represents an interesting and promising therapeutic approach. The search for novel NR agonists and antagonists with enhanced selectivities prompted the exploration of the extraordinary chemical diversity associated with natural products. Recent studies involving nuclear receptors have disclosed a number of natural products as nuclear receptor ligands, serving to re-emphasize the translational possibilities of natural products in drug discovery. In this review, the natural ligands of nuclear receptors will be described with an emphasis on their mechanisms of action and their therapeutic potentials, as well as on strategies to determine potential marine natural products as nuclear receptor modulators.

  8. Targeting Nuclear Receptors with Marine Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors (NRs are important pharmaceutical targets because they are key regulators of many metabolic and inflammatory diseases, including diabetes, dyslipidemia, cirrhosis, and fibrosis. As ligands play a pivotal role in modulating nuclear receptor activity, the discovery of novel ligands for nuclear receptors represents an interesting and promising therapeutic approach. The search for novel NR agonists and antagonists with enhanced selectivities prompted the exploration of the extraordinary chemical diversity associated with natural products. Recent studies involving nuclear receptors have disclosed a number of natural products as nuclear receptor ligands, serving to re-emphasize the translational possibilities of natural products in drug discovery. In this review, the natural ligands of nuclear receptors will be described with an emphasis on their mechanisms of action and their therapeutic potentials, as well as on strategies to determine potential marine natural products as nuclear receptor modulators.

  9. Multiple oncogenic roles of nuclear ß-catenin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raju Kumar

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... 1Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad, India. 2Manipal University ... Thus, b-catenin appears to possess a multifaceted nuclear function that may significantly impact tumour ... As a structural protein localized to the cell membrane, b- catenin plays ...

  10. Nuclear Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  11. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  12. Cats, Cancer and Comparative Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Cannon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring tumors in dogs are well-established models for several human cancers. Domestic cats share many of the benefits of dogs as a model (spontaneous cancers developing in an immunocompetent animal sharing the same environment as humans, shorter lifespan allowing more rapid trial completion and data collection, lack of standard of care for many cancers allowing evaluation of therapies in treatment-naïve populations, but have not been utilized to the same degree in the One Medicine approach to cancer. There are both challenges and opportunities in feline compared to canine models. This review will discuss three specific tumor types where cats may offer insights into human cancers. Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma is common, shares both clinical and molecular features with human head and neck cancer and is an attractive model for evaluating new therapies. Feline mammary tumors are usually malignant and aggressive, with the ‘triple-negative’ phenotype being more common than in humans, offering an enriched population in which to examine potential targets and treatments. Finally, although there is not an exact corollary in humans, feline injection site sarcoma may be a model for inflammation-driven tumorigenesis, offering opportunities for studying variations in individual susceptibility as well as preventative and therapeutic strategies.

  13. Highlights of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul, 2005: the incremental value of nuclear medicine for patient management and care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuocolo, Alberto; Acampa, Wanda; Varrone, Andrea; Salvatore, Marco [University of Naples Federico II, Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Institute of Biostructures and Bioimages of the National Council of Research, Naples (Italy)

    2006-03-15

    The 2005 Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) took place in Istanbul on October 15-19, under the chairmanship of Professor Hatice Durak. The programme was of excellent quality and represented a further step towards the achievement of a standardized EANM congress structure. A large industrial exhibition demonstrated the latest technological innovations and developments within the field. The congress was a great success: there were more than 4,000 participants, and 1,670 abstracts were received. Of these, 1,399 were accepted for oral or poster presentations, with a rejection rate of 16.2%. The original investigations presented were related to different areas of nuclear medicine, and addressed particularly advances in instrumentation and data processing, progress in radiochemistry and pharmacy, novel diagnostics and therapeutics, and new insights in well-established areas of clinical application, such as oncology, cardiology, neurology, psychiatry, endocrinology, paediatrics, nephrology, and infection and inflammation. It is noteworthy that a number of studies presented at this congress focussed on the quantitative interpretation of the imaging data and on pragmatic endpoints, such as adverse outcomes, and identified when nuclear medicine procedures achieved clinical effectiveness for patient care and management. These and many other studies presented at the congress demonstrate once more the crucial role that nuclear medicine has to play in contemporary medicine. This highlights lecture is only a brief summary of the large amount of data presented and discussed, which can be found in much greater detail in the congress proceedings book, published as volume 32, supplement 1 of the Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging in September 2005. (orig.)

  14. Joint congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine and the World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-08-01

    This volume contains the abstracts of the 588 oral communications, the 774 poster presentations and the 35 technological sessions. The topics were as follows: cardiovascular diseases, oncology, neurology/psychiatry, general nuclear medicine, endocrinology/thyroid, infection/inflammation, hematology, pediatrics, radionuclide therapy, dosimetry, radiobiology, physics and instrumentation, radiopharmacy and radiochemistry. (MG)

  15. 20. Brazilian congress on biology and nuclear medicine. Abstracts; 20. Congresso brasileiro de biologia e medicina nuclear. Resumos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Several aspects concerning the use of nuclear medicine in cardiology, oncology, neurology, endocrinology among other areas are studied. Various topics related to diagnosis and treatment of diseases are presented, e.g. radiotracers use, radiopharmaceuticals (mainly associated with technetium 99), development and standardization of radionuclides, structural chemical analysis, metabolism, biological functions. The scintiscanning is the most reported diagnostic technique.

  16. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  17. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    Partial Contents: Nuclear Weapons, Nuclear Development, Nuclear Power Plant, Uranium, Missiles, Space Firm Protested, Satellite, Rocket Launching, Nuclear Submarine, Environmental, Radioactivity, Nuclear Plant...

  18. Standardizing naming conventions in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Hurkmans, Coen; Mutic, Sasa; van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine; Brame, Scott; Straube, William; Galvin, James; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter

    2012-07-15

    The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were satisfactorily identified using this

  19. Nuclear spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ajzenberg-Selove, Fay

    1960-01-01

    Nuclear Spectroscopy, Part B focuses on the ways in which experimental data may be analyzed to furnish information about nuclear parameters and nuclear models in terms of which the data are interpreted.This book discusses the elastic and inelastic potential scattering amplitudes, role of beta decay in nuclear physics, and general selection rules for electromagnetic transitions. The nuclear shell model, fundamental coupling procedure, vibrational spectra, and empirical determination of the complex potential are also covered. This publication is suitable for graduate students preparing for exper

  20. Multifunctional laser therapeutic device: new technologies in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirin, V. N.; Chernenko, V. P.

    2005-08-01

    This paper considers the problems of application of high-power semiconductor lasers for designing multifunctional laser therapeutic devices (MLTD) and the prospects of their use in oncology and other areas of medicine. It is shown that the MLTD allows the realization of the method of combined photodynamic therapy (PDT) and laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) in treatment of oncology diseases of different localizations. The technology for treatment of cancer based on the method of combined PDT and LITT and the MLTD device conforms to the advanced world tends in treatment of oncology diseases with the use of laser radiation. The problems of interaction of laser radiation with a biological tissue in oncology and therapy of various pathologies are briefly considered, and the list of the main functional parameters of the MLTD is formulated. The problems of designing the hardware and algorithrmc software of the MLTD, the technical and user characteristics are considered, including the features of automatic digital c ontrol of laser power depending on the level of temperature of a biological tissue. The areas of medicine where the MLTD can be used with the most efficiency are shown.

  1. Highlights of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, Helsinki 2004, and a dash of horizon scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ell, Peter J. [Middlesex Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    The Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine represents the major scientific and professional event in the field of nuclear medicine in Europe. Specialists from all allied professions meet to discuss the latest findings and discoveries. A very large industrial exhibition demonstrates the latest technological innovations and developments. This Highlights Lecture summarises the scientific and medical advances discussed at this important gathering. The lecture covers a significant proportion of the data presented and/or discussed in up-to-date reviews, and places some of the trends encountered in the context of the evolution of the field as a whole. There is much food for thought in most areas of nuclear medicine: advances in instrumentation and data processing, progress in radiochemistry and pharmacy, novel diagnostics and therapeutics, and new insights in known areas of clinical application such as neurology and psychiatry, cardiology, oncology, endocrine disorders, paediatrics, nephro-urology and musculoskeletal disorders. This Highlights Lecture is, however, only a brief resume of the vast amount of data discussed, which can be found in much greater detail in the Congress Proceedings, published as volume 31, supplement 2 of Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imagingin August 2004. (orig.)

  2. Nuclear networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  3. Quantitatively and qualitatively augmenting medical student knowledge of oncology and radiation oncology: an update on the impact of the oncology education initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Ariel E; Handal, Roxane; Daniels, Janeen; Levin-Epstein, Rebecca; Denunzio, Nicholas J; Dillon, Johanne; Shaffer, Kitt; Bishop, Pauline Mulleady

    2012-02-01

    The Oncology Education Initiative was established in 2007 in an effort to advance oncology and radiation oncology education at the undergraduate level. As a continuation of the initiative, the aim of this study was to determine whether these structured didactics would continue to increase overall medical student knowledge about oncologic topics. Preclerkship and postclerkship tests examining concepts in general oncology, radiation oncology, breast cancer, and prostate cancer were administered. The 21-question, multiple-choice examination was administered at the beginning and end of the radiology clerkship, during which a 1.5-hour didactic session was given by an attending radiation oncologist. Changes in individual question responses, student responses, and overall categorical responses were analyzed. All hypothesis tests were two tailed with a significance level of .05. In the 2009-2010 academic year, 155 third-year and fourth-year students had average examination score improvements from 62% to 68.9% (P < .0001). Every topic (100%) showed improvement in scores, with the largest absolute improvement seen in the radiation oncology category, which increased from 56.5% to 71.8% (P < .0001). As the year proceeded, average examination scores increased among third-year students and decreased among fourth-year students. In the successive years since its inception, the Oncology Education Initiative continues to show a significant improvement in medical students' knowledge of cancer. The initiative has also succeeded in providing radiation oncology education to all graduating medical students at the authors' institution. Dedicated oncology education in the undergraduate medical curriculum provides students with a better understanding of multidisciplinary oncology management. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Swiss Society of Nuclear Medicine (SGNM/SSMN) 8th annual congress. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Program chart and compiled abstracts of the 8th annual congress of the Swiss Society of Nuclear Medicine (SGNM/SSMN). Session headers are: The role of imaging in primary prevention (screening); new technology, SPECT/CT; imaging in secondary prevention (patients at risk); oncology, new tracers; instrumentation/methodology; imaging in tertiary prevention (tumor staging); rTSH in managemnet of differentiated thyroid cancer moderation; cardiology, new perspectives; oncology, PET/CT. (uke)

  5. The Teachable Moment After Cancer Diagnosis: Perceptions From Oncology Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvinen, Kristina; Bruner, Brenda; Truant, Tracy

    2015-11-01

    To determine oncology nurses' perspectives of the receptiveness of survivors to receiving health behavior guidance, with secondary purposes to (a) explore other elements of oncology nurses' perceptions of the teachable moment and (b) examine differences in outcomes between American and Canadian nurses
. Cross-sectional survey.
 In- and outpatient oncology nursing departments in the United States and Canada. 310 members of the Canadian Association of Nurses in Oncology (CANO/ACIO) and the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) who currently care for patients
. Oncology nurses recruited through emails distributed through the CANO/ACIO and ONS Listservs completed online investigator-developed surveys. Measures related to oncology nurses' perceptions of survivors' receptiveness to health behavior change counseling and the teachable moment (i.e., general receptiveness, perceived benefits, guidance and referral seeking, long- and short-term effectiveness, best time, and best resources). Oncology nurses reported that survivors were receptive to receiving guidance on health behaviors, particularly during teachable moments after diagnosis and during treatment. They also perceived that a fairly low percentage of survivors asked for guidance about health behavior change; relatively few made improvements to their health behaviors.
 Survivors are reported to be interested in receiving guidance concerning health behavior change during key teachable moments. Oncology nurses may need to initiate conversations with survivors, offer education regarding the benefits of positive health behavior change, and provide ongoing support throughout the cancer trajectory. Oncology nurses may use findings from the current study to guide their health behavior change counseling with survivors
.

  6. Resilience and family of oncological patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Garassi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Resilience like ability to overcome adversity and even learn and get out “strengthened” them has become, in the last decade, the focus of many studies throughout the life cycle and in different cultures. On the other hand, oncological disease was introduced globally in a high percentage of the population requiring labor and health team including psychologists for coping on the part of the patient and their family members. The authors cited in the course of this article refer to the importance of developing resilience at the personal, family and cultural level, started with the presence of trust relationships, cultivating positive emotions, the acceptance of different cycles of life and belief in a just world. These promoting resilience factors are the springs that allow the experience of oncological disease and even death and mourning as opportunities to generate personal and familiar learning. 

  7. [Geriatric assessment prior to oncological therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedding, U

    2013-06-01

    Ageing is the single most important risk factor for cancer. This is also true for most cancer diseases of the genitourinary tract. In combination with the demographic changes in Germany and most other countries, the consequence is a substantial increase in the number of elderly patients with cancer. Most therapies in oncology have a high risk for toxic side effects. Ageing is a very heterogeneous process. The chronological age of a patient insufficiently reflects the individual resources, deficits and risk factors but this can be assessed by a structured geriatric assessment. Integration of geriatric assessment into oncological treatment decisions is still low and is one of the major tasks in cancer care in the future.

  8. Paediatric oncology research nursing: improving the service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beane, Carol; Auld, Liz

    This article focuses on a paediatric oncology research nursing team, who highlighted potential gaps in their service provision because of the fact that both team members were part time. It discusses the processes undertaken once issues that were essential to maintain the smooth running of the service were highlighted. In today's climate of clinical governance, which facilitates the improvement and maintenance of high standards of patient care, nurses are required to demonstrate evidence of providing a high-quality service. By producing new documentation and consequently two standards, the oncology research team provided evidence of its endeavour to not only deliver a high level of care to children and families partaking in research studies, but also show written evidence of so doing. This evidence could be audited as a way of measuring service provision, to allow the team to make further developments and changes.

  9. Improving patient safety in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendee, William R; Herman, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in the 1990s, and emphasized in 2000 with the release of an Institute of Medicine report, healthcare providers and institutions have dedicated time and resources to reducing errors that impact the safety and well-being of patients. But in January 2010 the first of a series of articles appeared in the New York Times that described errors in radiation oncology that grievously impacted patients. In response, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and the American Society of Radiation Oncology sponsored a working meeting entitled "Safety in Radiation Therapy: A Call to Action." The meeting attracted 400 attendees, including medical physicists, radiation oncologists, medical dosimetrists, radiation therapists, hospital administrators, regulators, and representatives of equipment manufacturers. The meeting was cohosted by 14 organizations in the United States and Canada. The meeting yielded 20 recommendations that provide a pathway to reducing errors and improving patient safety in radiation therapy facilities everywhere.

  10. Value: A Framework for Radiation Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teckie, Sewit; McCloskey, Susan A.; Steinberg, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    In the current health care system, high costs without proportional improvements in quality or outcome have prompted widespread calls for change in how we deliver and pay for care. Value-based health care delivery models have been proposed. Multiple impediments exist to achieving value, including misaligned patient and provider incentives, information asymmetries, convoluted and opaque cost structures, and cultural attitudes toward cancer treatment. Radiation oncology as a specialty has recently become a focus of the value discussion. Escalating costs secondary to rapidly evolving technologies, safety breaches, and variable, nonstandardized structures and processes of delivering care have garnered attention. In response, we present a framework for the value discussion in radiation oncology and identify approaches for attaining value, including economic and structural models, process improvements, outcome measurement, and cost assessment. PMID:25113759

  11. Neuro-oncology of CNS tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, J.C. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Westphal, M. [Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik; Rutka, J.T. [Toronto Univ. Hospital for Sick Children, ON (Canada). Div. of Neurosurgery; Grossmann, S.A. (eds.) [Johns Hopkins Oncology Center Neuro-Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Diagnosis and treatment modalities for neuro-oncologic diseases have made considerable advances in recent years. There is hardly a segment of the field of solid tumours that is experiencing such dynamic development with regard to basic scientific findings and clinical results. In the present book the world's leading experts have compiled the current practice-relevant knowledge of neuro-oncologic diseases. The book's clear structure and the uniform presentation of all chapters make this volume a valuable reference, especially for practice-oriented activities, allowing swift access to information about current treatment standards. Hence it will be of great value to both clinicians and researchers. (orig.)

  12. Radiation oncology a physicist's-eye view

    CERN Document Server

    Goitein, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Radiation Oncology: A Physicist's-Eye View was written for both physicists and medical oncologists with the aim of helping them approach the use of radiation in the treatment of cancer with understanding, confidence, and imagination. The book will let practitioners in one field understand the problems of, and find solutions for, practitioners in the other. It will help them to know "why" certain approaches are fruitful while, at the same time, encouraging them to ask the question "Why not?" in the face of assertions that some proposal of theirs is impractical, unreasonable, or impossible. Unlike a textbook, formal and complete developments of the topics are not among the goals. Instead, the reader will develop a foundation for understanding what the author has found to be matters of importance in radiation oncology during over thirty years of experience. Presentations cover, in largely non-technical language, the principal physical and biological aspects of radiation treatment and address practical clinical c...

  13. Psycho-Oncology: A Patient's View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Prieto, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Culturally the most important, valued, and less stigmatized part of cancer care is the medical part: The surgeon cutting the tumors out and the oncologist leading the strategic decision-making of the medical treatments available. The least valued and stigmatized part of cancer remains the psychosocial care. This chapter describes-through the eyes of an academic, psychologist, stage IV melanoma patient, and patient advocate-how one patient navigated changing psycho-oncological needs from early stage-to-stage IV through a whole range of psychological interventions available. Her voice joins that of all cancer patients around the world whom are urgently calling for psycho-oncological care to be fully recognized as a central part of cancer treatment.

  14. Ureteral injuries in gynecologic oncology surgery procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Đurđević Srđan; Popov Milan; Stojanović Sanja; Joksimović Nataša

    2003-01-01

    This study presents ureteral injuries in gynecologic oncology surgical procedures performed at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Novi Sad, in the period from 1991 to 2001. Intraoperative ureteral injuries were recorded in 4 (1%) patients, including: partial ureteral dissection bilateral ureteral ligation and complete ureteral dissection bellow the lower pole. In 3 (75%) cases, injuries were recognized immediately, and surgical reparation was performed. The patient with bilateral ...

  15. Oncology nurses awareness of drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Azize; Isik, Sevcan Avcı; Kav, Sultan; Abbasoglu, Aysel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine oncology nurses awareness of drug interactions. This descriptive study was conducted with nurses working in the oncology clinics who are a member of Oncology Nursing Association of Turkey. A total of 115 nurses (response rate %20) were responded to the online survey that consists of 28 questions. The mean age of the nurses was 33 ± 6.8. The majority of nurses work in university hospital (60%) as a clinical nurse (62.6%) and have a Bachelor Degree in Nursing (63.5%). The mean working years in oncology was 4 years. Half of them stated receiving information on drug interactions mostly through in-service education and courses/congresses in last 5 years. The majority of them (84.3%) indicated that they are considering the possibility of drug interactions when they are scheduling the medication administration time. More than half of the responders (59.1%) encountered drug interactions; however, few explored drug interactions with food, drinks, and nutritional supplements. Their practices to assess possibility of drug interactions were reviewing the drug prospectus (78.3%); consulting with their colleagues (58.3%) and searching on the available website (42.6%) and looking at the drug interaction (39.1%). More than half (65.2%) stated lack of any system to identify drug interactions in their workplace. Nearly half of them indicated to including the drug interaction into patient education mostly for food-drug (73.9%) and drug-drug (63.5%) interactions. Almost all indicated the needs for further education on drug interactions and suggested to have guideline/packet guide.

  16. [Multidisciplinary oncology teams: beware of endless discussions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giard, Raimond W M

    2010-01-01

    The continual and increasing complexity of diagnostic and treatment options in oncology demands careful communication, coordination and decision making. Cancer care could be improved by multidisciplinary teamwork. Although this sort of teamwork has many advantages in theory, we know very little about its effectiveness in practice. We have to answer questions such as how teams can accomplish their task most effectively and how we must manage organizations in such a way that team-based working contributes optimally to organizational effectiveness.

  17. Publish, not perish: Introducing Experimental Hematology & Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zihai; Hsueh, Chung-Tsen; Liu, Delong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract As a scientific discipline, medicine can only be advanced by experimentation. Experimentation could either validate or refute a hypothesis. Unfortunately, today's publication climate strongly favors publication of positive research findings, especially with clinical trials. Experimental Hematology & Oncology (eHO) is a new open access online journal that emphasizes preclinical, patient-oriented and translational aspects of research. The journal differentiates from others in the field...

  18. The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen S

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Steinbjørn Hansen Department of Oncology, Odense University Hospital and Institute of Clinical Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Aim of database: The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR was established by the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group as a national clinical database. It was established for the purpose of supporting research and development in adult patients with primary brain tumors in Denmark. Study population: DNOR has registered clinical data on diagnostics and treatment of all adult patients diagnosed with glioma since January 1, 2009, which numbers approximately 400 patients each year. Main variables: The database contains information about symptoms, presurgical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI characteristics, performance status, surgical procedures, residual tumor on postsurgical MRI, postsurgical complications, diagnostic and histology codes, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Descriptive data: DNOR publishes annual reports on descriptive data. During the period of registration, postoperative MRI is performed in a higher proportion of the patients (Indicator II, and a higher proportion of patients have no residual tumor after surgical resection of the primary tumor (Indicator IV. Further data are available in the annual reports. The indicators reflect only minor elements of handling brain tumor patients. Another advantage of reporting indicators is the related multidisciplinary discussions giving a better understanding of what actually is going on, thereby facilitating the work on adjusting the national guidelines in the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group. Conclusion: The establishment of DNOR has optimized the quality in handling primary brain tumor patients in Denmark by reporting indicators and facilitating a better multidisciplinary collaboration at a national level. DNOR provides a valuable resource for research. Keywords: brain neoplasms, brain cancer, glioma, clinical quality indicators

  19. Oncology nurses awareness of drug interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azize Karahan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine oncology nurses awareness of drug interactions. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted with nurses working in the oncology clinics who are a member of Oncology Nursing Association of Turkey. A total of 115 nurses (response rate %20 were responded to the online survey that consists of 28 questions. Results: The mean age of the nurses was 33 ± 6.8. The majority of nurses work in university hospital (60% as a clinical nurse (62.6% and have a Bachelor Degree in Nursing (63.5%. The mean working years in oncology was 4 years. Half of them stated receiving information on drug interactions mostly through in-service education and courses/congresses in last 5 years. The majority of them (84.3% indicated that they are considering the possibility of drug interactions when they are scheduling the medication administration time. More than half of the responders (59.1% encountered drug interactions; however, few explored drug interactions with food, drinks, and nutritional supplements. Their practices to assess possibility of drug interactions were reviewing the drug prospectus (78.3%; consulting with their colleagues (58.3% and searching on the available website (42.6% and looking at the drug interaction (39.1%. More than half (65.2% stated lack of any system to identify drug interactions in their workplace. Nearly half of them indicated to including the drug interaction into patient education mostly for food-drug (73.9% and drug-drug (63.5% interactions. Conclusions: Almost all indicated the needs for further education on drug interactions and suggested to have guideline/packet guide.

  20. Oncologic Management of Hereditary Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yacoub, George; Nagalla, Srikanth; Aklilu, Mebea

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in females and the third most common cancer diagnosed in males. Familial CRC comprises ~20 to 30% of all CRC cases. Lynch syndrome (LS), previously called hereditary nonpolyposis CRC (HNPCC), is the most common of the hereditary CRC syndromes. In this review, the oncological management of hereditary colorectal cancer from the medical oncologist perspective is discussed with special emphasis on Lynch syndrome. Lynch syndrome is character...

  1. Importance of nutrition in pediatric oncology

    OpenAIRE

    P C Rogers

    2015-01-01

    A nutritional perspective within pediatric oncology is usually just related to the supportive care aspect during the management of the underlying malignancy. However, nutrition has a far more fundamental importance with respect to a growing, developing child who has cancer as well as viewing cancer from a nutritional cancer control perspective. Nutrition is relevant to all components of cancer control including prevention, epidemiology, biology, treatment, supportive care, rehabilitation, and...

  2. Teaching and assessing systems-based practice: a pilot course in health care policy, finance, and law for radiation oncology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James D; Parhar, Preeti; Narayana, Ashwatha

    2010-09-01

    Under the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Outcome Project, residency programs are required to provide data on educational outcomes and evidence for how this information is used to improve resident education. To teach and assess systems-based practice through a course in health care policy, finance, and law for radiation oncology residents, and to determine its efficacy. We designed a pilot course in health care policy, finance, and law related to radiation oncology. Invited experts gave lectures on policy issues important to radiation oncology and half of the participants attended the American Society for Therapeutic Radiation and Oncology (ASTRO) Advocacy Day. Participants completed pre- and postcourse tests to assess their knowledge of health policy. Six radiation oncology residents participated, with 5 (84%) completing all components. For the 5 residents completing all assessments, the mean precourse score was 64% and the mean postcourse score was 84% (P  =  .05). Improvement was noted in all 3 sections of health policy, finance, and medical law. At the end of the course, 5 of 6 residents were motivated to learn about health policy, and 4 of 6 agreed it was important for physicians to be involved in policy matters. Teaching radiation oncology residents systems-based practice through a course on health policy, finance, and law is feasible and was well received. Such a course can help teaching programs comply with the ACGME Outcome Project and would also be applicable to trainees in other specialties.

  3. Workplace Bullying in Radiology and Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Jay R; Harolds, Jay A; Bluth, Edward I

    2017-08-01

    Workplace bullying is common in health care and has recently been reported in both radiology and radiation oncology. The purpose of this article is to increase awareness of bullying and its potential consequences in radiology and radiation oncology. Bullying behavior may involve abuse, humiliation, intimidation, or insults; is usually repetitive; and causes distress in victims. Workplace bullying is more common in health care than in other industries. Surveys of radiation therapists in the United States, student radiographers in England, and physicians-in-training showed that substantial proportions of respondents had been subjected to workplace bullying. No studies were found that addressed workplace bullying specifically in diagnostic radiology or radiation oncology residents. Potential consequences of workplace bullying in health care include anxiety, depression, and health problems in victims; harm to patients as a result of victims' reduced ability to concentrate; and reduced morale and high turnover in the workplace. The Joint Commission has established leadership standards addressing inappropriate behavior, including bullying, in the workplace. The ACR Commission on Human Resources recommends that organizations take steps to prevent bullying. Those steps include education, including education to ensure that the line between the Socratic method and bullying is not crossed, and the establishment of policies to facilitate reporting of bullying and support victims of bullying. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [The role of emotional labour in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szluha, Kornélia; Lazányi, Kornélia; Molnár, Péter

    2007-01-01

    Oncologists and related health care professionals (HCPs) do not only have to follow professional protocols in their everyday work, but also have to communicate proper attitudes towards patients suffering from malignant diseases. This task is often a heavier load than the implementation of professional activities themselves. The present article is based on a survey on HCP work motivation, employment parameters and correlations with emotional labour. Fifty oncology HCPs at Debrecen University Medical Health Sciences Centre volunteered to participate in this survey containing 20 simple-choice questions. More than 90 percent of HCPs make an effort to hide their emotional state, giving way to possible negative side effects. The survey showed significant differences between the level of emotional labour of those working in the field of oncology longer or shorter than ten years. Surface and deep emotional labour is more frequent among professionals already working in oncology for a longer period of time. This can serve us with explanation to the burn-out syndrome so frequent in this profession. To diminish the load of emotional labour, healthcare institutes have to aim at hiring employees that spontaneously fit the emotional and behavioural norms facing them, and do not need officially prescribed behavioural norms for everyday work. Their constant need for respect and appreciation of their values must be kept in mind, because the capability of genuine emotional labour diminishes parallel to the number of years spent in work.

  5. Mentoring medical students in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNunzio, Nick; Parekh, Arti; Hirsch, Ariel E

    2010-09-01

    Mentoring in academic medicine has been described on a multitude of levels in medical literature, but seldom with respect to medical students. In fact, although some fields have addressed mentoring in the context of medical student education, radiation oncology has yet to do so in a comprehensive fashion. Furthermore, the projected domestic and worldwide epidemiologic trends in cancer cases, coupled with the frequent use of radiation-based cancer treatment regimens, make this an opportune moment to initiate such a discussion. Herein, the authors consider mentoring in the context of radiation oncology and related fields from the perspective of a medical student. They present a paradigm for promoting mentorship through traditional classroom-based and nontraditional socially and research-based initiatives. It is the authors' hope that both radiation oncology and other specialties will benefit from the initiation of this discussion, as well as build on the suggestions detailed here as we prepare the next generation of radiation oncologists. Copyright (c) 2010 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. View and review on viral oncology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parolin Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To date, almost one and a half million cases of cancer are diagnosed every year in the US and nearly 560,000 Americans are expected to die of cancer in the current year, more than 1,500 people a day (data from the American Cancer Society at http://www.cancer.org/. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, roughly 20% of all cancers worldwide results from chronic infections; in particular, up to 15% of human cancers is characterized by a viral aetiology with higher incidence in Developing Countries. The link between viruses and cancer was one of the pivotal discoveries in cancer research during the past Century. Indeed, the infectious nature of specific tumors has important implications in terms of their prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. In the 21st Century, the research on viral oncology field continues to be vigorous, with new significant and original studies on viral oncogenesis and translational research from basic virology to treatment of cancer. This review will cover different viral oncology aspects, starting from the history of viral oncology and moving to the peculiar features of oncogenic RNA and DNA viruses, with a special focus on human pathogens.

  7. CYTOKINE GENE VARIATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH TRAIT AND STATE ANXIETY IN ONCOLOGY PATIENTS AND THEIR FAMILY CAREGIVERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miaskowski, Christine; Cataldo, Janine K.; Baggott, Christina R.; West, Claudia; Dunn, Laura B.; Dhruva, Anand; Merriman, John D.; Langford, Dale J.; Kober, Kord M.; Paul, Steven M.; Cooper, Bruce A.; Aouizerat, Bradley E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Anxiety is common among cancer patients and their family caregivers (FCs) and is associated with poorer outcomes. Recently, associations between inflammation and anxiety were identified. However, the relationship between variations in cytokine genes and anxiety warrants investigation. Therefore, phenotypic and genotypic characteristics associated with trait and state anxiety were evaluated in a sample of 167 oncology patients with breast, prostate, lung, or brain cancer and 85 of their FCs. Methods Using multiple regression analyses, the associations between participants’ demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as variations in cytokine genes and trait and state anxiety were evaluated. Results In the bivariate analyses, a number of phenotypic characteristics were associated with both trait and state anxiety (e.g., age, functional status). However, some associations were specific only to trait anxiety (e.g., number of comorbid conditions) or state anxiety (e.g., participation with a FC). Variations in three cytokine genes (i.e., interleukin (IL) 1 beta, IL1 receptor 2 (IL1R2), nuclear factor kappa beta 2 (NFKB2)) were associated with trait anxiety and variations in two genes (i.e., IL1R2, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA)) were associated with state anxiety. Conclusions These findings suggest that both trait and state anxiety need to be assessed in oncology patients and their FCs. Furthermore, variations in cytokine genes may contribute to higher levels of anxiety in oncology patients and their FCs. PMID:25249351

  8. Pharmacists’ Interventions in A Paediatric Haematology-Oncology Pharmacy: Do They Matter to Minimise Medication Misadventure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesty U. Ramadaniati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric patients with cancer are a high-risk patient population for medication misadventures. This study aimed to document and evaluate the role of pharmacists’ interventions during dispensing-related activities in minimising the occurrence of medication misadventure in haematology-oncology patients. The primary investigator observed and documented all clinical interventions during dispensing-related activities performed by clinical pharmacists in a haematology-oncology pharmacy during 33-day. A total of 359 interventions were performed for 1028 patients. The rates of intervention were 20.04 per 100 medication orders and 34.92 per 100 patients. Provision of drug information was the most common interventions constituting more than three quarters of all interventions. According to therapeutic groups, cytotoxic antineoplastics made up more than half of all interventions. Of all interventions, 22 involved recommendations leading to changes in patients’ treatment (active interventions, and all recommendations were accepted. The top three medication errors were due to inappropriate dosing, labelling error, and unfulfilled indication. Clinical pharmacists’ intervention during dispensing in a paediatric haematology-oncology pharmacy improved medication safety and patient care by minimising the incidence of medication misadventures.

  9. Developments in urologic oncology 'OncoForum': The best of 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Veiga, F; Alcaraz-Asensio, A; Burgos-Revilla, J; Cózar-Olmo, J

    2015-06-01

    To review the latest evidence on the oncologic urology of prostate, renal and bladder tumors, analyzing their impact on daily clinical practice and the future medium to long-term regimens. We review the abstracts on prostate, renal and bladder cancer presented at the 2014 congresses (European Association of Urology, American Urological Association, American Society of Clinical Oncology and American Society for Radiation Oncology) that received the best evaluations by the OncoForum committee. The committee considered the following messages important: cytoreductive nephrectomy followed by treatment with a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor can significantly increase the overall survival of patients with metastatic renal cancer; for advanced bladder cancer, early adjuvant chemotherapy after cystectomy is preferable because it significantly increases progression-free survival; and several studies have shown that multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and fusion imaging improve the diagnosis of prostate cancer and provide greater possibilities for placing patients in the appropriate risk group in order to offer them the best treatment possible. The results of the PREVAIL study have demonstrated the efficacy of enzalutamide on the overall survival of men with castration-resistant prostate cancer and metastases, with no prior chemotherapy. The study also demonstrated the drug's favorable safety profile. Progress is continuing in renal and bladder cancer, improving the approach and clinical results with current therapeutic options. There is constant progress in castration-resistant prostate cancer; in 2014, prechemotherapy treatments were consolidated. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploring the Role of Digital Storytelling in Pediatric Oncology Patients’ Perspectives Regarding Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabney K. Wilson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Story is a powerful tool in holistic nursing care. Narrative therapy, story circles, narrative-psychotherapy, and family therapy methodology have incorporated storytelling in a research setting. Childhood cancers isolate children from traditional childhood experiences. In recent years, survival rates for pediatric oncology patients have improved, opening up opportunities for research. The increase in life expectancy makes it necessary to investigate the psychosocial perspectives of children as they progress. This review focuses on the use of digital storytelling among pediatric cancer patients as a form of reflection. Furthermore, it addresses the possible therapeutic effects that may be realized by children who produce a digital story. Sixty-four references were identified via Pubmed and CINAHL databases using the following keywords: “digital storytelling,” “narrative therapy,” “pediatric oncology,” “childhood development,” and “interactive narrative.” Future research will focus on addressing the gap in the science, particularly in evaluating pediatric oncology patients’ perspectives about the role of digital story in the context of Erikson’s developmental stages.

  11. Phase 2 trial design in neuro-oncology revisited: a report from the RANO group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanis, Evanthia; Wu, Wenting; Cloughesy, Timothy; Lamborn, Kathleen; Mann, Bhupinder; Wen, Patrick Y; Reardon, David A; Wick, Wolfgang; Macdonald, David; Armstrong, Terri S; Weller, Michael; Vogelbaum, Michael; Colman, Howard; Sargent, Daniel J; van den Bent, Martin J; Gilbert, Mark; Chang, Susan

    2012-05-01

    Advances in the management of gliomas, including the approval of agents such as temozolomide and bevacizumab, have created an evolving therapeutic landscape in glioma treatment, thus affecting our ability to reliably use historical controls to comparatively assess the activity of new therapies. Furthermore, the increasing availability of novel, targeted agents--which are competing for a small patient population, in view of the low incidence of primary brain tumours--draws attention to the need to improve the efficiency of phase 2 clinical testing in neuro-oncology to expeditiously transition the most promising of these drugs or combinations to potentially practice-changing phase 3 trials. In this report from the Response Assessment in Neurooncology (RANO) group, we review phase 2 trial designs that can address these challenges and capitalise on scientific and clinical advances in brain tumour treatment in neuro-oncology to accelerate and optimise the selection of drugs deserving further testing in phase 3 trials. Although there is still a small role for single-arm and non-comparative phase 2 designs, emphasis is placed on the potential role that comparative randomised phase 2 designs--such as screening designs, selection designs, discontinuation designs, and adaptive designs, including seamless phase 2/3 designs--can have. The rational incorporation of these designs, as determined by the specific clinical setting and the trial's endpoints or goals, has the potential to substantially advance new drug development in neuro-oncology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Online exclusive: functional integration of nursing research into a pediatric oncology cooperative group: finding common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Pamela S; Baggott, Christina; DeSwarte-Wallace, Joetta; Dodd, Marilyn; Haase, Joan; Hockenberry, Marilyn; Hooke, Casey; McGuire Cullen, Patsy; Moore, Ida; Roll, Lona; Ruccione, Kathy

    2003-01-01

    To provide a brief description of the historic role of nursing and nursing research in the culture of previous pediatric oncology cooperative groups and compare the research language used in cooperative groups with the language used in nursing research. Published empirical, clinical, and methodologic reports. The culture and language of nursing research differ from those of medical research and the pediatric oncology cooperative group, the Children's Oncology Group (COG). Different approaches exist to integrate nursing research priorities into the priorities of COG, including freestanding protocols, companion protocols, and research objectives included in therapeutic protocols. Full integration of nursing research into COG is feasible but dependent on recognition of cultural and language differences among researchers. Integration will be demonstrated by the number of concepts and protocols contributed to or developed by active nurses in COG. Significant advances exist for nurses conducting research in COG. These research efforts are facilitated by a familiarity with the science language used by other disciplines in COG and an understanding of COG's research processes. Increased interdisciplinary scientific collaborations involving nurses in COG particularly benefit pediatric patients with cancer.

  13. Developing a Comprehensive Cardio-Oncology Program at a Cancer Institute: The Moffitt Cancer Center Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradley, Michael G.; Brown, Allen C.; Shields, Bernadette; Viganego, Federico; Damrongwatanasuk, Rongras; Patel, Aarti A.; Hartlage, Gregory; Roper, Natalee; Jaunese, Julie; Roy, Larry; Ismail-Khan, Roohi

    2017-01-01

    Cardio-oncology is a multidisciplinary field focusing on the management and prevention of cardiovascular complications in cancer patients and survivors. While the initial focus of this specialty was on heart failure associated with anthracycline use, novel anticancer agents are increasingly utilized and are associated with many other cardiotoxicities including hypertension, arrhythmias and vascular disease. Since its inception, the field has developed at a rapid pace with the establishment of programs at many major academic institutions and community practices. Given the complexities of this patient population, it is important for providers to possess knowledge of not only cardiovascular disease but also cancer subtypes and their specific therapeutics. Developing a cardio-oncology program at a stand-alone cancer center can present unique opportunities and challenges when compared to those affiliated with other institutions including resource allocation, cardiovascular testing availability and provider education. In this review, we present our experiences establishing the cardio-oncology program at Moffitt Cancer Center and provide guidance to those individuals interested in developing a program at a similar independent cancer institution. PMID:28781723

  14. Developing a Comprehensive Cardio-Oncology Program at a Cancer Institute: The Moffitt Cancer Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradley, Michael G; Brown, Allen C; Shields, Bernadette; Viganego, Federico; Damrongwatanasuk, Rongras; Patel, Aarti A; Hartlage, Gregory; Roper, Natalee; Jaunese, Julie; Roy, Larry; Ismail-Khan, Roohi

    2017-06-14

    Cardio-oncology is a multidisciplinary field focusing on the management and prevention of cardiovascular complications in cancer patients and survivors. While the initial focus of this specialty was on heart failure associated with anthracycline use, novel anticancer agents are increasingly utilized and are associated with many other cardiotoxicities including hypertension, arrhythmias and vascular disease. Since its inception, the field has developed at a rapid pace with the establishment of programs at many major academic institutions and community practices. Given the complexities of this patient population, it is important for providers to possess knowledge of not only cardiovascular disease but also cancer subtypes and their specific therapeutics. Developing a cardio-oncology program at a stand-alone cancer center can present unique opportunities and challenges when compared to those affiliated with other institutions including resource allocation, cardiovascular testing availability and provider education. In this review, we present our experiences establishing the cardio-oncology program at Moffitt Cancer Center and provide guidance to those individuals interested in developing a program at a similar independent cancer institution.

  15. Experts' perspectives on the role of medical marijuana in oncology: A semistructured interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, I M; Meyer, F L; Gagne, J J; Nabati, L; Yuppa, D P; Carmona, M A; Burstein, H J; Suzuki, J; Nayak, M M; Martins, Y

    2017-08-01

    Expansion of medical marijuana (MM) laws in the United States may offer oncology new therapeutic options. However, the scientific evidence for MM remains in infancy. This study qualitatively explored professional opinion around the role of MM in cancer care. Semistructured interviews were administered to a sample of individuals with expertise at the interface of MM and oncology nationally. Key informant criteria included an oncologic clinical or research background and any of the following: publications, research, or lectures on cannabinoids or cancer symptoms; involvement in the development of MM dispensaries or legislation; and early adoption of state MM certification procedures. A gold standard, grounded, inductive approach was used to identify underlying themes. Participants (N = 15) were predominantly male, in their sixth decade, working in academic settings. Themes ranged from strong beliefs in marijuana's medical utility to reservations about this notion, with calls for expansion of the scientific evidence base and more stringent MM production standards. All participants cited nausea as an appropriate indication, and 13 of 15 pain. Over one-third believed MM to have a more attractive risk profile than opioids and benzodiazepines. Expert opinion was divided between convictions in marijuana's medicinal potential and guardedness in this assertion, with no participant refuting MM's utility outright. Emergent themes included that MM ameliorates cancer-related pain and nausea and is safer than certain conventional medications. Participants called for enhanced purity and production standards, and further research on MM's utility. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Radiopharmaceuticals in the elderly cancer patient: Practical considerations, with a focus on prostate cancer therapy: A position paper from the International Society of Geriatric Oncology Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, John O; Gillessen, Silke; Wirth, Manfred; Dale, William; Aapro, Matti; Oyen, Wim J G

    2017-05-01

    Molecular imaging using radiopharmaceuticals has a clear role in visualising the presence and extent of tumour at diagnosis and monitoring response to therapy. Such imaging provides prognostic and predictive information relevant to management, e.g. by quantifying active tumour mass using positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). As these techniques require only pharmacologically inactive doses, age and potential frailty are generally not important. However, this may be different for therapy involving radionuclides because the radiation can impact normal bodily function (e.g. myelosuppression). Since the introduction of Iodine-131 as a targeted therapy in thyroid cancer, several radiopharmaceuticals have been widely used. These include antibodies and peptides targeting specific epitopes on cancer cells. Among therapeutic bone seeking agents, radium-223 ((223)Ra) stands out as it results in survival gains in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and symptomatic bone metastases. The therapeutic use of radiopharmaceuticals in elderly cancer patients specifically has received little attention. In elderly prostate cancer patients, there may be advantages in radionuclides' ease of use and relative lack of toxicity compared with cytotoxic and cytostatic drugs. When using radionuclide therapies, close coordination between oncology and nuclear medicine is needed to ensure safe and effective use. Bone marrow reserve has to be considered. As most radiopharmaceuticals are cleared renally, dose adjustment may be required in the elderly. However, compared with younger patients there is less, if any, concern about adverse long-term radiation effects such as radiation-induced second cancers. Issues regarding the safety of medical staff, care givers and the wider environment can be managed by current precautions. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  18. Nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-12-31

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  19. Recent applications of nuclear medicine in diagnostics (I part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Treglia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aim of this review is to describe the recent applications of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnostics, particularly in oncology. Materials and methods: We reviewed scientific literature data searching for the current role of tomographic nuclear medicine techniques (SPECTand PET in oncology and summarized the main applications of these techniques. Results: Nuclear medicine techniques have a key role in oncology allowing early diagnosis of many tumours, an accurate staging of disease and evalutation of treatment response. Hybrid SPECT/CT and PET/CT imaging systems now provide metabolic and functional information from SPECTor PETcombined with the high spatial resolution and anatomic information of CT. The most frequent applications of SPECT/CT in oncology concern thyroid tumours, neuroendocrine tumours, bone metastases and lymph node mapping. Furthermore the evaluation of many tumours may benefit from PET/CT imaging. Discussion: The recent development of new radiopharmaceuticals and the growth of hybrid tomographic devices, such as SPECT/CT and PET/CT, now permits molecular imaging of biologic processes at the cellular level to improve both the diagnosis and treatment of many tumours.

  20. Pharmacists' roles in oncology pharmacy services: Results of a global survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holle, Lisa M; Harris, Christy S; Chan, Alexandre; Fahrenbruch, Rebecca J; Labdi, Bonnie A; Mohs, Jocelyn E; Norris, Leann B; Perkins, Janelle; Vela, Cory M

    2017-04-01

    Background Oncology pharmacists are capable of providing medication therapy management (MTM) because of their level of training, practice experiences, and responsibilities. Very little data exist about their current practice, including changing roles in the multidisciplinary team, overall impact, and effects in the education of patients and healthcare professionals. Methods A 70-item survey about oncology pharmacists' activities in oral chemotherapy programs, MTM, and collaborative practice agreements (CPAs) was deployed using a web survey tool (Qualtrics, Provo, UT, USA), targeting pharmacist members of American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) Hematology/Oncology Practice and Research Network (PRN). The objective of this study was to determine oncology pharmacists' activities in areas of oral chemotherapy programs, MTM, and CPAs. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to the ACCP Hematology/Oncology PRN membership. Investigational Review Board approval was obtained. Results Of the 795 members who were sent the survey, 81 members (10%) responded; 33 respondents (47%) are involved with an oral chemotherapy program; with 42% measuring outcomes of programs. Only six pharmacists (19%) have published or presented their data. A total of 28 (35%) respondents provide MTM services, with almost half (43%) of these MTM services being dictated by CPAs. A small fraction of these pharmacists (21.4%) reported conducting quality assurance evaluations of their MTM services and three pharmacists (10.7%) reported publishing their results. Those pharmacists practicing under CPAs ( n = 28) were surveyed as to activities included in their CPA. The most common activities included adjusting medication, ordering, interpreting, and monitoring lab tests, developing therapeutic plans and educating patients. Reimbursement for providing these services was uncommon: MTM (4%), oral chemotherapy program (6%), and CPA services (11%). Reported obstacles to reimbursement included lack of

  1. Nuclear Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  2. Baccalaureate-linked oncology nursing education: McMaster University's Paediatric and Adult Oncology Nursing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    For new nursing graduates prepared as generalists, the transition from student to graduate and from new generalist graduate to experienced specialized nurse can be very anxiety-provoking. This paper discusses one program, the Oncology Nursing Program, McMaster University, designed for nurses working along the cancer continuum. Proposed by oncology nurses seeking baccalaureate-linked specialty education, the year-long program has now been in existence for 10 years. A cadre of nearly 200 graduates affirm that specialized education influences direct patient care, health care team membership, professional and personal development.

  3. Synthesis of oncological [11C]radiopharmaceuticals for clinical PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Filippo; Malizia, Claudio; Castellucci, Paolo; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Fanti, Stefano; Boschi, Stefano

    2012-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine modality which provides quantitative images of biological processes in vivo at the molecular level. Several PET radiopharmaceuticals labeled with short-lived isotopes such as (18)F and (11)C were developed in order to trace specific cellular and molecular pathways with the aim of enhancing clinical applications. Among these [(11)C]radiopharmaceuticals are N-[(11)C]methyl-choline ([(11)C]choline), l-(S-methyl-[(11)C])methionine ([(11)C]methionine) and 1-[(11)C]acetate ([(11)C]acetate), which have gained an important role in oncology where the application of 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) is suboptimal. Nevertheless, the production of these radiopharmaceuticals did not reach the same level of standardization as for [(18)F]FDG synthesis. This review describes the most recent developments in the synthesis of the above-mentioned [(11)C]radiopharmaceuticals aiming to increase the availability and hence the use of [(11)C]choline, [(11)C]methionine and [(11)C]acetate in clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A report on the first Asian Oncology Nursing Society conference

    OpenAIRE

    Qi Wang; Rui-Shuang Zheng; Judi Johnson

    2014-01-01

    The first Asian Oncology Nursing Society (AONS) conference was held in Thailand from November 22 to 24 2013. It was a significant milestone in the journey of the development of the AONS. The objectives of the conference were to facilitate opportunities for networking, collaboration and exchange of ideas with renowned leaders in Oncology Nursing, to facilitate sharing and collaboration of oncology nursing in Asia and to explore innovative strategies to strengthen the implementation of evidence...

  5. Targeting Nuclear Receptors with Marine Natural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Chunyan Yang; Qianrong Li; Yong Li

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are important pharmaceutical targets because they are key regulators of many metabolic and inflammatory diseases, including diabetes, dyslipidemia, cirrhosis, and fibrosis. As ligands play a pivotal role in modulating nuclear receptor activity, the discovery of novel ligands for nuclear receptors represents an interesting and promising therapeutic approach. The search for novel NR agonists and antagonists with enhanced selectivities prompted the exploration of the ext...

  6. Off-label use of oncology drugs: national survey results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva González-Haba Peña

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: identify by means of a survey the off-label treatments more often used in the oncohaematology area, as well as to know the established procedures and criteria used to authorise those treatments. Methods: a four-section survey was designed: 1 demographic data and hospital activity, 2 Off-label treatments protocol, 3 Approval criteria and 4 Off-label oncology treatments conducted during the last year. Results: in 42.1% of the hospitals it’s needed an authorisation before dispensing in more tan 80% of the treatments. The most influential factor in the approval-dispensation system is the available evidence. The consent of the hospital management with previous Pharmacy department’s report was the most common authorisation procedure. 55.3% of the hospitals settled specific patient criteria to help the decision-making altogether with the available safety and efficacy data of the drug for the requested indication. In most centers a lower level of evidence is accepted if there are no therapeutic alternatives as well as in tumors of low prevalence. Most of the centers have not clearly established a criterion of effectiveness to consider a benefit as clinically relevant, nor the cost-effectiveness threshold for approving a FFT. Conclusions: there is a great variability in the off-label treatments use and also in the criteria used for its approval.

  7. Developments in the use of nanocapsules in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurgel, V.; Collares, T.; Seixas, F., E-mail: seixas.fk@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Unidade de Biotecnologia. Centro de Desenvolvimento Tecnologico. Grupo de Pesquisa em Oncologia Celular e Molecular

    2013-06-15

    The application of nanotechnology to medicine can provide important benefits, especially in oncology, a fact that has resulted in the emergence of a new field called Nanooncology. Nanoparticles can be engineered to incorporate a wide variety of chemotherapeutic or diagnostic agents. A nanocapsule is a vesicular system that exhibits a typical core-shell structure in which active molecules are confined to a reservoir or within a cavity that is surrounded by a polymer membrane or coating. Delivery systems based on nanocapsules are usually transported to a targeted tumor site and then release their contents upon change in environmental conditions. An effective delivery of the therapeutic agent to the tumor site and to the infiltrating tumor cells is difficult to achieve in many cancer treatments. Therefore, new devices are being developed to facilitate intratumoral distribution, to protect the active agent from premature degradation and to allow its sustained and controlled release. This review focuses on recent studies on the use of nanocapsules for cancer therapy and diagnosis. (author)

  8. Phase 0 clinical trials in oncology new drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Chandra Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research focus of pharmaceutical industry has expanded to a larger extent in last few decades putting many more new molecules, particularly targeted agents, for the clinical development. On the other hand, researchers are facing serious challenges due to high failure rates of new molecules in clinical studies. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA in combination with academia and industry experts identified many factors responsible for failures of new molecules, and with a vision of taking traditional drug development model toward an innovative paradigm shift, issued regulatory guidance on conduct of exploratory investigational new drug (exploratory IND studies, often called as phase 0 clinical trials, requiring reduced preclinical testing, which has special relevance to life-threatening diseases such as cancer. Phase 0 trials, utilizing much lower drug doses, provide an opportunity to explore the clinical behavior of new molecules very early in the drug development pathway, helping to identify the promising candidates and eliminating non-promising molecules, thus improving the efficiency of overall drug development with significant savings of resources. Being non-therapeutic in nature, these studies, however, pose certain ethical challenges requiring careful study designing and informed consent process. This article reviews the insights and perspectives for the feasibility, utility, planning, designing and conduct of phase 0 clinical trials, in addition to ethical issues and industrial perspective focused at oncology new drug development.

  9. [Thoracic oncology in Archivos de Bronconeumología 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cos-Escuín, Julio Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    The articles on thoracic oncology published in this journal during the year 2008 are briefly commented on. As regards the epidemiology, it is noted that the standardised incidence rate of lung cancer in males is starting to decline, and there is another study that analysed links between two common diseases, COPD and lung cancer. Other works have focused on aspects such as diagnosis, staging or prognosis, and analysing the value of positron emission tomography in the assessment of a solitary pulmonary nodule, the effectiveness of aspiration transbronchial needle aspiration in mediastinal staging, the prognostic significance of the over-expression and amplification of c-erbB-2 in patients with small cell carcinoma. As regards treatment, other authors analysed the survival of patients with N2 lung cancer detected during or after lung resection surgery. The new therapeutic technique of ablation of lung tumours by radiofrequency in the early stages is the subject of two publications that describe its basis, indications, contraindications and first results. Lastly, the communication skills needed to inform patients, surgery of lung metastases, and the presentation of an unusual case of carcinoid tumour were the subjects of other articles.

  10. Monitoring monoclonal antibody delivery in oncology: the example of bevacizumab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Nugue

    Full Text Available Developing therapeutic monoclonal antibodies paves the way for new strategies in oncology using targeted therapy which should improve specificity. However, due to a lack of biomarkers, a personalized therapy scheme cannot always be applied with monoclonal antibodies. As a consequence, the efficacy or side effects associated with this type of treatment often appear to be sporadic. Bevacizumab is a therapeutic monoclonal antibody targeting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF. It is used to limit tumor vascularization. No prognosis or response biomarker is associated with this antibody, we therefore assessed whether the administration protocol could be a possible cause of heterogeneous responses (or variable efficacy. To do this, we developed a bevacizumab assay with a broad sensitivity range to measure blood bevacizumab concentrations. We then analyzed bevacizumab concentrations in 17 patients throughout the first quarter of treatment. In line with previously published data, average blood concentrations were 88+/-27 mg/L following the first dose administered, and 213+/-105 mg/L after the last (6(th dose administered. However, the individual values were scattered, with a mean 4-fold difference between the lowest and the highest concentration for each dose administered. We demonstrated that the bevacizumab administration schedule results in a high inter-individual variability in terms of blood concentrations. Comparison of assay data with clinical data indicates that blood concentrations above the median are associated with side effects, whereas values below the median favor inefficacy. In conclusion, bevacizumab-based therapy could benefit from a personalized administration schedule including follow-up and adjustment of circulating bevacizumab concentrations.

  11. [A therapeutic Trojan horse: intracellular antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teillaud, J L

    1999-10-01

    Intracellular immunization is a novel therapeutic approach based on intracellular expression of recombinant antibody fragments, either Fab or single chain Fv (scFv generated by the assembly of the VH with the VL region), targeted to the desired cell compartment (cytosol, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum ...) using appropriate targeting sequences. Due to their exquisite specificity, these intracellular antibodies can be used to neutralize or modulate the functional activity of the target molecule. Intracellular immunization strategies currently under investigation in the field of oncology are directed against mutated oncogenic molecules such as ErbB-2, p21ras, and p53, as well as against apoptosis-inhibiting molecules such as Bcl-2. The first Phase I clinical trials on intracellular immunization are under way in the United States.

  12. Subspecialist training in surgical gynecological oncology in the nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Sofie L; Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Salvesen, Helga B

    2011-01-01

    To survey the centers that can provide subspecialty surgical training and education in gynecological oncology in the Nordic countries we developed an online questionnaire in cooperation with the Nordic Society of Gynecological Oncology. The link to the survey was mailed to 22 Scandinavian...... (74%) centers were interested in being listed for exchange of fellows. Our data show a large Nordic potential and interest in improving the gynecologic oncology standards and can be used to enhance the awareness of gynecological oncology training in Scandinavia and to facilitate the exchange...

  13. Neuro-oncology: a selected review of ASCO 2016 abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Marc C

    2016-10-01

    ASCO 2016, 29 May-2 June 2016, Chicago, IL, USA The largest annual clinical oncology conference the American Society of Clinical Oncology is held in the USA and gives researchers and other key opinion leaders the opportunity to present new cancer clinical trials and research data. The CNS tumors section of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2016 covered various aspects of neuro-oncology including metastatic CNS diseases and primary brain tumors, presented via posters, oral talks and over 100 abstracts. This brief review selectively highlights presentations from this meeting in an organizational manner that reflects clinically relevant aspects of a large and multifaceted meeting.

  14. A report on the first Asian Oncology Nursing Society conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The first Asian Oncology Nursing Society (AONS conference was held in Thailand from November 22 to 24 2013. It was a significant milestone in the journey of the development of the AONS. The objectives of the conference were to facilitate opportunities for networking, collaboration and exchange of ideas with renowned leaders in Oncology Nursing, to facilitate sharing and collaboration of oncology nursing in Asia and to explore innovative strategies to strengthen the implementation of evidence-based practice in oncology nursing.

  15. A report on the first Asian Oncology Nursing Society conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The first Asian Oncology Nursing Society (AONS conference was held in Thailand from November 22 to 24 2013. It was a significant milestone in the journey of the development of the AONS. The objectives of the conference were to facilitate opportunities for networking, collaboration and exchange of ideas with renowned leaders in Oncology Nursing, to facilitate sharing and collaboration of oncology nursing in Asia and to explore innovative strategies to strengthen the implementation of evidence-based practice in oncology nursing.

  16. Palliative care and oncology: integration leads to better care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dennis, Kristopher; Librach, S Lawrence; Chow, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The timely integration of palliative care services into standard oncology care is essential to providing comprehensive individualized care for patients with advanced and incurable cancer and their families...

  17. Perioperative Palliative Care Considerations for Surgical Oncology Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipples, Rebecca; Taylor, Richard; Kirk-Walker, Deborah; Bagcivan, Gulcan; Dionne-Odom, J Nicholas; Bakitas, Marie

    2017-02-01

    To explore the opportunities to incorporate palliative care into perioperative oncology patient management and education strategies for surgical oncology nurses. Articles related to palliative care and surgical oncology to determine the degree of integration, gaps, and implications for practice. Although evidence supports positive patient outcomes when palliative care is integrated in the perioperative period, uptake of palliative care into surgical settings is slow. Palliative care concepts are not adequately integrated into surgical and nursing education. With appropriate palliative care education and training, surgical oncology nurses will be empowered to foster surgical-palliative care collaborations to improve patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Annual congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine. EANM'14. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-10-15

    The proceedings of the annual congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine EANM'14 contain abstracts on the following issues: nuclear cardiology practices, PET in lymphoma, advances in nuclear cardiology, dosimetry for intra-arterial treatment in the liver, pediatric nuclear medicine, therapeutic nuclear medicine, SPECT/CT, prostate cancer, extended competencies for nuclear medicine technologists, neurosciences - neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation, radionuclide therapy and dosimetry - preclinical studies, physics and instrumentation, clinical molecular imaging, conventional and specialized nuclear medicine.

  19. Emerin plays a crucial role in nuclear invagination and in the nuclear calcium transient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimojima, Masaya; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Motoda, Chikaaki; Yozu, Gakuto; Nagai, Toshihiro; Ito, Shogo; Lachmann, Mark; Kashimura, Shin; Takei, Makoto; Kusumoto, Dai; Kunitomi, Akira; Hayashiji, Nozomi; Seki, Tomohisa; Tohyama, Shugo; Hashimoto, Hisayuki; Kodaira, Masaki; Egashira, Toru; Hayashi, Kenshi; Nakanishi, Chiaki; Sakata, Kenji; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2017-01-01

    Alteration of the nuclear Ca2+ transient is an early event in cardiac remodeling. Regulation of the nuclear Ca2+ transient is partly independent of the cytosolic Ca2+ transient in cardiomyocytes. One nuclear membrane protein, emerin, is encoded by EMD, and an EMD mutation causes Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD). It remains unclear whether emerin is involved in nuclear Ca2+ homeostasis. The aim of this study is to elucidate the role of emerin in rat cardiomyocytes by means of hypertrophic stimuli and in EDMD induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cardiomyocytes in terms of nuclear structure and the Ca2+ transient. The cardiac hypertrophic stimuli increased the nuclear area, decreased nuclear invagination, and increased the half-decay time of the nuclear Ca2+ transient in cardiomyocytes. Emd knockdown cardiomyocytes showed similar properties after hypertrophic stimuli. The EDMD-iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes showed increased nuclear area, decreased nuclear invagination, and increased half-decay time of the nuclear Ca2+ transient. An autopsied heart from a patient with EDMD also showed increased nuclear area and decreased nuclear invagination. These data suggest that Emerin plays a crucial role in nuclear structure and in the nuclear Ca2+ transient. Thus, emerin and the nuclear Ca2+ transient are possible therapeutic targets in heart failure and EDMD. PMID:28290476

  20. Does Cancer Literature Reflect Multidisciplinary Practice? A Systematic Review of Oncology Studies in the Medical Literature Over a 20-Year Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, Emma B. [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ahmed, Awad A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Yoo, Stella K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hoffman, Karen E., E-mail: KHoffman1@mdanderson.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Quality cancer care is best delivered through a multidisciplinary approach requiring awareness of current evidence for all oncologic specialties. The highest impact journals often disseminate such information, so the distribution and characteristics of oncology studies by primary intervention (local therapies, systemic therapies, and targeted agents) were evaluated in 10 high-impact journals over a 20-year period. Methods and Materials: Articles published in 1994, 2004, and 2014 in New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet Oncology, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, Radiotherapy and Oncology, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, Annals of Surgical Oncology, and European Journal of Surgical Oncology were identified. Included studies were prospectively conducted and evaluated a therapeutic intervention. Results: A total of 960 studies were included: 240 (25%) investigated local therapies, 551 (57.4%) investigated systemic therapies, and 169 (17.6%) investigated targeted therapies. More local therapy trials (n=185 [77.1%]) evaluated definitive, primary treatment than systemic (n=178 [32.3%]) or targeted therapy trials (n=38 [22.5%]; P<.001). Local therapy trials (n=16 [6.7%]) also had significantly lower rates of industry funding than systemic (n=207 [37.6%]) and targeted therapy trials (n=129 [76.3%]; P<.001). Targeted therapy trials represented 5 (2%), 38 (10.2%), and 126 (38%) of those published in 1994, 2004, and 2014, respectively (P<.001), and industry-funded 48 (18.9%), 122 (32.6%), and 182 (54.8%) trials, respectively (P<.001). Compared to publication of systemic therapy trial articles, articles investigating local therapy (odds ratio: 0.025 [95% confidence interval: 0.012-0.048]; P<.001) were less likely to be found in high-impact general medical journals. Conclusions: Fewer studies evaluating local therapies, such as surgery and radiation, are published in

  1. Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Alessandro

    2005-04-01

    The activity of the Italian nuclear physicists community in the field of Nuclear Astrophysics is reported. The researches here described have been performed within the project "Fisica teorica del nucleo e dei sistemi a multi corpi", supported by the Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca.

  2. Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Langanke, K

    1999-01-01

    The manuscript reviews progress achieved in recent years in various aspects of nuclear astrophysics, including stellar nucleosynthesis, nuclear aspects of supernova collapse and explosion, neutrino-induced reactions and their possible role in the supernova mechanism and nucleosynthesis, explosive hydrogen burning in binary systems, and finally the observation of gamma-rays from supernova remnants.

  3. An increase in medical student knowledge of radiation oncology: a pre-post examination analysis of the oncology education initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Ariel E; Mulleady Bishop, Pauline; Dad, Luqman; Singh, Deeptej; Slanetz, Priscilla J

    2009-03-15

    The Oncology Education Initiative was created to advance oncology and radiation oncology education by integrating structured didactics into the existing core radiology clerkship. We set out to determine whether the addition of structured didactics could lead to a significant increase in overall medical student knowledge about radiation oncology. We conducted a pre- and posttest examining concepts in general radiation oncology, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. The 15-question, multiple-choice exam was administered before and after a 1.5-hour didactic lecture by an attending physician in radiation oncology. Individual question changes, overall student changes, and overall categorical changes were analyzed. All hypothesis tests were two-tailed (significance level 0.05). Of the 153 fourth-year students, 137 (90%) took the pre- and posttest and were present for the didactic lecture. The average test grade improved from 59% to 70% (p = 0.011). Improvement was seen in all questions except clinical vignettes involving correct identification of TNM staging. Statistically significant improvement (p didactics in radiation oncology significantly improves medical students' knowledge of the topic. Despite perceived difficulty in teaching radiation oncology and the assumption that it is beyond the scope of reasonable knowledge for medical students, we have shown that even with one dedicated lecture, students can learn and absorb general principles regarding radiation oncology.

  4. Safety and Effectiveness of Intravenous Pentamidine for Prophylaxis of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodokin, Loriel J; Klejmont, Liana M; Scipione, Marco R; Dubrovskaya, Yanina; Lighter-Fisher, Jennifer; Papadopoulos, John

    2016-08-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is an opportunistic infection that can lead to significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised pediatric hematology/oncology patients. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is the gold standard for prophylaxis. Intravenous (IV) pentamidine is the preferred second-line agent for PCP prophylaxis at our institution and is used first-line under certain circumstances. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of IV pentamidine for PCP prophylaxis in pediatric hematology/oncology patients. A retrospective analysis of pediatric hematology/oncology patients (N=121) who received ≥1 dose of IV pentamidine between January 2009 and July 2014 was conducted. Electronic health records were reviewed to determine baseline characteristics, rate of breakthrough PCP infection, characteristics of IV pentamidine use, and adverse events. The follow-up period was 6 months after the last reported IV pentamidine dose or the last recorded clinic visit/hospital admission. No patients developed PCP during the entirety of their IV pentamidine course or during the follow-up period. Nineteen patients (16%) experienced adverse events and 5 of the 19 patients required discontinuation of IV pentamidine. IV pentamidine is a safe, tolerable, and effective agent for PCP prophylaxis in pediatric hematology/oncology patients and may be considered a reasonable therapeutic alternative when trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole cannot be used for PCP prophylaxis.

  5. [Donatori di Musica: when oncology meets music].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graiff, Claudio

    2014-10-01

    Donatori di Musica is a network of musicians - both physicians and volunteers - that was initially founded in 2009 with the aim to set up and coordinate classical music concerts in hospitals. This activity was initially started and led by the Oncology Departments at Carrara and Bolzano Hospitals, where high profile professional musicians make themselves available for concerts in support of Oncological in/out-patients of that specific Hospital. A live classical music performance is a deeply touching experience - particularly for those who live a critical condition like cancer. Main characteristics of Donatori di Musica concerts are: continuity (concerts are part of a regular and non-stopping music season); quality (concerts are held by well-established professional musicians); philanthropic attitude (musicians do not wear a suit and usually chat with patients; they also select an easy-to-listen program; a convivial event is usually organized after the performance with the aim of overcoming distinctions and barriers between physician and patient); no profit: musicians perform for free - travel expenses and/or overnight staying only can be claimed; concerts have free access for patients, their families and hospital staff.Patients and musicians therefore do get in close contact and music is able to merge each other experiences - with patients being treated by the beauty of music and musicians being treated theirselves by patients daily-life feedback. The Donatori di Musica experience is therefore able to help Medicine to retrieve its very first significance - the medical act regain that human and cultural dimension that seems to be abandoned in the last decades in favour of a mere technicism. This is the spirit and the deep significance of Donatori di Musica - «[…] the hope that Music can become a key support to medical treatments in every Oncology department» (by Gian Andrea Lodovici).

  6. Cardio-oncology Related to Heart Failure: Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Target-Based Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenigsberg, Benjamin; Jain, Varun; Barac, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Cancer therapy targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene B (ErbB)/human EGFR receptor (HER) family of tyrosine kinases has been successfully used in treatment of several malignancies. The ErbB pathways play a role in the maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. This article summarizes current knowledge about EGFR/ErbB/HER receptor-targeted cancer therapeutics focusing on their cardiotoxicity profiles, molecular mechanisms, and implications in clinical cardio-oncology. The article discusses challenges in predicting, monitoring, and treating cardiac dysfunction and heart failure associated with ErbB-targeted cancer therapeutics and highlights opportunities for researchers and clinical investigators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  8. Advanced MR Imaging in Neuro-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radbruch, A; Bendszus, M

    2015-10-01

    The value of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for the clinical management of brain tumour patients has greatly increased in recent years through the introduction of functional MR sequences. Previously, MR imaging for brain tumours relied for the most part on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR sequences but today with the help of advanced functional MR sequences, the pathophysiological aspects of tumour growth can be directly visualised and investigated. This article will present the pathophysiological background of the MR sequences relevant to neuro-oncological imaging as well as potential clinical applications. Ultimately, we take a look at possible future developments for ultra-high-field MR imaging.

  9. [Causality in occupational oncology: the toxicologist opinion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, Marcello

    2011-01-01

    General and individual causality in occupational oncology should be regarded as diverse and largely autonomous concepts. General causality is based upon a statement such as "the chemical is a carcinogen" and must be considered for preventive action. Individual causality implies that the statement has to be applied to a patient exposed to that chemical. Whereas cancer results from complex interactions between genes and, in broad sense, the environment, the individual causality is an empirical judgement (educated guess) based upon all information about the substance itself and the individual patient.

  10. What do we measure in oncology PET?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, Kyoung June; Kim, Seong Jang [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has come to the practice of oncology. It is known that {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET is more sensitive for the assessment of treatment response than conventional imaging. In addition, PET has an advantage in the use of quantitative analysis of the study. Nowadays, various PET parameters are adopted in clinical settings. In addition, a wide range of factors has been known to be associated with FDG uptake. Therefore, there has been a need for standardization and harmonization of protocols and PET parameters. We will introduce PET parameters and discuss major issues in this review.

  11. Importance of nutrition in pediatric oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, P C

    2015-01-01

    A nutritional perspective within pediatric oncology is usually just related to the supportive care aspect during the management of the underlying malignancy. However, nutrition has a far more fundamental importance with respect to a growing, developing child who has cancer as well as viewing cancer from a nutritional cancer control perspective. Nutrition is relevant to all components of cancer control including prevention, epidemiology, biology, treatment, supportive care, rehabilitation, and survivorship. This article briefly describes this perspective of nutrition within a cancer control context and is a summary of the presentation at the "1st International SIOP-PODC Workshop on Nutrition in Children with Cancer" held in Mumbai.

  12. The nuclear envelope environment and its cancer connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Kin-Hoe; Factor, Rachel E.; Ullman, Katharine S.

    2014-01-01

    Because of the association between aberrant nuclear structure and tumour grade, nuclear morphology is an indispensible criterion in the current pathological assessment of cancer. Components of the nuclear envelope environment have central roles in many aspects of cell function that affect tumour development and progression. As the roles of the nuclear envelope components, including nuclear pore complexes and nuclear lamina, are being deciphered in molecular detail there are opportunities to harness this knowledge for cancer therapeutics and biomarker development. In this Review, we summarize the progress that has been made in our understanding of the nuclear envelope and the implications of changes in this environment for cancer biology. PMID:22337151

  13. Nuclear questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, M. [Physics World (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-01

    The future of nuclear power has returned to centre stage. Freezing weather on both sides of the Atlantic and last month's climate-change talks in Montreal have helped to put energy and the future of nuclear power right back on the political agenda. The issue is particularly pressing for those countries where existing nuclear stations are reaching the end of their lives. In the UK, prime minister Tony Blair has commissioned a review of energy, with a view to deciding later this year whether to build new nuclear power plants. The review comes just four years after the Labour government published a White Paper on energy that said the country should keep the nuclear option open but did not follow this up with any concrete action. In Germany, new chancellor and former physicist Angela Merkel is a fan of nuclear energy and had said she would extend the lifetime of its nuclear plants beyond 2020, when they are due to close. However, that commitment has had to be abandoned, at least for the time being, following negotiations with her left-wing coalition partners. The arguments in favour of nuclear power will be familiar to all physicists - it emits almost no carbon dioxide and can play a vital role in maintaining a diverse energy supply. To over-rely on imported supplies of oil and gas can leave a nation hostage to fortune. The arguments against are equally easy to list - the public is scared of nuclear power, it generates dangerous waste with potentially huge clean-up costs, and it is not necessarily cheap. Nuclear plants could also be a target for terrorist attacks. Given political will, many of these problems can be resolved, or at least tackled. China certainly sees the benefits of nuclear power, as does Finland, which is building a new 1600 MW station - the world's most powerful - that is set to open in 2009. Physicists, of course, are essential to such developments. They play a vital role in ensuring the safety of such plants and developing new types of

  14. Melatonin Induces Cell Apoptosis in AGS Cells Through the Activation of JNK and P38 MAPK and the Suppression of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B: a Novel Therapeutic Implication for Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Melatonin, synthesized by the pineal gland and released into the blood, appears to have antitumour properties; however, the mechanisms of its anti-cancer effects are largely unknown, especially in stomach cancer. Here, we explore the antitumour activity of melatonin in a gastric cancer cell line (AGS and analyse its molecular mechanisms. Methods: AGS cells were treated with melatonin, and cell viability was assessed using a CCK-8 assay. Flow cytometry was performed to evaluate apoptosis, and protein expression was examined by Western blotting. Results: Melatonin significantly inhibited cell viability, clone formation, and cell migration and invasion and induced apoptosis in AGS cells. Moreover, MAPK pathways (p38, JNK and ERK were activated by melatonin treatment, which also significantly increased caspase-3 cleavage and Bax protein expression and decreased Bcl-2 protein expression in a time-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that p38 and JNK inhibitors (SB203580 and SP600125, respectively prevented melatonin-induced apoptosis; thus, the propensity of p38 MAPK and JNK to promote apoptosis could be at least partly due to the inhibition of NF-κB p65 activation by p38 and JNK. Finally, melatonin was able to strengthen cisplatin-mediated antitumour effects in human gastric carcinoma cells by up-regulating the expression of Bax, down-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and activating the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Conclusion: Melatonin induced apoptosis in AGS cells by activating the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway and by inhibiting the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65, two processes that are regulated by p38 and JNK. Furthermore, melatonin significantly enhanced the anti-tumour effects of cisplatin, with low systemic toxicity. These new findings suggest that melatonin may act as a potent anti-tumour agent and may have great potential as an adjuvant therapy in the future.

  15. Investment in radiotherapy infrastructure positively affected the economic status of an oncology hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmigielska, Mirella; Milecki, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy is among the most efficient treatment methods of cancer. However, a radiotherapy base needs a substantial financial investment, especially before the beginning of its operation, and in some cases, in developing countries such a huge investment may cause some financial disturbances for a hospital concerned. Aim To assess the influence of investments modernizing the radiotherapy base in the period between 2000 and 2007 on the financial condition of the oncology hospital in the region with population of about 3 million. Material and methods Financial reports and medical statistics for the period between 2000 and 2007 from the studied oncology hospital and a recognized staffing model, as well as data on epidemiological situation of the region have been used to calculate the economic effects of financial investment in the radiotherapy base. Results The growth of RT therapeutic potential has been driven by two cost-effective investment programmes. The total amount invested in both programmes was PLN 127,191,000. The number of radiotherapy patients treated in the hospital increased from 2301 in 2000 to 4799 in 2007 with a the same number of five therapeutic machines, although all five of them were replaced over that period. Investments modernizing the radiotherapy base lead to a significant increase in depreciation and operating costs, which adversely affects financial results of the hospital. Conclusion Long term trends showed that investments had positive influence on hospital performance shown both in increased income and larger number of patients treated. PMID:24377017

  16. Effectiveness of a psycho-oncology training program for oncology nurses: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yosuke; Okuyama, Toru; Uchida, Megumi; Umezawa, Shino; Nakaguchi, Tomohiro; Sugano, Koji; Ito, Yoshinori; Katsuki, Fujika; Nakano, Yumi; Nishiyama, Takeshi; Katayama, Yoshiko; Akechi, Tatsuo

    2016-06-01

    Oncology nurses are expected to play an important role in psychosocial care for cancer patients. The aim of this study was to examine whether a novel training program aimed at enhancing oncology nurses' ability to assess and manage common psychological problems in cancer patients would improve participants' self-reported confidence, knowledge, and attitudes regarding care of patients with common psychological problems (trial register: UMIN000008559). Oncology nurses were assigned randomly to either the intervention group (N = 50) or the waiting list control group (N = 46). The intervention group received a 16-h program, the content of which focused on four psychological issues: normal reactions, clinically significant distress, suicidal thoughts, and delirium. Each session included a role-play exercise, group work, and didactic lecture regarding assessment and management of each problem. Primary outcomes were changes in self-reported confidence, knowledge, and attitudes toward the common psychological problems between pre-intervention and 3 months post-intervention. Secondary outcomes were job-related stress and burnout. Intervention acceptability to participants was also assessed. In the intervention group, confidence and knowledge but not attitudes were significantly improved relative to the control group. No significant intervention effects were found for job- related stress and burnout. A high percentage (98%) of participants considered the program useful in clinical practice. This psycho-oncology training program improved oncology nurses' confidence and knowledge regarding care for patients with psychological problems. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Nuclear war and nuclear peace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, G.; Moreton, E.; Freedman, L.; Baylis, J.

    1983-01-01

    This book is an in-depth examination of East-West tactical and strategic nuclear weapons policy. The contributors explore such issues as the history and implications of tactical weapons in Europe, the general conflicts that have characterized US and Soviet interaction, the development of British nuclear weapons policy, and arms control including SALT I and II and the START talks.

  18. Therapeutic use exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, J; Kirkendall, D; Vouillamoz, M

    2006-01-01

    Football players who have either physical symptoms or disease after injury may need to be treated with specific medicines that are on the list of prohibited substances. Therapeutic use exemption may be granted to such players, in accordance with strictly defined criteria—these are presented in this article. Procedures of how to request for an abbreviated or a standard therapeutic use exemption are explained, and data on therapeutic use exemptions (UEFA and FIFA, 2004 and 2005) are also presented. PMID:16799102

  19. Lista de recomendações do Exame PET/CT com 18F-FDG em Oncologia: consenso entre a Sociedade Brasileira de Cancerologia e a Sociedade Brasileira de Biologia, Medicina Nuclear e Imagem Molecular Recommendations on the use of 18F-FDG PET/CT in Oncology: consensus between the Brazilian Society of Cancerology and the Brazilian Society of Biology, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Soares Junior

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos uma lista de recomendações sobre a utilização de 18F-FDG PET em oncologia, no diagnóstico, estadiamento e detecção de recorrência ou progressão do câncer. Foi realizada pesquisa para identificar estudos controlados e revisões sistemáticas de literatura composta por estudos retrospectivos e prospectivos. As consequências e o impacto da 18F-FDG PET no manejo de pacientes oncológicos também foram avaliados. A 18F-FDG PET deve ser utilizada como ferramenta adicional aos métodos de imagem convencionais como tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética. Resultados positivos que sugiram alteração no manejo clínico devem ser confirmados por exame histopatológico. A 18F-FDG PET deve ser utilizada no manejo clínico apropriado para o diagnóstico de cânceres do sistema respiratório, cabeça e pescoço, sistema digestivo, mama, melanoma, órgão genitais, tireoide, sistema nervoso central, linfoma e tumor primário oculto.The authors present a list of recommendations on the utilization of 18F-FDG PET/CT in oncology for the diagnosis, staging and detection of cancer, as well as in the follow-up of the disease progression and possible recurrence. The recommendations were based on the analysis of controlled studies and a systematic review of the literature including both retrospective and prospective studies regarding the clinical usefulness and the impact of 18F-FDG PET/CT on the management of cancer patients. 18F-FDG PET/CT should be utilized as a supplement to other conventional imaging methods such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Positive results suggesting changes in the clinical management should be confirmed by histopathological studies. 18F-FDG PET should be utilized in the diagnosis and appropriate clinical management of cancer involving the respiratory system, head and neck, digestive system, breast, genital organs, thyroid, central nervous system, besides melanomas, lymphomas and

  20. Introduction of nuclear medicine research in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inubushi, Masayuki [Kawasaki Medical School, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Higashi, Tatsuya [National Institutes of Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Chiba (Japan); Kuji, Ichiei [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hidaka-shi, Saitama (Japan); Sakamoto, Setsu [Dokkyo University School of Medicine, PET Center, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan); Tashiro, Manabu [Tohoku University, Division of Cyclotron Nuclear Medicine, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Momose, Mitsuru [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    There were many interesting presentations of unique studies at the Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine, although there were fewer attendees from Europe than expected. These presentations included research on diseases that are more frequent in Japan and Asia than in Europe, synthesis of original radiopharmaceuticals, and development of imaging devices and methods with novel ideas especially by Japanese manufacturers. In this review, we introduce recent nuclear medicine research conducted in Japan in the five categories of Oncology, Neurology, Cardiology, Radiopharmaceuticals and Technology. It is our hope that this article will encourage the participation of researchers from all over the world, in particular from Europe, in scientific meetings on nuclear medicine held in Japan. (orig.)

  1. Host modulation by therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugumari Elavarasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease susceptible group present advanced periodontal breakdown even though they achieve a high standard of oral hygiene. Various destructive enzymes and inflammatory mediators are involved in destruction. These are elevated in case of periodontal destruction. Host modulation aims at bringing these enzymes and mediators to normal level. Doxycycline, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, bisphosphonates, nitrous oxide (NO synthase inhibitors, recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11, omega-3 fatty acid, mouse anti-human interleukin-6 receptor antibody (MRA, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kb inhibitors, osteoprotegerin, and tumor necrosis factor antagonist (TNF-α are some of the therapeutic agents that have host modulation properties.

  2. Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Savage, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Lattice QCD is making good progress toward calculating the structure and properties of light nuclei and the forces between nucleons. These calculations will ultimately refine the nuclear forces, particularly in the three- and four-nucleon sector and the short-distance interactions of nucleons with electroweak currents, and allow for a reduction of uncertainties in nuclear many-body calculations of nuclei and their reactions. After highlighting their importance, particularly to the Nuclear Physics and High-Energy Physics experimental programs, I discuss the progress that has been made toward achieving these goals and the challenges that remain.

  3. The experiential world of the oncology nurse | Van Rooyen | Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In her1 experiential world, the oncology nurse experiences unique, challenging and rewarding relationships in a multidimensional, dynamic way. The aim of this study was to describe, from her viewpoint and perspective, how she experiences and reacts to this world. Through this study the researcher wants the oncology ...

  4. The Lancet Oncology's Cancer Control in Africa | Michael | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In April 2013 the Lancet Oncology published a series on cancer control in Africa comprising 7 papers (Lancet Oncology vol 14 number 4). The significance of these papers to Africa's attempts at tackling the rapidly rising prevalence of cancer cannot be over-emphasized. Potentially, these papers will form the basis of ...

  5. Quality of systematic reviews in pediatric oncology - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundh, Andreas; Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L.; Jørgensen, Anders W.; van Dalen, Elvira C.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. Methods: We identified eligible systematic reviews

  6. [Assessment of nursing needs and risk management in geriatric oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb, Cherifa; Landre, Thierry; Bertrand, Eric; Schlatter, Joël; Ratiney, Robert; des Guetz, Gaëtan

    2013-01-01

    In France, the incidence and rate of mortality of cancer increase with age. For elderly patients suffering from cancer, the standard geriatric assessment, together with an oncological assessment aims to optimise the treatment. This geriatric oncology assessment enables the priorities to be identified and the cancer treatment to be adapted by anticipating the risks and organising the support care.

  7. THE LANCET ONCOLOGY'S CANCER CONTROL IN AFRICA O.S. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In April 2013 the Lancet Oncology published a series on cancer control in Africa comprising 7 papers (Lancet Oncology vol 14 number 4). The significance of these papers to Africa's attempts at tackling the rapidly rising prevalence of cancer cannot be over-emphasized. Potentially, these papers will form the basis of ...

  8. 75 FR 71450 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing an amendment to the notice of a meeting of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee. This...

  9. 77 FR 37911 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing an amendment to the notice of meeting of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee. This meeting was...

  10. 77 FR 63839 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Cancellation AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The meeting of the Oncologic Drugs Advisory... committee have been resolved. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Caleb Briggs, Center for Drug Evaluation and...

  11. [Burnout effect on academic progress of Oncology medical residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ávila, Gabriel; Bello-Villalobos, Herlinda

    2014-01-01

    In the formative period of the courses taken in medical specializations, new and greater responsibilities are accepted by physicians in personal and academic spheres. The interaction of several factors that encompass the practice of these physicians could surpass their capacity to cope, causing on these professionals a high level of stress and professional exhaustion, which will affect their academic development. The objective of this research was to establish if the occupational stress of these medical residents affects their academic progress. We administered the Spanish version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) to 52 residents of three specializations in Oncology (Medical Oncology, Surgical Oncology, and Radio-Oncology). These residents accepted voluntarily at the same time of their third cognitive exam. The prevalence of burnout syndrome was 13.5 %, with a high frequency among medical residents of first degree. Medical Oncology residents showed a higher emotional exhaustion and lower personal fulfillment. Considering the three specializations, the academic progress was higher in the third year, with a significant difference to Surgical Oncology and Medical Oncology (p = 0.026 and 0.015, respectively). No significant difference was found between burnout syndrome, academic progress and sociodemographic characteristics. The presence of burnout syndrome does not affect the academic progress of Oncology medical residents.

  12. Exercise-based oncology rehabilitation: leveraging the cardiac rehabilitation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittus, Kim L; Lakoski, Susan G; Savage, Patrick D; Kokinda, Nathan; Toth, Michael; Stevens, Diane; Woods, Kimberly; OʼBrien, Patricia; Ades, Philip A

    2015-01-01

    The value of exercise and rehabilitative interventions for cancer survivors is increasingly clear, and oncology rehabilitation programs could provide these important interventions. However, a pathway to create oncology rehabilitation has not been delineated. Community-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs staffed by health care professionals with experience in providing rehabilitation and secondary prevention services to individuals with coronary heart disease are widely available and provide a potential model and location for oncology rehabilitation programs. Our purpose was to outline the rehabilitative needs of cancer survivors and demonstrate how oncology rehabilitation can be created using a CR model. We identify the impairments associated with cancer and its therapy that respond to rehabilitative interventions. Components of the CR model that would benefit cancer survivors are described. An example of an oncology rehabilitation program using a CR model is presented. Cancer survivors have impairments associated with cancer and its therapy that improve with rehabilitation. Our experience demonstrates that effective rehabilitation services can be provided utilizing an existing CR infrastructure. Few adjustments to current CR models would be needed to provide oncology rehabilitation. Preliminary evidence suggests that cancer survivors participating in an oncology rehabilitation program experience improvements in psychological and physiologic parameters. Utilizing the CR model of rehabilitative services and disease management provides a much needed mechanism to bring oncology rehabilitation to larger numbers of cancer survivors.

  13. Effects of Age Expectations on Oncology Social Workers' Clinical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Annemarie; Choi, Namkee G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of oncology social workers' expectations regarding aging (ERA) and ERA with cancer (ERAC) on their clinical judgment. Methods: Oncology social workers (N = 322) were randomly assigned to one of four vignettes describing a patient with lung cancer. The vignettes were identical except for the patent's age…

  14. Glycemic modulation in neuro-oncology: experience and future directions using a modified Atkins diet for high-grade brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strowd, Roy E.; Cervenka, Mackenzie C.; Henry, Bobbie J.; Kossoff, Eric H.; Hartman, Adam L.; Blakeley, Jaishri O.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary glycemic modulation through high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets, which induce a state of systemic ketosis and alter systemic metabolic signaling, have been incorporated into the clinical management of patients with neurological disease for more than a century. Mounting preclinical evidence supports the antitumor, proapoptotic, and antiangiogenic effects of disrupting glycolytic metabolism through dietary intervention. In recent years, interest in incorporating such novel therapeutic strategies in neuro-oncology has increased. To date, 3 published studies incorporating novel dietary therapies in oncology have been reported, including one phase I study in neuro-oncology, and have set the stage for further study in this field. In this article, we review the biochemical pathways, preclinical data, and early clinical translation of dietary interventions that modulate systemic glycolytic metabolism in the management of primary malignant brain tumors. We introduce the modified Atkins diet (MAD), a novel dietary alternative to the classic ketogenic diet, and discuss the critical issues facing future study. PMID:26649186

  15. Glycemic modulation in neuro-oncology: experience and future directions using a modified Atkins diet for high-grade brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strowd, Roy E; Cervenka, Mackenzie C; Henry, Bobbie J; Kossoff, Eric H; Hartman, Adam L; Blakeley, Jaishri O

    2015-09-01

    Dietary glycemic modulation through high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets, which induce a state of systemic ketosis and alter systemic metabolic signaling, have been incorporated into the clinical management of patients with neurological disease for more than a century. Mounting preclinical evidence supports the antitumor, proapoptotic, and antiangiogenic effects of disrupting glycolytic metabolism through dietary intervention. In recent years, interest in incorporating such novel therapeutic strategies in neuro-oncology has increased. To date, 3 published studies incorporating novel dietary therapies in oncology have been reported, including one phase I study in neuro-oncology, and have set the stage for further study in this field. In this article, we review the biochemical pathways, preclinical data, and early clinical translation of dietary interventions that modulate systemic glycolytic metabolism in the management of primary malignant brain tumors. We introduce the modified Atkins diet (MAD), a novel dietary alternative to the classic ketogenic diet, and discuss the critical issues facing future study.

  16. Basic sciences of nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Magdy M. (ed.) [Imperial College London (United Kingdom). Biological Imaging Centre

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear medicine has become an ever-changing and expanding diagnostic and therapeutic medical profession. The day-to-day innovations seen in the field are, in great part, due to the integration of many scientific bases with complex technologic advances. The aim of this reference book, Basic Sciences of Nuclear Medicine, is to provide the reader with a comprehensive and detailed discussion of the scientific bases of nuclear medicine, covering the different topics and concepts that underlie many of the investigations and procedures performed in the field. Topics include radiation and nuclear physics, Tc-99m chemistry, single-photon radiopharmaceuticals and PET chemistry, radiobiology and radiation dosimetry, image processing, image reconstruction, quantitative SPECT imaging, quantitative cardiac SPECT, small animal imaging (including multimodality hybrid imaging, e.g., PET/CT, SPECT/CT, and PET/MRI), compartmental modeling, and tracer kinetics. (orig.)

  17. Apps for Radiation Oncology. A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, J J; Oton, L F; Oton, C A

    2017-02-01

    Software applications executed on a smart-phone or mobile device ("Apps") are increasingly used by oncologists in their daily work. A comprehensive critical review was conducted on Apps specifically designed for Radiation Oncology, which aims to provide scientific support for these tools and to guide users in choosing the most suited to their needs. A systematic search was conducted in mobile platforms, iOS and Android, returning 157 Apps. Excluding those whose purpose did not match the scope of the study, 31 Apps were methodically analyzed by the following items: Objective Features, List of Functionalities, Consistency in Outcomes and Usability. Apps are presented in groups of features, as Dose Calculators (7 Apps), Clinical Calculators (4), Tools for Staging (7), Multipurpose (7) and Others (6). Each App is presented with the list of attributes and a brief comment. A short summary is provided at the end of each group. There are numerous Apps with useful tools at the disposal of radiation oncologists. The most advisable Apps do not match the more expensive. Three all-in-one apps seem advisable above all: RadOnc Reference (in English), Easy Oncology (in German) and iOncoR (in Spanish). Others recommendations are suggested for specific tasks: dose calculators, treatment-decision and staging. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Introduction of emotional labour into oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazányi, Kornélia; Molnár, Péter; Szluha, Kornélia

    2007-06-03

    Health care professionals do not have emotional labour obligations in their employment contract. However, in everyday work it is often inevitable for them to change their true feelings. This is critically true for professionals treating chronic or cancer patients. The suitable emotional state of the treatment staff does not only influence the practitioner-patient relationship but the process of recovery as well. Depending on the way one might get into the appropriate emotional state, the literature distinguishes between surface, deep and genuine acting. While surface and deep emotional labour has numerous negative psychological consequences genuine acting is usually accompanied by positive side effects. For those working in the field of oncology, emotional labour is a part of the role expectations of the professionals. This is how the appropriate attitude is a fundamental part of the professionals' essence. For the in depth analysis of subjects related to emotional labour, the authors adopted ideas from L. Festinger 's cognitive dissonance theory. The best way to alleviate cognitive dissonance and the negative side effects of emotional labour is to prevent the emergence of them. Oncology professionals should fit their role expectations genuinely, without particular efforts. If this was impossible, or the particular life situations did not allow genuine acting, it is the employer's and the workmates' common duty to help professionals, to ease the load of emotional labour, to diminish the occurring cognitive dissonance with the help of appropriate recompense.

  19. Apps for Radiation Oncology. A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Calero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Software applications executed on a smart-phone or mobile device (“Apps” are increasingly used by oncologists in their daily work. A comprehensive critical review was conducted on Apps specifically designed for Radiation Oncology, which aims to provide scientific support for these tools and to guide users in choosing the most suited to their needs. Material and methods: A systematic search was conducted in mobile platforms, iOS and Android, returning 157 Apps. Excluding those whose purpose did not match the scope of the study, 31 Apps were methodically analyzed by the following items: Objective Features, List of Functionalities, Consistency in Outcomes and Usability. Results: Apps are presented in groups of features, as Dose Calculators (7 Apps, Clinical Calculators (4, Tools for Staging (7, Multipurpose (7 and Others (6. Each App is presented with the list of attributes and a brief comment. A short summary is provided at the end of each group. Discussion and Recommendations: There are numerous Apps with useful tools at the disposal of radiation oncologists. The most advisable Apps do not match the more expensive. Three all-in-one apps seem advisable above all: RadOnc Reference (in English, Easy Oncology (in German and iOncoR (in Spanish. Others recommendations are suggested for specific tasks: dose calculators, treatment-decision and staging.

  20. [Geriatric intervention in oncology for elderly patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Jean, O; LeGuen, J

    2015-10-01

    Half of all cancers occur in patients older than 70 years. National cancer plans in France promote the emergence of geriatric oncology, whose aim is that every elder cancer patient receives a pertinent treatment, according to his frailty. Geriatric intervention has been evaluated in various conditions or patients since 30 years. Meta-analysis has shown the benefits on autonomy and mortality. But benefits are related to the organization of geriatric care, especially when integrated care is provided. Literature on geriatric oncology is relatively poor. But it is certain that a geriatric comprehensive assessment provided a lot of important information for the care of cancer patients, leading to a modification of cancer treatment in many cases. Randomized trials will soon begin to evaluate the benefits of geriatric integrated care for elder cancer patients, in terms of mortality and quality of life. Actually, in oncogeriatic coordination units, pilot organizations are developed for the satisfaction of patients and professionals. Copyright © 2015 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiation Oncology Physics and Medical Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourland, Dan

    2011-10-01

    Medical physics, an applied field of physics, is the applications of physics in medicine. Medical physicists are essential professionals in contemporary healthcare, contributing primarily to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases through numerous inventions, advances, and improvements in medical imaging and cancer treatment. Clinical service, research, and teaching by medical physicists benefits thousands of patients and other individuals every day. This talk will cover three main topics. First, exciting current research and development areas in the medical physics sub-specialty of radiation oncology physics will be described, including advanced oncology imaging for treatment simulation, image-guided radiation therapy, and biologically-optimized radiation treatment. Challenges in patient safety in high-technology radiation treatments will be briefly reviewed. Second, the educational path to becoming a medical physicist will be reviewed, including undergraduate foundations, graduate training, residency, board certification, and career opportunities. Third, I will introduce the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), which is the professional society that represents, advocates, and advances the field of medical physics (www.aapm.org).

  2. Safety and efficacy of biosimilars in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Huub; Smolen, Josef S; Dicato, Mario; Rifkin, Robert M

    2016-11-01

    Biosimilars are considered to be one of the solutions to combat the substantially increasing costs of cancer treatment, and its imminent introduction is expected to expand affordability worldwide. However, biosimilar monoclonal antibodies provide many challenges compared with first-generation biosimilars, growth factors, and hormones, because they have shown only a modest clinical effect, and are often used in combination with other more toxic therapies, making it difficult to design studies that allow appropriate efficacy and safety assessments compared with the original products. The value of comparative clinical trials for showing clinical equivalence of biosimilars that demonstrate a high degree of similarity in physical, chemical, structural, and biological characteristics with the original product is increasingly being questioned, and advances in analytical methods that provide robust non-clinical data might reduce the need for extensive clinical comparisons. In this Series paper, the third of three papers on drug safety in oncology, we review the safety and efficacy of biosimilars in oncology, assessing biosimilar monoclonal antibodies in relation to first-generation biosimilars, the issues surrounding interchangeability and extrapolation of biosimilars to other disease and patient indications, and reassessing the safety approval pathway in light of 10 years worth of biosimilar experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Social Interaction and Collaboration among Oncology Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jane; Prentice, Dawn; McQuestion, Maurene

    2015-01-01

    Collaboration is a complex process influenced by organizational, professional, interpersonal, and personal factors. Research has demonstrated that collaboration may also be influenced by social factors. Nurses spend much of their time working in collaborative teams, yet little is known about how they socially interact in practice. This qualitative case study explored nurse perceptions of social interaction in relation to collaboration. Data were collected using telephone interviews and documentary reviews from fourteen oncology nurses employed at one cancer center in Canada. Thematic analysis revealed two themes: knowing you is trusting you and formal and informal opportunities. Nurses reported that social interaction meant getting to know someone personally as well as professionally. Social interaction was enacted inside of work during breaks/meals and outside of work at planned events. Social interaction was facilitated by having a long-term current and/or previous professional and personal relationship. The barriers to social interaction included a lack of time to get to know each other, workload issues, and poor interpersonal skills. Findings suggest that social interaction is an important factor in the collaborative relationship among oncology nurses. Nurse leaders need to promote social interaction opportunities and facilitate educational sessions to improve social and interpersonal skills.

  4. [Health services research in psycho-oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnert, A; Hartung, T J

    2015-03-01

    Given the increasing incidence of cancer and improved diagnostics and cancer treatments, the number of cancer patients in industrialized nations is increasing worldwide. Multimodal treatment regimens, which contribute to a tumor-free survival or extend patients life expectancy can, however, alone or in combination increase the risk of physical and psychosocial long-term problems or late complications. For many patients cancer has become a chronic disease and is associated with significant physical and psychosocial problems that affect the quality of life in the medium and longer-term perspective. Common problems of cancer patients in the longer course of the disease include chronic and post-cancer pain, cancer-specific fatigue, psychosocial distress and impairment in self-management and activities of daily living, work participation and quality of life. Current developments with respect to both curative and palliative oncological care have various implications for health services research in psycho-oncology. These questions relate to issues of care needs, service provision and the appropriateness of care, issues of development, implementation and scientific evaluation of patient-centered and affordable support programs for different groups of cancer patients with different supportive care needs, issues of access and utilization of supportive care services, as well as questions of appropriate outcome criteria of health services research.

  5. [Artificial intelligence applied to radiation oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibault, J-E; Burgun, A; Giraud, P

    2017-05-01

    Performing randomised comparative clinical trials in radiation oncology remains a challenge when new treatment modalities become available. One of the most recent examples is the lack of phase III trials demonstrating the superiority of intensity-modulated radiation therapy in most of its current indications. A new paradigm is developing that consists in the mining of large databases to answer clinical or translational issues. Beyond national databases (such as SEER or NCDB), that often lack the necessary level of details on the population studied or the treatments performed, electronic health records can be used to create detailed phenotypic profiles of any patients. In parallel, the Record-and-Verify Systems used in radiation oncology precisely document the planned and performed treatments. Artificial Intelligence and machine learning algorithms can be used to incrementally analyse these data in order to generate hypothesis to better personalize treatments. This review discusses how these methods have already been used in previous studies. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Navigation in musculoskeletal oncology: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Vernon Morris

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Navigation in surgery has increasingly become more commonplace. The use of this technological advancement has enabled ever more complex and detailed surgery to be performed to the benefit of surgeons and patients alike. This is particularly so when applying the use of navigation within the field of orthopedic oncology. The developments in computer processing power coupled with the improvements in scanning technologies have permitted the incorporation of navigational procedures into day-to-day practice. A comprehensive search of PubMed using the search terms “navigation”, “orthopaedic” and “oncology” yielded 97 results. After filtering for English language papers, excluding spinal surgery and review articles, this resulted in 38 clinical studies and case reports. These were analyzed in detail by the authors (GM and JS and the most relevant papers reviewed. We have sought to provide an overview of the main types of navigation systems currently available within orthopedic oncology and to assess some of the evidence behind its use.

  7. Immuno-oncology: A changing paradigm in cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Abdel-Rahman

    2016-12-01

    , the use of this biomarker has been criticized for the lack of consistency and standardization, and it is expected to take a while before a general consensus can be established on this particular point[19].The issue of toxicity is another important point of consideration associated with the use of immune check point inhibitors. Contrary to traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy, check point inhibition is linked to a wide spectrum of immune-related toxicities including those of endocrine, cutaneous, pulmonary, hepatic, ocular, and neurological, which necessitate proper diagnosis and treatment[20-27]. In conclusion, the advancement of immuno-oncology is transforming the field of oncology worldwide. It remains to be seen whether developing countries are capable of coping with the escalating prices of these newer immuno-therapeutics and more importantly, it is crucial to identify measures that can be taken by the global oncology community to deliver these life-saving drugs to all patients in need, irrespective of their financial circumstances.

  8. Medical oncology, history and its future in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzania, Mehrzad; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Asvadi Kermani, Iraj; Ashrafi, Farzaneh; Allahyari, Abolghasem; Rostami, Nematollah; Razavi, Seyed Mohsen; Ramzi, Mani; Nemanipour, Gholamreza

    2015-11-01

    Systemic therapy is one of the cornerstones of cancer treatment. In 1972, following representations by American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) recognized medical oncology as a new subspecialty of internal medicine. Subspecialty of Hematology and Medical Oncology was emerged in Iran in 1983. In the past, modern medical treatments and education were started in Dar Al-fonun school and then in Tehran University; now six universities in Iran are training in Subspecialty of Hematology and Medical Oncology. There are also ten active hematopoietic stem cell transplantation centers, thirty-one provincial medical schools use their specialized services. Future goals for Hematology and Medical Oncology in Iran include expansion and reinforcement of multidisciplinary teams across the country, early detection and prevention of cancer, providing educational program and conducting cancer researches. To achieve these goals, it is necessary to establish Cancer Hospitals in each province that link together through a network.

  9. Student Perspectives on Oncology Curricula at United States Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeley, Brandon C; Golden, Daniel W; Brower, Jeffrey V; Braunstein, Steve E; Hirsch, Ariel E; Mattes, Malcolm D

    2017-08-07

    Delivering a cohesive oncology curriculum to medical students is challenging due to oncology's multidisciplinary nature, predominantly outpatient clinical setting, and lack of data describing effective approaches to teaching it. We sought to better characterize approaches to oncology education at US medical schools by surveying third and fourth year medical students who serve on their institution's curriculum committee. We received responses from students at 19 schools (15.2% response rate). Key findings included the following: (1) an under-emphasis of cancer in the curriculum relative to other common diseases; (2) imbalanced involvement of different clinical subspecialists as educators; (3) infrequent requirements for students to rotate through non-surgical oncologic clerkships; and (4) students are less confident in their knowledge of cancer treatment compared to basic science/natural history or workup/diagnosis. Based on these findings, we provide several recommendations to achieve robust multidisciplinary curriculum design and implementation that better balances the clinical and classroom aspects of oncology education.

  10. (Nuclear theory). [Research in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion. (LSP)

  11. Nuclear reaction

    CERN Multimedia

    Penwarden, C

    2001-01-01

    At the European Research Organization for Nuclear Research, Nobel laureates delve into the mysteries of particle physics. But when they invited artists from across the continent to visit their site in Geneva, they wanted a new kind of experiment.

  12. Nuclear Fusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Parashar, S. K. S; Aslan, Necdet; Aslaninejad, Morteza; Salar Elahi, A

    2014-01-01

    ... in both inertial and magnetic confinement fusion, with attendees from major fusion energy research centers worldwide. It is one of the most important issues in this field. Nuclear fusion continues t...

  13. Nuclear Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Angela

    2003-04-01

    An account of recent studies in the field of theoretical nuclear structure is reported. These studies concern essentially research activities performed under the Italian project "Fisica Teorica del Nucleo e dei Sistemi a Molti Corpi". Special attention is addressed to results obtained during the last two years as regards the development of new many-body techniques as well as the interpretation of new experimental aspects of nuclear structure.

  14. Nuclear Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Morgan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-23

    PowerPoint presentation targeted for educational use. Nuclear data comes from a variety of sources and in many flavors. Understanding where the data you use comes from and what flavor it is can be essential to understand and interpret your results. This talk will discuss the nuclear data pipeline with particular emphasis on providing links to additional resources that can be used to explore the issues you will encounter.

  15. Updates from the 2013 Society for Neuro-Oncology annual and World Federation for Neuro-Oncology quadrennial meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Rimas V; Amidei, Christina

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of a number of key clinical studies in infiltrating gliomas presented at the 2013 Society for Neuro-Oncology and World Federation of Neuro-Oncology joint meeting. This review focuses on efficacy results, including quality of life studies, from larger clinical trials in both high- and low-grade infiltrating gliomas.

  16. Organization of the clinical activity of geriatric oncology: report of a SIOG (International Society of Geriatric Oncology) task force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfardini, Silvio; Aapro, M S; Bennett, J M; Mori, M; Regenstreif, D; Rodin, M; Stein, B; Zulian, G B; Droz, J P

    2007-04-01

    Management for elderly cancer patients world wide is far from being optimal and few older patients are entering clinical trials. A SIOG Task Force was therefore activated to analyze how the clinical activity of Geriatric Oncology is organized. A structured questionnaire was circulated among the SIOG Members. Fifty eight answers were received. All respondents identified Geriatric Oncology, as an area of specialization, however the organization of the clinical activity was variable. Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) was performed in 60% of cases. A Geriatric Oncology Program (GOP) was identified in 21 centers, 85% located in Oncology and 15% in Geriatric Departments. In the majority of GOP scheduled case discussion conferences dedicated to elderly cancer patients took regular place, the composition of the multidisciplinary team involved in the GOP activity included Medical Oncologists, Geriatricians, Nurses, Pharmacists, Social Workers. Fellowships in Geriatric Oncology were present in almost half of GOPs. Over 60% of respondents were willing to recruit patients over 70 years in clinical trials, while the proportion of cases included was only 20%. Enrolment in clinical trials was perceived as more difficult by 52% and much more difficult in 12% of the respondents. In conclusion, a better organization of the clinical activity in Geriatric Oncology allows a better clinical practice and an optimal clinical research. The GOP which can be set up in the oncological as well as in the geriatric environment thought a multidisciplinary coordinator effort. Future plans should also concentrate on divisions, units or departments of Geriatric Oncology.

  17. A Research Agenda for Radiation Oncology: Results of the Radiation Oncology Institute's Comprehensive Research Needs Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagsi, Reshma, E-mail: rjagsi@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bekelman, Justin E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Brawley, Otis W. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Emory University, and American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Thomas, Charles R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oregon Health and Sciences University, Portland, OR (United States); Lawton, Colleen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To promote the rational use of scarce research funding, scholars have developed methods for the systematic identification and prioritization of health research needs. The Radiation Oncology Institute commissioned an independent, comprehensive assessment of research needs for the advancement of radiation oncology care. Methods and Materials: The research needs assessment used a mixed-method, qualitative and quantitative social scientific approach, including structured interviews with diverse stakeholders, focus groups, surveys of American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) members, and a prioritization exercise using a modified Delphi technique. Results: Six co-equal priorities were identified: (1) Identify and develop communication strategies to help patients and others better understand radiation therapy; (2) Establish a set of quality indicators for major radiation oncology procedures and evaluate their use in radiation oncology delivery; (3) Identify best practices for the management of radiation toxicity and issues in cancer survivorship; (4) Conduct comparative effectiveness studies related to radiation therapy that consider clinical benefit, toxicity (including quality of life), and other outcomes; (5) Assess the value of radiation therapy; and (6) Develop a radiation oncology registry. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this prioritization exercise is the only comprehensive and methodologically rigorous assessment of research needs in the field of radiation oncology. Broad dissemination of these findings is critical to maximally leverage the impact of this work, particularly because grant funding decisions are often made by committees on which highly specialized disciplines such as radiation oncology are not well represented.

  18. Nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Program on Nuclear Safety comprehends Radioprotection, Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Material Control. These activities are developed at the Nuclear Safety Directory. The Radioactive Waste Management Department (GRR) was formally created in 1983, to promote research and development, teaching and service activities in the field of radioactive waste. Its mission is to develop and employ technologies to manage safely the radioactive wastes generated at IPEN and at its customer’s facilities all over the country, in order to protect the health and the environment of today's and future generations. The Radioprotection Service (GRP) aims primarily to establish requirements for the protection of people, as workers, contractors, students, members of the general public and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it also aims to establish the primary criteria for the safety of radiation sources at IPEN and planning and preparing for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies. The procedures about the management and the control of exposures to ionizing radiation are in compliance with national standards and international recommendations. Research related to the main activities is also performed. The Nuclear Material Control has been performed by the Safeguard Service team, which manages the accountability and the control of nuclear material at IPEN facilities and provides information related to these activities to ABACC and IAEA. (author)

  19. Chicanoizing the Therapeutic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, William S.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Focusing on the drug addiction problem and its antecedent conditions in a Chicano population, the article examines several therapeutic interventions suggested by these conditions and indicates how they might be incorporated into a drug addiction Therapeutic Community treatment program designed to meet the needs of Chicano drug addicts. (Author/NQ)

  20. Therapeutic Crisis Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Martha J.; Powers, Jane Levine

    1993-01-01

    Describes Therapeutic Crisis Intervention (TCI) program as providing staff with skills, knowledge, and confidence to manage child in crisis to bring about a "maximum amount of lasting response." Contends that, by applying principles of TCI training, direct care worker can attain therapeutic control and maintain dignity of both adult and child…

  1. Trends in Therapeutic Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ralph W.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the implications of the rapid, dramatic changes taking place in therapeutic recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The article notes the impact of changes in managed care, examines programming trends in therapeutic recreation (adventure/outdoor education, competitive sports, handcycling, health enhancement activities, and…

  2. Small molecule inhibitors of histone deacetylases and acetyltransferases as potential therapeutics in oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, Thea; Leus, Niek; Timmerman, Tirza; Dekker, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Uncontrolled cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis in cancer are, among others, regulated by post-translational modifications of histone proteins. The most investigated type of histone modification is lysine acetylation. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs), acetylate histone lysine residues,

  3. Radiolabeled Adenoviral Sub-unit Proteins for Molecular Imaging and Therapeutic Applications in Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.; Meinken, G.; Springer, K. Awasthi, V.; Freimuth, P.

    2004-10-06

    The objective of this project was to develop and optimize new ligand systems, based on adenoviral vectors (intact adenovirus, adeno-viral fiber protein, and the knob protein), for delivering suitable radionuclides into tumor cells for molecular imaging and combined gene/radionuclide therapy of cancer.

  4. Targeted Elimination of Leukemia Stem Cells; a New Therapeutic Approach in Hemato-Oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Cate, B.; de Bruyn, M.; Wei, Y.; Bremer, E.; Helfrich, W.

    Despite recent advances, treatment of leukemia is often not curative. New insights indicate that this may be attributable to a small population of therapy-resistant malignant cells with self-renewal capacity and the ability to generate large numbers of more differentiated leukemia cells. These

  5. Sigma Receptors in Oncology : Therapeutic and Diagnostic Applications of Sigma Ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, Aren; Rybczynska, Anna A.; K. Ramakrishnan, Nisha; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Elsinga, Philip H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.

    2010-01-01

    Sigma receptors (subtypes sigma-1 and sigma-2) are a unique class of binding sites expressed throughout the mammalian body. The endogenous ligand for these sites has not been identified, but steroid hormones (particularly progesterone), sphingolipid-derived amines and N,N-dimethyltryptamine can bind

  6. ONCOLOGICAL PATIENTS AND THE NURSING FIELD: RATION BETWEEN THE ORAL MUCOSITIS GRADE AND THE IMPLEMENTED THERAPEUTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Nilkece Araújo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Caracterizar a mucosite oral em pacientes em tratamento oncológico. Métodos: Estudo exploratório descritivo com abordagem quantitativa com 50 pacientes em um Hospital Filantrópico em Teresina-PI, de agosto a outubro de 2010. Resultados: Os achados apontaram a prevalência de mucosite oral no gênero masculino e nas faixas etárias inferiores a 17 e superiores a 60 anos. Os diagnósticos oncológicos mais freqüentes foram as leucemias e os cânceres das vias aerodigestivas superiores, cujos tratamentos se concentravam na quimiorradiação, determinando predominantemente graus 1 e 2 de mucosite oral. Os quimioterápicos mais associados à afecção foram a cisplatina, a citarabina, o metotrexate, sulfato de vincristina, etoposídeo e cloridrato de doxorrubicina. Conclusão: Conclui-se que há necessidade da inserção da enfermagem no fomento às ações preventivas e de controle da mucosite oral para manutenção do bem estar, otimização da resposta terapêutica e melhoria da qualidade de vida do paciente oncológico. DESCRITORES: Mucosite oral, Oncologia, Enfermagem.

  7. PALLIATIVE CARE: AN ALTERNATIVE TO ONCOLOGIC USERS OUT OF THERAPEUTICAL POSSIBILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Patrícia B. Carvalho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O presente estudo objetivou analisar a assistência da equipe de enfermagem aos usuários oncológicos fora de possibilidades terapêuticas (FPT do Home Care da Liga Mossoroense de Estudos e Combate ao Câncer. Métodos: Estudo descritivo de abordagem qualitativa. Foram utilizadas observações não participantes seguindo um roteiro pré-estabelecido e a utilização de roteiros de entrevistas semi-estruturadas. A amostra foi composta de cinco enfermeiros. Os dados foram analisados a partir da categorização de Minayo. Resultados: Percebe-se que existem alguns fatores dificultantes para a operacionalização efetiva da filosofia dos cuidados paliativos no Home Care, pois embora trabalhem num serviço que se deve orientar pelos princípios e filosofia deste cuidado, ainda encontramos concepções voltadas para um cuidado em busca da cura. Conclusão: Contudo, a localidade analisada oferece possibilidades que precisam ser vislumbradas na perspectiva de colocar em prática a filosofia dos cuidados paliativo.

  8. American Society of Clinical Oncology Strategic Plan for Increasing Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkfield, Karen M; Flowers, Christopher R; Patel, Jyoti D; Rodriguez, Gladys; Robinson, Patricia; Agarwal, Amit; Pierce, Lori; Brawley, Otis W; Mitchell, Edith P; Head-Smith, Kimberly T; Wollins, Dana S; Hayes, Daniel F

    2017-08-01

    In December 2016, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Board of Directors approved the ASCO Strategic Plan to Increase Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce. Developed through a multistakeholder effort led by the ASCO Health Disparities Committee, the purpose of the plan is to guide the formal efforts of ASCO in this area over the next three years (2017 to 2020). There are three primary goals: (1) to establish a longitudinal pathway for increasing workforce diversity, (2) to enhance ASCO leadership diversity, and (3) to integrate a focus on diversity across ASCO programs and policies. Improving quality cancer care in the United States requires the recruitment of oncology professionals from diverse backgrounds. The ASCO Strategic Plan to Increase Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Oncology Workforce is designed to enhance existing programs and create new opportunities that will move us closer to the vision of achieving an oncology workforce that reflects the demographics of the US population it serves.

  9. Augmented reality in laparoscopic surgical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, Stéphane; Soler, Luc; Mutter, Didier; Marescaux, Jacques

    2011-09-01

    Minimally invasive surgery represents one of the main evolutions of surgical techniques aimed at providing a greater benefit to the patient. However, minimally invasive surgery increases the operative difficulty since the depth perception is usually dramatically reduced, the field of view is limited and the sense of touch is transmitted by an instrument. However, these drawbacks can currently be reduced by computer technology guiding the surgical gesture. Indeed, from a patient's medical image (US, CT or MRI), Augmented Reality (AR) can increase the surgeon's intra-operative vision by providing a virtual transparency of the patient. AR is based on two main processes: the 3D visualization of the anatomical or pathological structures appearing in the medical image, and the registration of this visualization on the real patient. 3D visualization can be performed directly from the medical image without the need for a pre-processing step thanks to volume rendering. But better results are obtained with surface rendering after organ and pathology delineations and 3D modelling. Registration can be performed interactively or automatically. Several interactive systems have been developed and applied to humans, demonstrating the benefit of AR in surgical oncology. It also shows the current limited interactivity due to soft organ movements and interaction between surgeon instruments and organs. If the current automatic AR systems show the feasibility of such system, it is still relying on specific and expensive equipment which is not available in clinical routine. Moreover, they are not robust enough due to the high complexity of developing a real-time registration taking organ deformation and human movement into account. However, the latest results of automatic AR systems are extremely encouraging and show that it will become a standard requirement for future computer-assisted surgical oncology. In this article, we will explain the concept of AR and its principles. Then, we

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  13. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  16. Reporting therapeutic discourse in a therapeutic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, G E

    1988-03-01

    Research in nurses' communications has concentrated on nurse to patient interactions. Those few studies which focus on nurse to nurse communications seem to be generated by a pragmatic and normative concern with effective information sharing. In this paper, which describes one aspect of a larger case study of a hospital-based therapeutic community, the description and analysis of nurses' reports flows not from a normative model of professional practice, but rather an exploration of how professional practice is articulated as discourse in nurses' written accounts. Foucault's ideas about therapeutic discourse inform the theoretical framework of the research. Ethnomethodological concerns with the importance of documentary analysis provide the methodological rationale for examining nurses' 24-hour report documents, as official discourse, reflecting therapeutic practice in this setting. A content analysis of nurses' reports, collected over a period of 4 months, demonstrated the importance of domesticity and ordinary everyday activities in nurses' accounts of hospital life. Disruption to the 'life as usual' domesticity in the community seemed to be associated with admission to and discharge from the hospital when interpersonal and interactional changes between patients occur. It is suggested that nurses in general hospital wards and more orthodox psychiatric settings might usefully consider the impact of admissions and discharges on the group of patients they manage, and make this a discursive focus of their work.

  17. PROSPECT (Profiling of Resistance Patterns & Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in Evaluation of Cancers of the Thorax and Therapeutic Target Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    pathological data. 1) The database’s clinical module contains the following Web forms: - Patient Information - Social History (Alcohol and Smoking...Programme, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas (CNIO), Madrid, Spain; 2Biology Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo...Japan; 3Division of Oncology, Centro para la Investigacion Medica Aplicada (CIMA), University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain; 4Hamon Center for Therapeutic

  18. Biosensing Technologies for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghello, Anna; Tartaggia, Stefano; Alvau, Maria Domenica; Polo, Federico; Toffoli, Giuseppe

    2017-07-20

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is the clinical practice of measuring pharmaceutical drug concentrations in patients' biofluids at designated intervals to allow a close and timely control of their dosage. This practice allows for rapid medical intervention in case of toxicity-related issues and/or adjustment of dosage to better fit the therapeutic demand. Currently, TDM is performed in centralized laboratories employing instruments, such as immunoassay analyzers and mass spectrometers that can be run only by trained personnel. However the time required for the preparation, samples analysis, and data processing, together with the related financial cost, severely affects the application of TDM in medical practices. Therefore, a new generation of analytical tools is necessary to respond to the timely need of drug administration or reduction aiming at effectively treating oncologic patients. Technological advances in the field of nanosciences and biosensors offer the unique opportunity to address such issues. The interest for the so-called nanobiosensors is considerably increasing, particularly in drug discovery and clinical chemistry, even though there are only few examples reporting their use for TDM. The techniques employing nanobiosensors are mainly based on electrochemical, optical, and mass detection systems. In this review we described the most promising methodologies that, in our opinion, will bring TDM towards the next stage of clinical practice in the future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Confirming the RNAi-mediated mechanism of action of siRNA-based cancer therapeutics in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Judge, Adam D.; Robbins, Marjorie; Tavakoli, Iran; Levi, Jasna; Hu, Lina; Fronda, Anna; Ambegia, Ellen; McClintock, Kevin; MacLachlan, Ian

    2009-01-01

    siRNAs that specifically silence the expression of cancer-related genes offer a therapeutic approach in oncology. However, it remains critical to determine the true mechanism of their therapeutic effects. Here, we describe the preclinical development of chemically modified siRNA targeting the essential cell-cycle proteins polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and kinesin spindle protein (KSP) in mice. siRNA formulated in stable nucleic acid lipid particles (SNALP) displayed potent antitumor efficacy in b...

  20. Physical Activity Promotion, Beliefs, and Barriers Among Australasian Oncology Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W L; Pühringer, Petra; Olsen, Alicia; Sargeant, Sally; Jones, Lynnette M; Climstein, Mike

    2017-03-01

    To describe the physical activity (PA) promotion practices, beliefs, and barriers of Australasian oncology nurses and gain preliminary insight into how PA promotion practices may be affected by the demographics of the nurses.
. Cross-sectional survey.
. Australia and New Zealand.
. 119 registered oncology nurses.
. Self-reported online survey completed once per participant.
. Questions assessed the PA promotion beliefs (e.g., primary healthcare professionals responsible for PA promotion, treatment stage), PA benefits (e.g., primary benefits, evidence base), and PA promotion barriers of oncology nurses.
. Oncology nurses believed they were the major providers of PA advice to their patients. They promoted PA prior to, during, and post-treatment. The three most commonly cited benefits of PA for their patients were improved quality of life, mental health, and activities of daily living. Lack of time, lack of adequate support structures, and risk to patient were the most common barriers to PA promotion. Relatively few significant differences in the oncology nurses' PA promotion practices, beliefs, and barriers were observed based on hospital location or years of experience.
. Despite numerous barriers, Australasian oncology nurses wish to promote PA to their patients with cancer across multiple treatment stages because they believe PA is beneficial for their patients.
. Hospitals may need to better support oncology nurses in promoting PA to their patients and provide better referral pathways to exercise physiologists and physiotherapists.

  1. Narrative ethics in the field of oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossignol, Dominique

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the application of narrative within medical practice. Illness like cancer constitutes a biographical disruption that occurs several times during the disease, from diagnosis to complications and treatments. This review analyzes the interest of narrative ethics in medicine with a focus on cancer. The field of narrative ethics in medicine has emerged from a confluence of humanities, contemporary narratology, literature and social sciences. Although there is a growing literature on this topic, little has been written on an oncology setting. This article is more a personal consideration on the subject than a classical review of the literature. The advent of bioethics has given considerable insight into the practice of medicine, and it would be inconceivable to return to a paternalistic practice that ignores the will of the patient. Like procedural ethics of discussion, and in complement with principlism, narrative ethics promotes constructive communication between patients and caregivers.

  2. The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steinbjørn; Nielsen, Jan; Laursen, René J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively registered data on patients with gliomas since January 2009. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment of the DNOR and further to evaluate the database...... Pathology Registry. The data validity of important clinical variables was evaluated by a random sample of 100 patients from the DNOR using the medical records as reference. RESULTS: A total of 2241 patients were registered in the DNOR by December 2014 with an overall patient completeness of 92 %, which...... of patient registration was very high (92 %) and the validity of the most important patient data was good. The DNOR is a newly established national database, which is a reliable source for future scientific studies and clinical quality assessments among patients with gliomas....

  3. Oncological hadrontherapy and the TERA project

    CERN Document Server

    Amaldi, Ugo

    1996-01-01

    The first hour is devoted to a review of the techniques of conventional radiotherapy and of the European statistics on cancer treated and cured with the various techniques. In the second lesson the most recent applications of hadron accelerators to t Italian "Hadrontherapy Project" is introduced. This project (described in detail in the last lesson) foresees three independent but coherent activities :i) the construction of a large National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherary; (ii) the design and development of relatively small and "cheap" proton accelerators ("compact accelerators"), with which various centres could be equipped within reasonable cost boundaries; (iii) a multimedia information network (RITA) connecting a large number of Associated Centres with the Centres having hadron beams, so to select before any travelling the patients to be irradiated.

  4. Safe Implementation of Computerized Provider Order Entry for Adult Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D B; Kaemingk, D; Frieze, D; Hendrie, P; Payne, T H

    2015-01-01

    Oncology has lagged in CPOE adoption due to the narrow therapeutic index of chemotherapy drugs, individualized dosing based on weight and height, regimen complexity, and workflows that include hard stops where safety checks are performed and documented. We sought to establish CPOE for chemotherapy ordering and administration in an academic teaching institution using a commercially available CPOE system. A commercially available CPOE system was implemented throughout the hospital. A multidisciplinary team identified key safety gaps that required the development of a customized complex order display and a verification documentation workflow. Staff reported safety events were monitored for two years and compared to the year prior to go live. A workflow was enabled to capture real-time provider verification status during the time from ordering to the administration of chemotherapy. A customized display system was embedded in the EMR to provide a single screen view of the relevant parameters of chemotherapy doses including current and previous patient measurements of height and weight, dose adjustments, provider verifications, prior chemotherapy regimens, and a synopsis of the standard regimen for reference. Our system went live with 127 chemotherapy plans and has been expanded to 189. Staff reported safety events decreased following implementation, particularly in the area of prescribing and transcribing by the second year of use. We observed reduced staff reported safety events following implementation of CPOE for inpatient chemotherapy using an electronic verification workflow and an embedded custom clinical decision support page. This implementation demonstrates that CPOE can be safely used for inpatient chemotherapy, even in an extremely complex environment.

  5. Voluntary Informed Consent in Paediatric Oncology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekking, Sara A S; Van Der Graaf, Rieke; Van Delden, Johannes J M

    2016-07-01

    In paediatric oncology, research and treatments are often closely combined, which may compromise voluntary informed consent of parents. We identified two key scenarios in which voluntary informed consent for paediatric oncology studies is potentially compromised due to the intertwinement of research and care. The first scenario is inclusion by the treating paediatric oncologist, the second scenario concerns treatments confined to the research context. In this article we examine whether voluntary informed consent of parents for research is compromised in these two scenarios, and if so whether this is also morally problematic. For this, we employ the account of voluntary consent from Nelson and colleagues, who assert that voluntary consent requires substantial freedom from controlling influences. We argue that, in the absence of persuasion or manipulation, inclusion by the treating physician does not compromise voluntariness. However, it may function as a risk factor for controlling influence as it narrows the scope within which parents make decisions. Furthermore, physician appeal to reciprocity is not controlling as it constitutes persuasion. In addition, framing information is a form of informational manipulation and constitutes a controlling influence. In the second scenario, treatments confined to the research context qualify as controlling if the available options are restricted through manipulation of options. Although none of the influences is morally problematic in itself, a combination of influences may create morally problematic instances of involuntary informed consent. Therefore, safeguards should be implemented to establish an optimal environment for parents to provide voluntary informed consent in an integrated research-care context. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Principles of surgical oncology in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbar, Andrew P; Gravitz, Aviad; Audisio, Riccardo A

    2012-02-01

    Elderly patients constitute the largest group in oncologic medical practice, despite the fact that in solid cancers treated operatively, many patients are denied standard therapies and where such decision making is based solely on age. The “natural” assumptions that we have are often misleading; namely, that the elderly cannot tolerate complex or difficult procedures, chemotherapy, or radiation schedules; that their overall predictable medical health determines survival (and not the malignancy); or that older patients typically have less aggressive tumors. Clearly, patient selection and a comprehensive geriatric assessment is key where well-selected cases have the same cancer-specific survival as younger cohorts in a range of tumors as outlined including upper and lower gastrointestinal malignancy, head and neck cancer, and breast cancer. The assessment of patient fitness for surgery and adjuvant therapies is therefore critical to outcomes, where studies have clearly shown that fit older patients experience the same benefits and toxicities of chemotherapy as do younger patients and that when normalized for preexisting medical conditions,that older patients tolerate major operative procedures designed with curative oncological intent. At present, our problem is the lack of true evidence-based medicine specifically designed with age in mind, which effectively limits surgical decision making in disease-based strategies. This can only be achieved by the utilization of more standardized, comprehensive geriatric assessments to identify vulnerable older patients, aggressive pre-habilitation with amelioration of vulnerability causation, improvement of patient-centered longitudinal outcomes, and an improved surgical and medical understanding of relatively subtle decreases in organ functioning, social support mechanisms and impairments of health-related quality of life as a feature specifically of advanced age.

  7. It takes chutzpah: oncology nurse leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, E

    1999-01-01

    Chutzpah, according to the Oxford Dictionary of Current English (1996) is a slang term from the Yiddish language which means shameless audacity. Chutzpah has been used to identify people with courage who take on situations that others avoid and somehow achieve the impossible. Tim Porter-O'Grady (1997) recently wrote that management is dead, and has been replaced by process leadership. Health care organizations have made shifts from hierarchical structures to process or program models where people have dual/multiple reporting/communication relationship. In this new orientation, management functions of controlling, directing, organizing and disciplining are replaced by process leadership functions of coordinating, facilitating, linking and sustaining (Porter O'Grady, 1997). Herein lies the challenge for oncology nurse leaders: "what lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny matters compared to what lies within us" (Ralph Waldo Emerson). Leadership is not a function of job title. The evidence for this is clear in current practice.... There are no/few positions of nurse leaders. Titles have changed to eliminate the professional discipline, and reflect a non-descript orientation. The new titles are process leaders, program leaders, professional practice leaders. Nurse leaders need new points of reference to take in the challenges of influencing, facilitating and linking. Those points of reference are: principle-centered leadership, integrity and chutzpah. This presentation will focus on examining current thinking, defining key characteristics and attributes, and using scenarios to illustrate the impact of leadership. We, as leaders in oncology nursing, must use chutzpah to make positive change and long-term gains for patient care and the profession of nursing.

  8. What makes oncology nursing special? Walking the road together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, M R; Germino, B B; Maliski, S; Stafford-Fox, V; Rice, K

    1994-09-01

    To identify the factors that influence oncology nurses' decisions to enter nursing and specialize in oncology and to describe the role dimensions of oncology nursing practice. Multi-institutional, descriptive, qualitative. Six sites in different regions of the United States; rural and urban cancer and noncancer centers. 38 oncology nurses (mean age = 35 years; average time in nursing = 10 years and in oncology = 7 years; 47% bachelor's degree in nursing, 29% diploma, 13% associate degree in nursing, and 11% master's prepared). Phenomenological; content analysis of interviews. Life events, career decision-making, personal and professional rewards, role dimensions of practice, caring behaviors. Nurses said that their decisions to specialize in oncology were based on family experiences with cancer, the challenges of administering sophisticated cancer therapies, and influential role models. They reported that professional rewards are derived from valuing each patients as a 'whole person' and providing family-centered care. Nurses find that personal rewards and career survivorship are embedded in several ongoing discoveries: work offers a unique laboratory for learning about life in general, distancing maneuvers are necessary for self-preservation, and the fuzzy boundary between work and personal life must be constantly renegotiated. Oncology nurses find the best in the worst of situations, live fully the cancer experience by embracing their patients' heartaches and triumphs, share a collective sense of pride in their specialty, and report a high level of job satisfaction. Caring for the dying person with cancer is the most difficult aspect of oncology nursing practice and being with--being present in the moment, no matter what the outcome--is the most rewarding and ubiquitous caring behavior of oncology nurses.

  9. Participation in pediatric oncology research protocols: Racial/ethnic, language and age-based disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal, Paula; Singer, Jenelle; Cooper, Renee; Wells, Kristen J; Nodora, Jesse; Milburn, Mehrzad; Gahagan, Sheila; Schiff, Deborah E; Martinez, Maria E

    2015-08-01

    Survival rates in pediatric oncology have improved dramatically, in part due to high patient participation in clinical trials. Although racial/ethnic inequalities in clinical trial participation have been reported in adults, pediatric data and studies comparing participation rates by socio-demographic characteristics are scarce. The goal of this study was to assess differences in research protocol participation for childhood cancer by age, sex, race/ethnicity, parental language, cancer type, and insurance status. Data on enrollment in any protocol, biospecimen, or therapeutic protocols were collected and analyzed for newly diagnosed pediatric patients with cancer from 2008-2012 at Rady Children's Hospital. Among the 353 patients included in the analysis, 304 (86.1%) were enrolled in any protocol. Enrollment in biospecimen and therapeutic protocols was 84.2% (261/310) and 81.1% (206/254), respectively. Logistic regression analyzes revealed significant enrollment underrepresentation in any protocol for Hispanics compared to Non-Hispanic whites (81% vs. 91%; Odds Ratio [OR], 0.43; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.21-0.90; P = 0.021) and among children of Spanish-speaking vs. English-speaking parents (78% vs. 89%; OR, 0.45; 95%CI, 0.23-0.87; P = 0.016). Compared to patients aged 0-4 years, significant underrepresentation was also found among patients 15-21 years old (92% vs.72%; OR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.09-0.48; P < 0.001). Similar trends were observed when analyzing enrollment in biospecimen and therapeutic protocols separately. There was significant underrepresentation in protocol participation for Hispanics, children of Spanish-speaking parents, and patients ages 15-21. Research is needed to understand barriers to research participation among these groups underrepresented in pediatric oncology clinical trials. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Targeting Nuclear Thymidylate Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, James; Stover, Patrick J.; Field, Martha S.

    2016-01-01

    Thymidylate (dTMP) biosynthesis plays an essential and exclusive function in DNA synthesis and proper cell division, and therefore has been an attractive therapeutic target. Folate analogues, known as antifolates, and nucleotide analogs that inhibit the enzymatic action of the de novo thymidylate biosynthesis pathway and are commonly used in cancer treatment. In this review, we examine the mechanisms by which the antifolate 5-fluorouracil, as well as other dTMP synthesis inhibitors, function in cancer treatment in light of emerging evidence that dTMP synthesis occurs in the nucleus. Nuclear localization of the de novo dTMP synthesis pathway requires modification of the pathway enzymes by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein. SUMOylation is required for nuclear localization of the de novo dTMP biosynthesis pathway, and disruption in the SUMO pathway inhibits cell proliferation in several cancer models. We summarize evidence that the nuclear localization of the dTMP biosynthesis pathway is a critical factor in the efficacy of antifolate-based therapies that target dTMP synthesis. PMID:27876557

  11. Nuclear Mechanics in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denais, Celine; Lammerding, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research, cancer metastasis remains an incompletely understood process that is as complex as it is devastating. In recent years, there has been an increasing push to investigate the biomechanical aspects of tumorigenesis, complementing the research on genetic and biochemical changes. In contrast to the high genetic variability encountered in cancer cells, almost all metastatic cells are subject to the same physical constraints as they leave the primary tumor, invade surrounding tissues, transit through the circulatory system, and finally infiltrate new tissues. Advances in live cell imaging and other biophysical techniques, including measurements of subcellular mechanics, have yielded stunning new insights into the physics of cancer cells. While much of this research has been focused on the mechanics of the cytoskeleton and the cellular microenvironment, it is now emerging that the mechanical properties of the cell nucleus and its connection to the cytoskeleton may play a major role in cancer metastasis, as deformation of the large and stiff nucleus presents a substantial obstacle during the passage through the dense interstitial space and narrow capillaries. Here, we present an overview of the molecular components that govern the mechanical properties of the nucleus and we discuss how changes in nuclear structure and composition observed in many cancers can modulate nuclear mechanics and promote metastatic processes. Improved insights into this interplay between nuclear mechanics and metastatic progression may have powerful implications in cancer diagnostics and therapy and may reveal novel therapeutic targets for pharmacological inhibition of cancer cell invasion. PMID:24563360

  12. Nuclear scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  13. Nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2010-08-01

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) was declared by the 62nd General Assembly of the United Nations and was also endorsed by UNESCO. Investigations in the realms of particle and nuclear physicsmake a large contribution in the development of our ideas of the properties of the Universe. The present article discusses some problems of the evolution of the Universe, nucleosyntheses, and cosmochronology from the point of view of nuclear and particle physics. Processes occurring in the Universe are compared with the mechanisms of the production and decay of nuclei, as well as with the mechanisms of their interaction at high energies. Examples that demonstrate the potential of nuclearphysics methods for studying cosmic objects and the properties of the Universe are given. The results that come from investigations into nuclear reactions induced by beams of radioactive nuclei and which make it possible to take a fresh look at the nucleosynthesis scenario in the range at light nuclei are presented.

  14. Exploring oncology nurses' grief: A self-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa C Barbour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncology nursing, like many other nursing fields, often provides nurses with the opportunity to get to know their patients and their families well. This familiarity allows oncology nurses to show a level of compassion and empathy that is often helpful to the patient and their family during their struggle with cancer. However, this familiarity can also lead to a profound sense of grief if the patient loses that struggle. This self-study provided me the opportunity to systematically explore my own experience with grief as an oncology nurse, helping me to identify specific stressors and also sources of stress release.

  15. How to Develop a Cardio-Oncology Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipelisky, David; Park, Jae Yoon; Lerman, Amir; Mulvagh, Sharon; Lin, Grace; Pereira, Naveen; Rodriguez-Porcel, Martin; Villarraga, Hector R; Herrmann, Joerg

    2017-04-01

    Cardiovascular demands to the care of cancer patients are common and important given the implications for morbidity and mortality. As a consequence, interactions with cardiovascular disease specialists have intensified to the point of the development of a new discipline termed cardio-oncology. As an additional consequence, so-called cardio-oncology clinics have emerged, in most cases staffed by cardiologists with an interest in the field. This article addresses this gap and summarizes key points in the development of a cardio-oncology clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular level in silico studies for oncology. Direct models review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psakhie, S. G.; Tsukanov, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    The combination of therapy and diagnostics in one process "theranostics" is a trend in a modern medicine, especially in oncology. Such an approach requires development and usage of multifunctional hybrid nanoparticles with a hierarchical structure. Numerical methods and mathematical models play a significant role in the design of the hierarchical nanoparticles and allow looking inside the nanoscale mechanisms of agent-cell interactions. The current position of in silico approach in biomedicine and oncology is discussed. The review of the molecular level in silico studies in oncology, which are using the direct models, is presented.

  17. Industry Funding Among Leadership in Medical Oncology and Radiation Oncology in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Stella K; Ahmed, Awad A; Ileto, Jan; Zaorsky, Nicholas G; Deville, Curtiland; Holliday, Emma B; Wilson, Lynn D; Jagsi, Reshma; Thomas, Charles R

    2017-10-01

    To quantify and determine the relationship between oncology departmental/division heads and private industry vis-à-vis potential financial conflict of interests (FCOIs) as publicly reported by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Open Payments database. We extracted the names of the chairs/chiefs in medical oncology (MO) and chairs of radiation oncology (RO) for 81 different institutions with both RO and MO training programs as reported by the Association of American Medical Colleges. For each leader, the amount of consulting fees and research payments received in 2015 was determined. Logistic modeling was used to assess associations between the 2 endpoints of receiving a consulting fee and receiving a research payment with various institution-specific and practitioner-specific variables included as covariates: specialty, sex, National Cancer Institute designation, PhD status, and geographic region. The majority of leaders in MO were reported to have received consulting fees or research payments (69.5%) compared with a minority of RO chairs (27.2%). Among those receiving payments, the average (range) consulting fee was $13,413 ($200-$70,423) for MO leaders and $6463 ($837-$16,205) for RO chairs; the average research payment for MO leaders receiving payments was $240,446 ($156-$1,234,762) and $295,089 ($160-$1,219,564) for RO chairs. On multivariable regression when the endpoint was receipt of a research payment, those receiving a consulting fee (odds ratio [OR]: 5.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.22-13.65) and MO leaders (OR: 5.54; 95% CI: 2.62-12.18) were more likely to receive research payments. Examination of the receipt of consulting fees as the endpoint showed that those receiving a research payment (OR: 5.41; 95% CI: 2.23-13.99) and MO leaders (OR: 3.06; 95% CI: 1.21-8.13) were more likely to receive a consulting fee. Leaders in academic oncology receive consulting or research payments from industry. Relationships between oncology leaders and

  18. Nuclear enthalpies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozynek Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Even small departures from a nuclear equilibrium density with constant nucleon masses require an increase of a nucleon enthalpy. This process can be described as volume corrections to a nucleon rest energy, which are proportional to pressure and absent in a standard Relativistic Mean Field (RMF with point-like nucleons. Bag model and RMF calculations show the modifications of nucleon mass, nucleon radius and a Parton Distribution Function (PDF of Nuclear Matter (NM above the saturation point originated from the pressure correction.

  19. Nuclear spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ajzenberg-Selove, Fay

    1960-01-01

    Nuclear Spectroscopy, Part A deals with the experimental and theoretical techniques involved in nuclear spectroscopy.This book discusses the interactions of charged particles with matter, gaseous ionization detectors, and particular mass attenuation coefficients. The magnetic gamma-ray spectrometers for photo or internal-conversion electrons, general characteristics of cross-section variation with energy, and measurement of fast neutron spectra are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the elastic scattering of photons by nuclei and measurement of widths of gamma-radiating levels.This pub

  20. [PLURAL THERAPEUTIC ITINERARIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the strategies employed by Nahua community of Mexixo to deal with health problems. Drawing on qualitative research, it discusses the choice of plural therapeutic itineraries, including the use of informal and formal healthcare.

  1. A Population Pharmacokinetic Model of Gentamicin in Pediatric Oncology Patients To Facilitate Personalized Dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos-Paez, C C; Staatz, C E; Lawson, R; Hennig, S

    2017-08-01

    To ensure the safe and effective dosing of gentamicin in children, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is recommended. TDM utilizing Bayesian forecasting software is recommended but is unavailable, as no population model that describes the pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in pediatric oncology patients exists. This study aimed to develop and externally evaluate a population pharmacokinetic model of gentamicin to support personalized dosing in pediatric oncology patients. A nonlinear mixed-effect population pharmacokinetic model was developed from retrospective data. Data were collected from 423 patients for model building and a further 52 patients for external evaluation. A two-compartment model with first-order elimination best described the gentamicin disposition. The final model included renal function (described by fat-free mass and postmenstrual age) and the serum creatinine concentration as covariates influencing gentamicin clearance (CL). Final parameter estimates were as follow CL, 5.77 liters/h/70 kg; central volume of distribution, 21.6 liters/70 kg; peripheral volume of distribution, 13.8 liters/70 kg; and intercompartmental clearance, 0.62 liter/h/70 kg. External evaluation suggested that current models developed in other pediatric cohorts may not be suitable for use in pediatric oncology patients, as they showed a tendency to overpredict the observations in this population. The final model developed in this study displayed good predictive performance during external evaluation (root mean square error, 46.0%; mean relative prediction error, -3.40%) and may therefore be useful for the personalization of gentamicin dosing in this cohort. Further investigations should focus on evaluating the clinical application of this model. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Organization of work in oncology – multidisciplinarity, multiprofessionality, quality and multiplicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotimir Lešničar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health care system in Slovenia has not fully defined all liabilities to cancer patients at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels. No official documents describing precisely the mission of oncology and its tasks to be performed at each individual level have been so far available. Given that we are lacking an adequate national cancer control program and that the management of a cancer patient in Slovenia is included in the compulsory health insurance system. Our health care as well as health insurance policy should have long ago accepted the challenge of taking more decisive steps. The quality of management of cancer patients is as much dependent on medical proficiency (knowledge as on organization of work at the primary and secondary levels. The major critique addresses particularly undergraduate and postgraduate education, i. e. the fields that have not been touched by the changes in the epidemiologic view of morbidity for several decades.Conclusions: The prerequisites in oncology, such as multidisciplinarity and multiprofessionality, are considered as new added values which should have a direct effect on the quality and multiplicity of individuals and institutions that are likely to be included in diagnostic and therapeutic networks. In oncology in Slovenia, the views on multidisciplinarity are not consistent, multiprofessionality has not yet entered our conscious awareness, quality assurance is often out of control, whereas multiplicity is history-based. It is high time that health care policy steps in and takes adequate measures in the management of cancer patients. The first prerequisite is to set up a national cancer control program and, of course, to appoint supervisors who will be in charge of (as the term indicates itself supervising the implementation of the program. Its smooth implementation can only be ensured by applying a uniform information system, thereby also assuring a uniform evaluation of costs.

  3. Nuclear energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    The technical principles and practices of the civil nuclear industry are described with particular reference to fission and its products, natural and artificial radioactivity elements principally concerned and their relationships, main types of reactor, safety issues, the fuel cycle, waste management, issues related to weapon proliferation, environmental considerations and possible future developments.

  4. Subspecialist training in surgical gynecologic oncology in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsen, Sofie L; Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Salvesen, Helga B; Auranen, Annika; Salvarsdottir, Anna; Høgdall, Claus

    2011-08-01

    To survey the centers that can provide subspecialty surgical training and education in gynecological oncology in the Nordic countries, we developed an online questionnaire in co-operation with the Nordic Society of Gynecological Oncology. The link to the survey was mailed to 22 Scandinavian gynecological centers in charge of surgical treatment of cancer patients. Twenty (91%) centers participated. Four centers reported to be accredited European subspecialty training centers, a further six were interested in being accredited, and 11 centers were accredited by the respective National Board. Fourteen (74%) centers were interested in being listed for exchange of fellows. Our data show a large Nordic potential and interest in improving the gynecologic oncology standards and can be used to enhance the awareness of gynecologic oncology training in Scandinavia and to facilitate the exchange of fellows between Nordic countries. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Music therapy in relief of pain in oncology patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mariana Franco; Andrea Bezerra Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the perception of oncology patients with chronic pain as to the effects of music in alleviating pain, to identify if there are changes in the vital signs of these patients before...

  6. Cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Can; Kantar, Mehmet; Tuna, Arzu; Ertam, Ilgen; Aksoylar, Serap; Günaydın, Aslı; Çetingül, Nazan

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric oncology patients can present with various skin lesions related to both primary disease and immunosuppressive treatments. This study aimed to evaluate the cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric oncology patients. Sixty-five pediatric oncology patients who were scheduled to undergo chemotherapy from May 2011 to May 2013 were included in the study. Three patients were excluded from the results, as 2 patients died during treatment and 1 patient withdrew from the study; therefore, a total of 62 patients were evaluated for mucocutaneous findings. Patients were grouped according to their oncological diagnoses and a statistical analysis was performed. There was no statistical significance in the incidence of cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy among the different diagnostic groups. Awareness among dermatologists of the possible cutaneous side effects of chemotherapy in pediatric patients and their causes can promote early diagnosis and treatment in this patient population.

  7. Cognitive decline after major oncological surgery in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, M.; Rotteveel, E.; Izaks, G. J.; Spikman, J. M.; van der Wal-Huisman, H.; van Etten, B.; Absalom, A. R.; Mourits, M. J. E.; de Bock, G. H.; van Leeuwen, B. L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Elderly patients undergoing oncological surgery experience postoperative cognitive decline. The aims of this study were to examine the incidence of cognitive decline 3 months after surgery and identify potential patient-, disease- and surgery-related risk factors for postoperative

  8. Palliative care in paediatric oncology in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Tuani Magalhães; Silva, Liliane Faria da; Santo, Fátima Helena Espírito; Moraes, Juliana Rezende Montenegro Medeiros de; Pacheco, Sandra Teixeira de Araújo

    2017-05-04

    To identify and understand the view of students regarding palliative care in paediatric oncology during a graduate programme. Exploratory research with a qualitative approach conducted in a school of nursing in Rio de Janeiro. Data were collected from September to November 2014, through semi-structured interviews with 20 students enrolled in the last period of a graduate programme. The data were subjected to thematic analysis. The results produced two thematic units: the (un)preparedness of nursing students regarding palliative care in paediatric oncology and how the subject of palliative care in paediatric oncology is approached in the graduate programme. The students mentioned difficulties in providing this care and their lack of exposure to the topic during their graduate studies. They stated strategies to prepare for the provision of care, and talked about how the subject should be addressed in their curricular programme. It is necessary to expand discussions on palliative care in paediatric oncology during the nurses' graduate programme.

  9. Regulatory and clinical considerations for biosimilar oncology drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L; Chen, Brian; Hermanson, Terhi; Wyatt, Michael D; Schulz, Richard M; Georgantopoulos, Peter; Kessler, Samuel; Raisch, Dennis W; Qureshi, Zaina P; Lu, Z Kevin; Love, Bryan L; Noxon, Virginia; Bobolts, Laura; Armitage, Melissa; Bian, John; Ray, Paul; Ablin, Richard J; Hrushesky, William J; Macdougall, Iain C; Sartor, Oliver; Armitage, James O

    2015-01-01

    Biological oncology products are integral to cancer treatment, but their high costs pose challenges to patients, families, providers, and insurers. The introduction of biosimilar agents—molecules that are similar in structure, function, activity, immunogenicity, and safety to the original biological drugs—provide opportunities both to improve healthcare access and outcomes, and to reduce costs. Several international regulatory pathways have been developed to expedite entry of biosimilars into global marketplaces. The first wave of oncology biosimilar use was in Europe and India in 2007. Oncology biosimilars are now widely marketed in several countries in Europe, and in Australia, Japan, China, Russia, India, and South Korea. Their use is emerging worldwide, with the notable exception of the USA, where several regulatory and cost barriers to biosimilar approval exist. In this Review, we discuss oncology biosimilars and summarise their regulatory frameworks, clinical experiences, and safety concerns. PMID:25456378

  10. Laparoscopic resection for low rectal cancer: evaluation of oncological efficacy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Diarmaid C

    2011-09-01

    Laparoscopic resection of low rectal cancer poses significant technical difficulties for the surgeon. There is a lack of published follow-up data in relation to the surgical, oncological and survival outcomes in these patients.

  11. Authorship in Radiation Oncology: Proliferation Trends Over 30 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojerholm, Eric; Swisher-McClure, Samuel

    2015-11-15

    To investigate authorship trends in the radiation oncology literature. We examined the authorship credits of "original research articles" within 2 popular radiation oncology journals-International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics and Radiotherapy and Oncology-in 1984, 1994, 2004, and 2014. We compared the number of authors per publication during these 4 time periods using simple linear regression as a test for trend. We investigated additional author characteristics in a subset of articles. A total of 2005 articles were eligible. The mean number of authors per publication rose from 4.3 in 1984 to 9.1 in 2014 (Pliterature. Possible explanations include increasingly complex and collaborative research as well as honorary authorship. Explicit documentation of author contributions could help ensure that scientific work is credited according to accepted standards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Medical oncology: is it a new medical speciality in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmi, Sami Aziz; Ziani, Fatima Zahra; Seddik, Youssef; Afqir, Said

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a major public health problem in Africa. Advances in the treatment of cancers over the last decade are undeniable. Multidisciplinary approach is essential for improved patient's management. Medical oncology is a recently-recognized speciality in Africa Indeed, many African countries do not have doctors or a sufficient number of doctors qualified to practice in this medical specialty. The fight against cancer in Africa involves oncology speciality training and the development of curricula in order to ensure optimum patient management.

  13. Pediatric Oncology Branch - training- resident electives | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resident Electives Select pediatric residents may be approved for a 4-week elective rotation at the Pediatric Oncology Branch. This rotation emphasizes the important connection between research and patient care in pediatric oncology. The resident is supervised directly by the Branch’s attending physician and clinical fellows. Residents attend daily in-patient and out-patient rounds, multiple weekly Branch conferences, and are expected to research relevant topics and present a 30-minute talk toward the end of their rotation.

  14. The 2014-2018 Oncology Nursing Society Research Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Knobf, M Tish; Cooley, Mary E.; Duffy, Sonia; Doorenbos2, Ardith; Eaton, Linda; Given, Barbara; Mayer, Deborah K.; McCorkle, Ruth; Miaskowski, Christine; Mitchell, Sandra; Sherwood, Paula; Bender, Catherine; Cataldo, Janine; Hershey, Denise; Katapodi, Maria

    2015-01-01

    To identify priority areas of research for the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) Research Agenda for 2014-2018, consistent with ONS's mission to promote excellence in oncology nursing and quality cancer care
.; Review of the literature, 2013 ONS Research Priorities Survey, National Institute of Nursing Research, and the National Cancer Institute research foci
.; Multimethod consensus-building approach by content leaders and content experts of the ONS Research Agenda Project Team
.; The 2014-2018...

  15. Nurses’ Burnout in Oncology Hospital Critical Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Yeliz İrem Tunçel; Menşure Kaya; Rukiye Neslihan Kuru; Saadet Menteş; Süheyla Ünver

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Burnout is common in intensive care units (ICU) because of high demands and difficult working conditions. The aim of this study was to analyse nurses’ burnout in our oncology ICU and to determine which factors are associated with. Material and Method: The study was carried out in Ankara Oncology Hospital ICU. A self- reporting questionnaire in an envelope was used for the evaluation of burnout (Turkish- language version of Maslach Burnout Inventory) and depression (Beck Depressi...

  16. Quality and safety in pediatric hematology/oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Brigitta U

    2014-06-01

    Many principles of quality of care and patient safety are at the foundation of pediatric hematology/oncology. However, we still see too many errors, continue to have problems with communication, and the culture in many of our areas is still one of worrying about retribution when mentioning a problem. This review explores why specialists in pediatric hematology/oncology should be leaders in the field of quality and safety in healthcare. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Recommendations for the safe use of external beams and sealed brachytherapy sources in radiation oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, M. [William Buckland Radiotherapy Centre, Melbourne, VIC, (Australia); Cramb, J.; Das, R.; Ackerly, T. [Peter McCallum Cancer Institute, Melbourne, VIC, (Australia); Brown, G. [East Melbourne Radiation Oncology Centre, Melbourne, VIC, (Australia); Webb, D. [Australian Radiation Laboratory, Melbourne, VIC, (Australia)

    1997-09-01

    The Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine (ACPSEM) has made a number of attempts to produce a document covering practices and quality assurance in radiation oncology. This document originated from `Code of Safe Practice for the Use of Irradiating Apparatus in Medical Therapy`, prepared by V. Smyth for the official National Radiation Laboratory (of New Zealand) document NRL C12. In Sept. 1993, the ACPSEM quality assurance topic group formed a sub-committee to produce a document for adoption by the ACPSEM. This document is intended to cover safe practices in the fields of radiation oncology or radiotherapy (for humans) and the radiation therapy aspects of dermatology and ophtalmology. It is not intended to cover the use of unsealed sources used in nuclear medicine. This final version contains some corrections and clarifications requested by the college council. The Sub-committee responsible for drawing up this document envisages that it will be reviewed by the ACPSEM in three years to see what changes, if any need to be made in order to make the document more useful and to ensure that it reflects current practices. 42 refs., appendices.

  18. Job satisfaction in an oncology nursing team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vagnára Ribeiro da; Velasque, Luciane de Souza; Tonini, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    to identify the level of attributed, perceived and real job satisfaction of oncology nursing professionals and analyze the relationships between the levels of satisfaction among these workers. a descriptive, quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted using the Index of Work Satisfaction (IWS) to evaluate the nursing team, nurses and technicians/auxiliaries. A total of 348 workers answered the questionnaire, of which 216 were fully completed and considered for the IWS calculation. Autonomy was considered the most important item in attributed satisfaction for the nursing team and nurses. Salary was valorized most by the technicians/auxiliaries. For perceived satisfaction, Professional Status was the most important for all workers. Regarding real satisfaction, Interaction was the most important for the nursing team and technicians/auxiliaries; while the nurses valorized Autonomy. The nurses presented the greatest job satisfaction. a discrepancy was observed in job satisfaction among the oncology nurses, indicating the importance of further quantitative research. identificar o nível de satisfação profissional atribuído, percebido e o real no trabalho de profissionais de enfermagem oncológica e analisar as relações entre os níveis de satisfação desses trabalhadores. estudo quantitativo, descritivo, transversal que utilizou o Índice de Satisfação Profissional (ISP) para avaliar a equipe de enfermagem, enfermeiros e técnicos/auxiliares. Dentre os profissionais, 348 destes responderam o questionário, dos quais 216 foram totalmente preenchidos e considerados para o cálculo do ISP. Autonomia foi mais importante na satisfação atribuída para a equipe de enfermagem e enfermeiros, Remuneração foi mais valorizada pelos técnicos/auxiliares. Para a satisfação percebida, Status profissional foi mais importante para todos os profissionais. Sobre a real satisfação, Interação foi o mais importante para a equipe de enfermagem e técnicos/auxiliares; os

  19. Selenium in oncology: from chemistry to clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micke, Oliver; Schomburg, Lutz; Buentzel, Jens; Kisters, Klaus; Muecke, Ralph

    2009-10-12

    The essential trace element selenium, which is a crucial cofactor in the most important endogenous antioxidative systems of the human body, is attracting more and more the attention of both laypersons and expert groups. The interest of oncologists mainly focuses in the following clinical aspects: radioprotection of normal tissues, radiosensitizing in malignant tumors, antiedematous effect, prognostic impact of selenium, and effects in primary and secondary cancer prevention. Selenium is a constituent of the small group of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins and elicits important structural and enzymatic functions. Selenium deficiency has been linked to increased infection risk and adverse mood states. It has been shown to possess cancer-preventive and cytoprotective activities in both animal models and humans. It is well established that Se has a key role in redox regulation and antioxidant function, and hence in membrane integrity, energy metabolism and protection against DNA damage. Recent clinical trials have shown the importance of selenium in clinical oncology. Our own clinical study involving 48 patients suggest that selenium has a positive effect on radiation-associated secondary lymphedema in patients with limb edemas, as well as in the head and neck region, including endolaryngeal edema. Another randomized phase III study of our group was performed to examine the cytoprotective properties of selenium in radiation oncology. The aim was to evaluate whether sodium selenite is able to compensate a preexisting selenium deficiency and to prevent radiation induced diarrhea in adjuvant radiotherapy for pelvic gynecologic malignancies. Through this study, the significant benefits of sodium selenite supplementation with regards to selenium deficiency and radiotherapy induced diarrhea in patients with cervical and uterine cancer has been shown for the first time in a prospective randomized trial. Survival data imply that supplementation with selenium does not

  20. Selenium in Oncology: From Chemistry to Clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Micke

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The essential trace element selenium, which is a crucial cofactor in the most important endogenous antioxidative systems of the human body, is attracting more and more the attention of both laypersons and expert groups. The interest of oncologists mainly focuses in the following clinical aspects: radioprotection of normal tissues, radiosensitizing in malignant tumors, antiedematous effect, prognostic impact of selenium, and effects in primary and secondary cancer prevention. Selenium is a constituent of the small group of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins and elicits important structural and enzymatic functions. Selenium deficiency has been linked to increased infection risk and adverse mood states. It has been shown to possess cancer-preventive and cytoprotective activities in both animal models and humans. It is well established that Se has a key role in redox regulation and antioxidant function, and hence in membrane integrity, energy metabolism and protection against DNA damage. Recent clinical trials have shown the importance of selenium in clinical oncology. Our own clinical study involving 48 patients suggest that selenium has a positive effect on radiation-associated secondary lymphedema in patients with limb edemas, as well as in the head and neck region, including endolaryngeal edema. Another randomized phase III study of our group was performed to examine the cytoprotective properties of selenium in radiation oncology. The aim was to evaluate whether sodium selenite is able to compensate a preexisting selenium deficiency and to prevent radiation induced diarrhea in adjuvant radiotherapy for pelvic gynecologic malignancies. Through this study, the significant benefits of sodium selenite supplementation with regards to selenium deficiency and radiotherapy induced diarrhea in patients with cervical and uterine cancer has been shown for the first time in a prospective randomized trial. Survival data imply that supplementation with