WorldWideScience

Sample records for therapeutic community

  1. Chicanoizing the Therapeutic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, William S.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Focusing on the drug addiction problem and its antecedent conditions in a Chicano population, the article examines several therapeutic interventions suggested by these conditions and indicates how they might be incorporated into a drug addiction Therapeutic Community treatment program designed to meet the needs of Chicano drug addicts. (Author/NQ)

  2. Reporting therapeutic discourse in a therapeutic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, G E

    1988-03-01

    Research in nurses' communications has concentrated on nurse to patient interactions. Those few studies which focus on nurse to nurse communications seem to be generated by a pragmatic and normative concern with effective information sharing. In this paper, which describes one aspect of a larger case study of a hospital-based therapeutic community, the description and analysis of nurses' reports flows not from a normative model of professional practice, but rather an exploration of how professional practice is articulated as discourse in nurses' written accounts. Foucault's ideas about therapeutic discourse inform the theoretical framework of the research. Ethnomethodological concerns with the importance of documentary analysis provide the methodological rationale for examining nurses' 24-hour report documents, as official discourse, reflecting therapeutic practice in this setting. A content analysis of nurses' reports, collected over a period of 4 months, demonstrated the importance of domesticity and ordinary everyday activities in nurses' accounts of hospital life. Disruption to the 'life as usual' domesticity in the community seemed to be associated with admission to and discharge from the hospital when interpersonal and interactional changes between patients occur. It is suggested that nurses in general hospital wards and more orthodox psychiatric settings might usefully consider the impact of admissions and discharges on the group of patients they manage, and make this a discursive focus of their work.

  3. An Enhanced Understanding of Therapeutic Communities Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiburcio, Nelson Jose; Kressel, David

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic communities posit favorable treatment outcomes by relying on the community as the healing agent (Deleon 2000). Active treatment participation and treatment tenure are two domains that are positive predictors of positive treatment outcomes over time. Some of the more important domains that remain to be thoroughly investigated in international research on therapeutic community (TC) treatment outcome studies are the underlying effects of culture on the treatment process. Cultural components play a significant role, as also reported by various TC participants over the years (such as the effects of health literacy on sustaining abstinence from drug use over the long term, Tiburcio 2008). In recent years, health literacy has taken on a significant role in order for individuals to readily understand their needs (Schillinger et al 2002; Jorm et al 1997); or as pertains to feeling shamed in the process (Parikh et al 1996). As these and other studies suggest, the cultural competence of the providers is equally important. To our knowledge the "International TC Study" and findings presented herein constitute one of only a few studies that have conducted investigations comparing therapeutic community treatment modifications internationally, from the perspective of the participants themselves and which consider cultural components of this process. One key advantage of the resulting Qualitative datasets and analyses is that it not only includes residents' perspectives, and staff experiential elements, but importantly, incorporates staff debriefings about their respective interactions at each of the international treatment modalities, presenting well rounded depictions of each of these milieus. To that end, the data examined here presents an enhanced portrait of the provider-patient treatment dynamic, and lends voice to the various aspects of treatment participation in light of these cultural issues, and from the perspective of providers, as well as the participants.

  4. Therapeutic Engagement as a Predictor of Retention in Adolescent Therapeutic Community Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Sami; Gunter, Whitney D.

    2014-01-01

    The adolescent drug problem places a huge toll on society and a heavy burden on the criminal justice system. Research regarding the benefits of therapeutic community (TC) treatment for adolescents has shown it to be effective. Despite the ability of therapeutic communities to lower drug relapse and reduce criminality, a great deal remains unknown…

  5. Supportive Services: The Professional Component of the Therapeutic Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Seymour

    This paper traces the development of Daytop Village, a therapeutic community for drug addicts begun in 1963. Of special concern is the integration of professional services into the community. The author emphasizes the importance of the role model in such a community, citing the improvements resulting from appointing an ex-addict to the program…

  6. Therapeutic communities: "new" outlooks and public health proposals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolonheis-Ramos, Renata Cristina Marques; Boarini, Maria Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Problems related to alcohol and other substance abuse are on a steady rise. Certain controversial measures currently aim at immediate solutions, such as the public funding of therapeutic communities...

  7. Patient and nurse roles in the therapeutic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkovich, E

    1990-01-01

    A therapeutic community consists of an interdisciplinary team working collaboratively with the patient to maximize the patient's potential health. This process requires nursing facilitation of the patient's movement towards and assumption of behaviors inherent in the roles of newcomer, member, and leader. The nurse contributes to the therapeutic milieu in many ways: as a change agent of human behavior, as a manipulator of the dynamic environment, as a confronter of discrepancies, as a role model of interpersonal skills, and as an identified leader with diversified functional skills. The nurse enhances her utilization of the therapeutic community by knowledge of roles enacted by staff, patients, and self.

  8. [Therapeutic communities: "new" outlooks and public health proposals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolonheis-Ramos, Renata Cristina Marques; Boarini, Maria Lucia

    2015-12-01

    Problems related to alcohol and other substance abuse are on a steady rise. Certain controversial measures currently aim at immediate solutions, such as the public funding of therapeutic communities. The article draws comparisons between the legacy of early twentieth-century public health practices in psychoactive substance abuse and current proposals for intervention through therapeutic communities. The study researched primary sources from the perspective of historical materialism. Historically produced by society as a whole, problems stemming from substance abuse continue to place the greatest burden on users, the people around them, and public health.

  9. The beginning of therapeutic communities in the Czech republic: Biographical narration of founders of therapeutic communities for drug addiction in the Czech republic.

    OpenAIRE

    Polzová, Alžběta

    2012-01-01

    The work focuses on the emergence of therapeutic communities for drug addicts in the Czech Republic. Describes the history of addiction treatment in 1989 and subsequently the emerging system of care for drug addicts in 1989. It charts the evolution of the concept of therapeutic community and using the oral history brings experience and individual stories of each of the founders of therapeutic communities.

  10. An Exploration of Community Learning Disability Nurses' Therapeutic Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsham, Marian

    2012-01-01

    This literature review and primary qualitative research explores therapeutic role from the perspective of Community Learning Disability Nurses. Semi-structured interviews, based on Critical Incident Technique ("Psychol Bull", 51, 1954, 327), and descriptive phenomenological methodology were adopted to elicit data amenable to systematic…

  11. The potential of prison-based democratic therapeutic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jamie; Shuker, Richard

    2017-03-13

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the work of HMP Grendon, the only prison in the UK to operate entirely as a series of democratic therapeutic communities and to summarise the research of its effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach The paper is both descriptive, providing an overview of the work of a prison-based therapeutic community, and offers a literature review regarding evidence of effectiveness. Findings The work of HMP Grendon has a wide range of positive benefits including reduced levels of disruption in prison, reduced self-harm, improved well-being, an environment that is experienced as more humane and reduced levels of reoffending. Originality/value The work of HMP Grendon offers a well established and evidenced approach to managing men who have committed serious violent and sexually violent offences. It also promotes and embodies a progressive approach to managing prisons rooted in the welfare tradition.

  12. Mania and milieu: treatment of manics in a therapeutic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, D; Steinberg, M; Lindenmayer, J P; Pardes, H

    1977-06-01

    The authors observed the management of 35 manic patients admitted to a 32-bed general hospital unit that emphasized milieu treatment. They concluded that the principles of treatment derived from the therapeutic community model--democratization and permissiveness--are generally incompatible with the effective treatment of manic patients, who can be a strong disruptive force on the patient and staff community. The authors describe approaches to managing manic patients in four phases--preadmission evaluation, and the postadmission, middle, and termination phases of inpatient treatment. They stress that milieu modifications are necessary to meet individual treatment needs.

  13. The therapeutic community for addicts : intimacy, perent involvment and treatment outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kooyman (Martien)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractTherapeutic communities for addicts developed since the Sixties without a clear theory on what made them therapeutic. There have also been some doubts on their long term outcome results. Part I of this book describes how therapeutic communities for addicts have roots in the self-help

  14. Democratic therapeutic community treatment for personality disorder: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Steve; Scott, Lisle; Attwood, Gillian; Saunders, Kate; Dean, Madeleine; De Ridder, Ritz; Galea, David; Konstantinidou, Haroula; Crawford, Mike

    2017-02-01

    Democratic therapeutic community (DTC) treatment has been used for many years in an effort to help people with personality disorder. High-quality evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is absent. To test whether DTC treatment reduces use of in-patient services and improves the mental health of people with personality disorder. An RCT of 70 people meeting DSM-IV criteria for personality disorder (trial registration: ISRCTN57363317). The intervention was DTC and the control condition was crisis planning plus treatment as usual (TAU). The primary outcome was days of in-patient psychiatric treatment. Secondary outcomes were social function, mental health status, self-harm and aggression, attendance at emergency departments and primary care, and satisfaction with care. All outcomes were measured at 12 and 24 months after randomisation. Number of in-patient days at follow-up was low among all participants and there was no difference between groups. At 24 months, self- and other directed aggression and satisfaction with care were significantly improved in the DTC compared with the TAU group. DTC is more effective than TAU in improving outcomes in personality disorder. Further studies are required to confirm this conclusion. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  15. Outcome Evaluation of Therapeutic Community Model in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrindokht Sadir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEvaluation of treatment programs in addiction field is a prerequisite to improve the quality of care. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Therapeutic Community (TC program in Iran. MethodsIndividuals who had voluntarily enrolled in the TC center within a period of seven years, from early 2005 to late 2011, entered the study. Those who successfully completed the 14-week residential course were considered as ‘completers’. They were subsequently called in for urine test and interviews using Maudsley Addiction Profile. Urine test was conducted to determine if they were positive for heroin, opium, methadone, methamphetamine, bupronorphine, hashish, and tramadol. ResultsA number of 378 individuals with mean (± SD age of 32.5 ± 7.8 enrolled in the TC program during the study period, 240 individuals of whom completed the 14 weeks course (69.0%. At the end of the sixth year, 22% of the participants were in abstinence. Physical and mental health in abstainers proved to be of better conditions than those of non-abstainers (P<0.05. ConclusionConsidering the TC outcome in other countries, it seems that TC maintains an acceptable effectiveness in Iran. Prospective controlled studies are warranted to investigate the outcomes in more details.

  16. Therapeutic Community in a California Prison: Treatment Outcomes after 5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheldon X.; Roberts, Robert E. L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic communities have become increasingly popular among correctional agencies with drug-involved offenders. This quasi-experimental study followed a group of inmates who participated in a prison-based therapeutic community in a California state prison, with a comparison group of matched offenders, for more than 5 years after their initial…

  17. Therapeutic Hypothermia Protocol in a Community Emergency Department

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    Kulstad, Christine E

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH has been shown to improve survival and neurological outcome in patients resuscitated after out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA from ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia (VF/VT. We evaluated the effects of using a TH protocol in a large community hospital emergency department (ED for all patients with neurological impairment after resuscitated OHCA regardless of presenting rhythm. We hypothesized improved mortality and neurological outcomes without increased complication rates.Methods: Our TH protocol entails cooling to 33 C for 24 hours with an endovascular catheter. We studied patients treated with this protocol from November 2006 to November 2008. All non-pregnant, unresponsive adult patients resuscitated from any initial rhythm were included. Exclusion criteria were initial hypotension or temperature less than 30 C, trauma, primary intracranial event, and coagulopathy. Control patients treated during the 12 months before the institution of our TH protocol met the same inclusion and exclusion criteria. We recorded survival to hospital discharge, neurological status at discharge, and rates of bleeding, sepsis, pneumonia, renal failure, and dysrhythmias in the first 72 hours of treatment.Results: Mortality rates were 71.1% (95% CI, 56-86% for 38 patients treated with TH and 72.3% (95% CI 59-86% for 47 controls. In the TH group, 8% of patients (95% CI, 0-17% had a good neurological outcome on discharge, compared to 0 (95% CI 0-8% in the control group. In 17 patients with VF/VT treated with TH, mortality was 47% (95% CI 21-74% and 18% (95% CI 0-38% had good neurological outcome; in 9 control patients with VF/VT, mortality was 67% (95% CI 28-100%, and 0% (95% CI 0-30% had good neurological outcome. The groups were well-matched with respect to sex and age. Complication rates were similar or favored the TH group.Conclusions: Instituting a TH protocol for OHCA patients with any presenting rhythm

  18. Culture, context and therapeutic processes: delivering a parent-child intervention in a remote Aboriginal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Sarah; Robinson, Gary

    2012-04-01

    Little is written about the process of delivering mainstream, evidence-based therapeutic interventions for Aboriginal children and families in remote communities. Patterns of interaction between parents and children and expectations about parenting and professional roles and responsibilities vary across cultural contexts. This can be a challenging experience for professionals accustomed to work in urban settings. Language is only a part of cultural difference, and the outsider in a therapeutic group in an Aboriginal community is outside not only in language but also in access to community relationships and a place within those relationships. This paper uses examples from Let's Start, a therapeutic parent-child intervention to describe the impact of distance, culture and relationships in a remote Aboriginal community, on the therapeutic framework, group processes and relationships. Cultural and contextual factors influence communication, relationships and group processes in a therapeutic group program for children and parents in a remote Aboriginal community. Group leaders from within and from outside the community, are likely to have complementary skills. Cultural and contextual factors influence communication, relationships and group processes in a therapeutic group program for children and parents in a remote Aboriginal community. Group leaders from within and from outside the community, are likely to have complementary skills. Program adaptation, evaluation and staff training and support need to take these factors into account to ensure cultural accessibility without loss of therapeutic fidelity and efficacy.

  19. The therapeutic community as an adaptable treatment modality across different settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennard, David

    2004-01-01

    Simple core statements of the therapeutic community as a treatment modality are given, including a "living-learning situation" and "culture of enquiry." Applications are described in work with children and adolescents, chronic and acute psychoses, offenders, and learning disabilities. In each area the evolution of different therapeutic community models is outlined. In work with young people the work of Homer Lane and David Wills is highlighted. For long term psychosis services, the early influence of "moral treatment" is linked to the revitalisation of asylums and the creation of community based facilities; acute psychosis services have been have been run as therapeutic communities in both hospital wards and as alternatives to hospitalisation. Applications in prison are illustrated through an account of Grendon prison. The paper also outlines the geographical spread of therapeutic communities across many countries.

  20. Origins of a Jungian-oriented therapeutic community for schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, H A

    1976-05-01

    The author believes that rapid hospital turnover of psychiatric patients and heavy reliance on psychotropic drugs often interfere with recovery, especially for many psychotic patients who need a retreat where they might be helped to heal themselves. He describes the origins and operation of a Jungian-oriented therapeutic community for schizophrenic patients in a Veterans Administration hospital, the community is based parly on his earlier work with therapeutic communities and his belief that clear lines of authority must be maintained as well as his experiences with videotherapy and art therapy. The community relies heavily on art therapy in which patients are encouraged to make abstract paintings of their delusions, visions, hallucinations, dreams, and fantasies and to interpret the paintings themselves.

  1. Therapeutic Relationship and Study Adherence in a Community Health Worker-Led Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundorf, Christopher; Shankar, Arti; Peng, Terrance; Hassan, Anna; Lichtveld, Maureen Y

    2017-02-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) are increasingly utilized to reach low-resource communities. A critical domain influencing success is the CHWs' ability to create and maintain a therapeutic relationship with the participants they serve. A limited evidence base exists detailing this construct, and evaluating CHW-participant relationships in the context of CHW-led programs. In a longitudinal study design, data on this therapeutic relationship were collected [as captured using The Scale to Assess the Therapeutic Relationship in Community Mental Health Care (STAR)] on 141 participants who had been assigned to a CHW during their perinatal period. Results indicate that therapeutic relationship was associated with the participant's psychosocial health, and independently predicted study adherence in the longitudinal intervention. Changes in therapeutic relationship over the months following birth were strongly associated with changes in anxiety and depression symptoms. A trustful relationship is critical in ensuring CHWs can effectively reach the population they serve. The findings offer additional psychometric evidence of the uses and benefits of STAR outside of the traditional clinical setting in the context of public health research.

  2. Short-Run Prosocial Behavior in Response to Receiving Corrections and Affirmations in Three Therapeutic Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Keith L.; Doogan, Nathan; De Leon, George; Phillips, Gary S.; Moody, James; Hodge, Ashleigh

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic communities (TCs) have a strong record of maintaining high quality social climates in prison units. One possible reason for this is the system of mutual monitoring among TC residents, based on the assumption that peer affirmation of behavior in accord with TC norms, and peer correction of behavior contrary to TC norms, will lead to…

  3. Changes in Personality Disorder Traits Following 2 Years of Treatment in a Secure Therapeutic Community Milieu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Catrin; Taylor, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic community treatment models have not previously been applied to forensic patients with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs) with a comorbid diagnosis of personality disorder. Thirteen patients with mild IDs were allocated to a unit within a high secure psychiatric service operating a model of treatment based on the principles and…

  4. Effectiveness of Therapeutic Community in Executive Functions and Autobiographical Memory in People with Addiction to Stimulants

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    F Alipoor

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was an attempt to examine the effectiveness of therapeutic community in executive functions and autobiographical memory in people with addiction to stimulants. Method: This study was conducted based on a quasi-experimental research design along with pretest and posttest. From among the male stimulant users who had referred to Vardij medical center of Tehran therapeutic community, the number of 27 participants was selected via purposive sampling after the consideration of inclusion and exclusion criteria. From admission to end treatment stage of people in this center (4-month treatment, Wisconsin test, Stroop test, tower of London test, digit span, and autobiographical memory questionnaire were used for data collection. Results: The results of the study showed that therapeutic community significantly improved scores Wisconsin, Stroop, tower of London and digit span tests, as well as scores of specific autobiographical memories. Conclusion: Based on the effects of etiology, treatment and prevention of executive functions and autobiographical memory on addiction, it is recommended to use therapeutic community in treatment interventions and addiction relapse. 

  5. Gang Membership and Subsequent Engagement into a Drug Free Therapeutic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widlitz, Michelle; Dermatis, Helen; Galanter, Marc; Bunt, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of history of gang involvement to engagement in Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment. Residents (N = 222) at two Daytop facilities completed a survey assessing sociodemographic characteristics, prior gang involvement and multiple aspects of TC functioning. Residents with prior gang…

  6. College and Community Partnerships: Extending the Benefits of Therapeutic Recreation to Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Steven J.; Cannella, Lee grace; Pisano, Susan

    2014-01-01

    In fall 2010, St. Joseph's College initiated a partnership between the college, Northport VA Medical Center, and Long Island State Veterans Home that provides a therapeutic platform for the integration of the three communities through sustainable and mutually beneficial curricular and co-curricular service and experiential learning programs. In…

  7. Analisys of the therapeutic factors in the Therapeutic Community Podsused among the war related diagnosis and the others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martic-Biocina, Sanja; Sakoman, Mirna Pandzic; Bosak, Josipa; Stipic, N

    2015-09-01

    Therapeutic community/TC/ is a sociotherapeutic method that uses sociotherapeutic and psychotherapeutic techniques for various mental disorders. In Croatia, during and after the war many war veterans have been in treatment through TC and many of them still participate in it. Majority of them were diagnosed with PTSD diagnosis, but some of them also had other diagnosis, e.g. depression, paranoid delusion, etc. In this paper we describe principles of TC that we use in Croatia and we also try to find out which curative factors of TC are the most important for this population. We applied semistructured intervju based on Yalom book of practice and theory of psychotherapy to explore what factors do war veterans find the most important and relevant for their resilience and better coping with everyday issues.

  8. Perceptions Among Psychiatric Staff of Creating a Therapeutic Alliance With Patients on Community Treatment Orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Susanne; Fridlund, Bengt

    2016-10-01

    A therapeutic alliance with a continuing collaboration between a patient and psychiatric staff is a resource for helping patients cope with the demands of coercive legislation. Knowledge exists describing coercion in inpatient care while the knowledge regarding the perceptions of creating a therapeutic alliance with patients on Community Treatment Orders (CTO) among psychiatric staff is scarce. To describe perceptions among psychiatric staff of creating a therapeutic alliance with patients on CTOs, an exploratory design using a phenomenographic method was employed. Thirteen semi-structured audio-taped interviews were conducted with psychiatric staff responsible for patients on CTOs. The staff worked in five different outpatient clinics and the interviews were conducted at their workplaces. The analysis resulted in in four metaphors: the persevering psychiatric staff, the learning psychiatric staff, the participating psychiatric staff, and the motivating psychiatric staff. Patients on CTOs were more time-consuming for psychiatric staff in care and treatment. Long-term planning is required in which the creation of a therapeutic alliance entails the patient gradually gaining greater self-awareness and wanting to visit the outpatient clinic. The professional-patient relationship is essential and if a therapeutic alliance is not created, the patient's continued care and treatment in the community is vulnerable.

  9. A token economy in the framework of a hospital therapeutic community -- practice and psychosocial implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, U; Ginor, M; Lowental, U; Klein, H

    1979-01-01

    A token economy (TE) aimed at enhancing self care, work habits, and social participation was initiated in conjunction with the restructuring of a chronic ward into a therapeutic community. Recorded data over a year revealed a differential impact of the TE on various patients. An attempt is made to characterize differential response modes to the TE and to delineate their correlates. Both participants in the program and therapeutic agents were interviewed as to their attitudes towards the TE. Beneficial effects were demonstrated mainly in patients with a relatively late onset of psychiatric illness, but a favorable attitude towards the TE was displayed by both patients and staff members. Implications for psychosocial readaptation are discussed taking into account humanistic and psychodynamic points of view. The reconsideration of possible merging of different therapeutic techniques seems to be desirable.

  10. Conversational pursuit of medication compliance in a Therapeutic Community for persons diagnosed with mental disorders*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortari, Luigina

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In this article, we contribute to the debate on medication compliance by exploring the conversational “technologies” entailed in the process of promoting clients’ adherence to psychopharmacological prescriptions. Using a case study approach, we explore how medication-related problems are dealt with in conversational interaction between the staff members and the clients of a mental health Therapeutic Community (TC) in Italy. Method Four meetings between two staff members (Barbara and Massimo) and the clients of the TC were audio-recorded. The data were transcribed and analyzed using the method of Conversation Analysis. Results Barbara and Massimo recur to practices of topic articulation to promote talk that references the clients’ failure to take the medications. Through these practices they deal with the practical problem of mobilizing the clients’ cooperation in courses of action that fit into the institutional agenda of fostering medication adherence. Conclusions Barbara and Massimo’s conversational practices appear to reflect the assumption that medication-related problems can be reduced to compliance problems. This assumption works to make the clients accountable for their failure to take the medications while shaping a conversational environment that is unreceptive to their complaints about side effects. Implications for the understanding of mental health rehabilitation practice in TCs are discussed. Implications of RehabilitationTherapeutic community staff members should be aware of the challenges and blocks in communicating with their clients.Therapeutic communities can promote staff members’ awareness of communication challenges through reflective workshops in which they can jointly view and comment on interaction with their clients.Reflective workshops can be used to raise awareness of the presuppositions underlying therapeutic community staff members’ communication practices. PMID:24053481

  11. Semi-structured interview instrument on client satisfaction for therapeutic community clients

    OpenAIRE

    Iyare, Sade

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic community (TC) treatment is used around the world to treat drug addicts. Perheiden yhdistetyn hoidon yksikkö (Pyy) unit of Helsinki Deaconess Institute is specialized in drug rehabilitation of the families with children. Based on Cox's Interactive Model of Client Health Behavior (2003) there is a connection between the client satisfaction and the results of the treatment. TC is known to be efficient method of treatment to treat drug addicts, but there is still very little data...

  12. Exploring the Therapeutic Affordances of Self-Harm Online Support Communities: An Online Survey of Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Neil S; Bullock, Emma; Rodham, Karen

    2017-10-13

    A growing number of online communities have been established to support those who self-harm. However, little is known about the therapeutic affordances arising from engagement with these communities and resulting outcomes. The aim of this study was to explore the presence of therapeutic affordances as reported by members of self-harm online support communities. In total, 94 respondents (aged 13-63 years, mean=23.5 years; 94% female) completed an online survey exploring their experiences of engaging with a self-harm online support community. Respondents varied in terms of how long they had been accessing an online community, with 22% (21/94) accessing less than 1 year, 39% (37/94) 1 to 2 years, 14% (13/94) 2 to 3 years, and 24.5% (23/94) more than 3 years. Responses were analyzed using deductive thematic analysis. The results of our analysis describe each of the five therapeutic affordances that were present in the data, namely (1) connection, the ability to make contact with others who self-harm for the purposes of mutual support and in so doing reduce feelings of loneliness and isolation; (2) adaptation, that is, how use of online support varies in relation to the personal circumstances of the individual user; (3) exploration, that is, the ability to learn about self-harm and learn about strategies to reduce or stop self-harming behavior; (4) narration, that is, the ability to share experiences, as well as read about the experiences of others; and (5) self-presentation, that is, how and what users present about themselves to others in the online community. Our findings suggest that engagement with self-harm online support communities may confer a range of therapeutic benefits for some users, which may serve to minimize the psychosocial burden of self-harm and promote positive coping strategies. In addition, the online nature of the support available may be helpful to those who are unable to access face-to-face support.

  13. Peer and sexual relationships in the experience of drug-dependent adolescents in a therapeutic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Sally; Foster, Michael; Ferry, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Evidence for success of adolescent treatment programs, including therapeutic communities, has been found among those who complete treatment. However, there is a lack of research examining peer relationships as part of treatment experience. Given the central role of 'community', including peers, as agents of change in therapeutic communities, there is a need to better understand peer relationships in treatment. This ethnographic study provides a window into the dynamics of adolescent relationships in a residential treatment program. Four months of participant observation, including 21 residents (15 male and 6 female) aged between 14 and 18 years-comprising all residents admitted during the study. All the data in this paper are from those who were 16 years or over. The data reveal the complex peer relationships that form for some residents. Peer groups were found to provide a space for residents to feel included but more often were a mechanism to ostracise or bully others. In contrast to past studies, our study found sexual activity was widespread, in particular among girls. A lack of sex caused frustrations for some and sexual encounters were found to coincide with overt conflict between residents. Treatment programs for adolescents need to more explicitly grapple with the complexity of resident's peer relationships, which may impact on treatment experience. Our study suggests sexual relationships may be common in treatment programs for adolescents and a cause of conflict. Further research about the mediating impact of peer relationships, including sexual relationships, is needed. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  14. Manuals or Matrices. How can we know the outcomes of Therapeutic Communities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Dayles Hinshelwood

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis supported by NICE (National Institute for Clinical Excellence, according to which all forms of medical treatment and psychological need to comply with the production of "evidence" seems to evade the question of whether they can do it all. In some types of therapies in the field of mental health, from psychoanalysis to the Therapeutic Community, the application of these scientific standard methods raises a major question. In this article, the Author points out some of the issues in this regard. 

  15. Adherence to Therapeutic Guidelines for Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Australian Hospitals

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    N.R. Adler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in elderly patients, and is associated with a considerable economic burden on the healthcare system. The combination of high incidence and substantial financial costs necessitate accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of patients admitted with CAP. This article will discuss the rates of adherence to clinical guidelines, the use of severity scoring tools and the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing for patients diagnosed with CAP. The authors maintain that awareness of national and hospital guidelines is imperative to complement the physicians’ clinical judgment with evidence-based recommendations. Increased use of pneumonia severity assessment tools and greater adherence to therapeutic guidelines will enhance concordant antimicrobial prescribing for patients with CAP. A robust and multifaceted educational intervention, in combination with antimicrobial stewardship programs, may enhance compliance of CAP guidelines in clinical practice in Australia.

  16. Before Prison, Instead of Prison, Better Than Prison: Therapeutic Communities as an Abolitionist Real Utopia?

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    David Scott

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to critically engage with the idea that Therapeutic Communities (TCs can be promoted in England and Wales as a radical alternative to prison for substance users who have broken the law. After grounding the discussion within the normative framework of an ‘abolitionist real utopia’ (Scott 2013, the article explores the historical and theoretical underpinnings of TCs. Existing literature advocating TCs as a radical alternative both before and instead of prison is then reviewed, followed by a critical reflection of the TCs compatibility with the broader values and principles of an abolitionist real utopia. To conclude, the article suggests that, although TCs could be a plausible and historically immanent non-penal real utopia for certain people in certain circumstances, we must not lose focus of wider social inequalities.

  17. Parents' perceptions of their adolescent sons' recovery in a therapeutic community for addicted clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gila; Elisha, Ety; Timor, Uri; Ronel, Natti

    2013-11-01

    A qualitative phenomenological study of parents of addicted male adolescents who were residents of a Jewish therapeutic community (TC) describes and interprets the parents' perceptions of the recovery process. Deep, semistructured interviews with 14 parents provided the data. The parents' perceptions were clustered into three main themes of meaning: (a) the process of change, (b) the experiences of family members in the course of the son's recovery process, and (c) the parents' perception of the treatment at Retorno. According to the parents, the admission of their sons into the TC brought notable relief to the family life, which enabled the whole family to begin a recovery process. The findings support the positive criminology perspective that emphasizes the disintegration-integration vector as significant in the recovery process. Recommendations for intervention planning are provided.

  18. Self-control as a predictor of relapse and recidivism in adolescent therapeutic community treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, Sami

    2013-01-01

    Despite the effectiveness of Therapeutic Communities (TCs), empirical studies of TCs are mostly atheoretical. In this study, concepts related to Gottfredson and Hirschi's General Theory of Crime were used to predict posttreatment delinquency among adolescents. Using data collected as part of Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Studies--Adolescents (1993-1996), this study examined whether characteristics associated with low self-control predicted posttreatment substance use and posttreatment crime (N = 727). Contrary to the hypotheses, characteristics associated with low self-control had no relationship with posttreatment delinquency. Although these findings do not support the hypothesis, this study begins the process of linking criminological theory to adolescent TC treatment research. The study's limitations are noted.

  19. Reasons for the treatment of users of crack in a therapeutic community

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    Maycon Rogério Seleghim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Knowing the motivation of crack users for treatment in hospital environments. Method: Descriptive and qualitative search, using the design of some cases. Twenty male crack users, aged over 18 years old, hospitalized in a Therapeutic Community in Southern Brazil, were interviewed. A semi-structured interview was used and the data were analyzed by their thematic content. Results: Were found three categories that reflect the treatment motivations: perception of the crack harmful consequences; the compulsive use of drugs as the treatment initiation; and, the family participation looking for a treatment. Conclusion: Significant events (turning points favored the interruption of the crack use and the family assumed a very important place to the users behavior in relation to the use of the drug, exclusively. Descriptors: Street drugs, Crack Cocaine, Substance Abuse Treatment Centers, Family.

  20. Pediatric Community-Acquired Pneumonia in the United States: Changing Epidemiology, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenges, and Areas for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Sophie E; Williams, Derek J

    2018-03-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common serious infections in childhood. This review focuses on pediatric CAP in the United States and other industrialized nations, specifically highlighting the changing epidemiology of CAP, diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, and areas for further research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Using a CBT-Based Therapeutic Community Program to Facilitate Healthy Relationships among Military Veterans and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush-Ossenbeck, Marilyn; West-Olatunji, Cirecie

    2014-01-01

    The authors propose a CBT-based Therapeutic Community (TC) program designed to facilitate healthy relationships between military veterans and their families. In many military veteran families, there is a struggle to maintain a healthy and balanced life both outside and inside the household. This struggle affects both spouses and children and is…

  2. Metacognitive abilities in adults with substance abuse treated in therapeutic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchausti, Felix; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; García-Poveda, Nancy V; Ballesteros-Prados, Alejandro

    2016-09-29

    The term metacognition reflects a spectrum of psychological activities that allows people to form and integrate representations about their own mental states and those of others. The main goal of this study was to examine whether people with substance abuse disorders (SUDs), and treated in therapeutic community regime, displayed specific patterns of metacognitive deficits on Self-reflectivity, Understanding others’ mind, Decentration, and Mastery, comparing their scores with two clinical groups of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs) and anxiety disorders. A mixed-methods (qualitative-quantitative) study was designed. Two hundred and sixteen adults aged 18-65 with principal diagnoses of SUDs (n = 52), SSDs (n = 49), and anxiety disorders (n = 115) were recruited. Qualitative data were obtained with the Metacognition Assessment Interview, which was then rated using a quantitative scale, the Metacognition Assessment Scale-Abbreviated (MAS-A). The anxiety disorders group had significantly higher MAS-A total scores than the SUDs group, and the SUDs group obtained significantly higher MAS-A total scores than the SSDs group. Concerning the MAS-A subscale scores, the SUDs group displayed significantly lower scores only on the Mastery subscale compared to the anxiety disorders group, with the SUDs and SSDs groups obtaining equivalent Mastery scores. According to these findings, current interventions for addiction should focus more specifically on improving metacognitive Mastery.

  3. Janez Rugelj's alternative therapeutic community after the five-factor model of personality

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    Judita Bagon

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Alternative Therapeutic Community (ATC of Dr. J. Rugelj is a specific social community consisting of people in distress (always consisting of about 120 people, who have all been handicapped in their lives in one way or another. The group is also specific because of their way towards recovery, i.e., intensively reactivating the mecanisms of healthy life to surmount their psychical and social deficiency. The results of measuring the structure of personality according to BFQ – the "Big Five" model of personality – show that the ATC as a whole achieves lower scores than the normal population on all dimensions and subdimensions. The difference is statistically significant regarding the dimension of Emotional stability as well as the subdimension Emotional control. The ATC is not a uniform group, so the results differ according to the diagnosis. The members with the diagnosis of 'a neurotic' or 'a psychotic' achieve below-average results, while the accompanying members achieve similar results as the control group (selected from the non-members of the ATC. The results of the members diagnosed as 'an alcoholic' are somewhat surprising – they do not differ considerably on any dimension or subdimension from the results achieved by the control group – not even on the Emotional stability scale. As regards the total period of staying in the program, the results of subdimensions remain mostly unchanged. However, during the time spent in the program the results on the subdimensions change: the group which has been in the program for 1 to 2 years generally scores higher than the group of beginners (the difference is statistically significant only for the dimension Emotional control, but the results of the group participating in the program for longer time (more than three years are lower again, until they stabilize in the central position (T=50. The results on theHonesty scale (which may also show positive or negative self-image show no

  4. The experience of drug-dependent adolescents in a therapeutic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Michael; Nathan, Sally; Ferry, Mark

    2010-09-01

    Drug treatment programs for adolescents are now more widespread with some evidence of success. However, there has been little in-depth exploration of factors that may encourage or hinder program completion. This ethnographic study of an adolescent therapeutic community aimed to provide insights into the experience of the adolescent residents. Four months of participant observation at a program for drug-dependent adolescents in a metropolitan city in Australia. Twenty-one residents (15 boys and six girls) aged between 14 and 18 years participated, comprising all residents admitted during the study period. Vocational Education and Art Therapy are activities that universally engaged residents whereas frustration was evident in Journaling-a core program activity. Group sessions were often used to set up or dismantle social cliques, although they were also useful to expose difficult inter-personal relationships. The risk of residents 'taking off' was heightened during breaks from program activities when strong emotions surfaced. There needs to be a more central role for creative and vocational activities in adolescent programs and a variety of ways for them to document their journey. Group encounters need to be skillfully facilitated by staff to handle fluid inter-personal dynamics and residents need support outside of formal program time to minimise drop-out. The concept of a navigation-engagement continuum is discussed and the need to see treatment as a series of encounters that may be 'successful' despite 'non-completion'. This study gives adolescents a voice in program evaluation which may help improve retention.

  5. HCI considerations in designing a Second Life virtual therapeutic community for the support & treatment of people with Borderline Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Alice; Gnanayutham, Paul; Sambhanthan, A.; Panjganj, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to present the current position of the ongoing research into developing the requirements and acceptance of a virtual therapeutic community in Second Life, specifically for people with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The research has identified this particular user group given that people with BPD often require high levels of support, which can result in emergency hospital admissions, in addition to the significant economic cost of treating people BPD in relation to othe...

  6. The effect of therapeutic horseback riding on balance in community-dwelling older adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homnick, Tamara D; Henning, Kim M; Swain, Charlene V; Homnick, Douglas N

    2015-02-01

    Equine assisted activities (hippotherapy and therapeutic riding) improve balance in patients with disabilities such as cerebral palsy, but have not been systematically studied in older adults, at risk of falls due to balance deficits. We conducted a 10-week, single blind, controlled trial of the effect of a therapeutic horseback riding course on measures of balance in community-dwelling adults 65 years and older. Nine riders and six controls completed the trial. Controls were age matched to riders and all participants were recruited from the local community. Both groups showed improvements in balance during the trial, but did not reach statistical significance. Sample size was small, participants had relatively high initial balance scores, and controls tended to increase their physical activities, likely influencing outcomes. No adverse events occurred and the supervised therapeutic riding program appeared to be a safe and effective form of exercise to improve balance in older adults. A power analysis was performed to estimate numbers of participants needed for a larger study. © The Author(s) 2012.

  7. Ethnobotany of therapeutic teas in the Urubueua de Fátima River community in Abaetetuba, Pará, Brazil

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    Patricia Homobono Brito de Moura

    2016-05-01

    Ethnobotanical studies in Brazil have shown that teas are the main form of therapeutic treatment in traditional communities. The aim of this research was to evaluate the knowledge of traditional practices in Urubueua de Fátima River community in Abaetetuba, Pará through identification of the plants used to prepare medicinal teas and the local methods of preparation. We also evaluated the importance of plants for therapy and treatment of the most frequent diseases, and investigated the quality of drinking water for the population, which is essential for the preparation of teas, and the relationship between water quality and riparian health. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 35 locals, and for each plant species used we calculated importance value, percent agreement on primary uses, percent agreement on corrected primary uses, and interviewee consensus factor. Microbiological analysis was conducted for water samples collected at three different points of Urubueua River. Eighty-two recipes of therapeutic teas were reported in total. Mentha sp. had the highest importance value, and Lippia alba (Mill NE Brown and Ficus maxima Mill were the plants most agreed upon concerning primary reasons for use. Residents aged between 60 and 69 years hold vast knowledge of tea plants and recipes, which are often employed in traditional medicines. Total and fecal coliforms present in samples from the population water supply indicate a risk for diarrheal disease, as mentioned in recurring clinical data.

  8. A randomized clinical trial of a therapeutic community treatment for female inmates: outcomes at 6 and 12 months after prison release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, JoAnn Y; McKendrick, Karen; Hamilton, Zachary

    2012-01-01

    This random assignment study compared female offenders (n = 468) with substance use disorders in a prison therapeutic community program with those in a cognitive-behavioral intervention. The study demonstrates that all women benefitted from gender-sensitive prison treatment, but the therapeutic community was more effective in reducing drug use, criminal activity, and exposure to trauma and increasing mental health functioning and time until reincarceration during the year after prison. In addition, the ability to sustain and even improve behavior change after the women leave prison highlights the importance of providing accessible community-based continuity of mental health and substance abuse services during reentry.

  9. Psychopathological symptoms of patients with heroin addiction entering opioid agonist or therapeutic community treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Pani, Pier Paolo; Trogu, Emanuela; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Mathis, Federica; Diecidue, Roberto; Kirchmayer, Ursula; Amato, Laura; Davoli, Marina; Ghibaudi, Joli; Camposeragna, Antonella; Saponaro, Alessio; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Maremmani, Icro

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between substance use disorders and psychiatric pathology is still an open question. The main aim of the present study was to verify whether the five psychopathological dimensions identified through the SCL-90 tool in a previous study carried out on patients with heroin addiction entering an outpatient opioid agonist treatment (OAT) were also observable in those entering a residential treatment community (TC). Further aims were to look at differences in the psychop...

  10. Causes of non-adherence to therapeutic guidelines in severe community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattarello, Simone; Ramírez, Sergio; Almarales, José Rafael; Borgatta, Bárbara; Lagunes, Leonel; Encina, Belén; Rello, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    To assess the adherence to Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines and the causes of lack of adherence during empirical antibiotic prescription in severe pneumonia in Latin America. A clinical questionnaire was submitted to 36 physicians from Latin America; they were asked to indicate the empirical treatment in two fictitious cases of severe respiratory infection: community-acquired pneumonia and nosocomial pneumonia. In the case of community acquired pneumonia, 11 prescriptions of 36 (30.6%) were compliant with international guidelines. The causes for non-compliant treatment were monotherapy (16.0%), the unnecessary prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics (40.0%) and the use of non-recommended antibiotics (44.0%). In the case of nosocomial pneumonia, the rate of adherence to the Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines was 2.8% (1 patient of 36). The reasons for lack of compliance were monotherapy (14.3%) and a lack of dual antibiotic coverage against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (85.7%). If monotherapy with an antipseudomonal antibiotic was considered adequate, the antibiotic treatment would be adequate in 100% of the total prescriptions. The compliance rate with the Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines in the community-acquired pneumonia scenario was 30.6%; the most frequent cause of lack of compliance was the indication of monotherapy. In the case of nosocomial pneumonia, the compliance rate with the guidelines was 2.8%, and the most important cause of non-adherence was lack of combined antipseudomonal therapy. If the use of monotherapy with an antipseudomonal antibiotic was considered the correct option, the treatment would be adequate in 100% of the prescriptions.

  11. Verbal feedback in therapeutic communities: pull-ups and reciprocated pull-ups as predictors of graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Keith; Hiance, Danielle; Doogan, Nathan; De Leon, George; Phillips, Gary

    2013-04-01

    The most important proximal outcomes for residents of therapeutic communities (TCs) are retention and successful completion of the program. At this point there has been no quantitative analysis of the relationship between the exchange of corrective reminders, or pull-ups, between peers in TCs and graduation. This study draws on a database of pull-ups exchanged between 5464 residents of three midwestern TCs. Residents who send more pull-ups to peers and who reciprocate pull-ups with a larger percentage of peers are more likely to graduate. Residents who receive more pull-ups from peers and staff and a larger percentage of whose peers reciprocate pull-ups that they send are less likely to graduate. Implications of these findings for program theory and program improvement are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Engineering Human Microbiota: Influencing Cellular and Community Dynamics for Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloszynek, S; Pastor, S; Mell, J C; Nandi, N; Sokhansanj, B; Rosen, G L

    2016-01-01

    The complex relationship between microbiota, human physiology, and environmental perturbations has become a major research focus, particularly with the arrival of culture-free and high-throughput approaches for studying the microbiome. Early enthusiasm has come from results that are largely correlative, but the correlative phase of microbiome research has assisted in defining the key questions of how these microbiota interact with their host. An emerging repertoire for engineering the microbiome places current research on a more experimentally grounded footing. We present a detailed look at the interplay between microbiota and host and how these interactions can be exploited. A particular emphasis is placed on unstable microbial communities, or dysbiosis, and strategies to reestablish stability in these microbial ecosystems. These include manipulation of intermicrobial communication, development of designer probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and synthetic biology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Follow-up of alcohol and/or cocaine dependents after their discharge from a therapeutic community: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Ferrer-Pérez, Xavier; Lafarga-Lebey, Sandra; Honrubia-Serrano, María Luisa; Tudela-Marí, Maite

    2011-01-01

    In Spain, the Therapeutic Community (TC) constitutes a common model of treatment in the field of addictions, although there hardly exists any investigation about its efficiency and the persistence of its attainments. To evaluate the short, half and long term effects of treatment of addiction to alcohol or cocaine in the TC run by "Fundacion Salud y Comunidad" (Foundation Health and Community). descriptive pilot study, with a sequential design of cohort. 91 users completed a survey specifically designed to know their evolution at different follow-up periods (1, 3, 5 or 10 years after their exit from the TC): socio-demographic, psychoactive substance use, other variables related to the stay at the TC. Changes between before the TC and the present time regarding variables such as academic, labour, drug consumption, health, family and social adaptation and their criminal behaviour are described. the cohorts showed a relatively common previous socio-demographic pattern having received a similar treatment. The users reported to have diminished the frequent consumption of the main drug, having 48.9% never relapsed even through an occasional consumption of the drug/s. Also they perceived to have improved their health and family relations, as well as their aggressive behaviour and legal problems linked with their consumption of drug/s. after their rehabilitation in a TC, the users report a global decrease of the consumption of drugs and perceive an improvement of their health, family relations, violence and other problems linked to their former drug use.

  14. [Efficacy of the therapeutic community model in the treatment of drug use-related problems: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiestas, Fabián; Ponce, Javier

    2012-03-01

    To summarize the scientific evidence about the efficacy of therapeutic communities (TC) to reduce substance use and related problems among people with substance use disorders. This systematic review builds from the work performed by Smith et al. (2006). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scielo, and LILACS for randomized trials that compare a TC with no treatment, a different type of treatment or another type of TC published from March 2004 to May 2011. 5 publications from 4 randomized trials were identified. All the studies had serious methodological limitations according to the CONSORT. The heterogeneity among studies did not allow for metaanalytic analysis to calculate pooled estimates. The primary analysis showed that, in prison, certain models of TC might be marginally superior to other types of treatments regarding levels of alcohol use, days in prison and re-incarceration rates. Also, evidence from a community setting (i.e., not in-prison) suggests that a community-based TC is not superior to an outpatient treatment model regarding levels of substance use, crime and unemployment at the 12-month follow-up. In general, there is no evidence to support superiority of TC over other more accessible and less costly types of treatment for drug use. However, in a prison context, TC might be of more benefit than other types of treatment. More research with solid experimental methodology is needed to add to the still weak body of evidence that supports the use of TC over other more affordable types of treatment for drug use disorders.

  15. Psychopathological symptoms of patients with heroin addiction entering opioid agonist or therapeutic community treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Pier Paolo; Trogu, Emanuela; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Mathis, Federica; Diecidue, Roberto; Kirchmayer, Ursula; Amato, Laura; Davoli, Marina; Ghibaudi, Joli; Camposeragna, Antonella; Saponaro, Alessio; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Maremmani, Icro

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between substance use disorders and psychiatric pathology is still an open question. The main aim of the present study was to verify whether the five psychopathological dimensions identified through the SCL-90 tool in a previous study carried out on patients with heroin addiction entering an outpatient opioid agonist treatment (OAT) were also observable in those entering a residential treatment community (TC). Further aims were to look at differences in the psychopathological profiles of patients entering a TC versus an OAT treatment and at the correlation between gender and the observed psychopathology. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed on the results of SCL-90 filled by 1,195 patients with heroin dependence entering TC treatment. It replicates the extraction method previously used on 1,055 OAT patients with heroin addiction by using a principal component factor analysis (PCA). The association between the kind of treatment received (TC or OAT), gender, and the psychopathological dimensions was assessed through logistic regression and general linear model (GLM) analysis. The PCA carried out on the SCL-90 results of patients entering a TC yielded a five-factor solution, confirming the same dimensions observed in patients entering an OAT: 'worthlessness and being trapped', 'somatization', 'sensitivity-psychoticism', 'panic anxiety', and 'violence-suicide'. The logistic regression analysis showed a statistically significant association between 'somatization' and 'violence-suicide' severity score and OAT. GLM analysis showed that psychopathological factorial scores for 'worthlessness-being trapped', 'somatic symptoms', and 'panic anxiety' dimensions were more severe in OAT vs TC male patients and in TC vs OAT female ones. 'Violence suicide' followed the same severity pattern for males, but did not differ in TC vs OAT females, while 'sensitivity-psychoticism' did not differ in OAT vs TC patients. The five dimensions did not differ in OAT

  16. Cost effectiveness of community-based therapeutic care for children with severe acute malnutrition in Zambia: decision tree model

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    Bachmann Max O

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children aged under five years with severe acute malnutrition (SAM in Africa and Asia have high mortality rates without effective treatment. Primary care-based treatment of SAM can have good outcomes but its cost effectiveness is largely unknown. Method This study estimated the cost effectiveness of community-based therapeutic care (CTC for children with severe acute malnutrition in government primary health care centres in Lusaka, Zambia, compared to no care. A decision tree model compared the costs (in year 2008 international dollars and outcomes of CTC to a hypothetical 'do-nothing' alternative. The primary outcomes were mortality within one year, and disability adjusted life years (DALYs after surviving one year. Outcomes and health service costs of CTC were obtained from the CTC programme, local health services and World Health Organization (WHO estimates of unit costs. Outcomes of doing nothing were estimated from published African cohort studies. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were done. Results The mean cost of CTC per child was $203 (95% confidence interval (CI $139–$274, of which ready to use therapeutic food (RUTF cost 36%, health centre visits cost 13%, hospital admissions cost 17% and technical support while establishing the programme cost 34%. Expected death rates within one year of presentation were 9.2% with CTC and 20.8% with no treatment (risk difference 11.5% (95% CI 0.4–23.0%. CTC cost $1760 (95% CI $592–$10142 per life saved and $ 53 (95% CI $18–$306 per DALY gained. CTC was at least 80% likely to be cost effective if society was willing to pay at least $88 per DALY gained. Analyses were most sensitive to assumptions about mortality rates with no treatment, weeks of CTC per child and costs of purchasing RUTF. Conclusion CTC is relatively cost effective compared to other priority health care interventions in developing countries, for a wide range of assumptions.

  17. Prison Therapeutic Community Treatment for Female Offenders: Profiles and Preliminary Findings for Mental Health and Other Variables (Crime, Substance Use and HIV Risk)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Joann Y.; Sacks, Stanley; Mckendrick, Karen; Banks, Steven; Schoeneberger, Marlies; Hamilton, Zachary; Stommel, Joseph; Shoemaker, Joanie

    2008-01-01

    This random assignment study compared women in a prison Therapeutic Community (TC) program with those in a cognitive-behavioral intervention. Over two thirds of study subjects received a lifetime diagnosis of severe mental disorder, nearly one-half received a diagnosis of PTSD, and virtually all reported exposure to trauma. Preliminary analysis (n…

  18. Life satisfaction and perceived stress among young offenders in a residential therapeutic community: Latent change score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kristen N S; Chan, Christian S

    2017-06-01

    Recent rehabilitation frameworks underscore the importance of strength-based interventions for young offenders who may lack internal and external resources to manage their stress and plan for their life. This multi-wave longitudinal study investigated the dynamic relationship between perceived stress and life satisfaction among a group of young ex-offenders in a residential therapeutic community. Four waves of data were collected from 117 Hong Kong youths (24.0% female, mean age = 17.7) over one year. Latent change score analysis was employed to examine the univairate and bivariate changes of their perceived stress and life satisfaction. Results suggest a positive growth trajectory in life satisfaction over time. The results of perceived stress were less conclusive. Bivariate models indicated that the previous level of life satisfaction was negatively linked to the subsequent perceived stress level but not vice versa. The findings suggest that improvement in life satisfaction may reduce perceived stress in young ex-offenders. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Italian translation and adaptation of The Service Standards for Therapeutic Communities for Children and Young People 2nd Edition (by John O’Sullivan & Sarah Paget

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    Simone Bruschetta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the adaptation to the Italian context of the "Community of Communities standards" (by O'Sullivan & Paget. We have tried to remain as faithful as possible to the Community of Communities clinical sense, organizational and psychodynamic statements, while still trying to locate the huge experience behind the philosophy of the therapeutic community in the socio-political Italian context. In Italy, health work is heavily regulated within public institutions with their own competences that cover specific administrative services, different types of users and particular territorial areas. Especially in the health services to childhood, the institutional and legal powers that law administration attaches to families, public schools, social services of territorial competence and local health authorities, require an articulated taking charge, involving all these institutions, which is often added to the Juvenile Court of Justice, with its almost limitless powers of decree. For this reason, in chapter 5.4. of list (collaborating, we proposed two additional items (5.4.3 and 5.4.4, to 5.4.1 and 5.4.2, to better define the design mode of the clinical taking care by communities in Italian context and culture. These are the only items added to the text.Keywords: Therapeutic Community, Children, Yang People, Service Standards, Clinical Quality

  20. Medication adherence and its relationship to the therapeutic alliance: Results from an innovative pilot study within a community pharmacy MTM practice

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    Janice Pringle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine whether patients who received Medication Therapy Management (MTM from community pharmacists using a brief scale to measure Therapeutic Alliance (i.e., MTM + TA would show better medication adherence than patients who received MTM without use of the TA scale (MTM only. Design: Quasi-experimental, using a direct intervention group (MTM + TA and a comparison group of randomly selected claims records from patients who received only the MTM service (MTM only. We used a doubly robust propensity score approach to estimate the average effect of therapeutic alliance on medication adherence. The analysis was limited to the following broad medication categories: antihypertensives, antidiabetic agents, and antihyperlipidemics. Setting: The direct intervention group included patients receiving MTM services from pharmacists in a community pharmacy chain setting. Participants: After matching with claims data, the direct intervention group was n=117, with an average age of 76.4. The comparison group was n=146, with an average age of 76.2. Intervention: Administration of two brief scales designed to measure general health outcomes and TA within the context of MTM (with focus on TA scale administration. Main Outcome Measures Proportion of Days Covered (PDC and PDC80. Results: Using the therapeutic alliance scales in the context of community pharmacist-provided MTM was associated with a 3.1 percentage point increase in patients' overall PDC (p<.001 and an increase of 4.6 percentage points in PDC80 (p=.02 as compared to patients receiving MTM without use of the therapeutic alliance scales. Conclusion: Measuring therapeutic alliance in the context of MTM is associated with improved medication adherence and represents one strategy for enhancing the effectiveness of MTM encounters. Furthermore, administration of the therapeutic alliance scales used very little time; therefore it is likely feasible for pharmacists to routinely use the scales in

  1. Medication adherence and its relationship to the therapeutic alliance: Results from an innovative pilot study within a community pharmacy MTM practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Pringle, PhD.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine whether patients who received Medication Therapy Management (MTM from community pharmacists using a brief scale to measure Therapeutic Alliance (i.e., MTM + TA would show better medication adherence than patients whoreceived MTM without use of the TA scale (MTM only. Design: Quasi-experimental, using a direct intervention group (MTM + TA and a comparison group of randomly selected claims records from patients who received only the MTM service (MTM only. We used a doubly robust propensity score approach to estimate the average effect of therapeutic alliance on medication adherence. The analysis was limited to the following broad medication categories: antihypertensives, antidiabetic agents, and antihyperlipidemics. Setting: The direct intervention group included patients receiving MTM services from pharmacists in a community pharmacy chain setting. Participants: After matching with claims data, the direct intervention group was n=117, with an average age of 76.4. The comparison group was n=146, with an average age of 76.2. Intervention: Administration of two brief scales designed to measure general health outcomes and TA within the context of MTM (with focus on TA scale administration. Main Outcome MeasuresProportion of Days Covered (PDC and PDC80. Results: Using the therapeutic alliance scales in the context of community pharmacistprovided MTM was associated with a 3.1 percentage point increase in patients’ overall PDC (p<.001 and an increase of 4.6 percentage points in PDC80 (p=.02 as compared to patients receiving MTM without use of the therapeutic alliance scales. Conclusion: Measuring therapeutic alliance in the context of MTM is associated with improved medication adherence and represents one strategy for enhancing the effectiveness of MTM encounters. Furthermore, administration of the therapeutic alliance scales used very little time; therefore it is likely feasible for pharmacists to routinely use the scales in

  2. The impact of psychopathological subtypes on retention rate of patients with substance use disorder entering residential therapeutic community treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maremmani, Angelo G I; Pani, Pier Paolo; Trogu, Emanuela; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Mathis, Federica; Diecidue, Roberto; Kirchmayer, Ursula; Amato, Laura; Ghibaudi, Joli; Camposeragna, Antonella; Saponaro, Alessio; Davoli, Marina; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Maremmani, Icro

    2016-01-01

    A specific psychopathology of addiction has been proposed and described using the self-report symptom inventory (SCL-90), leading to a 5-factor aggregation of psychological/psychiatric symptoms: 'worthlessness and being trapped', 'somatic symptoms', 'sensitivity-psychoticism', 'panic-anxiety' and 'violence-suicide' in various populations of patients with heroin use disorder (HUD) and other substance use disorders (SUDs). These clusters of symptoms, according to studies that have highlighted the role of possible confounding factors (such as demographic and clinical characteristics, active heroin use, lifetime psychiatric problems and kind of treatment received by the patients), seem to constitute a trait rather than a state of the psychological structure of addiction. These five psychopathological dimensions defined on the basis of SCL-90 categories have also been shown to be correlated with the outcomes of a variety of agonist opioid treatments. The present study aims to test whether the 5-factor psychopathological model of addiction correlates with the outcome (retention rate) of patients with SUDs entering a therapeutic community (TC) treatment. 2016 subjects with alcohol, heroin or cocaine dependence were assigned to one of the five clusters on the basis of the highest SCL-90 factor score shown. Retention in treatment was analysed by means of the survival analysis and Wilcoxon statistics for comparison between the survival curves. The associations between the psychopathological subtypes defined by SCL-90 categories and length of retention in treatment, after taking into account substance of abuse and other sociodemographic and clinical variables, were summarized using Cox regression. Patients with cocaine use disorder (CUD) showed poorer outcomes than those with heroin dependence (HUD). Prominent symptoms of "worthlessness-being trapped" lead to a longer retention in treatment than in the case of the other four prominent psychopathological groups. At the

  3. A network of helping: Generalized reciprocity and cooperative behavior in response to peer and staff affirmations and corrections among therapeutic community residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doogan, Nathan J; Warren, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Clinical theory in therapeutic communities (TCs) for substance abuse treatment emphasizes the importance of peer interactions in bringing about change. This implies that residents will respond in a more prosocial manner to peer versus staff intervention and that residents will interact in such a way as to maintain cooperation. The data consist of electronic records of peer and staff affirmations and corrections at four corrections-based therapeutic community units. We treat the data as a directed social network of affirmations. We sampled 100 resident days from each unit (n = 400) and used a generalized linear mixed effects network time series model to analyze the predictors of sending and receiving affirmations and corrections. The model allowed us to control for characteristics of individuals as well as network-related dependencies. Residents show generalized reciprocity following peer affirmations, but not following staff affirmations. Residents did not respond to peer corrections by increasing affirmations, but responded to staff corrections by decreasing affirmations. Residents directly reciprocated peer affirmations. Residents were more likely to affirm a peer whom they had recently corrected. Residents were homophilous with respect to race, age and program entry time. This analysis demonstrates that TC residents react more prosocially to behavioral intervention by peers than by staff. Further, the community exhibits generalized and direct reciprocity, mechanisms known to foster cooperation in groups. Multiple forms of homophily influence resident interactions. These findings validate TC clinical theory while suggesting paths to improved outcomes.

  4. [Therapeutic community model in short psychiatric hospitalization. Descriptive study on the dynamic psychiatric inpatient unit of the Italian hospital of Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusevich, Daniel; Ruiz, Martín; Vairo, María; Girard, Paula; Rozadilla, Gustavo; Castagnola, Guido; Job, Alfredo; Pinto, Inés; Finkelsztein, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    the aim of this paper is to communicate a project of short term psychiatric hospitalization, based on a therapeutic community model, considering qualitative and quantitative aspects in the present socio - cultural context. this psychiatric hospitalization model that embraces psychodynamic and pharmacological interventions is focused in the intensity of interactions between members of the therapeutic community and integrated to the administrative structure of a general hospital; this will be the key to consider patient's return to the community and to move forward over the prejudices that inpatients suffer. quantitative, prospective, observational and transversal study on a Dynamic Psychiatric Inpatient Unit. 605 patients were included. mean length of stay was 16.34 days; principal causes of admission were depression (19.4%), suicide ideas (17.7%), suicide attempt (17.6%), substance abuse or dependence (14.3%), psychosis (13.8%), behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (6%). There were 75 readmissions. 14.88% patients were physically restrained. Principal Axis I diagnosis were depression (32.1%), substance dependence (13.2%), bipolar disorder (10.2%), dementia (7.6%), schizophrenia (7.5%), and psychotic disorder (5.8). Axis II diagnosis were borderline personality disorder (27.3%), narcissistic personality disorder (8.9%), histrionic personality disorder (5.3%). this kind of approach shows a structural model that allows possible and persistent favorable changes for psychiatric inpatients.

  5. Entre "teoterapias" y "laicoterapias": comunidades terapéuticas en Colombia y modelos de sujetos sociales Between "theotherapies" and "seculartherapies": therapeutic communities in Colombia and models of individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Castrillón Valderrutén

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, reflexiona sobre los dilemas planteados en el ámbito de las identidades individuales en contextos modernos de relaciones sociales. Para dar curso a esta reflexión, tomo como espacio de análisis las comunidades terapéuticas para la "rehabilitación" de usuarios de drogas - denominados comúnmente como "drogadictos"-, quienes debido a su singularidad identitaria, considerada como interdictada a partir de ciertos valores sociales y éticos de la sociedad mayor, se articulan en estos espacios de "cura" individual, buscando transformar su estigma social. Dos orientaciones ideológicas median la relación comunidad terapéutica/"adicto en recuperación". Una de carácter religiosa cristiana y la otra, que denomino laica. Desde estas dos orientaciones, las comunidades terapéuticas elaboran proyectos de sujetos sociales procurando responder a los dilemas de la sociedad moderna.This paper focuses on the dilemmas that occur in the field of individual identities in modern contexts of social relations. In order to carry out this reflection, the focus of analysis is the therapeutic communities for the "rehabilitation" of drug dependents, frequently nominated as "drug addicts". Drug dependents, due to their particular identity, configured by certain social and ethic values as prohibited, orient themselves within these spaces of individual cure, aiming to transform their social stigma. Ideological orientations mediate the relationship between the therapeutic community and the "addict in recuperation". One of these is of a Christian religious nature and the other is referred to in this article as secular. From these orientations the therapeutic communities elaborate projects of social subjects, seeking to answer the dilemmas of modern society.

  6. PARENTING QUALITY IN DRUG-ADDICTED MOTHERS IN A THERAPEUTIC MOTHER-CHILD COMMUNITY: THE CONTRIBUTION OF ATTACHMENT AND PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca eDe Palo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence shows that attachment is a key risk factor for the diagnosis and treatment of clinical diseases in Axis I, such as drug addiction. Recent literature regarding attachment, psychiatric pathology and drug addiction demonstrates that there is a clear prevalence of insecure attachment patterns in clinical and drug addicted subjects. Specifically, some authors emphasize that the anxious-insecure attachment pattern is prevalent among drug-addicted women with double diagnosis (Fonagy et al., 1996. The construct of attachment as a risk factor in clinical samples of drug-addicted mothers needs to be studied more in depth though. The present explorative study focused on the evaluation of parenting quality in a therapeutic mother-child community using attachment and personality assessment tools able to outline drug-addicted mothers’ profiles. This study involved 30 drug addicted mothers, inpatients of a therapeutic community. Attachment representations were assessed via the Adult Attachment Interview; personality diagnosis and symptomatic profiles were performed using the Structured Clinical Interview of the DSM-IV (SCID-II and the Symptom Check List-90-R (SCL-90-R respectively. Both instruments were administered during the first six months of residence in a therapeutic community. Results confirmed the prevalence of insecure attachment representations (90%, with a high presence of U patterns, prevalently scored for dangerous and/or not protective experiences in infanthood. Very high values (>5 were found for some experience scales (i.e. neglect and rejection scales. Data also showed very low values (1-3 in metacognitive monitoring, coherence of transcript and coherence of mind scales. Patients’ different profiles (U vs. E vs. Ds were linked to SCID-II diagnosis, providing insightful indications both for treatment planning and intervention on parenting functions and for deciding if to start foster care or adoption proceedings for

  7. A Prospective Study of Inpatients to Determine Microbial Etiology and Therapeutic Outcome of Antibiotics for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Rehman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is among the common diseases that causes illness and death world-wide. Limited data is available for the treatment of patients with CAP and/or medical outcome of CAP patients in Pakistan. This cross-sectional and prospective study was done to determine etiology of CAP patients and to evaluate the therapeutic effects of antibiotics commonly used in treating CAP patients in two different inner-city hospitals, Pakistan. Methods: The study was conducted on 200 hospitalized patients presenting clinical and radiographic evidences of CAP. The patients were assessed for the causative pathogen and their prescriptions were analyzed for the management and treatment of CAP and associated symptoms of pneumonia. Finally the medical outcomes were evaluated. Results: On establishing the microbial etiology of pneumonia among different CAP causing pathogens, K. pneumoniae was found to be the most identified causative agent (30% followed by S. pneumoniae (23%. Majority of the patients received cephalosporin antibiotics (80% followed by aminoglycosides (65% and penicillins (50% either as monotherapy or combination treatment. Therapeutic success was observed to occur in majority of the patients. The recovery of CAP patients occurred probably because they received antibiotics which are recommended by WHO and American Thoracic Society. Another reason for successful therapeutic outcome was found to be the significant patient compliance for treatment. Conclusion: There is a great need for such types of investigational studies to be conducted in developing countries which may guide the empirical therapy and help in defining proper treatment guidelines.

  8. A community-wide perspective of secular trends in the therapeutic management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. The Worcester Heart Attack Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, R J

    1989-01-01

    As part of an ongoing community-wide study of time trends in the incidence and case-fatality rates of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (MI) in 16 Worcester, Mass., metropolitan hospitals during the calendar years 1975, 1978, 1981, and 1984, changes over time in the therapeutic management of 3,263 patients with validated acute MI were examined. Beta-blocker and nitrate therapy use increased consistently and dramatically. Use of antiplatelet agents was inconsistent, while use of digoxin remained stable. Use of antiarrhythmic medications other than lidocaine decreased consistently while lidocaine use increased between 1975 and 1978 and then leveled off to being used in approximately 45% of hospitalized patients with acute MI in 1981 and 1984. A variety of demographic (e.g. age, sex, teaching hospital) and clinical characteristics (e.g. MI order, MI type, MI location, peak CPK findings, occurrence of acute clinical complications) were also associated with the use of these therapies. The results of this community-wide study suggest changes over time in the therapeutic management of patients hospitalized with acute MI and of various patient demographic and clinical factors associated with the use of these agents.

  9. [PLURAL THERAPEUTIC ITINERARIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the strategies employed by Nahua community of Mexixo to deal with health problems. Drawing on qualitative research, it discusses the choice of plural therapeutic itineraries, including the use of informal and formal healthcare.

  10. The airway microbiota in cystic fibrosis: a complex fungal and bacterial community--implications for therapeutic management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Delhaes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the polymicrobial nature of pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF, it is essential to enhance our knowledge on the composition of the microbial community to improve patient management. In this study, we developed a pyrosequencing approach to extensively explore the diversity and dynamics of fungal and prokaryotic populations in CF lower airways. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fungi and bacteria diversity in eight sputum samples collected from four adult CF patients was investigated using conventional microbiological culturing and high-throughput pyrosequencing approach targeting the ITS2 locus and the 16S rDNA gene. The unveiled microbial community structure was compared to the clinical profile of the CF patients. Pyrosequencing confirmed recently reported bacterial diversity and observed complex fungal communities, in which more than 60% of the species or genera were not detected by cultures. Strikingly, the diversity and species richness of fungal and bacterial communities was significantly lower in patients with decreased lung function and poor clinical status. Values of Chao1 richness estimator were statistically correlated with values of the Shwachman-Kulczycki score, body mass index, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (p = 0.046, 0.047, 0.004, and 0.001, respectively for fungal Chao1 indices, and p = 0.010, 0.047, 0.002, and 0.0003, respectively for bacterial Chao1 values. Phylogenetic analysis showed high molecular diversities at the sub-species level for the main fungal and bacterial taxa identified in the present study. Anaerobes were isolated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which was more likely to be observed in association with Candida albicans than with Aspergillus fumigatus. CONCLUSIONS: In light of the recent concept of CF lung microbiota, we viewed the microbial community as a unique pathogenic entity. We thus interpreted our results to highlight the potential

  11. Steps Toward Creating A Therapeutic Community for Inpatients Suffering from Chronic Ulcers: Lessons from Allada Buruli Ulcer Treatment Hospital in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoussouhoui, Arnaud Setondji; Johnson, Roch Christian; Sopoh, Ghislain Emmanuel; Agbo, Ines Elvire; Aoulou, Paulin; Houezo, Jean-Gabin; Tingbe-Azalou, Albert; Boyer, Micah; Nichter, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background Reducing social distance between hospital staff and patients and establishing clear lines of communication is a major challenge when providing in-patient care for people afflicted by Buruli ulcer (BU) and chronic ulcers. Research on hospitals as therapeutic communities is virtually non-existent in Africa and is currently being called for by medical anthropologists working in the field of health service and policy planning. This paper describes a pioneering attempt to establish a therapeutic community for patients suffering from BU and other chronic ulcers requiring long term hospital care in Benin. Methods A six-month pilot project was undertaken with the objectives of establishing a therapeutic community and evaluating its impact on practitioner and patient relations. The project was designed and implemented by a team of social scientists working in concert with the current and previous director of a hospital serving patients suffering from advanced stage BU and other chronic ulcers. Qualitative research initially investigated patients’ understanding of their illness and its treatment, identified questions patients had about their hospitalization, and ascertained their level of social support. Newly designed question–answer health education sessions were developed. Following these hospital wide education sessions, open forums were held each week to provide an opportunity for patients and hospital staff to express concerns and render sources of discontent transparent. Patient group representatives then met with hospital staff to problem solve issues in a non-confrontational manner. Psychosocial support for individual patients was provided in a second intervention which took the form of drop-in counseling sessions with social scientists trained to serve as therapy facilitators and culture brokers. Results Interviews with patients revealed that most patients had very little information about the identity of their illness and the duration of their

  12. Steps Toward Creating A Therapeutic Community for Inpatients Suffering from Chronic Ulcers: Lessons from Allada Buruli Ulcer Treatment Hospital in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoussouhoui, Arnaud Setondji; Johnson, Roch Christian; Sopoh, Ghislain Emmanuel; Agbo, Ines Elvire; Aoulou, Paulin; Houezo, Jean-Gabin; Tingbe-Azalou, Albert; Boyer, Micah; Nichter, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Reducing social distance between hospital staff and patients and establishing clear lines of communication is a major challenge when providing in-patient care for people afflicted by Buruli ulcer (BU) and chronic ulcers. Research on hospitals as therapeutic communities is virtually non-existent in Africa and is currently being called for by medical anthropologists working in the field of health service and policy planning. This paper describes a pioneering attempt to establish a therapeutic community for patients suffering from BU and other chronic ulcers requiring long term hospital care in Benin. A six-month pilot project was undertaken with the objectives of establishing a therapeutic community and evaluating its impact on practitioner and patient relations. The project was designed and implemented by a team of social scientists working in concert with the current and previous director of a hospital serving patients suffering from advanced stage BU and other chronic ulcers. Qualitative research initially investigated patients' understanding of their illness and its treatment, identified questions patients had about their hospitalization, and ascertained their level of social support. Newly designed question-answer health education sessions were developed. Following these hospital wide education sessions, open forums were held each week to provide an opportunity for patients and hospital staff to express concerns and render sources of discontent transparent. Patient group representatives then met with hospital staff to problem solve issues in a non-confrontational manner. Psychosocial support for individual patients was provided in a second intervention which took the form of drop-in counseling sessions with social scientists trained to serve as therapy facilitators and culture brokers. Interviews with patients revealed that most patients had very little information about the identity of their illness and the duration of their treatment. This knowledge gap

  13. Parenting quality in drug-addicted mothers in a therapeutic mother-child community: the contribution of attachment and personality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palo, Francesca; Capra, Nicoletta; Simonelli, Alessandra; Salcuni, Silvia; Di Riso, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence shows that attachment is a key risk factor for the diagnosis and treatment of clinical diseases in Axis I, such as drug addiction. Recent literature regarding attachment, psychiatric pathology, and drug addiction demonstrates that there is a clear prevalence of insecure attachment patterns in clinical and drug addicted subjects. Specifically, some authors emphasize that the anxious-insecure attachment pattern is prevalent among drug-addicted women with double diagnosis (Fonagy et al., 1996). The construct of attachment as a risk factor in clinical samples of drug-addicted mothers needs to be studied more in depth though. The present explorative study focused on the evaluation of parenting quality in a therapeutic mother-child community using attachment and personality assessment tools able to outline drug-addicted mothers' profiles. This study involved 30 drug addicted mothers, inpatients of a therapeutic community (TC). Attachment representations were assessed via the Adult Attachment Interview; personality diagnosis and symptomatic profiles were performed using the Structured Clinical Interview of the DSM-IV (SCID-II) and the Symptom Check List-90-R (SCL-90-R), respectively. Both instruments were administered during the first six months of residence in a TC. Results confirmed the prevalence of insecure attachment representations (90%), with a high presence of U patterns, prevalently scored for dangerous and/or not protective experiences in infanthood. Very high values (>5) were found for some experience scales (i.e., neglect and rejection scales). Data also showed very low values (1-3) in metacognitive monitoring, coherence of transcript and coherence of mind scales. Patients' different profiles (U vs. E vs. Ds) were linked to SCID-II diagnosis, providing insightful indications both for treatment planning and intervention on parenting functions and for deciding if to start foster care or adoption proceedings for children.

  14. Therapeutic Horseback Riding Outcomes of Parent-Identified Goals for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An ABA' Multiple Case Design Examining Dosing and Generalization to the Home and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Margo B.; Baird, Joanne M.; Kim, Young Joo; Rajora, Kuwar B.; D'Silva, Delma; Podolinsky, Lin; Mazefsky, Carla; Minshew, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether different doses of therapeutic riding influenced parent-nominated target behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (a) during the session (b) at home, and (c) in the community. We used a single subject multiple Baseline, multiple case design, with dosing of 1, 3, and 5 times/week. Three boys with ASD, 6-8 years…

  15. An integrated community-based outpatient therapeutic feeding programme for severe acute malnutrition in rural Southern Ethiopia: Recovery, fatality, and nutritional status after discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Elazar; Worku, Amare; Berhane, Yemane; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2017-10-10

    A scaled up and integrated outpatient therapeutic feeding programme (OTP) brings the treatment of severely malnourished children closer to the community. This study assessed recovery from severe acute malnutrition (SAM), fatality, and acute malnutrition up to 14 weeks after admission to a programme integrated in the primary health care system. In this cohort study, 1,048 children admitted to 94 OTPs in Southern Ethiopia were followed for 14 weeks. Independent anthropometric measurements and information on treatment outcome were collected at four home visits. Only 32.7% (248/759) of children with SAM on admission fulfilled the programme recovery criteria at the time of discharge (i.e., gained 15% in weight, or oedema, if present at admission, was resolved at discharge). Of all children admitted to the programme for whom nutritional assessment was done 14 weeks later, 34.6% (321/928) were severely malnourished, and 37.5% (348/928) were moderately malnourished; thus, 72.1% were acutely malnourished. Of the children, 27/982 (2.7%) had died by 14 weeks, of whom all but one had SAM on admission. Children with severe oedema on admission had the highest fatality rate (12.0%, 9/75). The median length of admission to the programme was 6.6 weeks (interquartile range: 5.3, 8.4 weeks). Despite children participating for the recommended duration of the programme, many children with SAM were discharged still acutely malnourished and without reaching programme criteria for recovery. For better outcome of OTP, constraints in service provision by the health system as well as challenges of service utilization by the beneficiaries should be identified and addressed. © 2017 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Community

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    study community related the mode of transmíssion to the bite of infective mosquitoes and 43.7% of ... mosquitoes. Mosquitoes are mainly believed to bite human beings at night (73,2%), breed in stagnant water (71%) and rest in dark places inside houses during daytime (44.3%). ... Maize and enset (false banana) are the.

  17. Therapeutic Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen; Ruegsegger, Mark; Barnes, Philip; Smith, Bryan; Ferrari, Mauro

    Therapeutic nanotechnology offers minimally invasive therapies with high densities of function concentrated in small volumes, features that may reduce patient morbidity and mortality. Unlike other areas of nanotechnology, novel physical properties associated with nanoscale dimensionality are not the raison d'être of therapeutic nanotechnology, whereas the aggregation of multiple biochemical (or comparably precise) functions into controlled nanoarchitectures is. Multifunctionality is a hallmark of emerging nanotherapeutic devices, and multifunctionality can allow nanotherapeutic devices to perform multistep work processes, with each functional component contributing to one or more nanodevice subroutine such that, in aggregate, subroutines sum to a cogent work process. Cannonical nanotherapeutic subroutines include tethering (targeting) to sites of disease, dispensing measured doses of drug (or bioactive compound), detection of residual disease after therapy and communication with an external clinician/operator. Emerging nanotherapeutics thus blur the boundaries between medical devices and traditional pharmaceuticals. Assembly of therapeutic nanodevices generally exploits either (bio)material self-assembly properties or chemoselective bioconjugation techniques, or both. Given the complexity, composition, and the necessity for their tight chemical and structural definition inherent in the nature of nanotherapeutics, their cost of goods (COGs) might exceed that of (already expensive) biologics. Early therapeutic nanodevices will likely be applied to disease states which exhibit significant unmet patient need (cancer and cardiovascular disease), while application to other disease states well-served by conventional therapy may await perfection of nanotherapeutic design and assembly protocols.

  18. Therapeutic use of cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Kay; Green, Anita J

    Therapeutic cannabis use raises a number of dilemmas for nurses. This article examines the legal, political and ethical challenges raised by the use of cannabis by people with life-limiting or terminal illnesses in their own homes. (Throughout this paper, the term cannabis refers to illegal cannabis unless specified.) A literature review of databases from 1996 was conducted and internet material was also examined. Evidence on the therapeutic use of cannabis suggests it may produce improvements in quality of life, which has led to increased use among people with life-limiting illnesses. The cannabis used is usually obtained illegally, which can have consequences for both those who use it and nurses who provide treatment in the community.

  19. Susceptibility to antibiotics of aerobic bacteria isolated from community acquired secondary peritonitis in children: therapeutic guidelines might not always fit with and everyday experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnola, Elio; Bandettini, Roberto; Ginocchio, Francesca; Perotti, Maddalena; Masa, Daniela La; Ciucci, Antonella; Loy, Anna; Caviglia, Ilaria; Haupt, Riccardo; Guida, Edoardo; Pini Prato, Alessio; Mattioli, Girolamo; Buffa, Piero

    2013-08-01

    Appendicitis is a frequent clinical condition in normal children that may be complicated by community-acquired secondary peritonitis (CASP). We evaluated the potential efficacy of different drugs for initial treatment of this condition, as recommended by recent Consensus Conference and Guidelines for paediatric patients. Susceptibility to ampicillin-sulbactam, ertapenem, gentamycin, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, vancomycin, and teicoplanin was evaluated according to EUCST 2012 recommendations in aerobic bacteria isolated from peritoneal fluid in CASP diagnosed from 2005 to 2011 at 'Istituto Giannina Gaslini', Genoa, Italy. A total of 114 strains were analysed: 83 E. coli, 15 P. aeruginosa, 6 Enterococci, and 10 other Gram-negatives. Resistance to ampicillin-sulbactam was detected in 37% of strains, while ertapenem showed a potential resistance of 13% (all P. aeruginosa strains). However, the combination of these drugs with gentamicin would have been increased the efficacy of the treatment to 99 and 100%, respectively. Resistance to piperacillin-tazobactam was 3%, while no strain was resistant to meropenem. Our data suggest that monotherapy with ampicillin-sulbactam or ertapenem for community-acquired secondary peritonitis would present a non-negligible rate of failure, but the addition of gentamycin to these drugs could reset to zero this risk. On the contrary, monotherapy with piperacillin-tazobactam or meropenem is highly effective.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus and Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in and Around Therapeutic Whirlpools in College Athletic Training Rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanov, Leamor; Kim, Young Kyun; Eberman, Lindsey; Dannelly, Kathleen; Kaur, Haninder; Ramalinga, A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infection in the nonhospitalized community. Care of the athletes in athletic training rooms is specifically designed with equipment tailored to the health care needs of the athletes, yet recent studies indicate that CA-MRSA is still prevalent in athletic facilities and that cleaning methods may not be optimal. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and CA-MRSA in and around whirlpools in the athletic training room. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Patients or Other Participants: Student-athletes (n = 109) consisting of 46 men (42%) and 63 women (58%) representing 6 sports. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presence of MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpool structures relative to sport and number of athletes using the whirlpools. Results: We identified Staphylococcus aureus in 22% (n = 52/240) of the samples and MRSA in 0.8% (n = 2/240). A statistically significant difference existed between the number of athletes using the whirlpool and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpools (F2,238 = 2.445, P = .007). However, Staphylococcus aureus was identified regardless of whether multiple athletes used a whirlpool or no athletes used a whirlpool. We did not identify a relationship between the number of athletes who used a whirlpool and Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA density (P = .134). Conclusions: Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA were identified in and around the whirlpools. Transmission of the bacteria can be reduced by following the cleaning and disinfecting protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Athletic trainers should use disinfectants registered by the Environmental Protection Agency to sanitize all whirlpools between uses. PMID:25710853

  1. Staphylococcus aureus and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in and around therapeutic whirlpools in college athletic training rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahanov, Leamor; Kim, Young Kyun; Eberman, Lindsey; Dannelly, Kathleen; Kaur, Haninder; Ramalinga, A

    2015-04-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infection in the nonhospitalized community. Care of the athletes in athletic training rooms is specifically designed with equipment tailored to the health care needs of the athletes, yet recent studies indicate that CA-MRSA is still prevalent in athletic facilities and that cleaning methods may not be optimal. To investigate the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and CA-MRSA in and around whirlpools in the athletic training room. Cross-sectional study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Student-athletes (n = 109) consisting of 46 men (42%) and 63 women (58%) representing 6 sports. Presence of MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpool structures relative to sport and number of athletes using the whirlpools. We identified Staphylococcus aureus in 22% (n = 52/240) of the samples and MRSA in 0.8% (n = 2/240). A statistically significant difference existed between the number of athletes using the whirlpool and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in and around the whirlpools (F(2,238) = 2.445, P = .007). However, Staphylococcus aureus was identified regardless of whether multiple athletes used a whirlpool or no athletes used a whirlpool. We did not identify a relationship between the number of athletes who used a whirlpool and Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA density (P = .134). Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA were identified in and around the whirlpools. Transmission of the bacteria can be reduced by following the cleaning and disinfecting protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Athletic trainers should use disinfectants registered by the Environmental Protection Agency to sanitize all whirlpools between uses.

  2. Therapeutic misadventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, N J

    2010-10-01

    Therapeutic misadventure can be defined as an injury or an adverse event caused by medical management rather than by an underlying disease. Within the National Health Service there were over 86,000 reported adverse incidents in 2007. In the USA medication errors have been rated as the fourth highest cause of death. Unfortunately one of the greatest contributors to iatrogenic injury is human error. The potential types of misadventure are infinite. Medication errors are a major part of this, being responsible for over 70% of cases that cause serious harm. However, many medication errors caused by slips, lapses, technical errors and mistakes are preventable; intentional violations of safe operating procedures are not. While medication errors were tolerated by society in the past, the readiness to institute criminal proceedings against health-care professionals has increased greatly in the UK over the last decade. The medication process consists of writing prescriptions, dispensing the product, administering it and monitoring its effects. Prescription errors arise owing to incomplete information, lack of appropriate labelling, environmental factors and human blunders. Even with a perfect prescription the right medication must be dispensed and appropriately labelled. Dispensing errors are not uncommon and may be compounded by non-clinical considerations. Administration of a drug by injection is one of the most dangerous aspects of the medication process, especially in inexperienced hands. The final component of medication supply is monitoring the effect of the medication. With short courses of medication such monitoring is easy, but with long-term medication, particularly with potent drugs where the margin between efficacy and toxicity is small, active procedures may be required to ensure toxicity does not ensue. Despite the endeavour of health-care professions to stick to the rule of 'first, do no harm', in reality this is difficult to achieve all of the time. When

  3. Propensity score-matched analysis comparing the therapeutic efficacies of cefazolin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins as appropriate empirical therapy in adults with community-onset Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Proteus mirabilis bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chih-Chia; Lee, Chung-Hsun; Hong, Ming-Yuan; Hung, Yuan-Pin; Lee, Nan-Yao; Ko, Wen-Chien; Lee, Ching-Chi

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of cefazolin was compared with that of extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) (cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and ceftazidime) as appropriate empirical therapy in adults with community-onset monomicrobial bacteraemia caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. or Proteus mirabilis (EKP). Compared with cefazolin-treated patients (n = 135), significantly higher proportions of patients in the ESC treatment group (n = 456) had critical illness at bacteraemia onset (Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4) and fatal co-morbidities (McCabe classification). Of the 591 patients, 121 from each group were matched using propensity score matching (PSM) based on the following independent predictors of 28-day mortality: fatal co-morbidities (McCabe classification); Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4 at bacteraemia onset; initial syndrome of septic shock; and bacteraemia due to pneumonia. After appropriate PSM, no significant differences were observed in the early clinical failure rate (10.7% vs. 7.4%; P = 0.37), the proportion of critical illness (Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4) (0% vs. 0%; P = 1.00) and defervescence (52.6% vs. 42.6%; P = 0.13) on Day 3 between the cefazolin and ESC treatment groups. Similarly, no significant differences were observed in the mean of time to defervescence (4.1 days vs. 4.9 days; P = 0.15), late clinical failure rate (18.2% vs. 10.7%; P = 0.10) and 28-day crude mortality rate (0.8% vs. 3.3%; P = 0.37) between the two groups. These data suggest that the efficacy of cefazolin is similar to that of ESCs when used as appropriate empirical antimicrobial treatment for community-onset EKP bacteraemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparing the therapeutic efficacies of third-generation cephalosporins and broader-spectrum β-lactams as appropriate empirical therapy in adults with community-onset monomicrobial Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia: a propensity score matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Hsun; Hsieh, Chih-Chia; Hong, Ming-Yuan; Hung, Yuan-Pin; Ko, Wen-Chien; Lee, Ching-Chi

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) was compared with that of broader-spectrum β-lactams (BSBLs) [fourth-generation cephalosporins (4GCs) and carbapenems] as empirical therapy in adults with community-onset monomicrobial Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia. Compared with those in the 3GC group (n = 477), a significantly higher proportion of patients in the BSBL group (n = 141) had initial presentation with severe sepsis or septic shock, critical illness (Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4) at bacteraemia onset and fatal co-morbidities (McCabe classification). For propensity score matching, 318 of the 477 patients in the 3GC group were matched with 106 patients in the BSBL group with the closest propensity scores on the basis of five independent predictors of 28-day mortality. After appropriate matching, no significant differences were observed in major baseline characteristics between the 3GC and BSBL groups in terms of causative micro-organism, bacteraemia severity, major source of bacteraemia, major co-morbidities and severity of co-morbidity. Consequently, the early clinical failure rate (12.9% vs. 12.3%; P = 0.87), bacteraemia severity (Pitt bacteraemia score ≥4; 4.6% vs. 8.2%; P = 0.17) at Day 3, and 3-day (3.8% vs. 7.5%; P = 0.11) and 28-day (13.2% vs. 17.0%; P = 0.33) crude mortality rates between the two groups were similar. These data suggest that the efficacy of 3GCs is similar to that of 4GCs or carbapenems when used as empirical antimicrobial therapy for community-onset Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  5. Condições sanitárias de comunidades terapêuticas para tratamento da dependência química | Sanitary conditions of therapeutic communities for the treatment of addictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Dias Cavalcante

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Comunidades terapêuticas que visam o tratamento da dependência química são instituições que, por meio da convivência entre pares, devem enfocar o indivíduo de forma holística. No que concerne às questões sanitárias, devem seguir as determinações sanitárias estabelecidas na RDC n° 29/2011 instituídas pela Anvisa. Este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar as condições sanitárias das comunidades terapêuticas, procurando identificar se as normas estabelecidas pela RDC n° 29/2011 estavam sendo cumpridas a fim de uma melhor qualidade de vida dos residentes. Trata-se de um estudo transversal descritivo com abordagem quantitativa com 28 comunidades terapêuticas que atendem dependentes químicos de forma voluntária, localizadas no município de Goiânia, GO, e região metropolitana, incluindo também a cidade de Anápolis, GO. Foi utilizado um questionário semiestruturado e os resultados obtidos por meio de estatística descritiva. Demonstrou-se que as comunidades já tinham alvará sanitário (39,3% e a maioria estava aguardando os trâmites do processo de concessão (46,4%. A maior parte da água era advinda de poços artesianos ou cisternas, com o devido armazenamento, mas sem a devida desinfecção. Há preocupação sanitária com os ambientes alimentares. O uso de EPI não foi observado na lavagem de roupas ou na manipulação do lixo. Os medicamentos são guardados de acordo com as normas da RDC n° 29/2011 e os residentes passam com frequência por atendimentos em atenção à saúde no SUS. Conclui-se que as normas sanitárias da RDC n° 29/2011 tendem a ser observadas nas comunidades pesquisadas. Entretanto, há muito a desenvolver em relação às questões sanitárias com vistas ao bem-estar e à saúde dos residentes. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Therapeutic communities FOR THE TREATMENT OF drug ADDICTIONS are institutions that, through the

  6. The Windana Therapeutic Community's Action Adventure Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Richard; DeBever, Marijke

    The Windana Society is a drug and alcohol agency in Victoria (Australia) that operates, among other things, a residential drug rehabilitation program in a rural setting. The program utilizes a holistic approach that addresses health and physical fitness; education; vocational and re-integration support; and psychological, emotional, spiritual, and…

  7. Therapeutic use exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, J; Kirkendall, D; Vouillamoz, M

    2006-01-01

    Football players who have either physical symptoms or disease after injury may need to be treated with specific medicines that are on the list of prohibited substances. Therapeutic use exemption may be granted to such players, in accordance with strictly defined criteria—these are presented in this article. Procedures of how to request for an abbreviated or a standard therapeutic use exemption are explained, and data on therapeutic use exemptions (UEFA and FIFA, 2004 and 2005) are also presented. PMID:16799102

  8. Therapeutic Crisis Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Martha J.; Powers, Jane Levine

    1993-01-01

    Describes Therapeutic Crisis Intervention (TCI) program as providing staff with skills, knowledge, and confidence to manage child in crisis to bring about a "maximum amount of lasting response." Contends that, by applying principles of TCI training, direct care worker can attain therapeutic control and maintain dignity of both adult and child…

  9. Trends in Therapeutic Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ralph W.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the implications of the rapid, dramatic changes taking place in therapeutic recreation for individuals with physical disabilities. The article notes the impact of changes in managed care, examines programming trends in therapeutic recreation (adventure/outdoor education, competitive sports, handcycling, health enhancement activities, and…

  10. Brain plasticity-based therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzenich, Michael M.; Van Vleet, Thomas M.; Nahum, Mor

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this review article is to summarize how the neuroscience of brain plasticity, exploiting new findings in fundamental, integrative and cognitive neuroscience, is changing the therapeutic landscape for professional communities addressing brain-based disorders and disease. After considering the neurological bases of training-driven neuroplasticity, we shall describe how this neuroscience-guided perspective distinguishes this new approach from (a) the more-behavioral, traditional clinical strategies of professional therapy practitioners, and (b) an even more widely applied pharmaceutical treatment model for neurological and psychiatric treatment domains. With that background, we shall argue that neuroplasticity-based treatments will be an important part of future best-treatment practices in neurological and psychiatric medicine. PMID:25018719

  11. Brain Plasticity-Based Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eMerzenich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this review article is to summarize how the neuroscience of brain plasticity, exploiting new findings in fundamental, integrative and cognitive neuroscience, is changing the therapeutic landscape for professional communities addressing brain-based disorders and disease. After considering the neurological bases of training-driven neuroplasticity, we shall describe how this neuroscience-guided perspective distinguishes this new approach from a the more-behavioral, traditional clinical strategies of professional therapy practitioners, and b an even more widely applied pharmaceutical treatment model for neurological and psychiatric treatment domains. With that background, we shall argue that neuroplasticity-based treatments will be an important part of future best-treatment practices in neurological and psychiatric medicine.

  12. Kant and therapeutic privilege.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Given Kant's exceptionless moral prohibition on lying, one might suspect that he is committed to a similar prohibition on withholding diagnostic and prognostic information from patients. I confirm this suspicion by adapting arguments against therapeutic privilege from his arguments against lying. However, I show that all these arguments are importantly flawed and submit that they should be rejected. A more compelling Kantian take on informed consent and therapeutic privilege is achievable, I argue, by focusing on Kant's duty of beneficence, which requires us to aim at furthering others' ends. But I show that there are some cases in which furthering a patient's ends requires withholding material medical information from her. Although I concede that these cases are probably quite rare, I conclude that the best Kantian thinking agrees with that of therapeutic privilege's advocates.

  13. Lymphedema and Therapeutic Lymphangiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Saito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphedema is a disorder of the lymphatic vascular system characterized by impaired lymphatic return and swelling of the extremities. Lymphedema is divided into primary and secondary forms based on the underlying etiology. Despite substantial advances in both surgical and conservative techniques, therapeutic options for the management of lymphedema are limited. Although rarely lethal, lymphedema is a disfiguring and disabling condition with an associated decrease in the quality of life. The recent impressive expansion of knowledge on the molecular mechanisms governing lymphangiogenesis provides new possibilities for the treatment of lymphedema. This review highlights the lymphatic biology, the pathophysiology of lymphedema, and the therapeutic lymphangiogenesis using hepatocyte growth factor.

  14. Therapeutic development in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobell, Jeffrey M; Leonardi, Craig L

    2014-06-01

    Advances in molecular biology have provided the basis for development of new therapeutic approaches to psoriasis. New, more effective therapies target specific molecules in the inflammatory cascade involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.The biologic era of psoriasis therapy began with inhibitors of T-cell activation, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin (IL)-12/23. Continued investigation has led to therapies and therapeutic candidates that target IL-17, IL-23, phosphodiesterase-4, and isomers of Janus kinase. 2014 by Frontline Medical Communications Inc.

  15. Therapeutic HIV Peptide Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity...

  16. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  17. Therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ken; Roosinovich, Elena; Ma, Barbara; Hung, Chien-Fu

    2010-01-01

    It is now well established that most cervical cancers are causally associated with HPV infection. This realization has led to efforts to control HPV-associated malignancy through prevention or treatment of HPV infection. Currently, commercially available HPV vaccines are not designed to control established HPV infection and associated premalignant and malignant lesions. To treat and eradicate pre-existing HPV infections and associated lesions which remain prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, effective therapeutic HPV vaccines are needed. DNA vaccination has emerged as a particularly promising form of therapeutic HPV vaccines due to its safety, stability and ability to induce antigen-specific immunity. This review focuses on improving the potency of therapeutic HPV vaccines through modification of dendritic cells (DCs) by [1] increasing the number of antigen-expressing/antigen-loaded DCs, [2] improving HPV antigen expression, processing and presentation in DCs, and [3] enhancing DC and T cell interaction. Continued improvement in therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines may ultimately lead to an effective DNA vaccine for the treatment of HPV-associated malignancies. PMID:20066511

  18. Multistage vector (MSV) therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, Joy; Shen, Haifa; Ferrari, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges in the field of medicine is obtaining controlled distribution of systemically administered therapeutic agents within the body. Indeed, biological barriers such as physical compartmentalization, pressure gradients, and excretion pathways adversely affect localized delivery of drugs to pathological tissue. The diverse nature of these barriers requires the use of multifunctional drug delivery vehicles that can overcome a wide range of sequential obstacles. In this review, we explore the role of multifunctionality in nanomedicine by primarily focusing on multistage vectors (MSVs). The MSV is an example of a promising therapeutic platform that incorporates several components, including a microparticle, nanoparticles, and small molecules. In particular, these components are activated in a sequential manner in order to successively address transport barriers. PMID:26264836

  19. Acylation of Therapeutic Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Sofie; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Jensen, Simon Bjerregaard

    Oral administration of therapeutic peptides could benefit millions of chronically ill people worldwide, through easier and less stigmatized therapy, and likely improve the long-term effects of currently widespread disease mismanagement. However, oral peptide delivery is a formidable task due......, but it is not widely studied in an oral context. As acylation furthermore increases interactions with the lipid membranes of mammalian cells, it offers several potential benefits for oral delivery of therapeutic peptides, and we hypothesize that tailoring the acylation may be used to optimize intestinal translocation...... to the harsh and selective gastrointestinal system, and development has lacked far behind injection therapy. Peptide acylation is a powerful tool to alter the pharmacokinetics, biophysical properties and chemical stability of injectable peptide drugs, primarily used to prolong blood circulation...

  20. Leech Therapeutic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Abdualkader, A. M.; A M Ghawi; Alaama, M.; M. Awang; A Merzouk

    2013-01-01

    Hematophagous animals including leeches have been known to possess biologically active compounds in their secretions, especially in their saliva. The blood-sucking annelids, leeches have been used for therapeutic purposes since the beginning of civilization. Ancient Egyptian, Indian, Greek and Arab physicians used leeches for a wide range of diseases starting from the conventional use for bleeding to systemic ailments, such as skin diseases, nervous system abnormalities, urinary and reproduct...

  1. Frankincense--therapeutic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yasiry, Ali Ridha Mustafa; Kiczorowska, Bożena

    2016-01-04

    Recently, increasing interest in natural dietary and therapeutic preparations used as dietary supplements has been observed. One of them is frankincense. This traditional medicine of the East is believed to have anti-inflammatory, expectorant, antiseptic, and even anxiolytic and anti-neurotic effects. The present study aims to verify the reported therapeutic properties of Boswellia resin and describe its chemical composition based on available scientific studies. The main component of frankincense is oil (60%). It contains mono- (13%) and diterpenes (40%) as well as ethyl acetate (21.4%), octyl acetate (13.4%) and methylanisole (7.6%). The highest biological activity among terpenes is characteristic of 11-keto-ß-acetyl-beta-boswellic acid, acetyl-11-keto-ß-boswellic acid and acetyl-α-boswellic acid. Contemporary studies have shown that resin indeed has an analgesic, tranquilising and anti-bacterial effects. From the point of view of therapeutic properties, extracts from Boswellia serrata and Boswellia carterii are reported to be particularly useful. They reduce inflammatory conditions in the course of rheumatism by inhibiting leukocyte elastase and degrading glycosaminoglycans. Boswellia preparations inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and prevent the release of leukotrienes, thus having an anti-inflammatory effect in ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, bronchitis and sinusitis. Inhalation and consumption of Boswellia olibanum reduces the risk of asthma. In addition, boswellic acids have an antiproliferative effect on tumours. They inhibit proliferation of tumour cells of the leukaemia and glioblastoma subset. They have an anti-tumour effect since they inhibit topoisomerase I and II-alpha and stimulate programmed cell death (apoptosis).

  2. Frankincense – therapeutic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ridha Mustafa Al-Yasiry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, increasing interest in natural dietary and therapeutic preparations used as dietary supplements has been observed. One of them is frankincense. This traditional medicine of the East is believed to have anti-inflammatory, expectorant, antiseptic, and even anxiolytic and anti-neurotic effects. The present study aims to verify the reported therapeutic properties of Boswellia resin and describe its chemical composition based on available scientific studies. The main component of frankincense is oil (60%. It contains mono- (13% and diterpenes (40% as well as ethyl acetate (21.4%, octyl acetate (13.4% and methylanisole (7.6%. The highest biological activity among terpenes is characteristic of 11-keto-ß-acetyl-beta-boswellic acid, acetyl-11-keto-ß-boswellic acid and acetyl-α-boswellic acid. Contemporary studies have shown that resin indeed has an analgesic, tranquilising and anti-bacterial effects. From the point of view of therapeutic properties, extracts from Boswellia serrata and Boswellia carterii are reported to be particularly useful. They reduce inflammatory conditions in the course of rheumatism by inhibiting leukocyte elastase and degrading glycosaminoglycans. Boswellia preparations inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and prevent the release of leukotrienes, thus having an anti-inflammatory effect in ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, bronchitis and sinusitis. Inhalation and consumption of Boswellia olibanum reduces the risk of asthma. In addition, boswellic acids have an antiproliferative effect on tumours. They inhibit proliferation of tumour cells of the leukaemia and glioblastoma subset. They have an anti-tumour effect since they inhibit topoisomerase I and II-alpha and stimulate programmed cell death (apoptosis.

  3. [Therapeutic applications of digestive endoscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, J A; Pérez, L; Madureri, V

    1976-01-01

    Endoscopy has proven useful as a diagnostic tool and recently many useful therapeutic possibilities have been proposed. The authors discuss their experience with therapeutic endoscopic procedures and present new ones for treatment of Acalasia and small sliding hiatal hernia.

  4. Therapeutic approaches to cellulite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jeremy B; Cohen, Joel L; Kaufman, Joely; Metelitsa, Andrei I; Kaminer, Michael S

    2015-09-01

    Cellulite is a condition that affects the vast majority of women. Although it is of no danger to one's overall health, cellulite can be psychosocially debilitating. Consequently, much research has been devoted to understanding cellulite and its etiopathogenesis. With additional insights into the underlying causes of its clinical presentation, therapeutic modalities have been developed that offer hope to cellulite sufferers. This review examines evidence for topical treatments, noninvasive energy-based devices, and recently developed minimally invasive interventions that may finally provide a solution. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  5. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis y Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. [Is therapeutic deadlock inevitable?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignat, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Many long-term treatments appear to be an expression of therapeutic deadlock. The situation leads to a questioning of the concept of chronicity and the identification of the determining factors of situations which are apparently blocked, marked by the search for solutions taking a back seat to the taking of action. The interaction between patients' mental apparatus and the care apparatus lies at the heart of the question, interpreted from an institutional, collective and individual perspective, supported by the clinical and psychopathological approach, and the return to the prioritisation of the thought. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanisms of Plasma Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, David

    2015-09-01

    In this talk, I address research directed towards biomedical applications of atmospheric pressure plasma such as sterilization, surgery, wound healing and anti-cancer therapy. The field has seen remarkable growth in the last 3-5 years, but the mechanisms responsible for the biomedical effects have remained mysterious. It is known that plasmas readily create reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). ROS and RNS (or RONS), in addition to a suite of other radical and non-radical reactive species, are essential actors in an important sub-field of aerobic biology termed ``redox'' (or oxidation-reduction) biology. It is postulated that cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) can trigger a therapeutic shielding response in tissue in part by creating a time- and space-localized, burst-like form of oxy-nitrosative stress on near-surface exposed cells through the flux of plasma-generated RONS. RONS-exposed surface layers of cells communicate to the deeper levels of tissue via a form of the ``bystander effect,'' similar to responses to other forms of cell stress. In this proposed model of CAP therapeutics, the plasma stimulates a cellular survival mechanism through which aerobic organisms shield themselves from infection and other challenges.

  8. Therapeutic Uses of Exosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharias E. Suntres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are membrane vesicles with a diameter of 40–100 nm that are secreted by many cell types into the extracellular milieu. Exosomes are found in cell culture supernatants and in different biological fluids and are known to be secreted by most cell types under normal and pathological conditions. Considerable research is focusing on the exploitation of exosomes in biological fluids for biomarkers in the diagnosis of disease. More recently, exosomes are being exploited for their therapeutic potential. Exosomes derived from dendritic cells, tumor cells, and malignant effusions demonstrate immunomodulatory functions and are able to present antigens to T-cells and stimulate antigen-specific T-cell responses. Exosomes have also been examined for their therapeutic potential in the treatment of infections such as toxoplasmosis, diphtheria, tuberculosis and atypical severe acute respiratory syndrome as well as autoimmune diseases. Attempts to find practical applications for exosomes continue to expand with the role of exosomes as a drug delivery system for the treatment of autoimmune/inflammatory diseases and cancers.

  9. Engineering therapeutic protein disaggregases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, James

    2016-05-15

    Therapeutic agents are urgently required to cure several common and fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by protein misfolding and aggregation, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Protein disaggregases that reverse protein misfolding and restore proteins to native structure, function, and localization could mitigate neurodegeneration by simultaneously reversing 1) any toxic gain of function of the misfolded form and 2) any loss of function due to misfolding. Potentiated variants of Hsp104, a hexameric AAA+ ATPase and protein disaggregase from yeast, have been engineered to robustly disaggregate misfolded proteins connected with ALS (e.g., TDP-43 and FUS) and PD (e.g., α-synuclein). However, Hsp104 has no metazoan homologue. Metazoa possess protein disaggregase systems distinct from Hsp104, including Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40, as well as HtrA1, which might be harnessed to reverse deleterious protein misfolding. Nevertheless, vicissitudes of aging, environment, or genetics conspire to negate these disaggregase systems in neurodegenerative disease. Thus, engineering potentiated human protein disaggregases or isolating small-molecule enhancers of their activity could yield transformative therapeutics for ALS, PD, and AD. © 2016 Shorter. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. Therapeutic and diagnostic nanomaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Devasena T

    2017-01-01

    This brief highlights nanoparticles used in the diagnosis and treatment of prominent diseases and toxic conditions. Ecofriendly methods which are ideal for the synthesis of medicinally valued nanoparticles are explained and the characteristic features of these particles projected. The role of these particles in the therapeutic field, and the induced biological changes in some diseases are discussed. The main focus is on inflammation, oxidative stress and cellular membrane integrity alterations. The effect of nanoparticles on these changes produced by various agents are highlighted using in vitro and in vivo models. The mechanism of nanoparticles in ameliorating the biological changes is supported by relevant images and data. Finally, the brief demonstrates recent developments on the use of nanoparticles in diagnosis or sensing of some biological materials and biologically hazardous environmental materials.

  11. Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro, Juan Carlos; Gilliland, Gary L; Breden, Felix; Scott, Jamie K; Sok, Devin; Pauthner, Matthias; Reichert, Janice M; Helguera, Gustavo; Andrabi, Raiees; Mabry, Robert; Bléry, Mathieu; Voss, James E; Laurén, Juha; Abuqayyas, Lubna; Barghorn, Stefan; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Crowe, James E; Huston, James S; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Krauland, Eric; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Marasco, Wayne A; Parren, Paul WHI; Xu, Kai Y

    2014-01-01

    The 24th Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics meeting brought together a broad range of participants who were updated on the latest advances in antibody research and development. Organized by IBC Life Sciences, the gathering is the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, which serves as the scientific sponsor. Preconference workshops on 3D modeling and delineation of clonal lineages were featured, and the conference included sessions on a wide variety of topics relevant to researchers, including systems biology; antibody deep sequencing and repertoires; the effects of antibody gene variation and usage on antibody response; directed evolution; knowledge-based design; antibodies in a complex environment; polyreactive antibodies and polyspecificity; the interface between antibody therapy and cellular immunity in cancer; antibodies in cardiometabolic medicine; antibody pharmacokinetics, distribution and off-target toxicity; optimizing antibody formats for immunotherapy; polyclonals, oligoclonals and bispecifics; antibody discovery platforms; and antibody-drug conjugates. PMID:24589717

  12. Therapeutic applications of melatonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin is a methoxyindole synthesized within the pineal gland. The hormone is secreted during the night and appears to play multiple roles within the human organism. The hormone contributes to the regulation of biological rhythms, may induce sleep, has strong antioxidant action and appears to contribute to the protection of the organism from carcinogenesis and neurodegenerative disorders. At a therapeutic level as well as in prevention, melatonin is used for the management of sleep disorders and jet lag, for the resynchronization of circadian rhythms in situations such as blindness and shift work, for its preventive action in the development of cancer, as additive therapy in cancer and as therapy for preventing the progression of Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:23515203

  13. Microfabricated therapeutic actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Benett, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Microfabricated therapeutic actuators are fabricated using a shape memory polymer (SMP), a polyurethane-based material that undergoes a phase transformation at a specified temperature (Tg). At a temperature above temperature Tg material is soft and can be easily reshaped into another configuration. As the temperature is lowered below temperature Tg the new shape is fixed and locked in as long as the material stays below temperature Tg. Upon reheating the material to a temperature above Tg, the material will return to its original shape. By the use of such SMP material, SMP microtubing can be used as a release actuator for the delivery of embolic coils through catheters into aneurysms, for example. The microtubing can be manufactured in various sizes and the phase change temperature Tg is determinate for an intended temperature target and intended use.

  14. Therapeutic effects of reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín HIDALGO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reading is an act that requires isolation and loneliness, which allows rewriting the narratives through the identification between the reader and the character, the involvement in the fact narrated and singular recreation by every single reader. The act of reading allows stepping aside from reality. The reading as well as the writing perform the therapeutic effect of helping to understand the illness and to know experiences of others patients that can be useful for the accompaniment, overcoming and/or making decisions. There is not a concrete literary that could be universally recommend to every patient, but all the genre can be useful to some patient. However, poetry, novel and autobiographies are frequently referred as the manuscripts that provide help and consolation.

  15. Antiviral Polymer Therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anton Allen Abbotsford

    2014-01-01

    polymerized in a controlled manner with carrier monomers of historically proven biocompatible polymers. The carrier polymers, the loading of ribavirin as well as the size of the polymer were varied systematically with the aid of an automated synthesis platform. These polymers were tested in a cellular assay...... of reversible-addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, which not only controls the size of polymer, but also allows the introduction of a terminal amine on the polymer which can be used for further conjugation. This has allowed for not only fluorescent labeling of the polymer, but also protein......The field of drug delivery is in essence an exercise in engineered pharmacokinetics. Methods of doing so have been developed through the introduction of a vehicle carrying the drug, either by encapsulation or covalent attachment. The emergence of polymer therapeutics in anticancer therapy has...

  16. Therapeutic Approaches in CLIPPERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taieb, Guillaume; Allou, Thibaut; Labauge, Pierre

    2017-05-01

    CLIPPERS for chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids, is a steroid-sensitive and steroid-dependent brainstem inflammatory disease of unknown origin. Since its first description in 2010, about 60 cases have been reported throughout the world. The mean age at onset is 50 years and men seem to be more frequently affected. In patients without chronic corticosteroid therapy or immunosuppressive agents, the disease had a relapsing remitting course, and the mean annualized relapse rate was 0.5. During attacks, although clinical and radiological improvement after high doses of corticosteroids was systematically observed, patients could display subsequent disability and hindbrain atrophy. Since no progressive course was observed, clinical and radiological sequelae were correlated with previous severe attacks. Therefore, maintaining the disease in remission may prevent the accumulation of disability. In the literature, no relapse occurred when chronic corticosteroid therapy was maintained above 20 mg per day. However, steroids side effects led to propose corticosteroid-sparing therapies. Unfortunately, no controlled therapy studies for CLIPPERS have been performed yet, and no therapeutic recommendations exist. Using the PubMed database, all articles having the following keywords "chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids" and "CLIPPERS" have been analysed. Considering that the mean annual relapse rate was 0.5, and that no relapse occurred when corticosteroid therapy was maintained above 20 mg per day, the therapeutic efficiency of corticosteroid-sparing agents was considered as "probable" when patients had a relapse-free period ≥24 months, in the absence of concomitant corticosteroid therapy. Corticosteroid-sparing agents whose efficiency is "probable" are methotrexate in two cases, cyclophosphamide in one case and hydroxychloroquine in one case. Considering the

  17. Biomaterials and therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Angelo

    2016-03-01

    A number of organic and inorganic, synthetic or natural derived materials have been classified as not harmful for the human body and are appropriate for medical applications. These materials are usually named biomaterials since they are suitable for introduction into living human tissues of prosthesis, as well as for drug delivery, diagnosis, therapies, tissue regeneration and many other clinical applications. Recently, nanomaterials and bioabsorbable polymers have greatly enlarged the fields of application of biomaterials attracting much more the attention of the biomedical community. In this review paper I am going to discuss the most recent advances in the use of magnetic nanoparticles and biodegradable materials as new biomedical tools.

  18. [Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Lei, An-Min; Hua, Jin-Lian; Dou, Zhong-Ying

    2005-03-01

    Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning have widespread and attractive prospects in animal agriculture and biomedical applications. We reviewed that the quality of oocytes and nuclear reprogramming of somatic donor cells were the main reasons of the common abnormalities in cloned animals and the low efficiency of cloning and showed the problems and outlets in therapeutic cloning, such as some basic problems in nuclear transfer affected clinical applications of therapeutic cloning. Study on isolation and culture of nuclear transfer embryonic stem (ntES) cells and specific differentiation of ntES cells into important functional cells should be emphasized and could enhance the efficiency. Adult stem cells could help to cure some great diseases, but could not replace therapeutic cloning. Ethics also impeded the development of therapeutic cloning. It is necessary to improve many techniques and reinforce the research of some basic theories, then somatic nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning may apply to agriculture reproduction and benefit to human life better.

  19. Therapeutic vaccines for leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamesipour, Ali

    2014-11-01

    Numerous therapeutic strategies are used to treat leishmaniasis. The treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is solely depends on antimonate derivatives with safety issues and questionable efficacy and there is no fully effective modality to treat CL caused by Leishmania tropica and Leishmania braziliensis. There is no prophylactic vaccine available against any form of leishmaniasis. Immunotherapy for CL has a long history; immunotherapy trials of first and second generation vaccines showed promising results. The current article briefly covers the prophylactic vaccines and explains different immunotherapy strategies that have been used to treat leishmaniasis. This paper does not include experimental vaccines and only lays emphasis on human trials and those vaccines which reached human trials. Immunotherapy is currently used to successfully treat several disorders; Low cost, limited side effects and no possibility to develop resistance make immunotherapy a valuable choice especially for infectious disease with chemotherapy problems. Efforts are needed to explore the immunological surrogate marker(s) of cure and protection in leishmaniasis and overcome the difficulties in standardization of crude Leishmania vaccines. One of the reasons for anti-leishmaniasis vaccine failure is lack of an appropriate adjuvant. So far, not enough attention has been paid to develop vaccines for immunotherapy of leishmaniasis.

  20. Kinetoplastida: new therapeutic strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croft S.L.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available New formulations and therapeutic switching of the established drugs, amphotericin B and paromomycin, together with the discovery of miltefosine, have significantly improved the opportunities for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL chemotherapy. However, for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, Chagas disease and cutaneous leishmaniases there has been limited progress. For HAT, a novel diamidine, parfuramidine, is in phase III clinical trial for early-stage disease, but for the treatment of late-stage disease there are no new drugs and combinations of eflornithine with melarsoprol or nifurtimox have been the focus of clinical studies. For Chagas disease, different classes of compounds that have validated biochemical targets, sterol biosynthesis methylases and cysteine proteases, are in various stages of development. The genome sequences that are now available for the pathogens that cause the leishmaniases and trypanosomiases, and new methods for rapid validation of targets, are part of the solution to discover new drugs. The integration of medicinal chemistry, pharmacokinetics, project planning and interaction with the pharma/biotech sector are essential if progress is to be made. Although there are financial constraints, the appearance of new funding sources and not-for-profit product development partnerships offers hope for drug development.

  1. Therapeutic uses of magnesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrera, Mary P; Volpe, Stella Lucia; Mao, Jun James

    2009-07-15

    Magnesium is an essential mineral for optimal metabolic function. Research has shown that the mineral content of magnesium in food sources is declining, and that magnesium depletion has been detected in persons with some chronic diseases. This has led to an increased awareness of proper magnesium intake and its potential therapeutic role in a number of medical conditions. Studies have shown the effectiveness of magnesium in eclampsia and preeclampsia, arrhythmia, severe asthma, and migraine. Other areas that have shown promising results include lowering the risk of metabolic syndrome, improving glucose and insulin metabolism, relieving symptoms of dysmenorrhea, and alleviating leg cramps in women who are pregnant. The use of magnesium for constipation and dyspepsia are accepted as standard care despite limited evidence. Although it is safe in selected patients at appropriate dosages, magnesium may cause adverse effects or death at high dosages. Because magnesium is excreted renally, it should be used with caution in patients with kidney disease. Food sources of magnesium include green leafy vegetables, nuts, legumes, and whole grains.

  2. Leech Therapeutic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdualkader, A. M.; Ghawi, A. M.; Alaama, M.; Awang, M.; Merzouk, A.

    2013-01-01

    Hematophagous animals including leeches have been known to possess biologically active compounds in their secretions, especially in their saliva. The blood-sucking annelids, leeches have been used for therapeutic purposes since the beginning of civilization. Ancient Egyptian, Indian, Greek and Arab physicians used leeches for a wide range of diseases starting from the conventional use for bleeding to systemic ailments, such as skin diseases, nervous system abnormalities, urinary and reproductive system problems, inflammation, and dental problems. Recently, extensive researches on leech saliva unveiled the presence of a variety of bioactive peptides and proteins involving antithrombin (hirudin, bufrudin), antiplatelet (calin, saratin), factor Xa inhibitors (lefaxin), antibacterial (theromacin, theromyzin) and others. Consequently, leech has made a comeback as a new remedy for many chronic and life-threatening abnormalities, such as cardiovascular problems, cancer, metastasis, and infectious diseases. In the 20th century, leech therapy has established itself in plastic and microsurgery as a protective tool against venous congestion and served to salvage the replanted digits and flaps. Many clinics for plastic surgery all over the world started to use leeches for cosmetic purposes. Despite the efficacious properties of leech therapy, the safety, and complications of leeching are still controversial. PMID:24019559

  3. Therapeutic cloning in the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombaerts, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear transfer technology can be applied to produce autologous differentiated cells for therapeutic purposes, a concept termed therapeutic cloning. Countless articles have been published on the ethics and politics of human therapeutic cloning, reflecting the high expectations from this new opportunity for rejuvenation of the aging or diseased body. Yet the research literature on therapeutic cloning, strictly speaking, is comprised of only four articles, all in the mouse. The efficiency of derivation of embryonic stem cell lines via nuclear transfer is remarkably consistent among these reports. However, the efficiency is so low that, in its present form, the concept is unlikely to become widespread in clinical practice. PMID:12949262

  4. RELACIÓN ENTRE EL CONSUMO CRÓNICO DE SUSTANCIAS PSICOACTIVAS Y ALTERACIONES NEUROCOMPORTAMENTALES EN FÁRMACO-DEPENDIENTES EN REHABILITACIÓN EN COMUNIDADES TERAPÉUTICAS (FECCOT: BOGOTÁ CUNDINAMARCA 2006-2007. ESTUDIO DESCRIPTIVO Relationship betwem chronic consumption of psychoactive substances and alterations neurobehavior alterations in a rehabilitation process in some therapeutic communities (FECCOT: Bogota -Cundinamarca 2006-2007-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Cote-Menéndez

    2008-12-01

    a relationship between the neurobehavior disorders and the use of psychoactive substances in therapeutic Communities for rehabilitation affiliated to FECCOT. Materials and methods. This is a cross-sectional study of the Therapeutic Communities belonging to the FECCOT in Bogota and Cundinamarca. In depth interviews, physical examinations and neuropsychological testing were conducted. The data was extrapolated from the 403 persons tested in the years 2006 and 2007 accordingly. Included were also the criteria for drug abuse or dependence according to DSMIV-R. Results. This is a cross-sectional study of the Therapeutic Communities belonging to the FECCOT in Bogota and Cundinamarca. In depth interviews, physical examinations and neuropsychological testing were conducted. The data was extrapolated from the 403 persons tested in the years 2006 and 2007 accordingly. Included were also the criteria for drug abuse or dependence according to DSMIV-R. . Conclusions. There is a tendency in the multiple- drug abuse person to present a higher level of neurobehavior disorders than the general population. This determination was not evidenced by a specific control group.

  5. Children of a Lesser God. "Core Values in Therapeutic Recreation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Keith W.

    2013-01-01

    Students in recreation programs are often introduced to laws that apply to therapeutic or community recreation services. Several of these laws have to do with policy regarding people who experience a disability. One important law is the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). In order for students to better understand the law and its…

  6. Therapeutic Strategies Targeting Cariogenic Biofilm Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Ren, Z; Hwang, G; Koo, H

    2018-02-01

    Cariogenic biofilms are highly structured microbial communities embedded in an extracellular matrix, a multifunctional scaffold that is essential for the existence of the biofilm lifestyle and full expression of virulence. The extracellular matrix provides the physical and biological properties that enhance biofilm adhesion and cohesion, as well as create a diffusion-modulating milieu, protecting the resident microbes and facilitating the formation of localized acidic pH niches. These biochemical properties pose significant challenges for the development of effective antibiofilm therapeutics to control dental caries. Conventional approaches focusing solely on antimicrobial activity or enhancing remineralization may not achieve maximal efficacy within the complex biofilm microenvironment. Recent approaches disrupting the biofilm microbial community and the microenvironment have emerged, including specific targeting of cariogenic pathogens, modulation of biofilm pH, and synergistic combination of bacterial killing and matrix degradation. Furthermore, new "smart" nanotechnologies that trigger drug release or activation in response to acidic pH are being developed that could enhance the efficacy of current and prospective chemical modalities. Therapeutic strategies that can locally disrupt the pathogenic niche by targeting the biofilm structure and its microenvironment to eliminate the embedded microorganism and facilitate the action of remineralizing agents may lead to enhanced and precise anticaries approaches.

  7. Purinergic Signalling: Therapeutic Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Burnstock

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purinergic signalling, i.e., the role of nucleotides as extracellular signalling molecules, was proposed in 1972. However, this concept was not well accepted until the early 1990’s when receptor subtypes for purines and pyrimidines were cloned and characterised, which includes four subtypes of the P1 (adenosine receptor, seven subtypes of P2X ion channel receptors and 8 subtypes of the P2Y G protein-coupled receptor. Early studies were largely concerned with the physiology, pharmacology and biochemistry of purinergic signalling. More recently, the focus has been on the pathophysiology and therapeutic potential. There was early recognition of the use of P1 receptor agonists for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia and A2A receptor antagonists are promising for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Clopidogrel, a P2Y12 antagonist, is widely used for the treatment of thrombosis and stroke, blocking P2Y12 receptor-mediated platelet aggregation. Diquafosol, a long acting P2Y2 receptor agonist, is being used for the treatment of dry eye. P2X3 receptor antagonists have been developed that are orally bioavailable and stable in vivo and are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of chronic cough, bladder incontinence, visceral pain and hypertension. Antagonists to P2X7 receptors are being investigated for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. Other investigations are in progress for the use of purinergic agents for the treatment of osteoporosis, myocardial infarction, irritable bowel syndrome, epilepsy, atherosclerosis, depression, autism, diabetes, and cancer.

  8. Therapeutical aspect of trichomoniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević Jelica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichomoniasis is frequent, parasitic and sexually transmitted infection of genitourinary tract. It is treated by metronidazole (5-nitroimidazole according to protocol recommended by Center for Disease Control (CDC formerly called: Communicable Disease Center [19]. The resistance of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV strains to metronidazole (MND was described in USA in 1960, and later on in many European countries [8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13]. In these cases, due to persistent trichomonas infection, it is necessary to repeat MND treatment with moderate modification of dose and/or length of its application. Nevertheless, oncogenic and toxic effects of MND have to be taken into consideration. OBJECT The aim of this study was to investigate and analyze the incidence of TV in STD and lower susceptibility of certain TV strains to MND were analyzed. MATERIAL AND METHODS In three-year period (1999-2001 612 patients (244 females and 368 males suspected of STD were examined clinically and microbiologically at the Institute of Dermatovenereology in Belgrade. The patients detected for TV were treated according to CDC protocol. The affected were considered cured if there was no manifest clinical infection, and no TV verified by microbiological test. Results TV was isolated in 216 patients (35.29 % of all subjects. Trichomonas infection was found in 90 (36.88 % out of 244 tested females and in 126 (32.34 % of 368 males. Clinically manifested infection, with extensive urethral and vaginal secretion, was recorded in 161 patients, while the asymptomatic form was found in 55 subjects. This result indicates the predominance of manifested trichomonas infections (75.54 % of cases. The difference of distribution of clinical forms of trichomoniasis, in relation to sex, was not statistically significant (c2=0.854; p>0.05. The patients with verified trichomonas infection were treated by metronidazole according to CDC protocol. The recommended therapeutical scheme consisted of three

  9. READING PHILEMON AS THERAPEUTIC NARRATIVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-29

    Mar 29, 2010 ... Contrary to an initial impression, the narrative therapeutic approach does not emerge from a completely psychological ... Furthermore, a narrative therapeutic reading does not exist in a vacuum, therefore this investigation ..... converted to Christianity, Philemon supported other believers in various ways ...

  10. Clinical applications of therapeutic phlebotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim KH

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kyung Hee Kim,1 Ki Young Oh,2 1Department of Laboratory Medicine, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan, South Korea Abstract: Phlebotomy is the removal of blood from the body, and therapeutic phlebotomy is the preferred treatment for blood disorders in which the removal of red blood cells or serum iron is the most efficient method for managing the symptoms and complications. Therapeutic phlebotomy is currently indicated for the treatment of hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, porphyria cutanea tarda, sickle cell disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with hyperferritinemia. This review discusses therapeutic phlebotomy and the related disorders and also offers guidelines for establishing a therapeutic phlebotomy program. Keywords: therapeutic phlebotomy, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, porphyria cutanea tarda, sickle cell disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

  11. Rethinking Therapeutic Misconception in Biobanking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro; Snell, Karoliina; Cañada, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Some authors have noted that in biobank research participants may be guided by what is called therapeutic misconception, whereby participants attribute therapeutic intent to research procedures.This article argues that the notion of therapeutic misconception is increasingly less justified when...... evaluating biobanks. We present four examples taken from recent developments in biobanking to argue why the notion of therapeutic misconception is problematic in that biobanking practices are increasingly seeking to bridge research and treatment in diff erent ways. In this article we explore examples where...... underpinnings for the need to separate research and treatment, and thus the notion of therapeutic misconception in the fi rst place. We call this tension between research and treatment ambivalent research advancement to highlight the difficulties that various actors have in managing such shifts within...

  12. Therapeutic hypothermia for acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Weber, Uno Jakob; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2003-01-01

    Experimental evidence and clinical experience show that hypothermia protects the brain from damage during ischaemia. There is a growing hope that the prevention of fever in stroke will improve outcome and that hypothermia may be a therapeutic option for the treatment of stroke. Body temperature...... obvious therapeutic potential, hypothermia as a form of neuroprotection for stroke has been investigated in only a few very small studies. Therapeutic hypothermia is feasible in acute stroke but owing to serious side-effects--such as hypotension, cardiac arrhythmia, and pneumonia--it is still thought...

  13. Frontiers in nano-therapeutics

    CERN Document Server

    Tasnim, Nishat; Sai Krishna, Katla; Kalagara, Sudhakar; Narayan, Mahesh; Noveron, Juan C; Joddar, Binata

    2017-01-01

    This brief highlights recent research advances in the area of nano-therapeutics. Nanotechnology holds immense potential for application in a wide range of biological and engineering applications such as molecular sensors for disease diagnosis, therapeutic agents for the treatment of diseases, a vehicle for delivering therapeutics and imaging agents for theranostic applications, both in-vitro and in-vivo. The brief is grouped into the following sections namely, A) Discrete Nanosystems ; B) Anisotropic Nanoparticles; C) Nano-films/coated/layered and D) Nano-composites.

  14. [Therapeutic management of neurodermatitis atopica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kägi, M K

    1998-08-01

    The therapy of atopic dermatitis remains a challenge. The success of any therapeutic concept is based on a broad and early diagnostic approach which allows to rule out relevant provocation factors and allergens. During remission periods the regular use of a topical basic therapy consisting of drug-free emolients is recommended. Topical corticosteroids as well as systemic or local antimicrobial therapy and antihistamines are essential during periods of acute exacerbations. Although during the last years a great number of new therapeutic approaches have been published, data of most of these therapeutic modalities are not sufficient to allow an unrestricted use in all patients with atopic dermatitis.

  15. [Current Therapeutic Approaches to Sarcoidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Carmen; Skowasch, Dirk; Grohé, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Sarcoidosis represents a non-caseating, granulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology whose clinical manifestation is heterogeneous and frequently multisystemic. The portion of patients needing systemic treatment varies: though many patients may undergo spontaneous remission, organ-threatening courses demand systemic therapy. Corticosteroids are the first-line treatment option; however, disease´s progression and/or major corticosteroid side effects may require second- and third-line therapeutics. A current stepwise therapeutic algorithm to sarcoidosis that characterizes additive and alternative therapeutic agents is given in the following review. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. A therapeutic community as a relevant and efficient ecclesial model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-15

    Jul 15, 2016 ... They consult medical doctors, sangomas and prophets to ensure that their ... Laar (2006:231, 240) writes: 'In Western society, medicine is practised in the hospital, religion in the church. In Africa, ..... went wrong and what to do about it, affirms the oversight that occurred in these once powerful churches.

  17. [Psychoanalysis and criminology prior to the therapeutic community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    From its very beginning, psychoanalysis dealt with delinquency on a theoretical as well as on a clinical level. This paper deals with pioneer contributions, from Freud to Friedlander and Reiwald in the late 1940's, which stressed traumatic milieus in early childhood and the possibilities to correct this experience in treatment. In terms of clinical practice, they offered casuistic material, but also provided important suggestions for contemporary forensic treatment.

  18. The Prevalence and Community Perception of Therapeutic Injection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Injections are popular forms of medication in most developing countries. There are reports concerning unnecessary injections and the risk of disease transmission through unsafe injection practices. However, there is little information on injection use or safety in Ethiopia. This study presents information on the extent of the ...

  19. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of antimicrobials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouton, J.W.; Aarnoutse, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of dose adjustments of antimicrobials based on measured concentrations in an individual ('therapeutic drug monitoring', TDM) is increasingly recognized. There are several reasons for this. First, there is a better understanding of the relationships between doses administered,

  20. Therapeutic Vaccines for Chronic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autran, Brigitte; Carcelain, Guislaine; Combadiere, Béhazine; Debre, Patrice

    2004-07-01

    Therapeutic vaccines aim to prevent severe complications of a chronic infection by reinforcing host defenses when some immune control, albeit insufficient, can already be demonstrated and when a conventional antimicrobial therapy either is not available or has limited efficacy. We focus on the rationale and challenges behind this still controversial strategy and provide examples from three major chronic infectious diseases-human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and human papillomavirus-for which the efficacy of therapeutic vaccines is currently being evaluated.

  1. Mucociliary and cough clearance as a biomarker for therapeutic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, William D; Daviskas, Evangelia; Hasani, Amir

    2010-01-01

    A workshop/symposium on “Mucociliary and Cough Clearance (MCC/CC) as a Biomarker for Therapeutic Development” was held on October 21–22, 2008, in Research Triangle Park, NC, to discuss the methods for measurement of MCC/CC and how they may be optimized for assessing new therapies designed...... to improve clearance of airway secretions from the lungs. The utility of MCC/CC as a biomarker for disease progression and therapeutic intervention is gaining increased recognition as a valuable tool in the clinical research community. A number of investigators currently active in using MCC/CC for diagnostic...

  2. Crackpots and basket-cases: a history of therapeutic work and occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Despite the long history of beliefs about the therapeutic properties of work for people with mental ill health, rarely has therapeutic work itself been a focus for historical analysis. In this article, the development of a therapeutic work ethic (1813-1979) is presented, drawing particular attention to the changing character and quality of beliefs about therapeutic work throughout time. From hospital factories to radical "anti-psychiatric" communities, the article reveals the myriad forms of activities that have variously been considered fit work for people with mental health problems. While popular stereotypes of basket-weaving paint a hapless portrait of institutional work, a more nuanced reading of therapeutic work and its political and philosophical commitments is advanced. The article concludes by arguing that the non-linear and inherently contested development of therapeutic work is less the effect of paradigmatic shifts within the therapeutic professions, but rather evidence of a broader human struggle with work.

  3. Therapeutic potential of adult stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serakinci, Nedime; Keith, W. Nicol

    2006-01-01

    cells are not subject to these issues. This review will therefore focus on adult stem cells. Based on their extensive differentiation potential and, in some cases, the relative ease of their isolation, adult stem cells are appropriate for clinical development. Recently, several observations suggest...... is the necessity to be able to identify, select, expand and manipulate cells outside the body. Recent advances in adult stem cell technologies and basic biology have accelerated therapeutic opportunities aimed at eventual clinical applications. Adult stem cells with the ability to differentiate down multiple...... lineages are an attractive alternative to human embryonic stem cells (hES) in regenerative medicine. In many countries, present legislation surrounding hES cells makes their use problematic, and indeed the origin of hES cells may represent a controversial issue for many communities. However, adult stem...

  4. New therapeutic approaches to spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewelt, Aga; Newcomb, Tara M; Swoboda, Kathryn J

    2012-02-01

    Bench to bedside progress has been widely anticipated for a growing number of neurodegenerative disorders. Of these, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is perhaps the best poised to capitalize on advances in targeted therapeutics development over the next few years. Several laboratories have achieved compelling success in SMA animal models using sophisticated methods for targeted delivery, repair, or increased expression of the survival motor neuron protein, SMN. The clinical community is actively collaborating to identify, develop, and validate outcome measures and biomarkers in parallel with laboratory efforts. Innovative trial design and synergistic approaches to maximize proactive care in conjunction with treatment with one or more of the promising pharmacologic and biologic therapies currently in the pipeline will maximize our chances to achieve meaningful outcomes for patients. This review highlights recent promising scientific and clinical advances bringing us ever closer to effective treatment(s) for our patients with SMA.

  5. Advanced Practice Registered Nurses on Therapeutic Hypothermia Response Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannemacher, Jason; Tschannen, Dana; Biery, Kim; Arslanian-Engoren, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia can improve neurological recovery after cardiac arrest when implemented quickly. To determine whether outcomes are improved among patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia by adding advanced practice registered nurses to a therapeutic hypothermia response team. A pilot quality improvement project was conducted in a Midwest community teaching hospital using a retrospective chart review of all adult patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia before and after the addition of advanced practice registered nurses to the therapeutic hypothermia response team. Outcomes evaluated included time to target core body temperature, therapeutic hypothermia protocol initiation, discharge status, and hospital length of stay. A total of 14 adult patients (preintervention n = 8, postintervention n = 6) comprised the sample. Length of stay decreased in the postintervention group (median 2.5 vs 6 days for the preintervention group; P = .05), but other outcomes did not differ. This quality improvement project provides foundational data to evaluate advanced practice registered nurses specific metrics and to compare with future data using a larger longitudinal sample. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  6. Bone-seeking therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Suresh C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone-seeking therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals are utilized on the basis of the radionuclide?s particulate emissions (primarily low to intermediate beta emission. The requirements therefore are different from those of bone imaging agents that consist mainly of short-lived single photon emitters. Lately, the therapeutic bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals have attained increasing importance due to their potential role in alleviating pain from osseous metastases in cancer patients, for the treatment of joint pain resulting from inflamed synovium (radiosynoviorthesis, or radiosynovectomy, or from various other forms of arthritic disease. There is, however, a paucity of published data on the bio-pharmacokinetics of these agents when used following intravenous administration for bone pain palliation. This paper will briefly review and summarize the presently available chemical and biopharmacokinetic information on the various clinically approved as well as experimental bone-localizing therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals, and make projections on their clinical application for the treatment of primary/metastatic cancer in bone.

  7. Therapeutic hypothermia for acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Weber, Uno Jakob; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2003-01-01

    Experimental evidence and clinical experience show that hypothermia protects the brain from damage during ischaemia. There is a growing hope that the prevention of fever in stroke will improve outcome and that hypothermia may be a therapeutic option for the treatment of stroke. Body temperature...... is directly related to stroke severity and outcome, and fever after stroke is associated with substantial increases in morbidity and mortality. Normalisation of temperature in acute stroke by antipyretics is generally recommended, although there is no direct evidence to support this treatment. Despite its...... obvious therapeutic potential, hypothermia as a form of neuroprotection for stroke has been investigated in only a few very small studies. Therapeutic hypothermia is feasible in acute stroke but owing to serious side-effects--such as hypotension, cardiac arrhythmia, and pneumonia--it is still thought...

  8. Conflicts in the therapeutic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Aprea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How the analytical knowledge that compare human consciousness with that, even more disturbing, moving behind his fifth can be said to be “for peace”? It can be - and this will be the contribution of the proposal - the same tortuous and enigmatic of therapeutic practice, with its hesitations and his impulses, to outline a path crossing and overcoming the conflict? May, finally, peace, in the sense of feasibility of intra-and interpersonal dialectic instead of tearing and hostileconfrontation with oneself and with the other, to be a reference in some crucial pivot of ethical therapeutic work? To these questions the intervention seeks to answer retracing some of the highlights of almost three years of therapeutic work with a young woman and her family.

  9. Oligonucleotide conjugates for therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Johannes

    2013-07-01

    Insufficient pharmacokinetic properties and poor cellular uptake are the main hurdles for successful therapeutic development of oligonucleotide agents. The covalent attachment of various ligands designed to influence the biodistribution and cellular uptake or for targeting specific tissues is an attractive possibility to advance therapeutic applications and to expand development options. In contrast to advanced formulations, which often consist of multiple reagents and are sensitive to a variety of preparation conditions, oligonucleotide conjugates are defined molecules, enabling structure-based analytics and quality control techniques. This review gives an overview of current developments of oligonucleotide conjugates for therapeutic applications. Attached ligands comprise peptides, proteins, carbohydrates, aptamers and small molecules, including cholesterol, tocopherol and folic acid. Important linkage types and conjugation methods are summarized. The distinct ligands directly influence biochemical parameters, uptake mechanisms and pharmacokinetic properties.

  10. Holocausts and Resilience. Healing wounds through writing therapeutic short- stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Bruder

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The resilience, that began conceptually like the description of the capacity of overcoming traumatic adversities in children of diverse communities, extended soon to the study of other social experiences those who, by diverse factors opportunely investigated, could face, control and leave fortified when crossing adverse experiences. Within these categories we find a numerous of testimonies of those communities which were violently exterminated, holocausts, massacres, genocides, slavery, wars, terrorisms of state and civilians and who, in spite of suffering situations of extreme suffering, could appear again from their ashes and transmit models of recovery and messages of realistic hope, among others, of facing strategies as writing and the therapeutic story. The therapeutic story is writing in 3rd person, in fiction format and that is born from the privacy of the most painful situation lived by a person and that she concludes positively. This concept is validated with some testimonies. 

  11. The relevance of professionals' attachment style, expectations and job attitudes for therapeutic relationships with young people who experience psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, C; Greenwood, K

    2016-04-01

    Therapeutic relationships are a central component of community treatment for psychosis and thought to influence clinical and social outcomes, yet there is limited research regarding the potential influence of professional characteristics on positive therapeutic relationships in community care. It was hypothesised that professionals' relating style and attitudes toward their work might be important, and thus this exploratory study modelled associations between these characteristics and therapeutic relationships developed in community psychosis treatment. Dyads of professionals and young patients with psychosis rated their therapeutic relationships with each other. Professionals also completed measures of attachment style, therapeutic optimism, outcome expectancy, and job attitudes regarding working with psychosis. Professionals' anxious attachment predicted less positive professional therapeutic relationship ratings. In exploratory directed path analysis, data also supported indirect effects, whereby anxious professional attachment predicts less positive therapeutic relationships through reduced professional therapeutic optimism and less positive job attitudes. Professional anxious attachment style is directly associated with the therapeutic relationship in psychosis, and indirectly associated through therapeutic optimism and job attitudes. Thus, intervening in professional characteristics could offer an opportunity to limit the impact of insecure attachment on therapeutic relationships in psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. [Therapeutic touch and anorexia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satori, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    An innovative practice, therapeutic touch has been used for around ten years in the treatment of eating disorders. Delivered by nurse clinicians having received specific training, this approach is based on nursing diagnoses which identify the major symptoms of this pathology. The support is built around the body and its perceptions. Through the helping relationship, it mobilises the patient's resources to favour a relationship of trust, a letting-go, physical, psychological and emotional relaxation, and improves the therapeutic alliance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Therapeutic options for visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Maillo, Begoña; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2013-11-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as Kala-Azar, is a disseminated protozoal infection caused principally by Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum (known as Leishmania chagasi in South America). The therapeutic options for VL are diverse and depend on different factors, such as the geographical area of the infection, development of resistance to habitual treatments, HIV co-infection, malnourishment and other concomitant infections. This article provides an exhaustive review of the literature regarding studies published on the treatment of VL, and gives therapeutic recommendations stratified according to their level of evidence, the species of Leishmania implicated and the geographical location of the infection.

  14. Therapeutic Adherence in Smoking Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Salvador Manzano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic adherence is a complex and multidimensional concept. The percentage of adherence to treatments involving a change in lifestyle, such as quitting smoking, is lower than in other disorders, a fact which has relevant clinical, psychological and economic consequences. This paper aims to review the associated factors with adherence to therapy in smoking treatment. Strategies to enhance therapeutic adherence involve the adequate choice of treatment, to know the smoker´s characteristics, breaking down organizational barriers in health system and the training of health professionals in communication skills with patients.

  15. Therapeutics for Equine Endocrine Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Andy E

    2017-04-01

    Equine endocrine disease is commonly encountered by equine practitioners. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) predominate. The most logical therapeutic approach in PPID uses dopamine agonists; pergolide mesylate is the most common. Bromocryptine and cabergoline are alternative drugs with similar actions. Drugs from other classes have a poor evidence basis, although cyproheptadine and trilostane might be considered. EMS requires management changes as the primary approach; reasonable justification for use of drugs such as levothyroxine and metformin may apply. Therapeutic options exist in rare cases of diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, hyperthyroidism, and critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The renaissance of complement therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklin, Daniel; Mastellos, Dimitrios C; Reis, Edimara S; Lambris, John D

    2018-01-01

    The increasing number of clinical conditions that involve a pathological contribution from the complement system - many of which affect the kidneys - has spurred a regained interest in therapeutic options to modulate this host defence pathway. Molecular insight, technological advances, and the first decade of clinical experience with the complement-specific drug eculizumab, have contributed to a growing confidence in therapeutic complement inhibition. More than 20 candidate drugs that target various stages of the complement cascade are currently being evaluated in clinical trials, and additional agents are in preclinical development. Such diversity is clearly needed in view of the complex and distinct involvement of complement in a wide range of clinical conditions, including rare kidney disorders, transplant rejection and haemodialysis-induced inflammation. The existing drugs cannot be applied to all complement-driven diseases, and each indication has to be assessed individually. Alongside considerations concerning optimal points of intervention and economic factors, patient stratification will become essential to identify the best complement-specific therapy for each individual patient. This Review provides an overview of the therapeutic concepts, targets and candidate drugs, summarizes insights from clinical trials, and reflects on existing challenges for the development of complement therapeutics for kidney diseases and beyond.

  17. READING PHILEMON AS THERAPEUTIC NARRATIVE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-29

    Mar 29, 2010 ... harsh treatment of slaves in the early Christian environment) and a challenging narrative (a more humane conduct of ... therapeutic, it has also proved to be a useful perspective from which to conduct a literary analysis, because it can ...... The Cambridge companion to postmodern theology, pp. 186−202,.

  18. Therapeutic approaches to genetic disorders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    salah

    Although prevention is the ideal goal for genetic disorders, various types of therapeutic management are available. Such management approaches depend on the nature of the defect, how well it is understood at the genetic and bio- chemical levels and the practical feasibility of correction. In some conditions.

  19. Therapeutic balloon-assisted enteroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Aktas (Huseyin); P.B.F. Mensink (Peter)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSince the introduction of the first balloon-based enteroscopic technique in 2001, therapeutic balloon-assisted enteroscopy (BAE) using either the single or double balloon enteroscopy technique (respectively SBE and DBE) has evolved rapidly. Argon plasma coagulation (APC), polypectomy,

  20. The renaissance of complement therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklin, Daniel; Mastellos, Dimitrios C.; Reis, Edimara S.; Lambris, John D.

    2018-01-01

    The increasing number of clinical conditions that involve a pathological contribution from the complement system — many of which affect the kidneys — has spurred a regained interest in therapeutic options to modulate this host defence pathway. Molecular insight, technological advances, and the first decade of clinical experience with the complement-specific drug eculizumab, have contributed to a growing confidence in therapeutic complement inhibition. More than 20 candidate drugs that target various stages of the complement cascade are currently being evaluated in clinical trials, and additional agents are in preclinical development. Such diversity is clearly needed in view of the complex and distinct involvement of complement in a wide range of clinical conditions, including rare kidney disorders, transplant rejection and haemodialysis-induced inflammation. The existing drugs cannot be applied to all complement-driven diseases, and each indication has to be assessed individually. Alongside considerations concerning optimal points of intervention and economic factors, patient stratification will become essential to identify the best complement-specific therapy for each individual patient. This Review provides an overview of the therapeutic concepts, targets and candidate drugs, summarizes insights from clinical trials, and reflects on existing challenges for the development of complement therapeutics for kidney diseases and beyond. PMID:29199277

  1. [Therapeutic techniques and subjectivation in treatment with drug users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbi, Silvana Laura; Touris, María Cecilia; Epele, María

    2012-07-01

    The internment process in therapeutic communities (TC) involves a multiplicity of therapeutic practices and strategies geared to abstinence from drug usage. According to the specialists' own regulations and explicit objectives, the residents must not only abandon the consumption of substances but also adopt new practices, attitudes, emotions and significances through the use of therapeutic techniques that allow them to adapt to the structure of the organization that these institutions impose. Based on the results of the ethnographic survey carried out between 2009 and 2010 in three TCs of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina, the scope of this article is to analyze from a sociological and anthropological standpoint the "therapeutic tools" that comprise the treatment, the subject models that underlie these tools, the consequences that they may produce and their participation in the subjectivity production processes. For this purpose, we focus on analysis of "confrontation" as a privileged and omnipresent strategy of subjectivation in these therapeutic contexts, in order to reveal the epistemological, economic, political and ethical dimensions in the de-subjectivation process of the institutionalized drug user.

  2. [Therapeutic Residential Care for Children and Youth: A Consensus Statement of the International Work Group on Therapeutic Residential Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, James K; Holmes, Lisa; Del Valle, Jorge F; Ainsworth, Frank; Andreassen, Tore; Anglin, James; Bellonci, Christopher; Berridge, David; Bravo, Amaia; Canali, Cinzia; Courtney, Mark; Currey, Laurah; Daly, Daniel; Gilligan, Robbie; Grietens, Hans; Harder, Annemiek; Holden, Martha; James, Sigrid; Kendrick, Andrew; Knorth, Erick; Lausten, Mette; Lyons, John; Martin, Eduardo; McDermid, Samantha; McNamara, Patricia; Palareti, Laura; Ramsey, Susan; Sisson, Kari; Small, Richard; Thoburn, June; Thompson, Ronald; Zeira, Anat

    2017-08-01

    Therapeutic Residential Care for Children and Youth: A Consensus Statement of the International Work Group on Therapeutic Residential Care. In many developed countries around the world residential care interventions for children and adolescents have come under increasing scrutiny. Against this background an international summit was organised in England (spring 2016) with experts from 13 countries to reflect on therapeutic residential care (TRC). The following working definition of TRC was leading: “Therapeutic residential care involves the planful use of a purposefully constructed, multi-dimensional living environment designed to enhance or provide treatment, education, socialization, support, and protection to children and youth with identified mental health or behavioral needs in partnership with their families and in collaboration with a full spectrum of community based formal and informal helping resources”. The meeting was characterised by exchange of information and evidence, and by preparing an international research agenda. In addition, the outlines of a consensus statement on TRC were discussed. This statement, originally published in English and now reproduced in a Spanish translation, comprises inter alia five basic principles of care that according to the Work Group on Therapeutic Residental Care should be guiding for residential youth care provided at any time.

  3. Therapeutic approaches for celiac disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plugis, Nicholas M.; Khosla, Chaitan

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease is a common, lifelong autoimmune disorder for which dietary control is the only accepted form of therapy. A strict gluten-free diet is burdensome to patients and can be limited in efficacy, indicating there is an unmet need for novel therapeutic approaches to supplement or supplant dietary therapy. Many molecular events required for disease pathogenesis have been recently characterized and inspire most current and emerging drug-discovery efforts. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) confirm the importance of human leukocyte antigen genes in our pathogenic model and identify a number of new risk loci in this complex disease. Here, we review the status of both emerging and potential therapeutic strategies in the context of disease pathophysiology. We conclude with a discussion of how genes identified during GWAS and follow-up studies that enhance susceptibility may offer insight into developing novel therapies. PMID:26060114

  4. Therapeutic Dancing for Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenna Pryscia Carvalho Aguiar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic dancing has been advocated as an effective adjunct to conventional physical therapies for people living with Parkinson's disease (PD. This systematic review evaluates studies on the outcomes of different dance genres on mobility and quality of life in PD. We searched databases including CINHAL (1982–2015, Medline (1922–2015, Scopus (1996–2015, Web of Science (2002–2015, Embase (2007–2015, PEDro (1999–2015 and the Cochrane Library (1996–2015. The key words were: Parkinson's disease, Parkinson*, Parkinsonism, dance, dance therapy, dance genres, safety, feasibility, and quality of life. Two independent investigators reviewed the texts. Only randomized controlled trials, quasirandomized controlled trials, and case series studies were included. There was emerging evidence that therapeutic dance can be safe and feasible for people with mild to moderately severe PD, with beneficial effects on walking, freezing of gait, and health related quality of life.

  5. Therapeutic drug monitoring: antiarrhythmic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, T. J.; Williams, K. M.(Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 24061, Blacksburg, VA, USA)

    1998-01-01

    Antiarrhythmic agents are traditionally classified according to Vaughan Williams into four classes of action. Class I antiarrhythmic agents include most of the drugs traditionally thought of as antiarrhythmics, and have as a common action, blockade of the fast-inward sodium channel on myocardium. These agents have a very significant toxicity, and while they are being used less, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) does significantly increase the safety with which they can be administered. Class ...

  6. Potential Therapeutic Effects of Psilocybin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R

    2017-07-01

    Psilocybin and other 5-hydroxytryptamine2A agonist classic psychedelics have been used for centuries as sacraments within indigenous cultures. In the mid-twentieth century they were a focus within psychiatry as both probes of brain function and experimental therapeutics. By the late 1960s and early 1970s these scientific inquires fell out of favor because classic psychedelics were being used outside of medical research and in association with the emerging counter culture. However, in the twenty-first century, scientific interest in classic psychedelics has returned and grown as a result of several promising studies, validating earlier research. Here, we review therapeutic research on psilocybin, the classic psychedelic that has been the focus of most recent research. For mood and anxiety disorders, three controlled trials have suggested that psilocybin may decrease symptoms of depression and anxiety in the context of cancer-related psychiatric distress for at least 6 months following a single acute administration. A small, open-label study in patients with treatment-resistant depression showed reductions in depression and anxiety symptoms 3 months after two acute doses. For addiction, small, open-label pilot studies have shown promising success rates for both tobacco and alcohol addiction. Safety data from these various trials, which involve careful screening, preparation, monitoring, and follow-up, indicate the absence of severe drug-related adverse reactions. Modest drug-related adverse effects at the time of medication administration are readily managed. US federal funding has yet to support therapeutic psilocybin research, although such support will be important to thoroughly investigate efficacy, safety, and therapeutic mechanisms.

  7. Thermodynamic aspects of therapeutic hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlandingham, Sean C; Kurz, Michael C; Wang, Henry E

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is an important treatment for post-cardiac arrest syndrome. Despite its widespread practice, only limited data describe the thermodynamic aspects of heat transfer during TH. This paper reviews the principles of human body heat balance and provides a conceptual model for characterizing heat exchange during TH. The model may provide a framework for computer simulation for improving training in or clinical methods of TH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Therapeutic advances in muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Doris G; Wagner, Kathryn R

    2013-01-01

    The muscular dystrophies comprise a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that produce progressive skeletal muscle weakness and wasting. There has been rapid growth and change in our understanding of these disorders in recent years, and advances in basic science are being translated into increasing numbers of clinical trials. This review will discuss therapeutic developments in 3 of the most common forms of muscular dystrophy: Duchenne muscular dystrophy, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystr...

  9. Conotoxins that Confer Therapeutic Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. C. Archer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cone snails produce a distinctive repertoire of venom peptides that are used both as a defense mechanism and also to facilitate the immobilization and digestion of prey. These peptides target a wide variety of voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, which make them an invaluable resource for studying the properties of these ion channels in normal and diseased states, as well as being a collection of compounds of potential pharmacological use in their own right. Examples include the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved pharmaceutical drug, Ziconotide (Prialt®; Elan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. that is the synthetic equivalent of the naturally occurring ω-conotoxin MVIIA, whilst several other conotoxins are currently being used as standard research tools and screened as potential therapeutic drugs in pre-clinical or clinical trials. These developments highlight the importance of driving conotoxin-related research. A PubMed query from 1 January 2007 to 31 August 2011 combined with hand-curation of the retrieved articles allowed for the collation of 98 recently identified conotoxins with therapeutic potential which are selectively discussed in this review. Protein sequence similarity analysis tentatively assigned uncharacterized conotoxins to predicted functional classes. Furthermore, conotoxin therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative disorders (NDD was also inferred.

  10. Avian Diagnostic and Therapeutic Antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, David Sherman [UND SMHS

    2012-12-31

    A number of infectious agents have the potential of causing significant clinical symptomology and even death, but dispite this, the number of incidence remain below the level that supports producing a vaccine. Therapeutic antibodies provide a viable treatment option for many of these diseases. We proposed that antibodies derived from West Nile Virus (WNV) immunized geese would be able to treat WNV infection in mammals and potential humans. We demonstrated that WNV specific goose antibodies are indeed successful in treating WNV infection both prophylactically and therapeutically in a golden hamster model. We demonstrated that the goose derived antibodies are non-reactogenic, i.e. do not cause an inflammatory response with multiple exposures in mammals. We also developed both a specific pathogen free facility to house the geese during the antibody production phase and a patent-pending purification process to purify the antibodies to greater than 99% purity. Therefore, the success of these study will allow a cost effective rapidly producible therapeutic toward clinical testing with the necessary infrastructure and processes developed and in place.

  11. Therapeutic Applications of Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauert, Melissa; Vangala, Sandeep; Haslip, Maria; Lee, Patty J.

    2013-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a regulated enzyme induced in multiple stress states. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of HO catalysis of heme. In many circumstances, CO appears to functionally replace HO-1, and CO is known to have endogenous anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antiproliferative effects. CO is well studied in anoxia-reoxygenation and ischemia-reperfusion models and has advanced to phase II trials for treatment of several clinical entities. In alternative injury models, laboratories have used sepsis, acute lung injury, and systemic inflammatory challenges to assess the ability of CO to rescue cells, organs, and organisms. Hopefully, the research supporting the protective effects of CO in animal models will translate into therapeutic benefits for patients. Preclinical studies of CO are now moving towards more complex damage models that reflect polymicrobial sepsis or two-step injuries, such as sepsis complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome. Furthermore, co-treatment and post-treatment with CO are being explored in which the insult occurs before there is an opportunity to intervene therapeutically. The aim of this review is to discuss the potential therapeutic implications of CO with a focus on lung injury and sepsis-related models. PMID:24648866

  12. Conotoxins that confer therapeutic possibilities

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2012-06-04

    Cone snails produce a distinctive repertoire of venom peptides that are used both as a defense mechanism and also to facilitate the immobilization and digestion of prey. These peptides target a wide variety of voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, which make them an invaluable resource for studying the properties of these ion channels in normal and diseased states, as well as being a collection of compounds of potential pharmacological use in their own right. Examples include the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved pharmaceutical drug, Ziconotide (Prialt; Elan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) that is the synthetic equivalent of the naturally occurring ?-conotoxin MVIIA, whilst several other conotoxins are currently being used as standard research tools and screened as potential therapeutic drugs in pre-clinical or clinical trials. These developments highlight the importance of driving conotoxin-related research. A PubMed query from 1 January 2007 to 31 August 2011 combined with hand-curation of the retrieved articles allowed for the collation of 98 recently identified conotoxins with therapeutic potential which are selectively discussed in this review. Protein sequence similarity analysis tentatively assigned uncharacterized conotoxins to predicted functional classes. Furthermore, conotoxin therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative disorders (NDD) was also inferred. 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI.

  13. Conotoxins: Therapeutic Potential and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T. Layer

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological variety of conotoxins, diverse peptides found in the venoms of marine cone snails, is well recognized. Venoms from each of the estimated 500 species of cone snails contain 50 to 200 distinct biologically active peptides. Most conotoxins characterized to date target receptors and ion channels of excitable tissues, such as ligandgated nicotinic acetylcholine, N-methyl-D-aspartate, and type 3 serotonin receptors, as well as voltage-gated calcium, sodium, and potassium channels, and G-protein-coupled receptors including α-adrenergic, neurotensin, and vasopressin receptors, and the norepinephrine transporter. Several conotoxins have shown promise in preclinical models of pain, convulsive disorders, stroke, neuromuscular block, and cardioprotection. The pharmacological selectivity of the conotoxins, coupled with the safety and efficacy demonstrated in preclinical models, has led to their investigation as human therapeutic agents. In the following review, we will survey the pharmacology and therapeutic rationale of those conotoxins with potential clinical application, and discuss the unique challenges that each will face in the course of their transition from venom component to human therapeutic.

  14. Community Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Health Resources for Community Members site provides tools and information to help local leaders and members of the community protect public health by understanding and addressing environmental conditions.

  15. Community psykologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berliner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Kapitlet giver en introduktion til community psykologien ud fra teori og ud fra forfatterens egen forskning......Kapitlet giver en introduktion til community psykologien ud fra teori og ud fra forfatterens egen forskning...

  16. Claiming Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    is termed community work. First, the paper explores how community has become a governmental strategy, employed by the apartheid regime as well, although in different ways, as post-apartheid local government. Secondly, the paper explores the ways in which community becomes the means in which local residents...

  17. Individualised cancer therapeutics: dream or reality? Therapeutics construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuqiao; Senzer, Neil; Nemunaitis, John

    2005-11-01

    The analysis of DNA microarray and proteomic data, and the subsequent integration into functional expression sets, provides a circuit map of the hierarchical cellular networks responsible for sustaining the viability and environmental competitiveness of cancer cells, that is, their robust systematics. These technologies can be used to 'snapshot' the unique patterns of molecular derangements and modified interactions in cancer, and allow for strategic selection of therapeutics that best match the individual profile of the tumour. This review highlights technology that can be used to selectively disrupt critical molecular targets and describes possible vehicles to deliver the synthesised molecular therapeutics to the relevant cellular compartments of the malignant cells. RNA interference (RNAi) involves a group of evolutionarily conserved gene silencing mechanisms in which small sequences of double-stranded RNA or intrinsic antisense RNA trigger mRNA cleavage or translational repression, respectively. Although RNAi molecules can be synthesised to 'silence' virtually any gene, even if upregulated, a mechanism for selective delivery of RNAi effectors to sites of malignant disease remains challenging. The authors will discuss gene-modified conditionally replicating viruses as candidate vehicles for the delivery of RNAi.

  18. Immune homeostasis, dysbiosis and therapeutic modulation of the gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C T; Sharma, V; Elmén, L; Peterson, S N

    2015-01-01

    The distal gut harbours ∼1013 bacteria, representing the most densely populated ecosystem known. The functional diversity expressed by these communities is enormous and relatively unexplored. The past decade of research has unveiled the profound influence that the resident microbial populations bestow to host immunity and metabolism. The evolution of these communities from birth generates a highly adapted and highly personalized microbiota that is stable in healthy individuals. Immune homeostasis is achieved and maintained due in part to the extensive interplay between the gut microbiota and host mucosal immune system. Imbalances of gut microbiota may lead to a number of pathologies such as obesity, type I and type II diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colorectal cancer (CRC) and inflammaging/immunosenscence in the elderly. In-depth understanding of the underlying mechanisms that control homeostasis and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota represents an important step in our ability to reliably modulate the gut microbiota with positive clinical outcomes. The potential of microbiome-based therapeutics to treat epidemic human disease is of great interest. New therapeutic paradigms, including second-generation personalized probiotics, prebiotics, narrow spectrum antibiotic treatment and faecal microbiome transplantation, may provide safer and natural alternatives to traditional clinical interventions for chronic diseases. This review discusses host–microbiota homeostasis, consequences of its perturbation and the associated challenges in therapeutic developments that lie ahead. PMID:25345825

  19. Immune homeostasis, dysbiosis and therapeutic modulation of the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C T; Sharma, V; Elmén, L; Peterson, S N

    2015-03-01

    The distal gut harbours ∼10(13) bacteria, representing the most densely populated ecosystem known. The functional diversity expressed by these communities is enormous and relatively unexplored. The past decade of research has unveiled the profound influence that the resident microbial populations bestow to host immunity and metabolism. The evolution of these communities from birth generates a highly adapted and highly personalized microbiota that is stable in healthy individuals. Immune homeostasis is achieved and maintained due in part to the extensive interplay between the gut microbiota and host mucosal immune system. Imbalances of gut microbiota may lead to a number of pathologies such as obesity, type I and type II diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colorectal cancer (CRC) and inflammaging/immunosenscence in the elderly. In-depth understanding of the underlying mechanisms that control homeostasis and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota represents an important step in our ability to reliably modulate the gut microbiota with positive clinical outcomes. The potential of microbiome-based therapeutics to treat epidemic human disease is of great interest. New therapeutic paradigms, including second-generation personalized probiotics, prebiotics, narrow spectrum antibiotic treatment and faecal microbiome transplantation, may provide safer and natural alternatives to traditional clinical interventions for chronic diseases. This review discusses host-microbiota homeostasis, consequences of its perturbation and the associated challenges in therapeutic developments that lie ahead. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  20. [Therapeutic possibilities after traumatic experiences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2008-12-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are frequent, but not obligatory psychological sequelae following trauma. A major subgroup of patients face a chronic course of illness associated with an increased psychiatric comorbidity and significant impairments in psychosocial adaptation. The typical psychopathological symptoms of ASD and PTSD are best described within a multifactorial model integrating both neurobiological and psychosocial influences. The complex etiopathogenesis of acute and posttraumatic stress disorder favours multimodal approaches in the treatment. Differential psychotherapeutic and pharmacological strategies are available. In a critical survey on empirical studies, psychological debriefing cannot be considered as a positive approach to be recommended as general preventive measure during the immediate posttraumatic phase. Positive effects of cognitive-behavioral interventions can be established for ASD. Psychodynamic psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy and EMDR show promising results in the treatment of PTSD. Major clinical restrictions of patient sampling within special research facilities, however, do not allow an unconditional generalization of these data to psychiatric routine care. In an empirical analysis the SSRIs are the most and best studied medications for ASD and PTSD. In comparison to tricyclic antidepressants SSRIs demonstrate a broader spectrum of therapeutic effects and are better tolerated. The substance classes of SSNRI, DAS, SARI and NaSSA are to be considered as drugs of second choice. They promise a therapeutic efficacy equivalent to the SSRIs, being investigated so far only in open studies. MAO-inhibitors may dispose of a positive therapeutic potential, their profile of side effects must be respected, however. Mood stabilizers and atypical neuroleptics may be used first and foremost in add-on strategies. Benzodiazepines should be used only with increased caution for a short time in states of

  1. Enactments in Psychoanalysis: Therapeutic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Stanley

    The therapeutic benefits of enactments are addressed. Relevant literature reveals disparate conceptions about the nature and use of enactments. Clarification of the term is discussed. This analyst's theoretical and technical evolution is addressed; it is inextricably related to using enactments. How can it not be? A taxonomy of enactments is presented. The article considers that enactments may be fundamental in the evolution from orthodox to contemporary analytic technique. Assumptions underlying enactments are explored, as are guidelines for using enactments. Finally, the article posits that enactments have widened the scope of analysis and contributed to its vitality.

  2. Imaging of prehospital stroke therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Michelle P; Sanossian, Nerses; Liebeskind, David S

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant quality improvement efforts to streamline in-hospital acute stroke care in the conventional model, there remain inherent layers of treatment delays, which could be eliminated with prehospital diagnostics and therapeutics administered in a mobile stroke unit. Early diagnosis using Telestroke and neuroimaging while in the ambulance may enable targeted routing to hospitals with specialized care, which will likely improve patient outcomes. Key clinical trials in Telestroke, mobile stroke units with prehospital neuroimaging capability, prehospital ultrasound and co-administration of various classes of neuroprotectives, antiplatelets and antithrombin agents with intravenous thrombolysis are discussed in this article. PMID:26308602

  3. Bioengineering lantibiotics for therapeutic success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Des eField

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Several examples of highly modified antimicrobial peptides have been described. While many such peptides are non-ribosomally synthesized, ribosomally synthesised equivalents are being discovered with increased frequency. Of the latter group, the lantibiotics continue to attract most attention. In the present review, we discuss the implementation of in vivo and in vitro engineering systems to alter, and even enhance, the antimicrobial activity, antibacterial spectrum and physico-chemical properties, including heat stability, solubility, diffusion and protease resistance, of these compounds. Additionally, we discuss the potential applications of these lantibiotics for use as therapeutics.

  4. Hurting and healing in therapeutic environments: how can we understand the role of the relational context?

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Simon P.; Clarke, Jenelle M.; Brown, Ruth; Middleton, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    It has long been recognized that relationships are key to good mental health service delivery and yet the quality of the relational context remains poorly understood. This article brings together three studies that utilize very different methodologies to explore the various ways in which a process of therapeutic change can be aided or prevented by relational factors. All three studies took place within the context of therapeutic communities. The first study uses narrative ethnography and inte...

  5. Therapeutic modality: rehabilitation of the injured athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, John; Nolan, Michael F

    2004-04-01

    Traditional therapeutic modalities include cryotherapy, sonotherapy, pulsed electrical stimulation, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, high-volt pulsed current, and iotopheresis. Alternative modalities include acupuncture, magnetic field therapy, biofeedback,and massage. All therapeutic modalities should be considered adjuncts to progressive functional exercise. Controlled studies rarely reach consensus regarding the efficacy of therapeutic modalities,so their use should be individualized to the patient.

  6. Therapeutic drug monitoring, a practical application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kees Neef, C.; Touw, D.J.

    Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) is an indispensable tool in therapeutic handling and medication safety. A definition of TDM is: Therapeutic drug monitoring is a system of quality assurance of a drug management system, aiming that the right drug is given tot the right patient in the right dose in

  7. Therapeutic Robotics: A Technology Push

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Hermano Igo; Hogan, Neville

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a retrospective and chronological review of our efforts to revolutionize the way physical medicine is practiced by developing and deploying therapeutic robots. We present a sample of our clinical results with well over 300 stroke patients, both inpatients and outpatients, proving that movement therapy has a measurable and significant impact on recovery following brain injury. Bolstered by this result, we embarked on a two-pronged approach: 1) to determine what constitutes best therapy practice and 2) to develop additional therapeutic robots. We review our robots developed over the past 15 years and their unique characteristics. All are configured both to deliver reproducible therapy but also to measure outcomes with minimal encumbrance, thus providing critical measurement tools to help unravel the key question posed under the first prong: what constitutes “best practice”? We believe that a “gym” of robots like these will become a central feature of physical medicine and the rehabilitation clinic within the next ten years. PMID:19779587

  8. [Therapeutic Aggressiveness and Liquid Oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barón Duarte, F J; Rodríguez Calvo, M S; Amor Pan, J R

    2017-01-01

    Aggressiveness criteria proposed in the scientific literature a decade ago provide a quality judgment and are a reference in the care of patients with advanced cancer, but their use is not generalized in the evaluation of Oncology Services. In this paper we analyze the therapeutic aggressiveness, according to standard criteria, in 1.001 patients with advanced cancer who died in our Institution between 2010 and 2013. The results seem to show that aggressiveness at the end of life is present more frequently than experts recommend. About 25% of patients fulfill at least one criterion of aggressiveness. This result could be explained by a liquid Oncology which does not prioritize the patient as a moral subject in the clinical appointment. Medical care is oriented to necessities and must be articulated in a model focused on dignity and communication. Its implementation through Advanced Care Planning, consideration of patient's values and preferences, and Limitation of therapeutic effort are ways to reduce aggressiveness and improve clinical practice at the end of life. We need to encourage synergic and proactive attitudes, adding the best of cancer research with the best clinical care for the benefit of human being, moral subject and main goal of Medicine.

  9. Clinical results in cachexia therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jeffrey

    2016-05-01

    This article highlights recent developments in the area of cancer cachexia and therapeutic interventions. Therapeutic interventions in cancer cachexia have been guided by clinical studies focused on the central role of muscle and the increased use of CT imaging to measure the impact of skeletal muscle loss on clinical outcomes. At the translational level, a number of different model systems have emphasized the importance of blockade of tumor-induced inflammation and its potential impact on reversing the cachexia phenotype, including FN14, a receptor in the TNF pathway, as well as the parathyroid hormone-related protein. Clinical studies continue to demonstrate the importance of nutrition and exercise as part of a multimodality approach. Although a number of promising agents are being evaluated, both enobosarm, a selected androgen receptor modulator, and anamorelin, a ghrelin agonist have completed phase III trials. Both agents have shown significant impact on reversal of skeletal muscle loss, but inconsistent effect on physical function improvement. Anamorelin also has a positive effect on appetite and weight gain. Further analysis of these studies, along with regulatory guidance, will be critical in the further development of these and other promising agents in the clinical management of patients with cancer cachexia.

  10. Neonatal Encephalopathy: Update on Therapeutic Hypothermia and Other Novel Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Ryan M; Juul, Sandra E

    2016-09-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is standard treatment for newborns at 36 weeks of gestation or greater with intrapartum hypoxia-related NE. Term and late preterm infants with moderate to severe encephalopathy show improved survival and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 months of age after TH. TH can increase survival without increasing major disability, rates of an IQ less than 70, or cerebral palsy. Neonates with severe NE remain at risk of death or severe neurodevelopmental impairment. This review discusses the evidence supporting TH for term or near term neonates with NE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Community representatives: representing the "community"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, R; Murcott, A

    1998-04-01

    This paper takes as its starting point the apparent disjunction between the assumptions of the self-evidence of the meaning of community in major international declarations and strategies which promote community participation and the observation that meanings of "community" are a subject of extensive debate in literatures of social analysis and to some extent health. Given that the word's meaning is not agreed, those working to promote "community participation" in health are forced to adjudicate on competing meanings in order to operationalise the notion. This raises questions about how this is done and what are the implications of particular choices for what may be achieved by the participating "community". This paper presents the findings of an empirical study which examined the manner in which ideas of "community" are operationalised by people engaged in encouraging community participation in health promotion in the context of the selection of members for health for all steering groups in healthy cities projects in the United Kingdom. It argues that the demands of the role of the "community representative" are such that particular interpretations of "community" achieve ascendance. The paper explores the consequences of the interpretation of "community" as part of the "voluntary sector" and argues that this may compromise one of the stated desired outcomes of community participation i.e. extending democracy in health decision-making.

  12. Isolation and characterization of bacteriophages with therapeutic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villarroel, Julia

    The concerning spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria has directed the spotlight upon bacteriophages, in short phages, as potential candidates for therapeutic purposes. Far for being a novelty, phage therapy has been widely used in the 20s and 30s in western countries until the discovery...... of antibiotics, which, coupled with a lack of knowledge of phage biology at that time, let to the replacement of phage therapy by antibiotics. On the other side of the planet, the Georgian Eliava Institute has been using phages for treating bacterial diseases since short after phage discovery a century ago...... communities directly from the environment through metagenomics, allows for genomic characterisation of these cocktail. Furthermore, metagenomics analyses may lead to the discovery of novel phages with therapeutic potential, opening up a promising new horizon for phage therapy. This thesis is divided into five...

  13. Developing Rapport and Therapeutic Alliance During Telemental Health Sessions with Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Felissa; Glueck, Dehra

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the special considerations for building rapport and establishing a therapeutic alliance when conducting mental health evaluations for children and adolescents via videoconferencing. The authors review the literature and describe their experience in conducting mental health evaluations, developing rapport, and establishing a therapeutic alliance during telemental health practice. Clinical need and shortages of clinicians with expertise in evaluating mental conditions for children and adolescents in underserved communities have stimulated the rapid expansion of telemental health programs while the research base continues to develop. The emerging evidence base and clinical experience suggest that teleclinicians can, and do, build rapport and establish a therapeutic alliance during telemental health sessions with youth and families. Families may be more accepting of telemental health approaches than clinicians. The impact that technology, equipment, site staff, community supports, cultural identification, and teleclinicians' characteristics have on building rapport and establishing a therapeutic alliance should be considered when establishing a telemental health service. Staff at the patient site and referring providers have a valuable role in supporting the therapeutic alliance between telemental health providers and their patients, and ultimately supporting the success of a telemental health program. Teleclinicians are creative in transcending the videoconferencing technology to evaluate patients using guideline-based care. Further research is needed to determine how clinicians build rapport and establish a therapeutic alliance during telemental health sessions, and whether the therapeutic alliance is associated with the accuracy of evaluation and outcomes.

  14. Biclique communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Hansen-Schwartz, Martin; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    We present a method for detecting communities in bipartite networks. Based on an extension of the k-clique community detection algorithm, we demonstrate how modular structure in bipartite networks presents itself as overlapping bicliques. If bipartite information is available, the biclique...... community detection algorithm retains all of the advantages of the k-clique algorithm, but avoids discarding important structural information when performing a one-mode projection of the network. Further, the biclique community detection algorithm provides a level of flexibility by incorporating independent...... clique thresholds for each of the nonoverlapping node sets in the bipartite network...

  15. My community

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nina Turner

    2016-01-01

      Prison nurses must cover a huge range of disciplines including patient relationships, community health, communicable disease, long-term conditions, practice nursing, acute care and substance misuse...

  16. The therapeutic relationship after psychiatric admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roche, Eric

    2014-03-01

    The therapeutic relationship is one of the most central and important factors in the treatment of mental health disorders. A better therapeutic relationship is associated with service engagement, medication adherence, and satisfaction with services. This study aimed to compare the demographic and clinical factors associated with the therapeutic relationship in voluntarily and involuntarily admitted psychiatric service users. We found that individuals who had been admitted involuntarily, who had a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder, and who reported higher levels of perceived pressures on admission were more likely to have a poorer therapeutic relationship with their consultant psychiatrist. Greater levels of insight and treatment satisfaction, together with higher levels of procedural justice experienced on admission, were associated with a better therapeutic relationship. We found that the level of perceived coercion on admission was not related to the therapeutic relationship. Targeted interventions to improve the therapeutic relationship, particularly for involuntarily admitted service users, are discussed.

  17. Therapeutic Plasmapheresis in Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Kendi Celebi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1960's, with succesfully renal transplantations, acute rejection became to be a serious problem for graft survival. From 1965 to 2010, with the introduction of new immunosuppressant agents such as cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetile and tacrolimus, the acute rejection rates declined from 80% to 10% . There is an ongoing gradual improvement in allograft survival. Use of Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE is not evidence based treatment, but TPE is necessary for pre- and also post transplantation in patients with DSA. TPE is also a main treatment for antibody mediated rejection (AMR , but in clinical practice the duration and frequency of TPE and individual difference of antibody production is unclear. There is a requirement for more specific antibody elimination. Further randomised controlled studies are needed to elucidate TPE use before and after kidney transplantation. [Dis Mol Med 2013; 1(1.000: 8-10

  18. Angiogenesis and Its Therapeutic Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis plays critical roles in human physiology that range from reproduction and fetal growth to wound healing and tissue repair. The sophisticated multistep process is tightly regulated in a spatial and temporal manner by “on-off switch signals” between angiogenic factors, extracellular matrix components, and endothelial cells. Uncontrolled angiogenesis may lead to several angiogenic disorders, including vascular insufficiency (myocardial or critical limb ischemia and vascular overgrowth (hemangiomas, vascularized tumors, and retinopathies. Thus, numerous therapeutic opportunities can be envisaged through the successful understanding and subsequent manipulation of angiogenesis. Here, we review the clinical implications of angiogenesis and discuss pro- and antiangiogenic agents that offer potential therapy for cancer and other angiogenic diseases.

  19. [New therapeutic options in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heufelder, A E

    2003-10-16

    The basis for a therapeutic concept for obesity comprises specific measures aimed at changing inappropriate lifestyle habits (overeating, unsuitable diet, sedentary lifestyle) and psychological counseling (identification of bad eating habits, motivation, intensive coaching). Education by a physician on an individual or small-group basis, with emphasis on the practical implementation of fitness training (endurance and muscle building!), together with modification of the diet, has proved successful. In parallel with this, supportive anti-obesity medication makes a useful contribution to weight reduction and the control of risk factors. Evidence-based anti-obesity drugs such as sibutramine and orlistat facilitate the start of weight reduction, thus providing additional motivation of success, and support the long-term effect by stabilizing the weight loss. Health insurance carriers should, in future, selectively support evaluated and approved medication-based and non-medication-based weight-reduction programs, and reimburse the patient who has successfully participated in one.

  20. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Lithium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Damkier, Per; Petersen, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serum lithium is monitored to ensure levels within the narrow therapeutic window. This study examines the interlaboratory variation and inaccuracy of lithium monitoring in Denmark. METHODS: In 16 samples consisting of (1) control materials (n = 4), (2) pooled patient serum (n = 5......), and (3) serum from individual patients (n = 7), lithium was measured in 19 laboratories using 20 different instruments. The lithium concentrations were targeted by a reference laboratory. Ion-selective electrode (n = 5), reflective spectrophotometric (RSM, n = 5), and spectrophotometric (n = 10) methods...... of >12%. Seven of these instruments had a systematic positive or negative bias and more so at lower lithium concentrations. Three poorly calibrated instruments were found in the ion-selective electrode group, 3 in the spectrophotometric group, and 2 in the RSM group. The instruments using reflectance...

  1. Therapeutic interventions in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R

    2005-11-01

    Various therapeutic interventions have been used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. Traditional physiotherapy and occupational therapy are widely used interventions and have been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of cerebral palsy. Evidence in support of the effectiveness of the neurodevelopmental treatment is equivocal at best. There is evidence to support the use and effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in children with cerebral palsy. The effectiveness of many other interventions used in the treatment of cerebral palsy has not been clearly established based on well-controlled trials. These include: sensory integration, body-weight support treadmill training, conductive education, constraint-induced therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and the Vojta method. This article provides an overview of salient aspects of popular interventions used in the management of children with cerebral palsy.

  2. Novel therapeutic approaches in chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychronidou, Genovefa; Karavasilis, Vasilios; Pollack, Seth M; Huang, Paul H; Lee, Alex; Jones, Robin L

    2017-03-01

    Chondrosarcoma is a malignant tumor of bones, characterized by the production of cartilage matrix. Due to lack of effective treatment for advanced disease, the clinical management of chondrosarcomas is exceptionally challenging. Current research focuses on elucidating the molecular events underlying the pathogenesis of this rare bone malignancy, with the goal of developing new molecularly targeted therapies. Signaling pathways suggested to have a role in chondrosarcoma include Hedgehog, Src, PI3k-Akt-mTOR and angiogenesis. Mutations in IDH1/2, present in more than 50% of primary conventional chondrosarcomas, make the development of IDH inhibitors a promising treatment option. The present review discusses the preclinical and early clinical data on novel targeted therapeutic approaches in chondrosarcoma.

  3. Host modulation by therapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugumari Elavarasu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease susceptible group present advanced periodontal breakdown even though they achieve a high standard of oral hygiene. Various destructive enzymes and inflammatory mediators are involved in destruction. These are elevated in case of periodontal destruction. Host modulation aims at bringing these enzymes and mediators to normal level. Doxycycline, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, bisphosphonates, nitrous oxide (NO synthase inhibitors, recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11, omega-3 fatty acid, mouse anti-human interleukin-6 receptor antibody (MRA, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitors, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kb inhibitors, osteoprotegerin, and tumor necrosis factor antagonist (TNF-α are some of the therapeutic agents that have host modulation properties.

  4. Guidelines for Rational Cancer Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byunghee Yoo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cancer therapy has relied on surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. In recent years, these interventions have become increasingly replaced or complemented by more targeted approaches that are informed by a deeper understanding of the underlying biology. Still, the implementation of fully rational patient-specific drug design appears to be years away. Here, we present a vision of rational drug design for cancer that is defined by two major components: modularity and image guidance. We suggest that modularity can be achieved by combining a nanocarrier and an oligonucleotide component into the therapeutic. Image guidance can be incorporated into the nanocarrier component by labeling with a specific imaging reporter, such as a radionuclide or contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. While limited by the need for additional technological advancement in the areas of cancer biology, nanotechnology, and imaging, this vision for the future of cancer therapy can be used as a guide to future research endeavors.

  5. Harsh humour: a therapeutic discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreaddie, May

    2010-11-01

    Humour research in healthcare has tended to focus on rehearsed as opposed to spontaneous humour. This paper reports an empirical example of spontaneous humour in healthcare interactions: a negative case analysis from a constructivist grounded theory study. Twenty Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS)-patient interactions and CNS pre- and postinteraction audio diaries provided the baseline data corpus. Follow-up interviews, field notes, focus groups and observations serviced theory generation with a constant comparison approach to data collection and analyses. Interpretative and illustrative frameworks incorporating humour theories, non-laughter humour support, discursive features and prosodical features of speech were applied to all data. This paper is based upon the negative case comprising a 90-minute follow-up interview and 10 hours of field note observations. The negative case - a CNS working with female drug users' sexual and reproductive health needs - contradicted emerging findings from the baseline data corpus. First, the negative case had greater awareness of humour, deliberately initiated humour and recognised parameters and exclusion zones. Second, a good patient personal was evident in the baseline data corpus but the negative case worked with 'bad' patients. Accordingly, a specific type of humour - harsh humour - was evident in the negative case. Harsh humour used areas of potential discord (e.g. drug use) as a focus of humour creation and maintenance. The deliberate initiation of harsh humour enabled the negative case and her colleagues to achieve their aims by engaging effectively with unpredictable, reluctant and recalcitrant patients. The negative case demonstrates how humour can be used to therapeutically enhance healthcare interactions with disenfranchised individuals. Humour is not superficial but integral to the accomplishment of key aspects of interactions. Health and social care workers should consider the potential for therapeutic humour to engage

  6. [Community Nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    In the last 20 years, Public Health Nutrition focused mainly on the qualitative aspects which may influence the onset of chronic diseases, quality of life, physical and mental performance and life expectancy. This applied knowledge organised as part of preventive and health promotion programs led to the development of Community Nutrition. The aim of Community Nutrition actions is to adequate lifestyles related to food consumption patterns in order to improve the quality of life and contribute to health promotion of the population in the community where programs and services are delivered. Key functions to develop in a Community Nutrition Unit consist in the identification and assessment of nutrition problems in the community as well as the design, implementation and evaluation of intervention programs by means of appropriate strategies. These should aim at different populations groups and settings, such as work places, schools, high risk groups or the general public. Nowadays, Community Nutrition work efforts should focus on three main aspects: nutrition education in schools and in the community; food safety and food security and the development and reinforcement of food preparation skills across all age groups. Social catering services, either in schools, the work place or at the community level, need to ensure adequate nutritional supply, provide foods contributing to healthy eating practices as well as to enhance culinary traditions and social learning. Food safety and food security have become a top priority in Public Health. The concepts referes to the availability of food safe and adequate as well as in sufficient amount in order to satisfy nutrition requirements of all individuals in the community. Social changes along new scientific developments will introduce new demands in Community Nutrition work and individual dietary counselling will become a key strategy. In order to face new challenges, community nutrition pactitioners require a high quality

  7. Community Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemball, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the results of a CASE survey, compiled in April 2009, which was sent to almost 2,800 members who had previously indicated that community relations were part of their professional responsibilities or interests. The survey suggests that the role and practice of community relations in a public institution is somewhat different…

  8. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  9. [Limitations on Therapeutic Efforts: Much More than not Doing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Diana Restrepo; Uribe, Clara Cossio

    2013-03-01

    The term LTE (Limitations on Therapeutic Efforts) refers to the withholding or withdrawing of medical treatment to a patient (either with or without capacity to decide) who does not clinically benefit from it. Although some countries already have legislation and official documents to formalize it, there are several reasons limiting the dissemination and acceptance of this proposal. One is the fact that physicians and health institutions consider this issue as the sole responsibility of patients; another reason is that physicians and the community in general believe the discussion refers just to elderly and terminal patients. It is necessary an academic approach on LTE from both, physicians and the community in general, to promote a sound ethical reflection so as to assist patients and their relatives in the hard task of becoming autonomous to decide and plan their futures. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Translational nanomedicine--through the therapeutic window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robin L

    2015-01-01

    Translational nanomedicine occurs only through the successful integration of multiple inputs and iterative modifications. The therapeutic window plays a pivotal role in the trajectory of translational nanomedicine. Often defined in terms of the range of dosage for safe and effective therapeutic effect, a second definition of the therapeutic window refers to the often narrow temporal window in which a therapeutic effect can be obtained. Expanding the second definition to explicitly include the spatial dimension, this article explores aspects of the therapeutic spaces created by nanomedicine that shift the traditional dimensions of symptom, sign and pathology. This article analyzes three aspects of the therapeutic window in nanomedicine - temporal, spatial and manner of construction and their impact on the dimensions of modern medicine.

  11. Novel therapeutics for Stargardt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Louise J; Liu, Ji; Adelman, Ron A

    2017-06-01

    Stargardt disease, an inherited macular dystrophy caused by mutations in the ABCA4 gene encoding a retinal transporter protein, is the most prevalent form of macular degeneration in children. Patients with Stargardt disease develop severe vision loss within their first or second decades of life, which progresses to irreversible decreased visual acuity in almost all cases. Presently, there are no standard treatments for Stargardt disease. However, encouraging progress has been made in the development of innovative approaches to preventing vision loss in Stargardt patients. Among the promising treatment candidates include ALK-001, fenretinide, and A1120 as pharmacological agents to modulate the visual cycle, StarGen(TM) as a vector for supplementation of a functional ABCA4 gene, and stem-cell transplantation of hESC-RPE cells for regeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium. This study aims to systematically review and summarize evidence concerning the most up-to-date developments in pharmacologic, gene, and stem-cell therapies as novel therapeutic strategies to improve vision for patients with Stargardt disease.

  12. Therapeutic plasma exchange in Casablanca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazi, I; Merimi, F; Majd, A; Benchemsi, N

    2008-08-01

    Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is an extracorporeal blood purification method for the treatment of diseases in which pathological proteins have to be eliminated. In the aim to demonstrate our single center activity, we analyzed our data since 2 years. Between years 2002 and 2005, 104 TPE procedures were performed on 42 patients. Median age and male/female ratio were 32 (range, 17-56) and 24/18, respectively. Departments those referred the majority of the TPE were neurology (n=32), nephrology (n=5) and intensive care unit (n=5). The most common indications were: polyradiculoneuropathies (53%), myasthenia gravis (17%) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (12%). The median TPE procedure per patient was 2.3 (range, 1-10). In the majority of patients, vascular access was provided by puncture of two large, durable peripheral antecubital veins. The procedures were performed with the "Haemonetic Ultralight" discontinuous flow cell separator devices. Citrate solution was used as an anticoagulant in all cases. The substitution fluids most often used in our unit are Albumin 20% solution (92 times), Albumin 4% (10 times) and fresh frozen plasma (twice). Seventy five percent of the patients showed improvement, 7% remained the same and 18% worsened. Thirteen adverse reactions were recorded. The creation of a national registry by the local society is a vital move to improve TPE practice in our country.

  13. Therapeutic drug monitoring: antiarrhythmic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, T J; Williams, K M

    1998-01-01

    Antiarrhythmic agents are traditionally classified according to Vaughan Williams into four classes of action. Class I antiarrhythmic agents include most of the drugs traditionally thought of as antiarrhythmics, and have as a common action, blockade of the fast-inward sodium channel on myocardium. These agents have a very significant toxicity, and while they are being used less, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) does significantly increase the safety with which they can be administered. Class II agents are antisympathetic drugs, particularly the β-adrenoceptor blockers. These are generally safe agents which do not normally require TDM. Class III antiarrhythmic agents include sotalol and amiodarone. TDM can be useful in the case of amiodarone to monitor compliance and toxicity but is generally of little value for sotalol. Class IV antiarrhythmic drugs are the calcium channel blockers verapamil and diltiazem. These are normally monitored by haemodynamic effects, rather than using TDM. Other agents which do not fall neatly into the Vaughan Williams classification include digoxin and perhexiline. TDM is very useful for monitoring the administration (and particularly the safety) of both of these agents. PMID:9803978

  14. Therapeutic outcomes of retinal hemangioblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyesun; Yi, Jeong H; Kwon, Hee J; Lee, Christopher S; Lee, Sung C

    2014-12-01

    To report the results of treatments and therapeutic complications of retinal hemangioblastomas (RH). Retrospective consecutive case series. Data from 32 patients (37 eyes) with RH were reviewed for characteristics of RH and treatment outcomes. Among 32 patients, we identified 73 RHs in 37 eyes. At baseline, 24 of 37 eyes (65%) had 20/50 visual acuity or better, 8 eyes (22%) had intermediate vision (20/400-20/50), and 5 eyes (13%) had poor vision (≤20/400). Seven RHs (9.6%) were located in the juxtapapillary area, and 66 RHs (90.4%) were located in peripheral area. Small RHs (54.8%; thermotherapy, and large RHs (20.5%; >3.0 mm in size) were treated with a combination of transpupillary thermotherapy and cryotherapy. After treatment, 90% of small RHs regressed, whereas only 67% of large RHs regressed (P = 0.044). Peripheral RHs showed better response to treatment than juxtapapillary RHs (P = 0.010). Treatment-related complications occurred in 5 eyes (14%), and 1-step combination therapy was applied more frequently in the complication group (P = 0.048). Small RHs in peripheral areas may require aggressive treatment because they respond well to treatment. In larger RHs, staged treatment could reduce treatment-related complications. Transpupillary thermotherapy could be an effective method in tumor regression for moderate-to-large-sized RHs showing tumor regression rate of 70%.

  15. [Probiotics and their therapeutic properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochmański, W; Barabasz, W

    1999-01-01

    Probiotics are specific products of microorganisms, and by being biologically active positively act on stabilizing the bacteriological flora of the gastrointestinal tract. They are live or lyophilized bacterial cultures, especially those derived from lactic fermentation (Lactobacillacea and Streptococcacea). The first to use the term probiotics were Lilly and Stillwell in 1965 when referring to substances produced by protozoa, which in turn stimulated the growth of other organisms. Probiotics are devoid of side affects and do not cause accumulation of toxic substances in the body. They are administered for therapeutic, prophylactic and nutritional purposes both in humans and in animals. Interest into probiotics has been spurred on by the growing abundance of civilization disorders such as neoplasms, atherosclerosis, heart disease, hypertension and HIV infection. Probiotics are potentially capable of annihilating these disorders. Starter cultures are pure mixed bacterial, fungal or mold cultures which by transformation of their metabolism faciliate favourable changes in apperance, aroma, consistency, and durability of foodstuffs. Contemporary knowledge concerning probiotics and their action is derived from many years of tradition in consumption of fermented milk products and the documentation of much research into strains of lactic bacteria, their harmless action on health and overall beneficial effect.

  16. Recent advances in rhinovirus therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Catherine H; Yelmene, Michele; Luo, Guang X

    2004-12-01

    Human rhinoviruses are the major causative agents of the common cold. Because there are greater than 100 viral serotypes, little immunological protection is afforded to humans by prior rhinovirus exposure, which accounts for the high incidence of infection. In most cases, rhinovirus leads to a short self-limiting illness. However, for asthmatics, the elderly and immunocompromised patients, rhinovirus infection can lead to life-threatening complications. This has spurred a consistent effort over recent decades to identify effective treatments and preventions for rhinovirus infection. While some work has focused on alleviating the symptoms induced as a result of inflammatory pathways stimulated by rhinoviruses, the majority of the research has been focused on limiting or preventing viral infection altogether. Various approaches have been taken to halt rhinovirus infection. Prevention of virus-cell interaction has been the aim of research on viral capsid binders and cell receptor blockers. Interference with correct viral protein processing is the goal of the design and testing of protease inhibitors. Current work is attempting to interfere with viral RNA replication by testing silencing RNA molecules. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in the development and testing of human rhinovirus therapeutics.

  17. Melasma. Etiologic and therapeutic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, P E

    1995-12-01

    Melasma is a common acquired symmetric hypermelanosis characterized by irregular light- to gray-brown macules and patches involving sun-exposed areas of skin. Etiologic factors in the pathogenesis of melasma include genetic influences, exposure to UV radiation, pregnancy, hormonal therapies, cosmetics, phototoxic drugs, and antiseizure medications. Melasma is often a therapeutically challenging disease, and current treatments include hypopigmenting agents, chemical peels, and lasers. Hypopigmenting agents include phenolic and nonphenolic derivatives. Phenolic agents include hydroquinone and hydroquinone combination preparations. Despite controversies regarding the issue of hydroquinone-induced ochronosis, hydroquinone remains the most effective topically applied bleaching agent approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of melasma. Nonphenolic bleaching agents include tretinoin and azelaic acid. Superficial, medium, and deep chemical peels are more often used in lighter-complexioned patients. Such peels should be used with caution in blacks. Although lasers have demonstrated significant efficacy in the treatment of a variety of hyperpigmentary disorders, their precise efficacy and place in the therapy of melasma have yet to be established. In the hierarchy of therapies for melasma, the treating physician must consider the devastating psychosocial impact of pigmentary imperfections within the realm of the benefits and risks associated with each treatment.

  18. Natural Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset shows the locations of known tracts of high quality natural communities in Kansas, generalized to the PLSS section. It is not a compehensive dataset of...

  19. Therapeutic Workshops and social changes in people with mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Raquel de Sousa Ibiapina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the impact of the therapeutic workshops and the social changes in people with mental disorders from the point of view of the experience of the workers of a Center of Psychosocial Attention. Method: A descriptive, qualitative study developed with seven professionals from a Psychosocial Care Center in a city in the Northeast of Brazil. The data production was performed through a semi-structured interview and analyzed by the Descending Hierarchical Classification, after processing in the IRaMuTeQ software. Results: Were presented in two segments: the first one portrays the reality of the work of the professionals in the Center for Psychosocial Care, while segment two emphasizes the professionals' perception about the therapeutic workshops as a tool for social reintegration. Conclusion: The use of therapeutic workshops contributes to the effectuation of social change on mental illness and social inclusion of people with psychic disorders in the daily family, in the community, encouraged by the multidisciplinary approach.

  20. The Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids for Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Benzi; Triolo, Piera; Jones, Wallace; Jankovic, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in the therapeutic potential of marijuana (cannabis) and cannabinoid-based chemicals within the medical community and particularly for neurologic conditions. This interest is driven both by changes in the legal status of cannabis in many areas and increasing research into the roles of endocannabinoids within the central nervous system and their potential as symptomatic and/or neuroprotective therapies. We review basic science, preclinical and clinical studies on the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids specifically as it relates to movement disorders. Results The pharmacology of cannabis is complex with over 60 neuroactive chemicals identified to date. The endocannabinoid system modulates neurotransmission involved in motor function, particularly within the basal ganglia. Preclinical research in animal models of several movement disorders have shown variable evidence for symptomatic benefits but more consistently suggest potential neuroprotective effects in several animal models of Parkinson’s (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD). Clinical observations and clinical trials of cannabinoid-based therapies suggests a possible benefit of cannabinoids for tics and probably no benefit for tremor in multiple sclerosis or dyskinesias or motor symptoms in PD. Data are insufficient to draw conclusions regarding HD, dystonia or ataxia and nonexistent for myoclonus or restless legs syndrome. Conclusions Despite the widespread publicity about the medical benefits of cannabinoids, further preclinical and clinical research is needed to better characterize the pharmacological, physiological and therapeutic effects of this class of drugs in movement disorders. PMID:25649017

  1. Therapeutic targeting of replicative immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaswen, Paul; MacKenzie, Karen L; Keith, W Nicol; Hentosh, Patricia; Rodier, Francis; Zhu, Jiyue; Firestone, Gary L; Matheu, Ander; Carnero, Amancio; Bilsland, Alan; Sundin, Tabetha; Honoki, Kanya; Fujii, Hiromasa; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Amedei, Amedeo; Amin, Amr; Helferich, Bill; Boosani, Chandra S; Guha, Gunjan; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa; Chen, Sophie; Mohammed, Sulma I; Azmi, Asfar S; Bhakta, Dipita; Halicka, Dorota; Niccolai, Elena; Aquilano, Katia; Ashraf, S Salman; Nowsheen, Somaira; Yang, Xujuan

    2015-12-01

    One of the hallmarks of malignant cell populations is the ability to undergo continuous proliferation. This property allows clonal lineages to acquire sequential aberrations that can fuel increasingly autonomous growth, invasiveness, and therapeutic resistance. Innate cellular mechanisms have evolved to regulate replicative potential as a hedge against malignant progression. When activated in the absence of normal terminal differentiation cues, these mechanisms can result in a state of persistent cytostasis. This state, termed "senescence," can be triggered by intrinsic cellular processes such as telomere dysfunction and oncogene expression, and by exogenous factors such as DNA damaging agents or oxidative environments. Despite differences in upstream signaling, senescence often involves convergent interdependent activation of tumor suppressors p53 and p16/pRB, but can be induced, albeit with reduced sensitivity, when these suppressors are compromised. Doses of conventional genotoxic drugs required to achieve cancer cell senescence are often much lower than doses required to achieve outright cell death. Additional therapies, such as those targeting cyclin dependent kinases or components of the PI3K signaling pathway, may induce senescence specifically in cancer cells by circumventing defects in tumor suppressor pathways or exploiting cancer cells' heightened requirements for telomerase. Such treatments sufficient to induce cancer cell senescence could provide increased patient survival with fewer and less severe side effects than conventional cytotoxic regimens. This positive aspect is countered by important caveats regarding senescence reversibility, genomic instability, and paracrine effects that may increase heterogeneity and adaptive resistance of surviving cancer cells. Nevertheless, agents that effectively disrupt replicative immortality will likely be valuable components of new combinatorial approaches to cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors

  2. Emerging therapeutic strategies for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Cummings, David E

    2006-12-01

    The rising tide of obesity is one of the most pressing health issues of our time, yet existing medicines to combat the problem are disappointingly limited in number and effectiveness. Fortunately, a recent burgeoning of mechanistic insights into the neuroendocrine regulation of body weight provides an expanding list of molecular targets for novel, rationally designed antiobesity pharmaceuticals. In this review, we articulate a set of conceptual principles that we feel could help prioritize among these molecules in the development of obesity therapeutics, based on an understanding of energy homeostasis. We focus primarily on central targets, highlighting selected strategies to stimulate endogenous catabolic signals or inhibit anabolic signals. Examples of the former approach include methods to enhance central leptin signaling through intranasal leptin delivery, use of superpotent leptin-receptor agonists, and mechanisms to increase leptin sensitivity by manipulating SOCS-3, PTP-1B, ciliary neurotrophic factor, or simply by first losing weight with traditional interventions. Techniques to augment signaling by neurochemical mediators of leptin action that lie downstream of at least some levels of obesity-associated leptin resistance include activation of melanocortin receptors or 5-HT2C and 5-HT1B receptors. We also describe strategies to inhibit anabolic molecules, such as neuropeptide Y, melanin-concentrating hormone, ghrelin, and endocannabinoids. Modulation of gastrointestinal satiation and hunger signals is discussed as well. As scientists continue to provide fundamental insights into the mechanisms governing body weight, the future looks bright for development of new and better antiobesity medications to be used with diet and exercise to facilitate substantial weight loss.

  3. Therapeutic strategies in pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonello eFuso

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension (PH is a life-threatening condition characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure. It is clinically classified into five groups: patients in the first group are considered to have pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH whereas patients of the other groups have PH that is due to cardiopulmonary or other systemic diseases. The management of patients with PH has advanced rapidly over the last decade and the introduction of specific treatments especially for PAH has lead to an improved outcome. However, despite the progress in the treatment, the functional limitation and the survival of these patients remain unsatisfactory and there is no cure for PAH. Therefore the search for an ideal therapy still goes on. At present, two levels of treatment can be identified: primary and specific therapy. Primary therapy is directed at the underlying cause of the PH. It also includes a supportive therapy consisting in oxygen supplementation, diuretics, and anticoagulation which should be considered in all patients with PH. Specific therapy is directed at the PH itself and includes treatment with vasodilatators such as calcium channel blockers and with vasodilatator and pathogenetic drugs such as prostanoids, endothelin receptor antagonists and phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors. These drugs act in several pathogenetic mechanisms of the PH and are specific for PAH although they might be used also in the other groups of PH. Finally, atrial septostomy and lung transplantation are reserved for patients refractory to medical therapy. Different therapeutic approaches can be considered in the management of patients with PH. Therapy can be established on the basis of both the clinical classification and the functional class. It is also possible to adopt a goal-oriented therapy in which the timing of treatment escalation is determined by inadequate response to known prognostic indicators.

  4. Community concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Thomas; Bates, Tony

    2004-03-01

    Since the publication of "Sustainable Communities--building for the future", Government attention has focused largely on high-density affordable housing in the four "growth areas": Thames Gateway; Ashford; Milton Keynes--South Midlands, and London--Stansted--Cambridge. In this article, Thomas Yeung and Tony Bates suggest that a greater and more sustainable impact would be achieved if architects, planners, and developers considered the potential for community-based water and waste management and on-site energy generation and distribution right from the start of the project. In particular, they consider that the communal nature of hospitals, universities, and public/community housing provides a great opportunity for on-site renewable CHP and/or distributed heating, which could combine global environmental benefits with improved local amenities. They describe a simple model for prioritising energy management in the built environment, and draw on lessons learnt at ETRCL in Dagenham and BedZED in Surrey to offer a few recommendations for Government and developers. Tony Bates is the business development manager for Scott Wilson in the South East and is responsible for the promotion of sustainable communities through relationships with architects, developers, land owners and local authorities. Thomas Yeung leads the Energy Infrastructure Technologies group in Scott Wilson. This team offers an integrated approach to clean community-based energy generation, energy management, waste and water management, sustainable transport, and sustainable buildings/communities.

  5. Therapeutic Work with Children: A Contextual Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    This overview sets therapeutic work with children in context. It begins with a rationale for why this work is necessary and describes and explores the needs and rights of children and young people. Resilience as a factor in mitigating the effects of distress is discussed and an overview of the history of therapeutic work is offered. Different…

  6. [A therapeutic education tool in paediatric dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquillier, Thomas; Trentesaux, Thomas; Catteau, Céline; Delfosse, Caroline

    Therapeutic education for children is developing in the treatment of dental caries. The Elmy pathway, a pedagogical game aiming to improve children's oral health skills, has been designed. The qualitative assessment of this tool seems to confirm its benefit for use in therapeutic education sessions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Translational nanomedicine : Through the therapeutic window

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierce, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Translational nanomedicine occurs only through the successful integration of multiple inputs and iterative modifications. The therapeutic window plays a pivotal role in the trajectory of translational nanomedicine. Often defined in terms of the range of dosage for safe and effective therapeutic

  8. Poetry and Therapeutic Factors in Group Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Marion

    1989-01-01

    Describes the ways in which the use of poetry in group therapy facilitates therapeutic goals consistent with interpersonal theory. Discusses the relationship between poetic interventions and I. D. Yalom's therapeutic factors, and offers a case example of an in-patient therapy group. (SR)

  9. Woodland in Practical Skills Therapeutic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Paula; Gibons, Kenneth; Mata, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Modern urban life provides less opportunities to contact with nature, which is a potential cause of developmental deviances in children. We investigated the potential therapeutic effect of woodlands, within the context of Practical Skills Therapeutic Education at the Ruskin Mill College, UK. Data on physical and emotional perceptions were…

  10. The effects of therapeutic touch on pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Carolyn Magdalen

    2009-06-01

    To better understand how Therapeutic Touch can be used in today's health care arena, this integrative literature review will examine current research that will help answer the question, Does Therapeutic Touch reduce pain? An extensive search was conducted of the online databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PsychLIT, and PubMed to retrieve research articles published from 1997 to 2007. Seven studies that were conducted between 1997 and 2004 were found and only five of the seven were included as pertinent evidence to answer the question. All of the research that was reviewed to answer whether Therapeutic Touch could significantly reduce pain revealed a majority of statistically significant positive results for implementing this intervention. Because there are no identified risks to Therapeutic Touch as a pain relief measure, it is safe to recommend despite the limitations of current research. Therapeutic Touch should be considered among the many possible nursing interventions for the treatment of pain.

  11. [Health security--GMOs in therapeutics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouvin, J-H

    2003-03-01

    The recent progress in human therapeutics has been made possible thanks to molecular biology and its use in producing proteins having the same sequence and structure as that of human proteins. The use of GMOs allows production of proteins with high added value in therapeutics, which are of satisfactory quality. GMOs may also be directly administered to patients as gene therapy vectors. However, the use of GMOs in therapeutics must take into consideration some risks, particularly those of microbiological contamination, of neo-antigenicity as well as environmental risks with regard to the way of use of the GMO. Nevertheless, those risks are taken in due consideration in the development of these new medicinal products; solutions have been found to allow their use in therapeutics with a very positive benefit/risk ratio. Medicinal products from biotechnology have enabled considerable therapeutic progress without compromising health security.

  12. [Therapeutic measures in tardive dyskinesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeler, J; Wöller, W

    1983-06-01

    is also present, small doses of thioridazine, clozapine or tiapride can be administered. If this practice is not successful cholinergic or GABA-ergic agents may be useful. Because no currently available therapeutic agents satisfies the criteria of safety, marked effectiveness and prolonged efficacy in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia, prevention becomes more important. Prolonged use of a neuroleptic medication requires careful evaluation of indications and risks. The doses of neuroleptic drugs during the maintenance treatment of schizophrenia should be as small as possible.

  13. Hope-inspiring therapeutic relationships, professional expectations and social inclusion for young people with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Clio; Greenwood, Kathryn

    2015-10-01

    Personal recovery accounts suggest that a positive therapeutic relationship with an optimistic mental health professional may facilitate social inclusion. However, little empirical research has investigated the role of the therapeutic relationship in social outcomes or explored potential mechanisms of change within community psychosis care. This study investigated the direct predictive associations of the therapeutic relationship and professional expectancies for social inclusion and vocational activity for young people with psychosis, and indirect associations through hopefulness. Young people with psychosis and their main mental health professional (n=51 dyads) participated across two time points. Measures of therapeutic relationships, professional expectancies, and vocational activity were obtained at baseline. Measures of hopefulness, social inclusion and vocational activity were obtained at follow-up. Direct and indirect associations between variables were analysed using path modelling. Directed path models were consistent with a positive therapeutic relationship and positive professional expectancies predicting social inclusion and vocational activity through mediation by increased patient domain-specific hopefulness. The professional-rated therapeutic relationship more directly predicts change in vocational activity status. Change in vocational activity status predicts increased patient hopefulness. The therapeutic relationship between professionals and young people with psychosis appears hope-inspiring and important to patients' social inclusion and vocational outcomes. Vocational activity may produce reciprocal gains in hopefulness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Oncolytic Viruses: Therapeutics With an Identity Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbach, Caroline J; Lichty, Brian D; Bell, John C

    2016-07-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OV) are replicating viral therapeutics for the treatment of cancer and have been in laboratory development for about twenty years. Recently, the FDA approved Imlygic, a herpes virus based therapeutic for the treatment of melanoma and thus OVs have entered a new era where they are a weapon in the armament of the oncologist. OVs are unique therapeutics with multiple mechanisms of therapeutic activity. The exact path for their development and eventual uptake by pharmaceutical companies is somewhat clouded by an uncertain identity. Are they vaccines, tumour lysing therapeutics, inducers of innate immunity, gene therapy vectors, anti-vascular agents or all of the above? Should they be developed as stand-alone loco-regional therapeutics, systemically delivered tumour hunters or immune modulators best tested as combination therapeutics? We summarize data here supporting the idea, depending upon the virus, that OVs can be any or all of these things. Pursuing a "one-size fits all" approach is counter-productive to their clinical development and instead as a field we should build on the strengths of individual virus platforms. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Oncolytic Viruses: Therapeutics With an Identity Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline J. Breitbach

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses (OV are replicating viral therapeutics for the treatment of cancer and have been in laboratory development for about twenty years. Recently, the FDA approved Imlygic, a herpes virus based therapeutic for the treatment of melanoma and thus OVs have entered a new era where they are a weapon in the armament of the oncologist. OVs are unique therapeutics with multiple mechanisms of therapeutic activity. The exact path for their development and eventual uptake by pharmaceutical companies is somewhat clouded by an uncertain identity. Are they vaccines, tumour lysing therapeutics, inducers of innate immunity, gene therapy vectors, anti-vascular agents or all of the above? Should they be developed as stand-alone loco-regional therapeutics, systemically delivered tumour hunters or immune modulators best tested as combination therapeutics? We summarize data here supporting the idea, depending upon the virus, that OVs can be any or all of these things. Pursuing a “one-size fits all” approach is counter-productive to their clinical development and instead as a field we should build on the strengths of individual virus platforms.

  16. Indigenous Community

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    geyers

    In the previous draft of the Bill a "traditional work" was defined as "a literary work, an artistic work or a musical work which is ... Africa under the leadership of Mzilikazi, the founder of the Ndebele nation. 17 . A ... community established or recognised in terms of the Traditional Leadership and Governance. Framework Act shall ...

  17. COMMUNITY OPHTHALMOLOGY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promotion of Community-based Social Health Insurance Scheme. Through Cataract Surgical Outreach ... ensure access to affordable and qualitative health care service to the informal sector of the populace.[1] The ... and use of available financial resources through improved accounting etc. Promotion of this new scheme ...

  18. Walkable Communities

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and discusses the benefits of walkable communities, as they relate to health, the environment, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  19. Therapeutic drug monitoring of aminoglycosides in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touw, Daniël J; Westerman, Elsbeth M; Sprij, Arwen J

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy and toxicity of aminoglycosides show a strong direct positive relationship with blood drug concentrations, therefore, therapy with aminoglycosides in adults is usually guided by therapeutic drug monitoring. Dosing regimens in adults have evolved from multiple daily dosing to

  20. FAQ about Recreational Therapy/Therapeutic Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biological, and behavioral sciences and recreation and leisure theory. How can I get RT/TR services? Many ... facilities, as was daycare programs for individuals with disabilities." About the American Therapeutic Recreation Association: The American ...

  1. MicroRNA therapeutics in cardiovascular medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thum, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of human morbidity and mortality despite significant therapeutic improvements by surgical, interventional and pharmacological approaches in the last decade. MicroRNAs (miRNAs...

  2. The Diagnostic/Therapeutic Preabortion Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekelheide, Priscilla Day

    1978-01-01

    The therapeutic and diagnostic aspect of the preabortion interview are discussed with attention to specifics that will identify students with the greatest likelihood for psychological problems and/or repeat abortions. (JD)

  3. Towards new therapeutic strategies in chondrosarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrage, Yvonne Maria

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the identification of new targets for therapeutic treatment of chondrosarcoma, tumours that are highly insensitive to conventional chemo- and radiation thearapy. A relatively new array technique to identify active kinases in chondrosarcoma cell cultures was used, which

  4. Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1996-08-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article.

  5. Therapeutic potential of fecal microbiota transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Loek P.; Bouter, Kristien E. C.; de Vos, Willem M.; Borody, Thomas J.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the use of fecal microbiota for the treatment of patients with chronic gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory bowel diseases. Lately, there has also been interest in its therapeutic potential for cardiometabolic, autoimmune, and other extraintestinal

  6. [Therapeutic baths and relaxation in neurosurgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leseigneur, Matthieu

    2017-03-01

    A neurosurgical nursing and nursing auxiliaries team has started using therapeutic baths. The wellbeing procured favours a re-appropriation of body awareness and a reduction in anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. A Bioequivalence Approach for Generic Narrow Therapeutic Index Drugs: Evaluation of the Reference-Scaled Approach and Variability Comparison Criterion

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Wenlei; Makhlouf, Fairouz; Schuirmann, Donald J.; Zhang, Xinyuan; Zheng, Nan; Conner, Dale; Yu, Lawrence X.; Lionberger, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Various health communities have expressed concerns regarding whether average bioequivalence (BE) limits (80.00–125.00%) for the 90% confidence interval of the test-to-reference geometric mean ratio are sufficient to ensure therapeutic equivalence between a generic narrow therapeutic index (NTI) drug and its reference listed drug (RLD). Simulations were conducted to investigate the impact of different BE approaches for NTI drugs on study power, including (1) direct tightening of average BE lim...

  8. [Relationship between defense mechanism and therapeutic alliance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laconi, S; Cailhol, L; Pourcel, L; Thalamas, C; Lapeyre-Mestre, M; Chabrol, H

    2015-10-01

    The therapeutic alliance can be defined as a collaborative relationship between the patient and the practitioner. It represents an essential component of the psychotherapeutic process (Ambresin et al., 2007; Cungi, 2006; Martin et al., 2000). Some authors suggest that a good alliance can have a favorable impact on the therapeutic success (Barber et al., 2000; Hubble, Duncan, & Miller 1999; Horvath & Luborsky, 1993; Horvath & Symonds, 1991). This alliance can be influenced by psychological and behavioral factors (Cungi, 2006) Thus, some defense mechanisms could prevent change or, on the contrary could facilitate adaptation (Ambresin et al., 2007) and have an impact on the therapeutic success (Muris & Merckelbach, 1996). However, the relationship between therapeutic alliance and defense mechanisms represents an insufficiently explored field (Ambresin et al., 2007; Cungi, 2006). The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between therapeutic alliance and twenty defense mechanisms in a sample of French psychiatric patients, by differentiating results in men and women. We also examined the positive and the negative therapeutic alliance. Sixty patients aged from 18 to 58 (M=41.50; SD=11.03) completed the French versions of the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40) and the Helping Alliance questionnaire-II (HAq-II). Therapeutic alliance was significantly associated with each defense style: mature (0.62), neurotic (0.45) Ptherapeutic alliance (R(2) adj=36, F=12.39, β=0.65, Ptherapeutic alliance (R(2) adj=36, F=12.34, β=0.62, Ptherapeutic alliance was significantly associated with all mature defenses, three neurotic defenses (reaction formation, pseudo-altruism, idealization) and four immature defenses (splitting, denial, somatization, passive aggression). Among men, three mature defenses were associated (anticipation, humor, sublimation), four neurotic (reaction formation, pseudo-altruism, idealization and undoing) and two immature (somatization and

  9. Therapeutic applications of ultrasonography in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Mago; Soheyl Sheikh; Shambulingappa Pallagatti; Amit Aggarwal

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonography is one of the most common imaging modality used in dental as well as medical sciences. The use of ultrasonography when discovered was as a therapeutic aid, but in recent times, it has become one of the most common imaging modality next to conventional radiology. Currently, its use as a therapeutic aid has been rediscovered along with its association with other specialized imaging. The aim of this paper is to highlight such advancements in the field of ultrasonography.

  10. Therapeutic applications of ultrasonography in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Mago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography is one of the most common imaging modality used in dental as well as medical sciences. The use of ultrasonography when discovered was as a therapeutic aid, but in recent times, it has become one of the most common imaging modality next to conventional radiology. Currently, its use as a therapeutic aid has been rediscovered along with its association with other specialized imaging. The aim of this paper is to highlight such advancements in the field of ultrasonography.

  11. Ultrasound: A Revenant Therapeutic Modality in Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Karumuri, Sunil Kumar; Rastogi, Trisha; Beeraka, Kartheeki; Penumatcha, Mohan Raju; Olepu, Sanjeeva Rao

    2016-01-01

    An ultrasound (US) gives a visible image of the organs that are present inside the body. In medicine it serves for diagnosing and also its therapeutic benefits are well established for bone healing, osteointegration and soft tissue healing. In dentistry it is widely used for diagnostic purposes. When it was discovered it was introduced for therapeutic purposes, but due to lack of clinical studies its use as therapy was remittent in dentistry. The aim of the present paper was to establish the ...

  12. [Therapeutic approaches in court-ordered therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, Emmanuelle; De Jésus, Arnaud; Cano, Jean-Philippe; Raymondaud, Séverine; Rouveyrol, Éric; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre

    As is the case with other contexts of mental health treatments, the therapeutic approaches to court-ordered therapy are varied. They are based on the principle of their clinical indication and must be delivered by therapists trained in the specific area. The classic therapeutic approaches are used: medication, psychoanalysis and psychoanalytically inspired therapies, cognitive behavioural therapies, group therapies and body-oriented approach. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Viral Oncolytic Therapeutics for Neoplastic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0387 TITLE: Viral Oncolytic Therapeutics for Neoplastic Meningitis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mikhail Papisov, PhD...SUBTITLE Viral Oncolytic Therapeutics for Neoplastic Meningitis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0387 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...for neoplastic meningitis ( meningeal metastasis of breast cancer). The proposed therapy will be based on direct (intrathecal) administration of

  14. Therapeutic Strategy for Chronic Headache in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.O. Lezhenko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic efficacy of a combined homeopathic preparation Cefavora, which consists of alcoholic extracts of Ginkgo biloba, hawthorn (Crataegus and white mistletoe (Viscum album, has been studied in the treatment of chronic tension-type headache in children. It has been shown that alongside with elimination of headache manifestations, the use of homeopathic medicine has contributed to the normalization of adaptive mechanisms of autonomic regulation in children indicating its high therapeutic efficacy.

  15. [Therapeutic education for recurrent depressive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carde, Soufiane; Hatif, Séverine; Samama, Diane; Charbonnel, Patricia; Jouvent, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a serious and recurrent condition which can become chronic. As a complement to other therapeutic approaches, therapeutic patient education (TPE) or psychoeducation is effective. TPE groups led by a multidisciplinary hospitalisation team in a psychiatric department are thereby integrated into the global care in order to reduce relapses and improve patients' quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. [Intervention of Schizophrenia From the Community Model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborda Zapata, Eliana María; Montoya González, Laura Elisa; Gómez Sierra, Natalia María; Arteaga Morales, Laura María; Correa Rico, Oscar Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease for which pharmacological management is an insufficient therapeutic measure to ensure adaptation to the community and restoring the quality of life of the patient, with a multidimensional management and community interventions being necessary. Case report. This case report illustrates a multidisciplinary treatment response, based on a community care model for mental health from Envigado, Colombia. The management of schizophrenia requires multimodal interventions that include community screening, psychoeducation of individuals, their families and society, addressing different areas of operation that allow adaptation of the subject to his social environment. A integrated intervention that can be provided on a Community scale, with the implementation of policies that allow it to be applied. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Preconception care in therapeutic abortion applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirmohammadi, Farzaneh; Nekuei, Nafisehsadat; Bahadoran, Parvin; Montazery, Gita

    2017-01-01

    Some risk factors that would lead to therapeutic abortion do even exist before pregnancy and could be resolved or corrected through appropriate interventions. The present study was conducted to evaluate the condition of preconception care among therapeutic abortion applicants. This research was a descriptive, cross-sectional study that was conducted on 200 applicants for therapeutic abortion at the Forensics Medicine Center of Isfahan (Iran) who were selected convenience sampling from October 2014 to March 2015. Data were gathered using a researcher made checklist. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 through descriptive statistics and Chi-square and independent t-test. Eighty-five percent of the participants were applicants for therapeutic abortion due to fetal problems, and the other 15% were due to maternal issues. About 41.7% of participants with fetal problems and all of the participants with maternal issues had not received preconception care. In 93.3% of the applicants with maternal issues, the disease existed before the pregnancy. About 48.2% of participants needed genetic counseling, but 28.6% had not received any. Results showed that in most of the participants, the risk factor for therapeutic abortion existed before the pregnancy. Providing preconception care along with the elimination of risk factors before the pregnancy could prevent some of the pregnancies with the indication of therapeutic abortion.

  18. Therapeutic angiogenesis: a fantastic new adventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjai, Kishore J; Chowdhury, Pertha; Grines, Cindy L

    2002-06-01

    A significant proportion of patients with coronary artery disease have symptoms refractory to medical treatment, yet are unsuitable for conventional revascularization techniques, like percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass surgery. Such patients are potential candidates for alternative forms of coronary revascularization, like therapeutic angiogenesis. This strategy is designed to promote the development of supplemental collateral blood vessels that will act as endogenous bypass conduits. Two major avenues for achieving therapeutic angiogenesis are currently under intense investigation: gene therapy (the introduction of new genetic material into somatic cells to synthesize proteins that are missing, defective, or desired for specific therapeutic purposes) and protein-based therapy (administration of the growth factors, instead of the genes encoding for the growth factors responsible for angiogenesis). This article provides a concise review of the "components" of gene and protein-based therapy, namely, the growth factors, the vector (for gene therapy), the route of delivery, the therapeutic target, the desired therapeutic effect, and quantifiable clinical end points for trials of angiogenesis. Based on preliminary studies, the authors believe that therapeutic angiogenesis represents a promising novel therapy for treatment of the ischemic heart. In the future, angiogenesis will likely be offered as an adjunct to conventional revascularization strategies in subsets of patients who are only "suboptimally" revascularized with conventional techniques, and might evolve into a stand-alone treatment for some patients with nonrevascularizable disease.

  19. Interfirm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Strong and trust-based ties are usually related to homogeneous and complex knowledge, while weak ties are associated with heterogeneous and simple knowledge. Interfirm communities have been shown to depend on trust-based ties, while also relying on getting access to heterogeneous knowledge....... These results yield a paradox which the present paper aims to address. Based on an in-depth case study of how a high-tech small firm organizes its interfirm activity, I show how a hybrid social relation, that is neither weak nor strong, is a useful conception for interfirm communities. Hereby, the study also...... goes beyond a mere structural approach to the organization of social networks and hence proposes a tighter integration between research on social networks and organizational design....

  20. Designed communities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    2013-01-01

    In current residential spaces there seem to be an increasing emphasis on small-scale communities. A number of new, high profiled residential complexes thus seek to promote new ways of social living by rethinking architectural design, typologies and concepts. In this paper I explore the emergence...... of these designed communities: What social life is promoted in such recent architectural visions? And to what extent can the social life and identity of a place actually be designed? The paper discusses these questions based on a fieldwork in three new housing complexes in the Copenhagen Region: The A......-house by architect Carsten Holgaard, the 8-house by BIG, and Lange Eng (The Long Meadow) by Dorte Mandrup. Rather than taking the perspective of either architect or user, the fieldwork has ethnographically traced the entire process from design to occupancy. The aim is to explore how the social life and identity...

  1. Biochemical Features of Beneficial Microbes: Foundations for Therapeutic Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engevik, Melinda A; Versalovic, James

    2017-10-01

    Commensal and beneficial microbes secrete myriad products which target the mammalian host and other microbes. These secreted substances aid in bacterial niche development, and select compounds beneficially modulate the host and promote health. Microbes produce unique compounds which can serve as signaling factors to the host, such as biogenic amine neuromodulators, or quorum-sensing molecules to facilitate inter-bacterial communication. Bacterial metabolites can also participate in functional enhancement of host metabolic capabilities, immunoregulation, and improvement of intestinal barrier function. Secreted products such as lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, bacteriocins, and bacteriocin-like substances can also target the microbiome. Microbes differ greatly in their metabolic potential and subsequent host effects. As a result, knowledge about microbial metabolites will facilitate selection of next-generation probiotics and therapeutic compounds derived from the mammalian microbiome. In this article we describe prominent examples of microbial metabolites and their effects on microbial communities and the mammalian host.

  2. Complement involvement in periodontitis: molecular mechanisms and rational therapeutic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajishengallis, George; Maekawa, Tomoki; Abe, Toshiharu; Hajishengallis, Evlambia; Lambris, John D.

    2015-01-01

    The complement system is a network of interacting fluid-phase and cell surface-associated molecules that trigger, amplify, and regulate immune and inflammatory signaling pathways. Dysregulation of this finely balanced network can destabilize host-microbe homeostasis and cause inflammatory tissue damage. Evidence from clinical and animal model-based studies suggests that complement is implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, a polymicrobial community-induced chronic inflammatory disease that destroys the tooth-supporting tissues. This review discusses molecular mechanisms of complement involvement in the dysbiotic transformation of the periodontal microbiome and the resulting destructive inflammation, culminating in loss of periodontal bone support. These mechanistic studies have additionally identified potential therapeutic targets. In this regard, interventional studies in preclinical models have provided proof-of-concept for using complement inhibitors for the treatment of human periodontitis. PMID:26306443

  3. Potential therapeutic roles for antibody mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, T Shantha; Strohl, William R

    2013-10-01

    With the enormous success of recombinant monoclonal antibodies (rMAbs) as human therapeutics, there are increasing efforts underway to explore new molecular entities that mimic rMAbs to replicate this huge success. In addition to naked intact rMAbs, antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), FAb and F(ab')2 fragments and also Fc fusion proteins have been developed and/or marketed as human therapeutics to treat different human diseases, including life-threatening diseases such as cancer. Several hundreds more intact rMAbs, ADCs, FAb, F(ab')2 fragments and Fc fusion proteins are currently undergoing human clinical trials. In addition to these molecules, new type of antibody fragments such as single-chain Fvs (scFvs), VH, scFv-Fc, scFv-CH, scFAb, scFv-zipper, diabodies, bispecific antibodies and similar types of constructs are also being investigated to be developed as human monotherapeutics. Further, there are quite a few current examples of combinations of biologics being developed. For example, currently, several biopharmaceutical companies are developing combinations of antibody mixtures as human therapeutics. Accordingly, the question posed here is whether it is time to consider the possibility of developing a broader range of combinations of therapeutic biologics. Combinations of small organic molecules have been successfully used as therapeutics for many years to treat many diseases, so the context of using polypharmacology to treat human diseases is not novel. For the past several decades, intravenous immunoglobulins have successfully been used in treating various autoimmune diseases. In this context, several biotechnology companies are exploring the use of combinations of antibody mixtures as human therapeutics. This editorial discusses these current efforts and the potential future role of antibody mixtures as human therapeutics.

  4. Therapeutic Strategies Targeting Cariogenic Biofilm Microenvironment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Y; Ren, Z; Hwang, G; Koo, H

    2018-01-01

    Cariogenic biofilms are highly structured microbial communities embedded in an extracellular matrix, a multifunctional scaffold that is essential for the existence of the biofilm lifestyle and full...

  5. Therapeutic Vaccination for HPV Induced Cervical Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeli A. Brinkman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical Cancer is the second leading cause of cancer–related deaths in women worldwide and is associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection, creating a unique opportunity to treat cervical cancer through anti-viral vaccination. Although a prophylactic vaccine may be available within a year, millions of women, already infected, will continue to suffer from HPV-related disease, emphasizing the need to develop therapeutic vaccination strategies. A majority of clinical trials examining therapeutic vaccination have shown limited efficacy due to examining patients with more advanced-stage cancer who tend to have decreased immune function. Current trends in clinical trials with therapeutic agents examine patients with pre-invasive lesions in order to prevent invasive cervical cancer. However, longer follow-up is necessary to correlate immune responses to lesion regression. Meanwhile, preclinical studies in this field include further exploration of peptide or protein vaccination, and the delivery of HPV antigens in DNA-based vaccines or in viral vectors. As long as pre-clinical studies continue to advance, the prospect of therapeutic vaccination to treat existing lesions seem good in the near future. Positive consequences of therapeutic vaccination would include less disfiguring treatment options and fewer instances of recurrent or progressive lesions leading to a reduction in cervical cancer incidence.

  6. Online Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Gorm Hansen, Katrine

    ”Online Communities” er et medie for brugere og fagfolk, hvor de kan mødes digitalt for at dele erfaringer, og dette kan anvendes som inspiration indenfor Brugerdreven Innovation. Via ”desk research” kan virksomheder opnå adgang til varierende mængder af brugere på en forholdsvist enkelt måde. I...... denne rapport beskrives eksperimentets opbygning, resultater og mulige værdi. Vi håber hermed på at kunne give praktisk indsigt i, hvorledes virksomheder fra byggematerialeindustrien kan agere i online communities....

  7. Nanotechnology—novel therapeutics for CNS disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Maya; Kessler, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Research into treatments for diseases of the CNS has made impressive strides in the past few decades, but therapeutic options are limited for many patients with CNS disorders. Nanotechnology has emerged as an exciting and promising new means of treating neurological disease, with the potential to fundamentally change the way we approach CNS-targeted therapeutics. Molecules can be nanoengineered to cross the blood–brain barrier, target specific cell or signalling systems, respond to endogenous stimuli, or act as vehicles for gene delivery, or as a matrix to promote axon elongation and support cell survival. The wide variety of available nanotechnologies allows the selection of a nanoscale material with the characteristics best suited to the therapeutic challenges posed by an individual CNS disorder. In this Review, we describe recent advances in the development of nanotechnology for the treatment of neurological disorders—in particular, neurodegenerative disease and malignant brain tumours—and for the promotion of neuroregeneration. PMID:22526003

  8. Playing and therapeutic action in child analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, L C; Cohen, D J

    1993-12-01

    From its inception, child psychoanalysis has used fantasy play as a window to both the content and process of children's inner worlds. Because of the link to action and primary process, young children's imaginary play is rich in symbolic expressions that facilitate analytic interpretive interventions addressing the conflicts impeding development. There are inevitable tensions between allowing play to emerge as a therapeutic process in its own right and the usual psychoanalytic emphasis on clarification, verbalisation and, above all, interpretation within and about the transference. For many children, the very act of playing carries much of the therapeutic work aimed toward facilitating their return to developmentally appropriate and adaptive psychic functioning. The mobilisation of capacities for play in the analysis allows children to do what is needed for their development to continue and makes use of the developmentally restorative functions of play in the service of therapeutic action.

  9. Current Therapeutic Approach to Hypertrophic Scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka Bukvić Mokos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal scarring and its accompanying esthetic, functional, and psychological sequelae still pose significant challe nges. To date, there is no satisfactory prevention or treatment option for hypertrophic scars (HSs, which is mostly due to not completely comprehending the mechanisms underlying their formation. That is why the apprehension of regular and controlled physiological processes of scar formation is of utmost importance when facing hypertrophic scarring, its pathophysiology, prevention, and therapeutic approach. When treating HSs and choosing the best treatment and prevention modality, physicians can choose from a plethora of therapeutic options and many commercially available products, among which currently there is no efficient option that can successfully overcome impaired skin healing. This article reviews current therapeutic approach and emerging therapeutic strategies for the management of HSs, which should be individualized, based on an evaluation of the scar itself, patients’ expectations, and practical, evidence-based guidelines. Clinicians are encouraged to combine various prevention and treatment modalities where combination therapy that includes steroid injections, 5-fluorouracil, and pulsed-dye laser seems to be the most effective. On the other hand, the current therapeutic options are usually empirical and their results are unreliable and unpredictable. Therefore, there is an unmet need for an effective, targeted therapy and prevention, which would be based on an action or a modulation of a particular factor with clarified mechanism of action that has a beneficial effect on wound healing. As the extracellular matrix has a crucial role in cellular and extracellular events that lead to pathological scarring, targeting its components mostly by regulating bone morphogenetic proteins may throw up new therapeutic approach for reduction or prevention of HSs with functionally and cosmetically acceptable outcome.

  10. Nanomedicine in Psychiatry: New Therapeutic Opportunities from Research on Small RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesi, Elena; Maj, Carlo; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella; Maffioletti, Elisabetta

    2016-12-01

    Preclinical Research Alterations in small non-coding RNAs have been observed in many human disease states including cancer, cardiovascular, developmental, neurological, and psychiatric disorders. These molecules have recently raised the interest of the scientific community for novel therapeutic approaches. Nanotechnologies, including the development of sophisticated nanoparticles, offer new ways for the delivery of small RNA-based therapies. The nanoparticle delivery method appears attractive, but so far most of the work in this area has been conducted in the context of cancer. New therapeutic strategies are needed for psychiatric disorders, where treatment is often ineffective, leading to frequent patient hospitalizations and a growing economic burden. In this article, we discuss the role of small RNAs in psychiatric diseases and how this new knowledge, combined with innovations in nanotechnologies, could lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Drug Dev Res 77 : 453-457, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Therapeutic alliance over the course of child trauma therapy from three different perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzella, Karina P M; Rependa, Sara Lynn; Muller, Robert T

    2017-05-01

    In a multi-site, controlled study with follow up, we looked at the therapeutic alliance in child trauma therapy. Parent, child, and therapist ratings were used to examine how therapeutic alliance changes over the course of Trauma Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy (TF-CBT), an intervention that uses an exposure based method called a trauma narrative. Participants were 65 children and their caregivers in a community based trauma therapy program in Canada. Children in treatment underwent TF-CBT, including the trauma narrative asking them to write out and process their trauma story in detail. Results indicated that despite how hard it was for children to participate in this intensive treatment method, children, therapists and parents reported positive ratings of the therapeutic alliance throughout treatment. Furthermore, child and therapist's ratings of alliance became significantly more positive from therapy start to finish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Therapeutic follow-up in hospitalization: social inclusion, recovery of citizenship and respect for individuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Fiorati

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in a psychiatric crisis hospitalization unit, with the aim of drawing up a proposal for implementing therapeutic follow-up as part of the therapeutic program at this unit. The concept of therapeutic follow-up was envisaged as an important resource to be included in psychosocial rehabilitation projects, with the following goals: linking users with extra-hospital services, avoiding re-hospitalization and achieving inclusion in social networks. The study consisted of an exploratory-descriptive case study with a qualitative approach to data. Participant observation and a field diary were the techniques used for gathering and recording data. The difficulties experienced were correlated with the spheres of social networks, family, institutional relationships and society. The results included heeding the patient's and the family's suffering and including users in social networks, extra-hospital services and community organizations.

  13. Measuring Therapeutic Alliance with Children in Residential Treatment and Therapeutic Day Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Jesse; van der Helm, Peer; Strijbosch, Eefje; van Brandenburg, Mariëtte; Stams, Geert Jan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the construct validity and reliability of a therapeutic alliance measure (Children's Alliance Questionnaire [CAQ]) for children with psychosocial and/or behavioral problems, receiving therapeutic residential care or day care in the Netherlands. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis of a one-factor model ''therapeutic…

  14. Therapeutic Responses of Psychopathic Sexual Offenders: Treatment Attrition, Therapeutic Change, and Long-Term Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the therapeutic responses of psychopathic sex offenders (greater than or equal to 25 Psychopathy Checklist-Revised; PCL-R) in terms of treatment dropout and therapeutic change, as well as sexual and violent recidivism over a 10-year follow-up among 156 federally incarcerated sex offenders treated in a high-intensity inpatient…

  15. Cells as delivery vehicles for cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basel, Matthew T; Shrestha, Tej B; Bossmann, Stefan H; Troyer, Deryl L

    2014-05-01

    Cell-based therapeutics have advanced significantly over the past decade and are poised to become a major pillar of modern medicine. Three cell types in particular have been studied in detail for their ability to home to tumors and to deliver a variety of different payloads. Neural stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and monocytes have each been shown to have great potential as future delivery systems for cancer therapy. A variety of other cell types have also been studied. These results demonstrate that the field of cell-based therapeutics will only continue to grow.

  16. Therapeutic gas delivery via microbubbles and liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, Samantha M; Borden, Mark A; Dayton, Paul A

    2015-07-10

    Gaseous molecules including nitric oxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide and oxygen mediate numerous cell signaling pathways and have important physiological roles. Several noble gasses have been shown to elicit biological responses. These bioactive gasses hold great therapeutic potential, however, their controlled delivery remains a significant challenge. Recently, researchers have begun using microbubbles and liposomes to encapsulate such gasses for parenteral delivery. The resultant particles are acoustically active, and ultrasound can be used to stimulate and/or image gas release in a targeted region. This review provides a summary of recent advances in therapeutic gas delivery using microbubbles and liposomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [The gastroschisis: clinical and therapeutic considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabetay, C; Jona, J Z; Maloş, Anca; Stoica, A; Zavate, A; Ciobanu, O; Kamel, J; Neamţu, Olga; Cârstoiu, E

    2006-01-01

    Gastroschisis is a severe congenital malformation of the abdominal wall, with relative low incidence. The authors are analysing different therapeutic methods, in a group of 17 cases, hospitalised and operated in Department of Pediatric Surgery, Emergency Hospital of Craiova. They are underlining the importance of the ultrasound prenatal diagnosis of the malformation, close related to different therapeutic methods applied in this period of time and also are advising secondary closure of the abdominal wall, using a synthetic material (Silo-bag) for temporary coverage of the intestine developed outside the peritoneal cavity. This method helped with the decreasing of mortality in gastroschisis but with high costs of treatment.

  18. Process Improvement for Maximized Therapeutic Innovation Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Scott A; Terzic, Andre

    2018-01-01

    Deconvoluting key biological mechanisms forms the framework for therapeutic discovery. Strategies that enable effective translation of those insights along the development and regulatory path ultimately drive validated clinical application in patients and populations. Accordingly, parity in What vs. How we transform novel mechanistic insights into therapeutic paradigms is essential in achieving success. Aligning molecular discovery with innovations in structures and processes along the discovery-development-regulation-utilization continuum maximizes the return on public and private investments for next-generation solutions in managing health and disease. © 2017 ASCPT.

  19. Therapeutic Gene Editing Safety and Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Christopher T; Scharenberg, Andrew M

    2017-10-01

    Therapeutic gene editing is significant for medical advancement. Safety is intricately linked to the specificity of the editing tools used to cut at precise genomic targets. Improvements can be achieved by thoughtful design of nucleases and repair templates, analysis of off-target editing, and careful utilization of viral vectors. Advancements in DNA repair mechanisms and development of new generations of tools improve targeting of specific sequences while minimizing risks. It is important to plot a safe course for future clinical trials. This article reviews safety and specificity for therapeutic gene editing to spur dialogue and advancement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Peripheral facial nerve palsy after therapeutic endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jeong; Lee, Jun; Lee, Ji Woon; Lee, Jun Hyung; Park, Chol Jin; Kim, Young Dae; Lee, Hyun Jin

    2015-03-01

    Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) is a mononeuropathy that affects the peripheral part of the facial nerve. Primary causes of peripheral FNP remain largely unknown, but detectable causes include systemic infections (viral and others), trauma, ischemia, tumor, and extrinsic compression. Peripheral FNP in relation to extrinsic compression has rarely been described in case reports. Here, we report a case of a 71-year-old man who was diagnosed with peripheral FNP following endoscopic submucosal dissection. This case is the first report of the development of peripheral FNP in a patient undergoing therapeutic endoscopy. We emphasize the fact that physicians should be attentive to the development of peripheral FNP following therapeutic endoscopy.

  1. Postoperative Ileus: Pathophysiology, Current Therapeutic Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakenborg, N; Gomez-Pinilla, P J; Boeckxstaens, G E

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative ileus, which develops after each abdominal surgical procedure, is an iatrogenic disorder characterized by a transient inhibition of gastrointestinal motility. Its pathophysiology is complex involving pharmacological (opioids, anesthetics), neural, and immune-mediated mechanisms. The early neural phase, triggered by activation of afferent nerves during the surgical procedure, is short lasting compared to the later inflammatory phase. The latter starts after 3-6 h and lasts several days, making it a more interesting target for treatment. Insight into the triggers and immune cells involved is of great importance for the development of new therapeutic strategies. In this chapter, the pathogenesis and the current therapeutic approaches to treat postoperative ileus are discussed.

  2. Therapeutic Residential Care for Children and Youth:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, James K.; Holmes, Lisa; del Valle, Jorge F.

    2016-01-01

    In many developed countries around the world, ‘group care’ interventions for children and adolescents have come under increasing scrutiny from central government, private philanthropic and child advocacy agencies desirous of (1) achieving better outcomes for vulnerable children and youth; (2) doing...... for Child and Family Research, Loughborough University in the U.K. for a Summit meeting on therapeutic residential care for children and youth funded by the Sir Halley Stewart Trust (UK). The focus centered on what is known about therapeutic residential care and what key questions should inform a priority...

  3. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute: Identification of Therapeutic Targets Across Cancer Types | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dana Farber Cancer Institute CTD2 Center focuses on the use of high-throughput genetic and bioinformatic approaches to identify and credential oncogenes and co-dependencies in cancers. This Center aims to provide the cancer research community with information that will facilitate the prioritization of targets based on both genomic and functional evidence, inform the most appropriate genetic context for downstream mechanistic and validation studies, and enable the translation of this information into therapeutics and diagnostics.

  4. Antihistaminergics and inverse agonism: potential therapeutic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monczor, F.; Fernandez, N.; Fitzsimons, C.P.; Shayo, C.; Davio, C.

    The accurate characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in the action of receptor ligands is important for their appropriate therapeutic use and safety. It is well established that ligands acting at the histamine system currently used in the clinic exert their actions by specifically

  5. Effect of therapeutic ultrasound on endochondral ossification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiltink, A.; Nijweide, P.J.; Oosterbaan, W.A.; Hekkenberg, R.T.; Helders, P.J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of therapeutic doses of ultrasound was tested on endochondral ossification of in vitro developing metatarsal long bone rudiments of 16- and 17-day-old fetal mice. Bone growth, calcification and resorption following exposure to several doses of pulse-wave (PW) or continuous-wave (CW)

  6. Clinically Relevant Anticancer Polymer Paclitaxel Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danbo Yang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of utilizing polymers in drug delivery has been extensively explored for improving the therapeutic index of small molecule drugs. In general, polymers can be used as polymer-drug conjugates or polymeric micelles. Each unique application mandates its own chemistry and controlled release of active drugs. Each polymer exhibits its own intrinsic issues providing the advantage of flexibility. However, none have as yet been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. General aspects of polymer and nano-particle therapeutics have been reviewed. Here we focus this review on specific clinically relevant anticancer polymer paclitaxel therapeutics. We emphasize their chemistry and formulation, in vitro activity on some human cancer cell lines, plasma pharmacokinetics and tumor accumulation, in vivo efficacy, and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we include a short review of our recent developments of a novel poly(L-g-glutamylglutamine-paclitaxel nano-conjugate (PGG-PTX. PGG-PTX has its own unique property of forming nano-particles. It has also been shown to possess a favorable profile of pharmacokinetics and to exhibit efficacious potency. This review might shed light on designing new and better polymer paclitaxel therapeutics for potential anticancer applications in the clinic.

  7. The Fragility of a Robust Therapeutic Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikkelsø, Signe

    2012-01-01

    How can therapeutic techniques simultaneously be tools for emancipation and act as subtle forms of control? The article investigates this seeming paradox by examining a technique for group analysis developed by Wilfred Bion aimed at surfacing the inclination of a group to prompt inexpedient leade...

  8. [Samples for therapeutic errors in cupping therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chui-gang; Liang, Li-an

    2005-09-01

    To explore mechanisms, operating principle, indications and contraindications of cupping therapy. Analyze some examples of clinically erroneous application of cupping therapy. Erroneous application of cupping therapy for the patient of deficiency syndrome has a poor therapeutic effect, even exacerbates. Clinically, application ranges of cupping therapy should be definited.

  9. Microbial synthetic biology for human therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Aastha; Bhatia, Pooja; Chugh, Archana

    2012-06-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology holds tremendous potential for developing novel drugs to treat various human conditions. The current study discusses the scope of synthetic biology for human therapeutics via microbial approach. In this context, synthetic biology aims at designing, engineering and building new microbial synthetic cells that do not pre-exist in nature as well as re-engineer existing microbes for synthesis of therapeutic products. It is expected that the construction of novel microbial genetic circuitry for human therapeutics will greatly benefit from the data generated by 'omics' approaches and multidisciplinary nature of synthetic biology. Development of novel antimicrobial drugs and vaccines by engineering microbial systems are a promising area of research in the field of synthetic biology for human theragnostics. Expression of plant based medicinal compounds in the microbial system using synthetic biology tools is another avenue dealt in the present study. Additionally, the study suggest that the traditional medicinal knowledge can do value addition for developing novel drugs in the microbial systems using synthetic biology tools. The presented work envisions the success of synthetic biology for human therapeutics via microbial approach in a holistic manner. Keeping this in view, various legal and socio-ethical concerns emerging from the use of synthetic biology via microbial approach such as patenting, biosafety and biosecurity issues have been touched upon in the later sections.

  10. Emotional Readiness and Music Therapeutic Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drossinou-Korea, Maria; Fragkouli, Aspasia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the children's expression with verbal and nonverbal communication in the Autistic spectrum. We study the emotional readiness and the music therapeutic activities which exploit the elements of music. The method followed focused on the research field of special needs education. Assumptions on the parameters…

  11. Therapeutic hypothermia reduces intestinal ischemia/reperfusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the effects of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) on the morphology and function of intestine after cardiac arrest and resuscitation, 45 male rats were randomly assigned into three groups: (1) normothermia group, animals underwent ventricular fibrillation (VF) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with the rectal ...

  12. Therapeutic Exercise and Hypertension | Sikiru | African Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension implies chronic elevation in SBP and DBP above levels considered desirable or healthy for the person\\'s age and size. The focus of this review is to discuss the therapeutic efficacy of exercise on human hypertension. The paper revealed that hypertension is common among African, also that acute exercise ...

  13. Introduction to the Therapeutic Drawing Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giacco, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of Del Giacco's Neuro-Art Therapy is to help the client regenerate the sensory system at a decoding/encoding (for our purposes we use the two words interchangeably) levels in the brain while using developmental visual spatial exercises or the Therapeutic Drawing Series (TDS). The specialty of Del Giacco Neuro Art Therapy (DAT)…

  14. IgA as therapeutic antibody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leusen, Jeanette H W

    2015-01-01

    This review is focused on the promises of IgA as a new therapeutic antibody. For more than 30 years IgG molecules have been used in the clinic in the fields of oncology, hematology, auto immune diseases and infections. However, IgA might be a good alternative, since it recruits different effector

  15. Therapeutic gene editing: delivery and regulatory perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Gayong; Kim, Dongyoon; Park, Gyu Thae; Jin, Hyerim; Suh, Soo-Kyung; Oh, Yu-Kyoung

    2017-06-01

    Gene-editing technology is an emerging therapeutic modality for manipulating the eukaryotic genome by using target-sequence-specific engineered nucleases. Because of the exceptional advantages that gene-editing technology offers in facilitating the accurate correction of sequences in a genome, gene editing-based therapy is being aggressively developed as a next-generation therapeutic approach to treat a wide range of diseases. However, strategies for precise engineering and delivery of gene-editing nucleases, including zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nuclease, and CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated nuclease Cas9), present major obstacles to the development of gene-editing therapies, as with other gene-targeting therapeutics. Currently, viral and non-viral vectors are being studied for the delivery of these nucleases into cells in the form of DNA, mRNA, or proteins. Clinical trials are already ongoing, and in vivo studies are actively investigating the applicability of CRISPR/Cas9 techniques. However, the concept of correcting the genome poses major concerns from a regulatory perspective, especially in terms of safety. This review addresses current research trends and delivery strategies for gene editing-based therapeutics in non-clinical and clinical settings and considers the associated regulatory issues.

  16. Ventricular dysphonia: clinical aspects and therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryn, Youri; De Bodt, Marc S; Van Cauwenberge, Paul

    2003-05-01

    Ventricular dysphonia, also known as dysphonia plica ventricularis, refers to the pathological interference of the false vocal folds during phonation. Despite its low incidence and prevalence, Vd is a well-known phenomenon in voice clinics. The present report reviews symptoms, etiology, diagnosis, and therapeutic options regarding this voice disorder. Literature review and case studies. The literature pertaining to all clinical aspects of V(D) was reviewed to define diagnostic and therapeutic clinical decision making. Ventricular dysphonia is characterized by a typical rough, low-pitched voice quality resulting from false vocal fold vibration. Ventricular dysphonia may be compensatory when true vocal folds are affected (resection, paralysis). Noncompensatory types may be of habitual, psychoemotional, or idiopathic origin. Because perceptual symptoms may vary considerably, diagnosis should rely on a meticulous voice assessment, including laryngeal videostroboscopic, perceptual, aerodynamic, and acoustic evaluation. Various therapeutic approaches for the noncompensatory type of ventricular dysphonia may be considered: voice therapy, psychotherapy, anesthetic or botulinum toxin injections, or surgery. The study presents the state of the art with respect to ventricular dysphonia and may be helpful in diagnosis and therapeutic decision-making.

  17. Hydrogen Sulfide in Preeclampsia : Potential Therapeutic Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, Kim

    2015-01-01

    The thesis provide insights into the production and possible therapeutic effect of the gaseous molecule hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in preeclampsia (PE). H2S is an important molecule in the (human) body. It is among others involved in blood pressure regulation, stimulation of vascular growth and

  18. Therapeutic applications of collagenase (metalloproteases: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Alipour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive therapeutic methods have recently been used in medical sciences. Enzymes have shown high activity at very low concentrations in laboratories and pharmaceutical, enabling them to play crucial roles in different biological phenomena related to living organism, especially human medicine. Recently, using the therapeutic methods based on non-invasive approaches has been emphasized in medical society. Researchers have focused on producing medicines and tools reducing invasive procedures in medical. Collagenases are proteins which catalyze chemical processes and break the peptide bonds in collagen. Collagen may be generated more than the required amount or produced in unsuitable sites or may not degrade after a certain time. In such cases, using an injectable collagenase or its ointment can be helpful in collagen degradation. In both in vitro and in vivo tests, it has been revealed that collagenases have several therapeutic properties in wound healing, burns, nipple pain and some diseases including intervertebral disc herniation, keloid, cellulite, lipoma among others. This review describes the therapeutic application of collagenase in medical sciences and the process for its production using novel methods, paving the way for more effective and safe applications of collagenases.

  19. The Medical Ethics of Clinical Therapeutic Trials*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical therapeutic trials, or human experimentation with drugs, are abso- lutely necessary, because data gained from experiments on animals cannot always be directly extrapolated onto man as being applicable. Variations are also found in the different animal species. Tt is impossible to obtain data in animals regarding.

  20. Inflammatory bowel disease: potential therapeutic strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Bregenholt, S

    1997-01-01

    This review deals with potential and possibly primary therapeutics that, through insight into the inflammatory cascade, result in more rational treatment principles replacing the classical therapy of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e. Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). These ne...

  1. A critical view on singular therapeutic projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sfair Kinker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issue of unique therapeutic projects within the mental health services built in the Brazilian psychiatric reform process. Starting from the concepts that have gained strength in both the psychiatric reform as in the collective health, this study proposes that current notions of the therapeutic project still are influenced by biological, psychological or social paradigms that simplify the complexity of the experience suffered by the subjects. Despite therapeutic projects are an essential achievement for the qualification of mental health care, it is still necessary to produce an epistemological rupture in the relationship with mental suffering so that they can achieve the greatest potential for transformation. Therefore, the article suggests that the practice of therapeutic projects should hold discussions with the reality of users life of and their relationships in the territories of existence, to transform the relations of power and knowledge that reproduce the subjects annulment. Thus, it is possible to dialogue with the complexity of the mental suffering experience, producing changes in the scenes that produce it.

  2. The Transactive Nature of Therapeutic Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Stewart L.

    Therapeutic communication, or interaction which provokes personal insight or reorientation, can be best understood as a transactive, rather than linear, interrelationship between people or groups. Two practical responses to "pathological" communication patterns illustrate the validity of the transactional communication theory: the…

  3. Therapeutic potentials and pharmacological properties of Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic potentials and pharmacological properties of Moringa oleifera Lam in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and related complications. ... DM is a metabolic disorder resulting from abnormal insulin secretion. This leads to chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism. Hyperglycemic-induced ...

  4. Geriatric content in pharmacotherapy and therapeutics textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mort, Jane R; Delafuente, Jeffrey C; Odegard, Peggy Soule

    2006-12-15

    To determine the extent to which therapeutics textbooks address age-related medication information. Criteria for 5 disease states prevalent among geriatric patients were developed based on the content of a geriatric textbook and from expert reviewers' input. The criteria were used to determine the degree to which geriatric content was addressed in 3 therapeutics textbooks. The therapeutics textbooks contained less than half of the critical points for 3 disease states: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, and diabetes mellitus (31%, 33%, and 46%, respectively). In addition, the textbooks addressed only one half to two thirds of the criteria for the remaining 2 disease states of osteoarthritis and dementia (55% and 68%, respectively). Criteria specific to the elderly were addressed less often than criteria that were important but not unique to the elderly (38% and 63%, respectively). Current therapeutics textbooks have significant gaps in geriatric medication information. Users of these textbooks must supplement them with primary literature or a geriatric textbook for more comprehensive medication therapy management information.

  5. Therapeutic approaches to genetic disorders | Zaghloul | Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Although prevention is the ideal goal for genetic disorders, various types of therapeutic management are available. Such management approaches depend on the nature of the defect, how well it is understood at the genetic and biochemical levels and the practical feasibility of correction. In some conditions certain ...

  6. Automated (Centrifugal) Therapeutic Plasma Exchange Option for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is performed frequently and effectively in developed countries, whereas the reverse is the case in developing countries. Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), synonymous with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, is an important indication for TPE, but this is.

  7. Botanical galactogogues: nutritional values and therapeutic potentials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-01-31

    Jan 31, 2013 ... The plants showed therapeutic potentials against E. coli and K. pneumoniae. They could be used for the ... Iron, copper, and zinc contents of human milk vary considerably and a long list of other trace elements has been reported. All of the vitamins except vitamin K are found in human milk in nutritionally ...

  8. Interpreting quantum theory a therapeutic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Friederich, S

    2014-01-01

    Is it possible to approach quantum theory in a 'therapeutic' vein that sees its foundational problems as arising from mistaken conceptual presuppositions? The book explores the prospects for this project and, in doing so, discusses such fascinating issues as the nature of quantum states, explanation in quantum theory, and 'quantum non-locality'.

  9. Targeting of microRNAs for therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenvang, Jan; Lindow, Morten; Kauppinen, Sakari

    2008-01-01

    and cardiovascular diseases, and thus miRNAs have rapidly emerged as potential targets for therapeutics. LNAs (locked nucleic acids) comprise a class of bicyclic conformational analogues of RNA, which exhibit high binding affinity to complementary RNA molecules and high stability in blood and tissues in vivo. Recent...

  10. Antiretroviral therapeutic drug monitoring | Maartens | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiretroviral therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is an additional monitoring tool to assist in the management of HIV-infected patients. Antiretroviral TDM is frequently undertaken in Europe, but less often in the USA. This overview will assess the principles, current evidence for, and limitations of TDM. Lastly, the potential role ...

  11. [Video games, a therapeutic mediator for teens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickler, Christophe

    2015-10-01

    Teenagers love video games and other multimedia tools. Sometimes they love them too much, leading to addictive use. A child psychiatry team in Nancy has developed a therapeutic multimedia workshop to contribute to treating teens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. [Therapeutical use of the cannabinoids in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, José Alexandre S; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Hallak, Jaime E C

    2010-05-01

    To review the main advances related to the potential therapeutic use of cannabinoid compounds in psychiatry. A search was performed in the online databases PubMed, ScieELO, and Lilacs for studies and literature reviews concerning therapeutic applications of cannabinoids in psychiatry, especially cannabidiol, rimonabant, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and their analogues. Cannabidiol was found to have therapeutic potential with antipsychotic, anxiolytic, and antidepressant properties, in addition to being effective in other conditions. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and its analogues were shown to have anxiolytic effects in the treatment of cannabis dependence and to function as an adjuvant in the treatment of schizophrenia, although additional studies are necessary to support this finding. Rimonabant was effective in the treatment of the subjective and physiological symptoms of cannabis intoxication and functioned as an adjuvant in the treatment of tobacco addiction. The potential to induce adverse reactions such as depression and anxiety restrained the clinical use of this CB(1) antagonist. Cannabinoids may be of great therapeutic interest to psychiatry; however, further controlled trials are necessary to confirm the existing findings and to establish the safety of such compounds.

  13. Automated (Centrifugal) Therapeutic Plasma Exchange Option for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is performed frequently and effectively in developed countries, whereas the reverse is the case in developing countries. Guillain‑Barre syndrome (GBS), synonymous with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, is an important indication for TPE, but this is rarely administered ...

  14. Bone Therapeutics: Safety Considerations, Session Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Christopher P; Boyce, Rogely

    2017-10-01

    This session was a series of presentations focused on safety considerations for late stage or currently marketed bone therapeutic agents. The first presentation was an overview of a major regulatory requirement in the nonclinical filing package for bone therapeutics, studies designed to assess the impact of an agent on bone quality. Two presentations focused on safety issues associated with drugs whose primary mechanism of action is inhibition of bone resorption. Typical findings associated with this class of agents in general and reproductive toxicology studies were reviewed, highlighting INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria) nomenclature. This was followed by an overview of safety issues that have been identified largely through clinical experience. Similar presentations followed emphasizing safety and regulatory issues associated with classes of drugs whose primary mechanism of action is stimulation of bone formation known broadly as bone anabolic agents. The major focus of these discussions was carcinogenicity risk assessment. The final presentation was an introduction to a rapidly evolving area in bone therapeutics, treatment of rare genetic bone diseases, and the developmental challenges associated with these indications and novel therapeutic modalities.

  15. Humor: A Therapeutic Intervention for Child Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Rachelle G.; Parr, Gerald; Bradley, Loretta J.; Berry, Jeremy J.

    2009-01-01

    Counselors utilize many strategies, techniques, and tools when building a therapeutic alliance or addressing children's issues. Due to the serious nature of discussing problems or perhaps because of the fear of seeming insensitive, counselors often overlook humor as a means to enhance therapy. Whether deliberate or spontaneous, humor can add…

  16. Do Young Children Perceive Change in the Daily Lives of Their Families during Participation in a Therapeutic Family Support Programme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Kelly; Grace, Rebekah

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on findings from longitudinal research that explored perceptions of family life for three- to five-year-old children whose families were participating in an intensive, therapeutic family support programme (N = 5) in a disadvantaged community in Sydney, Australia. There were two early childhood comparison groups, one comprising…

  17. Manufacturing of Human Extracellular Vesicle-Based Therapeutics for Clinical Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimona, Mario; Pachler, Karin; Laner-Plamberger, Sandra; Schallmoser, Katharina; Rohde, Eva

    2017-06-03

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from stem and progenitor cells may have therapeutic effects comparable to their parental cells and are considered promising agents for the treatment of a variety of diseases. To this end, strategies must be designed to successfully translate EV research and to develop safe and efficacious therapies, whilst taking into account the applicable regulations. Here, we discuss the requirements for manufacturing, safety, and efficacy testing of EVs along their path from the laboratory to the patient. Development of EV-therapeutics is influenced by the source cell types and the target diseases. In this article, we express our view based on our experience in manufacturing biological therapeutics for routine use or clinical testing, and focus on strategies for advancing mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-derived EV-based therapies. We also discuss the rationale for testing MSC-EVs in selected diseases with an unmet clinical need such as critical size bone defects, epidermolysis bullosa and spinal cord injury. While the scientific community, pharmaceutical companies and clinicians are at the point of entering into clinical trials for testing the therapeutic potential of various EV-based products, the identification of the mode of action underlying the suggested potency in each therapeutic approach remains a major challenge to the translational path.

  18. Enhancing therapeutic impact and therapeutic alliance through electronic mail homework assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, J W; Connor-Greene, P A

    2000-01-01

    Homework assignments can enhance therapeutic impact and increase therapy effectiveness by encouraging patients to focus on therapy-related issues between sessions. Computer technology provides a new avenue for reporting, monitoring, and feedback of patient homework assignments through electronic mail (e-mail). In two case examples, e-mail was used as an extension of therapy to enhance patient involvement in treatment. In both cases, patient reports suggest that therapeutic alliance and therapeutic impact improved with the use of e-mail homework reporting. The costs and benefits of the use of e-mail as an adjunct to therapy are discussed.

  19. Enhancing Therapeutic Impact and Therapeutic Alliance Through Electronic Mail Homework Assignments

    OpenAIRE

    Murdoch, Janice W.; Connor-Greene, Patricia A.

    2000-01-01

    Homework assignments can enhance therapeutic impact and increase therapy effectiveness by encouraging patients to focus on therapy-related issues between sessions. Computer technology provides a new avenue for reporting, monitoring, and feedback of patient homework assignments through electronic mail (e- mail). In two case examples, e-mail was used as an extension of therapy to enhance patient involvement in treatment. In both cases, patient reports suggest that therapeutic alliance and thera...

  20. OXavidin for Tissue Targeting Biotinylated Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita De Santis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Avidin is a glycoprotein from hen egg white that binds biotin with very high affinity. Here we describe OXavidin, a product containing aldehyde groups, obtained by ligand-assisted sugar oxidation of avidin by sodium periodate. OXavidin chemically reacts with cellular and tissue proteins through Schiff's base formation thus residing in tissues for weeks while preserving the biotin binding capacity. The long tissue residence of OXavidin as well as that of OXavidin/biotinylated agent complex occurs in normal and neoplastic tissues and immunohistochemistry shows a strong and homogenous stromal localization. Once localized in tissue/tumor, OXavidin becomes an “artificial receptor” for intravenous injected biotin allowing tumor targeting with biotinylated therapeutics like radioisotopes or toxins. Moreover, present data also suggest that OXavidin might be useful for the homing of biotinylated cells. Overall, OXavidin exhibits a remarkable potential for many different therapeutic applications.

  1. Therapeutic Phytogenic Compounds for Obesity and Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Soong Jung

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural compounds have been used to develop drugs for many decades. Vast diversities and minimum side effects make natural compounds a good source for drug development. However, the composition and concentrations of natural compounds can vary. Despite this inconsistency, half of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved pharmaceuticals are natural compounds or their derivatives. Therefore, it is essential to continuously investigate natural compounds as sources of new pharmaceuticals. This review provides comprehensive information and analysis on natural compounds from plants (phytogenic compounds that may serve as anti-obesity and/or anti-diabetes therapeutics. Our growing understanding and further exploration of the mechanisms of action of the phytogenic compounds may afford opportunities for development of therapeutic interventions in metabolic diseases.

  2. Therapeutic music and nursing in poststroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew J; Wiese, Nikki

    2011-01-01

    Individuals who experience stroke undergo a critical rehabilitation process with the aid of professionals including physical, occupational, and speech therapists, as well as primary care from nursing staff. However, the extent of the role that music can play in facilitating the rehabilitation process is unknown. Board-certified music therapists are employed in several capacities within the rehabilitation environment. There is a need for nursing professionals in this area to better understand the role a music therapist may play and how they can assist clients in using music in a therapeutically beneficial way. The purpose of this article is to educate nurses about music therapy and provide evidence for the therapeutic use of music in the rehabilitation setting for victims of stroke.

  3. [Anticancer drugs: Which prices for therapeutic innovations?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Anthony; Maraninchi, Dominique; Marino, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    The expanding knowledge of the biological mechanisms underlying tumor development made it possible the recent emergence of new therapeutic approaches that are considered as undoubtedly innovative. Yet, to define and to evaluate the magnitude of a drug innovation require an examination of its intrinsic drug properties, medical utility as well as its mode of emergence. Recently, international academic societies, such as ESMO and ASCO, have proposed practical tools that may help quantifying the medical value of a given innovation. Currently, the sustained flux of therapeutic innovations in oncology is associated with an unprecedented growth of costs, the actual determinants of which remain under debate, but raising the critical issue of drugs pricing, and their potential individual or societal "financial toxicity". Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. [Therapeutic strategy for different types of epicanthus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaofeng, Li; Jun, Tan; Zihan, Wu; Wei, Ding; Huawei, Ouyang; Fan, Zhang; Mingcan, Luo

    2015-11-01

    To explore the reasonable therapeutic strategy for different types of epicanthus. Patients with epicanthus were classificated according to the shape, extent and inner canthal distance and treated with different methods appropriately. Modified asymmetric Z plasty with two curve method was used in lower eyelid type epicanthus, inner canthus type epicanthus and severe upper eyelid type epicanthus. Moderate upper epicanthus underwent '-' shape method. Mild Upper epicanthus in two conditions which underwent nasal augumentation and double eyelid formation with normal inner canthal distance need no correction surgery. The other mild epicanthus underwent '-' shape method. A total of 66 cases underwent the classification and the appropriate treatment. All wounds healed well. During 3 to 12 months follow-up period, all epicanthus were corrected completely with natural contour and unconspicuous scars. All patients were satisfied with the results. Classification of epicanthus hosed on the shape, extent and inner canthal distance and correction with appropriate methods is a reasonable therapeutic strategy.

  5. [Giant infantile hepatic hemangioma: which therapeutic options?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Cristina; Lobo, Luisa; Anjos, Rui; Salgueiro, Carlos; Lopes, Ana Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Infantile hepatic hemangioma is the third most frequent liver tumor in children and the most common below 6 months of age. Therapeutic options depend on clinical manifestations and should be tailored on an individual patient basis. We present the case of a 4 year old boy with neonatal diagnosis of large vascularized liver tumor with imagiological criteria of infantile hepatic hemangioma. We highlight the occurrence of heart failure and Kasabach-Merrit syndrome (thrombocytopenia, anemia) that have spontaneously regressed. During follow up, sequential imaging (ultrasound with Doppler, magnetic resonance imaging, dynamic contrast enhancement computed tomography) confirmed the hypothesis of IHH, allowing vascular mapping of the lesion. From the first year on, we observed a favorable course with progressive tumor regression. In the present case, a conservative approach has been maintained, but the best therapeutic option remains unclear. We highlight the specific features of this case, discussing the most cost-effective approach.

  6. Dragon's blood: botany, chemistry and therapeutic uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepika; Bleakley, Bruce; Gupta, Rajinder K

    2008-02-12

    Dragon's blood is one of the renowned traditional medicines used in different cultures of world. It has got several therapeutic uses: haemostatic, antidiarrhetic, antiulcer, antimicrobial, antiviral, wound healing, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, etc. Besides these medicinal applications, it is used as a coloring material, varnish and also has got applications in folk magic. These red saps and resins are derived from a number of disparate taxa. Despite its wide uses, little research has been done to know about its true source, quality control and clinical applications. In this review, we have tried to overview different sources of Dragon's blood, its source wise chemical constituents and therapeutic uses. As well as, a little attempt has been done to review the techniques used for its quality control and safety.

  7. Novel therapeutic targets for primary biliary cholangitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Rongbin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC is a chronic autoimmune-mediated liver disease manifesting as progressive cholestasis and non-purulent inflammation in small- and medium-sized intrahepatic bile ducts. It finally progresses to liver cirrhosis and liver cancer and greatly threatens patient's life. Studies have found that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA can treat PBC effectively. There is a constant increase in the proportion of patients with poor response to UDCA who have undergone transplantation or died, and therefore, new therapeutic regimens should be developed as soon as possible. It is necessary to develop new drugs which act on the key processes of disease progression, such as the "upstream" immune response, the "midstream" bile duct injury, and the "downstream" fibrotic process. Combination treatment with drugs targeting different pathways is a trend for future development. This article summarizes current potential therapeutic regimens for PBC and assesses the challenges in the treatment of PBC.

  8. Genome Engineering for Personalized Arthritis Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkar, Shaunak S; Brunger, Jonathan M; Willard, Vincent P; Wu, Chia-Lung; Gersbach, Charles A; Guilak, Farshid

    2017-10-01

    Arthritis represents a family of complex joint pathologies responsible for the majority of musculoskeletal conditions. Nearly all diseases within this family, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis, are chronic conditions with few or no disease-modifying therapeutics available. Advances in genome engineering technology, most recently with CRISPR-Cas9, have revolutionized our ability to interrogate and validate genetic and epigenetic elements associated with chronic diseases such as arthritis. These technologies, together with cell reprogramming methods, including the use of induced pluripotent stem cells, provide a platform for human disease modeling. We summarize new evidence from genome-wide association studies and genomics that substantiates a genetic basis for arthritis pathogenesis. We also review the potential contributions of genome engineering in the development of new arthritis therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Predictive and therapeutic markers in ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Joe W.; Guan, Yinghui; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Fridlyand, Jane; Mills, Gordon B.

    2013-03-26

    Cancer markers may be developed to detect diseases characterized by increased expression of apoptosis-suppressing genes, such as aggressive cancers. Genes in the human chromosomal regions, 8q24, 11q13, 20q11-q13, were found to be amplified indicating in vivo drug resistance in diseases such as ovarian cancer. Diagnosis and assessment of amplification levels certain genes shown to be amplified, including PVT1, can be useful in prediction of poor outcome of patient's response and drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients with low survival rates. Certain genes were found to be high priority therapeutic targets by the identification of recurrent aberrations involving genome sequence, copy number and/or gene expression are associated with reduced survival duration in certain diseases and cancers, specifically ovarian cancer. Therapeutics to inhibit amplification and inhibitors of one of these genes, PVT1, target drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients with low survival rates is described.

  10. Therapeutic application of multipotent stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Hamed; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Sichani, Laleh Shiri

    2018-01-01

    Cell therapy is an emerging fields in the treatment of various diseases such as cardiovascular, pulmonary, hepatic, and neoplastic diseases. Stem cells are an integral tool for cell therapy. Multipotent stem cells are an important class of stem cells which have the ability to self-renew through...... been showed that multipotent stem cells exert their therapeutic effects via inhibition/activation of a sequence of cellular and molecular pathways. Although the advantages of multipotent stem cells are numerous, further investigation is still necessary to clarify the biology and safety of these cells...... before they could be considered as a potential treatment for different types of diseases. This review summarizes different features of multipotent stem cells including isolation, differentiation, and therapeutic applications....

  11. Therapeutic value of the genus Alpinia, Zingiberaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane P. Victório

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants containing bioactive substances have increasingly become the object of research studies, particularly those plants with therapeutic value. Many species of the genus Alpinia provide a variety of medicinal properties, such as, Alpinia zerumbet (Pers. Burtt et Smith and A. purpurata (Vieill K. Schum, which have a significant presence in Brazil. These species have been commercialized in the food and cosmetic industries. However, their greatest importance arises from the medicinal properties of their essential oils containing flavonoids, terpenoids and kavalactones which have been used in folk medicine to treat, for example, arterial hypertension and inflammatory processes. In addition, such species are also used in multidisciplinary studies, including phytochemistry, ethnobotany and biology, indicating the key pharmacological role of this genus in everyday life. Therefore, this work aims to present a bibliographic review of the genus Alpinia and its significance in therapeutic applications.

  12. Atherosclerosis and Nanotechnology: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Jeremy D; Chaddha, Ashish; Bhattacharjee, Somnath; Goonewardena, Sascha N

    2016-02-01

    Over the past several decades, tremendous advances have been made in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, with shifting demographics and evolving risk factors we now face new challenges that must be met in order to further advance are management of patients with CAD. In parallel with advances in our mechanistic appreciation of CAD and atherosclerosis, nanotechnology approaches have greatly expanded, offering the potential for significant improvements in our diagnostic and therapeutic management of CAD. To realize this potential we must go beyond to recognize new frontiers including knowledge gaps between understanding atherosclerosis to the translation of targeted molecular tools. This review highlights nanotechnology applications for imaging and therapeutic advancements in CAD.

  13. Patent disclosure requirements for therapeutic antibody patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Carmela; Trifonova, Anastassia

    2017-08-01

    Therapeutic antibodies have grown to become an important product class within the biopharmaceutical market. A prerequisite to their commercialization is adequate patent protection. Disclosure requirements and the types of claims available in different jurisdictions can impact the scope of protection available for antibodies. Areas covered: A comparative review of statutory bases, patent office practices and selected decisions in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom related to disclosure requirements is provided. Expert opinion: Differences in disclosure requirements exist in different jurisdictions which can impact the type of claims obtained and their survival when attacked in litigation. Including a wide variety of claim types is a key strategy to ensuring therapeutic antibodies are adequately protected. Method of use claims may provide advantages and broader protection in some circumstances and should also be considered.

  14. Targeted Secretion Inhibitors—Innovative Protein Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Keith

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins are highly effective therapeutic products. Their therapeutic success results from highly specific and potent inhibition of neurotransmitter release with a duration of action measured in months. These same properties, however, make the botulinum neurotoxins the most potent acute lethal toxins known. Their toxicity and restricted target cell activity severely limits their clinical utility. Understanding the structure-function relationship of the neurotoxins has enabled the development of recombinant proteins selectively incorporating specific aspects of their pharmacology. The resulting proteins are not neurotoxins, but a new class of biopharmaceuticals, Targeted Secretion Inhibitors (TSI, suitable for the treatment of a wide range of diseases where secretion plays a major role. TSI proteins inhibit secretion for a prolonged period following a single application, making them particularly suited to the treatment of chronic diseases. A TSI for the treatment of chronic pain is in clinical development.

  15. Rett syndrome: genes, synapses, circuits and therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek eBanerjee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of the nervous system proceeds through a set of complex checkpoints which arise from a combination of sequential gene expression and early neural activity sculpted by the environment. Genetic and environmental insults lead to neurodevelopmental disorders which encompass a large group of diseases that result from anatomical and physiological abnormalities during maturation and development of brain circuits. Rett syndrome (RTT is a postnatal neurological disorder of genetic origin, caused by mutations in the X-linked gene MECP2. It features neuropsychiatric abnormalities like motor dysfunctions and mild to severe cognitive impairment. This review discusses several key questions and attempts to evaluate recently developed animal models, cell-type specific function of MeCP2, defects in neural circuit plasticity and possible therapeutic strategies. Finally, we also discuss how genes, proteins and overlapping signaling pathways affect the molecular etiology of apparently unrelated neuropsychiatric disorders, an understanding of which can offer novel therapeutic strategies.

  16. Therapeutic approaches for tumor necrosis factor inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Maria Letícia de Castro; Fumian, Milla Machado; Miranda, Ana Luísa Palhares de; Barreiro, Eliezer J.; Lima, Lídia Moreira

    2011-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) consists of an inflammatory cytokine essential for homeostasis and organism defense. Despite its physiological relevance, both increased biosynthesis and release of TNF lead to the exacerbation of inflammatory and oxidative responses, which are related to the pathogenesis of a host of diseases of an inflammatory, autoimmune and/or infectious nature. In this context, effective therapeutic approaches for the modulation of TNF have been the focus of research efforts. ...

  17. Gene therapy in glaucoma-3: Therapeutic approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel-Monem Soliman Mahdy

    2010-01-01

    Recently, several promising genetic therapeutic approaches had been investigated. Some are either used to stop apoptosis and halt further glaucomatous damage, wound healing modulating effect or long lasting intraocular pressure lowering effects than the conventional commercially available antiglaucoma medications. Method of Literature Search The literature was searched on the Medline database using the PubMed interface. The key words for search were glaucoma, gene therapy, and genetic diagnosis of glaucoma.

  18. Innovative therapeutics for inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesus K

    2007-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, which clinically present as one of two disorders, Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. Mainstays of drug treatments for IBD include aminosalicylates, corticosteroids and immunosuppressants such as azathioprine, methotrexate and cyclosporin. Advances in basic research of the pathophysiological process in IBD have been applied to generate a variety of new therapeutics targeting at different le...

  19. Immunology. Therapeutic manipulation of gut flora.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, F

    2012-02-03

    In developed countries as many as two individuals in every thousand suffer from inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn\\'s disease). In his Perspective, Shanahan discusses a new therapeutic approach to treating these conditions in which bacteria normally found in the gut are engineered to produce the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and then are fed as probiotics to mice with these disorders (Steidler et al.).

  20. Therapeutic Touch dan Nyeri Pasca Pembedahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumpuni Mumpuni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Penanganan nyeri pada pasien yang dilakukan oleh profesi perawat lebih banyak mengacu pada pendekatan terapi medis dan farmakologis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh therapeutic touch terhadap nyeri pasien pasca operasi. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain kuasi eksperimental yang dilakukan pada 60 orang responden, terdiri dari 30 orang kelompok intervensi dengan therapeutic touch dan 30 orang kelompok kontrol dengan teknik napas dalam. Penelitian berlangsung di ruang rawat bedah pasien dewasa RSUD Pasar Rebo. Data dikumpulkan dari bulan April hingga Oktober 2012. Hasil penelitian dengan uji Wilcoxon Signed Ranks menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang signifikan antara skala nyeri sebelum dan sesudah tindakan baik pada kelompok intervensi maupun kelompok kontrol (nilai p = 0,000. Hasil uji Mann-Whitney pun memperlihatkan adanya perbedaan yang signifikan pada penurunan skala nyeri antara kelompok intervensi dengan kelompok kontrol (nilai p = 0,000. Pain management for patients by nurses refers to medical therapy and pharmacological approaches. This study aimed to determine the effect of therapeutic touch on post-operative pain. This study used a quasi-experimental design conducted on 60 respondents, comprised 30 person for intervention group (therapeutic touch and 30 person for control group (deep-breaths technique. The study conducted in the surgical ward for adult patients at Pasar Rebo Hospital Jakarta. Data collected from April until October 2012. The result of Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test showed a significant difference between the pain scale before and after treatment either the intervention group or the control group (p value = 0.000. The Mann-Whitney test’s result also showed a significant difference in pain reduction between the scale of the intervention group with the control group (p value = 0.000.

  1. Therapeutic advances in the treatment of vasculitis

    OpenAIRE

    Eleftheriou, D.; P.A. Brogan

    2016-01-01

    Considerable therapeutic advances for the treatment of vasculitis of the young have been made in the past 10 years, including the development of outcome measures that facilitate clinical trial design. Notably, these include: a recognition that some patients with Kawasaki Disease require corticosteroids as primary treatment combined with IVIG; implementation of rare disease trial design for polyarteritis nodosa to deliver the first randomised controlled trial for children; first clinical trial...

  2. Therapeutic Benefits of Cannabis: A Patient Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Charles W; Webb, Sandra M

    2014-01-01

    Clinical research regarding the therapeutic benefits of cannabis (“marijuana”) has been almost non-existent in the United States since cannabis was given Schedule I status in the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. In order to discover the benefits and adverse effects perceived by medical cannabis patients, especially with regards to chronic pain, we hand-delivered surveys to one hundred consecutive patients who were returning for yearly re-certification for medical cannabis use in Hawai‘i.

  3. [Diagnostic-therapeutic approach for retroperitoneal tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariati, A

    1993-12-01

    After a careful review of the Literature, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for Primary Retroperitoneal Tumours (PRT) are reported. The Author analyzes the experience of the Institute of Clinica Chirurgica "R" (Chief: Prof. E. Tosatti) as well as that of Anatomia Chirurgica (Chief: Prof. E. Cariati),--University of Genoa--in the management of PRT, stressing the importance of preoperative staging for a correct surgical approach.

  4. Towards new therapeutic strategies in chondrosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Schrage, Yvonne Maria

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the identification of new targets for therapeutic treatment of chondrosarcoma, tumours that are highly insensitive to conventional chemo- and radiation thearapy. A relatively new array technique to identify active kinases in chondrosarcoma cell cultures was used, which identified Src inhibitor dasatinib as a potential target in chondrosarcoma treatment. Subsequently, growth of the majority of chondrosarcoma cell cultures was inhibited by dasatinib. In addition to dasatini...

  5. Viral Oncolytic Therapeutics for Neoplastic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Martuza. The cell lines were tested for mycoplasma, Hoechst DNA staining, PCR, and culture testing for contaminant bacteria, yeast, and fungi ...potential therapeutic effect of HSV-1 on meningeal metastases. When HSV-1 was injected at the early growth phase (day 12) we observed a significant ...present significant findings and results obtained during the entire funding period. This includes work that has been completed during the 1st and 2nd

  6. Implementation of nanoparticles in therapeutic radiation oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Erik; Gabani, Prashant; Singh, Om V.

    2017-05-01

    Development and progress of cancer is a very complex disease process to comprehend because of the multiple changes in cellular physiology, pathology, and pathophysiology resulting from the numerous genetic changes from which cancer originates. As a result, most common treatments are not directed at the molecular level but rather at the tissue level. While personalized care is becoming an increasingly aim, the most common cancer treatments are restricted to chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery, each of which has a high likelihood of resulting in rather severe adverse side effects. For example, currently used radiation therapy does not discriminate between normal and cancerous cells and greatly relies on the external targeting of the radiation beams to specific cells and organs. Because of this, there is an immediate need for the development of new and innovative technologies that help to differentiate tumor cells and micrometastases from normal cells and facilitate the complete destruction of those cells. Recent advancements in nanoscience and nanotechnology have paved a way for the development of nanoparticles (NPs) as multifunctional carriers to deliver therapeutic radioisotopes for tumor targeted radiation therapy, to monitor their delivery, and improve the therapeutic index of radiation and tumor response to the treatment. The application of NPs in radiation therapy has aimed to improve outcomes in radiation therapy by increasing therapeutic effect in tumors and reducing toxicity on normal tissues. Because NPs possess unique properties, such as preferential accumulation in tumors and minimal uptake in normal tissues, it makes them ideal for the delivery of radiotherapy. This review provides an overview of the recent development of NPs for carrying and delivering therapeutic radioisotopes for systemic radiation treatment for a variety of cancers in radiation oncology.

  7. Structure-guided deimmunization of therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew S; Choi, Yoonjoo; Griswold, Karl E; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    2013-02-01

    Therapeutic proteins continue to yield revolutionary new treatments for a growing spectrum of human disease, but the development of these powerful drugs requires solving a unique set of challenges. For instance, it is increasingly apparent that mitigating potential anti-therapeutic immune responses, driven by molecular recognition of a therapeutic protein's peptide fragments, may be best accomplished early in the drug development process. One may eliminate immunogenic peptide fragments by mutating the cognate amino acid sequences, but deimmunizing mutations are constrained by the need for a folded, stable, and functional protein structure. These two concerns may be competing, as the mutations that are best at reducing immunogenicity often involve amino acids that are substantially different physicochemically. We develop a novel approach, called EpiSweep, that simultaneously optimizes both concerns. Our algorithm identifies sets of mutations making such Pareto optimal trade-offs between structure and immunogenicity, embodied by a molecular mechanics energy function and a T-cell epitope predictor, respectively. EpiSweep integrates structure-based protein design, sequence-based protein deimmunization, and algorithms for finding the Pareto frontier of a design space. While structure-based protein design is NP-hard, we employ integer programming techniques that are efficient in practice. Furthermore, EpiSweep only invokes the optimizer once per identified Pareto optimal design. We show that EpiSweep designs of regions of the therapeutics erythropoietin and staphylokinase are predicted to outperform previous experimental efforts. We also demonstrate EpiSweep's capacity for deimmunization of the entire proteins, case analyses involving dozens of predicted epitopes, and tens of thousands of unique side-chain interactions. Ultimately, Epi-Sweep is a powerful protein design tool that guides the protein engineer toward the most promising immunotolerant biotherapeutic

  8. Mesenteric venous thrombosis: multidisciplinary therapeutic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Pieri

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Mesenteric venous thrombosis is a particular form of intestinal ischemia related to high mortality. The lack of a characteristic clinical picture often leads to a difficult diagnostic and therapeutic classification. We report the case of a young woman, using estrogenic and progestinic oral therapy, affected by a severe form of mesenteric thrombosis and complicated by segmental post ischemic stenosis of small intestine.

  9. Melanoma: Molecular Pathogenesis and Therapeutic Management

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yuxin; Sheikh, M Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Malignant melanoma remains one of the fastest growing cancers worldwide. Although the primary cutaneous melanoma can be managed by surgery, the advanced metastatic melanoma cannot be managed by surgery alone and thus, requires better therapeutic approaches. In view of high mortality rates due to metastatic melanoma, better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of malignant melanoma is urgently needed. Such information is expected to prove very valuable in early detection of potential me...

  10. Macropinocytosis Exploitation by Cancers and Cancer Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D Ha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Macropinocytosis has long been known as a primary method for cellular intake of fluid-phase and membrane-bound bulk cargo. This review seeks to re-examine the latest studies to emphasize how cancers exploit macropinocytosis to further their tumorigenesis, including details in how macropinocytosis can be adapted to serve diverse functions. Furthermore, this review will also cover the latest endeavors in targeting macropinocytosis as an avenue for novel therapeutics.

  11. Macropinocytosis Exploitation by Cancers and Cancer Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Kevin D; Bidlingmaier, Scott M; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Macropinocytosis has long been known as a primary method for cellular intake of fluid-phase and membrane-bound bulk cargo. This review seeks to re-examine the latest studies to emphasize how cancers exploit macropinocytosis to further their tumorigenesis, including details in how macropinocytosis can be adapted to serve diverse functions. Furthermore, this review will also cover the latest endeavors in targeting macropinocytosis as an avenue for novel therapeutics.

  12. Macropinocytosis Exploitation by Cancers and Cancer Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Kevin D.; Bidlingmaier, Scott M.; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Macropinocytosis has long been known as a primary method for cellular intake of fluid-phase and membrane-bound bulk cargo. This review seeks to re-examine the latest studies to emphasize how cancers exploit macropinocytosis to further their tumorigenesis, including details in how macropinocytosis can be adapted to serve diverse functions. Furthermore, this review will also cover the latest endeavors in targeting macropinocytosis as an avenue for novel therapeutics.

  13. Evaluation of theophylline therapeutic drug monitoring service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neža Rugelj

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTherapeutic monitoring of theophylline serum levels is required due to its narrow therapeutic range and marked interindividual pharmacokinetic variability. We evaluated therapeutic drug monitoring service for theophylline in Slovenian clinical setting, which currently includes no pharmacokinetic evaluation of measured theophylline serum concentrations. MethodsWe  retrospectively evaluated 127 randomly selected theophylline serum level determinations performed in 2010 in a tertiary clinical setting in Slovenia. Demographic data, information on theophylline dosing and blood sampling was collected from patients’ data files. Authors evaluated the appropriateness of the following procedures: indications for theophylline serum concentration measurement, timing of blood sampling and dosage adjustments made after theophylline levels had been reported. On the basis of collected data, population pharmacokinetic model for theophylline was built and further used for the evaluation of dosage adjustments. ResultsOut of 127 cases, 107 (84.3% had clinically justified indication for theophylline serum level measurement. Near half of measurements (44.9% were performed before the steady state of theophylline concentrations was established. 65% of measured concentrations were subtherapeutic and the average measured concentration was below therapeutic range (53.1 μmol/L. Despite subtherapeutic concentrations the dose of theophylline was mainly not increased. Pharmacokinetic model enabled the calculation of average optimal daily dose which was significantly higher than the average actual daily dose used (876 mg vs. 572 mg, p < 0.001. ConclusionsTheophylline TDM service should be optimized and pharmacokinetic interpretation of theophylline serum levels should be integrated into clinical practice.

  14. Bee Pollen: Chemical Composition and Therapeutic Application

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Komosinska-Vassev; Pawel Olczyk; Justyna Kaźmierczak; Lukasz Mencner; Krystyna Olczyk

    2015-01-01

    Bee pollen is a valuable apitherapeutic product greatly appreciated by the natural medicine because of its potential medical and nutritional applications. It demonstrates a series of actions such as antifungal, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anticancer immunostimulating, and local analgesic. Its radical scavenging potential has also been reported. Beneficial properties of bee pollen and the validity for their therapeutic use in various pathological condition ha...

  15. [Does cannabis have a therapeutic value?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechat, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Among the numerous therapeutic applications claimed for cannabis, many come from anecdotal reports, a few have been subjected to clinical double-blind trials with comparison to a reference treatment. Their results are less than convincing and larger multicentre assays are needed to assess our knowledge. Researches on endogenous cannabinoids as well as on cannabinoids receptors agonists and antagonists may lead to discover new useful drugs devoid of the central nervous system unwanted effects of cannabis.

  16. Targeting the endocannabinoid system for therapeutic purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Busquets Garcia, Arnau

    2013-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is an endogenous neuromodulatory system that regulates a plethora of physiological functions, including the modulation of memory, anxiety, pain, synaptic plasticity and neuronal excitability, among others. The activation of this system through exogenous or endogenous cannabinoid agonists has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy in different pathological states, although an important caveat to their use is the possible central adverse effects, such as memory impai...

  17. Dexmedetomidine in PRES: An appropriate therapeutic decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Ahlawat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available PRES, a reversible white matter lesion characterized by cerebral edema, found in 7–20% of the patients with preeclampsia and eclampsia, needs early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. We report PRES in a young preeclamptic primigravida and the role of dexmedetomidine in controlling her uncontrollable blood pressure in ICU. Dexmedetomidine, has cerebroprotective cardioprotective and renoprotective properties all of which, helped the patient improving clinically.

  18. Therapeutic and diagnostic challenges for frontotemporal dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eD'Alton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the search for therapeutic modifiers, frontotemporal dementia (FTD has traditionally been overshadowed by other conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease. A clinically and pathologically diverse condition, FTD has been galvanized by a number of recent discoveries such as novel genetic variants in familial and sporadic forms of disease and the identification of TAR DNA binding protein of 43kDa (TDP-43 as the defining constituent of inclusions in more than half of cases. In combination with an ever-expanding knowledge of the function and dysfunction of tau - a protein which is pathologically aggregated in the majority of the remaining cases - there exists a greater understanding of FTD than ever before. These advances may indicate potential approaches for the development of hypothetical therapeutics, but FTD remains highly complex and the roles of tau and TDP-43 in neurodegeneration are still wholly unclear. Here the challenges facing potential therapeutic strategies are discussed, which include sufficiently accurate disease diagnosis and sophisticated technology to deliver effective therapies.

  19. Cannabidiol and epilepsy: Rationale and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Antonio; Russo, Emilio; Elia, Maurizio

    2016-05-01

    Despite the introduction of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the quality of life and therapeutic response for patients with epilepsy remains still poor. Unfortunately, besides several advantages, these new AEDs have not satisfactorily reduced the number of refractory patients. Therefore, the need for different other therapeutic options to manage epilepsy is still a current issue. To this purpose, emphasis has been given to phytocannabinoids, which have been medicinally used since ancient time in the treatment of neurological disorders including epilepsy. In particular, the nonpsychoactive compound cannabidiol (CBD) has shown anticonvulsant properties, both in preclinical and clinical studies, with a yet not completely clarified mechanism of action. However, it should be made clear that most phytocannabinoids do not act on the endocannabinoid system as in the case of CBD. In in vivo preclinical studies, CBD has shown significant anticonvulsant effects mainly in acute animal models of seizures, whereas restricted data exist in chronic models of epilepsy as well as in animal models of epileptogenesis. Likewise, clinical evidence seems to indicate that CBD is able to manage epilepsy both in adults and children affected by refractory seizures, with a favourable side effect profile. However, to date, clinical trials are both qualitatively and numerically limited, thus yet inconsistent. Therefore, further preclinical and clinical studies are undoubtedly needed to better evaluate the potential therapeutic profile of CBD in epilepsy, although the actually available data is promising. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Pathogenetic and therapeutic aspects of contact granuloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, W; Löhle, E; Welte, V

    1994-09-01

    Contact ulcer and granuloma is an etiologically multifactorial chronic inflammatory disease of the larynx. Besides mechanical laryngeal factors, gastrointestinal and psychosomatic aspects of pathogenesis have been suggested. 51 patients suffering from contact ulcer or granuloma underwent laryngologic and phoniatric examination. In addition, a questionnaire asking for symptoms and habits (smoking, alcohol) was completed by each patient. Subsequent to completing the treatment course, the patients were re-examined. Each patient was examined several times and the success of 6 therapeutic strategies was compared. 49 patients were male and almost 70% complained of private or professional stress. Since only 8% were smokers, smoking habits do not play a pathogenetic role. Drinking habits are also not a significant factor. A striking therapeutic result observed by us was complete remission in more than 80% of patients who had received an acid-inhibiting agent as monotherapy. The remission was higher in this group than in patients treated by logopedic therapy. In case of carcinophobia or if cancer could not be excluded by laryngoscopy and stroboscopy, granulomas were removed surgically. More than 90% of these patients suffered from recurrence unless voice therapy was directly performed. On the other hand, antacid therapy yielded excellent results in patients suffering from recurrent granuloma or ulcer after surgery. We conclude that peptic diseases of stomach and oesophagus play an important role in the pathogenesis of contact ulcer and granuloma and recommend routine interviews and internal examination of patients. Antacid therapy should be firmly installed in the therapeutic strategy against contact ulcer.

  1. Universal influenza virus vaccines and therapeutic antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbagauer, R; Krammer, F

    2017-04-01

    Current influenza virus vaccines are effective when well matched to the circulating strains. Unfortunately, antigenic drift and the high diversity of potential emerging zoonotic and pandemic viruses make it difficult to select the right strains for vaccine production. This problem causes vaccine mismatches, which lead to sharp drops in vaccine effectiveness and long response times to manufacture matched vaccines in case of novel pandemic viruses. To provide an overview of universal influenza virus vaccines and therapeutic antibodies in preclinical and clinical development. PubMed and clinicaltrials.gov were used as sources for this review. Universal influenza virus vaccines that target conserved regions of the influenza virus including the haemagglutinin stalk domain, the ectodomain of the M2 ion channel or the internal matrix and nucleoproteins are in late preclinical and clinical development. These vaccines could confer broad protection against all influenza A and B viruses including drift variants and thereby abolish the need for annual re-formulation and re-administration of influenza virus vaccines. In addition, these novel vaccines would enhance preparedness against emerging influenza virus pandemics. Finally, novel therapeutic antibodies against the same conserved targets are in clinical development and could become valuable tools in the fight against influenza virus infection. Both universal influenza virus vaccines and therapeutic antibodies are potential future options for the control of human influenza infections. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Polymer therapeutics in surgery: the next frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, Ernest A; Conlan, R Steven; Whitaker, Iain S

    2016-04-01

    Polymer therapeutics is a successful branch of nanomedicine, which is now established in several facets of everyday practice. However, to our knowledge, no literature regarding the application of the underpinning principles, general safety, and potential of this versatile class to the perioperative patient has been published. This study provides an overview of polymer therapeutics applied to clinical surgery, including the evolution of this demand-oriented scientific field, cutting-edge concepts, its implications, and limitations, illustrated by products already in clinical use and promising ones in development. In particular, the effect of design of polymer therapeutics on biophysical and biochemical properties, the potential for targeted delivery, smart release, and safety are addressed. Emphasis is made on principles, giving examples in salient areas of demand in current surgical practice. Exposure of the practising surgeon to this versatile class is crucial to evaluate and maximise the benefits that this established field presents and to attract a new generation of clinician-scientists with the necessary knowledge mix to drive highly successful innovation.

  3. Inflammatory mechanisms in ischemic stroke: therapeutic approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirchgessner Annette

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute ischemic stroke is the third leading cause of death in industrialized countries and the most frequent cause of permanent disability in adults worldwide. Despite advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, therapeutic options remain limited. Only recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (rt-PA for thrombolysis is currently approved for use in the treatment of this devastating disease. However, its use is limited by its short therapeutic window (three hours, complications derived essentially from the risk of hemorrhage, and the potential damage from reperfusion/ischemic injury. Two important pathophysiological mechanisms involved during ischemic stroke are oxidative stress and inflammation. Brain tissue is not well equipped with antioxidant defenses, so reactive oxygen species and other free radicals/oxidants, released by inflammatory cells, threaten tissue viability in the vicinity of the ischemic core. This review will discuss the molecular aspects of oxidative stress and inflammation in ischemic stroke and potential therapeutic strategies that target neuroinflammation and the innate immune system. Currently, little is known about endogenous counterregulatory immune mechanisms. However, recent studies showing that regulatory T cells are major cerebroprotective immunomodulators after stroke suggest that targeting the endogenous adaptive immune response may offer novel promising neuroprotectant therapies.

  4. Socio-therapeutic aspects of creative resocialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Kupiec

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of a search for effective methods of resocialization this article refers to the possibility and the grounds for using socio-therapeutic aspects of creative resocialization. In the first part there are presented the basic assumptions of socio-therapeutic method and the concept of creative resocialization, stemming from the cultural and technical methods of resocialization treatment, though significantly different from it. Then the similarities, connections and differences between socio-therapy and creative resocialization are presented with the emphasis on showing the complementation of both theoretical approaches. In the final part of the article there is shown an example of a practical use of the author’s considerations, in the form of photography workshop organised for underage pupils of MOW [Juvenile Detention Centre] in Szczecin City. In conclusions the arguments put forward point to the fact that when organising creative resocialization activities it is worth to remember to take the socio-therapeutic aspects into account already on the planning stage and knowingly use them when conducting the tasks. Both the nature of the social maladjustment as well as the group work speak in favour of this view.

  5. Therapeutic Vaccine Strategies against Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadeel Khallouf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV cause over 500,000 cervical, anogenital and oropharyngeal cancer cases per year. The transforming potential of HPVs is mediated by viral oncoproteins. These are essential for the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Thus, HPV-mediated malignancies pose the unique opportunity in cancer vaccination to target immunologically foreign epitopes. Therapeutic HPV vaccination is therefore an ideal scenario for proof-of-concept studies of cancer immunotherapy. This is reflected by the fact that a multitude of approaches has been utilized in therapeutic HPV vaccination design: protein and peptide vaccination, DNA vaccination, nanoparticle- and cell-based vaccines, and live viral and bacterial vectors. This review provides a comprehensive overview of completed and ongoing clinical trials in therapeutic HPV vaccination (summarized in tables, and also highlights selected promising preclinical studies. Special emphasis is given to adjuvant science and the potential impact of novel developments in vaccinology research, such as combination therapies to overcome tumor immune suppression, the use of novel materials and mouse models, as well as systems vaccinology and immunogenetics approaches.

  6. The apelinergic system: a promising therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão-Pires, Inês; Ladeiras-Lopes, Ricardo; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F

    2010-06-01

    Apelin is a bioactive peptide known as the ligand of the G-protein-coupled receptor APJ. In recent years, there has been a growing body of evidence regarding the importance of apelin and APJ in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular, metabolic and gastrointestinal diseases, brain signalling, HIV infection and tumor angiogenesis. Therefore, the apelinergic system is involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases that represent a major burden to our society. The goal of this paper is to give an up-to-date review of existing information on apelin/APJ since the discovery of apelin in 1998, with particular focus on their involvement in the regulation of human body systems and potential therapeutic applications. An overview of the most important physiological functions of the apelinergic system and the diseases that may benefit in the future from its modulation as a therapeutic target. Today, the established biological effects of apelin involve major cardiovascular actions, neoangiogenesis, immunologic modulation and insulinemia control as well as body fluid and glucose homeostasis. However, the physiological and pathophysiological role of endogenous apelin is still unsettled and a better and profound knowledge of this system in humans is necessary for the development of novel apelinergic-based therapeutic targets.

  7. Therapeutic Vaccine Strategies against Human Papillomavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallouf, Hadeel; Grabowska, Agnieszka K.; Riemer, Angelika B.

    2014-01-01

    High-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause over 500,000 cervical, anogenital and oropharyngeal cancer cases per year. The transforming potential of HPVs is mediated by viral oncoproteins. These are essential for the induction and maintenance of the malignant phenotype. Thus, HPV-mediated malignancies pose the unique opportunity in cancer vaccination to target immunologically foreign epitopes. Therapeutic HPV vaccination is therefore an ideal scenario for proof-of-concept studies of cancer immunotherapy. This is reflected by the fact that a multitude of approaches has been utilized in therapeutic HPV vaccination design: protein and peptide vaccination, DNA vaccination, nanoparticle- and cell-based vaccines, and live viral and bacterial vectors. This review provides a comprehensive overview of completed and ongoing clinical trials in therapeutic HPV vaccination (summarized in tables), and also highlights selected promising preclinical studies. Special emphasis is given to adjuvant science and the potential impact of novel developments in vaccinology research, such as combination therapies to overcome tumor immune suppression, the use of novel materials and mouse models, as well as systems vaccinology and immunogenetics approaches. PMID:26344626

  8. Polyphenols: Multipotent Therapeutic Agents in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, Khushwant S.; Rupasinghe, H. P. Vasantha

    2013-01-01

    Aging leads to numerous transitions in brain physiology including synaptic dysfunction and disturbances in cognition and memory. With a few clinically relevant drugs, a substantial portion of aging population at risk for age-related neurodegenerative disorders require nutritional intervention. Dietary intake of polyphenols is known to attenuate oxidative stress and reduce the risk for related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), stroke, multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD). Polyphenols exhibit strong potential to address the etiology of neurological disorders as they attenuate their complex physiology by modulating several therapeutic targets at once. Firstly, we review the advances in the therapeutic role of polyphenols in cell and animal models of AD, PD, MS, and HD and activation of drug targets for controlling pathological manifestations. Secondly, we present principle pathways in which polyphenol intake translates into therapeutic outcomes. In particular, signaling pathways like PPAR, Nrf2, STAT, HIF, and MAPK along with modulation of immune response by polyphenols are discussed. Although current polyphenol researches have limited impact on clinical practice, they have strong evidence and testable hypothesis to contribute clinical advances and drug discovery towards age-related neurological disorders. PMID:23840922

  9. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of primidone and phenobarbital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Verdier, Marie-Clémence; Tribut, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Primidone is a minor first-generation antiepileptic drug, little currently prescribed for this indication, but except marketing authorization, remains a first-line treatment of essential tremor. Although it is metabolized in phenyl-ethyl-malondamide and phenobarbital, active metabolites that contribute also to its action, primidone is not a prodrug and is active by itself. The rate of conversion of primidone to phenobarbital is highly variable according to the subject. Generally accepted therapeutic range for primidone is between 5 and 10 mg/L (23-46 mmol/L). The therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of primidone must be accompanied by the determination of phenobarbital concentrations. The level of proof of the interest of the TDM primidone was estimated to be "probably useless". Phenobarbital, a very ancient anticonvulsant, is much less used today, for the benefit of other more recent compounds. It remains prescribed in neonatology and is one of the compounds used in status epilepticus. It is a molecule with a long half-life, metabolized in p-hydroxy-phenobarbital. It is a potent inducer of CYP3A4. Several side effects, especially drowsiness, are concentration-dependent. Generally accepted therapeutic range for phenobarbital is between 10 and 40 mg/L (43 - 172 mmol/L), without considering the type of crise. The level of proof of the interest of TDM of phenobarbital was evaluated as "recommended". © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  10. A Therapeutic update on Cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Arfan Ul; Rahman, Simeen Ber

    2003-08-01

    Leishmaniasis, in its visceral (VL), cutaneous (CL) and mucocutaneous (MCL) forms, directly affects hundreds of thousands people per annum, with millions of individuals at risk worldwide. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an infective skin disease that manifests as ulcerated nodules, upto several centimeters in size, which are quite resistant to treatment. A wide variety of therapeutic modalities have been employed for cutaneous leishmaniasis. However, none has been demonstrated to be good enough as the first-line therapeutic agent to treat patients in all the epidemiological scenarios. Although pentavalent antimonials are widely used in the treatment of all forms of leishmaniasis, the response is far from satisfactory. These must be administered parenterally with occurrence of therapeutic failures. Secondary treatments incorporate amphotericin B, which is highly active but its use is limited by extensive toxicity complications and high cost. Several oral drugs, such as pentamidine, ketoconazole and itraconazole, have also been tested. Results obtained are not entirely satisfactory. The majority of topical agents have been tested in non-controlled studies, with only few subjects. The interpretation of results is usually difficult due to the lack of a standard and well-accepted cure definition. There remains a pressing need for new anti-leishmanials. This review is focused upon the current status of chemotherapy, the various avenues being investigated by researchers and their potential application in the future.

  11. Autophagy in lung disease pathogenesis and therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W. Ryter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy, a cellular pathway for the degradation of damaged organelles and proteins, has gained increasing importance in human pulmonary diseases, both as a modulator of pathogenesis and as a potential therapeutic target. In this pathway, cytosolic cargos are sequestered into autophagosomes, which are delivered to the lysosomes where they are enzymatically degraded and then recycled as metabolic precursors. Autophagy exerts an important effector function in the regulation of inflammation, and immune system functions. Selective pathways for autophagic degradation of cargoes may have variable significance in disease pathogenesis. Among these, the autophagic clearance of bacteria (xenophagy may represent a crucial host defense mechanism in the pathogenesis of sepsis and inflammatory diseases. Our recent studies indicate that the autophagic clearance of mitochondria, a potentially protective program, may aggravate the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by activating cell death programs. We report similar findings with respect to the autophagic clearance of cilia components, which can contribute to airways dysfunction in chronic lung disease. In certain diseases such as pulmonary hypertension, autophagy may confer protection by modulating proliferation and cell death. In other disorders, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and cystic fibrosis, impaired autophagy may contribute to pathogenesis. In lung cancer, autophagy has multiple consequences by limiting carcinogenesis, modulating therapeutic effectiveness, and promoting tumor cell survival. In this review we highlight the multiple functions of autophagy and its selective autophagy subtypes that may be of significance to the pathogenesis of human disease, with an emphasis on lung disease and therapeutics.

  12. A natural history of botanical therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Barbara; Ribnicky, David M; Poulev, Alexander; Logendra, Sithes; Cefalu, William T; Raskin, Ilya

    2008-07-01

    Plants have been used as a source of medicine throughout history and continue to serve as the basis for many pharmaceuticals used today. Although the modern pharmaceutical industry was born from botanical medicine, synthetic approaches to drug discovery have become standard. However, this modern approach has led to a decline in new drug development in recent years and a growing market for botanical therapeutics that are currently available as dietary supplements, drugs, or botanical drugs. Most botanical therapeutics are derived from medicinal plants that have been cultivated for increased yields of bioactive components. The phytochemical composition of many plants has changed over time, with domestication of agricultural crops resulting in the enhanced content of some bioactive compounds and diminished content of others. Plants continue to serve as a valuable source of therapeutic compounds because of their vast biosynthetic capacity. A primary advantage of botanicals is their complex composition consisting of collections of related compounds having multiple activities that interact for a greater total activity.

  13. The impact of early symptom change and therapeutic alliance on treatment outcome in cognitive-behavioural therapy for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Hannah; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel; Marshall, Emily

    2015-10-01

    The present study explored the impact of early symptom change (cognitive and behavioural) and the early therapeutic alliance on treatment outcome in cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders. Participants were 94 adults with diagnosed eating disorders who completed a course of CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed a measure of eating disorder psychopathology at the start of treatment, following the 6th session and at the end of treatment. They also completed a measure of therapeutic alliance following the 6th session. Greater early reduction in dietary restraint and eating concerns, and smaller levels of change in shape concern, significantly predicted later reduction in global eating pathology. The early therapeutic alliance was strong across the three domains of tasks, goals and bond. Early symptom reduction was a stronger predictor of later reduction in eating pathology than early therapeutic alliance. The early therapeutic alliance did not mediate the relationship between early symptom reduction and later reduction in global eating pathology. Instead, greater early symptom reduction predicted a strong early therapeutic alliance. Early clinical change was the strongest predictor of treatment outcome and this also facilitated the development of a strong early alliance. Clinicians should be encouraged to deliver all aspects of evidence-based CBT, including behavioural change. The findings suggest that this will have a positive impact on both the early therapeutic alliance and later change in eating pathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Concentração de sódio e glicose em soro de reidratação oral preparado por Agentes Comunitários de Saúde Sodium and glucose concentration in therapeutical solution for oral rehydration prepared by Community Health Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Fernandes do Carmo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A diarreia infantil é importante causa de morbimortalidade, sendo indicativo para terapia de reidratação oral (TRO. Este estudo objetivou avaliar o teor de sódio e glicose em soro de reidratação oral preparado por Agentes Comunitários de Saúde (ACS que atuam em Unidades Básicas de Saúde (UBS, caracterizando o perfil e o conhecimento destes sobre a TRO. Após responderem questionário com informações profissionais e sobre a TRO, os ACS a prepararam por três métodos. O teor de glicose e de sódio das TRO foi determinado e comparado ao proposto pela OMS. Na análise estatística foram utilizados ANOVA, Tukey e odds ratio. Participaram do estudo 52 ACS, majoritariamente mulheres e com ensino médio completo (90,4%. A adequação da TRO foi de 3,9; 9,8 e 28,9% para a colher caseira, colher medida e punhado pitada, respectivamente. O preparo da TRO com a colher caseira resultou em 88,0% das amostras com teor de sódio perigoso à saúde (>101 mmol/L. Entre os ACS, 38,5% tinham menos de 2 anos de trabalho, com risco 4,8 vezes maior de preparar TRO inadequada em sódio. Os ACS referiram indicar a TRO no tratamento da diarreia infantil, desconhecendo efeitos colaterais do preparo inadequado. A composição da TRO produzida pelos ACS foi inadequada em todos os métodos. É recomendável treinamento dos ACS no preparo da TRO.Infant Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children and oral rehydration therapy (ORT is required. This study evaluates the composition of ORT prepared by Community Health Agents (CHAs working in Basic Health Units, assessing their profile and knowledge about ORT. After the CHAs answer specific questions, they are invited to prepare ORT using three methods. Glucose and sodium levels were then quantified and compared with WHO recommendations. ANOVA, Tukey and odds ratio were used for statistical analysis. 52 CHAs participated, mainly females, and 90.4% with full high school education. The adequacy of

  15. Immediate Effect of Therapeutic Massage on Pain Sensation and Unpleasantness: A Consecutive Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Martha Brown

    2015-09-01

    Musculoskeletal pain is a common condition that poses a significant burden to its sufferers and costs the US economy billions of dollars each year in lost productivity. Individuals complaining of musculoskeletal pain make up a large proportion of clients treated by massage therapists in community practices, yet few studies have examined the immediate effect of therapeutic massage on this type of pain in the practice setting. To assess the immediate effect of therapeutic massage on musculoskeletal pain sensation and unpleasantness in a community setting. Solo private practice in central Virginia, United States. One hundred sixteen first-time clients who complained of musculoskeletal pain as a presenting symptom. Prospective, consecutive practice-based case series. A single 60-minute session of individualized therapeutic massage; techniques used included Swedish massage employing effleurage, petrissage, and friction,;deep tissue; myofascial; positional release; passive and resisted joint mobilization; and biofield modalities. Visual Analog Scales for pain sensation and unpleasantness. Both pain sensation and unpleasantness were significantly reduced by a single session of therapeutic massage. Mean pain sensation decreased from 3.76 (SD=1.87) prior to massage to .89 (SD=1.35) following massage, with t=18.87, P<.001. Mean pain unpleasantness decreased from 5.21 (SD=2.48) prior to massage to .64 (SD=1.23) following massage, with t =20.45, P<.001. Effect sizes were 1.76 and 1.90, respectively. In this case series, therapeutic massage appeared to be an effective intervention for common musculoskeletal pain that influenced both the physical and affective dimension of the pain experience. Although care was taken to reduce potential bias through limiting eligibility to first time clients and use of a standardized script, practice-based case series have inherent limitations. Issues in conducting practice-based research by massage therapists and recommendations for future

  16. Rediscovering community: Interethnic relationships and community gardening

    OpenAIRE

    August John Hoffman; Julie Wallach; Eduardo Sanchez

    2010-01-01

    Community service work, volunteerism and mentoring have recently become popular topics of research as effective methods in improving self-esteem and civic responsibility. In the current study we explored the relationship between participation in a community service gardening program and ethnocentrism. We hypothesised that an inverse correlation would emerge where students who participated in a community service-gardening program would increase their perceptions of the importance of community ...

  17. [Therapeutic indications of low molecular weight heparins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samama, M M; Michaut-Paterno, F

    1991-11-01

    The depolymerisation of the various chains of unfractionated heparin (UFH) by chemical or enzymatic reactions provides so-called low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), with an average molecular weight of approximately 5000 daltons. The specific biological and pharmacokinetic properties of LMWH with greater inhibition of factor Xa than of thrombin activity, less interaction with platelets, better bioavailability and a longer half life of anti-Xa activity, suggest possible new therapeutic applications. The hypothesis of reducing the risk of haemorrhage related to the antithrombin activity and the incidence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia whilst preserving effective antithrombotic action has stimulated clinical and biological research. Clinical trials of prophylaxis of venous thrombo-embolism have been undertaken mainly in surgical patients. The results have shown identical if not better efficacy of LMWH compared to UFH in general surgical and above all orthopedic patients in whom subcutaneous heparin is only effective with a strict protocol which is difficult to adhere to in routine practice (adaptation of dosage to activated partial thromboplastin time). The risk of bleeding was not significantly lower using LMWH at the specified dosage, which in the latter indication, is twice that used in general surgery. There are many indications of prophylaxis of thromboembolism in the medical specialties but, paradoxically, LMWH has not been widely studied because of the difficulties in performing the therapeutic trials. Except in rare cases (extreme body weights, renal failure, haemorrhagic disease, thrombotic or haemorrhagic complications) the evaluation of amidolytic anti-Xa activity does not seem to be necessary. More recently, LMWH has been studied in a small number of trials for the treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The therapeutic efficacy is identical if not better than that of UFH without increasing the risk of bleeding. Biological monitoring seems to be

  18. Supramolecular Nanoparticles for Molecular Diagnostics and Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Ju

    Over the past decades, significant efforts have been devoted to explore the use of various nanoparticle-based systems in the field of nanomedicine, including molecular imaging and therapy. Supramolecular synthetic approaches have attracted lots of attention due to their flexibility, convenience, and modularity for producing nanoparticles. In this dissertation, the developmental story of our size-controllable supramolecular nanoparticles (SNPs) will be discussed, as well as their use in specific biomedical applications. To achieve the self-assembly of SNPs, the well-characterized molecular recognition system (i.e., cyclodextrin/adamantane recognition) was employed. The resulting SNPs, which were assembled from three molecular building blocks, possess incredible stability in various physiological conditions, reversible size-controllability and dynamic disassembly that were exploited for various in vitro and in vivo applications. An advantage of using the supramolecular approach is that it enables the convenient incorporation of functional ligands onto SNP surface that confers functionality ( e.g., targeting, cell penetration) to SNPs. We utilized SNPs for molecular imaging such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) by introducing reporter systems (i.e., radio-isotopes, MR contrast agents, and fluorophores) into SNPs. On the other hand, the incorporation of various payloads, including drugs, genes and proteins, into SNPs showed improved delivery performance and enhanced therapeutic efficacy for these therapeutic agents. Leveraging the powers of (i) a combinatorial synthetic approach based on supramolecular assembly and (ii) a digital microreactor, a rapid developmental pathway was developed that is capable of screening SNP candidates for the ideal structural and functional properties that deliver optimal performance. Moreover, SNP-based theranostic delivery systems that combine reporter systems and therapeutic payloads into a

  19. Therapeutic results in sixth nerve palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruna Violeta-Ioana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Authors aim to assess through a retrospective study the efficiency of different therapeutic methods used in VIth nerve palsy. 60 patients with VIth nerve palsy, admitted and treated in Oftapro Clinic, were divided into two groups: a group with partial dysfunction (paresis of sixth nerve and a group with the complete abolition of neuromuscular function (VIth nerve palsy. Initial examination included assessment of neuromuscular function, binocular vision and existence of medial rectus muscle contracture (ipsi- and contralateral and contralateral lateral rectus inhibitory palsy. Neuromuscular dysfunction was graded from - 8 (paralysis to 0 (normal abduction. Therapeutic modalities ranged from conservative treatment (occlusion, prism correction, botulinum toxin chemodenervation and surgical treatment: medial rectus recession + lateral rectus resection, in cases of paresis, and transposition procedures (Hummelscheim and full tendon transfer in cases of sixth nerve palsy. Functional therapeutic success was defined as absence of diplopia in primary position, with or without prism correction, and surgical success was considered obtaining orthoptic alignment in primary position or a small residual deviation (under 10 PD. 51 patients had unilateral dysfunction, and 9 patients had bilateral VI-th nerve dysfunction. 8 patients had associated fourth or seventh cranial nerves palsy. The most common etiology was traumatic, followed by tumor and vascular causes. There were 18 cases of spontaneous remission, partial or complete (4-8 months after the onset, and 6 cases enhanced by botulinum toxin chemodenervation. 17 paretic eyes underwent surgery, showing a very good outcome, with restoration of binocular single vision. The procedure of choice was recession of medial rectus muscle, combined with resection of lateral rectus muscle. All patients with sixth nerve palsy underwent surgery, except one old female patient, who refused surgery. Hummelscheim procedure was

  20. Administration for Community Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Input Working Together, in Our Communities The Administration for Community Living was created around the fundamental ... Meals on Wheels America - November 16, 2017 The Administration for Community Living recently awarded a three-year ...

  1. [Eye contact effects: A therapeutic issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, M; Conty, L

    2016-12-01

    The perception of a direct gaze - that is, of another individual's gaze directed at the observer that leads to eye contact - is known to influence a wide range of cognitive processes and behaviors. We stress that these effects mainly reflect positive impacts on human cognition and may thus be used as relevant tools for therapeutic purposes. In this review, we aim (1) to provide an exhaustive review of eye contact effects while discussing the limits of the dominant models used to explain these effects, (2) to illustrate the therapeutic potential of eye contact by targeting those pathologies that show both preserved gaze processing and deficits in one or several functions that are targeted by the eye contact effects, and (3) to propose concrete ways in which eye contact could be employed as a therapeutic tool. (1) We regroup the variety of eye contact effects into four categories, including memory effects, activation of prosocial behavior, positive appraisals of self and others and the enhancement of self-awareness. We emphasize that the models proposed to account for these effects have a poor predictive value and that further descriptions of these effects is needed. (2) We then emphasize that people with pathologies that affect memory, social behavior, and self and/or other appraisal, and self-awareness could benefit from eye contact effects. We focus on depression, autism and Alzheimer's disease to illustrate our proposal. To our knowledge, no anomaly of eye contact has been reported in depression. Patients suffering from Alzheimer disease, at the early and moderate stage, have been shown to maintain a normal amount of eye contact with their interlocutor. We take into account that autism is controversial regarding whether gaze processing is preserved or altered. In the first view, individuals are thought to elude or omit gazing at another's eyes while in the second, individuals are considered to not be able to process the gaze of others. We adopt the first stance

  2. Community Mentoring: A Tool for Successful Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kathryn E.

    2015-01-01

    Mentoring occurs in an ad hoc and largely invisible manner in communities. This mentoring happens through modeling, storytelling, and asking open-ended questions. If Extension specialists and agents were more conscious and intentional about teaching community members and leaders about community mentoring, they would be more successful in resolving…

  3. Transgenic animals as bioproducers of therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänne, J; Hyttinen, J M; Peura, T; Tolvanen, M; Alhonen, L; Halmekytö, M

    1992-08-01

    Many human therapeutic proteins are currently produced with the aid of recombinant DNA technology in microbial bioreactors and a few also in large-scale animal cell cultures. Although extremely cost-efficient, the microbial production system has many inherent limitations. Micro-organisms, such as bacteria, can read the universal genetic code and hence produce human proteins with correct amino acid sequence, but cannot carry out post-translational modifications, such as glycosylation, or fold the newly synthesized protein properly to ultimately generate a biologically active entity. Moreover, even though the production of the proteins as such is inexpensive, the downstream processing of the final product may be extremely difficult and costly. Many of these disadvantages, especially the lack of post-translational modifications, can be overcome by employing large-scale animal cell cultures for the production of proteins of pharmaceutical interest. However, due to the long generation time and the requirement for rich culture media, the use of animal cell bioreactors is unacceptably expensive. With the advent of transgenic technology, the production of human pharmaceuticals in large transgenic animals has become more and more attractive. The use of targeted gene transfer, the expression of the transgene of interest can be directed to occur in the mammary gland of large farm animals, such as pigs, sheep, goats or dairy cattle, and hence the transgene product is ultimately being secreted into the milk. Although not yet in commercial use, the last few years have witnessed a remarkable progress in this area and proved the feasibility of the use of 'molecular farming' in high-quantity, low-cost production of valuable therapeutic or industrial proteins. While reviewing the progress of the field over the past few years, we discuss in somewhat greater detail aspects connected with the use of dairy cattle as bioproducers of human therapeutic proteins.

  4. [Classification and therapeutic strategy for chronic tonsillitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal'chun, V T

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to further develop and substantiate classification of chronic tonsillitis with due regard for etiology and pathogenesis of this disease. The author pays special attention to the fact that the toxico-allergic effect of focal infection of palatine tonsils (chronic tonsillitis, CT) is significantly more pronounced than that of focal infections of a different localization. The toxico-allergic manifestations of chronic tonsillitis are not infrequently realized through the associated non-specific infectious local and general complications and catalyze pathogenesis of the concomitant diseases. The classification developed taking into consideration etiology and pathogenesis of CT distinguishes two forms of chronic tonsillitis, viz. simple and toxico-allergic (TAF) CT, the latter being subdivided into two variants differing in the character of manifestations (TAF-1 and TAF-II). The clinical, morphological, and immunological characteristics of either form are described. It is emphasized that the most informative signs and symptoms of CT include the recurrence rate of tonsillitis in the medical history, purulent discharge from the tonsillar crypts apparent upon compression of their anterior surface with a spatula, and toxico-allergic reactions in combination with local signs and tonsillitis in the medical history. The therapeutic strategies for each forms of CT are specifies. The use of conservative therapy is recommended as the principal method for the treatment of the simple form, the strict compliance with the prescribed therapeutic modalities and repetition of the second therapeutic course within 3-4 months after the initial one being of primary importance. The treatment of TAF-1 should be started from conservative therapy the duration of which needs to be reduced in the absence of the marked desired effect bearing in mind the possibility of development of local and systemic complications. TAF-II requires urgent tonsillectomy because

  5. The endocannabinoid system and cancer: therapeutic implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guindon, Josée; Hohmann, Andrea G

    2011-08-01

    The endocannabinoid system is implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions (inflammation, immunomodulation, analgesia, cancer and others). The main active ingredient of cannabis, Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9) -THC), produces its effects through activation of CB(1) and CB(2) receptors. CB(1) receptors are expressed at high levels in the central nervous system (CNS), whereas CB(2) receptors are concentrated predominantly, although not exclusively, in cells of the immune system. Endocannabinoids are endogenous lipid-signalling molecules that are generated in the cell membrane from phospholipid precursors. The two best characterized endocannabinoids identified to date are anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Here we review the relationship between the endocannabinoid system and anti-tumour actions (inhibition of cell proliferation and migration, induction of apoptosis, reduction of tumour growth) of the cannabinoids in different types of cancer. This review will focus on examining how activation of the endocannabinoid system impacts breast, prostate and bone cancers in both in vitro and in vivo systems. The therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for cancer, as identified in clinical trials, is also discussed. Identification of safe and effective treatments to manage and improve cancer therapy is critical to improve quality of life and reduce unnecessary suffering in cancer patients. In this regard, cannabis-like compounds offer therapeutic potential for the treatment of breast, prostate and bone cancer in patients. Further basic research on anti-cancer properties of cannabinoids as well as clinical trials of cannabinoid therapeutic efficacy in breast, prostate and bone cancer is therefore warranted. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Do drug advertisements provide therapeutic information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimson, G V

    1977-01-01

    In this study of advertisements appearing in medical periodicals and by direct mail advertising to general practitioners, Dr. Stimson, a sociologist, concludes that from what is intended to provide therapeutic information hardly any therapeutic information is provided. He reminds the reader of the safeguards which surround all drug advertising by law and by the code of practice of the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry but these safeguards do not appear to control real or potential sins of omission. Frequently in these advertisements the literature relating to the drug is quoted but Dr. Stimson found that it was difficult to trace all the papers quoted in different types of medical library. (Some references quoted were to unpublished papers but surely the blame should be shared in this situation?) Dr. Stimson also gives a vivid and fascinating glimpse of what he calls the 'images and stereotypes' of the patients who, it is claimed, would benefit from the drug being advertised. Certainly most general practitioners must be aware that when they prescribe that image is displaced by an individual but the portrait gallery is indeed depressing. However, to balance these advertisements drug companies issue data sheets which must be more informative than advertisements and conform to regulations in their format. Unfortunately data sheets are only issued every 15 months whereas the 'average general practitioner is potentially exposed to 1,300 advertisements every month'. In other words, the data sheet and not the advertisement should be the guideline but it arrives too infrequently to offset the lack of therapeutic information contained in advertisements. PMID:870694

  7. Establishing an institutional therapeutic apheresis registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Steven A; McCleskey, Brandi; Marques, Marisa B; Adamski, Jill

    2016-12-01

    Apheresis was first performed as a therapeutic procedure in the 1950s. The first national therapeutic apheresis (TA) registry was established in Canada in 1981 and other national registries followed, including two attempts at establishing an international TA registry. There is no national registry in the United States. Our large, academic, tertiary hospital has a very active TA service. We created a TA database to track all procedures performed by the apheresis service by transferring data from paper appointment logs and the electronic medical records into a Microsoft Access database. Retrospective data from each TA procedure performed at UAB from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2012 were entered, including the type of procedure, indication, date, and patient demographics. Microsoft Excel was used for data analysis. During the 10-year period, our TA service treated 1,060 patients and performed 11,718 procedures. Of these patients, 70% received therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), 21% received extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP), 4.5% received red cell exchange (RCE), 4.2% received leukocytapheresis, and 0.6% underwent platelet depletion. Among the procedures, 54% were TPEs, 44% were ECPs, 1.3% were RCEs, 0.5% were leukocytaphereses, and 0.1% were platelet depletions. According to the current literature, national and international TA use is underreported. We believe that the UAB TA registry provides useful information about TA practices in our region and can serve as a model for other institutions. Furthermore, data from multiple institutional registries can be used for clinical research to increase the available evidence for the role of TA in various conditions. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:516-522, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Clinical skill development for community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnette, D J; Murphy, C M; Carter, B L

    1996-09-01

    The importance of establishing clinical pharmacy services in the community cannot be understated in light of current challenges to the traditional dispensing role as the primary service of the community pharmacist. Advancements in automated dispensing technology and declining prescription fee reimbursement are rapidly forcing pharmacists to seek alternative sources of revenue. Providing pharmaceutical care is a viable option to increase customer loyalty job satisfaction, and reimbursement. To support the development of clinical services, academic institutions are forming partnerships with individual community practitioners to overcome perceived educational and training barriers. The authors describe the design and development of two unique clinical skill development programs at the University of Illinois at Chicago. This paper also outlines the patient focused services that the participants have established upon completing the training. These programs successfully enhanced participants' therapeutic knowledge base and facilitated development of the clinical skills necessary for direct patient care.

  9. Voriconazole therapeutic drug monitoring practices in the intensive care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wanrooy, Marjolijn J. P.; Rodgers, Michael G. G.; Span, Lambert F. R.; Zijlstra, Jan G.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.

    BACKGROUND: Routine therapeutic drug monitoring of voriconazole appears to be beneficial. This study investigated the therapeutic drug monitoring practices in intensive care to derive possible recommendations for improvement. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed for patients aged ≥ 18

  10. Therapeutic Cardiac Catheterizations for Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therapeutic Cardiac Catheterizations for Children with Congenital Heart Disease Introduction A therapeutic cardiac catheterization is a procedure performed to treat your child’s heart defect. A doctor will use special techniques and ...

  11. New and exploratory therapeutic agents for asthma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yeadon, Michael; Diamant, Zuzana

    2000-01-01

    ... been accomplished. It is well recognized that new drugs are essentially the result of basic and applied research. Early in this century, the advent of a chemical approach to medicine led to many extraordinary developments. The past few decades have been characterized by a search to understand the mechanisms of disease- a quest spurred by the recognition that if pathogenic processes were known, new therapeutic opportunities would ensue. The validity of this concept is beautifully illustrated in the case of asthma. Here is a d...

  12. Internet addiction neuroscientific approaches and therapeutical interventions

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The last part of the book will focus on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction.

  13. [Therapeutic strategies in idiopatic inflammatory myopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakour, Reza; Leimgruber, Annette; Bart, Pierre-Alexandre; Spertini, François

    2009-04-15

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, such as polymyositis and dermatomyositis, share common clinical features such as progressive, symmetrical muscle weakness prevailing in the lower limbs, associated sometimes with muscle pains. High CK and typical biopsy insure the diagnosis. Possible causes for secondary myopathies and associated diseases should be actively investigated. The search for autoantibodies helps to better classify inflammatory myopathies and to better define the prognosis of the myopathy. Glucocorticoids are the cornerstone of the early phase therapy. Glucocorticoid-sparing agents, such as azathioprine and methotrexate, are second line agents but can be readily prescribed. In case of therapeutic resistance, a rescue treatment (ciclosporine, immunoglobulins, rituximab, cyclophosphamide) could be considered.

  14. Pediatric Tandem Therapeutic Apheresis: A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirignano, Rachel M; Meyer, Erin K; Fasano, Ross; Paden, Matthew L

    2017-08-31

    The epidemiology, safety, and efficacy of pediatric multiple tandem extracorporeal therapies are not well understood. We conducted a retrospective chart review of therapeutic apheresis (TA) from January 1, 2012 to October 31, 2015. We collected procedural/clinical demographics, American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) indication, complications, and mortality. One hundred eighty tandem TA procedures were performed in 53 patients. Median age was 9 years (range: 2 months to 21 years) with a median weight of 28 kg (range: 6-170.3 kg) with nine patients weighing download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  15. Therapeutic potential of cannabis-related drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Stephen P H

    2016-01-04

    In this review, I will consider the dual nature of Cannabis and cannabinoids. The duality arises from the potential and actuality of cannabinoids in the laboratory and clinic and the 'abuse' of Cannabis outside the clinic. The therapeutic areas currently best associated with exploitation of Cannabis-related medicines include pain, epilepsy, feeding disorders, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. As with every other medicinal drug of course, the 'trick' will be to maximise the benefit and minimise the cost. After millennia of proximity and exploitation of the Cannabis plant, we are still playing catch up with an understanding of its potential influence for medicinal benefit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular hydrogen: a therapeutic antioxidant and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular hydrogen (H2 medicine research has flourished since a landmark publication in Nature Medicine that revealed the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of hydrogen gas in a focal stroke model. Emerging evidence has consistently demonstrated that molecular hydrogen is a promising therapeutic option for a variety of diseases and the underlying comprehensive mechanisms is beyond pure hydroxyl radicals scavenging. The non-toxicity at high concentrations and rapid cellular diffusion features of molecular hydrogen ensure the feasibility and readiness of its clinical translation to human patients.

  17. The borderline adult: therapeutic alliance and transference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, J F

    1978-04-01

    The author suggests that successful therapy with borderline patients requires the initiation, strengthening, and maturation of the therapeutic alliance as well as the working-through of the patient's difficulty with separation-individuation from the past. He defines a borderline transference as the activation and alternative projection on the therapist of the patient's primitive, split, positive, and negative object relations part-units. In the process of therapy confrontation and, later, interpretation bring these part-units to the patient's awareness, where they can be worked through and the separation-individuation process failure repaired. The therapist who deals with borderline patients must have both personal maturity and professional skill.

  18. Growth hormone insensitivity: diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoğlu, S; Hatipoglu, N

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone resistance defines several genetic (primary) and acquired (secondary) pathologies that result in completely or partially interrupted activity of growth hormone. An archetypal disease of this group is the Laron-type dwarfism caused by mutations in growth hormone receptors. The diagnosis is based on high basal levels of growth hormone, low insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-1) level, unresponsiveness to IGF generation test and genetic testing. Recombinant IGF-1 preparations are used in the treatment In this article, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and therapeutic approaches of the genetic and other diseases leading to growth hormone insensitivity are reviewed.

  19. [Therapeutic approaches using genetically modified cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anliker, Brigitte; Renner, Matthias; Schweizer, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Medicinal products containing genetically modified cells are, in most cases, classified as gene therapy and cell therapy medicinal products. Although no medicinal product containing genetically modified cells has been licensed in Europe yet, a variety of therapeutic strategies using genetically modified cells are in different stages of clinical development for the treatment of acquired and inherited diseases. In this chapter, several examples of promising approaches are presented, with an emphasis on gene therapy for inherited immunodeficiencies and on tumour immunotherapy with genetically modified T-cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor or a recombinant T-cell receptor.

  20. Epigenetics and Therapeutic Targets Mediating Neuroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Irfan A.; Mehler, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly evolving science of epigenetics is transforming our understanding of the nervous system in health and disease and holds great promise for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches targeting neurological diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that epigenetic factors and mechanisms serve as important mediators of the pathogenic processes that lead to irrevocable neural injury and of countervailing homeostatic and regenerative responses. Epigenetics is, therefore, of considerable translational significance to the field of neuroprotection. In this brief review, we provide an overview of epigenetic mechanisms and highlight the emerging roles played by epigenetic processes in neural cell dysfunction and death and in resultant neuroprotective responses. PMID:26236020

  1. Bee Pollen: Chemical Composition and Therapeutic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Komosinska-Vassev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bee pollen is a valuable apitherapeutic product greatly appreciated by the natural medicine because of its potential medical and nutritional applications. It demonstrates a series of actions such as antifungal, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anticancer immunostimulating, and local analgesic. Its radical scavenging potential has also been reported. Beneficial properties of bee pollen and the validity for their therapeutic use in various pathological condition have been discussed in this study and with the currently known mechanisms, by which bee pollen modulates burn wound healing process.

  2. [Lactoferrin - a glycoprotein of great therapeutic potentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Ryszard; Kamińska, Ewa; Michalski, Piotr; Lauterbach, Jan Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Lactoferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein, which is present in most biological fluids with particularly high levels in colostrum and in mammalian milk. Bovine lactoferrin is more than 70% homologous with human lactoferrin. Most of the clinical trials have used bovine lactoferrin for supplementation. This review summarizes the recent advances in explaining the mechanisms, which are responsible for the multifunctional roles of lactoferrin, and presents its potential prophylactic and therapeutic applications. On the ground of the results of preliminary clinical observations, authors suggest beneficial effect of lactoferrin supplementation on the prevalence of necrotizing enterocolitis in infants with birth weight below 1250 grams.

  3. Therapeutic and reproductive cloning: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, Finn

    2004-01-01

    This article is a critical examination of the science and ethics of human cloning. It summarises the key scientific milestones in the development of nuclear transplantation, explains the importance of cloning to research into the medical potential of embryonic stem cells, and discusses the well-worn distinction between 'therapeutic' and 'reproductive' cloning. Suggesting that this distinction will be impossible to police, it goes on to consider the ethics of full human cloning. It is concluded that it represents an unacceptable form of parental despotism, and that the genetic engineering and cloning of future human beings will fracture the foundations of modern humanism.

  4. Natural toxins and their therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, V K

    2010-03-01

    Plants have been extensively investigated for exploring their therapeutic potentials, but there are comparatively scanty reports on drugs derived from animal kingdom, except for hormones. During last decade, the toxins that are used for defense by the animals, have been isolated and found useful tools for physiological and pharmacological studies, besides giving valuable leads to drug development. Toxins with interesting results have been isolated from the venoms of snakes, scorpions, spiders, snails, lizards, frogs and fish. The present review describe about some toxins as drugs and their biological activities. Some fungal, bacterial and marine toxins have also been covered in this article.

  5. Gut microbiota role in irritable bowel syndrome: New therapeutic strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distrutti, Eleonora; Monaldi, Lorenzo; Ricci, Patrizia; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade the impressive expansion of our knowledge of the vast microbial community that resides in the human intestine, the gut microbiota, has provided support to the concept that a disturbed intestinal ecology might promote development and maintenance of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). As a correlate, manipulation of gut microbiota represents a new strategy for the treatment of this multifactorial disease. A number of attempts have been made to modulate the gut bacterial composition, following the idea that expansion of bacterial species considered as beneficial (Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria) associated with the reduction of those considered harmful (Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas) should attenuate IBS symptoms. In this conceptual framework, probiotics appear an attractive option in terms of both efficacy and safety, while prebiotics, synbiotics and antibiotics still need confirmation. Fecal transplant is an old treatment translated from the cure of intestinal infective pathologies that has recently gained a new life as therapeutic option for those patients with a disturbed gut ecosystem, but data on IBS are scanty and randomized, placebo-controlled studies are required. PMID:26900286

  6. Gastrodia elata and epilepsy: Rationale and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Mariana; Silvestre, Samuel; Falcão, Amílcar; Alves, Gilberto

    2016-11-15

    Gastrodia elata Blume (G. elata) is a traditional Chinese herb used for centuries in folk medicine. Due to the claimed anticonvulsant properties of G. elata, it is expected that this herb continues to be a target of research, aiming to deepen the available knowledge on its biological activity and safety. The current review aims to discuss the most recent advances on the elucidation of the phytochemical composition and anticonvulsant potential of G. elata. Available literature was reviewed from PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and Science Direct, using combinations of the following keywords: Gastrodia elata, tianma, epilepsy, anticonvulsant and pharmacokinetics. Abstracts and full texts were evaluated for their clarity and scientific merit. G. elata rhizome, as well as specific phenolic compounds isolated from this herb, have demonstrated anticonvulsant potential in a variety of in vitro and in vivo models. The pharmacological mechanisms potentially involved in the anticonvulsant activity have been extensively studied, being similar to the known mechanisms claimed for the available antiepileptic drugs. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of the main bioactive component of G. elata (gastrodin) has also been studied. Due to its recognised therapeutic properties, G. elata has gained an increasing interest within the scientific community and, therefore, new medicinal preparations containing G. elata rhizome itself or its bioactive components are expected to be developed in the coming years. Moreover, specific phytochemical constituents isolated from G. elata may also be considered to integrate programs of discovery and development of new anticonvulsant drug candidates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Lesbians, gay men, and their families. Some therapeutic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, A M; McWhirter, D P

    1995-03-01

    Although a body of scientific data about working with parents and families of gays and lesbians has not yet developed, there is a growing body of literature of an anecdotal and personal nature that has been cited. These works provide therapists with background information and clients needing assistance with guided reading. Therapists working with families and friends of gay men can find the experience rewarding and the therapeutic interventions effective. Much of the work is common sense, listening with the "third" ear for those underlying issues separate from the son's gayness that may affect the person's attitudes, feelings, and responses. Maintaining a professional demeanor while conveying a sense of caring and concern for the individuals is a key issue. As gay people become more visible in society and as the number of individuals coming out increases, there will be a need for more therapists who can assist families with their own coming out process. This article provides some basic guidelines and, as individual therapists gain more experience in this area, it will be important that others report those experiences, sharing them with the rest of the therapist community.

  8. A school-based post-Katrina therapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Eliot E; Bauer, Daliah; Newman, Denise L; Kalka, Elaine; Lochman, John E; Silverman, Wendy K; Jensen, Peter S; Curry, John; Stark, Kevin; Wells, Karen C; Bannon, William M

    2015-05-01

    The current study presents the implementation of a set of school based interventions in a greater New Orleans school district one year following Hurricane Katrina. The interventions included adaptation and implementation of evidence based treatments in a crisis situation with at-risk youth which involved training and clinical challenges. 386 students found to have significant depressive and/or disruptive disorder symptoms received treatment from the School Therapeutic Enhancement Program (STEP). Further, a district-wide mental health needs assessment of middle and high school students (N = 11,861) screened for behavioral and emotional difficulties at the beginning and end of the school year provided a benchmark for community youth's emotional and behavioral distress. High-need intervention students demonstrated clinically significant lower levels of emotional and behavioral problems, depression and inattention in comparison to pre-treatment levels as indicated by multiple informants (i.e., self, parent, teacher). Self-reported distress levels were also lower than screening group students at post-test. These findings support the efficacy of a school-based intervention for youth struggling with the aftereffects of a highly disruptive natural disaster. Implications for utilizing a flexible adaptation of an evidence-based training model involving coaching and consultation are discussed.

  9. Molecular approaches to potentiate cisplatin responsiveness in carcinoma therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Aayushi; Jahagirdar, Devashree; Nilendu, Pritish; Sharma, Nilesh Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Cisplatin has been considered as the crucial regimen of widely prescribed chemotherapy treatment for cancer. The advancing treatment of cancers has reached the border line, where tumors show resistance to cisplatin and may thwart its use. Other than issues of drug resistance, cisplatin has been reported to evince side effects such as nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Therefore, there is a compelling need to untangle the problems associated with cisplatin treatment in carcinoma. Areas covered: In this review, we summarize the current status of combinatorial options to bring about better pre-clinical and clinical cisplatin drug responses in carcinoma. We begin with problems associated with cisplatin drugs and current avenues such as depicting molecular modulation of enhanced influx and reduced efflux. We also discuss the scope of the DNA damage response landscape and contribution of regulatory small RNAs towards potentiation of cisplatin responses. Expert commentary: The extensive use of cisplatin and incessant high drug dose have prompted the scientific community to limit the burden of cisplatin without compromising therapeutic success. Currently, there are reports on the potential use of other non-toxic small molecule inhibitors, interference RNAs and peptide mimetics to get rid of cellular adversities responsible for cisplatin resistance and high dose effects.

  10. Etiology and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of community-acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Streptomycin showed the highest susceptibility to bacteria isolates while the least susceptibility was observed with augmentin. Rational use of antibiotics with regular antibiotics susceptibility surveillance studies is recommended to maintain high antibiotic therapeutic profile. Keywords: Community-acquired urinary tract ...

  11. Community Trial of a Comprehensive Psychosocial Treatment for HFASDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Christopher; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; McDonald, Christin A.; Fox, Jeffery D.; Smith, Rachael A.; Meichenbaum, David L.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Lipinski, Alanna M.

    2015-01-01

    This community effectiveness trial examined the feasibility and efficacy of a comprehensive psychosocial treatment for 28 children, aged 7 to 10 years with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs). Treatment included instruction and therapeutic activities targeting social skills, face-emotion recognition skills, interest expansion, and…

  12. 21 CFR 880.5160 - Therapeutic medical binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5160 Therapeutic medical binder. (a) Identification. A therapeutic medical binder is a device, usually made of cloth, that is intended for medical purposes and that can be secured by ties so...

  13. Therapeutic Plasma Exchange Option for Guillain-Barre Syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is performed frequently and effectively in developed countries, whereas ... of accessing the treatment. KEYWORDS: Guillain‑Barre syndrome, therapeutic apheresis, therapeutic plasma ..... approach from the writing committee of the American society for apheresis: The ...

  14. Student Wellbeing and the Therapeutic Turn in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This article considers current concerns with promoting student mental health and wellbeing against the backdrop of critiques of the "therapeutic turn" in education. It begins by situating accounts of "therapeutic education" within broader theorisation of therapeutic culture. In doing so, the importance of this work is…

  15. Emerging therapeutic agents for lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagirathbhai Dholaria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lung cancer continues to be the most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics and immunotherapeutics have propelled the rapid development of novel treatment agents across all cancer subtypes, including lung cancer. Additionally, more pharmaceutical therapies for lung cancer have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in the last 5 years than in previous two decades. These drugs have ushered in a new era of lung cancer managements that have promising efficacy and safety and also provide treatment opportunities to patients who otherwise would have no conventional chemotherapy available. In this review, we summarize recent advances in lung cancer therapeutics with a specific focus on first in-human or early-phase I/II clinical trials. These drugs either offer better alternatives to drugs in their class or are a completely new class of drugs with novel mechanisms of action. We have divided our discussion into targeted agents, immunotherapies, and antibody drug conjugates for small cell lung cancer (SCLC and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. We briefly review the emerging agents and ongoing clinical studies. We have attempted to provide the most current review on emerging therapeutic agents on horizon for lung cancer.

  16. Harnessing nanomedicine for therapeutic intervention in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutkin, Anna; Cohen, Zvi R; Peer, Dan

    2016-11-01

    Glioblastoma is a type of brain cancer arises from glial cells. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a subtype of glioblastoma, is the most common and most aggressive primary brain tumor. Currently, GBM therapy includes surgery and post-operative high-doses of radiation and chemotherapy. This therapeutic strategy has a limited contribution in extending the survival rate of GBM patients. Areas covered: Herein, we focus on harnessing nanoscale drug delivery strategies to treat brain malignancies. Specifically, we briefly discuss the challenges facing GBM therapy such as restricted passage across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and low enhanced permeability and retention effect. Next, we describe different pathways to address these challenges. Finally, we discuss the field of nanomedicine, which emerged as a promising platform for drug delivery to brain malignancies. Expert opinion: Countless strategies have been applied in preclinical and clinical settings to treat GBM. Among them is the use of different types of nanoparticles (NPs) and viruses with different approaches to cross or bypass the BBB. We suggest here a paradigm shift in thinking about crossing the BBB and tumor penetration as fundamental issues that need to be address in order to improve the therapeutic outcome in GBM.

  17. Therapeutic nanomedicine surmounts the limitations of pharmacotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odiba Arome

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Science always strives to find an improved way of doing things and nanoscience is one such approach. Nanomaterials are suitable for pharmaceutical applications mostly because of their size which facilitates absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the nanoparticles. Whether labile or insoluble nanoparticles, their cytotoxic effect on malignant cells has moved the use of nanomedicine into focus. Since nanomedicine can be described as the science and technology of diagnosing, treating and preventing diseases towards ultimately improving human health, a lot of nanotechnology options have received approval by various regulatory agencies. Nanodrugs also have been discovered to be more precise in targeting the desired site, hence maximizing the therapeutic effects, while minimizing side-effects on the rest of the body. This unique property and more has made nanomedicine popular in therapeutic medicine employing nanotechnology in genetic therapy, drug encapsulation, enzyme manipulation and control, tissue engineering, target drug delivery, pharmacogenomics, stem cell and cloning, and even virus-based hybrids. This review highlights nanoproducts that are in development and have gained approval through one clinical trial stage or the other.

  18. Mechanisms and therapeutic effectiveness of lactobacilli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Palmieri, Beniamino; Aponte, Maria; Morales-Medina, Julio Cesar; Iannitti, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiome is not a silent ecosystem but exerts several physiological and immunological functions. For many decades, lactobacilli have been used as an effective therapy for treatment of several pathological conditions displaying an overall positive safety profile. This review summarises the mechanisms and clinical evidence supporting therapeutic efficacy of lactobacilli. We searched Pubmed/Medline using the keyword ‘Lactobacillus’. Selected papers from 1950 to 2015 were chosen on the basis of their content. Relevant clinical and experimental articles using lactobacilli as therapeutic agents have been included. Applications of lactobacilli include kidney support for renal insufficiency, pancreas health, management of metabolic imbalance, and cancer treatment and prevention. In vitro and in vivo investigations have shown that prolonged lactobacilli administration induces qualitative and quantitative modifications in the human gastrointestinal microbial ecosystem with encouraging perspectives in counteracting pathology-associated physiological and immunological changes. Few studies have highlighted the risk of translocation with subsequent sepsis and bacteraemia following probiotic administration but there is still a lack of investigations on the dose effect of these compounds. Great care is thus required in the choice of the proper Lactobacillus species, their genetic stability and the translocation risk, mainly related to inflammatory disease-induced gut mucosa enhanced permeability. Finally, we need to determine the adequate amount of bacteria to be delivered in order to achieve the best clinical efficacy decreasing the risk of side effects. PMID:26578541

  19. Defining internet-supported therapeutic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Azy; Klein, Britt; Proudfoot, Judith G

    2009-08-01

    The field of Internet-supported therapeutic interventions has suffered from a lack of clarity and consistency. The absence of professional leadership and of accepted governing approaches, terminology, professional standards, and methodologies has caused this field to be diffused and unstructured. Numerous terms have been used to label and describe the activities conducted over the Internet for mental and physical health purposes: web-based therapy, e-therapy, cybertherapy, eHealth, e-Interventions, computer-mediated interventions, and online therapy (or counseling), among others. Following a comprehensive review, we conceptualized Internet-supported interventions, using four categories based on prime practice approaches: web-based interventions, online counseling and therapy, Internet-operated therapeutic software, and other online activities (e.g., as supplements to face-to-face therapy). We provide a working definition and detailed description of each category, accompanied by numerous examples. These categories may now serve as guiding definitions and related terminologies for further research and development in this emerging field.

  20. Therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fogaça Cristante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the literature concerning possible therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a disabling and irreversible condition that has high economic and social costs. There are both primary and secondary mechanisms of damage to the spinal cord. The primary lesion is the mechanical injury itself. The secondary lesion results from one or more biochemical and cellular processes that are triggered by the primary lesion. The frustration of health professionals in treating a severe spinal cord injury was described in 1700 BC in an Egyptian surgical papyrus that was translated by Edwin Smith; the papyrus reported spinal fractures as a ''disease that should not be treated.'' Over the last biological or pharmacological treatment method. Science is unraveling the mechanisms of cell protection and neuroregeneration, but clinically, we only provide supportive care for patients with spinal cord injuries. By combining these treatments, researchers attempt to enhance the functional recovery of patients with spinal cord injuries. Advances in the last decade have allowed us to encourage the development of experimental studies in the field of spinal cord regeneration. The combination of several therapeutic strategies should, at minimum, allow for partial functional recoveries for these patients, which could improve their quality of life.

  1. Transcription factor decoy technology: A therapeutic update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Markus; Wagner, Andreas H

    2017-11-15

    Targeting transcription factors represents one possibility to interfere with a known activated regulatory pathway that promotes disease. Double-stranded transcription factor decoy (TFD) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) are therapeutic drug candidates, which are able to specifically target and neutralize key transcription factors involved in the pathogenesis of a given disease. These short double-stranded TFD molecules mimic the consensus DNA binding site of a specific transcription factor in the promoter region of its target genes. Therefore, it is possible to exploit this nucleic acid-based drug class for the treatment of diseases caused by aberrant expression of such target genes the products of which are involved in disease initiation and progression. This research update focuses firstly on the mechanism of action of TFD molecules. Long-term effects of such ODNs depend on their stability and the efficiency by which they are delivered to the target tissue and taken up by their target cells. Hence structural modifications like e.g., single-stranded TFD molecules hybridising to itself to form an intramolecular hairpin molecule or circular ODNs assuming a dumbbell configuration, intended to enhance both stability and efficacy, are addressed. Also specific drug delivery methods like ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction with TFD ODN-coated microbubbles or adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors for tissue-specific transduction and long-term TFD molecule expression in non-dividing cells will be discussed. Finally, current therapeutic applications of TFD ODN will be summarized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential therapeutic approaches for Angelman syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaoning; Sun, Jiandong; Ji, Angela X; Baudry, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by deficiency of maternally inherited UBE3A, an ubiquitin E3 ligase. Despite recent progress in understanding the mechanism underlying UBE3A imprinting, there is no effective treatment. Further investigation of the roles played by UBE3A in the central nervous system (CNS) is needed for developing effective therapies. This review covers the literature related to genetic classifications of AS, recent discoveries regarding the regulation of UBE3A imprinting, alterations in cell signaling in various brain regions and potential therapeutic approaches. Since a large proportion of AS patients exhibit comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD), potential common molecular bases are discussed. Advances in understanding UBE3A imprinting provide a unique opportunity to induce paternal UBE3A expression, thus targeting the syndrome at its 'root.' However, such efforts have yielded less-than-expected rescue effects in AS mouse models, raising the concern that activation of paternal UBE3A after a critical period cannot correct all the CNS defects that developed in a UBE3A-deficient environment. On the other hand, targeting abnormal downstream cell signaling pathways has provided promising rescue effects in preclinical research. Thus, combined reinstatement of paternal UBE3A expression with targeting abnormal signaling pathways should provide better therapeutic effects.

  3. Ayahuasca: Pharmacology, neuroscience and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Clavé, Elisabet; Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Pascual, Juan C; Álvarez, Enrique; de la Fuente Revenga, Mario; Friedlander, Pablo; Feilding, Amanda; Riba, Jordi

    2016-09-01

    Ayahuasca is the Quechua name for a tea obtained from the vine Banisteriopsis caapi, and used for ritual purposes by the indigenous populations of the Amazon. The use of a variation of the tea that combines B. caapi with the leaves of the shrub Psychotria viridis has experienced unprecedented expansion worldwide for its psychotropic properties. This preparation contains the psychedelic 5-HT 2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from P. viridis, plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase-inhibiting properties from B. caapi. Acute administration induces a transient modified state of consciousness characterized by introspection, visions, enhanced emotions and recollection of personal memories. A growing body of evidence suggests that ayahuasca may be useful to treat substance use disorders, anxiety and depression. Here we review the pharmacology and neuroscience of ayahuasca, and the potential psychological mechanisms underlying its therapeutic potential. We discuss recent findings indicating that ayahuasca intake increases certain mindfulness facets related to acceptance and to the ability to take a detached view of one's own thoughts and emotions. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that ayahuasca shows promise as a therapeutic tool by enhancing self-acceptance and allowing safe exposure to emotional events. We postulate that ayahuasca could be of use in the treatment of impulse-related, personality and substance use disorders and also in the handling of trauma. More research is needed to assess the full potential of ayahuasca in the treatment of these disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fibromyalgia syndrome--novel therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablin, Jacob N; Buskila, Dan

    2013-08-01

    Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by the presence of chronic widespread pain, representing sensitization of the central nervous system. The pthophysiology of fibromyalgia is a complex and remains in evolution, encompassing diverse issues such as disturbed patterns of sleep, alter processing and decreased conditioned pain modulation at the spinal level, as well as increased connectivity between various pain - processing areas of the brain. This evolution is continuously uncovering potential novel therapeutic targets. Treatment of fibromyalgia is a multi - faceted endeavor, inevitably combining pharmacological as well as non - pharmacological approaches. 2δ ligands and selective nor-epinephrine - serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the current mainstays of pharmacological treatment. Novel re-uptake inhibitors targeting both nor -epinephrine and dopamine are potential additions to this armamentarium as are substance P antagonists, Opiod antagonism is another intriguing possibility. Canabinoid agonists hold promise in the treatment of fibromyalgia although current evidence is incomplete. Sodium Oxybate is a unique sleep - promoting medication while drugs those promot arousals such as modafilnil are also under investigation. In the current review, current and emerging therapeutic options for the syndrome of fibromyalgia are covered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biopharmaceutics and therapeutic potential of engineered nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xing-Jie; Chen, Chunying; Zhao, Yuliang; Jia, Lee; Wang, Paul C

    2008-10-01

    Engineered nanomaterials are at the leading edge of the rapidly developing nanosciences and are founding an important class of new materials with specific physicochemical properties different from bulk materials with the same compositions. The potential for nanomaterials is rapidly expanding with novel applications constantly being explored in different areas. The unique size-dependent properties of nanomaterials make them very attractive for pharmaceutical applications. Investigations of physical, chemical and biological properties of engineered nanomaterials have yielded valuable information. Cytotoxic effects of certain engineered nanomaterials towards malignant cells form the basis for one aspect of nanomedicine. It is inferred that size, three dimensional shape, hydrophobicity and electronic configurations make them an appealing subject in medicinal chemistry. Their unique structure coupled with immense scope for derivatization forms a base for exciting developments in therapeutics. This review article addresses the fate of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of engineered nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo. It updates the distinctive methodology used for studying the biopharmaceutics of nanoparticles. This review addresses the future potential and safety concerns and genotoxicity of nanoparticle formulations in general. It particularly emphasizes the effects of nanoparticles on metabolic enzymes as well as the parenteral or inhalation administration routes of nanoparticle formulations. This paper illustrates the potential of nanomedicine by discussing biopharmaceutics of fullerene derivatives and their suitability for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Future direction is discussed as well.

  6. Biosensing Technologies for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghello, Anna; Tartaggia, Stefano; Alvau, Maria Domenica; Polo, Federico; Toffoli, Giuseppe

    2017-07-20

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is the clinical practice of measuring pharmaceutical drug concentrations in patients' biofluids at designated intervals to allow a close and timely control of their dosage. This practice allows for rapid medical intervention in case of toxicity-related issues and/or adjustment of dosage to better fit the therapeutic demand. Currently, TDM is performed in centralized laboratories employing instruments, such as immunoassay analyzers and mass spectrometers that can be run only by trained personnel. However the time required for the preparation, samples analysis, and data processing, together with the related financial cost, severely affects the application of TDM in medical practices. Therefore, a new generation of analytical tools is necessary to respond to the timely need of drug administration or reduction aiming at effectively treating oncologic patients. Technological advances in the field of nanosciences and biosensors offer the unique opportunity to address such issues. The interest for the so-called nanobiosensors is considerably increasing, particularly in drug discovery and clinical chemistry, even though there are only few examples reporting their use for TDM. The techniques employing nanobiosensors are mainly based on electrochemical, optical, and mass detection systems. In this review we described the most promising methodologies that, in our opinion, will bring TDM towards the next stage of clinical practice in the future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Therapeutic use of alpha-emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassmann, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    In recent years there is a growing interest in the therapeutic use of {alpha}-emitters for patient treatment, {alpha}-particles have much higher energy and their range is only a few cell diameters. Their high LET and the limited ability of cells to repair DNA damage from {alpha}-radiation explain their high relative biological effectiveness and cytotoxicity. Potential {alpha}-emitting isotopes for therapeutic applications are {sup 224}Ra, {sup 223}Ra, {sup 213}Bi and {sup 211}At. The treatment with {alpha}-particles is focused upon targeted cancer therapy using radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, on palliation of bone metastases or upon pain relief in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Examples for targeted cancer therapy are the treatment of melanoma with {sup 213}Bi and non-Hodgkin lymphoma with {sup 211}At. For metastatic bone pain palliation {sup 223}Ra was applied in a phase I clinical trial. For amelioration of pain in AS-patients {sup 224}Ra-chloride is used. This radiopharmaceutical is licensed for this particular application in Germany. Today there are some potential clinical applications for {alpha}-emitters although most of them are in the state of scientific, non-routine investigations. In-vivo dosimetry for risk assessment associated with this treatment is even more difficult to perform than for therapies using beta-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. (orig.)

  8. Engineering Diagnostic and Therapeutic Gut Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Brian P; Tabor, Jeffrey J

    2017-10-01

    Genetically engineered bacteria have the potential to diagnose and treat a wide range of diseases linked to the gastrointestinal tract, or gut. Such engineered microbes will be less expensive and invasive than current diagnostics and more effective and safe than current therapeutics. Recent advances in synthetic biology have dramatically improved the reliability with which bacteria can be engineered with the sensors, genetic circuits, and output (actuator) genes necessary for diagnostic and therapeutic functions. However, to deploy such bacteria in vivo, researchers must identify appropriate gut-adapted strains and consider performance metrics such as sensor detection thresholds, circuit computation speed, growth rate effects, and the evolutionary stability of engineered genetic systems. Other recent reviews have focused on engineering bacteria to target cancer or genetically modifying the endogenous gut microbiota in situ. Here, we develop a standard approach for engineering "smart probiotics," which both diagnose and treat disease, as well as "diagnostic gut bacteria" and "drug factory probiotics," which perform only the former and latter function, respectively. We focus on the use of cutting-edge synthetic biology tools, gut-specific design considerations, and current and future engineering challenges.

  9. Therapeutic Manuka Honey: No Longer So Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Dee A.; Blair, Shona E.; Cokcetin, Nural N.; Bouzo, Daniel; Brooks, Peter; Schothauer, Ralf; Harry, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal honey research is undergoing a substantial renaissance. From a folklore remedy largely dismissed by mainstream medicine as “alternative”, we now see increased interest by scientists, clinical practitioners and the general public in the therapeutic uses of honey. There are a number of drivers of this interest: first, the rise in antibiotic resistance by many bacterial pathogens has prompted interest in developing and using novel antibacterials; second, an increasing number of reliable studies and case reports have demonstrated that certain honeys are very effective wound treatments; third, therapeutic honey commands a premium price, and the honey industry is actively promoting studies that will allow it to capitalize on this; and finally, the very complex and rather unpredictable nature of honey provides an attractive challenge for laboratory scientists. In this paper we review manuka honey research, from observational studies on its antimicrobial effects through to current experimental and mechanistic work that aims to take honey into mainstream medicine. We outline current gaps and remaining controversies in our knowledge of how honey acts, and suggest new studies that could make honey a no longer “alternative” alternative. PMID:27148246

  10. Therapeutic performances of some selected aqua drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasheduzzaman Khan Dipu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at the Disease Laboratory of the Faculty of Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh to verify the therapeutic performances of six commercial aqua drugs; three doses were selected as less than recommended, recommended and more than recommended to assess their performances. Before starting therapeutic experimental nine climbing perch (Anabas testudineus and six stinging catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis were confirmed as diseased ones by their clinical signs. The backswimmers (Notonecta glauca were collected from faculty of fisheries pond and fish louses (Argulus sp. were collected from tilapia fishes. Effective doses and their performances were determined on the basis of desired water quality change and clinical signs. It was found that all the drugs performed better at more than recommended doses as follows Aqua Ox performed better at the rate of 0.2 mg/l, GR Plus, 0.0005 ml/l, ID Plus (5%, 0.00026 ml/l; Active Blue, 0.0002 ml/l; Hashpoka Killer, 0.0001 ml/l; and Para Control, 0.001 ml/l. So these doses were suggested as recommended doses.

  11. PAK1 AS A THERAPEUTIC TARGET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichina, Julia V; Goc, Anna; Al-Husein, Belal; Somanath, Payaningal R; Kandel, Eugene S

    2011-01-01

    Importance of the field P21-activated kinases (PAKs) are involved in multiple signal transduction pathways in mammalian cells. PAKs, and PAK1 in particular, play a role in such disorders as cancer, mental retardation and allergy. Cell motility, survival and proliferation, the organization and function of cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix, transcription and translation are among the processes affected by PAK1. Areas covered in this review We discuss the mechanisms that control PAK1 activity; its involvement in physiological and pathophysiological processes; the benefits and the drawbacks of the current tools to regulate PAK1 activity; the evidences that point to PAK1 as a therapeutic target; and the likely directions of future research. What the reader will gain The reader will gain a better knowledge and understanding of the areas covered in this review. Take-home message PAK1 is a promising therapeutic target in cancer and allergen-induced disorders. Its suitability as a target in vascular, neurological and infectious diseases remains ambiguous. Further advancement of this field requires progress on such issues as the development of specific and clinically acceptable inhibitors, the choice between targeting one or multiple PAK isoforms, elucidation of the individual roles of PAK1 targets and the mechanisms that may circumvent inhibition of PAK1. PMID:20507214

  12. Therapeutic Uses of Triphala in Ayurvedic Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denniston, Kate; Chopra, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aim: The aim of this article is to review the current literature on the therapeutic uses and efficacy of Triphala. Herbal remedies are among the most ancient medicines used in traditional systems of healthcare such as Ayurveda. Triphala, a well-recognized and highly efficacious polyherbal Ayurvedic medicine consisting of fruits of the plant species Emblica officinalis (Amalaki), Terminalia bellerica (Bibhitaki), and Terminalia chebula (Haritaki), is a cornerstone of gastrointestinal and rejuvenative treatment. Methods: A search of the PubMed database was conducted. Results: In addition, numerous additional therapeutic uses described both in the Ayurvedic medical literature and anecdotally are being validated scientifically. In addition to laxative action, Triphala research has found the formula to be potentially effective for several clinical uses such as appetite stimulation, reduction of hyperacidity, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, antibacterial, antimutagenic, adaptogenic, hypoglycemic, antineoplastic, chemoprotective, and radioprotective effects, and prevention of dental caries. Polyphenols in Triphala modulate the human gut microbiome and thereby promote the growth of beneficial Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus while inhibiting the growth of undesirable gut microbes. The bioactivity of Triphala is elicited by gut microbiota to generate a variety of anti-inflammatory compounds. Conclusions: This review summarizes recent data on pharmacological properties and clinical effects of Triphala while highlighting areas in need of additional investigation and clinical development. PMID:28696777

  13. Salmonella and cancer: from pathogens to therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorobik, Paulina; Czaplicki, Dominik; Ossysek, Karolina; Bereta, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial cancer therapy is a concept more than 100 years old - yet, all things considered, it is still in early development. While the use of many passive therapeutics is hindered by the complexity of tumor biology, bacteria offer unique features that can overcome these limitations. Microbial metabolism, motility and sensitivity can lead to site-specific treatment, highly focused on the tumor and safe to other tissues. Activation of tumor-specific immunity is another important mechanism of such therapies. Several bacterial strains have been evaluated as cancer therapeutics so far, Salmonella Typhimurium being one of the most promising. S. Typhimurium and its derivatives have been used both as direct tumoricidal agents and as cancer vaccine vectors. VNP20009, an attenuated mutant of S. Typhimurium, shows significant native toxicity against murine tumors and was studied in a first-in-man phase I clinical trial for toxicity and anticancer activity. While proved to be safe in cancer patients, insufficient tumor colonization of VNP20009 was identified as a major limitation for further clinical development. Antibody-fragment-based targeting of cancer cells is one of the few approaches proposed to overcome this drawback.

  14. Therapeutic contact lenses: a patent review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Phillip; Shafor, Chancellor; Gause, Samuel; Hsu, Kuan-Hui; Powell, Kristin Conrad; Chauhan, Anuj

    2015-01-01

    Ophthalmic drugs are almost exclusively delivered via eye drops in spite of several deficiencies, including low bioavailability and poor compliance. Contact lenses have the potential to increase bioavailability by an order of magnitude, while also improving compliance. In this review, the authors summarize advances in therapeutic contact lenses. The major focus of the review is on patents on drug-eluting contact lenses, but non-drug-eluting contacts that offer a therapeutic benefit are also included. The content is divided based on the broad technology of the patent, including novel materials, molecular imprinting, diffusion barriers, colloid encapsulation, surface modification, layering, and other novel approaches. In addition to patents, research publications are also included to facilitate the understanding of the mechanisms and challenges. Among all non-invasive alternatives, contact lenses offer the highest bioavailability to the cornea due to the location of the lens in the immediate vicinity of the cornea. Several approaches have been patented to improve contact lens design for an extended release duration of drugs. Many technologies have successfully integrated suitable drug release profiles into contact lenses, but drug-eluting contacts are not yet commercialized likely due to regulatory challenges, including the high costs of clinical trials.

  15. Improving therapeutics in anorexia nervosa with tryptophan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2017-06-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that our diet is an important contributing factor in the development, management and prevention of a number of psychiatric illnesses. Tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is the sole precursor of neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin). Administration of tryptophan can boost serotonin neurotransmission to produce therapeutically important effects in serotonin deficiency disorders. Anorexia nervosa (AN) an eating disorder associated with high levels of psychiatric comorbidity including psychosis, hyperactivity, depression and anxiety has highest lethality of all psychiatric illnesses. Evidence suggests that excessive dieting and food restriction can decrease brain tryptophan and serotonin in AN patients to precipitate depression, psychosis and hyperactivity. There are currently no FDA approved pharmacological treatments available for AN patients; antidepressants and antipsychotics, largely used to treat associated psychiatric comorbidities are also not very effective. The aim of this non-systematic review article is to evaluate and document a potential importance of tryptophan supplementation in improving therapeutics in AN patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The social dimensions of therapeutic horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly

    2017-07-01

    Harnessing nature to promote mental health is increasingly seen as a sustainable solution to healthcare across the industrialised world. The benefits of these approaches to well-being include reduced symptoms of anxiety, depression and improved social functioning. Many studies assume that contact with nature is the main therapeutic component of these interventions yet 'green care' programmes typically include activities not based on 'nature' that may contribute to positive outcomes. This study explored the views of service users participating in a Therapeutic Horticultural programme on what factors promoted their engagement in the project, to identify variables other than 'nature' that may be responsible for successful engagement in these programmes. A secondary aim was to assess the significance 'nature' plays including, for example whether a prior interest in horticultural-related activities, such as gardening, is significant. Two focus groups were held with mental health service users (n = 15) attending a gardening project in south-east England. Findings revealed that the social element of the project was the key facilitator to engagement; the flexible structure of the gardening project was also significant and allowed service users to feel empowered. 'Nature' evoked a sense of calm and provided participants with a non-threatening space that was engaging. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Novel therapeutic targets for pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shing-Chun; Chen, Yang-Chao

    2014-08-21

    Pancreatic cancer has become the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the last two decades. Only 3%-15% of patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer had 5 year survival rate. Drug resistance, high metastasis, poor prognosis and tumour relapse contributed to the malignancies and difficulties in treating pancreatic cancer. The current standard chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer is gemcitabine, however its efficacy is far from satisfactory, one of the reasons is due to the complex tumour microenvironment which decreases effective drug delivery to target cancer cell. Studies of the molecular pathology of pancreatic cancer have revealed that activation of KRAS, overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2, inactivation of p16(INK4A) and loss of p53 activities occurred in pancreatic cancer. Co-administration of gemcitabine and targeting the molecular pathological events happened in pancreatic cancer has brought an enhanced therapeutic effectiveness of gemcitabine. Therefore, studies looking for novel targets in hindering pancreatic tumour growth are emerging rapidly. In order to give a better understanding of the current findings and to seek the direction in future pancreatic cancer research; in this review we will focus on targets suppressing tumour metastatsis and progression, KRAS activated downstream effectors, the relationship of Notch signaling and Nodal/Activin signaling with pancreatic cancer cells, the current findings of non-coding RNAs in inhibiting pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, brief discussion in transcription remodeling by epigenetic modifiers (e.g., HDAC, BMI1, EZH2) and the plausible therapeutic applications of cancer stem cell and hyaluronan in tumour environment.

  18. Personalized gene silencing therapeutics for Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, C; Skotte, N H; Southwell, A L; Hayden, M R

    2014-07-01

    Gene silencing offers a novel therapeutic strategy for dominant genetic disorders. In specific diseases, selective silencing of only one copy of a gene may be advantageous over non-selective silencing of both copies. Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the Huntingtin gene (HTT). Silencing both expanded and normal copies of HTT may be therapeutically beneficial, but preservation of normal HTT expression is preferred. Allele-specific methods can selectively silence the mutant HTT transcript by targeting either the expanded CAG repeat or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in linkage disequilibrium with the expansion. Both approaches require personalized treatment strategies based on patient genotypes. We compare the prospect of safe treatment of HD by CAG- and SNP-specific silencing approaches and review HD population genetics used to guide target identification in the patient population. Clinical implementation of allele-specific HTT silencing faces challenges common to personalized genetic medicine, requiring novel solutions from clinical scientists and regulatory authorities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Proteasome inhibitors therapeutic strategies for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Annamaria; Pieroni, Luisa; Ronci, Maurizio; D'Aguanno, Simona; Federici, Giorgio; Urbani, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Aberrations in the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS) have been recently connected to the pathogenesis of several human protein degradation disorders (e.g., cancer and neurodegenerative diseases), so that proteasome is now considered an important target for drug discovery. Small molecules able to inhibit and modulate UPS have been, in fact, described as novel tools for a new approach in anti-cancer therapy. In particular Proteasome Inhibitors (PIs), blocking activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB), trigger a decreased cellular proliferation and angiogenic cytokine production, induce cell death and inhibit tumor cell adhesion to stroma. Furthermore, several studies have demonstrated that PIs potentiate the activity of other anti-cancer treatment, in part by down-regulating chemoresistance pathways. Therefore pharmacologic, preclinical, and clinical data suggested the use of PIs in anticancer strategies, for their potential therapeutic relevance in the treatment of cancer and inflammatory-related diseases. This review focuses on recent advances in the development of PIs anticancer agents highlighting both novel patented compounds and novel therapeutic protocol of intervention.

  20. Community School Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samberg, Laura, Comp.; Sheeran, Melyssa, Comp.

    This booklet contains profiles of 26 community-school models. Although communities and states approach the development of community schools in various ways, all the models presented here reflect the shared vision of the Coalition for Community Schools, that is, a set of partnerships to establish a place where services, support, and opportunity…

  1. Community Health Worker Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Aurora Rodriguez

    An experienced community health worker describes her experiences in the field as a basis for recommended guidelines for the role, philosophy, aims, and goals of community health workers. The role of the community health worker as a member of the health care team is explored, and the problem of recognition for community health workers is considered…

  2. Minding Our P's through Q's: Addressing Possibilities and Precautions of Community Work through New Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmendorf, Dana

    2010-01-01

    Art therapists increasingly work outside traditional mental health treatment programs and facilitate art-making experiences within community-based settings. Although traditional mental health facilities provide frameworks for meeting ethical principles such as privacy, roles, consent to treatment, and setting therapeutic goals, community-based art…

  3. Rediscovering community: Interethnic relationships and community gardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    August John Hoffman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Community service work, volunteerism and mentoring have recently become popular topics of research as effective methods in improving self-esteem and civic responsibility. In the current study we explored the relationship between participation in a community service gardening program and ethnocentrism. We hypothesised that an inverse correlation would emerge where students who participated in a community service-gardening program would increase their perceptions of the importance of community service work and decrease their scores in ethnocentrism. Results of the paired samples t-test strongly support the hypothesis that community service gardening work significantly reduces reports of ethnocentrism: t(10 = -2.52, (p < .03 for community college students. The ramifications of the study and ramifications for future research are offered.

  4. Lay perceptions of malaria and therapeutic itinerary of resettled pregnant women in South Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræbel, Tania; Gueth Kueil, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Background Approximately 95% of South Sudan is malaria-endemic and transmission is high throughout the year. Annually, 2.3 million people are at risk of malarial infection, but children under 5 years, pregnant women and their unborn children are particularly at high risk. Appropriate policies...... for malarial prevention and control require a better understanding of the populations' malarial perceptions and treatment itinerary. Methods A qualitative study was carried out to explore malarial lay perceptions and therapeutic itinerary among 30 resettled pregnant women in Unity State, South Sudan. Results...... The study showed that the therapeutic itinerary was prompted by fever and composed of five steps that were simultaneously or successively explored. The household and community constitute the first-line treatment options for fever. Interviewees relied on homemade remedies and concoctions, traditional healers...

  5. Therapeutic working alliance: From a psychoanalitical to a pantheoretical conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Praper

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the concept of therapeutic working alliance was rooted in psychoanalysis, today it is more prominent in psychoanalytic psychotherapies than psychoanalysis. It is rather surprising that we cannot find the concept in the Laplanche and Pontalis Dictionary. During the last two decades a growing body of empirical research material on therapeutic working alliance was published, confirming the idea of the alliance as a separate dimension of therapeutic relationship with few recognisable components. The dimension of the therapeutic working alliance was examined in several approaches and proved as one of the most important therapeutic factors, regardless of the approach, and it has finally been accepted as a pantheoretical concept.

  6. ATOM - Accelerating therapeutics through opportunities in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcmahon, Benjamin Hamilton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dotson, Paul Jeffrey [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Create a new paradigm of drug discovery that would reduce the time from an identified drug target to clinical candidate from the current ~6 years to just 12 months. ATOM will develop, test, and validate a multidisciplinary approach to drug discovery in which modern science, technology and engineering, supercomputing, simulations, data science, and artificial intelligence are highly integrated into a single drug-discovery platform that can ultimately be shared with the drug development community at-large.

  7. Facilitating "flow" through therapeutic recreation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, G D; Witt, P A; Aguilar, T

    1983-01-01

    The rationale and means for facilitating flow for disabled individuals in situational and community recreation settings is discussed. The flow model and arousal model are discussed and implications of leadership aimed at facilitating flow are delineated. Specific principles discussed are: attracting attention, arranging complexity to provide optimal challenge, narrowing the stimulus field, minimizing extrinsic rewards, arranging for immediate feedback, and minimizing the individual's awareness of and focusing on the outcomes of involvements.

  8. Therapeutic touch is not therapeutic for procedural pain in very preterm neonates: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Celeste; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha; Rich, Bonnie; Whitley, Julie; Filion, Francoise; Cogan, Jennifer; Walker, Claire-Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Preterm neonates below 30 weeks' gestational age undergo numerous painful procedures. Many management approaches are not appropriate for this population. Therapeutic Touch, an alternative approach based on the theory of energy medicine, has been shown to promote physiological stability in preterm neonates and reduce pain in some adult studies. The objective was to determine whether Therapeutic Touch is efficacious in decreasing pain in preterm neonates. Infants Touch (n = 27) with infant behind curtains, leaving the curtained area for the heel lance, performed by another. In the sham condition (n = 28), the therapist stood by the incubator with hands by her side. The Premature Infant Pain Profile was used for pain response and time for heart rate to return to baseline for recovery. Heart rate variability and stress response were secondary outcomes. There were no group differences in any of the outcomes. Mean Premature Infant Pain Profile scores across 2 minutes of heel lance procedure in 30-second blocks ranged from 7.92 to 8.98 in the Therapeutic Touch group and 7.64 to 8.46 in the sham group. Therapeutic Touch given immediately before and after heel lance has no comforting effect in preterm neonates. Other effective strategies involving actual touch should be considered.

  9. Therapeutic processes in virtual reality exposure therapy: The role of cognitions and the therapeutic alliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyerbröker, K.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the processes involved in Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET), including the role of the therapeutic alliance and the patients' cognitions. This study was designed to investigate VRET processes in patients with specific phobias. We analyzed the influence of VRET on

  10. The role of therapeutic alliance in mindfulness interventions: therapeutic alliance in mindfulness training for smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Simon B; Davis, James M; Hoyt, William T

    2013-09-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions have enjoyed a marked increase in support within biomedical and psychological research and practice in the past two decades. Despite the widespread application of these treatments for a range of psychological and medical conditions, there remains a lack of consensus regarding mechanisms through which these interventions effect change. One plausible yet underexplored mechanism is the therapeutic alliance between participants and mindfulness instructors. In this report, data are presented on therapeutic alliance from the mindfulness arm (n = 37) of a randomized controlled trial of a mindfulness-based smoking cessation treatment. Results suggest that client-reported therapeutic alliance measured midtreatment did not significantly predict primary smoking outcomes. Alliance did predict improvement in posttreatment scores on several outcome variables linked to mindfulness practice, including emotion regulation (β = -.24, p = .042), mindfulness (β = .33, p = .007), negative affect (β = -.33, p = .040), as well as treatment compliance (β = .39, p = .011). Implications of these relationships and the possible role of therapeutic alliance in mindfulness treatments are explored. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. REASONS FOR THERAPEUTICAL FAILURE IN TREATMENT OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION AND THERAPEUTIC POSSIBILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Tepeš

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Helicobacter pylori infection is the main cause of gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer and MALT lymphoma. Bacteria is also recognised as a risk for the development of gastric cancer. More than half of the world population and also Slovenian population is infected with H. pylori. Bacteria causes serious diseases only in about 20% of infected who are candidates for the eradication therapy. The basic therapeutic combination is a proton pump inhibitor with two antibiotics. Because of the emerging bacterial resistance to antibiotics we are forced to find new therapeutical possibilities. The main reasons for therapeutic failure are described in the article as well as data for antimicrobial resistance in Slovenia.Conclusions. Recommended management strategies in Europe and in Slovenia are described. Eradication success is lower than it was and we should always test for successful eradication by urea breath test or endoscopic based tests if endoscopy is clinically indicated. Management strategies in case of therapeutical failure are also described.

  12. Inverse agonism and its therapeutic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khilnani, Gurudas; Khilnani, Ajeet Kumar

    2011-09-01

    A large number of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) show varying degrees of basal or constitutive activity. This constitutive activity is usually minimal in natural receptors but is markedly observed in wild type and mutated (naturally or induced) receptors. According to conventional two-state drug receptor interaction model, binding of a ligand may initiate activity (agonist with varying degrees of positive intrinsic activity) or prevent the effect of an agonist (antagonist with zero intrinsic activity). Inverse agonists bind with the constitutively active receptors, stabilize them, and thus reduce the activity (negative intrinsic activity). Receptors of many classes (α-and β-adrenergic, histaminergic, GABAergic, serotoninergic, opiate, and angiotensin receptors) have shown basal activity in suitable in vitro models. Several drugs that have been conventionally classified as antagonists (β-blockers, antihistaminics) have shown inverse agonist effects on corresponding constitutively active receptors. Nearly all H(1) and H(2) antihistaminics (antagonists) have been shown to be inverse agonists. Among the β-blockers, carvedilol and bucindolol demonstrate low level of inverse agonism as compared to propranolol and nadolol. Several antipsychotic drugs (D(2) receptors antagonist), antihypertensive (AT(1) receptor antagonists), antiserotoninergic drugs and opioid antagonists have significant inverse agonistic activity that contributes partly or wholly to their therapeutic value. Inverse agonism may also help explain the underlying mechanism of beneficial effects of carvedilol in congestive failure, naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome in opioid dependence, clozapine in psychosis, and candesartan in cardiac hypertrophy. Understanding inverse agonisms has paved a way for newer drug development. It is now possible to develop agents, which have only desired therapeutic value and are devoid of unwanted adverse effect. Pimavanserin (ACP-103), a highly selective 5-HT(2A

  13. The Therapeutic Utility of Employment in Treating Drug Addiction: Science to Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Kenneth; Holtyn, August F; Morrison, Reed

    2016-06-01

    Research on a model Therapeutic Workplace has allowed for evaluation of the use of employment in the treatment of drug addiction. Under the Therapeutic Workplace intervention, adults with histories of drug addiction are hired and paid to work. To promote drug abstinence or adherence to addiction medications, participants are required to provide drug-free urine samples or take prescribed addiction medications, respectively, to gain access to the workplace and/or to maintain their maximum rate of pay. Research has shown that the Therapeutic Workplace intervention is effective in promoting and maintaining abstinence from heroin, cocaine and alcohol and in promoting adherence to naltrexone. Three models could be used to implement and maintain employment-based reinforcement in the treatment of drug addiction: A Social Business model, a Cooperative Employer model, and a Wage Supplement model. Under all models, participants initiate abstinence in a training and abstinence initiation phase (Phase 1). Under the Social Business model, Phase 1 graduates are hired as employees in a social business and required to maintain abstinence to maintain employment and/or maximum pay. Under the Cooperative Employer model, cooperating community employers hire graduates of Phase 1 and require them to maintain abstinence to maintain employment and/or maximum pay. Under the Wage Supplement Model, graduates of Phase 1 are offered abstinence-contingent wage supplements if they maintain competitive employment in a community job. Given the severity and persistence of the problem of drug addiction and the lack of treatments that can produce lasting effects, continued development of the Therapeutic Workplace is warranted.

  14. Novel bioequivalence approach for narrow therapeutic index drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L X; Jiang, W; Zhang, X; Lionberger, R; Makhlouf, F; Schuirmann, D J; Muldowney, L; Chen, M-L; Davit, B; Conner, D; Woodcock, J

    2015-03-01

    Narrow therapeutic index drugs are defined as those drugs where small differences in dose or blood concentration may lead to serious therapeutic failures and/or adverse drug reactions that are life-threatening or result in persistent or significant disability or incapacity. The US Food and Drug Administration proposes that the bioequivalence of narrow therapeutic index drugs be determined using a scaling approach with a four-way, fully replicated, crossover design study in healthy subjects that permits the simultaneous equivalence comparison of the mean and within-subject variability of the test and reference products. The proposed bioequivalence limits for narrow therapeutic index drugs of 90.00%-111.11% would be scaled based on the within-subject variability of the reference product. The proposed study design and data analysis should provide greater assurance of therapeutic equivalence of narrow therapeutic index drug products. © 2014 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  15. Unexplored therapeutic opportunities in the human genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oprea, Tudor I; Bologa, Cristian G; Brunak, Søren

    2018-01-01

    Management Center have enabled the development of evidence-based criteria for tracking the target development level (TDL) of human proteins, which indicates a substantial knowledge deficit for approximately two out of five proteins in the human proteome. We then present spotlights on the TDL categories......A large proportion of biomedical research and the development of therapeutics is focused on a small fraction of the human genome. In a strategic effort to map the knowledge gaps around proteins encoded by the human genome and to promote the exploration of currently understudied, but potentially...... druggable, proteins, the US National Institutes of Health launched the Illuminating the Druggable Genome (IDG) initiative in 2014. In this article, we discuss how the systematic collection and processing of a wide array of genomic, proteomic, chemical and disease-related resource data by the IDG Knowledge...

  16. The internal process of therapeutic touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppa, Denise

    2008-03-01

    Therapeutic Touch (TT) is a complementary healing modality used by health care providers to reduce anxiety, accelerate relaxation, decrease pain, and enhance immunity. Research studies report outcomes of TT treatments, but few describe the specific process. This qualitative research study was conducted to describe the nature of the core process of TT in adults and full term infants as practiced by five professional nurses, each treating one adult and one infant. Analysis of data obtained from interviews and focused participant observations was conducted. Findings provide empirical data to depict an overall process divided into three phases: (a) preparation, (b) treatment, and (c) termination, that adheres to the standard process as described by Krieger. It expands on the description of each phase, including two new subcomponents, orienting and disengagement, not previously seen in the literature. Lastly, the study describes the modification of the TT process with infants compared to adults.

  17. Psyllium as therapeutic and drug delivery agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljit

    2007-04-04

    There is no doubt that fibers, in particular viscous dietary fibers, have positive effects on human health, both in the prevention and in treatment of chronic diseases. Dietary fibers from psyllium have been used extensively both as pharmacological supplements, food ingredients, in processed food to aid weight control, to regulation of glucose control for diabetic patients and reducing serum lipid levels in hyperlipidemics. Keeping in view, the pharmacological importance of psyllium polysaccharide and its gel-forming nature, this article discusses the therapeutic value of psyllium for the treatment of constipation, diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease-ulcerative colitis, colon cancer, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia and exploitation of psyllium for developing drug delivery systems.

  18. Mifepristone as a therapeutic agent in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Robert H

    2013-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the body's main stress-response system, and cortisol is the major adrenal glucocorticoid hormone secreted in human beings. HPA axis activity and cortisol secretion is regulated by a negative feedback system involving glucocorticoid receptors. Dysregulation of the HPA axis and increased cortisol levels have been implicated in mood, psychotic, and other psychiatric disorders. Mifepristone, as a potent antagonist of glucocorticoid receptors, has been studied or is currently being investigated as a potential therapeutic agent for psychotic depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and alcohol and cocaine dependence, as well as for mitigating the weight gain associated with the use of antipsychotic drugs and for improving cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This article will review some of the work in these areas.

  19. Exercise and cancer: from "healthy" to "therapeutic"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idorn, Manja; Thor Straten, Per

    2017-05-01

    Exercise improves functional capacity and patient-reported outcomes across a range of cancer diagnoses. The mechanisms behind this protection have been largely unknown, but exercise-mediated changes in body composition, sex hormone levels, systemic inflammation, and immune cell function have been suggested to play a role. We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors, and a more than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Given the common mechanisms of immune cell mobilization in mouse and man during exercise, we hypothesize that this link between exercise and the immune system can be exploited in cancer therapy in particular in combination with immunotherapy. Thus, we believe that exercise may not just be "healthy" but may in fact be therapeutic.

  20. Cell-Specific Aptamers as Emerging Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Meyer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are short nucleic acids that bind to defined targets with high affinity and specificity. The first aptamers have been selected about two decades ago by an in vitro process named SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment. Since then, numerous aptamers with specificities for a variety of targets from small molecules to proteins or even whole cells have been selected. Their applications range from biosensing and diagnostics to therapy and target-oriented drug delivery. More recently, selections using complex targets such as live cells have become feasible. This paper summarizes progress in cell-SELEX techniques and highlights recent developments, particularly in the field of medically relevant aptamers with a focus on therapeutic and drug-delivery applications.

  1. Fetal neonatal hyperthyroidism: diagnostic and therapeutic approachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoğlu, Selim; Özdemir, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Fetal and neonatal hyperthyroidism may occur in mothers with Graves’ disease. Fetal thyrotoxicosis manifestation is observed with the transition of TSH receptor stimulating antibodies to the fetus from the 17th–20th weeks of pregnancy and with the fetal TSH receptors becoming responsive after 20 weeks. The diagnosis is confirmed by fetal tachycardia, goiter and bone age advancement in pregnancy and maternal treatment is conducted in accordance. The probability of neonatal hyperthyroidism is high in the babies of mothers that have ongoing antithyroid requirement and higher antibody levels in the last months of pregnancy. Clinical manifestation may be delayed by 7–17 days because of the antithyroid drugs taken by the mother. Neonatal hyperthyroidism symptoms can be confused with sepsis and congenital viral infections. Herein, the diagnosis and therapeutic approach are reviewed in cases of fetal neonatal hyperthyroidism. PMID:28439194

  2. Antimicrobial Peptides for Therapeutic Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsogbadrakh Mishig-Ochir

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have been considered as potential therapeutic sources of future antibiotics because of their broad-spectrum activities and different mechanisms of action compared to conventional antibiotics. Although AMPs possess considerable benefits as new generation antibiotics, their clinical and commercial development still have some limitations, such as potential toxicity, susceptibility to proteases, and high cost of peptide production. In order to overcome those obstacles, extensive efforts have been carried out. For instance, unusual amino acids or peptido-mimetics are introduced to avoid the proteolytic degradation and the design of short peptides retaining antimicrobial activities is proposed as a solution for the cost issue. In this review, we focus on small peptides, especially those with less than twelve amino acids, and provide an overview of the relationships between their three-dimensional structures and antimicrobial activities. The efforts to develop highly active AMPs with shorter sequences are also described.

  3. Therapeutic Songwriting in Music Therapy Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Felicity; Wigram, Tony; Stott, Dave

    2008-01-01

    Songwriting as therapeutic intervention has received increasing attention in the field of music therapy over the past decade however much of the publications focus on clinical outcomes rather than methods of practice. This paper, part of a two-part research report into trends in the clinical...... of songwriting clinical practice and the frequency with which songwriting is employed in practice. The data highlights that songwriting is frequently employed in developmental disability and ASD practice, with reports on songwriting with these diagnostic groups being underrepresented in the music therapy...... practice of songwriting, aims to describe the most frequently employed goal areas across a range of clinical populations and compare these findings with the published literature. Responses to a 21-question on-line survey were obtained from 477 professional music therapists practicing in 29 countries which...

  4. Is methane a new therapeutic gas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wenwu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methane is an attractive fuel. Biologically, methanogens in the colon can use carbon dioxide and hydrogen to produce methane as a by-product. It was previously considered that methane is not utilized by humans. However, in a recent study, results demonstrated that methane could exert anti-inflammatory effects in a dog small intestinal ischemia-reperfusion model. Point of view Actually, the bioactivity of methane has been investigated in gastrointestinal diseases, but the exact mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effects is required to be further elucidated. Methane can cross the membrane and is easy to collect due to its abundance in natural gas. Although methane is flammable, saline rich in methane can be prepared for clinical use. These seem to be good news in application of methane as a therapeutic gas. Conclusion Several problems should be resolved before its wide application in clinical practice.

  5. Sickle cell disease, vasculopathy, and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Adetola A; DeBaun, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is caused by a mutation in both beta globin genes, resulting in chronic hemolysis and multiorgan disease that ultimately leads to premature death. Although hemoglobin S (HbS) polymerization and vaso-occlusion are central to the pathogenesis of SCD, overlapping pathways implicated in SCD-related endothelial dysfunction include hemolysis, defects in nitric oxide metabolism, ischemia-reperfusion injury, oxidative stress, increased cell-to-cell adhesion, and proinflammatory and coagulation mediators. Progression of organ-specific vasculopathy often precedes organ dysfunction and may provide targets for therapeutic intervention. SCD-related vasculopathies include, but are not limited to, moyamoya that often precedes cerebral infarcts or hemorrhage, proliferative retinopathy prior to loss of eyesight, pulmonary vasculopathy associated with pulmonary hypertension, and renal vasculopathy prior to the onset of chronic renal disease. This review evaluates evidence that SCD vasculopathy is a harbinger for organ dysfunction and reviews the potential for targeted antivasculopathy therapies.

  6. [A therapeutic Trojan horse: intracellular antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teillaud, J L

    1999-10-01

    Intracellular immunization is a novel therapeutic approach based on intracellular expression of recombinant antibody fragments, either Fab or single chain Fv (scFv generated by the assembly of the VH with the VL region), targeted to the desired cell compartment (cytosol, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum ...) using appropriate targeting sequences. Due to their exquisite specificity, these intracellular antibodies can be used to neutralize or modulate the functional activity of the target molecule. Intracellular immunization strategies currently under investigation in the field of oncology are directed against mutated oncogenic molecules such as ErbB-2, p21ras, and p53, as well as against apoptosis-inhibiting molecules such as Bcl-2. The first Phase I clinical trials on intracellular immunization are under way in the United States.

  7. Therapeutic response of rosacea to dobesilate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Pedro; Arrazola, J M

    2005-10-18

    Despite an incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis of rosacea, therapeutic modalities continue to expand. The principal subtype of rosacea includes erythematotelangiestatic rosacea, which is characterized by uncontrolled angiogenesis. Angiogenic growth factors such as fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are currently targets of intense effort to inhibit deregulated blood vessel formation in diseases such as cancer. Here we report a 33-years-old woman with erythematotelangestatic rosacea who responds to a daily treatment of topically applied dobesilate, an inhibitor of FGF, with an improvement in erythema and telangectasia after two weeks. Thus, dobesilate might be useful in the treatment of rosacea and other diseases that depend on pathologic angiogenesis.

  8. Therapeutic options in the management of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Richard W; Hall, Rosemary M; Parry-Strong, Amber; Wilson, John M; Krebs, Jeremy D

    2013-11-22

    In New Zealand 28.4% of adults now classify as obese, whilst a total of 63.8% are overweight or obese (BMI >25 kg/m²). This presents an ever increasing social and economic burden to individuals, families and the healthcare system. Obesity is a major risk factor for cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic, and respiratory disorders. Preventing obesity is the optimal long-term population strategy and must be a government priority. There are many approaches which could be taken to facilitate this, however it is important not to forget those who are currently overweight or obese. This review addresses the current therapeutic options in the treatment of obesity, focusing on lifestyle changes, medications, and surgery in New Zealand. It also presents a suggested algorithm for the clinician assessing and managing obese patients in New Zealand.

  9. Harnessing the Helminth Secretome for Therapeutic Immunomodulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandarajah, Emmanuela M.; Meissner, Kamila A.; Brattig, Norbert; Liebau, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Helminths are the largest and most complex pathogens to invade and live within the human body. Since they are not able to outpace the immune system by rapid antigen variation or faster cell division or retreat into protective niches not accessible to immune effector mechanisms, their long-term survival depends on influencing and regulating the immune responses away from the mode of action most damaging to them. Immunologists have focused on the excretory and secretory products that are released by the helminths, since they can change the host environment by modulating the immune system. Here we give a brief overview of the helminth-associated immune response and the currently available helminth secretome data. We introduce some major secretome-derived immunomodulatory molecules and describe their potential mode of action. Finally, the applicability of helminth-derived therapeutic proteins in the treatment of allergic and autoimmune inflammatory disease is discussed. PMID:25133189

  10. Therapeutic approaches of leptin in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Eva M

    2009-11-01

    Novel approaches in the understanding of the neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), involving neurochemical as well as biochemical techniques are being developed, opening up new possibilities in the direction of a metabolic degeneration. Indeed, brain lipids are closely involved in amyloid beta-related pathogenic pathways. An important modulator of lipid homeostasis is the pluripotent peptide leptin, which has been shown to reduce amyloid beta levels and tau-related pathological pathways, the major pathological hallmarks of AD. These data suggest that leptin holds promise as a novel therapeutic tool for AD. In this article, with some patent literature we will review here some of the most promising approaches involving leptin to cure and prevent, rather than to treat, AD symptoms.

  11. [Dumping syndrome: Diagnostics and therapeutic options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, F; Wierlemann, A; Bala, M; Fassnacht, M; Jurowich, C

    2015-09-01

    Dumping syndrome is a common complication after surgery of the upper gastrointestinal tract with symptoms ranging from mild gastrointestinal discomfort and moderate vasomotor disturbances, to severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Due to the increasing number of bariatric procedures being performed worldwide, bariatric surgery has become the most common cause for this disease entity. The aim of this review is to highlight the evidence for the physiological mechanisms contributing to dumping syndrome after the two most common bariatric surgery procedures, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy, to discuss technical aspects of the procedures underlying the development of the syndrome, patient-related predictive factors and other differential diagnoses, together with diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms.

  12. Therapeutic advances in the treatment of vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriou, Despina; Brogan, Paul A

    2016-04-26

    Considerable therapeutic advances for the treatment of vasculitis of the young have been made in the past 10 years, including the development of outcome measures that facilitate clinical trial design. Notably, these include: a recognition that some patients with Kawasaki Disease require corticosteroids as primary treatment combined with IVIG; implementation of rare disease trial design for polyarteritis nodosa to deliver the first randomised controlled trial for children; first clinical trials involving children for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) vasculitis; and identification of monogenic forms of vasculitis that provide an understanding of pathogenesis, thus facilitating more targeted treatment. Robust randomised controlled trials for Henoch Schönlein Purpura nephritis and Takayasu arteritis are needed; there is also an over-arching need for trials examining new agents that facilitate corticosteroid sparing, of particular importance in the paediatric population since glucocorticoid toxicity is a major concern.

  13. Anti-angiogenic peptides for cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosca, Elena V; Koskimaki, Jacob E; Rivera, Corban G; Pandey, Niranjan B; Tamiz, Amir P; Popel, Aleksander S

    2011-08-01

    Peptides have emerged as important therapeutics that are being rigorously tested in angiogenesis-dependent diseases due to their low toxicity and high specificity. Since the discovery of endogenous proteins and protein fragments that inhibit microvessel formation (thrombospondin, endostatin) several peptides have shown promise in pre-clinical and clinical studies for cancer. Peptides have been derived from thrombospondin, collagens, chemokines, coagulation cascade proteins, growth factors, and other classes of proteins and target different receptors. Here we survey recent developments for anti-angiogenic peptides with length not exceeding 50 amino acid residues that have shown activity in pre-clinical models of cancer or have been tested in clinical trials; some of the peptides have been modified and optimized, e.g., through L-to-D and non-natural amino acid substitutions. We highlight technological advances in peptide discovery and optimization including computational and bioinformatics tools and novel experimental techniques.

  14. Therapeutic Potential of Epigallocatechin Gallate Nanodelivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Andreia; Frias, Iúri; Neves, Ana Rute; Pinheiro, Marina; Reis, Salette

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the society is facing a large health problem with the rising of new diseases, including cancer, heart diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and obesity. Thus, it is important to invest in substances that enhance the health of the population. In this context, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a flavonoid found in many plants, especially in tea. Several studies support the notion that EGCG has several benefits in fighting cancer, heart diseases, diabetes, and obesity, among others. Nevertheless, the poor intestinal absorbance and instability of EGCG constitute the main drawback to use this molecule in prevention and therapy. The encapsulation of EGCG in nanocarriers leads to its enhanced stability and higher therapeutic effects. A comprehensive review of studies currently available on the encapsulation of EGCG by means of nanocarriers will be addressed.

  15. Integrins as Therapeutic Targets: Successes and Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Raab-Westphal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrins are transmembrane receptors that are central to the biology of many human pathologies. Classically mediating cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell interaction, and with an emerging role as local activators of TGFβ, they influence cancer, fibrosis, thrombosis and inflammation. Their ligand binding and some regulatory sites are extracellular and sensitive to pharmacological intervention, as proven by the clinical success of seven drugs targeting them. The six drugs on the market in 2016 generated revenues of some US$3.5 billion, mainly from inhibitors of α4-series integrins. In this review we examine the current developments in integrin therapeutics, especially in cancer, and comment on the health economic implications of these developments.

  16. [Hereditary ichthyosis: A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Almendra, Nadia; Aranibar Duran, Ligia

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary ichthyoses are a group of genetic disorders of cornification, which are characterised by hyperkeratosis and scaling. The new classification identifies 36 types of ichthyosis, which are subdivided according to their frequency, pattern of inheritance and extracutaneous involvement. The diagnosis is mainly based on clinical features, since genetic studies are not available in our setting. Treatment is symptomatic and management should be performed by a multidisciplinary team. In this article, the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of different types of ichthyosis are reviewed, taking into account the nomenclature and modifications presented in the new classification. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring therapeutic efficacy in breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardivon, Anne A; Ollivier, Liliane; El Khoury, Carl; Thibault, Fabienne

    2006-11-01

    The aim of imaging during and after neoadjuvant therapy is to document and quantify tumor response: has the tumor size been accurately measured? Certainly, the most exciting information for the oncologists is: can we identify good or nonresponders, and can we predict the pathological response early after the initiation of treatment? This review article will discuss the role and the performance of the different imaging modalities (mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and FDG-PET imaging) for evaluating this therapeutic response. It is important to emphasize that, at this time, clinical examination and conventional imaging (mammography and ultrasound) are the only methods recognized by the international criteria. Magnetic resonance imaging and FDG-PET imaging are very promising for predicting the response early after the initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  18. Monitoring therapeutic efficacy in breast carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tardivon, Anne A.; Ollivier, Liliane; Khoury, Carl El; Thibault, Fabienne [Institut Curie, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2006-11-15

    The aim of imaging during and after neoadjuvant therapy is to document and quantify tumor response: has the tumor size been accurately measured? Certainly, the most exciting information for the oncologists is: can we identify good or nonresponders, and can we predict the pathological response early after the initiation of treatment? This review article will discuss the role and the performance of the different imaging modalities (mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and FDG-PET imaging) for evaluating this therapeutic response. It is important to emphasize that, at this time, clinical examination and conventional imaging (mammography and ultrasound) are the only methods recognized by the international criteria. Magnetic resonance imaging and FDG-PET imaging are very promising for predicting the response early after the initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. (orig.)

  19. Therapeutic implications of the modular headache theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, William B; Piovesan, Elcio J

    2003-11-01

    A theoretical approach to understanding the primary headaches not yet classified by the International Headache Society classification system has been developed by the authors. It is proposed that groups of neurons, called modules, become activated to produce each symptom of a primary headache disorder and these modules are linked together to produce a headache. Headaches develop phenotypic stability through the process of learned stereotypy. This theory explains the huge diversity of headache phenomenology. It has implications for the classification, research and treatment of headache patients. The modular headache theory has therapeutic implications by directing us to focus on treatable modules and avoiding unnecessary treatment for less treatable symptoms. This allows for rational approaches to CNS hyperexcitability and incorporates the temporal patterns of modular activation into the patient's treatment plan.

  20. Metabolic regulation of immune responses: therapeutic opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Nadine; Finlay, David K

    2016-06-01

    Immune cell metabolism is dynamically regulated in parallel with the substantial changes in cellular function that accompany immune cell activation. While these changes in metabolism are important for facilitating the increased energetic and biosynthetic demands of activated cells, immune cell metabolism also has direct roles in controlling the functions of immune cells and shaping the immune response. A theme is emerging wherein nutrients, metabolic enzymes, and metabolites can act as an extension of the established immune signal transduction pathways, thereby adding an extra layer of complexity to the regulation of immunity. This Review will outline the metabolic configurations adopted by different immune cell subsets, describe the emerging roles for metabolic enzymes and metabolites in the control of immune cell function, and discuss the therapeutic implications of this emerging immune regulatory axis.

  1. Opportunities for Therapeutic Intervention During Machine Perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Negin; Yeh, Heidi

    2017-06-01

    There is a vast discrepancy between the number of patients waiting for organ transplantation and the available donor organs. Ex vivo machine perfusion (MP) has emerged in an effort to expand the donor pool, by improving organ preservation, providing diagnostic information, and more recently, acting as a platform for organ improvement. This article reviews the current status of MP with a focus on its role in organ preconditioning and therapeutic interventions prior to transplantation. MP has allowed longer organ preservation compared to conventional static cold storage and allowed the use of organs that might otherwise have been discarded. Moreover, experimental studies have investigated the role of MP in reducing ischemia reperfusion injury of lungs, kidneys and livers by applying mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), anti-inflammatory agents, cytotopic anticoagulants, and defatting cocktails. MP has opened a new era in the field of organ transplantation and tissue medication.

  2. Multifunctional Nanofibers towards Active Biomedical Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaishri Sharma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional (1-D nanostructures have attracted enormous research interest due to their unique physicochemical properties and wide application potential. These 1-D nanofibers are being increasingly applied to biomedical fields owing to their high surface area-to-volume ratio, high porosity, and the ease of tuning their structures, functionalities, and properties. Many biomedical nanofiber reviews have focused on tissue engineering and drug delivery applications but have very rarely discussed their use as wound dressings. However, nanofibers have enormous potential as wound dressings and other clinical applications that could have wide impacts on the treatment of wounds. Herein, the authors review the main fabrication methods of nanofibers as well as requirements, strategies, and recent applications of nanofibers, and provide perspectives of the challenges and opportunities that face multifunctional nanofibers for active therapeutic applications.

  3. Protein prenylation: enzymes, therapeutics, and biotechnology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsuledesai, Charuta C; Distefano, Mark D

    2015-01-16

    Protein prenylation is a ubiquitous covalent post-translational modification found in all eukaryotic cells, comprising attachment of either a farnesyl or a geranylgeranyl isoprenoid. It is essential for the proper cellular activity of numerous proteins, including Ras family GTPases and heterotrimeric G-proteins. Inhibition of prenylation has been extensively investigated to suppress the activity of oncogenic Ras proteins to achieve antitumor activity. Here, we review the biochemistry of the prenyltransferase enzymes and numerous isoprenoid analogs synthesized to investigate various aspects of prenylation and prenyltransferases. We also give an account of the current status of prenyltransferase inhibitors as potential therapeutics against several diseases including cancers, progeria, aging, parasitic diseases, and bacterial and viral infections. Finally, we discuss recent progress in utilizing protein prenylation for site-specific protein labeling for various biotechnology applications.

  4. [Therapeutic strategies in erosive digital polyarthrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahinbegovic, E; Schett, G

    2011-06-01

    One of the most common forms of osteoarthritis is hand osteoarthritis. A subgroup, termed erosive hand osteoarthritis (EHOA), shows a highly destructive disease course with involvement of multiple joints, swelling as well as cartilage and bone destruction leading to progressive loss of hand function. EHOA is characterized by subchondral erosions of the finger joints as well as ankylosis. No disease modifying therapy is currently available for the treatment of EHOA and treatment options are confined to the control of symptoms. Acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used to treat the signs and symptoms. So far cytokine blocking agents have not shown a convincing therapeutic effect and the effect size of chondroitin sulfate and bisphosphonates in EOHA is small.

  5. The promising trajectory of autism therapeutics discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jill L; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2014-07-01

    Pharmacological interventions for neurodevelopmental disorders are increasingly tractable. Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects approximately 1% of the population. Currently, the standard of care is early behavioral therapy. No approved medical treatments for the diagnostic symptoms are available. Strong evidence for genetic causes of autism implicates proteins that mediate synaptic transmission and structure. Mouse models with targeted mutations in these synaptic genes display behavioral symptoms relevant to the social communication abnormalities and repetitive behaviors that define autism spectrum disorder (ASD), along with biological abnormalities in synaptic physiology and morphology. As we discuss here, promising pharmacological targets, emerging from the mouse model studies, are now being pursued in early clinical trials. Thus, a high-prevalence disorder that was previously considered to be medically untreatable is now moving into the therapeutic arena. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential and effective meaning in therapeutic ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, J L

    1979-03-01

    Anthropologists who accept the functionalist dogma that everything in a culture is related to everything else can easily demonstrate from their own point of view that any ritual is richly meaningful. If, then, the healing power of therapeutic ritual depends on making illness meaningful, any ritual, if seen from this perspective, should be efficacious. We must distinguish, however, between potential and effective meaning, i.e. what a ritual might mean and what it does mean to participants in it who generally lack an anthropologist's global view of their culture. Effective meaning can be assessed by examining a ritual's relevance to the situation in which it occurs and factors which facilitate or hinder communication of what it might mean to particular persons. This argument is illustrated by analyzing the meaning of a Chinese healing ritual in two different situations in which it occurs.

  7. Treating troubled families: therapeutic scenario in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Bino

    2012-04-01

    India, a country of diverse cultures, languages, life styles, and ethnicities, is becoming a land of economic change, political stability, technological advancement, and changing traditional structures of relationships as well as health consciousness. Being known for its ancient traditions, rituals, religious orientation, spiritual outlook and folk beliefs, Indian families attempt to continue certain healthy and traditional elements such as warmth, strong bond, hierarchy, extended support, cultural orientation, shared values and time, tolerance, respect for the aged and inculcation of religious teachings and traditions in families. These factors, or practices, in fact have strong therapeutic value in supplementing the growth and development of individuals in the family system in spite of its transitional position. This paper deals with the review of family-based mental health services and focuses on the changing trends of those practices in India and the advancement of Indian families in their engaging ability with mentally ill members as well as with the treating team.

  8. Graphene-based platforms for cancer therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sunny C; Lee, Stephen; Lalwani, Gaurav; Suhrland, Cassandra; Chowdhury, Sayan Mullick; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2016-01-01

    Graphene is a multifunctional carbon nanomaterial and could be utilized to develop platform technologies for cancer therapies. Its surface can be covalently and noncovalently functionalized with anticancer drugs and functional groups that target cancer cells and tissue to improve treatment efficacies. Furthermore, its physicochemical properties can be harnessed to facilitate stimulus responsive therapeutics and drug delivery. This review article summarizes the recent literature specifically focused on development of graphene technologies to treat cancer. We will focus on advances at the interface of graphene based drug/gene delivery, photothermal/photodynamic therapy and combinations of these techniques. We also discuss the current understanding in cytocompatibility and biocompatibility issues related to graphene formulations and their implications pertinent to clinical cancer management. PMID:26769305

  9. Creating a hospice pharmacy and therapeutics committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapp, Janet; Kelley, Debra; Gutgsell, Terence L

    2002-01-01

    Implementing a Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee (P&T) as a management strategy for Hospice of the Bluegrass in Lexington, Kentucky, has proven to be effective in reducing costs and improving patient outcomes. Early efforts of the committee yielded the establishment of protocols and guidelines, educational programs, pharmacy newsletters for nurses, and patient education material. In the spring of 2000, Hospice of the Bluegrass developed a preferred drug list (PDL) consisting of the medications it considered essential for effective pain and symptom control. The addition of a clinical pharmacist and a P&T committee has resulted in significant cost savings and improved pharmacotherapeutic care for patients of Hospice of the Bluegrass. This model is an option for any hospice looking to achieve the same outcomes.

  10. Therapeutic aspects of Tulsi unraveled: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the paper was to review the diverse pharmaceutical aspects of Tulsi. Materials and Methods: Several publications and books were electronically searched in google using the keywords “Tulsi as a medicine,” “Tulsi as a medicinal plant,” “Medicinal properties of Ocimum sanctum,” and “Tulsi in dentistry.” The search was limited to articles and books in the English literature. To prepare a thorough review on the therapeutic aspects of Tulsi, the contents were screened between the year 1985 to 2015 by going through the title and abstracts, and further shortlisting articles for full text reading. Conclusion: The present review revealed that Tulsi has an extensive array of medicinal uses, as evidenced by various studies conducted, but its use in allopathic medicine is still limited because of the lack of clinical trials on humans.

  11. Therapeutic neuroprotective agents for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Rachna S.; Zhu, Haining; Li, Wei; Bowser, Robert; Friedlander, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal chronic neurodegenerative disease whose hallmark is proteinaceous, ubiquitinated, cytoplasmic inclusions in motor neurons and surrounding cells. Multiple mechanisms proposed as responsible for ALS pathogenesis include dysfunction of protein degradation, glutamate excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. It is therefore essential to gain a better understanding of the underlying disease etiology and search for neuroprotective agents that might delay disease onset, slow progression, prolong survival, and ultimately reduce the burden of disease. Because riluzole, the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment, prolongs the ALS patient’s life by only 3 months, new therapeutic agents are urgently needed. In this review, we focus on studies of various small pharmacological compounds targeting the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of ALS and discuss their impact on disease progression. PMID:23864030

  12. Epigenetics and therapeutic targets mediating neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Irfan A; Mehler, Mark F

    2015-12-02

    The rapidly evolving science of epigenetics is transforming our understanding of the nervous system in health and disease and holds great promise for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches targeting neurological diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that epigenetic factors and mechanisms serve as important mediators of the pathogenic processes that lead to irrevocable neural injury and of countervailing homeostatic and regenerative responses. Epigenetics is, therefore, of considerable translational significance to the field of neuroprotection. In this brief review, we provide an overview of epigenetic mechanisms and highlight the emerging roles played by epigenetic processes in neural cell dysfunction and death and in resultant neuroprotective responses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroprotection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Candida Antifungal Resistance and Therapeutic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Vieira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Species from genus Candida are characterized by their opportunistic nature and can trigger several infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. The emergence of non-albicans Candida species, associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, is largely associated with the mechanisms of resistance, intrinsic or acquired, to the conventionally antifungal agents used. Their understanding is fundamental for the development of effective therapeutic approaches. The diagnosis and treatment of these infections poses to be a real challenge and treatment should be implemented as soon as possible. However, on one hand the empirical use of antifungal agents correlates with increased resistance of non-albicans Candida species, on the other hand the antifungal susceptibility testing acts as an auxiliary for targeted therapy, and it is implicit a reduction in the development of resistant species.

  14. Garlic: a review of potential therapeutic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayan, Leyla; Koulivand, Peir Hossain; Gorji, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Throughout history, many different cultures have recognized the potential use of garlic for prevention and treatment of different diseases. Recent studies support the effects of garlic and its extracts in a wide range of applications. These studies raised the possibility of revival of garlic therapeutic values in different diseases. Different compounds in garlic are thought to reduce the risk for cardiovascular diseases, have anti-tumor and anti-microbial effects, and show benefit on high blood glucose concentration. However, the exact mechanism of all ingredients and their long-term effects are not fully understood. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of action of garlic as well as its efficacy and safety in treatment of various diseases. PMID:25050296

  15. Therapeutic Potential of Epigallocatechin Gallate Nanodelivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Granja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the society is facing a large health problem with the rising of new diseases, including cancer, heart diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and obesity. Thus, it is important to invest in substances that enhance the health of the population. In this context, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG is a flavonoid found in many plants, especially in tea. Several studies support the notion that EGCG has several benefits in fighting cancer, heart diseases, diabetes, and obesity, among others. Nevertheless, the poor intestinal absorbance and instability of EGCG constitute the main drawback to use this molecule in prevention and therapy. The encapsulation of EGCG in nanocarriers leads to its enhanced stability and higher therapeutic effects. A comprehensive review of studies currently available on the encapsulation of EGCG by means of nanocarriers will be addressed.

  16. Clinical and therapeutic variables influencing hospitalisation for bronchiolitis in a community-based paediatric group practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shawwa, Baha; Al-Huniti, Nidal; Weinberger, Miles; Abu-Hasan, Mutasim

    2007-04-01

    To examine the effect of different clinical characteristics and different treatments on the hospitalisation of infants with bronchiolitis seen in an outpatient clinic setting. The medical records of infants under 2 years of age who presented with a first episode of wheezing over a two-year period were reviewed retrospectively. Hospitalisation within ten days of evaluation was used as the primary outcome measure. Data from 320 patients were included. 17% were hospitalised. Age was lower in the hospitalised patients (4.9 months vs. 7.1, pbronchiolitis with oral corticosteroid in an outpatient clinic setting was associated with lower hospitalisation rates in patients with a family history of asthma or allergic rhinitis and in RSV-negative patients.

  17. Ward tension and staff leadership in a therapeutic community for hospitalized adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, D F; Crabtree, L H

    1979-08-01

    Mental health workers on inpatient units spend a great deal of time trying to cope with interpersonal tensions that disrupt ward life. We have focused our attention on two aspects of this problem. The first is clarifying the nature of the social processes that underlie periods of increased tension and conflict on wards. The second is clarifying the kinds of staff leadership required to manage these tensions. We are sure that those who have worked on interactive treatment wards will recognize this situation: for a period of weeks or more there is an uneasy tension; patient cliques form and disruption occurs between cliques and with the staff. Often there is a climax of disruptive behavior, such as a day or weekend when a large number of patients break ward rules. Trouble seems to be contagious. Throughout the period staff members disagree about how to manage the patients and the disruption, and usually this disagreement is tinged with old philosophical or personal differences. No one feels very confident about taking leadership initiatives, and the formal leaders are blamed for various failures and lacks. Eventually, often after a climactic disturbance is resolved, ward life returns to "normal" and people feel much better about living and working on the ward. In this paper we review previous work on this kind of ward process and discuss some of the problems involved in conceptualizing it. We report on two period of ward observation that illustrate the sequence from low to high tension and back to relative calm. We then discuss our ideas about the kinds of staff leadership needed to manage different phases of this sequence and the problems of developing and integrating multiple ward leadership roles.

  18. Modified Therapeutic Community Treatment for Offenders with MICA Disorders: Antisocial Personality Disorder and Treatment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendrick, Karen; Sullivan, Christopher; Banks, Steven; Sacks, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    Treatment outcomes 1 year after release from prison were compared for two subgroups of male inmates with co-occurring serious mental illness and chemical abuse (MICA) disorders, those with a diagnosis for Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD), and those without a diagnosis of APD. The foundation study had randomly assigned inmates to either…

  19. Causes of non-adherence to therapeutic guidelines in severe community-acquired pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Gattarello; Sergio Ramírez; José Rafael Almarales; Bárbara Borgatta; Leonel Lagunes; Belén Encina; Jordi Rello

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Valorar tasa de adherencia y causas de no adherencia a las guías terapéuticas internacionales para la prescripción antibiótica empírica en la neumonía grave en Latinoamérica. Métodos: Encuesta clínica realizada a 36 médicos de Latinoamérica donde se pedía indicar el tratamiento empírico en 2 casos clínicos ficticios de pacientes con infección respiratoria grave: neumonía adquirida en la comunidad y neumonía nosocomial. Resultados: En el caso de la neumonía comunitaria el tratamiento...

  20. Molecular diagnostics and therapeutics for ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Stephen; Skubisz, Monika M; Horne, Andrew W

    2015-02-01

    Ectopic pregnancies are a serious gynaecological emergency that can be fatal. As such, prompt diagnosis and safe timely treatment is essential. Here, we review the literature on the development of molecularly targeted diagnostics and therapeutics for ectopic pregnancy. A blood-based biomarker that accurately identifies an ectopic pregnancy could be used to offer early diagnostic certainty in cases where ultrasound cannot determine the location of the embryo ('a pregnancy of unknown location'). Molecules examined so far can be broadly grouped into biological themes of relevance to reproduction: (i) Fallopian tube (dys)function, (ii) embryo/trophoblast growth, (iii) corpus luteum function, (iv) inflammation, (v) uterine function and (vi) angiogenesis. While a sensitive and specific biomarker for ectopic pregnancy has yet to be identified, it is possible that improvements in platform technologies or a multi-modal biomarker approach may yield an accurate diagnostic biomarker test. Furthermore, with the advent of better imaging technology, the need for a blood-based biomarker test may be superseded by improvements in ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging technology. There have been some recent preclinical studies describing molecularly targeted therapeutic approaches for ectopic pregnancy. Notably, bench-to-bedside studies have examined the use of combination gefitinib (orally available epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor) and methotrexate. Preclinical studies suggest that combination gefitinib and methotrexate is highly effective in inducing placental cell death, and is significantly more effective than methotrexate alone. In early human trials, encouraging preliminary efficacy data have shown that combination gefitinib and methotrexate can rapidly resolve tubal ectopic pregnancies, and large extra-tubal ectopic pregnancies. If a large clinical randomized controlled trial confirms these findings, combination gefitinib and methotrexate could become a new