WorldWideScience

Sample records for theory users culture

  1. Harm reduction theory: users' culture, micro-social indigenous harm reduction, and the self-organization and outside-organizing of users' groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Samuel R; de Jong, Wouter; Rossi, Diana; Touzé, Graciela; Rockwell, Russell; Des Jarlais, Don C; Elovich, Richard

    2007-03-01

    This paper discusses the user side of harm reduction, focusing to some extent on the early responses to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in each of four sets of localities-New York City, Rotterdam, Buenos Aires, and sites in Central Asia. Using available qualitative and quantitative information, we present a series of vignettes about user activities in four different localities in behalf of reducing drug-related harm. Some of these activities have been micro-social (small group) activities; others have been conducted by formal organizations of users that the users organized at their own initiative. In spite of the limitations of the methodology, the data suggest that users' activities have helped limit HIV spread. These activities are shaped by broader social contexts, such as the extent to which drug scenes are integrated with broader social networks and the way the political and economic systems impinge on drug users' lives. Drug users are active agents in their own individual and collective behalf, and in helping to protect wider communities. Harm reduction activities and research should take note of and draw upon both the micro-social and formal organizations of users. Finally, both researchers and policy makers should help develop ways to enable and support both micro-social and formally organized action by users.

  2. User Interface Cultures of Mobile Knowledge Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Mannonen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication tools (ICTs have become a major influencer of how modern work is carried out. Methods of user-centered design do not however take into account the full complexity of technology and the user interface context the users live in. User interface culture analysis aims providing to designers new ways and strategies to better take into account the current user interface environment when designing new products. This paper describes the reasons behind user interface culture analysis and shows examples of its usage when studying mobile and distributed knowledge workers.

  3. Grounded Theory and User Requirements: a challenge for qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Singh

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the methodological implications of moving from grounded theory to user requirements for the design of information and communication technologies. This is a problem that is particularly acute for sociology, where theory is seen as a sufficient contribution to knowledge. Cultural theorists have potentially less of a problem moving from the cultural meaning of artefacts to design. The epistemological and methodological shifts are also narrower for the applied sciences. We submit the frameworks and sequencing of the open-ended interview need to be re-structured to ground both theory and user requirements. This is a sounder basis for detailing current and future user requirements from a social perspective.

  4. Cinema and Culture in Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ove

    2005-01-01

    Om Philip Simpson, Andrew Utterson and K.J. Shepherdson (ed.), Film Theory. Critical Concepts in Media and Cultural Studies vols. 1–4.......Om Philip Simpson, Andrew Utterson and K.J. Shepherdson (ed.), Film Theory. Critical Concepts in Media and Cultural Studies vols. 1–4....

  5. Updating cultural capital theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    2011-01-01

    of ‘‘highbrow’’ culture, cultural oppositions can nonetheless readily be detected. We point to nine oppositions, mostly shared between the nations. Three tensions between (a) participation and non-participation in cultural activities; (b) knowledge and ignorance in cultural issues (such as for music, literature...... such as participation, knowledge and an international orientation in class domination should be demonstrated, as it cannot just be assumed....

  6. CULTURAL FEATURES SHARED BY INFORMATION SYSTEMS USERS

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    Marilena Maldonado

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Problems may arise when organizational culture is not considered in the development of information systems, such as difficulties in system implementation, since users do not accept changes in their work cultures. However, current methodology designs do not contemplate cultural factors. The objective of this investigation was to identify the main cultural features shared by the users of information systems in an Argentinean university. As result of this work it was possible to identify the memes shared by the members of the community selected, and to categorize such memes according to their incidence grade. This work seeks to be an initial step towards the construction of systems that evolve along with the organizational culture they are an integral part of.

  7. Bridging User Requirements and Cultural Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadzilias, Elias; Carugati, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    . These cases show the existence of four key issues in the development of this kind of information systems: digitisation, requirements engineering, standardisation and interoperability. The proposed framework addresses these issues focusing on the user requirements and the cultural object representation......This chapter aims at defining a framework for the design of e-Government services on cultural heritage. Starting from an analysis of three cases on digitisation of different types of cultural objects the author highlights the problems existing in the creation of e-services on cultural heritage...

  8. Popular Cultural Pedagogy, in Theory; Or: What Can Cultural Theory Learn about Learning from Popular Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Culture has been theorized as pedagogy. In several languages and many contexts "culture" and "education" can be used interchangeably. This issue of the journal "Educational Philosophy and Theory" seeks to explore the dual proposition (1) that pedagogy is central to politicized cultural theory, but (2) that it has been…

  9. Grid-group cultural theory: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamadouh, V.

    1999-01-01

    This article offers an introduction to grid-group cultural theory (also known as grid-group analysis, Cultural Theory or theory of socio-cultural viability), an approach that has been developed over the past thirty years in the work of the British anthropologists Mary Douglas and Michael Thompson,

  10. Cultural theory revised: Only five cultures or more?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heffen, O.; Klok, Pieter J.

    2003-01-01

    This article deals with cultural theory in the version of Thompson, Ellis and Wildavsky. Cultural theory is important for research in the area of political and policy science because this theory has the pretension of pinning down endogenous preference formation. Using Durkheim's dimensions, 'social

  11. Consumer culture theory (re)visits actor-network theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    The vocabulary and tactics developed by actor-network theory (ANT) can shed light on several ontological and epistemological challenges faced by consumer culture theory. Rather than providing ready-made theories or methods, our translation of ANT puts forward a series of questions and propositions...

  12. Culture Studies and Self-Actualization Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Rod

    1983-01-01

    True citizenship education is impossible unless students develop the habit of intelligently evaluating cultures. Abraham Maslow's theory of self-actualization, a theory of innate human needs and of human motivation, is a nonethnocentric tool which can be used by teachers and students to help them understand other cultures. (SR)

  13. Towards a Culturally Situated Reader Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Wanda; Browne, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a theory of how culture enables literary interpretations of texts. We begin with a brief overview of the reader response field. From there, we introduce the theory and provide illustrative participant data examples. These data examples illustrate the four cultural positions middle grade students in our research assumed when…

  14. Theory and methods in cultural neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y; Hariri, Ahmad R; Harada, Tokiko; Mano, Yoko; Sadato, Norihiro; Parrish, Todd B; Iidaka, Tetsuya

    2010-06-01

    Cultural neuroscience is an emerging research discipline that investigates cultural variation in psychological, neural and genomic processes as a means of articulating the bidirectional relationship of these processes and their emergent properties. Research in cultural neuroscience integrates theory and methods from anthropology, cultural psychology, neuroscience and neurogenetics. Here, we review a set of core theoretical and methodological challenges facing researchers when planning and conducting cultural neuroscience studies, and provide suggestions for overcoming these challenges. In particular, we focus on the problems of defining culture and culturally appropriate experimental tasks, comparing neuroimaging data acquired from different populations and scanner sites and identifying functional genetic polymorphisms relevant to culture. Implications of cultural neuroscience research for addressing current issues in population health disparities are discussed.

  15. Human nature, cultural diversity and evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Henry

    2011-02-12

    Incorporating culture into an expanded theory of evolution will provide the foundation for a universal account of human diversity. Two requirements must be met. The first is to see learning as an extension of the processes of evolution. The second is to understand that there are specific components of human culture, viz. higher order knowledge structures and social constructions, which give rise to culture as invented knowledge. These components, which are products of psychological processes and mechanisms, make human culture different from the forms of shared knowledge observed in other species. One serious difficulty for such an expanded theory is that social constructions may not add to the fitness of all humans exposed to them. This may be because human culture has existed for only a relatively short time in evolutionary terms. Or it may be that, as some maintain, adaptation is a limited, even a flawed, aspect of evolutionary theory.

  16. Examining Equity Theory across Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Hatfield

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand culture’s role between perceived equity in one’s romantic relationship and relationship satisfaction, we sampled two groups from different cultural backgrounds and attempted to answer the question of whether culture would impact the relationship between equity and relationship satisfaction. We interviewed men and women from the University of Hawai’i (UH, a relatively individualist culture, and from the University of the West Indians in Jamaica (UWI, considered a more collectivistic culture. We had them fill out surveys detailing how equitable they saw their relationship, how important they considered equity to be in their relationship, and how satisfied they were in their relationship. A significant interaction was found between culture and equity in predicting relationship satisfaction. As predicted, in both countries participants considered equity to be of critical importance in romantic relationships. However, men and women in Hawai’i generally considered their relationships to be (slightly more equitable and far more satisfying than did people in Jamaica. There were also cultural differences in how people reacted to existing inequities. The UH sample was more satisfied in their romantic relationships, especially when the relationship was equitable. However, the UWI sample found their relationships to be most satisfying when they were overbenefitting from their relationships. We posit that the collectivist culture of our UWI participants affected the relationship between equity and relationship satisfaction. Considering the emphasis placed on roles and familial kin support in Jamaica, we can deduce that equity may be of less importance in affecting relationship satisfaction.

  17. Cultural Differences and User Instructions: Effects of a Culturally Adapted Manual Structure on Western and Chinese Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Qian; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Karreman, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Research shows that Western and Chinese technical communicators structure their documents in different ways. The research reported in this article is a first attempt to systematically explore the effects cultural adaptations of user instructions have on users. Specifically, we investigate

  18. Occupation, well-being, and culture: Theory and cultural humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammell, Karen R Whalley

    2013-10-01

    The Canadian Model of Occupational Performance and Engagement depicts individuals embedded within cultural environments that afford occupational possibilities. Culture pertains not solely to ethnicity or race but to any dimension of diversity, including class, gender, sexual orientation, and ability. This paper highlights specific dimensions of cultural diversity and their relationships to occupational engagement and well-being. Cultural variations constitute the basis for a socially constructed hierarchy of traits that significantly determine occupational opportunities and impact mental health and well-being. Cultural humility is an approach to redressing power imbalances in client-therapist relationships by incorporating critical self-evaluation and recognizing that cultural differences lie not within clients but within client-therapist relationships. It is proposed that theoretical relevance would be enhanced if culturally diverse perspectives were incorporated into theories of occupation. Cultural humility is advocated as an approach to theoretical development and in efforts to counter professional Eurocentrism, ethnocentrism, and intellectual colonialism.

  19. Cultural evolutionary theory: How culture evolves and why it matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creanza, Nicole; Kolodny, Oren; Feldman, Marcus W

    2017-07-24

    Human cultural traits-behaviors, ideas, and technologies that can be learned from other individuals-can exhibit complex patterns of transmission and evolution, and researchers have developed theoretical models, both verbal and mathematical, to facilitate our understanding of these patterns. Many of the first quantitative models of cultural evolution were modified from existing concepts in theoretical population genetics because cultural evolution has many parallels with, as well as clear differences from, genetic evolution. Furthermore, cultural and genetic evolution can interact with one another and influence both transmission and selection. This interaction requires theoretical treatments of gene-culture coevolution and dual inheritance, in addition to purely cultural evolution. In addition, cultural evolutionary theory is a natural component of studies in demography, human ecology, and many other disciplines. Here, we review the core concepts in cultural evolutionary theory as they pertain to the extension of biology through culture, focusing on cultural evolutionary applications in population genetics, ecology, and demography. For each of these disciplines, we review the theoretical literature and highlight relevant empirical studies. We also discuss the societal implications of the study of cultural evolution and of the interactions of humans with one another and with their environment.

  20. Mental health service user participation in Chinese culture: a model of independence or interdependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jessica Pui-Shan; Tse, Samson Shu-Ki; Davidson, Larry; Cheng, Patrick

    2017-12-22

    Current models of user participation in mental health services were developed within Western culture and thus may not be applicable to Chinese communities. To present a new model of user participation, which emerged from research within a Chinese community, for understanding the processes of and factors influencing user participation in a non-Western culture. Multiple qualitative methods, including focus groups, individual in-depth interviews, and photovoice, were applied within the framework of constructivist grounded theory and collaborative research. Diverging from conceptualizations of user participation with emphasis on civil rights and the individual as a central agent, participants in the study highlighted the interpersonal dynamics between service users and different players affecting the participation intensity and outcomes. They valued a reciprocal relationship with their caregivers in making treatment decisions, cooperated with staff to observe power hierarchies and social harmony, identified the importance of peer support in enabling service engagement and delivery, and emphasized professional facilitation in advancing involvement at the policy level. User participation in Chinese culture embeds dynamic interdependence. The proposed model adds this new dimension to the existing frameworks and calls for attention to the complex local ecology and cultural consistency in realizing user participation.

  1. The user-oriented evaluator's role in formulating a program theory: Using a theory-driven approach

    OpenAIRE

    Christie, CA; Alkin, MC

    2003-01-01

    Program theory plays a prominent role in many evaluations, not only in theory-driven evaluations. This paper presents a case study of the process of developing and refining a program's theory within a user-oriented evaluation. In user-oriented (or utilization-focused) evaluations, primary users can play a role in defining their own program theory. This is different, however, from the typical process by which a program theory is developed when using theory-driven evaluation framework. This cas...

  2. Anthropological Theory: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module introduces the student to various theoretical perspectives, terms, and influential figures within the field of anthropology. The following historical and conceptual influences on anthropological theory are discussed: (1) the Greek…

  3. The Danish digitalized Cultural Heritage and its users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    In this Ph.D. project three different cultural heritage resources on the web are studied with a triangulation of methods. 1) The users’ navigational strategies to reach the resources and their usage of them are examined by web log analysis. 2) User attitude and experiences are collected through...

  4. Bastard Culture! User participation and the extension of the cultural industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schäfer, M.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832308

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade a culture of user participation has developed on a global scale contributing to the development of software as well as changing, commenting, creating and distributing media content. With the personal computer, the internet and software, users have powerful production means at

  5. Working With Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolff-Michael Roth

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the experiences of two researchers, Wolff-Michael ROTH and Luis RADFORD, using cultural-historical activity theory in mathematics education. The aim is to provide insights into the ways these researchers see and engage with activity theory, how they have come to adopt and expand it, and some of the challenges and concerns that they have had using it. These questions are not usually addressed within typical scientific papers. Yet, they are important for understanding both the dynamics of research and the practical use of cultural-historical activity theory. Since the format of research report papers is not necessarily well suited to convey personal experiences and thinking, the present article takes the form of a conversation, which provides an effective vehicle for exploring and articulating these matters. This provides a basis for understanding more deeply the underlying assumptions of this theory; its dynamics and how it is applied in research of mathematics practice, thinking, and learning; and insights into the manner in which experienced researchers grapple with the theoretical dimensions of their research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1202232

  6. Is Consumer Culture Theory research or realpolitik?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Per; Bode, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    culture in this stream of research. This paper analyses these changes and studies how CCT represents a new and pragmatic attitude. It is shown how the changes intended by CCT can imply a shift from a focus on new groundbreaking research to an awareness of the consequences of realpolitik. This strategic......When Consumer Culture Theory (CCT) was introduced by Arnould and Thompson (2005) it was part of a strategy to create legitimacy for interpretive research. It was argued that interpretive researchers needed to be more pragmatic in their attitude. This was a fundamental change in the scientific...... move can be seen as an example of how scientific cultures try to move from a marginal position to the mainstream. The consequences of this attempt to manage science are analysed, and solutions to problems created by these changes are developed....

  7. What is a non-user? An analysis of Danish surveys on cultural habits and participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Gitte; Kann-Christensen, Nanna

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses surveys of cultural participation and discusses how they convey certain concepts of users and culture. The article aims to develop a more nuanced and contemporary picture of cultural participation and notions of the non-user. The article shows a shift in how the user is const...

  8. Users' participation in nursing care: an element of the Theory of Goal Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rodrigo Nogueira; Ferreira, Márcia de Assunção

    2016-02-01

    Users' participation in care has been acknowledged as a key factor to improve health services. To analyze the Theory of Goal Attainment and to discuss the explicit and implicit relations between the Theory and the phenomenon of users' participation in nursing care. Theoretical analysis of the Theory of Goal Attainment. The analysis phase of the Framework for Analysis and Evaluation of Nursing Theories was applied. Then, the explicit and implicit relations between the Theory and the phenomenon of users' participation were analyzed. Users' participation in nursing care is an element of the Theory of Goal Attainment, although limited to the goal setting and the means to achieve them. The choice for users' participation in care is a right defended in health policies around the world. The Theory of Goal Attainment is an appropriate guide to nurses in defense of users' participation in nursing care.

  9. Using activity theory to study cultural complexity in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frambach, J.M.; Driessen, E.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for research on culture, cultural differences and cultural effects of globalization in medical education, but these are complex phenomena to investigate. Socio-cultural activity theory seems a useful framework to study cultural complexity, because it matches current views on

  10. Using activity theory to study cultural complexity in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frambach, Janneke M; Driessen, Erik W; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    There is a growing need for research on culture, cultural differences and cultural effects of globalization in medical education, but these are complex phenomena to investigate. Socio-cultural activity theory seems a useful framework to study cultural complexity, because it matches current views on

  11. Interplay of institutional and cultural theories of organization

    OpenAIRE

    Janićijević Nebojša

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, similarities and differences between the institutional theory of organization and organizational culture theory are analysed, and how these theories complement each other is highlighted. This study posits that both the institutional and cultural theories of organizations have the same research subject and that they approach it from the same research paradigm. The level of analysis distinguishes the two, and therefore, an interaction between t...

  12. Using activity theory to study cultural complexity in medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Frambach, J.M.; Driessen, E. W.; van der Vleuten, C. P. M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for research on culture, cultural differences and cultural effects of globalization in medical education, but these are complex phenomena to investigate. Socio-cultural activity theory seems a useful framework to study cultural complexity, because it matches current views on culture as a dynamic process situated in a social context, and has been valued in diverse fields for yielding rich understandings of complex issues and key factors involved. This paper explains how...

  13. Culturalizing Achievement Goal Theory and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusho, Akane; Clayton, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article is primarily designed to provide a cultural analysis of the literature on achievement goals. First, an overview of the four dominant approaches to the study of culture--namely, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, and psychological anthropology--is offered. Second, we analyze the extant body of…

  14. Using activity theory to study cultural complexity in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frambach, Janneke M; Driessen, Erik W; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2014-06-01

    There is a growing need for research on culture, cultural differences and cultural effects of globalization in medical education, but these are complex phenomena to investigate. Socio-cultural activity theory seems a useful framework to study cultural complexity, because it matches current views on culture as a dynamic process situated in a social context, and has been valued in diverse fields for yielding rich understandings of complex issues and key factors involved. This paper explains how activity theory can be used in (cross-)cultural medical education research. We discuss activity theory's theoretical background and principles, and we show how these can be applied to the cultural research practice by discussing the steps involved in a cross-cultural study that we conducted, from formulating research questions to drawing conclusions. We describe how the activity system, the unit of analysis in activity theory, can serve as an organizing principle to grasp cultural complexity. We end with reflections on the theoretical and practical use of activity theory for cultural research and note that it is not a shortcut to capture cultural complexity: it is a challenge for researchers to determine the boundaries of their study and to analyze and interpret the dynamics of the activity system.

  15. Community Service-Learning and Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

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    Taylor, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), to provide new insights into community service-learning (CSL) in higher education. While CSL literature acknowledges the influences of John Dewey and Paolo Freire, discussion of the potential contribution of cultural-historical activity theory, rooted in the work of…

  16. Conversation at the Border Between Organizational Culture Theory and Institutional Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo; Zilber, Tammar

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects our conversation at the border - a dividing line but also a potential meeting place - of organizational culture theory and institutional theory. First, we discuss the border between institutional theory and organizational culture theory by exploring two notions central to both...... - taken for grantedness and meanings. We ask what is taken for granted about institutions and organizational culture and how institutions and organizational cultures materialize? Our conversation reveals that although the notion of the taken for granted is important to institutional theory...... and organizational culture theory, what this means and implies is quite different for each. We also found that even though institutions and cultures involve meaning and evolve through meaning making, the two are understood and hence explored methodologically in quite different ways. So what seemed to be similar...

  17. Toward a Theory-Based Measurement of Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Detmar Straub; Karen Loch; Roberto Evaristo; Elena Karahanna; Mark Srite

    2002-01-01

    In reviewing the history of the conceptualization and measurement of “culture,†one quickly realizes that there is wide-ranging and contradictory scholarly opinion about which values, norms, and beliefs should be measured to represent the concept of “culture.†We explore an alternate theory-based view of culture via social identity theory (SIT), which suggests that each individual is influenced by plethora of cultures and sub-cultures–some ethnic, some national, and some organizationa...

  18. The Unfulfilled Promise of Cultural Capital Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Paul W.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses Pierre Bourdieu's ideas on cultural capital in schools. Concludes that, defined in terms of exclusionary class-related practices and dispositions, cultural capital does not account for the relationship between social privilege and academic success. Notes too many conceptually distinct variables are labeled cultural capital, thus…

  19. Comment: Affect Control Theory and Cultural Priming: A Perspective from Cultural Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornpattananangkul, Narun; Chiao, Joan Y

    2014-04-01

    Affect control theory posits that emotions are constructed by social and cultural forces. Rogers, Schröder, and von Scheve (2014) introduce affect control theory as a conceptual and methodological "hub," linking theories from different disciplines across levels of analysis. To illustrate this further, we apply their framework to cultural priming, an experimental technique in cultural psychology and neuroscience for testing how exposure to cultural symbols (e.g., words and pictures) changes people's behavior, cognition, and emotion. Our analysis supports the use of affect control theory in linking different levels of analysis while leaving some opening questions for improving such a framework in future research.

  20. Culture's Consequences on Student Motivation: Capturing Cross-Cultural Universality and Variability through Personal Investment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Culture influences basic motivational processes; however, Western theories of achievement motivation seem to have neglected the role of culture. They are inadequate when trying to explain student motivation and engagement across a wide range of cultural groups because they may not have the conceptual tools needed to handle culturally relevant…

  1. CULTURAL GLOBALISATION AND CHALLENGES TO TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATION THEORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Movius

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews existing traditional media theories, and analyses the challenges that the current developments of globalisation present to them. The article provides a short history of the concept of globalisation, and reviews the primary theoretical approaches to globalisation that are critical to communication scholars. The article also examines how globalisation challenges the ways in which media and communication have traditionally been theorised. Specifically, the cultural imperialism theory is discussed, as well as the main challenges to the theory. Audience reception studies, which focus on how audiences negotiate meaning differently in specific cultural contexts, are highlighted as the key critique of cultural imperialism

  2. Software theory a cultural and philosophical study

    CERN Document Server

    Frabetti, Federica

    2014-01-01

    This book engages directly in close readings of technical texts and computer code in order to show how software works. It offers an analysis of the cultural, political, and philosophical implications of software technologies that demonstrates the significance of software for the relationship between technology, philosophy, culture, and society.

  3. Cultural theory and individual perceptions of environmental risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L; Sievers, [No Value

    Understanding differences in environmental risk perception and risk judgments might facilitate the development of effective environmental risk management strategies, including risk communication. Cultural theory holds that systematic individual differences exist in the perception of environmental

  4. A Formal Approach to User Interface Design using Hybrid System Theory Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optimal Synthesis Inc.(OSI) proposes to develop an aiding tool for user interface design that is based on mathematical formalism of hybrid system theory. The...

  5. An Exchange on Theory and Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Various Authors

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The following exchange grew out of a series of posts to the Cultural Studies Association of Australasia discussion list. As a talking point leading into a regular meeting for early career cultural studies researchers in Brisbane, Melissa Gregg, Jean Burgess and Joshua Green quoted a passage from Simon During’s recent Cultural Studies: A Critical Introduction (Routledge, 2005 in the hope of provoking a wider debate about the current state of Australian cultural studies. Various members of the list were duly provoked, and the ensuing discussion was later picked up in a paper by John Frow and continued in private correspondence and then in invited responses to the developing exchange.

  6. Cultural Historical Activity Theory, Expansive Learning and Agency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on how Cultural Historical Activity Theory was used to identify and analyse contradictions; model and ... CuLTurAL HisToriCAL ACTiviTy THEory, ExPAnsivE LEArning & AgEnCy in PErmACuLTurE 151. Table 1. ..... sell vegetables and the money is used for paying the orphans' school fees. SCOPE also ...

  7. Cognition to Collaboration: User-Centric Approach and Information Behaviour Theories/Models

    OpenAIRE

    Alperen M Aydin

    2016-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: The objective of this paper is to review the vast literature of user-centric in-formation science and inform about the emerging themes in information behaviour science. Background: The paradigmatic shift from system-centric to user-centric approach facilitates research on the cognitive and individual information processing. Various information behaviour theories/models emerged. Methodology: Recent information behaviour theories and models are presented. Features, str...

  8. Behavioral Theory and Culture Special Issue: Authors' Response to Commentaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasick, Rena J.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response to commentaries that focus on the "Behavioral Constructs and Culture in Cancer Screening" (3Cs) study. The 3Cs study had an unremarkable beginning, with two colleagues discussing their frustration over the narrow range of behavioral theories and the limited guidance the theories offered for a study…

  9. Cultural Differences in Equity Theory Predictions of Relational Maintenance Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Young-ok; Canary, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the theoretic role of equity in predicting relational maintenance strategies is modified by participant country and culture. Research on equity theory in relationships has been conducted primarily in the United States and Western Europe. We argue that equity theory predictions regarding relational communication probably…

  10. Consumer Culture Theory: Ideology, Mythology and Meaning in Technology Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2014-01-01

    Consumer culture theory helps us take note of the cultural forces and dynamics in which technology consumption is entangled. It enables people to articulate the cultural processes (ideological, mythic, ritualistic, etc.) through which cultural meanings become granted to or denied to technological...... innovations, thus shaping the value of technologies as cultural resources sustaining consumer identities. In its urge to shed light on these aspects, CCT tends to reinforce the gaps and asymmetries between the “socio-cultural” and the “techno-material”, leaving plenty of room for further study. The authors...

  11. Cross-Cultural Teamwork in End User Computing: A Theoretical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Regina F.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a theoretical model explaining how cultural influences may affect the open, dynamic system of a cross-cultural, end-user computing team. Discusses the relationship between cross-cultural factors and various parts of the model such as: input variables, the system itself, outputs, and implications for the management of such teams. (JKP)

  12. Predicting Facebook users' online privacy protection: risk, trust, norm focus theory, and the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeri, Alexander K; Ogilvie, Claudette; La Macchia, Stephen T; Smith, Joanne R; Louis, Winnifred R

    2014-01-01

    The present research adopts an extended theory of the planned behavior model that included descriptive norms, risk, and trust to investigate online privacy protection in Facebook users. Facebook users (N = 119) completed a questionnaire assessing their attitude, subjective injunctive norm, subjective descriptive norm, perceived behavioral control, implicit perceived risk, trust of other Facebook users, and intentions toward protecting their privacy online. Behavior was measured indirectly 2 weeks after the study. The data show partial support for the theory of planned behavior and strong support for the independence of subjective injunctive and descriptive norms. Risk also uniquely predicted intentions over and above the theory of planned behavior, but there were no unique effects of trust on intentions, nor of risk or trust on behavior. Implications are discussed.

  13. Mapping Cultural Frame Shifting in Interaction Design with Blending Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Krogh, Peter Gall

    2008-01-01

    the network model of mental spaces from Fauconnier & Turner's blending theory onto video material and interviews from initial qualitative use studies of a design case. In so doing we explore and argue for how meaning formation and embodied cognition coalesce in cultural frame shifting and provide a tool......In this paper, we introduce Gilles Fauconnier & Mark Turner's blending theory as a new conceptual framework for explaining ‘cultural frame shifting' in interaction design. Cultural frame shifting is when people, through their explorative use of technology, are required imaginatively to reorganize...

  14. Cultural effects on the neural basis of theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi Frank, Chiyoko; Temple, Elise

    2009-01-01

    "Theory of mind" has been described as the ability to attribute and understand other people's desires and intentions as distinct from one's own. It has been found to develop as early as between 3 and 4 years old, with precursor abilities possibly developing much earlier. There has been debate about the extent to which the developmental trajectory of theory of mind may differ across cultures or language systems. Although very few neuroimaging studies have directly compared different groups from different culture and language systems, across studies of a number of cultural/language groups have been used to explore the neural correlates of theory of mind. A summary of these findings suggests that there may be both universal and culture or language-specific neural correlates related to theory of mind. These studies, while still preliminary in many ways, illustrate the importance of taking into account the cultural background of participants. Furthermore these results suggest that there may be important cultural influence on theory of mind and the neural correlates associated with this ability.

  15. Theory of Mind in Substance Users: A Systematic Minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanvicente-Vieira, Breno; Romani-Sponchiado, Aline; Kluwe-Schiavon, Bruno; Brietzke, Elisa; Araujo, Renata Brasil; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2017-01-02

    Theory of mind concerns the sociocognitive ability to infer others' thoughts. It has been theorized to be impaired in substance use and abuse, as its alterations might explain negative social and interpersonal outcomes noted in the course of disorders. In addition, the brain structures involved in Theory of Mind (ToM) have been found to be disrupted in drug use conditions. We undertook a systematic review of ToM functioning in drug use conditions. Four electronic databases (MEDLINE, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Embase) were searched to find studies that have addressed ToM and conditions related to actual or previous drug use. The search found 147 papers, of which 14 fulfilled our review eligibility criteria. Different methods were used, but overall, results indicated that drugs are related to ToM deficits, particularly related to alcohol and amphetamines use. These impairments correlate with other clinical and cognitive functions. Despite the lack of studies and the methodological limitations of the existing ones Theory of Mind seems to play a role in drug use conditions, which requires further investigation.

  16. Portable music player users: Cultural differences and potential dangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Levey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have examined the use of portable music players portable listening devices (PLDs from various ethnic groups. Some findings suggest that there may be differences among ethnic groups that lead to louder or longer listening when using PLD devices. For example, some studies found that Hispanic PLD users listen at higher volume levels while other studies found that African American PLD users listen at higher volume levels. No investigator has explained the reasons for differences among ethnic groups in listening intensity. This paper will address the possible reasons for these differences and offer guidelines for the prevention of noise-induced hearing loss.

  17. Portable music player users: cultural differences and potential dangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, Sandra; Fligor, Brian J; Cutler, Cecelia; Harushimana, Immaculee

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have examined the use of portable music players portable listening devices (PLDs) from various ethnic groups. Some findings suggest that there may be differences among ethnic groups that lead to louder or longer listening when using PLD devices. For example, some studies found that Hispanic PLD users listen at higher volume levels while other studies found that African American PLD users listen at higher volume levels. No investigator has explained the reasons for differences among ethnic groups in listening intensity. This paper will address the possible reasons for these differences and offer guidelines for the prevention of noise-induced hearing loss.

  18. Cultural diversity, democracy and the prospects of cosmopolitanism: a theory of cultural encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanty, Gerard

    2011-12-01

    The most appropriate way of theorizing cultural diversity is to situate it in the context of a broader relational theory of culture in which the key dynamic is cultural encounters. The relational conception of culture places the emphasis on the relations between social actors and the processes by which some of these relations generate enduring cultural regularities and forms. This has important implications for political community and in particular for cosmopolitanism. It is in relationships that cultural phenomena are generated and become the basis of different kinds of political community. The paper outlines a typology of six kinds of cultural encounters and discusses four major cultural trends that variously emerge from these encounters. This approach with its emphasis on cultural encounters is the broad sociological context in which questions about cultural change and the prospects of cosmopolitanism should be discussed. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  19. KAYENTA : theory and user's guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, Rebecca Moss (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Fossum, Arlo Frederick (BP America, Inc., Houston, TX); Strack, Otto Eric

    2009-03-01

    The physical foundations and domain of applicability of the Kayenta constitutive model are presented along with descriptions of the source code and user instructions. Kayenta, which is an outgrowth of the Sandia GeoModel, includes features and fitting functions appropriate to a broad class of materials including rocks, rock-like engineered materials (such as concretes and ceramics), and metals. Fundamentally, Kayenta is a computational framework for generalized plasticity models. As such, it includes a yield surface, but the term 'yield' is generalized to include any form of inelastic material response including microcrack growth and pore collapse. Kayenta supports optional anisotropic elasticity associated with ubiquitous joint sets. Kayenta supports optional deformation-induced anisotropy through kinematic hardening (in which the initially isotropic yield surface is permitted to translate in deviatoric stress space to model Bauschinger effects). The governing equations are otherwise isotropic. Because Kayenta is a unification and generalization of simpler models, it can be run using as few as 2 parameters (for linear elasticity) to as many as 40 material and control parameters in the exceptionally rare case when all features are used. For high-strain-rate applications, Kayenta supports rate dependence through an overstress model. Isotropic damage is modeled through loss of stiffness and strength.

  20. KAYENTA: Theory and User's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, Rebecca Moss [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Fuller, Timothy Jesse [Orbital ATK Inc., Magna, UT (United States); Strack, Otto Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fossum, Arlo Frederick [BP America, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Sanchez, Jason James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The physical foundations and domain of applicability of the Kayenta constitutive model are presented along with descriptions of the source code and user instructions. Kayenta, which is an outgrowth of the Sandia GeoModel, includes features and fitting functions appropriate to a broad class of materials including rocks, rock-like engineered materials (such as concretes and ceramics), and metals. Fundamentally, Kayenta is a computational framework for generalized plasticity models. As such, it includes a yield surface, but the term (3z(Byield(3y (Bis generalized to include any form of inelastic material response (including microcrack growth and pore collapse) that can result in non-recovered strain upon removal of loads on a material element. Kayenta supports optional anisotropic elasticity associated with joint sets, as well as optional deformation-induced anisotropy through kinematic hardening (in which the initially isotropic yield surface is permitted to translate in deviatoric stress space to model Bauschinger effects). The governing equations are otherwise isotropic. Because Kayenta is a unification and generalization of simpler models, it can be run using as few as 2 parameters (for linear elasticity) to as many as 40 material and control parameters in the exceptionally rare case when all features are used. For high-strain-rate applications, Kayenta supports rate dependence through an overstress model. Isotropic damage is modeled through loss of stiffness and strength.

  1. Evolution, Psychology, and a Conflict Theory of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin MacDonald

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article develops an evolutionary theory of conflict over the construction of culture that is informed by current knowledge of psychological mechanisms. Psychological mechanisms important for the production of culture include (1 general intelligence (including the ability to engender hypothetical scenarios and means-end reasoning necessary for constructing tools and other exemplars of technology; (2 explicit processing mechanisms (e.g., symbolic representations of the world. Explicit processing allows humans to regulate modular mechanisms in accordance with culturally constructed norms and culturally constructed cost/benefit payoff schedules. It also enables active attempts to construct culture in accordance with explicit perceptions of possible costs and benefits. Because people have different construals of the costs and benefits of particular forms of culture, there is conflict over the construction of culture. Social controls and ideologies are introduced as general cultural categories that are enabled by explicit processing and which are able to regulate and motivate behavior within particular historical contexts, at times in ways that conflict with evolved predispositions. Ideologies are often intimately intertwined with various social controls but are logically and psychologically independent from social controls. Ideologies typically rationalize extant social controls but they also benefit from the power of social controls to enforce ideological conformity in schools or in religious institutions. Because of the control of explicit processing over behavior, this theory predicts that conflicts over culture will often be intense. Discussion deals with the implications of this model for group selection, cultural transmission, gene-culture co-evolution, and the various types of conflicts of interest apparent in conflicts over the construction of culture.

  2. Values and beliefs of psychedelic drug users: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Michael; Lyvers, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Psychedelic drugs such as LSD and psilocybin are often claimed to be capable of inducing life-changing experiences described as mystical or transcendental, especially if high doses are taken. The present study examined possible enduring effects of such experiences by comparing users of psychedelic drugs (n = 88), users of nonpsychedelic illegal drugs (e.g., marijuana, amphetamines) (n = 29) and non illicit drug-using social drinkers (n = 66) on questionnaire measures of values, beliefs and emotional empathy. Samples were obtained from Israel (n = 110) and Australia (n = 73) in a cross-cultural comparison to see if values associated with psychedelic drug use transcended culture of origin. Psychedelic users scored significantly higher on mystical beliefs (e.g., oneness with God and the universe) and life values of spirituality and concern for others than the other groups, and lower on the value of financial prosperity, irrespective of culture of origin. Users of nonpsychedelic illegal drugs scored significantly lower on a measure of coping ability than both psychedelic users and non illicit drug users. Both groups of illegal drug users scored significantly higher on empathy than non illicit drug users. Results are discussed in the context of earlier findings from Pahnke (1966) and Doblin (1991) of the transformative effect of psychedelic experiences, although the possibility remains that present findings reflect predrug characteristics of those who chose to take psychedelic drugs rather than effects of the drugs themselves.

  3. The emergence of autobiographical memory: a social cultural developmental theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Katherine; Fivush, Robyn

    2004-04-01

    The authors present a multicomponent dynamic developmental theory of human autobiographical memory that emerges gradually across the preschool years. The components that contribute to the process of emergence include basic memory abilities, language and narrative, adult memory talk, temporal understanding, and understanding of self and others. The authors review the empirical developmental evidence within each of these components to show how each contributes to the timing, quantity, and quality of personal memories from the early years of life. The authors then consider the relevance of the theory to explanations of childhood amnesia and how the theory accounts for and predicts the complex findings on adults' earliest memories, including individual, gender, and cultural differences.

  4. Design Factors Affect User Experience for Different Cultural Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sauman

    2016-01-01

    With increasing changes in our demographic populations and new immigrants settling in the US, there is an increasing need for visual communications that address the diversity of our populations. This paper draws from the results of the researcher's several past research and teaching projects that worked with different cultural populations. These…

  5. Field Theory in Cultural Capital Studies of Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Krarup, Troels Magelund

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that there is a double recession in international mainstream research in cultural capital and educational attainment: an empirical recession, since few new insights have been gained within recent years, and a theoretical recession, since cultural capital is now seen as a simple...... hypothesis about certain individual resources, disregarding the structural vision and important related concepts such as field, habitus, and strategy in Bourdieu’s sociology. This article reintroduces field theory into cultural capital research in education, taking into consideration current concerns...... in mainstream international quantitative research. It ends with some remarks on the consequences of this change in perspective....

  6. Field Theory in Cultural Capital Studies of Educational Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Troels; Munk, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that there is a double problem in international research in cultural capital and educational attainment: an empirical problem, since few new insights have been gained within recent years, and a theoretical problem, since cultural capital is seen as a simple hypothesis about...... certain isolated individual resources, disregarding the structural vision and important related concepts such as field in Bourdieu’s sociology. We (re)emphasize the role of field theory in cultural capital research in education, taking into consideration current concerns in international quantitative...... research....

  7. Between Faith and Science: World Culture Theory and Comparative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Stephen; Rappleye, Jeremy; Silova, Iveta

    2012-01-01

    World culture theory seeks to explain an apparent convergence of education through a neoinstitutionalist lens, seeing global rationalization in education as driven by the logic of science and the myth of progress. While critics have challenged these assumptions by focusing on local manifestations of world-level tendencies, such critique is…

  8. Editorial: Situated Culture, Ethics and New Learning Theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial: Situated Culture, Ethics and New Learning Theory: Emerging Perspectives in Environmental Education Research. H Lotz-Sisitka. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  9. Cultural Historical Activity Theory, Expansive Learning and Agency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on how Cultural Historical Activity Theory was used to identify and analyse contradictions; model and implement solutions in the learning and practice of permaculture at one school and its community in Zimbabwe. This is one of three sustainable agriculture workplace learning sites being examined in a ...

  10. Cultural Interface Theory in the Kenya Context and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maakrun, Julie; Maher, Marguerite

    2016-01-01

    Yunkaporta's (2009) pedagogical "eight ways" conceptual framework, inspired by Nakata's (2007) cultural interface theory, provided the platform for interpretation of the data in the current study. Here we considered the transferability of the framework to a current initiative in Kenya and its usefulness in preparation for an expansion of…

  11. Cultural Context and Modification of Behavior Change Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L.

    2009-01-01

    Although social and cultural contexts act on each level of the multilevel ecologic model to affect cancer risk, health behavior, and cancer screening and promotion in health behavior research, people have yet to develop theories that sufficiently integrate the social and environmental context with group and individual behavior. The "Behavioral…

  12. New Institutional Theory and a Culture of Safety in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Brandi; Nonnenmann, Matthew W

    2017-01-01

    Health and safety professionals often call for an improved safety culture in agriculture. Such a shift would result in agricultural practices that prioritize safe work habits and see safety as both an effective means to improve production and a goal worth pursuing in its own right. This article takes an anthropological approach and demonstrates the potential for new institutional theory to conceptualize broader cultural change in agriculture. New institutional theory examines the roles of organizations and the ways that they inform and support broad social institutions. Using preliminary data from the agricultural lending industry in Iowa and integrated poultry production in Texas, this article considers the ability of these organizations to contribute to systemic change and an improved culture of safety in agriculture.

  13. Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Szeman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil and Canada in their respective attempts to create genuine national cultures. As in many postcolonial situations, the problem of creating an authentic culture is directly related to the sense that postcolonial culture is necessarily imitative and belated. In Misplaced Ideas, Roberto Schwarz exposes the hidden class character of the problem of cultural authenticity in Brazil, and in so doing, shows that the trauma of national-cultural identity merely reflects the contradictory structural position of Brazil’s postcolonial elite. Using Schwarz’s insights to explore the Canadian situation, the author shows that the same forces are at work in Canada. Though the crisis of a lack of an authentic Canadian culture has recently been surmounted as a result of the apparent international success of Canadian culture (especially literary fiction, that author cautions that this “success” story hides the class basis of Canadian culture in both its belated and isochronic phases (the latter being the moment when cultural belatedness is overcome. Making use of Brazilian theory to examine problems in Canadian culture allows us to see that Canadian modernity, long thought to be simply a derivative of the UK and USA, has similarities with Brazilian modernity that are essential to understanding the space and place Canada occupies in globalization. In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil

  14. The cultural lens approach to evaluating cultural validity of psychological theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Erin E; Robitschek, Christine; Flores, Lisa Y; Navarro, Rachel L; Ashton, Matthew W

    2014-10-01

    In this article, we introduce the cultural lens approach (CLA), a novel approach to evaluating the extent to which a psychological theory applies across cultural groups. The CLA requires scholars to apply their accumulated knowledge about cultural influences and differences (e.g., independent and interdependent self-construals; Markus & Kitayama, 1991) to the ways in which theoretical propositions are interpreted and operationalized. First we highlight three limitations in existing approaches to cultural validity and the ways in which the CLA addresses these limitations. Next, we articulate the five steps involved in the CLA and apply it to three different theories from social, vocational, and positive psychology to demonstrate its broad utility. In all cases, we highlight how applying the CLA can generate multiple novel testable hypotheses to stimulate future research and to advance knowledge that is culturally sensitive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. [Systematized care in cardiac preoperative: theory of human caring in the perspective of nurses and users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Thais Vasconselos; Arreguy-Sena, Cristina; Alves, Marcelo da Silva; Salimena, Anna Maria de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    This is a case study research that aimed to know, with the adoption of the Theory of Human Caring, the meanings of therapeutic interpersonal relationship between nurse and user on the preoperative nursing visit after the experience of the surgical process. The convenience sample was composed of three nurses and three users of an institution that has updated records to perform highly complex cardiovascular surgery, comprising nine combinations of therapeutic interactions. It was used instruments, structured according to the theory of Jean Watson and North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, Nursing Intervention Classification and Nursing Outcomes Classification taxonomies. The legal and ethical aspects of research involving human subjects were assured. The results revealed three clusters to grasp the significance of preoperative visits by users and five clusters to capture the perception of nurses when they experience this clinical experience.

  16. Involving service users in interprofessional education narrowing the gap between theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Helen; Spencer-Dawe, Eileen

    2006-12-01

    Calls for greater collaboration between professionals in health and social care have led to pressures to move toward interprofessional education (IPE) at both pre- and post-registration levels. Whilst this move has evolved out of "common sense" demands, such a multiple systems approach to education does not fit easily into existing traditional educational frameworks and there is, as yet, no proven theoretical framework to guide its development. A research study of an IPE intervention at the University of Liverpool in the UK drew on complexity theory to conceptualize the intervention and to evaluate its impact on a group of approximately 500 students studying physiotherapy, medicine, occupational therapy, nursing and social work. The intervention blended a multidisciplinary (non-interactive) plenary with self-directed e-learning and a series of interdisciplinary (interactive) workshops. Two evaluations took place: the first when the workshops were facilitated by trained practitioners; the second when the practitioners co-facilitated with trained service users. This paper reports findings from the second evaluation which focused on narrowing the gap between theory and practice. A multi-stakeholder evaluation was used including: students' reflective narratives, a focus group with practitioners and individual semi-structured interviews with service users. Findings showed that service users can make an important contribution to IPE for health and social care students in the early stages of their training. By exposure to a service user perspective, first year students can begin to learn and apply the principles of team work, to place the service user at the centre of the care process, to make connections between theory and "real life" experiences, and to narrow the gap between theory and practice. Findings also revealed benefits for facilitators and service users.

  17. The role of culture in contemporary theories of sustainable architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    As the world becomes more globalized, modern cities are becoming more and more indistinguishable. All too often the identity of the modern city turns its back on the cultural built environment of the past. Sustainable architecture and design are rapidly addressing many of the key issues around...... climate change and energy shortages, but it also has the ability to mediate between the existing cultural heritage and the future built environment. Ensuring that the architecture of tomorrow represents the culture embodied in our cities. Sustainable architecture can contribute to solving these issues...... as it has the potential to bridge between the practical and the symbolic elements of the city. It negotiates the relationships between humans and the physical world both manmade and natural. The role of culture is established in many theories of sustainable architecture and is significant in ensuring...

  18. More than culture: structural racism, intersectionality theory, and immigrant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viruell-Fuentes, Edna A; Miranda, Patricia Y; Abdulrahim, Sawsan

    2012-12-01

    Explanations for immigrant health outcomes often invoke culture through the use of the concept of acculturation. The over reliance on cultural explanations for immigrant health outcomes has been the topic of growing debate, with the critics' main concern being that such explanations obscure the impact of structural factors on immigrant health disparities. In this paper, we highlight the shortcomings of cultural explanations as currently employed in the health literature, and argue for a shift from individual culture-based frameworks, to perspectives that address how multiple dimensions of inequality intersect to impact health outcomes. Based on our review of the literature, we suggest specific lines of inquiry regarding immigrants' experiences with day-to-day discrimination, as well as on the roles that place and immigration policies play in shaping immigrant health outcomes. The paper concludes with suggestions for integrating intersectionality theory in future research on immigrant health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effectiveness of Choice Theory in Quality of Life and Resilience of Drug Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    somaye najafi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of the application of choice theory in quality of life and resilience of male drug users of Tehran. Method: An experimental research design with pretest-posttest and control group was employed for this study wherein 40 drug users were randomly selected from a governmental center. The experimental group was exposed to twelve 90-minute intervention sessions of choice theory. Then, both groups were tested. The follow-up was performed two months later. Quality of life questionnaire and Connor-Davidson resilience scale were used for data collection purposes. Results: The results of this study showed that the application of choice theory had an impact on quality of life and resilience. This finding was actively present in the follow-up, as well. Conclusion: This Method can be used to treat addicts.

  20. Testing the cultural theory of risk in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenot, J.; Bonnefous, S. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nuclaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Marris, C. [Economie-Humanisme, Lyon (France)

    1998-12-01

    Cultural Theory, as developed by Mary Douglas, argues that differing risk perceptions can be explained by reference to four distinct cultural biases: hierarchy, egalitarianism, individualism, and fatalism. This paper presents empirical results from a quantitative survey based on a questionnaire devised by Karl Dake to measure these cultural biases. A large representative sample was used to test this instrument in the French social context. Correlations between cultural biases and perceptions of 20 social and environmental risks were examined. These correlations were very weak, but were statistically significant: cultural biases explained 6%, at most, of the variance in risk perceptions. Standard socio-demographic variables were also weakly related to risk perceptions (especially gender, social class, and education), and cultural biases and socio-demographic variables were themselves intercorrelated (especially with age, social class, and political outlook). The authors compare these results with surveys conducted in other countries using the same instrument and conclude that new methods, more qualitative and contextual, still need to be developed to investigate the cultural dimensions of risk perceptions. The paper also discusses relationships between perceptions of personal and residual risk, and between perceived risk and demand for additional safety measures. These three dimensions were generally closely related, but interesting differences were observed for some risk issues. Included in the list of risk perceptions were pollution, hazardous materials, and radioactive wastes.

  1. Taking Libraries’ Cultural Content to the User – Approaches and Experiences from the EEXCESS Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Borst

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Before the advent of the internet users had to physically visit libraries and other cultural institutions in order to search, find and access content. With the emergence and massive use of the World Wide Web and associated tools and technologies this situation has changed drastically. If content is to be found and used, it must be present where users do their daily digital work. The aim of the EU project EEXCESS (http://eexcess.eu/ is to inject the content into the working environments of the users. In this paper, we show some of the approaches, use cases and technical implementations we developed in the project.

  2. Critical success factors for positive user experience in hotel websites:applying Herzberg’s two factor theory for user experience modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Sambhanthan, Arunasalam; Good, Alice

    2013-01-01

    This research presents the development of a critical success factor matrix for increasing positive user experience of hotel websites based upon user ratings. Firstly, a number of critical success factors for web usability have been identified through the initial literature review. Secondly, hotel websites were surveyed in terms of critical success factors identified through the literature review. Thirdly, Herzberg’s motivation theory has been applied to the user rating and the critical succ...

  3. SOCIO-CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RICE E-MARKETING USERS (CASE OF RASHT TOWNSHIP, IRAN)

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed ALAVIOON; Mohammad ALLAHYARI

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to study the socio-cultural index of rice electronic marketing users in Rasht Township, Iran. This study used a survey design and was conducted with a random sample of 367 paddy farmers in Rasht Township. To identify the socio-cultural characteristics of rice e-marketing users, a self-designed questionnaire was developed to gather data. For determining the validity of the questionnaire, the face and content validity were used. Reliability for the instrume...

  4. Counseling Latino alcohol and other substance users/abusers. Cultural considerations for counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria, A M; Peregoy, J J

    1996-01-01

    This article presents a sociocultural alcohol/drug counseling model for counselors working with Latino users/abusers. Intended to supplement different treatment models, this model addresses pre-treatment issues of Latino users/abusers. A demographic overview of Latinos and a discussion of selected Latino cultural values and issues as they relate to substance use/abuse are included. These cultural values include Simpatía, Personalismo, Familismo, Gender Roles (Machismo and Hembrismo/Marianisimo), Vergüenza, and Espiritismo. Along with identifying misperceptions and issues that may occur within the counseling session, specific recommendations and interventions for counselors are provided.

  5. CULTURAL GLOBALISATION AND CHALLENGES TO TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATION THEORIES

    OpenAIRE

    Lauren Movius

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews existing traditional media theories, and analyses the challenges that the current developments of globalisation present to them. The article provides a short history of the concept of globalisation, and reviews the primary theoretical approaches to globalisation that are critical to communication scholars. The article also examines how globalisation challenges the ways in which media and communication have traditionally been theorised. Specifically, the cultural imperiali...

  6. Implicit theories of creativity: Cross-cultural study

    OpenAIRE

    Kankaraš Miloš

    2009-01-01

    In this work we analyzed laypersons' implicit theories of creativity in two different national cultures: Serbia (N=257) and the United States of America (N=255). Relying on previous works in this field, we have constructed a questionnaire comprised of 52 indicative and 36 contra-indicative personal characteristic which were rated by respondents on a 5-point scale on criteria of their creativity and desirability. Results show that both groups have similar conceptions of a creative person, whic...

  7. Race, Class, and Cultural Reproduction: Critical Theories in Urban Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Walker

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of decades of reform attempts urban education remains an intractable policy issue for educators. National and state level data continue to show disparities in educational achievement and attainment between students from affluent and poor urban communities. If past policies have not proven to be effective in substantially improving urban educational systems the question is why? In this paper the argument is raised that urban educational policies lack sound epistemological grounding. Policies are divorced from an understanding of the “urban problematic”. Functionalist in orientation these policies have for the most part sought to “fix” urban schools by focusing on micro-ecological issues. In this paper three theoretical perspectives are explored for their potential contribution to inform research and policy on urban educational issues. The three perspectives are: 1 class theories 2 critical race theory and 3 cultural reproduction theories.

  8. Understanding national culture effects on user behavior in integrative IS implementations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnse Locker, Niels; Vos, Janita F.J.; Boonstra, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how national culture manifests itself in integrative IS implementations and how it influences user behavior. Adopting a case survey approach, a sample of 70 cases encompassing 18 countries/regions, 18 industries and over 25 different integrative IT systems resulted in 481

  9. Emerging practices in the cultural heritage domain - Engaging users on a large scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, J.; Belice Baltussen, L.; Limonard, S.; Brinkerink, M.; Ees, A. van; Aroyo, L.; Vervaart, J.; Afsar, K.; Gligorov, R.

    2010-01-01

    Cultural heritage institutions and their users are beginning to inhabit the same, shared information space. New, innovative services are launched, such as social tagging. Engaging in social tagging is beneficial for both parties, as it improves access to data and stimulates active engagement with

  10. Grounded theory method, Part II: Options for users of the method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annells, M

    1997-09-01

    Era-specific issues are presented for the consideration of the potential grounded theorist. Two of the issues are general to grounded theory method, while the other four assist in clarifying aspects relevant to the selection of a specific mode of the method. Five broad options regarding multiple possible modes of grounded theory method are suggested and detailed. The inquirer is not limited to the two major modes usually presented and discussed in the literature. Users of the method are challenged to continue contributing to the development of the method, while justifying and debating methodological modifications.

  11. Cross-cultural human-computer interaction and user experience design a semiotic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Brejcha, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This book describes patterns of language and culture in human-computer interaction (HCI). Through numerous examples, it shows why these patterns matter and how to exploit them to design a better user experience (UX) with computer systems. It provides scientific information on the theoretical and practical areas of the interaction and communication design for research experts and industry practitioners and covers the latest research in semiotics and cultural studies, bringing a set of tools and methods to benefit the process of designing with the cultural background in mind.

  12. Are the users of social networking sites homogeneous? A cross-cultural study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-del-Amo, María-del-Carmen; Gómez-Borja, Miguel-Ángel; Lorenzo-Romero, Carlota

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of Social Networking Sites (SNS) around the world has made it necessary to understand individuals' behaviors within these sites according to different cultures. Based on a comparative study between two different European countries (The Netherlands versus Spain), a comparison of typologies of networked Internet users has been obtained through a latent segmentation approach. These typologies are based on the frequency with which users perform different activities, their socio-demographic variables, and experience in social networking and interaction patterns. The findings show new insights regarding international segmentation in order to analyse SNS user behaviors in both countries. These results are relevant for marketing strategists eager to use the communication potential of networked individuals and for marketers willing to explore the potential of online networking as a low cost and a highly efficient alternative to traditional networking approaches. For most businesses, expert users could be valuable opinion leaders and potential brand influencers. PMID:26321971

  13. Are the users of Social Networking Sites homogeneous? A cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA-DEL-CARMEN eALARCÓN-DEL-AMO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of Social Networking Sites (SNS around the world has made it necessary to understand individuals’ behaviours within these sites according to different cultures. Based on a comparative study between two different European countries (The Netherlands versus Spain, a comparison of typologies of networked Internet users has been obtained through a latent segmentation approach. These typologies are based on the frequency with which users perform different activities, their socio-demographic variables, and experience in social networking and interaction patterns. The findings show new insights regarding international segmentation in order to analyse SNS user behaviours in both countries. These results are relevant for marketing strategists eager to use the communication potential of networked individuals and for marketers willing to explore the potential of online networking as a low cost and a highly efficient alternative to traditional networking approaches. For most businesses, expert users could be valuable opinion leaders and potential brand influencers.

  14. Are the users of social networking sites homogeneous? A cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Del-Amo, María-Del-Carmen; Gómez-Borja, Miguel-Ángel; Lorenzo-Romero, Carlota

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of Social Networking Sites (SNS) around the world has made it necessary to understand individuals' behaviors within these sites according to different cultures. Based on a comparative study between two different European countries (The Netherlands versus Spain), a comparison of typologies of networked Internet users has been obtained through a latent segmentation approach. These typologies are based on the frequency with which users perform different activities, their socio-demographic variables, and experience in social networking and interaction patterns. The findings show new insights regarding international segmentation in order to analyse SNS user behaviors in both countries. These results are relevant for marketing strategists eager to use the communication potential of networked individuals and for marketers willing to explore the potential of online networking as a low cost and a highly efficient alternative to traditional networking approaches. For most businesses, expert users could be valuable opinion leaders and potential brand influencers.

  15. Gender, home and family in cultural capital theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elizabeth B

    2005-03-01

    The paper argues that Bourdieu's stress on early familiarization for the highest value of cultural capital is closely linked to his idea, strongly emphasized in Distinction, about the role of family and domestic life for individual development and social positions. The role of women, as mothers and homemakers, is crucial in this process. Yet, Bourdieu defines social origin as deriving from the father. The centrality to Bourdieu's thinking of a resilient traditional pattern of masculine domination and feminine submission constitutive of the Western gender habitus explains both his stress on 'normalcy' for the production of legitimate dispositions, and his resistance to incorporating into his thinking the implications of recent transformations in home family living, which have destabilized the gender order. It is thus important to consider contemporary feminist analyses of the family and home life and their significance for a renewed theory of cultural capital. The paper considers two sets of literature. Firstly, it addresses the manners in which home and family are conceptualized in Bourdieu's key texts where these issues were prominent in the development of his thinking on cultural capital. The second set of literature includes texts by feminist academics in the fields of family, gender and the body, which analyse the destabilizing of the gender order and everyday family living in contemporary society. Two questions are addressed on the basis of these reflections: (1) Is cultural capital an individual or a household resource? (2) How does cultural capital relate to personal interdependencies at the level of family and households?

  16. Mainland Chinese Implicit Theory of Wisdom: Generational and Cultural Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chao S; Ferrari, Michel; Liu, Ru-De; Gao, Qin; Weare, Ethan

    2016-12-07

    This is the first study on the Mainland Chinese implicit theory of wisdom. To understand the role of culture and social changes in the implicit theory of wisdom, cultural and generational differences were explored. Two generations of Mainland Chinese, 50 older adults (age 60-80 years) and 50 younger adults (age 20-30 years), were interviewed individually. Participants first nominated personal acquaintances and historical figures as wisdom exemplars and then gave their own definition of wisdom. Compared with the older generation, the younger generation nominated both acquaintance scholars and historical scholars more frequently, but acquaintance classmates & colleagues and historical leaders less frequently. Common themes of all participants' definition of wisdom partially resembled those of Western studies, yet with components that related to Chinese traditions: "Spirituality of disengagement" and "Positive mindset." Moreover, older generation emphasized "Cognitive engagement" more, but "Positive mindset" and "Spirituality of disengagement" less, than the younger generation. Wisdom aspects of cognitive, practical, and social engagement may be more universal and intergenerational, whereas wisdom aspects of "spirituality" and "mindset" may be more culturally specific and sensitive to social change. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Culture specific and cross-culturally generalizable implicit leadership theories: Are attributes of charismatic/transformational leadership universally endorsed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, D.N.; House, R.J.; Ruiz-Quintanilla, S.A.; Dorfman, P.W.; Koopman, P.L.

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on culturally endorsed implicit theories of leadership (CLTs). Although crosscultural research emphasizes that different cultural groups likely have different conceptions of what leadership should entail, a controversial position is argued here: namely that attributes associated

  18. An information theory criteria based blind method for enumerating active users in DS-CDMA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsami Khodadad, Farid; Abed Hodtani, Ghosheh

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, a new and blind algorithm for active user enumeration in asynchronous direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) in multipath channel scenario is proposed. The proposed method is based on information theory criteria. There are two main categories of information criteria which are widely used in active user enumeration, Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Minimum Description Length (MDL) information theory criteria. The main difference between these two criteria is their penalty functions. Due to this difference, MDL is a consistent enumerator which has better performance in higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) but AIC is preferred in lower SNRs. In sequel, we propose a SNR compliance method based on subspace and training genetic algorithm to have the performance of both of them. Moreover, our method uses only a single antenna, in difference to the previous methods which decrease hardware complexity. Simulation results show that the proposed method is capable of estimating the number of active users without any prior knowledge and the efficiency of the method.

  19. Creativity In Amateur Multimedia: Popular Culture, Critical Theory, And Hci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Bardzell

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed the emergence and aesthetic maturation of amateur multimedia on an unprecedented scale, from video podcasts to machinima, and Flash animations to user-created metaverses. Today, especially in academic circles, this pop culture phenomenon is little recognized and even less understood. This paper explores creativity in amateur multimedia using three theorizations of creativity—those of HCI, postructuralism, and technological determinism. These theorizations frame a semiotic analysis of numerous commonly used multimedia authoring platforms, which demonstrates a deep convergence of multimedia authoring tool strategies that collectively project a conceptualization and practice of digital creativity. This conceptualization of digital creativity in authoring tools is then compared with hundreds of amateur-created artifacts. These analyses reveal relationships among emerging amateur multimedia aesthetics, common software authoring tools, and the three theorizations of creativity discussed.

  20. Examination of cultural competence in service providers in an early intervention programme for psychosis in Montreal, Quebec: Perspectives of service users and treatment providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Shruthi; Jordan, Gerald; Pope, Megan A; Iyer, Srividya N

    2017-01-26

    To better understand cultural competence in early intervention for psychosis, we compared service users' and service providers' perceptions of the importance of providers being culturally competent and attentive to aspects of culture. At a Canadian early intervention programme, a validated scale was adapted to assess service user (N = 51) and provider (N = 30) perceptions of service providers' cultural competence and the importance accorded thereto. Analyses of variance revealed that the importance of service providers being culturally competent was rated highest by service providers, followed by visible minority service users, followed by white service users. Providers rated themselves as being more interested in knowing about service users' culture than service users perceived them to be. Service users accorded less import to service providers' cultural competence than providers themselves, owing possibly to varied socialization. A mismatch in users' and providers' views on providers' efforts to know their users' cultures may influence mental healthcare outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Toward real-time detection of deep tissue injury risk in wheelchair users using Hertz contact theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agam, Limor; Gefen, Amit

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the suitability of a new portable system that is based on Hertz's contact theory for evaluating internal gluteal muscle stresses under the ischial tuberosities of wheelchair users...

  2. "This Is No Slum!": A Critical Race Theory Analysis of Community Cultural Wealth in Culture Clash's "Chavez Ravine"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosso, Tara J.; Garcia, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on a critical race theory framework, this article weaves together sociology, education, history, and performance studies to challenge deficit interpretations of Pierre Bourdieu's cultural capital theory and to analyze Culture Clash's play Chavez Ravine. The play recounts a decade of Los Angeles history through the perspectives of displaced…

  3. Assessment of agricultural groundwater users in Iran: a cultural environmental bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Saeid; Chizari, Mohammad; Sadighi, Hassan; Bijani, Masoud

    2017-08-01

    Many environmental problems are rooted in human behavior. This study aimed to explore the causal effect of cultural environmental bias on `sustainable behavior' among agricultural groundwater users in Fars province, Iran, according to Klockner's comprehensive model. A survey-based research project was conducted to gathering data on the paradigm of environmental psychology. The sample included agricultural groundwater users (n = 296) who were selected at random within a structured sampling regime involving study areas that represent three (higher, medium and lower) bounds of the agricultural-groundwater-vulnerability spectrum. Results showed that the "environment as ductile (EnAD)" variable was a strong determinant of sustainable behavior as it related to groundwater use, and that EnAE had the highest causal effect on the behavior of agricultural groundwater users. The adjusted model explained 41% variance of "groundwater sustainable behavior". Based on the results, the groundwater sustainable behaviors of agricultural groundwater users were found to be affected by personal and subjective norm variables and that they are influenced by casual effects of the "environment as ductile (EnAD)" variable. The conclusions reflect the Fars agricultural groundwater users' attitude or worldview on groundwater as an unrecoverable resource; thus, it is necessary that scientific disciplines like hydrogeology and psycho-sociology be considered together in a comprehensive approach for every groundwater study.

  4. Assessment of agricultural groundwater users in Iran: a cultural environmental bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Saeid; Chizari, Mohammad; Sadighi, Hassan; Bijani, Masoud

    2018-02-01

    Many environmental problems are rooted in human behavior. This study aimed to explore the causal effect of cultural environmental bias on `sustainable behavior' among agricultural groundwater users in Fars province, Iran, according to Klockner's comprehensive model. A survey-based research project was conducted to gathering data on the paradigm of environmental psychology. The sample included agricultural groundwater users ( n = 296) who were selected at random within a structured sampling regime involving study areas that represent three (higher, medium and lower) bounds of the agricultural-groundwater-vulnerability spectrum. Results showed that the "environment as ductile (EnAD)" variable was a strong determinant of sustainable behavior as it related to groundwater use, and that EnAE had the highest causal effect on the behavior of agricultural groundwater users. The adjusted model explained 41% variance of "groundwater sustainable behavior". Based on the results, the groundwater sustainable behaviors of agricultural groundwater users were found to be affected by personal and subjective norm variables and that they are influenced by casual effects of the "environment as ductile (EnAD)" variable. The conclusions reflect the Fars agricultural groundwater users' attitude or worldview on groundwater as an unrecoverable resource; thus, it is necessary that scientific disciplines like hydrogeology and psycho-sociology be considered together in a comprehensive approach for every groundwater study.

  5. User-Generated Content and travel planning: An application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Machado Mendes Filho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available User-Generated Content (UGC such as online travel reviews written by travelers and posted to virtual communities are being used more frequently to communicate travel-related information. UGC is therefore helping travelers to make decisions about their travel. Utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, which is one of the most comprehensive models explaining behavioral intention, this study contributes to the further development of theories of online consumer behavior by determining which factors are most important in relation to the use of UGC in the travel industry. The TPB has three independent determinants of behavioral intention: attitude toward the behavior, subjective norm, and perceived behavior control. Therefore the aim of this paper is to examine the roles of attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavior control in respect of travelers’ intention to use UGC when making travel plans.

  6. How Cultural Evolutionary Theory Can Inform Social Psychology and Vice Versa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Cultural evolutionary theory is an interdisciplinary field in which human culture is viewed as a Darwinian process of variation, competition, and inheritance, and the tools, methods, and theories developed by evolutionary biologists to study genetic evolution are adapted to study cultural change. It is argued here that an integration of the…

  7. An Integrative Approach: Relational Cultural Theory and Cognitive Behavior Therapy in College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumb, Loni; Haskins, Natoya

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an integrative framework for using cognitive behavior therapy through the lens of relational cultural theory. The authors provide an overview of cognitive behavior therapy and relational cultural theory, followed by suggestions on how to facilitate cognitive behavior therapy using the principles of relational cultural theory…

  8. User-Appropriate Viewer for High Resolution Interactive Engagement with 3d Digital Cultural Artefacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, D.; La Pensée, A.; Cooper, M.

    2013-07-01

    presents results of research that aims to provide a methodology for museums and cultural institutions for prototyping a 3D viewer within a webpage, thereby not only allowing institutions to promote their collections via the internet but also providing a tool for users to engage in a meaningful way with cultural heritage datasets. The design process encompasses evaluation as the central part of the design methodology; focusing on how slight changes to navigation, object engagement and aesthetic appearance can influence the user's experience. The prototype used in this paper, was created using WebGL with the Three.Js (Three.JS, 2013) library and datasets were loaded as the OpenCTM (Geelnard, 2010) file format. The overall design is centred on creating an easy-tolearn interface allowing non-skilled users to interact with the datasets, and also providing tools allowing skilled users to discover more about the cultural heritage object. User testing was carried out, allowing users to interact with 3D datasets within the interactive viewer. The results are analysed and the insights learned are discussed in relation to an interface designed to interact with 3D content. The results will lead to the design of interfaces for interacting with 3D objects, which allow for both skilled and non skilled users to engage with 3D cultural heritage objects in a meaningful way.

  9. Effectiveness of Anabolic Steroid Preventative Intervention among Gym Users: Applying Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Moghimbeigi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS has been associated with adversephysical and psychiatric effects and it is known as rising problem among youth people. Thisstudy was conducted to evaluate anabolic steroids preventative intervention efficiency amonggym users in Iran and theory of planned behaviour was applied as theoretical framework.Methods: Overall, 120 male gym users participated in this study as intervention and controlgroup. This was a longitudinal randomized pretest - posttest series control group design panelstudy to implement a behaviour modification based intervention to prevent AAS use. Cross -tabulation and t-test by using SPSS statistical package, version 13 was used for the statisticalanalysis.Results: It was found significant improvements in average response for knowledge about sideeffects of AAS (P<0.001, attitude toward, and intention not to use AAS. Additionally afterintervention, the rate of AAS and supplements use was decreased among intervention group.Conclusion: Comprehensive implementation against AAS abuse among gym users and adolescenceswould be effective to improve adolescents’ healthy behaviors and intend them notto use AAS.

  10. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory and Domain Analysis: Metatheoretical Implications for Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cultural-historical activity theory is an important theory in modern psychology. In recent years, it has drawn more attention from related disciplines including information science. Argument: This paper argues that activity theory and domain analysis which uses the theory as one of its bases could bring about some important…

  11. Popular Culture and Critical Media Literacy in Adult Education: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter introduces the volume, provides an overview of the theory and literature on popular culture and critical media literacy in education, and discusses ways to use popular culture in adult education.

  12. Exploring Formative Assessment Using Cultural Historical Activity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Asghar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Formative assessment is a pedagogic practice that has been the subject of much research and debate, as to how it can be used most effectively to deliver enhanced student learning in the higher education setting. Often described as a complex concept it embraces activities that range from facilitating students understanding of assessment standards, to providing formative feedback on their work; from very informal opportunities of engaging in conversations, to the very formal process of submitting drafts of work. This study aims to show how cultural historical activity theory can be used as a qualitative analysis framework to explore the complexities of formative assessment as it is used in higher education. The original data for the research was collected in 2008 by semi structured interviews and analysed using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. For this present paper three selected transcripts were re-examined, using a case study approach that sought to understand and compare the perceptions of five academic staff, from three distinct subject areas taught within a UK university. It is proposed that using activity theory can provide insight into the complexity of such experiences, about what teachers do and why, and the influence of the community in which they are situated. Individually the cases from each subject area were analysed using activity theory exploring how the mediating artefacts of formative assessment were used; the often implicit rules that governed their use and the roles of teachers and students within the local subject community. The analysis also considered the influence each aspect of the unit of activity had on the other in understanding formative assessment practice. Subsequently the three subject cases were compared and contrasted. The findings illuminate a variety of practices, including how students and staff engage together in formative assessment activities and for some, how dialogue is used as one of the key tools

  13. Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Danish Version: Wheelchair Users Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Bruun, Poul; S Hansen, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Danish Version: Wheelchair Users Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI). Larsen CM1,2; Hansen SS2; Hansen LH2; Bruun P1; Juul-Kristensen B1,3. 1Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark. 2Health Sciences Research...... interviewing of eleven participants (26-63 years, n=1 woman) with SCI. Results The translation processes revealed minor discrepancies concerning wording and understanding in few items. After minor revision the expert committee agreed on a preliminary version for cognitive interviewing. The questionnaire...

  14. Investigating Agile User-Centered Design in Practice: A Grounded Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zahid; Slany, Wolfgang; Holzinger, Andreas

    This paper investigates how the integration of agile methods and User-Centered Design (UCD) is carried out in practice. For this study, we have applied grounded theory as a suitable qualitative approach to determine what is happening in actual practice. The data was collected by semi-structured interviews with professionals who have already worked with an integrated agile UCD methodology. Further data was collected by observing these professionals in their working context, and by studying their documents, where possible. The emerging themes that the study found show that there is an increasing realization of the importance of usability in software development among agile team members. The requirements are emerging; and both low and high fidelity prototypes based usability tests are highly used in agile teams. There is an appreciation of each other's work from both UCD professionals and developers and both sides can learn from each other.

  15. Keeping patients safe in healthcare organizations: a structuration theory of safety culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Patricia S; Meisenbach, Rebecca J; Scott-Cawiezell, Jill

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the use of structuration theory to facilitate understanding and improvement of safety culture in healthcare organizations. Patient safety in healthcare organizations is an important problem worldwide. Safety culture has been proposed as a means to keep patients safe. However, lack of appropriate theory limits understanding and improvement of safety culture. The proposed structuration theory of safety culture was based on a critique of available English-language literature, resulting in literature published from 1983 to mid-2009. CINAHL, Communication and Mass Media Complete, ABI/Inform and Google Scholar databases were searched using the following terms: nursing, safety, organizational culture and safety culture. When viewed through the lens of structuration theory, safety culture is a system involving both individual actions and organizational structures. Healthcare organization members, particularly nurses, share these values through communication and enact them in practice, (re)producing an organizational safety culture system that reciprocally constrains and enables the actions of the members in terms of patient safety. This structurational viewpoint illuminates multiple opportunities for safety culture improvement. Nurse leaders should be cognizant of competing value-based culture systems in the organization and attend to nursing agency and all forms of communication when attempting to create or strengthen a safety culture. Applying structuration theory to the concept of safety culture reveals a dynamic system of individual action and organizational structure constraining and enabling safety practice. Nurses are central to the (re)production of this safety culture system. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Culture care theory: a framework for expanding awareness of diversity and racism in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    As American society becomes increasingly diverse, and the nursing profession does not, there has been a focus on promoting both cultural competence and diversity within the profession. Although culture and diversity are widely discussed in nursing education, the issue of racism may be avoided or suppressed. Institutionalized racism within nursing education must be acknowledged and discussed before nursing education may be transformed. Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care Theory is an established nursing theory that emphasizes culture and care as essential concepts in nursing. Theoretical frameworks abound in nursing, and Culture Care Theory may be underutilized and misunderstood within nursing education. This article examines the issue of racism in nursing education and recommends Culture Care Theory as a relevant framework for enhancing both cultural competence and diversity.

  17. Managing preconceived expectations: mental health service users experiences of going home from hospital: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, B; Callaghan, P; Higgins, A

    2015-11-01

    What is known on the subject? The time of discharge from a mental health hospital can be challenging for mental health service users, with high rates of readmission in the immediate months following discharge. Although some research exists that explores service users' perspectives of being discharged, little evidence exists that explores the processes influencing or used by service users' to adapt to the transition from in-patient acute mental health service. What this papers adds to existing knowledge? The findings of this grounded theory study demonstrates the strategies service users used to managed their own, as well as their social audiences, preconceived expectations arising from their new identity as 'psychiatric patients' following their discharge from hospital. While there is a move to develop recovery-orientated mental health services, key indicators of recovery-oriented practices were often absent from service users' experiences of service provision. What are the implications for practice? Nurses and other mental health professionals need to recognize their contribution to the architecture of stigma that transcends the physical structures of hospital or ward and are entrenched within attitudes, interactions and practices. The findings of this study can provide guidance to those working with service users and help them to understand the complexities of their experiences when using mental health services, which go far beyond the management of their symptoms. Following a period of hospitalization, the transition to home can result in increased vulnerability and a source of stress for mental health service users. Readmission rates have been suggested as one indicator of the success of the transition from hospital to community care. Despite knowledge of some of the factors that impact on service users following discharge, no coherent model or theoretical framework could be located in the literature, which explains or aides an in-depth understanding of the

  18. Implicit theories of creativity: Cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankaraš Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyzed laypersons' implicit theories of creativity in two different national cultures: Serbia (N=257 and the United States of America (N=255. Relying on previous works in this field, we have constructed a questionnaire comprised of 52 indicative and 36 contra-indicative personal characteristic which were rated by respondents on a 5-point scale on criteria of their creativity and desirability. Results show that both groups have similar conceptions of a creative person, which they see as an energetic, self-confident individual, gifted with creative talents and exceptional intellectual abilities, with profound emotionality and brightness. The main difference between the two groups is that respondents from Serbia, contrary to their American counterparts, do not perceive characteristics which reflect obedience to social norms as a contra-indication to creativity. Respondents have mostly seen creative attributes as desirable, although there is a number of characteristics that are rated differently in terms of their creativity and desirability. These results confirm that creativity and desirability are two distinct concepts and indicate positive view of creativity as a phenomenon and creative person as such.

  19. IMPLICITE THEORIES OF CREATIVITY: CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos Kankaras

    Full Text Available In this work we analyzed laypersons’ implicit theories of creativity in twodifferent national cultures: Serbia (N=257 and the United States of America(N=255. Relying on previous works in this field, we have constructed aquestionnaire comprised of 52 indicative and 36 contra-indicative personalcharacteristic which were rated by respondents on a 5-point scale on criteria of theircreativity and desirability. Results show that both groups have similar conceptionsof a creative person, which they see as an energetic, self-confident individual, giftedwith creative talents and exceptional intellectual abilities, with profoundemotionality and brightness. The main difference between the two groups is thatrespondents from Serbia, contrary to their American counterparts, do not perceivecharacteristics which reflect obedience to social norms as a contra-indication tocreativity. Respondents have mostly seen creative attributes as desirable, althoughthere is a number of characteristics that are rated differently in terms of theircreativity and desirability. These results confirm that creativity and desirability aretwo distinct concepts and indicate positive view of creativity as a phenomenon andcreative person as such.

  20. SOCIO-CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RICE E-MARKETING USERS (CASE OF RASHT TOWNSHIP, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed ALAVIOON

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to study the socio-cultural index of rice electronic marketing users in Rasht Township, Iran. This study used a survey design and was conducted with a random sample of 367 paddy farmers in Rasht Township. To identify the socio-cultural characteristics of rice e-marketing users, a self-designed questionnaire was developed to gather data. For determining the validity of the questionnaire, the face and content validity were used. Reliability for the instrument was estimated at 0.81. The Kurskal-Wallis and U Mann-Whitney test have been used to identify the effective factors on e-marketing. The result revealed that almost 68% of farmers had high tendency to adoption of electronic marketing and more than 70% of respondents chose rural ICT offices for rice e-marketing. Experience in using the internet services and internet skill had significant effects on e-marketing adoption. Finally, the result of this research presents a brokerage model. The nature of this model is (B2C which means truck between business (ICT office and customers. In this model, rural ICT offices have a role as buy/sell fulfillment.

  1. Culture and Development Ethics: Needs, Women and Western Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    1996-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Can development ethics avoid presuming that European cultures have universal validity and yet also avoid treating every distinct culture as sacrosanct and beyond criticism? While work on "culture and development" valuably stresses the importance of cultural difference and

  2. Cultural competence in health care: an emerging theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulé, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the current state of cultural competence in health care using a qualitative descriptive design. Interviews were conducted with 20 multidisciplinary experts in culture and cultural competence from the United States and abroad. Findings identified 3 themes; awareness, engagement, and application that crossed 4 domains of cultural competence; intrapersonal, interpersonal, system/organization, and global.

  3. A Comparative Study of Uncertainty Reduction Theory in High- and Low-Context Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Hye; Yoon, Tae-Jin

    To test the cross-cultural validity of uncertainty reduction theory, a study was conducted using students from South Korea and the United States who were chosen to represent high- and low-context cultures respectively. Uncertainty reduction theory is based upon the assumption that the primary concern of strangers upon meeting is one of uncertainty…

  4. Culture care theory: a major contribution to advance transcultural nursing knowledge and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, Madeleine

    2002-07-01

    This article is focused on the major features of the Culture Care Diversity and Universality theory as a central contributing theory to advance transcultural nursing knowledge and to use the findings in teaching, research, practice, and consultation. It remains one of the oldest, most holistic, and most comprehensive theories to generate knowledge of diverse and similar cultures worldwide. The theory has been a powerful means to discover largely unknown knowledge in nursing and the health fields. It provides a new mode to assure culturally competent, safe, and congruent transcultural nursing care. The purpose, goal, assumptive premises, ethnonursing research method, criteria, and some findings are highlighted.

  5. Sociocultural Theories, Academic Achievement, and African American Adolescents in a Multicultural Context: A Review of the Cultural Compatibility Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Noel, La Tonya

    2012-01-01

    Several theories suggest that African American culture facilitates academic achievement, but others suggest that identifying with Black culture contributes to the achievement gap by undermining the academic performance among youth. These opposing perspectives are labeled "cultural compatibility theories" and "cultural incompatibility theories,"…

  6. Using Social Scientific Criteria to Evaluate Cultural Theories: Encoding/Decoding Evaluated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan L. Kropp

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article transcends the issue of conflicting theoretical schools of thought to formulate a method of social scientific style theory evaluation for cultural studies. It is suggested that positivist social scientific models of theory critique can be used to assess cultural models of communication to determine if they should be classified as theories. A set of evaluation criteria is formulated as a guide and applied to Stuart Hall’s Encoding/Decoding to determine if it is a theory. Conclusions find the sharing of criteria between schools of thought is judicious, Encoding/Decoding fits the established criteria, and Encoding/Decoding should be referred to as a theory.

  7. An Overview of Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) Use in Classroom Research 2000 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumer, Doris

    2012-01-01

    Western educational researchers have eagerly accepted activity theory (AT) also known as cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) to collect and analyze data in rich description of complex situations. As this theory is applicable to a wide variety of disciplines, this review is limited to education and specifically to qualitative studies of…

  8. Analysis Intention to Users of Online Shopping on E-Commerse: Review of Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Pontoh, Grace T.; Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Satriani, Satriani

    2016-01-01

    This research applies theoretical model Theory of Planned Behaviour by adding constructs trust to explain how the behavior of users of online shopping using technology in decision making e-commerce transactions. This Research not only utilized the existing theory but adapted to the existing phenomenon that will change fundamental variables. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that affect the interest/intention of the use of online shopping on e-commerce system. The study used...

  9. Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Bridging Relational, Multicultural, and Social Justice Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Dana L.; Hammer, Tonya R.; Strentzsch, Julie; Cannon, Kristi; Parsons, Jacqueline; Salazar, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Relational-cultural theory (RCT) theorists advocate expanding the multicultural/social justice counseling competencies beyond the domains of self-awareness, cultural knowledge, and culturally responsive helping skills. This article provides an overview of RCT and discusses how creating and participating in growth-fostering relationships are…

  10. Creativity, innovation, and entrepreneurship across cultures theory and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Carayannis, Elias

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this volume is to further develop the relationship between culture and manifold phenomena of creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship in order to promote further and better understanding how, why, and when these phenomena are manifested themselves across different cultures.   Currently, cross-cultural research is one of the most dynamically and rapidly growing areas. At the same time, creativity, inventiveness, innovation, and entrepreneurship are championed in the literature as the critical element that is vital not just for companies, but also for the development of societies. A sizable body of research demonstrates that cultural differences may foster or inhibit creative, inventive, innovative and entrepreneurial activities; and each culture has its own strengths and weaknesses in these regards.  Better understanding of cultural diversity in these phenomena can help to build on strengths and overcome weaknesses.   Cross-cultural studies in this field represent a comparatively new class of ...

  11. Technology Transfer Challenges: A Case Study of User-Centered Design in NASA's Systems Engineering Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Jason

    2009-01-01

    The Upper Stage (US) section of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Ares I rocket will require internal access platforms for maintenance tasks performed by humans inside the vehicle. Tasks will occur during expensive critical path operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) including vehicle stacking and launch preparation activities. Platforms must be translated through a small human access hatch, installed in an enclosed worksite environment, support the weight of ground operators and be removed before flight - and their design must minimize additional vehicle mass at attachment points. This paper describes the application of a user-centered conceptual design process and the unique challenges encountered within NASA's systems engineering culture focused on requirements and "heritage hardware". The NASA design team at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) initiated the user-centered design process by studying heritage internal access kits and proposing new design concepts during brainstorming sessions. Simultaneously, they partnered with the Technology Transfer/Innovative Partnerships Program to research inflatable structures and dynamic scaffolding solutions that could enable ground operator access. While this creative, technology-oriented exploration was encouraged by upper management, some design stakeholders consistently opposed ideas utilizing novel, untested equipment. Subsequent collaboration with an engineering consulting firm improved the technical credibility of several options, however, there was continued resistance from team members focused on meeting system requirements with pre-certified hardware. After a six-month idea-generating phase, an intensive six-week effort produced viable design concepts that justified additional vehicle mass while optimizing the human factors of platform installation and use. Although these selected final concepts closely resemble heritage internal access platforms, challenges from the application of the

  12. Does Parental Mind-Mindedness Account for Cross-Cultural Differences in Preschoolers' Theory of Mind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claire; Devine, Rory T; Wang, Zhenlin

    2017-02-03

    This study of 241 parent-child dyads from the United Kingdom (N = 120, Mage  = 3.92, SD = 0.53) and Hong Kong (N = 121, Mage  = 3.99, SD = 0.50) breaks new ground by adopting a cross-cultural approach to investigate children's theory of mind and parental mind-mindedness. Relative to the Hong Kong sample, U.K. children showed superior theory-of-mind performance and U.K. parents showed greater levels of mind-mindedness. Within both cultures parental mind-mindedness was correlated with theory of mind. Mind-mindedness also accounted for cultural differences in preschoolers' theory of mind. We argue that children's family environments might shed light on how culture shapes children's theory of mind. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Research in Child Development.

  13. Personality maturation around the world: a cross-cultural examination of social-investment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleidorn, Wiebke; Klimstra, Theo A; Denissen, Jaap J A; Rentfrow, Peter J; Potter, Jeff; Gosling, Samuel D

    2013-12-01

    During early adulthood, individuals from different cultures across the world tend to become more agreeable, more conscientious, and less neurotic. Two leading theories offer different explanations for these pervasive age trends: Five-factor theory proposes that personality maturation is largely determined by genetic factors, whereas social-investment theory proposes that personality maturation in early adulthood is largely the result of normative life transitions to adult roles. In the research reported here, we conducted the first systematic cross-cultural test of these theories using data from a large Internet-based sample of young adults from 62 nations (N = 884,328). We found strong evidence for universal personality maturation from early to middle adulthood, yet there were significant cultural differences in age effects on personality traits. Consistent with social-investment theory, results showed that cultures with an earlier onset of adult-role responsibilities were marked by earlier personality maturation.

  14. Lay theory of race affects and moderates Asian Americans' responses toward American culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    No, Sun; Hong, Ying-yi; Liao, Hsin-Ya; Lee, Kyoungmi; Wood, Dustin; Chao, Melody Manchi

    2008-10-01

    People may hold different understandings of race that might affect how they respond to the culture of groups deemed to be racially distinct. The present research tests how this process is moderated by the minority individual's lay theory of race. An essentialist lay theory of race (i.e., that race reflects deep-seated, inalterable essence and is indicative of traits and ability) would orient racial minorities to rigidly adhere to their ethnic culture, whereas a social constructionist lay theory of race (i.e., that race is socially constructed, malleable, and arbitrary) would orient racial minorities to identify and cognitively assimilate toward the majority culture. To test these predictions, the authors conducted 4 studies with Asian American participants. The first 2 studies examine the effect of one's lay theory of race on perceived racial differences and identification with American culture. The last 2 studies tested the moderating effect of lay theory of race on identification and assimilation toward the majority American culture after this culture had been primed. The results generally supported the prediction that the social constructionist theory was associated with more perceived similarity between Asians and Americans and more consistent identification and assimilation toward American culture, compared with the essentialist theory.

  15. Moving Beyond Conventional Wisdom: Advancements in Cross-Cultural Theories of Leadership, Conflict, and Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Cristina B; McDaniel, Dana M

    2010-07-01

    In this article, we discuss the importance of a cross-cultural approach to organizational behavior. To do so, we illustrate how cross-cultural research in the past two decades has enabled us to reconceptualize constructs, revise models, and extend boundary conditions in traditional organizational behavior theories. We focus on three domains-teams, leadership, and conflict-and review cross-cultural empirical evidence that has extended several theories in each of these domains. We support the claim that even well-established organizational behavior theories vary in the extent to which they may be applied unilaterally across cultures, thus identifying the critical need to advance these theories via a cross-cultural research agenda. © The Author(s) 2010.

  16. Cultural theory and risk perception: validity and utility explored in the French context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenot, J.; Bonnefous, S.; Mays, C. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1996-12-31

    Explaining perceived risk can draw upon factors related to the person (e.g. demographics, personality, social/professional status, political orientation), or to the risk source (e.g. health impacts, economic effects). According to Cultural Theory risk perceptions are culturally biased. Wildavsky and Dake operationalised the Cultural Theory with questionnaire scales and found that resulting `cultural profiles` best predict individual differences in risk perception. A French version of their questionnaire was inserted into a representative national risk opinion survey of May 1993; 1022 adults (age 18 and over) were interviewed. Major results are presented. The four cultural scales (hierarchy, egalitarianism, fatalism and individualism) show high correlations with political orientation as expected, but also with, for example, age, gender, income and education level. However, scale relationships to perception of risk situations (twenty, mainly technological) are not as strong as expected. Sjoeberg found similar results in Sweden. The utility of the existing operationalisation of Cultural Theory for risk perception analysis is discussed. (author).

  17. Two Cultures, Two Dialogists and Two Intersecting Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenscroft, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some possibilities for applying the linguistic and psychological theories of two dialogists, Mikhail Bakhtin and Jacques Lacan, to the classroom. There is a short summary of how the two theories may interact with each other and then a discussion of their two opposing views of identity formation. Bakhtin was a Russian, coming…

  18. Dialogue, Eurocentrism, and Comparative Political Theory: A View from Cross-Cultural Intellectual History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogimen, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Comparative political theory is an emerging sub-field of political theory; it is a response to the dissatisfaction with the prevalent Eurocentric mode of political theorizing in the age of globalization. A methodological characteristic of comparative political theory is cross-cultural engagement through dialogue with foreign political ideas. The present paper argues that the dialogical mode of cross-cultural engagement is distinctively European. While the dialogical engagement with foreign worldviews constitutes a mainstream of the European literary tradition, it is largely absent, for example, from the Japanese counterpart. Despite its anti-Eurocentric motivations, comparative political theory is methodologically rooted in the European tradition.

  19. Field Theory in Cultural Capital Studies of Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krarup, Troels; Munk, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that there is a double problem in international research in cultural capital and educational attainment: an empirical problem, since few new insights have been gained within recent years; and a theoretical problem, since cultural capital is seen as a simple hypothesis about certain isolated individual resources, disregarding…

  20. Adopting a Grounded Theory Approach to Cultural-Historical Research: Conflicting Methodologies or Complementary Methods?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayson Seaman PhD

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Grounded theory has long been regarded as a valuable way to conduct social and educational research. However, recent constructivist and postmodern insights are challenging long-standing assumptions, most notably by suggesting that grounded theory can be flexibly integrated with existing theories. This move hinges on repositioning grounded theory from a methodology with positivist underpinnings to an approach that can be used within different theoretical frameworks. In this article the author reviews this recent transformation of grounded theory, engages in the project of repositioning it as an approach by using cultural historical activity theory as a test case, and outlines several practical methods implied by the joint use of grounded theory as an approach and activity theory as a methodology. One implication is the adoption of a dialectic, as opposed to a constructivist or objectivist, stance toward grounded theory inquiry, a stance that helps move past the problem of emergence versus forcing.

  1. On religiosity and commercial life: Toward a critique of cultural economy and posthumanist value theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chris Gregory

    2014-01-01

    ... century saw the emergence of economics and the marginal utility theory of value, so the age of globalization in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries has seen the emergence of cultural...

  2. Theory and Method in Cross-Cultural Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpass, Roy S.

    1977-01-01

    Cross cultural psychology is considered as a methodological strategy, as a means of evaluating hypotheses of unicultural origins with evidence of more panhuman relevance, and as a means of developing new theoretical psychological phenomena. (Author)

  3. In Search of a Theory: The Interpretative Challenge of Empirical Findings on Cultural Variance in Mindreading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gut Arkadiusz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a battery of empirical findings on the relationship between cultural context and theory of mind that show great variance in the onset and character of mindreading in different cultures; discuss problems that those findings cause for the largely-nativistic outlook on mindreading dominating in the literature; and point to an alternative framework that appears to better accommodate the evident cross-cultural variance in mindreading. We first outline the theoretical frameworks that dominate in mindreading research, then present the relevant empirical findings, and finally we come back to the theoretical approaches in a discussion of their explanatory potential in the face of the data presented. The theoretical frameworks discussed are the two-systems approach; performance-based approach also known as modularity-nativist approach; and the social-communicative theory also known as the systems, relational-systems, dynamic systems and developmental systems theory. The former two, which both fall within the wider modular-computational paradigm, run into a challenge with the cross-cultural data presented, and the latter - the systemic framework - seems to offer an explanatorily potent alternative. The empirical data cited in this paper comes from research on cross-cultural differences in folk psychology and theory-of-mind development; the influence of parenting practices on the development of theory of mind; the development and character of theory of mind in deaf populations; and neuroimaging research of cultural differences in mindreading.

  4. Meeting and Working on an Electronic Social Space: Behavioural Considerations and Implications for Cross-Cultural End User Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Sajda

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of behavior on an electronic social space (electronic bulletin boards) revealed complex linages in which a few types of behaviors occurred most frequently. Interpretation indicates that cross-cultural implications for end-user computing involve practical considerations relating to three types of adaptation: technological, work, and…

  5. Cultural safety: does the theory work in practice for culturally and linguistically diverse groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Annette

    2010-11-01

    Culturally diverse refugee and migrant groups under-utilise health services in New Zealand and cultural barriers are cited as reasons for not using health services. According to the Nursing Council nurses are required to demonstrate competency in culturally safe practice, yet cultural safety is determined by the person receiving the care. This article critically examines the theoretical base of the cultural safety guidelines for nursing practice with respect to culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) groups. Two key questions were posed: have the guidelines led to culturally safe nursing practice in health care for CALD groups, and have the guidelines contributed to provision of culturally acceptable health care for CALD groups? It is concluded that further theoretical consideration should be given to the conceptual basis for including CALD groups in the cultural safety model. The cultural competencies required for culturally safe nursing practice need to apply to the care of all culturally diverse groups present in New Zealand. Recommendations are made for strengthening the cultural safety model, and the registered nurse competencies for culturally safe practise.

  6. An Analysis of Oppositional Culture Theory Applied to One Suburban Midwestern High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackard, Tricia; Puchner, Laurel; Reeves, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether and to what extent Ogbu and Fordham's Oppositional Culture Theory applied to African American high school students at one Midwestern suburban high school. Based on multiple interviews with six African American students, the study found support for some aspects of the theory but not for others.

  7. Provincialising the World Culture Theory Debate: Critical Insights from a Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Keita

    2015-01-01

    Neo-institutionalist theory of global "isomorphism", or so-called World Culture Theory (WCT), has been much debated in comparative education. One notable feature of the debate is that the vast majority of its participants belong to a handful of closely knit comparative education communities. Ironically enough then, a debate that…

  8. A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Approach in Natural Sciences Education Laboratory Lessons towards Reforming Teachers Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokouri, Eleni; Theodoraki, Xarikleia; Plakitsi, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on connecting natural sciences education with Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT). In this sense, natural sciences education is considered as a lifelong learning procedure, not seen as an individual but as a collective activity. Moreover, learning becomes a human activity in which theory and praxis are strongly connected…

  9. Revisiting Bourdieu: Alternative Educational Systems in the Light of the Theory of Social and Cultural Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaola, Marta Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The paper reflects upon the principles and practice of an alternative educational system operating in rural Mexico in the light of Bourdieu's theory of cultural and social reproduction. Bourdieu's theory seeks to explain processes of reproduction of power relations within schools and society; whereas alternative educational systems seek to expand…

  10. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory: Vygotsky's Forgotten and Suppressed Legacy and Its Implication for Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-01-01

    Cultural-historical activity theory--with historical roots in dialectical materialism and the social psychology to which it has given rise--has experienced exponential growth in its acceptance by scholars interested in understanding knowing and learning writ large. In education, this theory has constituted something like a well kept secret that is…

  11. Human evolutionary history and contemporary evolutionary theory provide insight when assessing cultural group selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Agustin; Kissel, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Richerson et al. provide a much needed roadmap for assessing cultural group selection (CGS) theory and for applying it to understanding variation between contemporary human groups. However, the current proposal lacks connection to relevant evidence from the human evolutionary record and requires a better integration with contemporary evolutionary theory. The article also misapplies the F st statistic.

  12. Culturally Responsive Teaching in the Context of Mathematics: A Grounded Theory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Emily P.; Adams, Thomasenia L.

    2012-01-01

    In this grounded theory case study, four interconnected, foundational cornerstones of culturally responsive mathematics teaching (CRMT), communication, knowledge, trust/relationships, and constant reflection/revision, were systematically unearthed to develop an initial working theory of CRMT that directly informs classroom practice. These…

  13. Understanding Synchronous Computer-Mediated Classroom Discussion through Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yangjoo

    2015-01-01

    This study is about graduate students' discourse practices in classroom text-based synchronous computer mediated discussions (SCMD). Cultural historical activity theory (in short, Activity Theory) is the primary theoretical lens through which the data are analyzed. Engeström's (1987) Activity System model among the various theoretical positions or…

  14. A Cross-Cultural Study of Implicit Theories of an Intelligent Person

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Duan, Xiaoju; Handel, Marion; Hopp, Manuel; Stoeger, Heidrun; Ziegler, Albert

    2012-01-01

    This contribution is based on the assumption that implicit theories influence the subjective action space and hence the learning behavior of students. The implicit theory that an individual holds of an intelligent person is of particular importance in this context. For this cross-cultural study, we asked 200 students from Kenya and Germany to draw…

  15. Repository Integration Program: RIP performance assessment and strategy evaluation model theory manual and user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This report describes the theory and capabilities of RIP (Repository Integration Program). RIP is a powerful and flexible computational tool for carrying out probabilistic integrated total system performance assessments for geologic repositories. The primary purpose of RIP is to provide a management tool for guiding system design and site characterization. In addition, the performance assessment model (and the process of eliciting model input) can act as a mechanism for integrating the large amount of available information into a meaningful whole (in a sense, allowing one to keep the ``big picture`` and the ultimate aims of the project clearly in focus). Such an integration is useful both for project managers and project scientists. RIP is based on a `` top down`` approach to performance assessment that concentrates on the integration of the entire system, and utilizes relatively high-level descriptive models and parameters. The key point in the application of such a ``top down`` approach is that the simplified models and associated high-level parameters must incorporate an accurate representation of their uncertainty. RIP is designed in a very flexible manner such that details can be readily added to various components of the model without modifying the computer code. Uncertainty is also handled in a very flexible manner, and both parameter and model (process) uncertainty can be explicitly considered. Uncertainty is propagated through the integrated PA model using an enhanced Monte Carlo method. RIP must rely heavily on subjective assessment (expert opinion) for much of its input. The process of eliciting the high-level input parameters required for RIP is critical to its successful application. As a result, in order for any project to successfully apply a tool such as RIP, an enormous amount of communication and cooperation must exist between the data collectors, the process modelers, and the performance. assessment modelers.

  16. A Cross-Cultural Test of Implicit Leadership Theory

    OpenAIRE

    McKie, David S.

    2003-01-01

    This research builds on Implicit Leadership Theory, which suggests that a leader’s performance is likely to be higher when there is congruence between a follower’s prototype of what a leader should be and his or her perception of the leader’s behaviour. The essence of effective leadership, according to this theory, is being seen as a leader by others. Data were collected from 196 leaders and 1,738 followers from 23 countries within Cargill Incorporated, a US food and agricul...

  17. Researching Contradictions: Cultural Historical Activity Theory Research (CHAT) in the English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) is an appropriate theoretical and methodological framework for researchers in English interested in the social contexts of culture and its relationship with the formation of mind and activity in the English classroom. Two key concepts in Vygotsky's thought central to understanding…

  18. The Theory of Reasoned Action and Self-Construal: Evidence from Three Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Sun; Levine, Timothy R.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the effects of self-construals on the attitudinal and normative components of the Theory of Reasoned Action in the cultures of Korea, Hawaii, and the mainland United States. Finds that undergraduate students in all three locations scored higher on independence than interdependence, and culture appears to affect the extent to which…

  19. Use of Racial Identity Development Theory to Explore Cultural Competence among Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heejeong Sophia; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Thomas, M. Shelley

    2011-01-01

    In order to explore early childhood educators' cultural competence through a lens of racial identity development theory, a case study was conducted with four White Kindergarten teachers. Participants were surveyed and interviewed to understand their racial identity development as well as perspectives of teaching culturally diverse early childhood…

  20. The Current Evidence for Hayek’s Cultural Group Selection Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Lowell Stone

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I summarize Friedrich Hayek’s cultural group selection theory and describe the evidence gathered by current cultural group selection theorists within the behavioral and social sciences supporting Hayek’s main assertions. I conclude with a few comments on Hayek and libertarianism.

  1. Behind the Rhetoric: Applying a Cultural Theory Lens to Community-Campus Partnership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecskes, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The nature of engagement between American campuses and communities is contested. This article is an invitation to reconsider why community-campus partnerships often look so different and have diverse and sometimes negative outcomes. Using a cultural theory approach (Thompson, Ellis, & Wildavsky, 1990) to elucidate the four main cultural frames…

  2. "Parallel Leadership in an "Unparallel" World"--Cultural Constraints on the Transferability of Western Educational Leadership Theories across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Jonathan Wee Pin

    2009-01-01

    With the global economy becoming more integrated, the issues of cross-cultural relevance and transferability of leadership theories and practices have become increasingly urgent. Drawing upon the concept of parallel leadership in schools proposed by Crowther, Kaagan, Ferguson, and Hann as an example, the purpose of this paper is to examine the…

  3. Socio-cultural Tradition: From Theory to Research | Magut | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are many theories that try to understand the broad nature of communication and how it applies to the individual or society but because of the complex nature of the topic, traditions are formed to help organize and explain different viewpoints and concepts. Robert Craig developed a model that labelled and separated ...

  4. Applications of Cognitive Flexibility Theory in Cross-Cultural Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    An examination of American efforts to influence global peace and security through development assistance to foreign police and other security forces reveals that they have a record of mixed results. The pitfalls arising from cultural dissonance in international training programs is a significant factor in why some police reform initiatives fail.…

  5. On the Possibility of a Cultural Psychology Theory of Pedagogy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most viable paradigm for conducting research in a developing country is that of socio-historical-cultural psychology. To date this paradigm has been able to clarify how dissimilar people act differently in their own situated contexts. The effects of mediated learning in context, an important unit of analysis for the discipline, ...

  6. Beyond Authoritarian Personality: The Culture-Inclusive Theory of Chinese Authoritarian Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chin-Lung

    2016-01-01

    In a dyad interaction, respecting and obeying those with high status (authority) is highly valued in Chinese societies. Regarding explicit behaviors, Chinese people usually show respect to and obey authority, which we call authoritarian orientation. Previous literature has indicated that Chinese people have a high degree of authoritarian personality, which was considered a national character. However, under Confucian relationalism (Hwang, 2012a), authoritarian orientation is basically an ethical issue, and thus, should not be reduced to the contention of authoritarian personality. Based on Yang's (1993) indigenous conceptualization, Chien (2013) took an emic bottom-up approach to construct an indigenous model of Chinese authoritarian orientation; it represents a "culture-inclusive theory." However, Chien's model lacks the role of agency or intentionality. To resolve this issue and to achieve the epistemological goal of indigenous psychology (that is, "one mind, many mentalities"), this paper took the "cultural system approach" (Hwang, 2015b) to construct a culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation in order to represent the universal mind of human beings as well as the mentalities of people in a particular culture. Two theories that reflect the universal mind, the "Face and Favor model" (Hwang, 1987) and the "Mandala Model of Self" (Hwang, 2011a,c), were used as analytical frameworks for interpreting Chien's original model. The process of constructing the culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation may represent a paradigm for the construction of indigenous culture-inclusive theories while inspiring further development. Some future research directions are proposed herein.

  7. An eclectic theory of entrepreneurship: policies, institutions and culture

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Thurik; Sander Wennekers; Ingrid Verheul; David Audretsch

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe level of entrepreneurship differs considerably across countries and periods. Both the causes and consequences of entrepreneurship are a matter of extensive scientific debate as well as of great policy importance. A high level of entrepreneurial activity is assumed and shown to contribute to innovative activities, competition, economic growth and job creation. The present paper deals with the determinants of entrepreneurship. An eclectic theory of entrepreneurship is introduced...

  8. The Cultural Relativity of Organizational Practices and Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Geert Hofstede

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarizes the author's recently published findings about differences in people's work-related values among 50 countries. In view of these differences, ethnocentric management theories (those based on the value system of one particular country) have become untenable. This concept is illustrated for the fields of leadership, organization, and motivation.© 1983 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1983) 14, 75–89

  9. Civilization, culture and neurotic depression: in view of the Freudian theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K

    1995-12-01

    Our discussion is based on the psychoanalytic theory of Freud. We, however, discuss a case of neurotic depression which is not considered a subtype in Freud's concept of neurosis. We discuss the difference between culture and civilization, referring to what Freud discussed in Totem and Taboo and Moses and Monotheism. We then discuss two matters specific to Japanese culture; the assimilation of foreign cultures, and the sexual differences found in Japanese culture. On the basis of these discussions, we attempt to link these with the problem of structure of the neurotic depression. We conclude with Confucianism which we can consider as relative to the East-Asian world.

  10. Nursing theory and the clinical gaze: discovery in teaching theory across a cultural divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Ruby K

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this column is to describe the experience of teaching nursing theory in Uganda, Africa. The author is a nurse educator from the United States, who with support of a Fulbright grant was a visiting lecturer at Uganda Christian University in Mukono, Uganda. The students were two cohorts of Ugandan graduate nursing students. The account is presented as a case study in exploring the nature, justification, and utility of theory for nurses internationally. Teaching and discussion strategies are described as well as the philosophical and theoretical frameworks for analyzing and defending the building and use of theory in nursing. A convergence of evidence leads to a recognition of implicit theory as constituting the nurse's clinical gaze.

  11. Sociocultural Theories, Academic Achievement, and African American Adolescents in a Multicultural Context: A Review of the Cultural Incompatibility Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Noel, La

    2011-01-01

    Some theories have posited that African American youth are academic underachievers because of sociocultural factors. We label this point of view the cultural incompatibility perspective. Ogbu's oppositional culture theory and Steele's stereotype threat theory are selected as popular examples of this viewpoint. A critical review of the literature…

  12. Toward a Theory of Culturally Relevant Leadership for School-Community Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraise, Nicole Jaenee; Brooks, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore concepts related to culturally relevant pedagogy and connect them to nascent theoretical work in the field of educational leadership. The article begins with a review of literature on educational leadership and culture and then suggests shortcomings in the way these concepts are currently conceptualized.…

  13. Cultural Studies and Media Ecology: Meyrowitz's Medium Theory and Carey's Cultural Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flayhan, Donna P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines work of two communication and media studies scholars, Joshua Meyrowitz and James Carey. Suggests their studies represent media ecology with analyses of the dynamic interaction between communication, consciousness, and culture. Highlights how their work embodies a North American cultural studies approach to media studies (moving away from…

  14. Depression in the barrio: An analysis of the risk and protective nature of cultural values among Mexican American substance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Yolanda R; Torres, Luis R; Stotts, Angela L; Ren, Yi; Sampson, Mcclain; Klawans, Michelle R; Bordnick, Patrick S

    2017-06-07

    Understanding the effect of cultural values on depression and how social networks influence these relationships may be important in the treatment of substance-using, Mexican American populations. Latino cultural values, familismo, personalismo, fatalismo, and machismo, may be associated with depression among Latinos. The current study identified the association of traditional Latino values on depressive symptomatology among a sample of Mexican American heroin injectors. A cross-sectional research design and field-intensive outreach methodology were utilized to recruit 227 Mexican American men. Participants were categorized into depressed and nondepressed groups. Relations among cultural values and depression were examined using logistic regression. Findings indicate that drug-using men with higher familismo and fatalismo scores are protected against depressive symptomatology. Relations between familismo and depression seem to be moderated by having a drug use network. In addition, findings reveal that age is inversely related to depressive symptomatology. Young Mexican American heroin users who do not ascribe to traditional Latino values may be highly associated with depression and therefore more vulnerable to riskier drug use behaviors. Moreover, drug-using social networks may affect the protective nature of certain cultural values. Further research is needed to identify whether culturally tailored treatments can cultivate these values while simultaneously undermining the effect of substance-using social networks in order to reduce depression symptoms among this group of high-risk substance users.

  15. McLuhan and the Cultural Theory of Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Poster

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Media are surely central to Western societies of the past several centuries and to the emerging global societies of the contemporary era and the future. There is a thickening, an intensification and an increasing complexity to the use of information machines, technologies that are necessary in the production, reproduction, storing and distribution of texts, images and sounds, the constituent elements of culture. The phenomenon has been termed a “media ecology,” adding a new layer to the ecologies of animal, vegetable and mineral. It behooves anyone engaged in critical discourse to take serious account of media. I argue they offer a key to understanding the process of globalization in relation to a new configuration of interaction between humans and machines.

  16. Decision-Making Theories and Models: A Discussion of Rational and Psychological Decision-Making Theories and Models: The Search for a Cultural-Ethical Decision-Making Model

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Arnaldo

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines rational and psychological decision-making models. Descriptive and normative methodologies such as attribution theory, schema theory, prospect theory, ambiguity model, game theory, and expected utility theory are discussed. The definition of culture is reviewed, and the relationship between culture and decision making is also highlighted as many organizations use a cultural-ethical decision-making model.

  17. Analysis of Search Engines and Meta Search Engines\\\\\\' Position by University of Isfahan Users Based on Rogers\\\\\\' Diffusion of Innovation Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maryam Akbari; Mozafar Cheshme Sohrabi; Ebrahim Afshar Zanjani

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the analysis of search engines and meta search engines adoption process by University of Isfahan users during 2009-2010 based on the Rogers' diffusion of innovation theory...

  18. The Influence of Traditional Culture and the Interpersonal Psychological Theory on Suicide Research in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonsoo; Baik, Seung Yeon; Kim, Hyang-Sook; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2017-11-01

    Korea has the highest suicide rate amongst the OECD countries. Yet, its research on suicidal behaviors has been primitive. While the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide has gained global attention, there has only been a few researches, which examined its applicability in Korea. In this article, we review the previous studies on suicide and examine the association between the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide and traditional Korean culture, with an emphasis on Collectivism and Confucianism. We propose that pathways to suicide might vary depending on cultural influences. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research will be discussed.

  19. Pet Therapy in Correctional Institutions: A Perspective From Relational-Cultural Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rita; Matusitz, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors apply Relational-Cultural Theory to pet therapy in correctional institutions. An important premise is that when pet therapy is used in prisons a symbiotic relationship develops between pets and prison inmates which, at the same time, improve their relationships with people themselves. Relational-Cultural Theory posits that relationships with individuals are not just a means to an end. Rather, good relationships promote growth and healthy development; they also cultivate reciprocal empathy. Hence, a major reason of suffering for most people is their experience of isolation; healing can occur in growth-fostering relationships.

  20. Modularity and the Cultural Mind: Contributions of Cultural Neuroscience to Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

    2013-01-01

    A central question in the study of the mind is how cognitive functions are shaped by a complex interplay of genetic and experiential processes. Recent evidence from cultural neuroscience indicates that cultural values, practices, and beliefs influence brain function across a variety of cognitive processes from vision to social cognition. This evidence extends to low-level perceptual systems comprised of domain-specific mechanisms, suggesting the importance of ecological and cultural variation in the evolutionary and developmental processes that give rise to the human mind and brain. In this article, we argue that investigating the architecture of the human mind will require understanding how the human mind and brain shape and are shaped by culture-gene coevolutionary processes. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Human hair follicle organ culture: theory, application and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Ewan A; Philpott, Michael P; Kloepper, Jennifer E; Paus, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    For almost a quarter of a century, ex vivo studies of human scalp hair follicles (HFs) have permitted major advances in hair research, spanning diverse fields such as chronobiology, endocrinology, immunology, metabolism, mitochondrial biology, neurobiology, pharmacology, pigmentation and stem cell biology. Despite this, a comprehensive methodological guide to serum-free human HF organ culture (HFOC) that facilitates the selection and analysis of standard HF biological parameters and points out both research opportunities and pitfalls to newcomers to the field is still lacking. The current methods review aims to close an important gap in the literature and attempts to promote standardisation of human HFOC. We provide basic information outlining the establishment of HFOC through to detailed descriptions of the analysis of standard read-out parameters alongside practical examples. The guide closes by pointing out how serum-free HFOC can be utilised optimally to obtain previously inaccessible insights into human HF biology and pathology that are of interest to experimental dermatologists, geneticists, developmental biologists and (neuro-) endocrinologists alike and by highlighting novel applications of the model, including gene silencing and gene expression profiling of defined, laser capture-microdissected HF compartments. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Violence Against Women in Cambodia: Towards a Culturally Responsive Theory of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbruch, Maurice

    2018-01-17

    Almost one in four women in Cambodia is a victim of physical, emotional or sexual violence. This article brings together two seldom connected fields: Theory of Change (ToC) and cultural responsiveness in international development. It applies these approaches to a priority in global health, which is to prevent violence against women (VAW) and, drawing on my research on the epigenesis of VAW in Cambodia, develops an argument on the need for interventions to work with tradition and culture rather than only highlight it in problematic terms. The research draws on an ethnographic study carried out in Cambodia with 102 perpetrators and survivors of emotional, physical and sexual VAW and 228 key informants from the Buddhist and healing sectors. The eight 'cultural attractors' identified in the author's prior research highlight the cultural barriers to acceptance of the current Theory of Change. ToC for VAW prevention in Cambodia seems to assume that local culture promotes VAW and that men and women must be educated to eradicate the traditional gender norms. There is a need for interventions to work with tradition and culture rather than only highlight it in problematic terms. The cultural epigenesis of VAW in Cambodia is an insight which can be used to build culturally responsive interventions and strengthen the primary prevention of VAW.

  3. Experience of providing cultural safety in mental health to Aboriginal patients: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Shirley; Wynaden, Dianne; Wright, Michael

    2017-02-06

    The need for mental health clinicians to practice cultural safety is vital in ensuring meaningful care and in moving towards improving the mental health outcomes for Aboriginal people. The concept of cultural safety is particularly relevant to mental health professionals as it seeks to promote cultural integrity and the promotion of social justice, equity and respect. A substantive theory that explained the experience of providing cultural safety in mental health care to Aboriginal patients was developed using grounded theory methodology. Mental health professionals engaged in a social psychological process, called seeking solutions by navigating the labyrinth to overcome the experience of being unprepared. During this process participants moved from a state of being unprepared to one where they began to navigate the pathway of cultural safety. The findings of this research suggest health professionals have a limited understanding of the concept of cultural safety. The experience of providing cultural safety has not been adequately addressed by organizations, health services, governments, educational providers and policy makers. Health services, organizations and government agencies must work with Aboriginal people to progress strategies that inform and empower staff to practice cultural safety. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  4. Theory of mind and executive function during middle childhood across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenlin; Devine, Rory T; Wong, Keri K; Hughes, Claire

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies with preschoolers have reported "East-West" contrasts in children's executive function (East>West) and theory of mind (Eastcultural study with two samples of older children from the United Kingdom and Hong Kong aimed to test competing accounts of these contrasts that focus on either global effects of culture or more specific effects of pedagogical experience. Both groups of children in Hong Kong outperformed the British children on executive function tasks. That is, with respect to executive function, general cultural influences appear to be salient. In contrast, compared with their U.K. counterparts, children attending local schools in Hong Kong (but not those attending British-based international schools in Hong Kong) performed poorly on age-appropriate tests of theory of mind. With respect to theory of mind, therefore, pedagogical experiences appear to be more salient than factors related to the broad contrast between individualist and collectivist cultures. Our findings also contribute to the debate surrounding the relationship between theory of mind and executive function; although scores on these two sets of tasks were robustly correlated within each country, the double dissociation between delayed theory of mind but superior executive function for children in local schools in Hong Kong compared with their U.K. peers suggests that variation in executive function may be necessary but is not sufficient to explain variation in theory of mind. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. User-Centered Design of Health Care Software Development: Towards a Cultural Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanziola, Enrique; Uznayo, María Quispe; Ortiz, Juan Marcos; Simón, Mariana; Otero, Carlos; Campos, Fernando; Luna, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Health care software gets better user efficiency, efficacy and satisfaction when the software is designed with their users' needs taken into account. However, it is not trivial to change the practice of software development to adopt user-centered design. In order to produce this change in the Health Informatics Department of the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, a plan was devised and implemented. The article presents the steps of the plan, shows how the steps were carried on, and reflects on the lessons learned through the process.

  6. Vulnerability and the intention to anabolic steroids use among Iranian gym users: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdipour, Hamid; Jalilian, Farzad; Shaghaghi, Abdolreza

    2012-02-01

    This correlational study explored the psychological antecedents of 253 Iranian gym users' intentions to use the anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The three predictor variables of (1) attitude, (2) subjective norms, and (3) perceived behavioral control accounted for 63% of the variation in the outcome measure of the intention to use the AAS. There is some support to use the TPB to design and implement interventions to modify and/or improve individuals' beliefs that athletic goals are achievable without the use of the AAS.

  7. The role of culture collections as an interface between providers and users: the example of yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Heide-Marie; Prasad, Gandham S

    2010-01-01

    The importance and species diversity of yeasts in food production are described, including a listing of agricultural applications. Two yeast species were selected for case studies on distribution patterns from microbial culture collections: the high representation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in culture collections enabled global comparison, while Dekkera bruxellensis deposits and distributions were analyzed from the perspective of a single culture collection. In conclusion, culture collections need to cover temporal gaps between deposit and application of strains. The further development of culture collections in countries of high but underexplored species diversity should facilitate the conservation and management of microbial resources. (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. A conceptual perspective for investigating motive in cultural-historical theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief discussion of the other chapters in this edited volume, and then presents a brief introduction to the concept of motive within cultural-historical theory. This discussion includes a discussion of why the concept is needed, the ontological shift in the explanatory log...... of the theory, the relation of the concept in the theory of activity. The main section of the chapter provides a methodological discussion of ways to research the motive concept. The chapter concludes with three open research problems in relation to the motive concept....

  9. "Because That's Who I Am": Extending Theories of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy to Consider Religious Identity, Belief, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallavis, Christian

    2011-01-01

    In this conceptual article the author explores the intersection of culturally responsive pedagogy and religious school contexts. He extends theories of culturally responsive pedagogy to consider how religion, a dimension of student culture that has largely been overlooked in the literature surrounding culturally responsive pedagogy, can inflect…

  10. Cultural-historical activity theory: Vygotsky's forgotten and suppressed legacy and its implication for mathematics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-03-01

    Cultural-historical activity theory—with historical roots in dialectical materialism and the social psychology to which it has given rise—has experienced exponential growth in its acceptance by scholars interested in understanding knowing and learning writ large. In education, this theory has constituted something like a well kept secret that is only in the process of gaining larger levels of acceptance. Mathematics educators are only beginning to realise the tremendous advantages that the theory provides over other theories. In this review essay, I articulate the theory as it may relate to the issues that concern mathematics education and educators with a particular focus on the way in which it addresses logical contradictions in existing theories.

  11. Desarrollo cultural en las organizaciones. Un modelo de estudio basado en la Grounded Theory Cultural development in organizations. A model study based on the Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel SÁNCHEZ-SANVICENTE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La cultura organizacional se configura a partir de la interrelación de los procesos de apropiación de la filosofía, la pertenencia, la adaptación, la satisfacción y el liderazgo compartidos por un grupo. Este conjunto de categorías puede ser reconocido mediante el uso de una matriz que incluye en su estructura subcategorías o conceptos y un conjunto de propiedades observables en el público interno. El presente artículo tiene por objetivo describir un modelo de estudio construido a partir de la Grounded Theory o Teoría Fundamentada que nos permita comprender el desarrollo cultural de las organizaciones. El estudio de caso se realizó en una compañía líder en Europa del sector de la distribución.AbstractThe organizational culture is set from the interplay of the processes of appropriation of philosophy, membership, adaptation, satisfaction and leadership shared by a group. This set of categories can be recognized by using a matrix that includes in its structure or sub-concepts and a set of observable properties in the workforce. This article aims to describe a study model built from the Grounded Theory that allows us to understand the cultural development of organizations. The case study was conducted in a European leader in the distribution sector.

  12. Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Theory Revision: Moving Culture From the Macro Into the Micro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez-Agosto, Nicole M; Soto-Crespo, José G; Vizcarrondo-Oppenheimer, Mónica; Vega-Molina, Stephanie; García Coll, Cynthia

    2017-09-01

    Bronfenbrenner's bioecological theory of human development is one of the most widely known theoretical frameworks in human development. In spite of its popularity, the notion of culture within the macrosystem, as a separate entity of everyday practices and therefore microsystems, is problematic. Using the theoretical and empirical work of Rogoff and Weisner, and influenced as they are by Vygotsky's sociocultural perspective, we reconceptualize Bronfenbrenner's model by placing culture as an intricate part of proximal development processes. In our model, culture has the role of defining and organizing microsystems and therefore becomes part of the central processes of human development. Culture is an ever changing system composed of the daily practices of social communities (families, schools, neighborhoods, etc.) and the interpretation of those practices through language and communication. It also comprises tools and signs that are part of the historical legacy of those communities, and thus diversity is an integral part of the child's microsystems, leading to culturally defined acceptable developmental processes and outcomes.

  13. Aversive Racism and Intergroup Contact Theories: Cultural Competence in a Segregated World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenborg, Nancy A.; Boisen, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    The United States remains highly segregated, and social work students are likely to live and work in segregated contexts. What implications does this have for their cultural competence? Does segregation affect social workers' ability to serve diverse clients without bias? This article reviews two social psychology theories, aversive racism…

  14. Can Collaborative Consultation, Based on Communicative Theory, Promote an Inclusive School Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ahlefeld Nisser, Désirée

    2017-01-01

    This article contributes to furthering our knowledge of how collaborative consultation, based on communicative theory, can make teachers' learning from, and with, each other an inclusive process, and thus promote an inclusive school culture. The aim is to study special education professionals' experiences of, and reflections on, leading…

  15. Educating students to cross boundaries between disciplines and cultures and between theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuin, K.P.J.; Bush, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and analyse the didactic model of a university course, which concerns an applied academic consultancy project and which focuses on skills related to crossing boundaries between disciplines and cultures, and between theory and practice.

  16. Cross-Cultural Value Orientations: Clinical Implications from an Analysis of the Theory and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David Laurel

    The purpose of this paper is to consider what relevant clinical applications can be generated from a thorough review and critique of the theoretical and empirical literature pertaining to cross-cultural value orientations. The Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck (1961) theory of value orientations and their Value Schedule was presented. The 3 elements of…

  17. Self-Determination Theory: The Importance of Autonomy to Well-Being across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Sonia Secher

    2011-01-01

    According to proponents of self-determination theory, autonomous regulation is a universal psychological human need. Researchers have found autonomy (defined as acting in accordance with one's values) related to well-being across cultures. Encouraging client autonomy is therefore fundamental to the practice of humanistic counseling.

  18. Research in the Work of New Zealand Teacher Educators: A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, David A. G.; Gunn, Alexandra C.; Hill, Mary F.; Haigh, Mavis

    2016-01-01

    In this article we use cultural-historical activity theory to explore the place of research in the work of New Zealand university-based teacher educators (TEs). We consider how aspirations for a research-informed initial teacher education are served by New Zealand universities' recruitment practices and TEs' actual work. We suggest that TEs value…

  19. Understanding Preschool Emergent Science in a Cultural Historical Context through Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Bodil; Areljung, Sofie; Due, Karin; Ekström, Kenneth; Ottander, Christina; Tellgren, Britt

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore how cultural factors interact with preschool teachers' shaping of activities with science content, and also how Activity Theory (AT) as a theoretical framework can be useful for examining interrelations within preschool systems. Qualitative data was collected from three preschools in the form of guided group…

  20. Objectification Theory and Deaf Cultural Identity Attitudes: Roles in Deaf Women's Eating Disorder Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; Rottenstein, Adena

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the generalizability of direct and mediated links posited in objectification theory among internalization of sociocultural standards of beauty, body surveillance, body shame, and eating disorder symptoms with a sample of Deaf women. The study also examined the role of marginal Deaf cultural identity attitudes within this…

  1. A Partial Test of Oscar Lewis's Culture of Poverty Theory in Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David B.

    In an effort to test certain aspects of Oscar Lewis's "Culture of Poverty Theory" in the rural South, an investigation was made of the differences in participation patterns of the rural poor, those factors associated with participation patterns of the rural poor, and the relationship between the social participation patterns of one…

  2. Professional Culture: The Boundary Between Theory and Practice in Design. Revised Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Setha M.

    This paper describes two research projects in the anthropology of landscape architecture design which show that "professional culture" restrictions often prevent anthropologists from putting their theories into practice. The first research project grew out of the author's assumption that landscape architecture students were not producing…

  3. Understanding the Impacts of Quality Assessment: An Exploratory Use of Cultural Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Amelia; Rosa, Maria Joao; Amaral, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Cultural theory is tentatively used to understand how far quality assessment affects institutions by influencing the group and grid dimensions. This paper argues that the self-assessment phase of the Portuguese system, in use until recently, promoted the egalitarian (logic of mistrusting power and expertise) and the individualist (logic of freedom…

  4. Distributed communication: Implications of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) for communication disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengst, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes distributed communication as a promising theoretical framework for building supportive environments for child language development. Distributed communication is grounded in an emerging intersection of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and theories of communicative practices that argue for integrating accounts of language, cognition and culture. The article first defines and illustrates through selected research articles, three key principles of distributed communication: (a) language and all communicative resources are inextricably embedded in activity; (b) successful communication depends on common ground built up through short- and long-term histories of participation in activities; and (c) language cannot act alone, but is always orchestrated with other communicative resources. It then illustrates how these principles are fully integrated in everyday interactions by drawing from my research on Cindy Magic, a verbal make-believe game played by a father and his two daughters. Overall, the research presented here points to the remarkably complex communicative environments and sophisticated forms of distributed communication children routinely engage in as they interact with peer and adult communication partners in everyday settings. The article concludes by considering implications of these theories for, and examples of, distributed communication relevant to clinical intervention. Readers will learn about (1) distributed communication as a conceptual tool grounded in an emerging intersection of cultural-historical activity theory and theories of communicative practices and (2) how to apply distributed communication to the study of child language development and to interventions for children with communication disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Theory and practice as cultural forms and the research design on The open school program in the Danish school reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Emmerik Damgaard; Haastrup, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Title Theory and practice in the workshop – towards a theory and practice didactics The knowledge forms of theory and practice has been historically viewed as means and measures for knowing and doing with a primary focus on how to bridge the gap between them. On the basis of qualitative fieldwork...... Carr (1986) I wish to present an understanding of theory and practice as cultural forms (Knudsen 2012). In this perspective theory and practice are viewed as knowledge forms in cultural forms. We found that this perspective supports how theory and practice can relate in multiple ways...

  6. Testing ‘cultural reproduction theory’ against relative risk aversion theory – some remarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin David; Jakobsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research note is to discuss inherent limitations in certain established, but problematic, conventions for operationalizing and testing Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of cultural reproduction. These conventions entail a selective focus on the concept of capital at the expense of the conc......The aim of this research note is to discuss inherent limitations in certain established, but problematic, conventions for operationalizing and testing Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of cultural reproduction. These conventions entail a selective focus on the concept of capital at the expense...... of the concept of habitus. Our point is that blinding out the important concept of habitus amputates the theory, and that a test built upon this limitation is not a test of Bourdieu’s theory as a whole, but rather a straw man construction ignoring important parts of the theory. This has strong implications when...... seeking to test statistically the viability of Bourdieu’s theory, particularly vis-a-vis rational choice alternatives, and especially where these limitations are not adequately reflected in the interpretation of results and in conclusions....

  7. Avatar in the Amazon - Narratives of Cultural Conversion and Environmental Salvation between Cultural Theory and Popular Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ødemark

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 the New York Times reported that '[t]ribes of Amazon Find an Ally Out of "Avatar"', James Cameron. The alliance was against the building of Belo Monte, a hydroelectricdam in the Xingu River in Brazil. Cameron made a documentary about Belo Monte, A Message from Pandora. Here he states that Avatar becomes real in the struggle against the dam. This appears to confirm U. K. Heise's observation that the 'Amazon rainforest has long functioned as a complex symbol of exotic natural abundance, global ecological connectedness, and environmental crisis'. This construal, however, downplays the 'symbols' cultural components. In this article I show that the image of an ecological 'rainforest Indian' and a particular kind of culture constitutes a crucial part of the Amazon as 'a complex' cross-disciplinary 'symbol'. Firstly, I examine how an Amazonian topology (closeness to nature, natural cultures is both a product of an interdisciplinary history, and a place to speak from for ethno-political activist. Next I analyze how Amazonian cultures have been turned into 'ethnological isolates' representing a set of grand theoretical problems in anthropology, not least concerning the nature/culture-distinction, and how environmentalism has deployed the same topology. Finally I examine how Avatar and one of its cinematic intertexts, John Boorman's The Emerald Forest, is used as a model to understand the struggle over the Belo Monte. In a paradoxical way the symbolic power of indigenous people in ecological matters here appears to be dependent upon a non-relation, and a reestablishment of clear cut cultural boundaries, where 'the tribal' is also associated with the human past. Disturbingly such symbolic exportation of solutions is consonant with current exportations of the solution of ecological problems to 'other places'.

  8. Visiting cultural heritage with a tour guide robot : a user evaluation study in-the-wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, Daphne; Ludden, Geke; Evers, Vanessa; Tapus, Adriana; André, Elisabeth; Martin, Jean-Claude; Ferland, François; Ammi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a user evaluation study on location at the Royal Alcázar in Seville, Spain, with the fully autonomous tour guide robot FROG. In this robot, technological innovations in navigation and vision were integrated with state-of-the-art design for robot behavior in order to provide

  9. Audiovisual cultural heritage: bridging the gap between digital archives and its users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, G.; Donoso, Veronica; Geerts, David; Cesar, Pablo; de Grooff, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    This document describes a PhD research track on the disclosure of audiovisual digital archives. The domain of audiovisual material is introduced as well as a problem description is formulated. The main research objective is to investigate the gap between the different users and the digital archives.

  10. "Less Clicking, More Watching": Results from the User-Centered Design of a Multi-Institutional Web Site for Art and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergo, John; Karat, Clare-Marie; Karat, John; Pinhanez, Claudio; Arora, Renee; Cofino, Thomas; Riecken, Doug; Podlaseck, Mark

    This paper summarizes a 10-month long research project conducted at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center aimed at developing the design concept of a multi-institutional art and culture web site. The work followed a user-centered design (UCD) approach, where interaction with prototypes and feedback from potential users of the web site were sought…

  11. Cultural-Ecological Theory of Academic Disengagement Used to Explain a Story of Race, Culture and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunyemi, Boluwaji

    2017-01-01

    Students of African ancestry often share an experience of being a racialized minority in the context of the educational institution. Late Professor of Anthropology John Ogbu's Cultural-ecological Theory of Academic Disengagement is employed to describe the negative responses encountered by peers in the name of academic achievement. The late Nigerian-American anthropologist John Ogbu described that it is often socially disadvantageous for black youth to prosper academically in formal education. Black students are often seen as betraying their cultural identities by aspiring to academic success and scholastic achievement and are met with repugnance by black peers. The notion of "acting white" is unnecessary, impertinent should be abandoned outright as achievement should have no color. Copyright © 2017 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cultural planning and Chaos Theory in Cyberspace: some notes on a Digital Cultural Atlas Project for Western Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Lally

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the intersection between digital technologies and cultural planning. New information technologies ought to enable more powerful planning strategies. Yet a common seductive vision of planning is mirrored by utopian claims for cyberculture, which often fall short of the hoped-for reality. We suggest that one problem is the linear thinking common to mainstream planning and digital thinking, which leads to a cumulative lack of fit with the non-linear (chaotic world of social action. We draw on chaos and complexity theory to reframe planning problems and develop more creative digital strategies in a specific location, Western Sydney, using and adapting Geographic Information Systems.

  13. Social Learning Theory and Behavioral Therapy: Considering Human Behaviors within the Social and Cultural Context of Individuals and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough Chavis, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines theoretical thoughts of social learning theory and behavioral therapy and their influences on human behavior within a social and cultural context. The article utilizes two case illustrations with applications for consumers. It points out the abundance of research studies concerning the effectiveness of social learning theory, and the paucity of research studies regarding effectiveness and evidence-based practices with diverse groups. Providing a social and cultural context in working with diverse groups with reference to social learning theory adds to the literature for more cultural considerations in adapting the theory to women, African Americans, and diverse groups.

  14. Section 3. The SPARROW Surface Water-Quality Model: Theory, Application and User Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, G.E.; Hoos, A.B.; Alexander, R.B.; Smith, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) is a watershed modeling technique for relating water-quality measurements made at a network of monitoring stations to attributes of the watersheds containing the stations. The core of the model consists of a nonlinear regression equation describing the non-conservative transport of contaminants from point and diffuse sources on land to rivers and through the stream and river network. The model predicts contaminant flux, concentration, and yield in streams and has been used to evaluate alternative hypotheses about the important contaminant sources and watershed properties that control transport over large spatial scales. This report provides documentation for the SPARROW modeling technique and computer software to guide users in constructing and applying basic SPARROW models. The documentation gives details of the SPARROW software, including the input data and installation requirements, and guidance in the specification, calibration, and application of basic SPARROW models, as well as descriptions of the model output and its interpretation. The documentation is intended for both researchers and water-resource managers with interest in using the results of existing models and developing and applying new SPARROW models. The documentation of the model is presented in two parts. Part 1 provides a theoretical and practical introduction to SPARROW modeling techniques, which includes a discussion of the objectives, conceptual attributes, and model infrastructure of SPARROW. Part 1 also includes background on the commonly used model specifications and the methods for estimating and evaluating parameters, evaluating model fit, and generating water-quality predictions and measures of uncertainty. Part 2 provides a user's guide to SPARROW, which includes a discussion of the software architecture and details of the model input requirements and output files, graphs, and maps. The text documentation and computer

  15. Relationship between affordance and cultural conventions in the design of IVR systems for oral users

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndwe, TJ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available that sensitivity towards cultural conventions which subsequently bring about affordance has more credence than the objective usability measures of effectiveness and efficiency as defined by the International Standards Organization (ISO). This demonstration is done...

  16. Community transformation through culturally competent nursing leadership: application of theory of culture care diversity and universality and tri-dimensional leader effectiveness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Mina L; Miller, June; White, Kathleen

    2006-04-01

    Transcultural knowledge and competency have become a critical need for nurses to accommodate the global trends in cultural diversity and health care disparities. Today, nurses are increasingly taking on leadership roles in community settings. This article addresses the application of Leininger's culture care theory with the sunrise model and Hersey and Blanchard's tri-dimensional leader effectiveness model as potential collaborating theories for capacity building and community transformation from a global, transcultural nursing perspective. The two theories, used in collaboration, view the provision of competent leadership as the delivery of effective, culturally congruent nursing care in promoting health and health equity at the community level.

  17. Measuring Individual Differences in Generic Beliefs in Conspiracy Theories Across Cultures: The Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eBruder

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Conspiracy theories are ubiquitous when it comes to explaining political events and societal phenomena. Individuals differ not only in the degree to which they believe in specific conspiracy theories, but also in their general susceptibility to explanations based on such theories, that is, their conspiracy mentality. We present the Conspiracy Mentality Questionnaire (CMQ, an instrument designed to efficiently assess differences in the generic tendency to engage in conspiracist ideation within and across cultures. The CMQ is available in English, German, and Turkish. In four studies, we examined the CMQ’s factorial structure, reliability, measurement equivalence across cultures, and its convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity. Analyses based on a cross-cultural sample (Study 1a; N = 7,766 supported the conceptualization of conspiracy mentality as a one-dimensional construct across the three language versions of the CMQ that is stable across time (Study 1b; N = 141. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the CMQ items. The instrument could therefore be used to examine differences in conspiracy mentality between European, North American, and Middle Eastern cultures. In Studies 2-4 (total N = 476, we report (re-analyses of 3 datasets demonstrating the validity of the CMQ in student and working population samples in the UK and Germany. First, attesting to its convergent validity, the CMQ was highly correlated with another measure of generic conspiracy belief. Second, the CMQ showed patterns of meaningful associations with personality measures (e.g., Big Five dimensions, schizotypy, other generalized political attitudes (e.g., social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism, and further individual differences (e.g., paranormal belief, lack of socio-political control. Finally, the CMQ predicted beliefs in specific conspiracy theories over and above other individual

  18. Protocol: A grounded theory of 'recovery'-perspectives of adolescent users of mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Lucianne; Patterson, Sue; O'Donovan, Analise; Bradley, Graham

    2017-07-20

    Policies internationally endorse the recovery paradigm as the appropriate foundation for youth mental health services. However, given that this paradigm is grounded in the views of adults with severe mental illness, applicability to youth services and relevance to young people is uncertain, particularly as little is known about young people's views. A comprehensive understanding of the experiences and expectations of young people is critical to developing youth mental health services that are acceptable, accessible, effective and relevant. To inform development of policy and youth services, the study described in this protocol aims to develop a comprehensive account of the experiences and expectations of 12-17 year olds as they encounter mental disorders and transition through specialist mental health services. Data will be analysed to model recovery from the adolescents' perspective. This grounded theory study will use quantitative and qualitative data collected in interviews with 12-17 year olds engaged with specialist Child/Youth Mental Health Service in Queensland, Australia. Interviews will explore adolescents' expectations and experiences of mental disorder, and of services, as they transition through specialist mental health services, including the meaning of their experiences and ideas of 'recovery' and how their experiences and expectations are shaped. Data collection and analysis will use grounded theory methods. Adolescents' experiences will be presented as a mid-range theory. The research will provide tangible recommendations for youth-focused mental health policy and practice. Findings will be disseminated within academic literature and beyond to participants, health professionals, mental health advocacy groups and policy and decision makers via publications, research summaries, conferences and workshops targeting different audiences. Ethical and research governance approvals have been obtained from relevant Human Research Ethics committees and all

  19. Understanding the Impact of User Frustration Intensities on Task Performance Using the OCC Theory of Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Have you heard the saying "frustration is written all over your falce"? Well this saying is true, but that is not the only place. Frustration is written all over your face and your body. The human body has various means to communicate an emotion without the utterance of a single word. The Media Equation says that people interact with computers as if they are human: this includes experiencing frustration. This research measures frustration by monitoring human body-based measures such as heart rate, posture, skin temperature. and respiration. The OCC Theory of Emotions is used to separate frustration into different levels or intensities. The results of this study showed that individual intensities of frustration exist, so that task performance is not degraded. Results from this study can be used by usability testers to model how much frustration is needed before task performance measures start to decrease.

  20. The Influence of Interactivity Features of Databases on Scientific Behavior: A user perspective survey based on the Flow theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatollah Fatthai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We followed two aims: testing the effects of databases' user interface interactivity (UII on Scientific Behavior (SB and exploring the flow experience (FE as mediator between interface interactivity and SB, as well as self-efficacy (SE role as an interferer. We used mixed method in this research. We made a SB questionnaire via a comparative literature study, FE and user UII through literature review. Faculty members and PhD students participated as scholars. Structural Equation Modeling was used for quantitative data analysis and interpretative approach to analyze qualitative data. The role of typological variables, such as gender, area of study, academic degree and English language skill level on SE, UII, FE and SB means are investigated. Finally, we tested the effects of databases' UII on SB and mediator role of FE and interfering role of SE. We found that the more self-efficient participants, the more they experience user interface interactivity and scientific behavior changes/adaptations. In other words, self-efficacy is an important characteristic to establish interactive search session and to upgrade scientific behavior in scholars. Also, we found those participants who experience more flow, have more chance to experience SB changes and adaptation in UII environment. So UII may have effect on researchers' SB. Results may be used in: 1 distance education or researcher training, since these areas are interested in developing, changing and adapting SB; 2 Human-Computer Interaction field, because SB seems to be a new aspect of computer interaction effect on human; 3 The Flow theory will be supported by this new implementation. We proposed a new theoretical framework for research

  1. A Modified Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour Model to Analyze User Intention towards Distance-Based Electronic Toll Collection Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chung Tao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a modified decomposed theory of planned behaviour model (DTPB that integrates satisfaction and trust into the original DTPB model to explore what kind of factors affect the user intention towards distance-based electronic toll collection (ETC services. The proposed model is empirically tested by using data collected from a questionnaire survey with a computer assisted telephone interview system. Empirical analysis is carried out in three stages that combine confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modelling (SEM, and Bayesian network: (1 examination of reliability and validity of the measurement model; (2 analysis of structural model; (3 prediction of the probability of user intention change based on rigorous framework of SEM. The results confirm that the satisfaction and trust have positive effects on the behaviour intention, also validating that five constructs have indirect effects on the behaviour intention through attitude and perceived behaviour control. Compatibility is the most important influence factor, followed by perceived usefulness, facilitating conditions, self-efficacy, and perceived ease of use. The findings of this study identify potential improvements for ETC operator, such as contributing to the society to enhance the company image and trust of enterprise with charity activities, and simultaneously upgrading the information platform of website, software, and Apps.

  2. The Sandia GeoModel : theory and user's guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, Rebecca Moss; Fossum, Arlo Frederick

    2004-08-01

    The mathematical and physical foundations and domain of applicability of Sandia's GeoModel are presented along with descriptions of the source code and user instructions. The model is designed to be used in conventional finite element architectures, and (to date) it has been installed in five host codes without requiring customizing the model subroutines for any of these different installations. Although developed for application to geological materials, the GeoModel actually applies to a much broader class of materials, including rock-like engineered materials (such as concretes and ceramics) and even to metals when simplified parameters are used. Nonlinear elasticity is supported through an empirically fitted function that has been found to be well-suited to a wide variety of materials. Fundamentally, the GeoModel is a generalized plasticity model. As such, it includes a yield surface, but the term 'yield' is generalized to include any form of inelastic material response including microcrack growth and pore collapse. The geomodel supports deformation-induced anisotropy in a limited capacity through kinematic hardening (in which the initially isotropic yield surface is permitted to translate in deviatoric stress space to model Bauschinger effects). Aside from kinematic hardening, however, the governing equations are otherwise isotropic. The GeoModel is a genuine unification and generalization of simpler models. The GeoModel can employ up to 40 material input and control parameters in the rare case when all features are used. Simpler idealizations (such as linear elasticity, or Von Mises yield, or Mohr-Coulomb failure) can be replicated by simply using fewer parameters. For high-strain-rate applications, the GeoModel supports rate dependence through an overstress model.

  3. Trends in Culturally Relevant Interface Design Features for Latino Web Site Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachau, Lori L.; Hutchinson, Susan R.

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of published research on designing Web-based instruction for the adult U.S. Latino population. Instructional designers need guidance on how to design culturally relevant learning environments for this audience, particularly for Latino people from Mexican heritage. The authors used content analysis to investigate the extent to which…

  4. Analysis of Search Engines and Meta Search Engines\\\\\\' Position by University of Isfahan Users Based on Rogers\\\\\\' Diffusion of Innovation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Akbari; Mozafar Cheshme Sohrabi; Ebrahim Afshar Zanjani

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the analysis of search engines and meta search engines adoption process by University of Isfahan users during 2009-2010 based on the Rogers' diffusion of innovation theory. The main aim of the research was to study the rate of adoption and recognizing the potentials and effective tools in search engines and meta search engines adoption among University of Isfahan users. The research method was descriptive survey study. The cases of the study were all of the post...

  5. Reflection on the Relationship between Cultural-historical Theory and Dialectics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafermos M.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Challenging dominant positivistic psychology, Vygotsky elaborated culturalhistorical theory in order to overcome the crisis in psychology. Spinoza’s monism, Hegelian dialectics and Marx’s materialistic dialectics inspired Vygotsky to develop a dialectical understanding of the development of higher mental functions. Dialectics as a way of thinking focuses on the study of each concrete object in its mutual connections with other objects, in its internal contradictions and in its process of change. Vygotsky criticized the understanding of dialectics as a sum of universal principles which can be applied in a direct way in the field of psychology and highlighted the complex relationships between philosophy and concrete scientific disciplines. Rethinking cultural-historical psychology in the light of dialectics offers a creative insight into crucial theoretical questions of psychology such as the interconnection between theory and practice, objectivistsubjectivist distinction, etc. Dialectical underpinnings of cultural-historical theory have been forgotten in mainstream, North-Atlantic interpretations and applications of Vygotsky’s theory

  6. Targeting Parents for Childhood Weight Management: Development of a Theory-Driven and User-Centered Healthy Eating App

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Sudakshina; Brown, Katherine Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background The proliferation of health promotion apps along with mobile phones' array of features supporting health behavior change offers a new and innovative approach to childhood weight management. However, despite the critical role parents play in children’s weight related behaviors, few industry-led apps aimed at childhood weight management target parents. Furthermore, industry-led apps have been shown to lack a basis in behavior change theory and evidence. Equally important remains the issue of how to maximize users’ engagement with mobile health (mHealth) interventions where there is growing consensus that inputs from the commercial app industry and the target population should be an integral part of the development process. Objective The aim of this study is to systematically design and develop a theory and evidence-driven, user-centered healthy eating app targeting parents for childhood weight management, and clearly document this for the research and app development community. Methods The Behavior Change Wheel (BCW) framework, a theoretically-based approach for intervention development, along with a user-centered design (UCD) philosophy and collaboration with the commercial app industry, guided the development process. Current evidence, along with a series of 9 focus groups (total of 46 participants) comprised of family weight management case workers, parents with overweight and healthy weight children aged 5-11 years, and consultation with experts, provided data to inform the app development. Thematic analysis of focus groups helped to extract information related to relevant theoretical, user-centered, and technological components to underpin the design and development of the app. Results Inputs from parents and experts working in the area of childhood weight management helped to identify the main target behavior: to help parents provide appropriate food portion sizes for their children. To achieve this target behavior, the behavioral diagnosis

  7. Face consciousness among South Korean women: a culture-specific extension of objectification theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Si Yeon; Seo, Young Seok; Baek, Keun Young

    2014-01-01

    This study tested key tenets of objectification theory with South Korean women and explored the roles of sexually objectifying media and culture-specific standards of beauty in body image and eating disorder symptoms. Two pilot studies with South Korean college women (n = 40, n = 30) revealed that facial characteristics such as size and shape represent a discrete variable among culture-specific standards of beauty for South Korean women. Results with a sample of 562 South Korean college women indicated that media exposure had significant positive indirect relations with body shame and eating disorder symptoms through the mediating roles of internalization, body surveillance, and face surveillance. Internalization of cultural standards of beauty had significant positive direct relations with body surveillance and face surveillance and had both direct and indirect relations with body shame and eating disorder symptoms. Body and face surveillances had significant positive direct relations with body shame and had indirect relations with eating disorder symptoms. Finally, body shame mediated the links from internalization and surveillance variables to eating disorder symptoms. The results support the applicability of objectification theory as it relates to South Korean women and point to the significance of culture-specific standards of beauty within that framework. These findings could contribute to the broader field of multicultural body image research, with potential implications for therapist practices and training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Driving and sustaining culture change in Olympic sport performance teams: a first exploration and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Andrew; Collins, Dave; Minten, Sue

    2014-02-01

    Stimulated by growing interest in the organizational and performance leadership components of Olympic success, sport psychology researchers have identified performance director-led culture change as a process of particular theoretical and applied significance. To build on initial work in this area and develop practically meaningful understanding, a pragmatic research philosophy and grounded theory methodology were engaged to uncover culture change best practice from the perspective of newly appointed performance directors. Delivered in complex and contested settings, results revealed that the optimal change process consisted of an initial evaluation, planning, and impact phase adjoined to the immediate and enduring management of a multidirectional perception- and power-based social system. As the first inquiry of its kind, these findings provide a foundation for the continued theoretical development of culture change in Olympic sport performance teams and a first model on which applied practice can be based.

  9. The Cooperative Principle: Is Grice’s Theory Suitable to Indonesian Language Culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Herawati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Article discussed how native speakers of Indonesian observed Grice’s maxims. One hundred conversations contributed in live talk show from varied Indonesia television channels were analysed. The results show that Grice’s maxims are fulfilled in many conversations. Nevertheless, in other situations, two kinds of non-fulfilment of the maxims are observed. First, the speaker deliberately exploits a maxim, which is suitable to Grice’s theory. Second, the speaker fails to observe but does not exploit a maxim, which leads to some interpretations of the cultural patterns of the Indonesian language: communicative politeness, high context culture and the needs of harmony in communication that are considered as the manifesting of Indonesian culture.

  10. SubDyn User's Guide and Theory Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiani, Rick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jonkman, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hayman, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    SubDyn is a time-domain structural-dynamics module for multimember fixed-bottom substructures created by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) through U.S. Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Program support. The module has been coupled into the FAST aero-hydro-servo-elastic computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool. Substructure types supported by SubDyn include monopiles, tripods, jackets, and other lattice-type substructures common for offshore wind installations in shallow and transitional water depths. SubDyn can also be used to model lattice support structures for land-based wind turbines. This document is organized as follows. Section 1 details how to obtain the SubDyn and FAST software archives and run both the stand-alone SubDyn or SubDyn coupled to FAST. Section 2 describes the SubDyn input files. Section 3 discusses the output files generated by SubDyn; these include echo files, a summary file, and the results file. Section 4 provides modeling guidance when using SubDyn. The SubDyn theory is covered in Section 5. Section 6 outlines future work, and Section 7 contains a list of references. Example input files are shown in Appendixes A and B. A summary of available output channels are found in Appendix C. Instructions for compiling the stand-alone SubDyn program are detailed in Appendix D. Appendix E tracks the major changes we have made to SubDyn for each public release.

  11. Assimilating to Hierarchical Culture: A Grounded Theory Study on Communication among Clinical Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MinYoung; Oh, Seieun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a substantive model that accounts for the explanatory social processes of communication in which nurses were engaged in clinical settings in Korea. Grounded theory methodology was used in this study. A total of 15 clinical nurses participated in the in-depth interviews. "Assimilating to the hierarchical culture" emerged as the basic social process of communication in which the participants engaged in their work environments. To adapt to the cultures of their assigned wards, the nurses learned to be silent and engaged in their assimilation into the established hierarchy. The process of assimilation consisted of three phases based on the major goals that nurses worked to achieve: getting to know about unspoken rules, persevering within the culture, and acting as senior nurse. Seven strategies and actions utilized to achieve the major tasks emerged as subcategories, including receiving strong disapproval, learning by observing, going silent, finding out what is acceptable, minimizing distress, taking advantages as senior nurse, and taking responsibilities as senior nurse. The findings identified how the pattern of communication in nursing organizations affected the way in which nurses were assimilated into organizational culture, from individual nurses' perspectives. In order to improve the rigid working atmosphere and culture in nursing organizations and increase members' satisfaction with work and quality of life, managers and staff nurses need training that focuses on effective communication and encouraging peer opinion-sharing within horizontal relationships. Moreover, organization-level support should be provided to create an environment that encourages free expression.

  12. The Theory of Translation as a Condition of Chance for of Cultures Protection: The Case of Cultural Community Protocols in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Benini Agne Tybusch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The work aims to study the theory of translation of Boaventura de Sousa Santos and its application in crop protection. As well as examining the case of Community biocultural protocols in Colombia in search for alternative protection for traditional knowledge. The questions in this study were performed: A Theory of Translation Boaventura de Sousa Santos could be a condition of possibility for the protection of culture and traditional knowledge? And the biocultural community protocols could be an example of the theory of translation? To answer these research questions we used the combination of two methods: deductive and monographic. The first was used to guide the documentary and doctrinal research as it relates to globalization and culture. The monographic method was used for the second part, to address the translation theory of Boaventura de Sousa Santos and the case of bio-cultural Community Protocols in Colombia.

  13. Using critical race theory to analyze science teachers culturally responsive practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Tamara; Brand, Brenda R.

    2012-06-01

    Culturally responsive science teaching is using knowledge about the culture and life experiences of students to structure learning that is conducive to their needs. Understanding what teachers need to prepare them to be culturally responsive is a matter of continuous debate. As the focus of multicultural education ventures farther away from its roots, advocating the civil rights of historically oppressed groups, concerns about the gravity of racial inequity on schooling continues. How will this shift in focus influence teachers' capacity to accommodate students' needs resulting from racial inequities in this society, particularly African American students? What knowledge is essential to their effectiveness? This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of two effective middle school science teachers deemed culturally responsive by their administrator on the basis of classroom observations, students' responses and standardized assessment results. Both teachers' classrooms consisted primarily of African American students. Grounded theory was used to analyze the teachers' beliefs and practices in order to identify existing commonalties. Critical race theory was used to identify whether there was any influence of the students' racial identities on the teachers' beliefs and practices. The analysis reveals that the teachers' beliefs and practices were informed by their critical awareness of social constraints imposed upon their African American students' identities. These findings communicate the significance of sociocultural awareness to informing the teachers' instruction, as well as their strategies for managing the varying dynamics occurring in their classrooms. It can be deduced from the findings that an understanding of racial inequities is crucial to the development of sociocultural awareness, and is the foundation for the culturally responsive dispositions and practices of these middle school science teachers.

  14. Deconstructing dementia and delirium hospital practice: using cultural historical activity theory to inform education approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorczuk, Andrew; Mukaetova-Ladinska, Elizabeta; Corbett, Sally; Welfare, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Older patients with dementia and delirium receive suboptimal hospital care. Policy calls for more effective education to address this though there is little consensus on what this entails. The purpose of this clarification study is to explore how practice gaps are constructed in relation to managing the confused hospitalised older patient. The intent is to inform educational processes in the work-place beyond traditional approaches such as training. Adopting grounded theory as a research method and working within a social constructionist paradigm we explored the practice gaps of 15 healthcare professionals by interview and conducted five focus groups with patients, carers and Liaison mental health professionals. Data were thematically analysed by constant comparison and theoretical sampling was undertaken until saturation reached. Categories were identified and pragmatic concepts developed grounded within the data. Findings were then further analysed using cultural historical activity theory as a deductive lens. Practice gaps in relation to managing the confused older patient are determined by factors operating at individual (knowledge and skill gaps, personal philosophy, task based practice), team (leadership, time and ward environmental factors) and organisational (power relationships, dominance of medical model, fragmentation of care services) levels. Conceptually, practice appeared to be influenced by socio-cultural ward factors and compounded by a failure to join up existing "patient" knowledge amongst professionals. Applying cultural historical activity theory to further illuminate the findings, the central object is defined as learning about the patient and the mediating artifacts are the care relationships. The overarching medical dominance emerges as an important cultural historical factor at play and staff rules and divisions of labour are exposed. Lastly key contradictions and tensions in the system that work against learning about the patient are

  15. Cognitive Behavioral Theories Used to Explain Injection Risk Behavior among Injection Drug Users: A Review and Suggestions for the Integration of Cognitive and Environmental Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karla Dawn; Unger, Jennifer B.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for HIV and viral hepatitis, and risky injection behavior persists despite decades of intervention. Cognitive behavioral theories (CBTs) are commonly used to help understand risky injection behavior. The authors review findings from CBT-based studies of injection risk behavior among IDUs. An extensive…

  16. Can existing mobile apps support healthier food purchasing behaviour? Content analysis of nutrition content, behaviour change theory and user quality integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Sarah-Jane; McCarthy, Mary; Collins, Alan; McAuliffe, Fionnuala

    2018-02-01

    To assess the quality of nutrition content and the integration of user quality components and behaviour change theory relevant to food purchasing behaviour in a sample of existing mobile apps. Descriptive comparative analysis of eleven mobile apps comprising an assessment of their alignment with existing evidence on nutrition, behaviour change and user quality, and their potential ability to support healthier food purchasing behaviour. Mobile apps freely available for public use in GoogePlay were assessed and scored according to agreed criteria to assess nutrition content quality and integration of behaviour change theory and user quality components. A sample of eleven mobile apps that met predefined inclusion criteria to ensure relevance and good quality. The quality of the nutrition content varied. Improvements to the accuracy and appropriateness of nutrition content are needed to ensure mobile apps support a healthy behaviour change process and are accessible to a wider population. There appears to be a narrow focus towards behaviour change with an overemphasis on behavioural outcomes and a small number of behaviour change techniques, which may limit effectiveness. A significant effort from the user was required to use the mobile apps appropriately which may negatively influence user acceptability and subsequent utilisation. Existing mobile apps may offer a potentially effective approach to supporting healthier food purchasing behaviour but improvements in mobile app design are required to maximise their potential effectiveness. Engagement of mobile app users and nutrition professionals is recommended to support effective design.

  17. Children’s Self-Regulation in Cultural Contexts: The Role of Parental Socialization Theories, Goals, and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Jorge M.; Rendón, María I.; Muñoz, Lorena; Weis, Mirjam; Trommsdorff, Gisela

    2017-01-01

    Self-regulation is a complex multidimensional construct which has been approached mainly in Western cultural contexts. The present contribution examines the importance of considering the culture-sensitive nature of self-regulation by reviewing theory and research on the development of children’s self-regulation in different cultural contexts. This review of theory and research allows to suggest that widely shared values in a cultural group influence parental socialization theories, goals, and practices, which in turn have an impact on how children learn to self-regulate, the forms of self-regulation they develop, and the goals associated with self-regulation. Thus, this article concludes that more specific research is required to relate both the developmental and the cultural aspects of children’s self-regulation. PMID:28634460

  18. Users of withdrawal method in the Islamic Republic of Iran: are they intending to use oral contraceptives? Applying the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, P; Hidarnia, A; Shokravi, F A; Kazemnejad, A; Montazeri, A; Najorkolaei, F R; Saburi, A

    2013-09-01

    Many couples in the Islamic Republic of Iran rely on coital withdrawal for contraception. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to use the theory of planned behaviour to explore factors that influence withdrawal users' intent to switch to oral contraception (OC). Participants were 336 sexually active, married women, who were current users of withdrawal and were recruited from 5 public family planning clinics in Tehran. A questionnair included measures of the theory of planned behaviour: attitude (behavioural beliefs, outcome evaluations), subjective norms (normative beliefs, motivation to comply), perceived behaviour control, past behaviour and behavioural intention. Linear regression analyses showed that past behaviour, perceived behaviour control, attitude and subjective norms accounted for the highest percentage of total variance observed for intention to use OC (36%). Beliefs-based family planning education and counsellingshould to be designed for users of the withdrawal method.

  19. The paradoxes of gerotranscendence: The theory of gerotranscendence in a cultural gerontological and post-modernist perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Thorsen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  ABSTRACTThis article presents a theoretical analysis and discussion of the theory of gerotranscendence, formulatedby Lars Tornstam (University of Uppsala, Sweden. The theory is presented as a meta-theory ofageing, as a theory of universal and general ageing processes. Ageing is seen as an urge (a drivetowards a less engaged posititon in the wordly life, moving towards a higher degree of transcendence,with a more cosmic outlook and another definition of reality. In this article the theory is discussed fromanother theoretical position; Ageing seen in a cultural gerontological perspective, as a varied culturallyand historically situated phenomenon – differing in different times and different cultures. The theoreticalperspective underlines that ageing is complex dialectical processes, an intertwined interplay betweenindividual development and cultural change. The varied individual ageing processes are not seenas the result of «drives». In Western post-modern cultures the ageing processes are becoming manifold,often contradictory. Elderly present versions of the selves that are becoming complex, multiplied (multipleselves, acting at different scenes, stamped by varied cultural values, presenting mixed versions ofactivity and passivity, engagement and retractment, wordliness and transcendence.Key words:  Ageing theories; gerotranscendence; cultural gerontology; postmodernism

  20. Cultural Theory and Acceptance-Based Security Strategies for Humanitarian Aid Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam K. Childs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian aid agencies have relied primarily on acceptance as their primary risk, or security, management strategy for well over a decade. Evidence suggests, however, that this strategy has become ineffective, as the number of targeted attacks against humanitarian aid workers has been steadily increasing over the past two decades. Despite the urgency of the situation, aid agencies have struggled to effectively implement new strategies and still rely primarily on acceptance as a mitigating strategy. This article examines the limitations of acceptance as practiced by humanitarian aid agencies as a strategy against targeted attacks and the challenges in adopting new strategies. The article uses Cultural Theory to explain these limitations and challenges and concludes with recommendations based on that theory for a new approach to security strategies that takes into account the social milieu of both aid workers and their potential attackers.

  1. Intangible Knowledge. The Culture of Knowledge within Organisations from the Perspective of the Sociological Systems Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilia Stingl de Vasconcelos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge can get lost when workers leave the company, or it may be missed when new challenges emerge. Specific knowledge may be important for the value-added chain of an organization, and its inaccessibility could be a problem. The work on this paper seeks to juxtapose this problem with the concept of intangible knowledge. This concept is developed as an observation model for particular situations within organisations, in which specific, useful, knowledge is no longer available and is being missed. This paper considers a potentially useful way to deal with absence of such knowledge by using the social science approach. In addition to social systems theory, the communication and cultural science view was selected here to propose a new understanding of the function of knowledge as a communicational or cultural parameter within structures and meanings of a social system. This should facilitate a better perception of the actions and dynamics inside organizations regarding knowledge or the lack thereof.

  2. Activity Theory, Hybrid Experience Space Design and Cultural Heritage Communication at Lindholm Høje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mogens Fiil; Veirum, Niels Einar

    This paper deals with the questions of how to address the communication of cultural heritage in the post-industrialized societies of the globalized economy. The last two or three decades have radically changed the relationship between the individual and the national institutions, encompassing......, demands more from the visit to a museum. The authors are advocating an approach to this area based on the theoretical framework of Activity Theory, involving a reframing of the tool definition, pointing to the role of interactive digital technologies in a constructivist learning approach. Based...

  3. Care and cultural context of Lebanese Muslim immigrants: using Leininger's theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, L

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this ethnonursing study was to describe and analyze the meanings and experiences of care for Lebanese Muslims as influenced by cultural context in selected natural and community settings. Leininger's theory of Cultural Care Diversity and Universality served as the conceptualizing frame-work for the study. Research questions focused on discovering the meanings and experiences of care as influenced by world view, social structure, and cultural context in the hospital, clinic, and home. Ethno-nursing research methods were used with key and general informants in an urban US community. The majority of informants were new immigrants living less than 10 years in the US. Universal themes of care that were similar in the three contexts reflected care as a religious obligation in Islam, care as equal but different gender role responsibilities, and care as individual and collective meanings of honor. This article also presents findings related to gender role responsibilities. Nursing decisions and actions using Leininger's three modes were identified to achieve culturally congruent nursing care.

  4. Synthesis strategy: building a culturally sensitive mid-range theory of risk perception using literary, quantitative, and qualitative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaki, Leilani A; Loescher, Lois J; Trego, Lori L

    2013-03-01

    This article presents a discussion of development of a mid-range theory of risk perception. Unhealthy behaviours contribute to the development of health inequalities worldwide. The link between perceived risk and successful health behaviour change is inconclusive, particularly in vulnerable populations. This may be attributed to inattention to culture. The synthesis strategy of theory building guided the process using three methods: (1) a systematic review of literature published between 2000-2011 targeting perceived risk in vulnerable populations; (2) qualitative and (3) quantitative data from a study of Samoan Pacific Islanders at high risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Main concepts of this theory include risk attention, appraisal processes, cognition, and affect. Overarching these concepts is health-world view: cultural ways of knowing, beliefs, values, images, and ideas. This theory proposes the following: (1) risk attention varies based on knowledge of the health risk in the context of health-world views; (2) risk appraisals are influenced by affect, health-world views, cultural customs, and protocols that intersect with the health risk; (3) strength of cultural beliefs, values, and images (cultural identity) mediate risk attention and risk appraisal influencing the likelihood that persons will engage in health-promoting behaviours that may contradict cultural customs/protocols. Interventions guided by a culturally sensitive mid-range theory may improve behaviour-related health inequalities in vulnerable populations. The synthesis strategy is an intensive process for developing a culturally sensitive mid-range theory. Testing of the theory will ascertain its usefulness for reducing health inequalities in vulnerable groups. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Theory of Queer Identities: Representation in Contemporary East-European Art and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Kesić

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the general theory of identity, gender theory, queer theory and theory of bio/necropolitics, as theoretical platforms, in a few case studies I will analyze the Pride Parade as a form of manifestation of gender body and queer body representations in visual arts, and gender and queer body representations in mass media. My hypothesis is that the key for understanding the chosen case studies is in understanding the relation between their aesthetics, political and social interventions. This will consider political involvement, social injustice, alienation, stereotypes on which ideological manipulations are based etc., as well as the creative strategies used for moving the borders of visual art in searching for authentically-performed creative expressions and engagements. In the time we live it is necessary for the politicization of art to use queer tactics, which work as political strategies of subversion of every stable structure of power. Queer tactics, in my opinion, are weapons in disturbance of the stable social mechanisms, which every power tries to establish and perform over any ‘mass’, in order to transform it to race, gender, tribe, nation or class.   Article received: June 6, 2017; Article accepted: June 20, 2017; Published online: October 15, 2017; Original scholarly paper How to cite this article: Kesić, Saša. "Theory of Queer Identities: Representation in Contemporary East-European Art and Culture." AM Journal of Art and Media Studies 14 (2017: 123-131. doi: 10.25038/am.v0i14.211

  6. Assimilating to Hierarchical Culture: A Grounded Theory Study on Communication among Clinical Nurses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MinYoung Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to generate a substantive model that accounts for the explanatory social processes of communication in which nurses were engaged in clinical settings in Korea. Grounded theory methodology was used in this study. A total of 15 clinical nurses participated in the in-depth interviews. "Assimilating to the hierarchical culture" emerged as the basic social process of communication in which the participants engaged in their work environments. To adapt to the cultures of their assigned wards, the nurses learned to be silent and engaged in their assimilation into the established hierarchy. The process of assimilation consisted of three phases based on the major goals that nurses worked to achieve: getting to know about unspoken rules, persevering within the culture, and acting as senior nurse. Seven strategies and actions utilized to achieve the major tasks emerged as subcategories, including receiving strong disapproval, learning by observing, going silent, finding out what is acceptable, minimizing distress, taking advantages as senior nurse, and taking responsibilities as senior nurse. The findings identified how the pattern of communication in nursing organizations affected the way in which nurses were assimilated into organizational culture, from individual nurses' perspectives. In order to improve the rigid working atmosphere and culture in nursing organizations and increase members' satisfaction with work and quality of life, managers and staff nurses need training that focuses on effective communication and encouraging peer opinion-sharing within horizontal relationships. Moreover, organization-level support should be provided to create an environment that encourages free expression.

  7. Microfluidic on-chip biomimicry for 3D cell culture: a fit-for-purpose investigation from the end user standpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Gill, Elisabeth; Shery Huang, Yan Yan

    2017-06-01

    A plethora of 3D and microfluidics-based culture models have been demonstrated in the recent years with the ultimate aim to facilitate predictive in vitro models for pharmaceutical development. This article summarizes to date the progress in the microfluidics-based tissue culture models, including organ-on-a-chip and vasculature-on-a-chip. Specific focus is placed on addressing the question of what kinds of 3D culture and system complexities are deemed desirable by the biological and biomedical community. This question is addressed through analysis of a research survey to evaluate the potential use of microfluidic cell culture models among the end users. Our results showed a willingness to adopt 3D culture technology among biomedical researchers, although a significant gap still exists between the desired systems and existing 3D culture options. With these results, key challenges and future directions are highlighted.

  8. A model for translating ethnography and theory into culturally constructed clinical practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie Kaul; Schensul, Jean J; Schensul, Stephen L; Mekki-Berrada, Abelwahed; Pelto, Pertti J; Maitra, Shubhada; Verma, Ravi; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2015-03-01

    This article describes the development of a dynamic culturally constructed clinical practice model for HIV/STI prevention, the Narrative Intervention Model (NIM), and illustrates its application in practice, within the context of a 6-year transdisciplinary research program in Mumbai, India. Theory and research from anthropology, psychology, and public health, and mixed-method ethnographic research with practitioners, patients, and community members, contributed to the articulation of the NIM for HIV/STI risk reduction and prevention among married men living in low-income communities. The NIM involves a process of negotiation of patient narratives regarding their sexual health problems and related risk factors to facilitate risk reduction. The goal of the NIM is to facilitate cognitive-behavioral change through a three-stage process of co-construction (eliciting patient narrative), deconstruction (articulating discrepancies between current and desired narrative), and reconstruction (proposing alternative narratives that facilitate risk reduction). The NIM process extends the traditional clinical approach through the integration of biological, psychological, interpersonal, and cultural factors as depicted in the patient narrative. Our work demonstrates the use of a recursive integration of research and practice to address limitations of current evidence-based intervention approaches that fail to address the diversity of cultural constructions across populations and contexts.

  9. A Model for Translating Ethnography and Theory into Culturally Constructed Clinical Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schensul, Jean J.; Schensul, Stephen L.; Mekki-Berrada, Abelwahed; Pelto, Pertti J.; Maitra, Shubhada; Verma, Ravi; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development of a dynamic culturally constructed clinical practice model for HIV/STI prevention, the Narrative Intervention Model (NIM), and illustrates its application in practice, within the context of a 6-year transdisciplinary research program in Mumbai, India. Theory and research from anthropology, psychology, and public health, and mixed-method ethnographic research with practitioners, patients, and community members, contributed to the articulation of the NIM for HIV/STI risk reduction and prevention among married men living in low-income communities. The NIM involves a process of negotiation of patient narratives regarding their sexual health problems and related risk factors to facilitate risk reduction. The goal of the NIM is to facilitate cognitive-behavioral change through a three-stage process of co-construction (eliciting patient narrative), deconstruction (articulating discrepancies between current and desired narrative), and reconstruction (proposing alternative narratives that facilitate risk reduction). The NIM process extends the traditional clinical approach through the integration of biological, psychological, interpersonal, and cultural factors as depicted in the patient narrative. Our work demonstrates the use of a recursive integration of research and practice to address limitations of current evidence-based intervention approaches that fail to address the diversity of cultural constructions across populations and contexts. PMID:25292448

  10. Informatic system for a global tissue-fluid biorepository with a graph theory-oriented graphical user interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, William E; Atai, Nadia; Carter, Bob; Hochberg, Fred

    2014-01-01

    The Richard Floor Biorepository supports collaborative studies of extracellular vesicles (EVs) found in human fluids and tissue specimens. The current emphasis is on biomarkers for central nervous system neoplasms but its structure may serve as a template for collaborative EV translational studies in other fields. The informatic system provides specimen inventory tracking with bar codes assigned to specimens and containers and projects, is hosted on globalized cloud computing resources, and embeds a suite of shared documents, calendars, and video-conferencing features. Clinical data are recorded in relation to molecular EV attributes and may be tagged with terms drawn from a network of externally maintained ontologies thus offering expansion of the system as the field matures. We fashioned the graphical user interface (GUI) around a web-based data visualization package. This system is now in an early stage of deployment, mainly focused on specimen tracking and clinical, laboratory, and imaging data capture in support of studies to optimize detection and analysis of brain tumour-specific mutations. It currently includes 4,392 specimens drawn from 611 subjects, the majority with brain tumours. As EV science evolves, we plan biorepository changes which may reflect multi-institutional collaborations, proteomic interfaces, additional biofluids, changes in operating procedures and kits for specimen handling, novel procedures for detection of tumour-specific EVs, and for RNA extraction and changes in the taxonomy of EVs. We have used an ontology-driven data model and web-based architecture with a graph theory-driven GUI to accommodate and stimulate the semantic web of EV science.

  11. User-Generated Content, YouTube and Participatory Culture on the Web: Music Learning and Teaching in Two Contrasting Online Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Janice

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I draw on seminal literature from new media researchers to frame the broader implications that user-generated content (UGC), YouTube, and participatory culture have for music learning and teaching in online communities; to illustrate, I use examples from two contrasting online music communities, the Online Academy of Irish…

  12. Early user involvement and participation in employee self-service application deployment: theory and evidence from four Dutch governmental cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Koopman, G; Batenburg, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper theoretically and empirically addresses the notion that user participation and involvement is one of the important factors for IS success. Different models and studies are reviewed to define and classify types of early end-user involvement and participation. Next, five case studies are presented of Dutch governmental organizations (Ministries) that have recently deployed an employee self-service application. Based on interviews with developers, project managers and users it can be ...

  13. The Controversy Around Tomboy: the Aversion to Gender Theory in French Education and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Vilchez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the controversy around Céline Sciamma’s Tomboy (2011 and the concept of gender theory, this paper discusses a demonstration of various levels of aversion to gender theory in current French political discourses as represented in the media in relation to same-sex marriage, the family and state education. The social institution of the family—whose functions encompass marriage and the rearing of children—is often considered a foundational unit of the state and civil society. After the family, the institution of education continues lessons of belonging, history, culture and nationality. In France, Sciamma’s Tomboy repeatedly appeared in public debates related to gender theory, primary education and the family. In early 2014, parents received mobile text messages to participate in a collective action to keep their children out of school to protest curriculum which would allegedly teach gender theory and include Tomboy as part of the Ecole et Cinéma educational program. Former Minister of Education Vincent Peillon responded to this campaign by stating that the national school system is in no way teaching “gender theory”. This film is approached as a polemical and subversive work in which gender is represented and perceived as a construct and performative identity, challenging traditional institutions of gender logics and the institution of the family, and as a learning tool to discuss gender differences and questions of equality in school. Both Tomboy and gender theory are represented in manners that do not engage with either topics directly but instead push forward specific agendas of various political groups such as protection of family and programs of equality. This sense of aversion towards gender theory and works like Tomboy are a reaction to anxieties towards changing French national identity. Tomboy finds itself within these tensions in current French national identity through its representation of children, gender and

  14. Evaluating mobile learning practice. Towards a framework for analysis of user-generated contexts with reference to the socio-cultural ecology of mobile learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Seipold

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Against the conceptual and theoretical background of a socio-culturally orientated approach to mobile learning (Pachler, Bachmair and Cook, 2010, this paper examines the evaluation of user-generated contexts by referring to an example from the use of mobile phones in schools. We discuss how mobile device-related, user- generated contexts around structures, agency and cultural practices might be brought into a fruitful relationship with institution-based learning. And, we provide categories for evaluating the use of mobile devices to generate meaning from and with fragmented and discontinuous media and modes at the interface of learning in formal, institutionalised and informal, self-directed settings. The evaluation criteria build on the framework of a socio-cultural ecology of mobile learning developed by the London Mobile Learning Group.

  15. Early user involvement and participation in employee self-service application deployment: theory and evidence from four Dutch governmental cases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, G.; Batenburg, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper theoretically and empirically addresses the notion that user participation and involvement is one of the important factors for IS success. Different models and studies are reviewed to define and classify types of early end-user involvement and participation. Next, five case studies are

  16. Career Development for Youth with Disabilities in South Korea: The Intersection of Culture, Theory, and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jina Chun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Youth with disabilities face difficulties resulting from attitudinal, environmental, and organizational barriers not only in initially accessing and entering school (World Health Organization [WHO], 2011, but also as they transition from school age youth to working adults. With a focus on facilitating a better understanding of the issues, challenges, and solutions associated with the design and implementation of career development services for youth with disabilities, this article describes the status quo for students with disabilities in South Korea and then discusses career development services that potentially reduce variation, help facilitate optimal career development, and promote future employment opportunities. To accomplish this task, we explore the intersection of culture, theory, and policy in the Korean transition service delivery system.

  17. Cultural landscape in theory. 2nd Part: Development of truth – paths and goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Juvanec

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The city grows from the seed to the core. The historical core is the central part with historical significance, around which other programmes are aligned. Possibilities define growth and density of a city, but this is the source of problems. Growth is influenced by activities moving, changes in social and political life, but also important elements of culture and sports. Visibility, sometimes termed beauty, is only the external layer of the interior, the essence itself. A functioning village cannot be ugly. Fire, the fireplace, house, home, village, city (survival, needs and possibilities are closer to the circle and theory, than can be expected. Growth of architecture from the detail to spatial planning is the fruit of human balancing only in detail. Cities grow according to their own logic. The role of professions is therefore limited only to the establishment of strategies and controlling their growth. Things are much simpler, than we can imagine.

  18. The role of culture in accounting in the light of Hofstede's, Gray's and Schwartz's cultural dimensions theories: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Koleśnik, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    For a long time many authors have been studying the factors that allow for a better explanation of different accounting practices among various countries. Cultural conditions are more often regarded as one of the reasons for these differences. Cross cultural psychology may prove helpful in becoming aware of one’s own cultural identity. Researchers of this field try to systematise the traits characterising particular cultural circles. The objective of this article is to present three basic typ...

  19. The Contributions of Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Theory to Innovative Research and Practice Cultures in Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Harold Eugene; Sharkey, Caroline; Briggs, Adam Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors tie the emergence of an empirical practice research culture, which enabled the rise in evidence-based practice in social work to the introduction of applied behavior analysis and behavioral theory to social work practice and research. The authors chronicle the: (1) scientific foundations of social work, (2) influence and push by corporatized university cultures for higher scholarship productivity among faculty, (3) significance of theory in general, (4) importance of behavioral theory in particular as a major trigger of the growth in research on effective social work practice approaches, and (5) commonalities between applied behavior analysis and evidence-based practice. The authors conclude with implications for addressing the dual challenges of building an enhanced research culture in schools of social work and the scholarship of transferring practice research to adoption in real world practice settings.

  20. Organizational culture shapes the adoption and incorporation of simulation into nursing curricula: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplay, Karyn; Jack, Susan M; Baxter, Pamela; Eva, Kevin; Martin, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To create a substantive mid-range theory explaining how the organizational cultures of undergraduate nursing programs shape the adoption and incorporation of mid-to high-level technical fidelity simulators as a teaching strategy within curricula. Method. A constructivist grounded theory was used to guide this study which was conducted in Ontario, Canada, during 2011-12. Semistructured interviews (n = 43) with participants that included nursing administrators, nursing faculty, and simulation leaders across multiple programs (n = 13) informed this study. Additionally, key documents (n = 67) were reviewed. Purposeful and theoretical sampling was used and data were collected and analyzed simultaneously. Data were compared among and between sites. Findings. The organizational elements that shape simulation in nursing (OESSN) model depicts five key organizational factors at the nursing program level that shaped the adoption and incorporation of simulation: (1) leaders working in tandem, (2) information exchange, (3) physical locale, (4) shared motivators, and (5) scaffolding to manage change. Conclusions. The OESSN model provides an explanation of the organizational factors that contributed to the adoption and incorporation of simulation into nursing curricula. Nursing programs that use the OESSN model may experience a more rapid or broad uptake of simulation when organizational factors that impact adoption and incorporation are considered and planned for.

  1. The Australian Racism, Acceptance, and Cultural-Ethnocentrism Scale (RACES): item response theory findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Kaine; Manderson, Lenore

    2016-03-17

    Racism and associated discrimination are pervasive and persistent challenges with multiple cumulative deleterious effects contributing to inequities in various health outcomes. Globally, research over the past decade has shown consistent associations between racism and negative health concerns. Such research confirms that race endures as one of the strongest predictors of poor health. Due to the lack of validated Australian measures of racist attitudes, RACES (Racism, Acceptance, and Cultural-Ethnocentrism Scale) was developed. Here, we examine RACES' psychometric properties, including the latent structure, utilising Item Response Theory (IRT). Unidimensional and Multidimensional Rating Scale Model (RSM) Rasch analyses were utilised with 296 Victorian primary school students and 182 adolescents and 220 adults from the Australian community. RACES was demonstrated to be a robust 24-item three-dimensional scale of Accepting Attitudes (12 items), Racist Attitudes (8 items), and Ethnocentric Attitudes (4 items). RSM Rasch analyses provide strong support for the instrument as a robust measure of racist attitudes in the Australian context, and for the overall factorial and construct validity of RACES across primary school children, adolescents, and adults. RACES provides a reliable and valid measure that can be utilised across the lifespan to evaluate attitudes towards all racial, ethnic, cultural, and religious groups. A core function of RACES is to assess the effectiveness of interventions to reduce community levels of racism and in turn inequities in health outcomes within Australia.

  2. Surviving death-anxieties in liquid modern times: examining Zygmunt Bauman's cultural theory of death and dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higo, Masa

    2012-01-01

    Despite his prominence as a leading contemporary social theorist, Zygmunt Bauman's long-term writing on the cultural theory of death and dying has largely been overlooked in the sociological literature of death and dying, particularly in the United States. Bauman uniquely theorizes how we survive death-anxieties today: Contemporary, liquid modern culture has engaged us in ceaseless pursuit of the unattainable consumer sensation of bodily fitness as a way to suppress and thus survive our death-anxieties. Bauman also argues that the prevalence of this cultural formula to survive death-anxieties has simultaneously increased, more than ever before in social history, the volume of individual responsibility for restlessly coping with existential anxieties in the societies of consumers. While unique and insightful, his theoretical argument has a limitation; largely succeeding Freud's classic view of mortality, Bauman's contemporary theory may lead us to neglect potentially important social, cultural, and historical variations in how mortality has been understood.

  3. Justification theory for the analysis of the socio-cultural value of fish and fisheries: the case of Baltic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ignatius, Suvi; Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet

    2017-01-01

    are important for society, that is, be aware of the socio-cultural values that people associate with fisheries. In this paper, the justification theory of Boltanski and Thévenot is applied to material collected through a literature review to identify sociocultural values relating to Baltic salmon......, and the potential of the approach for fisheries governance is discussed. The analysis demonstrates that fish resources can have multiple meanings to society. Justification theory is found useful for identifying socio-cultural values related to fisheries, since it suggests shifting attention from opposing interests...

  4. The Theory of Industrial Society and Cultural Schemata: Does the "Cultural Myth of Stigma" Underlie the WHO Schizophrenia Paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescosolido, Bernice A; Martin, Jack K; Olafsdottir, Sigrun; Long, J Scott; Kafadar, Karen; Medina, Tait R

    2015-11-01

    The WHO's International Studies of Schizophrenia conclude that schizophrenia may have a more benign course in "developing" societies than in the West. The authors focus on this finding's most common corollary: cultural schemata are shaped by the transition from agrarian to industrial society. Developing societies are viewed as traditional, gemeinschaft cultures lacking the stigmatizing beliefs about persons with mental illness held in modern, gesellschaft cultures of developed societies. The Stigma in Global Context-Mental Health Study formalized the cultural myth of public stigma (CMPS) with propositions linking level of development to intolerant, exclusionary, and individualistic attitudes. In 17 countries, the authors find no support for the corollary; where support is found, the findings are opposite expectations, with developed societies reporting lower stigma levels. Reconceptualizing of the cultural landscape on more specific dimensions also produces null or contrary findings. This correction to nostalgic myths of cultural context in developing societies thwarts misguided treatment, policy, and stigma-reduction efforts.

  5. Interdisciplinary benefits of a theory of cultural evolution centered at the group-level: the emergence of macro-neuroeconomics and social evolutionary game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Tobias A

    2014-06-01

    The theoretical concepts developed in the target article, in which the author proposes a new paradigm of cultural evolution based not on the individuals' characteristics, but rather on more global collective properties described as "group-traits" (which emerge when a group of individuals exhibit both differentiation and organization), may have a broader scientific impact that transcend the boundaries of social and evolutionary psychology, paving the way for the emergence of macro-neuroeconomics and social evolutionary game theory.

  6. Advancing theory development: exploring the leadership-climate relationship as a mechanism of the implementation of cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G; Fenwick, Karissa; Kong, Yinfei

    2017-11-14

    Leadership style and specific organizational climates have emerged as critical mechanisms to implement targeted practices in organizations. Drawing from relevant theories, we propose that climate for implementation of cultural competence reflects how transformational leadership may enhance the organizational implementation of culturally responsive practices in health care organizations. Using multilevel data from 427 employees embedded in 112 addiction treatment programs collected in 2013, confirmatory factor analysis showed adequate fit statistics for our measure of climate for implementation of cultural competence (Cronbach's alpha = .88) and three outcomes: knowledge (Cronbach's alpha = .88), services (Cronbach's alpha = .86), and personnel (Cronbach's alpha = .86) practices. Results from multilevel path analyses indicate a positive relationship between employee perceptions of transformational leadership and climate for implementation of cultural competence (standardized indirect effect = .057, bootstrap p climate in the implementation of cultural competence in addiction health service organizations.

  7. An Evaluation of the Cross-Cultural Validity of Holland's Theory: Career Choices by Workers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T. L.; Austin, James T.; Sekaran, Uma; Komarraju, Meera

    1998-01-01

    Natives of India (n=172) completed Holland's Vocational Preference Inventory and job satisfaction measures. The inventory did not exhibit high external validity with this population. Congruence, consistency, and differentiation did not predict job or occupational satisfaction, suggesting cross-cultural limits on Holland's theory. (SK)

  8. Theory and Practice of Positive Feminist Therapy: A Culturally Responsive Approach to Divorce Therapy with Chinese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzou, Jean Yuh-Jin; Kim, Eunha; Waldheim, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Positive Feminist Therapy (PFT) is a strength-based culturally responsive therapy model specifically designed for helping Chinese women facing marital conflicts and divorce, integrating Empowerment Feminist Therapy, systems theory, and positive psychology. To help clients become change agents, PFT uses clients' existing strengths to develop…

  9. The Cross-cultural Generalizability of the Theory of Planned Behavior: a study on job seeking in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft (Edwin); M.Ph. Born (Marise); T.W. Taris (Toon); H. van der Flier (Henk)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the cross-cultural generalizability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as applied to job seeking, by comparing samples of native-Dutch and Turkish individuals in The Netherlands. Results supported the equivalence of the measures used. Moreover, the TPB

  10. Vygotsky in 21st Century Society: Advances in Cultural Historical Theory and Praxis with Non-Dominant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, Pedro R., Ed.; Salas, Spencer, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Vygotsky in Twenty-first Century Society" is an ensemble of novel perspectives about the legacy of Lev Vygotsky and Alexander Luria. The book illustrates how well the legacy of their work is being applied and continued in contemporary research, and how cultural historical theory has been constructed and re-constructed. Together, these collected…

  11. Theory of Mind Development in Chinese Children: A Meta-Analysis of False-Belief Understanding across Cultures and Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, David; Wellman, Henry M.; Tardif, Twila; Sabbagh, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Theory of mind is claimed to develop universally among humans across cultures with vastly different folk psychologies. However, in the attempt to test and confirm a claim of universality, individual studies have been limited by small sample sizes, sample specificities, and an overwhelming focus on Anglo-European children. The current meta-analysis…

  12. A Cultural Insight into the Development of Teacher Autonomy Support Scale: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang-Hashim, Rosna; Thaliah, Rajaletchumi; Kaur, Amrita

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The cross-cultural significance of autonomy within self-determination theory is divisive on universal significance. This paper aims to report a sequential exploratory mixed methods study conducted to construct and validate a scale to investigate how, in Malaysian context, the construct of autonomy is conceptualized in comparison with the…

  13. Relational-Cultural Theory as a Framework for Mentoring in Academia: Toward Diversity and Growth-Fostering Collaborative Scholarly Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Consuella; Olshansky, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Mentoring in academia that encourages collaboration and interpersonal relationships is important in helping newer faculty members attain success. Developing such programs is challenging within our prevailing academic context that rewards competition and individually delineated success. We propose that Relational Cultural Theory, a feminist…

  14. Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Relational Competencies and Movement in Group Work with Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kristi B.; Hammer, Tonya R.; Reicherzer, Stacee; Gilliam, Billie J.

    2012-01-01

    Relational-cultural theory (RCT) is an evolving feminist model of human development that places emphasis on growth-fostering relationships as building blocks for wellness. This article demonstrates the use of RCT in addressing relational aggression, including cyberbullying, in counseling a group of adolescent girls. The group counselor's…

  15. Analysis of sensitive questions across cultures : An application of multigroup item randomized response theory to sexual attitudes and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.G.; Pieters, R.; Stremersch, S.

    2012-01-01

    Answers to sensitive questions are prone to social desirability bias. If not properly addressed, the validity of the research can be suspect. This article presents multigroup item randomized response theory (MIRRT) to measure self-reported sensitive topics across cultures. The method was

  16. Exploring the Relationship of Organizational Culture and Implicit Leadership Theory to Performance Differences in the Nuclear and Fossil Energy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravey, Kristopher J.

    Notable performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil power generation plants in areas such as safety, outage duration efficiency, and capacity factor. This study explored the relationship of organizational culture and implicit leadership theory to these performance differences. A mixed methods approach consisting of quantitative instruments, namely the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument and the GLOBE Leadership Scales, and qualitative interviews were used in this study. Subjects were operations middle managers in a U.S. energy company that serves nuclear or fossil power plants. Results from the quantitative instruments revealed no differences between nuclear and fossil groups in regards to organizational culture types and implicit leadership theories. However, the qualitative results did reveal divergence between the two groups in regards to what is valued in the organization and how that drives behaviors and decision making. These organizational phenomenological differences seem to explain why performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil plants because, ultimately, they affect how the organization functions.

  17. NOTES ON THE APPLICATION OF THE THEORY AND PRAXIS TRAINING CURRICULUM FOR COMMUNICATION AND CULTURE OF PEACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Belandria Cerdeira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to present theoretical considerations on the application of the Theory and Praxis Training Curriculum for Communication and Culture of Peace. The theoretical study is descriptive and documentary. In the first stage were analyzed and discussed theoretical material related to the category of analysis. In a second stage developed a series of notes and reflective-critical comments, which point to consider hybrid forms of theories when designing curricular training in Communication and Culture of Peace. In conclusion, we feel the need to open the Multidisciplinary discussion on the subject, where the curriculum, the humanistic, existential communicational and bring new ways of learning, being, doing, living together, but above all to communicate, in order to take a step to build a communicative culture.

  18. Liminality in cultural transition: applying ID-EA to advance a concept into theory-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Martha B; Reed, Pamela G

    2015-01-01

    As global migration increases worldwide, nursing interventions are needed to address the effects of migration on health. The concept of liminality emerged as a pivotal concept in the situation-specific theory of well-being in refugee women experiencing cultural transition. As a relatively new concept in the discipline of nursing, liminality is explored using a method, called ID-EA, which we developed to advance a theoretical concept for application to nursing practice. Liminality in the context of cultural transition is further developed using the five steps of inquiry of the ID-EA method. The five steps are as follows: (1) inductive inquiry: qualitative research, (2) deductive inquiry: literature review, (3) synthesis of inductive and deductive inquiry, (4) evaluation inquiry, and (5) application-to-practice inquiry. The overall goal of this particular work was to develop situation-specific, theory-based interventions that facilitate cultural transitions for immigrants and refugees.

  19. Teachers' instructional goals for science practice: Identifying knowledge gaps using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Cynthia Hamen

    In AP Biology, the course goal, with respect to scientific acts and reasoning, has recently shifted toward a reform goal of science practice, where the goal is for students to have a scientific perspective that views science as a practice of a community rather than a body of knowledge. Given this recent shift, this study is interested in the gaps that may exist between an individual teacher's instructional goal and the goals of the AP Biology course. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) methodology and perspective is used to analyze four teachers' knowledge, practice, and learning. Teachers have content knowledge for teaching, a form of knowledge that is unique for teaching called specialized content knowledge. This specialized content knowledge (SCK) defines their instructional goals, the student outcomes they ultimately aim to achieve with their students. The study employs a cultural-historical continuum of scientific acts and reasoning, which represents the development of the AP Biology goal over time, to study gaps in their instructional goal. The study also analyzes the contradictions within their teaching practice and how teachers address those contradictions to shift their instructional practice and learn. The findings suggest that teachers have different interpretations of the AP Biology goals of science practice, placing their instructional goal at different points along the continuum. Based on the location of their instructional goal, different micro-communities of teachers exist along the continuum, comprised of teachers with a shared goal, language, and culture of their AP Biology teaching. The in-depth study of one teacher's AP Biology teaching, using a CHAT perspective, provides a means for studying the mechanisms that connect SCK to classroom actions and ultimately to instructional practice. CHAT also reveals the nature and importance of contradictions or cognitive dissonance in teacher learning and the types of support teachers need to

  20. The "New Institutionalism" in Organization Theory: Bringing Society and Culture Back in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senge, Konstanze

    2013-01-01

    This investigation will discuss the emergence of an economistical perspective among the dominant approaches of organization theory in the United States since the inception of "organization studies" as an academic discipline. It maintains that Contingency theory, Resource Dependency theory, Population Ecology theory, and Transaction Cost theory…

  1. NARRATIVE OF CULTURAL HERITAGE: THEORY AND PRACTICE – CHURCH OF ST. NIKOLA IN PRISTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Pavličić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the context in which the subject of past achieves a particular communication, is inter-preted and used, the value of this subject is changed. The object polysemy is causing this so we are always challenged to rethink the phenomenon of heritage. At that point we are in the domain of explanation, and that mean in story, narrative. But what kind of story? If we know that images of past are product of selective forgetting and active process of remembering, and are part of narrative time concept through whom we read and examine heritage object, than the story that we make about that object is not strictly linear, it breaks rigid chronology, and creates a plot that combines elements of temporal experience. The case study of this theory and focus of this paper is 19th century church of St. Nikola in Pristina. We are following the life and mean-ing of this object in the old city center through the period of existence and ideas that enriched it. The aim is to recognize and discuss place of the church in the cultural memory of town, and opposite

  2. Advancing theory development: exploring the leadership–climate relationship as a mechanism of the implementation of cultural competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick G. Guerrero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leadership style and specific organizational climates have emerged as critical mechanisms to implement targeted practices in organizations. Drawing from relevant theories, we propose that climate for implementation of cultural competence reflects how transformational leadership may enhance the organizational implementation of culturally responsive practices in health care organizations. Methods Using multilevel data from 427 employees embedded in 112 addiction treatment programs collected in 2013, confirmatory factor analysis showed adequate fit statistics for our measure of climate for implementation of cultural competence (Cronbach’s alpha = .88 and three outcomes: knowledge (Cronbach’s alpha = .88, services (Cronbach’s alpha = .86, and personnel (Cronbach’s alpha = .86 practices. Results Results from multilevel path analyses indicate a positive relationship between employee perceptions of transformational leadership and climate for implementation of cultural competence (standardized indirect effect = .057, bootstrap p < .001. We also found a positive indirect effect between transformational leadership and each of the culturally competent practices: knowledge (standardized indirect effect = .006, bootstrap p = .004, services (standardized indirect effect = .019, bootstrap p < .001, and personnel (standardized indirect effect = .014, bootstrap p = .005. Conclusions Findings contribute to implementation science. They build on leadership theory and offer evidence of the mediating role of climate in the implementation of cultural competence in addiction health service organizations.

  3. Restructuring Hong Kong's Schools: The Applicability of Western Theories, Policies, and Practices to an Asian Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Clive

    1998-01-01

    Explores the appropriateness and synchrony between educational policy reforms imported into Hong Kong and central features of the host culture. Draws upon Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions to provide a framework for identifying and matching Hong Kong's culture in juxtaposition with other cultures. Despite powerful Western influences, Hong Kong…

  4. Virtualizing the Word: Expanding Walter Ong's Theory of Orality and Literacy through a Culture of Virtuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jennifer Camille

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to create a vision for virtuality culture through a theoretical expansion of Walter Ong's literacy and orality culture model. It investigates the ubiquitous and multimodal nature of the virtuality cultural phenomenon that is mediated by contemporary technology and not explained by pre-existing cultural conventions. Through…

  5. Cultural Attunement in Therapy With Mexican-Heritage Couples: A Grounded Theory Analysis of Client and Therapist Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias-Juarez, Marco A; Knudson-Martin, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for culturally attuned approaches for couple therapy with Mexican/Mexican-Americans. This qualitative grounded theory study utilized interviews with 11 client couples of Mexican heritage and 14 marital and family therapists to shed light on how Latino and non-Latino therapists co-construct positive experiences of cultural attunement with Mexican and Mexican-American couple clients. Analysis identified a model of cultural connection through personal engagement with four interrelated phases: (a) mutual invitation, (b) shared engagement, (c) expanding personal connection, and (d) creating cultural connections. Clients in this study valued professionalism and expertise of the therapist, but felt attuned to and respected when therapists demonstrated humility, shared personal stories and emotion, and engaged in a collaborative process. © 2016 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  6. Bioethics, cultural differences and the problem of moral disagreements in end-of-life care: a terror management theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane

    2012-04-01

    Cultural differences in end-of-life care and the moral disagreements these sometimes give rise to have been well documented. Even so, cultural considerations relevant to end-of-life care remain poorly understood, poorly guided, and poorly resourced in health care domains. Although there has been a strong emphasis in recent years on making policy commitments to patient-centred care and respecting patient choices, persons whose minority cultural worldviews do not fit with the worldviews supported by the conventional principles of western bioethics face a perpetual struggle in getting their care needs met in a meaningful, safe, and healing way. In this essay, attention is given to exploring why cultural differences exist, why they matter, and how health care providers should treat them in order to reduce the incidence and impact of otherwise preventable harmful moral outcomes in end-of-life care. In addressing these questions, a novel application of the renowned terror management theory will be made.

  7. A Paranoid Style? : The JFK Assassination and the Politics and Culture of Conspiracy Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Broadbent, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This thesis analyses the phenomenon of conspiracy theory, using the assassination of President John F. Kennedy as a case study. Doubt is the root cause of conspiracy theory, stemming from both the innate biases all humans exhibit, and a traumatic experience – in this case the assassination of JFK. This thesis argues that conspiracy theories are created and take hold because of a predisposition toward conspiracy theory, a misinterpretation of a central piece of evidence, such as...

  8. Service user views of spiritual and pastoral care (chaplaincy) in NHS mental health services: a co-produced constructivist grounded theory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffay, Julian; Wood, Emily; Todd, Andrew

    2016-06-17

    Within the UK National Health Service (NHS), Spiritual and Pastoral Care (SPC) Services (chaplaincies) have not traditionally embraced research due to the intangible nature of their work. However, small teams like SPC can lead the way towards services across the NHS becoming patient- centred and patient-led. Using co-production principles within research can ensure it, and the resulting services, are truly patient-led. A series of interviews were conducted with service users across directorates of a large NHS mental health Trust. Their views on the quality of SPC services and desired changes were elicited. Grounded theory was used with a constant comparative approach to the interviews and analysis. Initial analysis explored views on spirituality and religion in health. Participants' concerns included what chaplains should do, who they should see, and how soon after admission. Theoretical analysis suggested incorporating an overarching spiritual element into the bio-psycho-social model of mental healthcare. Service users' spirituality should not be sidelined. To service users with strong spiritual beliefs, supporting their spiritual resilience is central to their care and well-being. Failure will lead to non-holistic care unlikely to engage or motivate.

  9. Beyond the Player: A User-Centered Approach to Analyzing Digital Games and Players Using Actor-Network Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Aaron Chia Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The paper uses actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the sociotechnical networks of three groups of adolescents who played online games in different physical and social contexts. These include: an internet café, which allowed the players to be co-present; a personal laptop, which gave the player more control over how he played; and at home through…

  10. African American Identity and a Theory for Primary Cultural Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael K.; Columbus, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    This article is on the strange confluence of culture, identity, learning, and systemic design. We argue that the work of instructional design is, essentially, work on culture and identity. A person's culture and identity fully and inextricably situate their thought, action, and interaction. For this reason, this inherent situatedness of culture…

  11. Revisiting a Theory-Supported Approach to Teaching Cross-Cultural Management Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizoo, Steve; Serrie, Hendrick; Shapero, Morris

    2007-01-01

    Cross-cultural skills are a major criterion for success in the global business environment. For American managers in multinational organizations, this means learning to manage cultural difference at three levels: self, interpersonal, and organizational. Since literature indicates that training programs based on cross-cultural and learning theories…

  12. Conceptual Diversity, Moderators, and Theoretical Issues in Quantitative Studies of Cultural Capital Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cheng Yong

    2017-01-01

    The present study reviewed quantitative empirical studies examining the relationship between cultural capital and student achievement. Results showed that researchers had conceptualized and measured cultural capital in different ways. It is argued that the more holistic understanding of the construct beyond highbrow cultural consumption must be…

  13. Community Recovery Following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Toward A Theory of Cultural Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Hannah E; Mayer, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Culture plays an important role in communities' abilities to adapt to environmental change and crises. The emerging field of resilience thinking has made several efforts to better integrate social and cultural factors into the systems-level approach to understanding socialecological resilience. However, attempts to integrate culture into structural models often fail to account for the agentic processes that influence recovery at the individual and community levels, overshadowing the potential for agency and variation in community response. Using empirical data on the 2010 BP oil spill's impact on a small, natural resource-dependent community, we propose an alternative approach emphasizing culture's ability to operate as a resource that contributes to social, or community, resilience. We refer to this more explicit articulation of culture's role in resilience as cultural resilience. Our findings reveal that not all cultural resources that define resilience in reference to certain disasters provided successful mitigation, adaptation, or recovery from the BP spill.

  14. A critical analysis of the implementation of service user involvement in primary care research and health service development using normalization process theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Edel; McEvoy, Rachel; O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary; de Brún, Tomas; Okonkwo, Ekaterina; Rooney, Michelle; Dowrick, Chris; Rogers, Anne; MacFarlane, Anne

    2016-06-01

    There have been recent important advances in conceptualizing and operationalizing involvement in health research and health-care service development. However, problems persist in the field that impact on the scope for meaningful involvement to become a routine - normalized - way of working in primary care. In this review, we focus on current practice to critically interrogate factors known to be relevant for normalization - definition, enrolment, enactment and appraisal. Ours was a multidisciplinary, interagency team, with community representation. We searched EBSCO host for papers from 2007 to 2011 and engaged in an iterative, reflexive approach to sampling, appraising and analysing the literature following the principles of a critical interpretive synthesis approach and using Normalization Process Theory. Twenty-six papers were chosen from 289 papers, as a purposeful sample of work that is reported as service user involvement in the field. Few papers provided a clear working definition of service user involvement. The dominant identified rationale for enrolling service users in primary care projects was linked with policy imperatives for co-governance and emancipatory ideals. The majority of methodologies employed were standard health services research methods that do not qualify as research with service users. This indicates a lack of congruence between the stated aims and methods. Most studies only reported positive outcomes, raising questions about the balance or completeness of the published appraisals. To improve normalization of meaningful involvement in primary care, it is necessary to encourage explicit reporting of definitions, methodological innovation to enhance co-governance and dissemination of research processes and findings. © 2014 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Designing 3ERP to meet use and users - methods to handle cultural diversity and collaborative networking in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Nielsen, Janni

    2007-01-01

    The purpose is to describe a project the aim of which is to develop and validate the scientific methodological foundation for design of user friendly and usable, flexible and configurable global Enterprise Resource Planning system for Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs) which are adoptable...

  16. A Cross-Cultural Usability Study on the Internationalization of User Interfaces Based on an Empirical Five Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Joyram

    2009-01-01

    With the internationalization of e-commerce, it is no longer viable to design one user interface for all environments. Web-based applications and services can be accessed from all over the globe. To account for this globalization process, software developers need to understand that simply accounting for language translation of their websites for…

  17. Cultural Competence in the Treatment of Addictions: Theory, Practice and Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M

    2017-07-01

    Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) populations often have high rates of addictive disorders, but lower rates of treatment seeking and completion than the mainstream population. A significant barrier to treatment is the lack of culturally relevant and appropriate treatment. A literature review was conducted to identify relevant literature related to cultural competence in mental health services delivery and specifically treatment for addictive disorders. Several theoretical models of cultural competence in therapy have been developed, but the lack of rigorous research limits the empirical evidence available. Research indicates that culturally competent treatment practices including providing therapy and materials in the client's language, knowledge, understanding and appreciation for cultural perspectives and nuances, involving the wider family and community and training therapists can enhance client engagement, retention and treatment outcomes for substance use and gambling. Further methodologically rigorous research is needed to isolate the impact of cultural competence for the treatment of addictions and guide research to determine treatment efficacy within specific CALD populations. Training therapists and recruiting therapists and researchers from CALD communities is important to ensure an ongoing focus and improved outcomes for CALD populations due to the importance of engaging these populations with addiction treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: The treatment needs of culturally diverse individuals with addictions are often not met. Theoretical models can guide therapists in incorporating cultural competence. Culturally targeted treatments increase recruitment, retention and treatment outcomes. Cultural competence includes matching clinicians and clients on linguistic and cultural backgrounds as well as being mindful of the impact of culture on client's experience of addiction problems. Few methodologically

  18. Intercultural Peers’ effect on Social Identity of Social Media Users:A Critical Study of Consumer Socialization Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Khajeheian, Datis

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the effect of social media peers on the social identity of consumers. The critical perspective of this research is based on the consumer socialization theory research framework. This framework consists of three levels - the global, national and local peers - and their impact on two constructs, namely the global and local social identity. Adopting the ethnographic approach and a complementary phase of interviews, this study explores the influence of social media peer...

  19. Narrated Political Theory: Theorizing Pop Culture in Dietmar Dath’s Novel Für immer in Honig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Spitaler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, debates on the relationship between pop culture and the political have transgressed academia and have even been prominent in pop (media discourses and texts, including pop literature. Amongst the contributions at the inter-section of art, theory and entertainment are the novels and essays by the German author Dietmar Dath. Taking the example of his novel Für immer in Honig (Berlin 2005/2008, it will be discussed how the book reloads and theorizes pop culture, and how a common cultural-theoretical narrative of de-politicized pop is challenged by the imaginative narratives of the novel. It will be argued that Dath’s references to affective ‘mattering maps’ of pop culture, that on the one hand tend to fall into the pitfalls of exclusive ‘pop sophis-tication’, nevertheless play a key role for his aesthetical/theoretical project of political emancipation, and that these references can be viewed as examples of why popular passions matter for the formation of political identities/subjectivities as well as for the production and reading of political theory.

  20. Using cultural-historical activity theory to analyze social service practices evolving from the Norwegian HUSK projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The HUSK projects catalyzed innovation in the practices of providing social services that could yield useful insights both within and outside of Norway if analyzed in these two ways: (a) retrospective analysis of the development of individual HUSK projects in light of their cultural-historical contexts, and (b) comparative analysis of the efforts to advance multi-sector collaboration in some of the HUSK projects. Such analyses require a practice-based research approach that takes into account culture and history. In this article the author explains how cultural-historical activity theory provides such an approach, illustrated via several HUSK cases. The author suggests five questions for future analyses of the HUSK projects and argues that insights gleaned from such analyses could contribute significantly to research on-and the provision of-social services.

  1. PATH OF PREPARATION OF EDUCATIONAL PROPOSAL FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION IN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN VIEW OF BAURU THEORY PEDAGOGY OF HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL THEORY AND HISTORICAL-CULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Castro Alves Corrêa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present the trajectory deployment of historical-critical pedagogy and cultural-historical theory in the Early Childhood Education from Municipal System of Education of Bauru and emphasize the process of formulating a new Pedagogical proposal anchored in the Marxist perspective, discussing the progress and difficulties encountered in the preparation of this document to ensure the principles of this concept in the theoretical and practical education of the collective. Therefore, it was necessary to recover the memory of the work at this stage of education since its implementation in the city, because it is understood that to investigate the educational past is possible to understand the theoretical position adopted for the realization of the formal character of the school children assumes within this pedagogy. For the organization of the study , we chose an experience report , for better suit the purposes of this paper and allow to know the variables that contributed to the choice of the historical-critical pedagogy and cultural-historical theory as a theoretical unit privileged to teach the child zero to five years.

  2. An examination of cue redundancy theory in cross-cultural decoding of emotions in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwoun, Soo-Jin

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of structural features of music (i.e., variations in tempo, loudness, or articulation, etc.) and cultural and learning factors in the assignments of emotional meaning in music. Four participant groups, young Koreans, young Americans, older Koreans, and older Americans, rated emotional expressions of Korean folksongs with three adjective scales: happiness, sadness and anger. The results of the study are in accordance with the Cue Redundancy model of emotional perception in music, indicating that expressive music embodies both universal auditory cues that communicate the emotional meanings of music across cultures and cultural specific cues that result from cultural convention.

  3. Analysis of Search Engines and Meta Search Engines\\\\\\' Position by University of Isfahan Users Based on Rogers\\\\\\' Diffusion of Innovation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Akbari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the analysis of search engines and meta search engines adoption process by University of Isfahan users during 2009-2010 based on the Rogers' diffusion of innovation theory. The main aim of the research was to study the rate of adoption and recognizing the potentials and effective tools in search engines and meta search engines adoption among University of Isfahan users. The research method was descriptive survey study. The cases of the study were all of the post graduate students of the University of Isfahan. 351 students were selected as the sample and categorized by a stratified random sampling method. Questionnaire was used for collecting data. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS 16 in both descriptive and analytic statistic. For descriptive statistic frequency, percentage and mean were used, while for analytic statistic t-test and Kruskal-Wallis non parametric test (H-test were used. The finding of t-test and Kruscal-Wallis indicated that the mean of search engines and meta search engines adoption did not show statistical differences gender, level of education and the faculty. Special search engines adoption process was different in terms of gender but not in terms of the level of education and the faculty. Other results of the research indicated that among general search engines, Google had the most adoption rate. In addition, among the special search engines, Google Scholar and among the meta search engines Mamma had the most adopting rate. Findings also showed that friends played an important role on how students adopted general search engines while professors had important role on how students adopted special search engines and meta search engines. Moreover, results showed that the place where students got the most acquaintance with search engines and meta search engines was in the university. The finding showed that the curve of adoption rate was not normal and it was not also in S-shape. Morover

  4. [Colors and their meaning in culture and psychology--a historical outline and contemporary status of color vision theories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Lewicka, Romana; Torlińska, Teresa; Stelcer, Bogusław

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of color perception has intrigued scholars from antiquity. However, the understanding of this phenomena only came with the recognition of the nature of light and visual perception. Ancient concepts, present in science until the Renaissance, were based more on philosophical considerations and theoretical speculations than on anatomical studies and a matter-of-fact assessment of physiological functions of the visual system. From antiquity to 17th century scientific approach to the concept of vision was dominated by two theories: intromission and extramission (emanation). Intromission theory, propagated by Alhazen (lbn al.-Haythama), Vitello, John Peckham, Roger Bacon and Leonardo da Vinci, assumed that the light was transmitted from the observed object perpendicularly to the transparent eye structures. Johannes Kepler was the first scholar to propose that the retina was the receptive part of the eye. In the first half of the 17th century, Kepler's groundbreaking optical achievements and anatomical discoveries of many other scientists cast new light on the understanding of the role of different eye structures, finally wiping out the intromission theory. A further major achievement contributing to the recognition of the true nature of colors was a theory presented by Newton in 1688. He argued that they were colored rays, and not white light, that were composed of homogenous and pure light. It was, however, not until the 19th century when two modern theories of color appeared, i.e. a trichromatic theory mostly associated with the names of Young and Hemlholtz, and an opponent colors theory of Hering. In the 20th century, the two theories--previously assumed as contradictory--were joined into the zone theories of color vision. Colors have their cultural and social meanings, as far as a very individual and personal interpretation. In the former function they are used to illustrate some cultural and sociological phenomena; in the latter, they are helpful in

  5. Protocol: A grounded theory of ‘recovery’—perspectives of adolescent users of mental health services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Lucianne; Patterson, Sue; O'Donovan, Analise; Bradley, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Policies internationally endorse the recovery paradigm as the appropriate foundation for youth mental health services. However, given that this paradigm is grounded in the views of adults with severe mental illness, applicability to youth services and relevance to young people is uncertain, particularly as little is known about young people’s views. A comprehensive understanding of the experiences and expectations of young people is critical to developing youth mental health services that are acceptable, accessible, effective and relevant. Aim To inform development of policy and youth services, the study described in this protocol aims to develop a comprehensive account of the experiences and expectations of 12–17 year olds as they encounter mental disorders and transition through specialist mental health services. Data will be analysed to model recovery from the adolescents’ perspective. Method and analysis This grounded theory study will use quantitative and qualitative data collected in interviews with 12–17 year olds engaged with specialist Child/Youth Mental Health Service in Queensland, Australia. Interviews will explore adolescents’ expectations and experiences of mental disorder, and of services, as they transition through specialist mental health services, including the meaning of their experiences and ideas of ‘recovery’ and how their experiences and expectations are shaped. Data collection and analysis will use grounded theory methods. Ethics and dissemination Adolescents’ experiences will be presented as a mid-range theory. The research will provide tangible recommendations for youth-focused mental health policy and practice. Findings will be disseminated within academic literature and beyond to participants, health professionals, mental health advocacy groups and policy and decision makers via publications, research summaries, conferences and workshops targeting different audiences. Ethical and research governance approvals

  6. An ethnotaxonomic classification of cultural thought among internet porn users, interpreted in the context of Japanese animated pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Milica N. Vučurović

    2016-01-01

    The simple drawing style of Japanese animated pornography (hentai) and the incomplete messages transmitted through the handling short video clips instead of complete pornographic films or series on the Internet create a space in which users can reinterpret the content themselves and assign it meanings different to those originally intended by anime creators, the subculture or suggested by researchers. Based on the porn categories specific to the hentai genre, and keeping in mind the context a...

  7. An ethnotaxonomic classification of cultural thought among internet porn users, interpreted in the context of Japanese animated pornography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica N. Vučurović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The simple drawing style of Japanese animated pornography (hentai and the incomplete messages transmitted through the handling short video clips instead of complete pornographic films or series on the Internet create a space in which users can reinterpret the content themselves and assign it meanings different to those originally intended by anime creators, the subculture or suggested by researchers. Based on the porn categories specific to the hentai genre, and keeping in mind the context and content of complete animated Japanese pornographic films, and the attitudes of their users, I will analyze the perspectives of users of short videos of both animated and feature porn on the internet. Through the use of an ethnotaxonomic approach, cognitive schemes and relations between categories have been uncovered. The self-reliance and distance of “alternative” subcultures represented through masturbation, sexual inferiority due to hypermasculine messages conveyed by big black penises as well as violence which does not allow the victim passive regression represented through the abuse of a teenage girl who is supposedly 18 years old, represent messages which correspond with the yaoi, tentacle rape and lolicon subgenres, as well as a subjective perspective in which any user behavior on the internet is legitimate, because of the users’ view that society doesn’t protect them, but protects those who supposedly do not deserve it. The oppressive force and villain of hentai narratives in pornographic feature films is the hyper-passivity of (not allowing instant gratification, which aligns with the value assigned to the speed and availability of information in the “virtual” field.

  8. Testing a theory of organizational culture, climate and youth outcomes in child welfare systems: a United States national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathaniel J; Glisson, Charles

    2014-04-01

    Theories of organizational culture and climate (OCC) applied to child welfare systems hypothesize that strategic dimensions of organizational culture influence organizational climate and that OCC explains system variance in youth outcomes. This study provides the first structural test of the direct and indirect effects of culture and climate on youth outcomes in a national sample of child welfare systems and isolates specific culture and climate dimensions most associated with youth outcomes. The study applies multilevel path analysis (ML-PA) to a U.S. nationwide sample of 2,380 youth in 73 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Youths were selected in a national, two-stage, stratified random sample design. Youths' psychosocial functioning was assessed by caregivers' responses to the Child Behavior Checklist at intake and at 18-month follow-up. OCC was assessed by front-line caseworkers' (N=1,740) aggregated responses to the Organizational Social Context measure. Comparison of the a priori and subsequent trimmed models confirmed a reduced model that excluded rigid organizational culture and explained 70% of the system variance in youth outcomes. Controlling for youth- and system-level covariates, systems with more proficient and less resistant organizational cultures exhibited more functional, more engaged, and less stressful climates. Systems with more proficient cultures and more engaged, more functional, and more stressful climates exhibited superior youth outcomes. Findings suggest child welfare administrators can support service effectiveness with interventions that improve specific dimensions of culture and climate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Organizational Communication Based on Organizational Justice Theory for Motivating Workers with Different Cultural Values

    OpenAIRE

    山口,生史

    2002-01-01

    This study is based on organizational justice theory. Although organizational justice theory is useful for explaining organizational behavior, it has not focused on motivation, per se. ln this study, the linkage between organizational justice and motivation is explored with the mediating effect of interpersonal communication in an organization (i.e.,organizational communication).

  10. Universality and Cultural Diversity in Professional Ethical Development: From Kohlberg to Dynamic Systems Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkang

    2012-01-01

    Upholding ethical standards is part of what it means to be a professional and therefore part of professional education, but to what extent is the development of ethical reasoning universal across cultures, or is it highly dependent on culture? If universal, how can we explain the unique patterns of moral reasoning and behaviour in Asia, which…

  11. Understanding Soccer Team Supporters' Behavior and Culture in a Globalized Society from Social Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungbum; Han, Keunsu

    2012-01-01

    Whereas there have been many academic studies on European soccer team supporters, relatively few studies have looked at supporters in Asia, especially regarding their supporting behavior and culture. Broadly, the purpose of this paper is to describe the behavior and culture of supporters of the Korean professional soccer league (K-League).…

  12. The multi-dimensional model of Māori identity and cultural engagement: item response theory analysis of scale properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Chris G; Houkamau, Carla A

    2013-01-01

    We argue that there is a need for culture-specific measures of identity that delineate the factors that most make sense for specific cultural groups. One such measure, recently developed specifically for Māori peoples, is the Multi-Dimensional Model of Māori Identity and Cultural Engagement (MMM-ICE). Māori are the indigenous peoples of New Zealand. The MMM-ICE is a 6-factor measure that assesses the following aspects of identity and cultural engagement as Māori: (a) group membership evaluation, (b) socio-political consciousness, (c) cultural efficacy and active identity engagement, (d) spirituality, (e) interdependent self-concept, and (f) authenticity beliefs. This article examines the scale properties of the MMM-ICE using item response theory (IRT) analysis in a sample of 492 Māori. The MMM-ICE subscales showed reasonably even levels of measurement precision across the latent trait range. Analysis of age (cohort) effects further indicated that most aspects of Māori identification tended to be higher among older Māori, and these cohort effects were similar for both men and women. This study provides novel support for the reliability and measurement precision of the MMM-ICE. The study also provides a first step in exploring change and stability in Māori identity across the life span. A copy of the scale, along with recommendations for scale scoring, is included.

  13. Towards a Theory of Urban Fragmentation: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Fear, Privatization, and the State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setha Low

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs a cross-cultural analysis to explore regional and national variations in residential gating and enclosure as a first step in developing an integrated theory of urban fragmentation. Utilizing data from the urban and suburban United States, Latin America and China, a series of dimensions are compared: 1 domestic architecture, 2 urban/suburban settlement pattern, 3 the role of the state, 4 governance, 5 citizenship, 6 cultural meaning, 7 identity, 8 provision of goods and services, 9 taxation, 10 degree of privatization, 11 cultural pattern of social sanction, and 12 fear of crime and others. This comparative analysis locates culturally meaningful and theoretically significant distinctions among the regions and provides data for the development of explanatory models in which each region varies along a dimensional continuum.  At the macro-level of analysis, the impact of globalization and flexible accumulation with increased local heterogeneity, increases in inequality and changes in perceived crime rate emerge as the major underlying factors in the fear of crime and others found in all three regions.  At a micro-level, differences in cultural meanings are explained by local social and political contexts, while provision of goods and services and governance depend on club realm economic explanations.  

  14. Templates for Cross-Cultural and Culturally Specific Usability Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    -cultural field study of think-aloud testing done by usability vendor companies in the three countries. The result was a grounded theory of cultural variations in the production of a usability problem list. Study 2 was a follow-up, ethnographic interview study of how the companies typically perform usability......The cultural diversity of users of technology challenges our methods for usability testing. This article suggests templates for cross-culturally and culturally specific usability testing, based on studies of usability testing in companies in Mumbai, Beijing, and Copenhagen. Study 1 was a cross...... tests. The result was the construction of templates for usability testing. The culturally specific templates were in Mumbai “user-centered evaluation,” Copenhagen “client-centered evaluation,” and Beijing “evaluator-centered evaluation.” The findings are compared with related research...

  15. A Pilot Study of the Interface Design of Cross-Cultural Web Sites through Usability Testing of Multilanguage Web Sites and Determining the Preferences of Taiwanese and American Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, David Tawei; Chang, Chia-Chi

    2014-01-01

    By conducting usability testing on a multilanguage Web site, this study analyzed the cultural differences between Taiwanese and American users in the performance of assigned tasks. To provide feasible insight into cross-cultural Web site design, Microsoft Office Online (MOO) that supports both traditional Chinese and English and contains an almost…

  16. Measurement of multiple nicotine dependence domains among cigarette, non-cigarette and poly-tobacco users: Insights from item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, David R; Messer, Karen; Hartman, Sheri J; Conway, Kevin P; Hoffman, Allison C; Pharris-Ciurej, Nikolas; White, Martha; Green, Victoria R; Compton, Wilson M; Pierce, John

    2015-07-01

    Nicotine dependence (ND) is a key construct that organizes physiological and behavioral symptoms associated with persistent nicotine intake. Measurement of ND has focused primarily on cigarette smokers. Thus, validation of brief instruments that apply to a broad spectrum of tobacco product users is needed. We examined multiple domains of ND in a longitudinal national study of the United States population, the United States National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). We used methods based in item response theory to identify and validate increasingly brief measures of ND that included symptoms to assess ND similarly among cigarette, cigar, smokeless, and poly tobacco users. Confirmatory factor analytic models supported a single, primary dimension underlying symptoms of ND across tobacco use groups. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis generated little support for systematic differences in response to symptoms of ND across tobacco use groups. We established significant concurrent and predictive validity of brief 3- and 5-symptom indices for measuring ND. Measuring ND across tobacco use groups with a common set of symptoms facilitates evaluation of tobacco use in an evolving marketplace of tobacco and nicotine products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Measurement of Multiple Nicotine Dependence Domains Among Cigarette, Non-cigarette and Poly-tobacco Users: Insights from Item Response Theory*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, David R; Messer, Karen; Hartman, Sheri J.; Conway, Kevin P.; Hoffman, Allison; Pharris-Ciurej, Nikolas; White, Martha; Green, Victoria R.; Compton, Wilson M.; Pierce, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Nicotine dependence (ND) is a key construct that organizes physiological and behavioral symptoms associated with persistent nicotine intake. Measurement of ND has focused primarily on cigarette smokers. Thus, validation of brief instruments that apply to a broad spectrum of tobacco product users is needed. Methods We examined multiple domains of ND in a longitudinal national study of the United States population, the United States National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). We used methods based in item response theory to identify and validate increasingly brief measures of ND that included symptoms to assess ND similarly among cigarette, cigar, smokeless, and poly tobacco users. Results Confirmatory factor analytic models supported a single, primary dimension underlying symptoms of ND across tobacco use groups. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis generated little support for systematic differences in response to symptoms of ND across tobacco use groups. We established significant concurrent and predictive validity of brief 3- and 5- symptom indices for measuring ND. Conclusions Measuring ND across tobacco use groups with a common set of symptoms facilitates evaluation of tobacco use in an evolving marketplace of tobacco and nicotine products. PMID:26005043

  18. Theory and method at the intersection of anthropology and cultural neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Rebecca; Brown, Ryan A

    2010-06-01

    Anthropologists have become increasingly interested in embodiment-that is, the ways that socio-cultural factors influence the form, behavior and subjective experience of human bodies. At the same time, social cognitive neuroscience has begun to reveal the mechanisms of embodiment by investigating the neural underpinnings and consequences of social experience. Despite this overlap, the two fields have barely engaged one another. We suggest three interconnected domains of inquiry in which the intersection of neuroscience and anthropology can productively inform our understanding of the relationship between human brains and their socio-cultural contexts. These are: the social construction of emotion, cultural psychiatry, and the embodiment of ritual. We build on both current research findings in cultural neuroscience and ethnographic data on cultural differences in thought and behavior, to generate novel, ecologically informed hypotheses for future study. In addition, we lay out a specific suggestion for operationalizing insights from anthropology in the context of cultural neuroscience research. Specifically, we advocate the development of field studies that use portable measurement technologies to connect individual patterns of biological response with socio-cultural processes. We illustrate the potential of such an approach with data from a study of psychophysiology and religious devotion in Northeastern Brazil.

  19. Theory and method at the intersection of anthropology and cultural neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    Anthropologists have become increasingly interested in embodiment—that is, the ways that socio-cultural factors influence the form, behavior and subjective experience of human bodies. At the same time, social cognitive neuroscience has begun to reveal the mechanisms of embodiment by investigating the neural underpinnings and consequences of social experience. Despite this overlap, the two fields have barely engaged one another. We suggest three interconnected domains of inquiry in which the intersection of neuroscience and anthropology can productively inform our understanding of the relationship between human brains and their socio-cultural contexts. These are: the social construction of emotion, cultural psychiatry, and the embodiment of ritual. We build on both current research findings in cultural neuroscience and ethnographic data on cultural differences in thought and behavior, to generate novel, ecologically informed hypotheses for future study. In addition, we lay out a specific suggestion for operationalizing insights from anthropology in the context of cultural neuroscience research. Specifically, we advocate the development of field studies that use portable measurement technologies to connect individual patterns of biological response with socio-cultural processes. We illustrate the potential of such an approach with data from a study of psychophysiology and religious devotion in Northeastern Brazil. PMID:19965815

  20. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups – What do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    York eHagmayer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive psychological research focusses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analysed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  1. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups—what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analyzed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given. PMID:25505432

  2. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups-what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmayer, York; Engelmann, Neele

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic literature review on causal beliefs about depression was conducted, including original, quantitative research. Thirty-six studies investigating 13 non-Western and 32 Western cultural groups were analyzed by classifying assumed causes and preferred forms of treatment into common categories. Relations between beliefs and treatment preferences were assessed. Substantial agreement between cultural groups was found with respect to the impact of observable causes. Stress was generally rated as most important. Less agreement resulted for hidden, especially supernatural causes. Causal beliefs were clearly related to treatment preferences in Western groups, while evidence was mostly lacking for non-Western groups. Overall predictions were supported, but there were considerable methodological limitations. Pointers to future research, which may combine studies on causal beliefs with experimental paradigms on causal reasoning, are given.

  3. Digital speech and democratic culture: a theory of freedom of expression for the information society

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balkin, Jack M

    2004-01-01

    In this essay, Professor Balkin argues that digital technologies alter the social conditions of speech and therefore should change the focus of free speech theory, from a Meiklejohnian or republican...

  4. The Theory of Social Control and the Social Psychology of Dissatisfaction: Inhibition, regression and isolation in a cultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Selymes, PhD Candidate

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Theory of Social Control (TSC is grounded in satisfaction and happiness research. The study investigated the reasons behind relatively low levels of civil and personal satisfaction, subjective social well-being and experienced happiness in the post-communist Hungarian social context. The basic social process uncovered in the research is self-situating, which involves a continuous assessment of social control, which occurs on three psychological dimensions: activity, fairness and connectedness, operated via social flow. The culturally salient outcome of self-situating in Hungary is self-victimizing, meaning a subjective loss of control on all three dimensions. Some of the most important emotional-motivational consequences of self-victimizing are inhibition, regression and isolation, which contribute to various socio-cultural phenomenon such as distrust, bystander strategies, pessimism or anomie across a number of social situations. Based on the emerging theory, the concept of subjective social control is introduced and an expanded three-dimensional model of civil satisfaction, comfort and contribution, along with psychological and cultural implications, are discussed.Key words: social control, self-situating, self-victimizing, activity, fairness, connectedness, inhibition, fury, isolation

  5. Kinship Algebra Expert System (KAES): A Software Implementation of a Cultural Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Read, Dwight W

    2006-01-01

    The computer program Kinship Algebra Expert System (KAES) provides a graphically based framework for constructing, if possible, a generative algebraic model for the structure of a kinship terminology (the terms used to refer to one’s kin). The algebraic modeling is based on a theory of kinship terminologies elaborated through writing the software program. The theory relates the properties and structure of kinship terminologies to an underlying logic that the KAES program helps uncover and mod...

  6. Activity Theory, Hybrid Experience Space Design and Cultural Heritage Communication at Lindholm Høje

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Mogens Fiil; Veirum, Niels Einar

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the questions of how to address the communication of cultural heritage in the post-industrialized societies of the globalized economy. The last two or three decades have radically changed the relationship between the individual and the national institutions, encompassing the institutions of cultural heritage, museums and foundations. From an expert founded representation of facts, based on a rational and linear understanding of knowledge being presented to a mass custome...

  7. Emotion-Related Words in Persian Dictionaries: Culture, Meaning and Emotion Theory

    OpenAIRE

    H. Kaviani; Sagan, Olivia; Pournaseh, M

    2015-01-01

    Aimes: Vocabulary, written or oral, may potentially mirror the attitudes, emotionality, thinking styles, mentality and cultural tendencies among people. This research aimed to scrutinise the emotion-related words (ERWs) vs. the cognition-related words (CRWs) of three Persian dictionaries (namely, Moeen, Amid and Moaser), exploring cultural differences in terms of positive/negative and somatic/non-somatic aspects. Method: All entries in these three dictionaries were scrutinised by three indepe...

  8. Frontier migration fosters ethos of independence: deconstructing the climato-economic theory of human culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Chen, Stephanie; Kitayama, Shinobu

    2013-10-01

    Evidence Van de Vliert draws on is more consistent with the idea that settlement in the frontier encourages independent mentality and individualistic social institutions. This cultural system can sometimes flourish, generating both wealth and power, but clearly not always. In our view, wealth is, for the most part, a measure of success of any given cultural group, and climate is important to the extent that it plays a role in creating rugged lands of frontier.

  9. Optimal water allocation in small hydropower plants between traditional and non-traditional water users: merging theory and existing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorla, Lorenzo; Crouzy, Benoît; Perona, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    Water demand for hydropower production is increasing together with the consciousness of the importance of riparian ecosystems and biodiversity. Some Cantons in Switzerland and other alpine regions in Austria and in Süd Tiröl (Italy) started replacing the inadequate concept of Minimum Flow Requirement (MFR) with a dynamic one, by releasing a fix percentage of the total inflow (e.g. 25 %) to the environment. Starting from a model proposed by Perona et al. (2013) and the need of including the environment as an actual water user, we arrived to similar qualitative results, and better quantitative performances. In this paper we explore the space of non-proportional water repartition rules analysed by Gorla and Perona (2013), and we propose new ecological indicators which are directly derived from current ecologic evaluation practices (fish habitat modelling and hydrological alteration). We demonstrate that both MFR water redistribution policy and also proportional repartition rules can be improved using nothing but available information. Furthermore, all water redistribution policies can be described by the model proposed by Perona et al. (2013) in terms of the Principle of Equal Marginal Utility (PEMU) and a suitable class of nonlinear functions. This is particularly useful to highlights implicit assumptions and choosing best-compromise solutions, providing analytical reasons explaining why efficiency cannot be attained by classic repartition rules. Each water repartition policy underlies an ecosystem monetization and a political choice always has to be taken. We explicit the value of the ecosystem health underlying each policy by means of the PEMU under a few assumptions, and discuss how the theoretic efficient redistribution law obtained by our approach is feasible and doesn't imply high costs or advanced management tools. For small run-of-river power plants, this methodology answers the question "how much water should be left to the river?" and is therefore a

  10. What is a Non User

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kann-Christensen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte

    The paper analyses surveys of cultural participation and discusses how they convey certain concepts of users and culture. The paper aims to develop a more nuanced and contemporary picture of cultural participation and notions on non-user. The paper shows a shift in how the user is constructed...... on cultural participation. The concept of participation conveys different meanings, therefore culturally active and contributing citizens may count as non-users in the surveys. The paper concludes that it might be worth considering measuring leisure time activities as it was done in the 60s and 70s instead...

  11. How life is associated with colors in Chinese culture: utilizing colors based on Chinese five-essence theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien-Rein

    2002-06-01

    Chinese believe that Feng-shui, Ch'i, Tao, Yin and Yang are major components rooted in Chinese culture. Many people know life has to balance and harmonize with nature and the universe through the Five-essence. Ancient wisdom is successfully interwoven with mankind and the natural world. Elements such as orientation, season, color, sound, facial organs, viscera, stars, and numbers can be associated with life through the Five-essence Theory. Since color is one of the major components of the Five-essence Theory, everything in our life can be associated with colors through a conjoined covering process. Color selection process is part of the interaction between human beings and the universe. Depending on the achievement one is pursuing, the Five- essence Theory model can be treated as an interface between destiny and human beings. This study reports how life is associated with Chinese Five-essence based paradigms. Models were used to explain how Chinese utilize Five-essence Theory to select colors in their daily lives.

  12. Adolescents' attributions of parental power: a re-examination of the 'theory of resources in cultural context'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashakkori, A; Thompson, V D; Simonian, L

    1989-01-01

    Using a multidimensional parental power framework, power bases derived from adolescent descriptions of parent-child interactions and family decision making were regressed on a multidimensional power construct and showed differential importance of predictor variables. Rodman's (1972) modified 'theory of resources in cultural context' is supported. Father's education alone does not lead to loss of paternal power; paternal power retention or loss must be considered in relation to such variables as maternal age and education and paternal age, and within relevant power categories. Mother's education affects her power bases; she increasingly shares culturally prescribed maternal and paternal power as her education increases. Her decreases in traditionally prescribed maternal power are not offset by an equivalent increase in traditionally prescribed paternal power; she may actually lose power with increased education. Relative education of husband and wife explains power differentials across power bases more clearly than does education of either spouse.

  13. Developing a new model for cross-cultural research: synthesizing the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poss, J E

    2001-06-01

    This article discusses the development of a new model representing the synthesis of two models that are often used to study health behaviors: the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Reasoned Action. The new model was developed as the theoretic framework for an investigation of the factors affecting participation by Mexican migrant workers in tuberculosis screening. Development of the synthesized model evolved from the concern that models used to investigate health-seeking behaviors of mainstream Anglo groups in the United States might not be appropriate for studying migrant workers or persons from other cultural backgrounds.

  14. Guidelines and training initiatives that support communication in cross-cultural primary-care settings: appraising their implementability using Normalization Process Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brún, Tomas; de-Brún, Mary O'Reilly; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn; van Weel, Chris; Dowrick, Christopher; Lionis, Christos; O'Donnell, Catherine A; Burns, Nicola; Mair, Frances S; Saridaki, Aristoula; Papadakaki, Maria; Princz, Christine; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; MacFarlane, Anne

    2015-08-01

    Guidelines and training initiatives (G/TIs) available to support communication in cross-cultural primary health care consultations are not routinely used. We need to understand more about levers and barriers to their implementation and identify G/TIs likely to be successfully implemented in practice. To report a mapping process used to identify G/TIs and to prospectively appraise their implementability, using Normalization Process Theory (NPT). RESTORE is a 4-year EU FP-7 project. We used purposeful and network sampling to identify experts in statutory and non-statutory agencies across Austria, England, Greece, Ireland, Scotland and the Netherlands who recommended G/TI data from the grey literature. In addition, a peer review of literature was conducted in each country. Resulting data were collated using a standardized Protocol Mapping Document. G/TIs were identified for inclusion by (i) initial elimination of incomplete G/TI material; (ii) application of filtering criteria; and (iii) application of NPT. 20 G/TIs met selection criteria: 8 guidelines and 12 training initiatives. Most G/TIs were identified in the Netherlands (n = 7), followed by Ireland (n = 6) and England (n = 5). Fewer were identified in Scotland (n = 2), and none in Greece or Austria. The majority (n = 13) were generated without the inclusion of migrant service users. All 20 were prospectively appraised for potential implementability by applying NPT. NPT is useful as a means of prospectively testing G/TIs for implementability. Results indicate a need to initiate meaningful engagement of migrants in the development of G/TIs. A European-based professional standard for development and assessment of cross-cultural communication resources is advised. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Serendipity in Relationship: A Tentative Theory of the Cognitive Process of Yuanfen and Its Psychological Constructs in Chinese Cultural Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-Ping; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen), relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered. PMID:26973576

  16. Social and Cultural Identity Pendekatan Face Negotation Theory dan Public Relations Multikulturalism Negara Jerman-China dan Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasrun Hidayat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research examines the focus of social identity and cultural identity of individuals between states of Germany, China and Indonesia. Building a sense of one's cultural identity is comprised of various identities that are interconnected with face negotiation theory perspective. Research constructive significance intersubjective phenomenology with qualitative constructivist paradigm. The study found that the inter-state identity constructed in a different manner. Germany builds social identity because of the role of government not of the family. Germany does not take into account the family so that the identity of individual awakes more independent. Chinese social identity constructed by social status, stratum or class. China still sees a group of men as dominant and women as a minority. Socially constructed male identity as it is considered more capable than women. Social identity of opposites so that social structures are built are also different. Similarly, Indonesia, social identity is built almost the same as China, only differentiating factor lies in obedience to carry out the norms and values prevailing in the social strata. Indonesia and China still uphold the cultural dimension of collectivity than Germany Individual dimensions. Using multicultural Public Relations function approach finally be able to recognize the cultural identity of each country and each social identity

  17. Serendipity in relationship: A tentative theory of the cognitive process of yuanfen and its psychological constructs in Chinese cultural societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ping eHsu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen, relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered.

  18. Serendipity in Relationship: A Tentative Theory of the Cognitive Process of Yuanfen and Its Psychological Constructs in Chinese Cultural Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-Ping; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to combine three important themes in Chinese cultural societies: serendipity in relationship (yuanfen), relational interactions, and psychological adaptation through self-cultivation. People who live in Chinese cultural societies are deeply affected by relationalism and tend to be very different from their Western counterparts, who adopt individualistic methods when dealing with interpersonal problems. They are highly likely to access the perspective of yuanfen as part of their cultural wisdom to convert negative feelings, awkwardness, or setbacks caused by interpersonal relationship incidents, into a type of cognitive belief that can be used to combat anxiety and actuate coping actions. Based on this, this article proposes the tentative theory of a dialectical model which comprises elements of the philosophies of Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism, to analyze the cognitive operation process regarding yuanfen and to explain and predict how people in Chinese cultural societies differ from most Western people in terms of psychological adjustment and coping actions when dealing with interpersonal problems. Canonical correlation analysis was used in the empirical study to describe this model and resulted in two statistically significant canonical factor pairs. The hypothesized model has been partially verified. It is hoped that this framework can serve as a pilot perspective for future studies, and at the same time provide the Western academic world with a reference for understanding the concept and substantive effects of serendipity in relationship. Further suggestions for future research direction are offered.

  19. Opening up the solar box: Cultural resource management and actor network theory in solar energy projects in the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrie, Bryan F.

    This project considers the ways that Actor-Network Theory (ANT) can be brought to bear upon Cultural Resource Management (CRM) practices on renewable energy projects. ANT is a way of making inquiry into scientific knowledge practices and as CRM is intended to preserve environmental, historic, and prehistoric resources, it necessarily involves certain kinds of knowledge generation about regions in which projects are being developed. Because the practice of CRM is complex, involving a range of actors from developers to biologists, native peoples to academics, private landholders to environmental and cultural activists, it is imperative to account for the interests of all stakeholders and to resist devolving into the polemical relations of winners and losers, good and bad participants, or simple situations of right and wrong. This project intends to account for the "matters of concern" of various actors, both primary and secondary, by examining the case study of a single solar installation project in the Mojave Desert. A theoretical description of ANT is provided at the beginning and the concerns of this theory are brought to bear upon the case study project through describing the project, discussing the laws governing CRM on federal lands and in the state of California, and providing the points of view of various interviewees who worked directly or indirectly on various aspects of CRM for the solar project. The creators of ANT claim that it is not a methodology but it does speak to ethnomethodologies in that it insists that there is always something more to learn from inquiring into and describing any given situation. These descriptions avoid generalizations, providing instead various points of entry, from diverse perspectives to the project. There is an invitation to avoid assuming that one knows all there is to know about a given situation and to choose instead to continue investigating and thus give voice to the more obscure, often marginalized, voices in the

  20. Teaching culture in Colombia Bilingüe: From theory to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamith José Fandiño Parra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this paper is concerned with the incorporation of culture into foreign language learning (EFL classes within the context of “Colombia Bilingüe”. More specifically, some consideration will be given to what culture is, how it can be taught and what Colombian authors have maintained in terms of its practicality and implementation. It will be suggested that teaching culture is not tantamount to promoting an English sociocultural domination or adapting ethnocentric practices, but mainly approaching and reflecting on one’s and others’ beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors, which are intertwined with language itself. Furthermore, an attempt will be made to point out both the difficulties and complexities that Colombian EFL teachers need to be able to cope with when working with culture in their classes. The main premise of the paper is that effective teaching of culture can be achieved if the Colombian EFL community strives to construct a coherent discourse that allows developing teaching models and learning experiences within the theoretical framework of the postmethod condition, world Englishes, and critical multiculturalism.

  1. The Controversy Around Tomboy: the Aversion to Gender Theory in French Education and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Vilchez

    2015-01-01

    By analyzing the controversy around Céline Sciamma’s Tomboy (2011) and the concept of gender theory, this paper discusses a demonstration of various levels of aversion to gender theory in current French political discourses as represented in the media in relation to same-sex marriage, the family and state education. The social institution of the family—whose functions encompass marriage and the rearing of children—is often considered a foundational unit of the state and civil society. After t...

  2. Modernization Theory Revisited: A Cross-Cultural Study of Adolescent Conformity to Significant Others in Mainland China, Taiwan, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Thomas, Darwin L.

    1994-01-01

    Responses from college students in differing cultural settings contradicted modernization theory (MT). Contrary to MT, education held less importance as a social institution. American society highly valued religion with the reverse holding true in the two Chinese societies. MT tests with cross-cultural data should always consider cultural…

  3. An Emerging Theory for Evidence Based Information Literacy Instruction in School Libraries, Part 2: Building a Culture of Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Gordon

    2009-09-01

    research was social reform, while action research in education targeted self through the improvement of practice. The dichotomy between purposes of self and society is resolved by the Lewin‐Dewey connection, where the reiterative cycle of action and reflection is the basis for a common intent for both types of action research. Dewey’s approach comprises the metatheory for emerging theory: a philosophy of purpose and methodology that determines how the research is done.Results – The emerging theory developed in this paper postulates that evidence based information literacy instruction uses action research for two purposes. Self‐oriented action research (AR(S1 targets self‐improvement on the local level of teaching and learning in school libraries; social‐oriented action research (AR(S2 targets social reform on the global level of educational improvement. Corollaries of the theory indicate a research agenda and methodologies for the research.Conclusion – Implicit in the content of the research is methodology that evolves from the distinction between the purposes of self‐ and social‐oriented action research. Clearly, evidence is generated in the field of teaching and learning that is situated in theory‐based practices, such as user‐centered information processing, constructivist learning, and a culture of inquiry that grows from social processes. Librarianship is well suited to developing practitioner‐researchers who are proficient in making the information‐to‐knowledge connection that informs their professional performance.

  4. Cross--Cultural Small Group Research: A Review, an Analysis, and a Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuter, Robert

    1977-01-01

    Reviews and analyzes research on cross-national small group behavior and offers a value theory of small group development. Available from: International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Transaction Periodicals Consortium, Rutgers-The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903. (MH)

  5. Interview with Raewyn Connell: The Cultural Politics of Queer Theory in Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mary Lou; Gowlett, Christina; Connell, Raewyn

    2014-01-01

    The most attractive thing in queer theory is the social movement energy that's been in it, the sense of excitement and boundary-breaking, the sense of new perspectives. Given the social anxieties and manipulated fear and right-wing triumphalism around today, people need that excitement and boldness--in education and in society at large. In this…

  6. Not Our Regularly Scheduled Programming: Integrating Feminist Theory, Popular Culture, and Writing Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    When Alexandra Gold described her composition course: one that situates feminist and queer theory as a lens through which to view, analyze, and discuss contemporary television, a male acquaintance responded by saying he would not pay for that class. Another female acquaintance assured Gold that although she had loved a similar class at her Ivy…

  7. Culture and Rationality in Frankfurt School Thought: Ideological Foundations for a Theory of Social Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Henry A.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the contributions of the "Frankfurt School" members to the development of critical theories of social education in the United States. Drawing from their sociohistorical analyses, Horkheimer, Marcuse, and Adorno theorized that the dominance of scientific, rational thought in the twentieth century was leading to highly technological,…

  8. Cultural landscape in theory. 2nd Part: Development of truth – paths and goals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borut Juvanec

    2002-01-01

    ...) are closer to the circle and theory, than can be expected. Growth of architecture from the detail to spatial planning is the fruit of human balancing only in detail. Cities grow according to their own logic. The role of professions is therefore limited only to the establishment of strategies and controlling their growth. Things are much simpler, than we can imagine.

  9. Violence in Theory and Practice: Popular Culture, Schooling, and the Boundaries of Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Greg; McCarthy, Cameron

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Henry Giroux's, Alan Block's, and John Devine's differing viewpoints on how cultural incorporation and routinization of schooling undermine its capacity to address the needs of contemporary youth. They all maintain that schooling has become a site of symbolic and physical violence which students experience in multiple ways. The paper…

  10. VIABILITY AND ISOLATION OF MARINE-BACTERIA BY DILUTION CULTURE - THEORY, PROCEDURES, AND INITIAL RESULTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUTTON, DK; SCHUT, F; QUANG, P; MARTIN, R; ROBERTSON, BR

    Dilution culture, a method for growing the typical small bacteria from natural aquatic assemblages, has been developed. Each of 11 experimental trials of the technique was successful. Populations are measured, diluted to a small and known number of cells, inoculated into unamended sterilized

  11. Growth theory after Keynes, part II: 75 years of obstruction by the mainstream economics culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Van den Berg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Part I of this essay explained the sequence of events that enabled the neoclassical paradigm to regain its dominant position in mainstream economics following serious challenges by ‘Keynesian’ economists. This second essay seeks to answer the question of why the economics profession was so willing to sustain the neoclassical paradigm in the face of the reality-based challenges by ‘Keynesian’ economists like Harrod and Domar. The answer is sought in the culture of economics, the history of science in general, and the study of power in the field of political economy. This article draws heavily on the work of the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, who divides culture into habitus (procedures and dispositions and doxa (more abstract beliefs and philosophies, in order to provide insight into how culture affects economic thinking. Bourdieu’s concept of symbolic violence helps to explain how a narrower neoclassical growth model was enthusiastically accepted as a replacement for the ‘Keynesian’ Harrod-Domar growth model. Financial and business interests clearly understood the power of culture and they used their accumulated wealth to support the neoliberal doxa and neoclassical habitus that would induce economists to willingly provide intellectual cover for policies that benefitted those financial and business interests. We conclude with a discussion on how the history of thought on economic development might have evolved if the Keynesian paradigm, and its dynamic Harrod-Domar model, had prevailed

  12. Cultural Capital Theory: A Study of Children Enrolled in Rural and Urban Head Start Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojczyk, Kathryn E.; Rogers-Haverback, Heather; Pae, Hye; Davis, Anna E.; Mason, Rihana S.

    2015-01-01

    Children from different backgrounds have disparate access to cultural capital, which may influence their academic success. The purpose of this study was to examine the links between family background, home literacy experiences, and emergent literacy skills among preschoolers enrolled in Head Start programmes. The background characteristics studied…

  13. Implications of Cross-cultural Findings for a Theory of Family Socialisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Duane; Grusec, Joan E.; Wolfe, Janis

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the traditional approach to understanding socialization, focusing on authoritarian and authoritative parenting. Explores authoritative parenting and its promotion of autonomy and authoritarian parenting, considering its effects among cultural groups. Presents data indicating that autonomy support is valued more than power assertion as a…

  14. The Internalization Theory of Emotions: A Cultural Historical Approach to the Development of Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holodynski, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Starting with an overview of theoretical approaches to emotion from an activity-oriented stance, this article applies Vygotsky's three general principles of development, sign mediation, and internalization to the development of emotional expressions as a culturally evolved sign system. The possible twofold function of expression signs as a means…

  15. Tinkering with Perfection: Theory Development in the Intervention Cultural Adaptation Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Sundell, Knut; Mansoory, Shahram

    2012-01-01

    Background: Testing evidence-based interventions (EBIs) outside of their home country has become increasingly commonplace. There is a need for theoretically guided research on how to best create and test the effects of culturally adapted interventions. Objective: To illustrate how the field might raise the scientific and practical value of future…

  16. Formative Assessment in Confucian Heritage Culture Classrooms: Activity Theory Analysis of Tensions, Contradictions and Hybrid Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Pham, Thi Hong; Renshaw, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Formative assessment has recently become a preferred assessment strategy in educational institutions worldwide. However, it is not easy to implement in Asian classrooms, because local cultures and institutional constraints potentially hinder the practice. This one-semester study aimed to use the "third space", as the core of the third…

  17. The recovery of estuarine quality and the perceived increase of cultural ecosystem services by beach users: A case study from northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouso, Sarai; Uyarra, María C; Borja, Ángel

    2018-02-15

    In Europe, the quality of coastal bathing waters improved considerably in the last decades, mainly due to the more demanding legislation and the adoption of water sanitation plans. In the Nerbioi estuary (North Spain), the Wastewater Treatment Plan implemented between 1990 and 2001 resulted on an abrupt decrease in microbial concentration; thus, complying with bathing waters legislation and allowing recreational activities again in the three beaches of the estuary. However, little is known about how improvements in bathing waters influences the provision of cultural ecosystem services and human well-being. A questionnaire was used to study beach users' behaviour and perceptions and compared with environmental time-series data (microbial concentration and water transparency). Most respondents perceived an improvement in bathing waters quality and linked it to the estuarine sanitation. Nerbioi beaches are important recreational areas, mainly for local visitors, and water quality improvement was found to be a critical factor for deciding to visit these beaches. Furthermore, most visitors answered that they would not return if water conditions deteriorate. Significant differences existed between beaches, with the most inner beach presenting worse environmental conditions than the other two beaches; and matching user's perceptions. Our findings highlight that water sanitation actions are important for the recovery of degraded coastal environments and for the maintenance of ecosystem services. Also, that multidisciplinary research is necessary to better comprehend the links between environmental recovery and the provision of ecosystem services. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. How Death Guides Human Behavior - The Role of Cultural Norms and Values in Terror Management Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Die Dissertation besteht im Wesentlichen aus zwei Teilen: der Synopse und einem empirischen Teil. In der Synopse werden die Befunde aus dem empirischen Teil zusammengefasst und mit der bisherigen Forschungsliteratur in Zusammenhang gesetzt. Im empirischen Teil werden alle Studien, die für diese Dissertation durchgeführt wurden, in Paper-Format berichtet. Im ersten Teil der Synopse werden grundlegende Annahmen der Terror Management Theorie (TMT) dargelegt—mit besonderem Schwerpunkt auf die ...

  19. Longitudinal changes in academic motivation in Japan: Self-determination theory and East Asian cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Takuma; Sakurai, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined changes in the academic motivation of Japanese junior high school students through a two-year longitudinal survey, based on self-determination theory. Japanese students (N = 410; 215 boys and 195 girls aged 12–13 years at the time of the first survey) completed the Japanese short-version of the Self-Regulation Questionnaire once each year during three consecutive grades (seventh, eighth, and ninth). The results of a latent curve model indicated that intrinsic and identifie...

  20. Putative Androgen Exposure and Sexual Orientation: Cross-Cultural Evidence Suggesting a Modified Neurohormonal Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lee; Lykins, Amy; Hoskin, Anthony; Ratnasingam, Malini

    2015-12-01

    According to neurohormonal theory, prenatal androgens are key determinants of sexual orientation. As a reputed marker for prenatal androgens, the 2D:4D finger length ratio has been used in more than a dozen studies to test the hypothesis that prenatal androgens influence sexual orientation. Findings have been very inconsistent. The present study sought to retest the hypothesis that 2D:4D and sexual orientation are related is a manner consistent with neurohormonal theory. A 2D:4D measure (of the right hand) along with four additional somatic markers of androgen exposure (height, physical strength, muscularity, and athletic ability) with samples of college students in Malaysia (N = 2,058) and the United States (N = 2,511). The five androgen measures were factor analyzed, resulting in a two-factor solution: Factor 1 consisted of strength, muscularity, and athletic ability (the muscular coordination factor), and Factor 2 was comprised of the r2D:4D and adult height (the bone growth factor). Sexual orientation was measured by asking each respondent the extent to which they were sexually attracted to males and the extent to which they were sexually attracted to females, both on 11-point scales. When the countries and sexes were analyzed separately, neither the r2D:4D measure nor Factor 2 correlated with sexual orientation to significant degrees. Instead, it was the muscular coordination factor that correlated the best. Support was found for the hypothesis that prenatal androgens influence sexual orientation, but the nature of these influences was more complex than neurohormonal theory predicted. A modified theory is needed and presented to accommodate the results from this study. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. Beyond Maslow's culture-bound linear theory: a preliminary statement of the double-Y model of basic human needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuo-Shu

    2003-01-01

    Maslow's theory of basic human needs is criticized with respect to two of its major aspects, unidimensional linearity and cross-cultural validity. To replace Maslow's linear theory, a revised Y model is proposed on the base of Y. Yu's original Y model. Arranged on the stem of the Y are Maslow's physiological needs (excluding sexual needs) and safety needs. Satisfaction of these needs is indispensable to genetic survival. On the left arm of the Y are interpersonal and belongingness needs, esteem needs, and the self-actualization need. The thoughts and behaviors required for the fulfillment of these needs lead to genetic expression. Lastly, on the right arm of the Y are sexual needs, childbearing needs, and parenting needs. The thoughts and behaviors entailed in the satisfaction of these needs result in genetic transmission. I contend that needs for genetic survival and transmission are universal and that needs for genetic expression are culture-bound. Two major varieties of culture-specific expression needs are distinguished for each of the three levels of needs on the left arm of the Y model. Collectivistic needs for interpersonal affiliation and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization prevail in collectivist cultures like those found in East Asian countries. Individualistic needs are dominant in individualist cultures like those in North America and certain European nations. I construct two separate Y models, one for people in collectivist cultures and the other for those in individualist ones. In the first (the Yc model), the three levels of expression needs on the left arm are collectivistic in nature, whereas in the second (the Yi model), the three levels of needs on the left arm are individualistic in nature. Various forms of the double-Y model are formulated by conceptually combining the Yc and Yi models at the cross-cultural, crossgroup, and intra-individual levels. Research directions for testing the various aspects of the double-Y model are

  2. Beyond the racist/hooligan couplet: race, social theory and football culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, L; Crabbe, T; Solomos, J

    1999-09-01

    This paper draws on recent research to explore the changing cultures of racism in English football. Starting from a critical analysis of key themes in the literature on football it seeks to show that existing analytical frameworks need to be reworked if they are going to adequately account for the complex forms through which racism is expressed in contemporary football cultures. In the course of this analysis we question some of the ways in which the issue of racism in football is collapsed into broader accounts of 'hooliganism' and other forms of violence among football fans. From this starting point the paper draws on some elements of our empirical research in order to outline an alternative way of framing the issues of racism and multicultrralism in football.

  3. Urban vs. Rural Lifestyles in terms of Theories of Cultural Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Najjarzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction   Globalization has indubitably caused local, national, and international sections to meet and intertwine in ways that have historically been unimaginable. The discourse of globalization has become widespread around the world with ongoing discussions surrounding its economic, cultural, technological, and political aspects and implications (Roberts, 2008). As such, globalization has been viewed through the assortment lenses of finance and trade; communications and information tech...

  4. Numerical analysis of stiffened shells of revolution. Volume 3: Users' manual for STARS-2B, 2V, shell theory automated for rotational structures, 2 (buckling, vibrations), digital computer programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalbonas, V.

    1973-01-01

    The User's manual for the shell theory automated for rotational structures (STARS) 2B and 2V (buckling, vibrations) is presented. Several features of the program are: (1) arbitrary branching of the shell meridians, (2) arbitrary boundary conditions, (3) minimum input requirements to describe a complex, practical shell of revolution structure, and (4) accurate analysis capability using a minimum number of degrees of freedom.

  5. Cybersemiotics: A New Foundation for Transdisciplinary Theory of Information, Cognition, Meaningful Communication and the Interaction Between Nature and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Brier

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cybersemiotics constructs a non-reductionist framework in order to integrate third person knowledge from the exact sciences and the life sciences with first person knowledge described as the qualities of feeling in humanities and second person intersubjective knowledge of the partly linguistic communicative interactions, on which the social and cultural aspects of reality are based. The modern view of the universe as made through evolution in irreversible time, forces us to view man as a product of evolution and therefore an observer from inside the universe. This changes the way we conceptualize the problem and the role of consciousness in nature and culture. The theory of evolution forces us to conceive the natural and social sciences as well as the humanities together in one theoretical framework of unrestricted or absolute naturalism, where consciousness as well as culture is part of nature. But the theories of the phenomenological life world and the hermeneutics of the meaning of communication seem to defy classical scientific explanations. The humanities therefore send another insight the opposite way down the evolutionary ladder, with questions like: What is the role of consciousness, signs and meaning in the development of our knowledge about evolution? Phenomenology and hermeneutics show the sciences that their prerequisites are embodied living conscious beings imbued with meaningful language and with a culture. One can see the world view that emerges from the work of the sciences as a reconstruction back into time of our present ecological and evolutionary self-understanding as semiotic intersubjective conscious cultural and historical creatures, but unable to handle the aspects of meaning and conscious awareness and therefore leaving it out of the story. Cybersemiotics proposes to solve the dualistic paradox by starting in the middle with semiotic cognition and communication as a basic sort of reality in which all our knowledge is

  6. A knowledge-based theory of rising scores on "culture-free" tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mark C; Mitchum, Ainsley L

    2013-08-01

    Secular gains in intelligence test scores have perplexed researchers since they were documented by Flynn (1984, 1987). Gains are most pronounced on abstract, so-called culture-free tests, prompting Flynn (2007) to attribute them to problem-solving skills availed by scientifically advanced cultures. We propose that recent-born individuals have adopted an approach to analogy that enables them to infer higher level relations requiring roles that are not intrinsic to the objects that constitute initial representations of items. This proposal is translated into item-specific predictions about differences between cohorts in pass rates and item-response patterns on the Raven's Matrices (Flynn, 1987), a seemingly culture-free test that registers the largest Flynn effect. Consistent with predictions, archival data reveal that individuals born around 1940 are less able to map objects at higher levels of relational abstraction than individuals born around 1990. Polytomous Rasch models verify predicted violations of measurement invariance, as raw scores are found to underestimate the number of analogical rules inferred by members of the earlier cohort relative to members of the later cohort who achieve the same overall score. The work provides a plausible cognitive account of the Flynn effect, furthers understanding of the cognition of matrix reasoning, and underscores the need to consider how test-takers select item responses. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Cross-cultural relevance of the Interpersonal Theory of suicide across Korean and U.S. undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sooyeon; Ebesutani, Chad K; Hagan, Christopher R; Rogers, Megan L; Hom, Melanie A; Ringer, Fallon B; Bernert, Rebecca A; Kim, Soohyun; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural relevance and validity of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide (ITS) utilizing young adult samples from South Korea (n =554) and the United States (U.S.; n =390). To examine the ITS, all participants completed self-report questionnaires measuring Thwarted Belongingness, Perceived Burdensomeness, and Capability for Suicide. We examined whether each construct significantly predicted the severity of suicidal risk in both samples. We also determined whether the strength of the effects of Thwarted Belongingness and Perceived Burdensomeness on suicidal ideation differed between the two samples due to the greater degree of importance placed on interpersonal relationships in collectivistic cultures such as South Korea. Structural equation modeling was used to examine these hypotheses. Thwarted Belongingness, Perceived Burdensomeness, and Capability for Suicide significantly predicted elevated suicidal risk. However, there were no significant differences in the paths from Thwarted Belongingness or Perceived Burdensomeness to suicide risk between the South Korean and U.S. These findings support the cross-cultural relevance and applicability of the ITS, whereby Thwarted Belongingness and Perceived Burdensomeness serve as indicators of suicide risk in both Western (U.S.) and East Asian (Korean) samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Work Factors, Work-Family Conflict, the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Healthy Intentions: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukri, Madihah; Jones, Fiona; Conner, Mark

    2016-12-01

    The present study examined the roles of work factors (i.e. job demands and job resources), work-family conflicts and culture on predictors of healthy intentions (fruit and vegetable consumption, low-fat diet and physical activity) within the framework of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Employees from the United Kingdom (N = 278) and Malaysia (N = 325) participated in the study. Results indicated that higher job demands were significantly related to lower intentions to eat a low-fat diet. Women reported higher intentions to eat a low-fat diet than men did, while participants from the United Kingdom had lower intentions to engage in physical activity compared with those from Malaysia. The efficacy of TPB variables in explaining intentions was verified, with perceived behavioural control (i.e. self-efficacy), attitudes and descriptive norms combined with past behaviour predictive across the samples. The results also suggest the roles of culture and work interference with family variables in moderating TPB-intention relationships and confirm that TPB variables mediate the effects of job demands and job resources on intentions. Practically, to promote health, identifying strategies to reduce stress factors; specifying important cognitive factors affecting work factors and thus, healthy intentions; and acknowledging cultural-specific determinants of healthy intentions are recommended. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Timothy B.; Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele...

  10. Ask the users, il valore aggiunto della valutazione dei sistemi informativi culturali on line coinvolgendo gli utenti: il caso del progetto “Una Città per gli Archivi” / Ask the users, the added value of the evaluation of on-line cultural information systems involving users: the case of “Una città per gli archvi” project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Feliciati

    2012-10-01

    Digital environments aimed at offering services on historical records and documents put together archival domain standards with the typical features of digital libraries, with item-level descriptions, access to digital objects, subject-based searching. How can on line archives move from the plain delivery of structured information to the facilitation of a cultural experience? This communication presents some of these issues, with a focus on the peculiarities of web displays for archival descriptions and reproductions. In this field, the role played by user studies is crucial, to guarantee that return on investment whose first profit should be users satisfaction. After a short review of the international state of the art the author will present an on-going user study project, launched to test the prototype of Una Città per gli Archivi, the web portal disseminating the results of a huge project of preservation and valorization of documentary funds of the city of Bologna, including photographic and graphic materials, sound and audiovisual recordings, in addition to paper archives.

  11. Religious Affiliation, Religiosity, Gender, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Feminist Theory and Rape Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Sligar, Kylie B; Wang, Chiachih D C

    2016-08-24

    Rape myths are false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapists, often prejudicial and stereotypical. Guided by feminist theory and available empirical research, this study aimed to examine the influences of gender, religious affiliation, and religiosity on rape myth acceptance of U.S. emerging adults. A sample of 653 university students aged 18 to 30 years were recruited from a large public university in the southern United States to complete the research questionnaires. Results indicated that individuals who identified as Roman Catholic or Protestant endorsed higher levels of rape myth acceptance than their atheist or agnostic counterparts. Men were found more likely to ascribe to rape myths than their female counterparts. Religiosity was positively associated with rape myth acceptance, even after controlling the effect of conservative political ideology. No significant interaction was found between gender and religious affiliation or gender and religiosity. Limitations, future research directions, and implications of the findings are discussed from the perspective of feminist theory. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Bureaucracy and Culture: Toward Two-Factor Theory of Organizational Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Olejniczak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this article we focus on the issue of organizational control in its bureaucratic and cultural forms. Methodology: This research uses exploratory case study analysis of Matsushita Konosuke’s management style of in the early years of the Panasonic Corporation. Findings: First of all, we fi nd that despite the impressive body of knowledge accumulated over the years, some questions concerning the relationship between two modes of control and their changes over time still remain unanswered. As a result of case study analysis we put forward an original model illustrating the relationship between bureaucratic and cultural modes of control over stages of the organization life cycle. Research implications and limitations: Implications of the study consist of prescriptions on how to successfully exert control by combining formal and informal measures. Main limitations of the study are related to its generalizability. Originality: Originality of the study results both from putting forward a new theoretical models and using original historical case of Panasonic Corporation.

  13. Improving the Measurement of Shared Cultural Schemas with Correlational Class Analysis: Theory and Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Boutyline

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of shared cultural schemas is a central methodological challenge for the sociology of culture. Relational Class Analysis (RCA is a recently developed technique for identifying such schemas in survey data. However, existing work lacks a clear definition of such schemas, which leaves RCA’s accuracy largely unknown. Here, I build on the theoretical intuitions behind RCA to arrive at this definition. I demonstrate that shared schemas should result in linear dependencies between survey rows—the relationship usually measured with Pearson’s correlation. I thus modify RCA into a “Correlational Class Analysis” (CCA. When I compare the methods using a broad set of simulations, results show that CCA is reliably more accurate at detecting shared schemas than RCA, even in scenarios that substantially violate CCA’s assumptions. I find no evidence of theoretical settings where RCA is more accurate. I then revisit a previous RCA analysis of the 1993 General Social Survey musical tastes module. Whereas RCA partitioned these data into three schematic classes, CCA partitions them into four. I compare these results with a multiple-groups analysis in structural equation modeling and find that CCA’s partition yields greatly improved model fit over RCA. I conclude with a parsimonious framework for future work.

  14. Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Coulangeon, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Il n’est sans doute pas de notion aussi vaste et aussi polysémique en sciences sociales que la notion de culture, qui renvoie alternativement à l’ensemble des symboles, des significations, des valeurs et des manières de faire propres à un groupe et au domaine spécialisé des activités expressives, savantes et populaires. La notion de culture est ainsi tout autant mobilisée dans l’exploration des grandes thématiques de la sociologie (stratification, inégalités, institutions, mouvements sociaux)...

  15. [Shared Care Plan: convergence between the educational problematizing perspective and the theory of nursing cultural care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Paula Alvarenga de Figueiredo; Alvim, Neide Aparecida Titonelli

    2012-01-01

    This report is a reflection that marks a change of perspective in the care relation between nurse and client, in the implementation context of the educative process. It emerged a Shared Care Plan as an educational-caring proposal, in the convergence among theorists Paulo Freire and Leininger, regarding the dialogical pedagogy and nursing cultural care. With regard to the elements considered essential to the care, learning together allows the unveiling of a peculiar reality of possibilities for integration and transformation of the reality revealed, by choice of the person. Autonomy planned becomes real, so that customers no longer carry fragmented practices, stemming from traditional pedagogy. The stand-alone client reaches, then, the fullness of the action.

  16. Social psychology, terrorism, and identity: a preliminary re-examination of theory, culture, self, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Michael P; Arrigo, Bruce A

    2005-01-01

    This article relies upon structural symbolic interactionism and five of its organizing concepts (i.e. symbols, the definition of the situation, roles, socialization and role-taking, and the self) to put forth a novel conceptual framework for understanding the terrorist identity. In order to demonstrate the practical utility of the framework, applications to various terrorist groups around the globe are incorporated into the analysis. Overall, both the theoretical and application work help reorient the academic and practitioner behavioral science communities to the importance of culture, self, and society when investigating one's membership in and identity through militant extremist organizations. Given the unique approach taken by this article, several provisional implications are delineated. In particular, future research on terrorism, strategies linked to counter-terrorism, legal and public policy reform, and the relevance of utilizing a sociologically animated social psychology in the assessment of other forms of criminal behavior are all very tentatively explored.

  17. An evolutionary theory of large-scale human warfare: Group-structured cultural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zefferman, Matthew R; Mathew, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    When humans wage war, it is not unusual for battlefields to be strewn with dead warriors. These warriors typically were men in their reproductive prime who, had they not died in battle, might have gone on to father more children. Typically, they are also genetically unrelated to one another. We know of no other animal species in which reproductively capable, genetically unrelated individuals risk their lives in this manner. Because the immense private costs borne by individual warriors create benefits that are shared widely by others in their group, warfare is a stark evolutionary puzzle that is difficult to explain. Although several scholars have posited models of the evolution of human warfare, these models do not adequately explain how humans solve the problem of collective action in warfare at the evolutionarily novel scale of hundreds of genetically unrelated individuals. We propose that group-structured cultural selection explains this phenomenon. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Quantitative analysis of organizational culture in occupational health research: a theory-based validation in 30 workplaces of the organizational culture profile instrument

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marchand, Alain; Haines, 3rd, Victor Y; Dextras-Gauthier, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This study advances a measurement approach for the study of organizational culture in population-based occupational health research, and tests how different organizational culture types are associated...

  19. Cultural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur F. LaPage

    1971-01-01

    A critical look at outdoor recreation research and some underlying premises. The author focuses on the concept of culture as communication and how it influences our perception of problems and our search for solutions. Both outdoor recreation and science are viewed as subcultures that have their own bodies of mythology, making recreation problems more difficult to...

  20. Bridging Theory and Practice: Using Hip-Hop Pedagogy As A Culturally Relevant Approach In The Urban Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Edmund S.

    This dissertation explores the context of urban science education as it relates to the achievement and engagement of urban youth. This study provides a framework for Hip-Hop Pedagogy, an approach to teaching and learning anchored in the creative elements of Hip-Hop culture, in STEM as an innovative approach to teaching and learning demonstrates the effect that Hip-Hop Pedagogy, as a culturally relevant approach to teaching has on teaching and learning in an urban science classroom. This study establishes practical tools and approaches, which were formed from by theory and research that transcend the traditional monolithic approaches to teaching science. Participants in this study are middle school students who attend an urban school in one of the largest school systems in the country. This research showed that as result of utilizing Hip-Hop pedagogical practices, students reported that they developed a deeper understanding of science content, students were more likely to identify as scientists, and students were provided a space and opportunities to deconstruct traditional classroom spaces and structures.

  1. A cultural historical activity theory perspective to understand preservice science teachers' reflections on and tensions during a microteaching experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen-Barrie, Asli; Tran, Minh-Dan; McDonald, Scott P.; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-09-01

    This study draws from cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) to analyze preservice teachers' reflections on a microteaching activity. Microteaching activities involved preservice educators teaching middle school students from local schools. The study was conducted with 23 preservice teachers enrolled in a large university's teacher education program. During this secondary science teaching methods course, every pair of preservice teachers engaged in 20 minute microteaching activity with 3-5 middle school students. The microteaching was videotaped, and the teachers subsequently provided voice-over reflections on a second audio track. Transcriptions of the microteaching events were analyzed through the formation of event maps showing the phases of activity and the organizational sequence of actions. Event maps were used to investigate the focus of preservice teachers' reflections. The results showed that while learning from their microteaching, preservice teachers focused primarily on the mediating artifacts and gave least attention to the larger teaching community surrounding these activities. Use of CHAT helped to identify challenges in different elements of the microteaching activity. The study contributes to how reflective practice can be enhanced through attention to the social and cultural dimensions of the teaching.

  2. Do ratings of African-American cultural competency reflect characteristics of providers or perceivers? Initial demonstration of a generalizability theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Todd; Lakey, Brian; Arnetz, Judith; Arnetz, Bengt

    2010-08-01

    Provider cultural competency is often identified as an important component of effective ethnic minority healthcare. However, there is limited knowledge of the manner in which cultural competency judgments operate. This study sought to provide an initial demonstration of a hitherto overlooked methodology for examining the extent to which provider cultural competency ratings reflect characteristics of providers, differences among perceivers, and also idiosyncratic pairings of specific perceivers and providers. Second and third year medical residents rated four attending physicians for cultural competency when treating African-American patients. Using a Generalizability Theory approach, cultural competency ratings were shown to most substantially reflect unique perceiver and provider pairings (47.0% relationship effect). However, cultural competency also strongly reflected differences among resident raters in their tendency to perceive attending physicians as culturally competent, regardless of the characteristics of physicians (35.0% perceiver effect). Although cultural competency significantly reflected the characteristics of providers this effect was small (3.0% provider effect). This study demonstrates an overlooked methodological approach and suggests important new directions for conceptualizing theory and research.

  3. User Requirements for Wireless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In most IT system development processes, the identification or elicitation of user requirements is recognized as a key building block. In practice, the identification of user needs and wants is a challenge and inadequate or faulty identifications in this step of an IT system development can cause...... huge problems with the final product. The elicitation of user requirements as such changes according to age groups;, to gender,; to cultural settings,; and into time; and experience in the use of the system/software. User requirements, therefore, cannot be used between projects, IT systems......, and different software. That makes the elicitation of user requirements an inherent part of any software development project and a resourceful activity as well. This book provides insights to the process of identifying user requirements and to different types by describing varying case studies in which...

  4. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  5. Function-related Secondary User Needs and Secondary Data? A Critical Examination of Some Central Concepts in the Modern Theory of Lexicographical Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Overgaard Ptaszynski

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The aim of this article is to contribute to the development of the modern theory of lexi-cographical functions by offering a critical examination of the following concepts associated with it: primary needs, primary data, secondary needs, secondary data, function-related needs, and function-related data. By way of introduction, a presentation of the basic tenets of the theory is offered, followed by a description of the gen-eral characteristics of secondary needs and data. Next, on the basis of both a critical analysis of the theory and an examination of selected data types in existing lexicographical products, it is argued that all user needs and all data that satisfy those needs are function-related. The distinction between the concepts function-related and usage-related is thus rejected. Since this has serious implications for the relation between secondary needs and data on the one hand and primary needs and data on the other, this relation is subsequently reconsid-ered. This leads to a redefinition of all the concepts examined. It is also explained why an ideal state of lexico-graphy, where secondary needs and data do not exist, cannot be achieved in the real world.

    Keywords: DICTIONARY, LEXICOGRAPHY, LEXICOGRAPHICAL FUNCTION, PRIMARY NEED, PRIMARY DATA, SECONDARY NEED, SECONDARY DATA, FUNCTION-RELATED NEED, FUNCTION-RELATED DATA, EXTRA-LEXICOGRAPHICAL SITUATION, INTRA-LEXICOGRAPHICAL SITUATION, COMMUNICATIVE FUNCTION, COGNITIVE FUNCTION, OPERATIVE FUNCTION, TEXT RECEPTION, TEXT PRODUCTION, TRANSLATION

    Opsomming: Funksieverwante sekondêre gebruikersbehoeftes en sekon-dêre data? 'n Kritiese ondersoek na 'n aantal kernbegrippe in die moderne teorie van leksikografiese funksies. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om by te dra tot die ontwikkeling van die moderne teorie van leksikografiese funksies deur 'n kritiese ondersoek aan te bied van die volgende begrippe wat daarmee verbind word: primêre behoeftes, primêre data

  6. User 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porras, Jari; Heikkinen, Kari; Kinnula, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    The User 2020 vision is of the changing needs and habits of a user in the future digital world. In order to understand the needs of the future users, we need to look at how users and technology have changed during recent years. The different generations of users are products of their own time...... and environment, and each has had its effect on the development of technology. The closer we come to the current generation, the bigger is the effect of technology on the characteristics of that generation. User needs guide the technology and the technology shapes the users. This WWRF Outlook analyses...... this evolutionary process. The basis of this Outlook lies in studies of user generations. Although it’s controversial to do so, users have been divided into generations based on their ability and willingness to use ICT solutions. Whether the users are digital ‘tourists’, ‘immigrants’ or ‘natives’ is mainly...

  7. Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    Le découpage des spécialités sociologiques hésite habituellement entre une répartition thématique par domaines empiriquement distingués et un partage conceptuel reposant sur des orientations de recherche. La sociologie de la culture n'échappe pas à cette oscillation. De prime abord, elle couvre un secteur plus ou moins clairement délimité, qui englobe la sociologie de l'art et ce qui est socialement désigné comme relevant de la « vie culturelle ». Elle regroupe alors un ensemble de subdivisio...

  8. Cross-Cultural Studies of Implicit Theories of Creativity: A Comparative Analysis between the United States and the Main Ethnic Groups in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Suzanna J.; Puccio, Gerard J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the extent of influence of culture on implicit theories of creativity among laypeople from the United States and Singapore, as well as the ethnic groups in Singapore. Adaptive and innovative styles of creativity were examined, as well as their own conceptions of creativity. Laypersons from the United States and Singapore were…

  9. Towards a Better Understanding of the Relationship between Executive Control and Theory of Mind: An Intra-Cultural Comparison of Three Diverse Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahaeian, Ameneh; Henry, Julie D.; Razmjoee, Maryam; Teymoori, Ali; Wang, Cen

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has consistently indicated that theory of mind (ToM) is associated with executive control in the preschool years. However, interpretation of this literature is limited by the fact that most studies have focused exclusively on urbanized Western cultural samples. Consequently, it is not clear whether the association between ToM and…

  10. Interculturalism: Theory and Practice. Seminar (Limbourg, Belgium, April 14-15, 1987). The CDCC's Project No. 7: "The Education and Cultural Development of Migrants."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammaert, Marie-France

    As follow-up to a five-year Council for Cultural Cooperation project on migrants, a seminar and roundtable discussion on the theory and practice of intercultural education in Europe is presented. Seminar participants include educators and administrators from Belgium, West Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden as well as a representative from the…

  11. Understanding Design Research-Practice Partnerships in Context and Time: Why Learning Sciences Scholars Should Learn from Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Approaches to Design-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, D. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Several points of contrast are highlighted between design-based research (DBR) as often practiced within the learning sciences and design partnerships inspired by cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT). It is argued that learning scientists can improve their work by learning from CHAT-inspired DBR in 4 particular ways: (a) by recognizing the…

  12. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Investigation of Contradictions in Open and Distance Higher Education among Alienated Adult Learners in Korea National Open University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, K. P.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing upon cultural-historical activity theory, this research analyzed the structural contradictions existing in a variety of educational activities among a group of alienated adult students in Korea National Open University (KNOU). Despite KNOU's quantitative development in student enrollment, the contradictions shed light on how the…

  13. Resistance among Alienated Adult Students in Korea National Open University: A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Analysis of Contradictions in Distance Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Kyoung Phil

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from Cultural-Historical Activity Theory, this research analyzed the structural contradictions existing in the variety of educational activities and resistance among a group of alienated adult students in Korea National Open University (KNOU). Despite KNOU's quantitative development in student number, the students' resistance shed light on…

  14. Re-Shaping the Faculty: Emergence and Development of "Permanent-Contingent" Roles through the Lens of Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Oleksandr; Louis, Karen Seashore

    2017-01-01

    This study retrospectively examines the emergence and development of a new class of full-time non-tenure track employees in a large land grant research university in the U.S., which created the employment category in 1980. We employ cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) to explore how this class of employees became institutionalized within…

  15. Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Boas, Franz

    2003-01-01

    L’un des objets de l’enquête anthropologique, pour laquelle des éléments peuvent être obtenus par l’étude des sociétés existantes, est l’inter-dépendance des phénomènes culturels. Alors que dans l’étude des processus de diffusion et de développement parallèle les caractères et la distribution de traits singuliers sont communément les objets de l’analyse, nous sommes conduits, ici, à considérer la culture, dans toutes ses manifestations, comme un tout. Les inventions, la vie économique, la str...

  16. Theoriebedingte Wörterbuchform-probleme und wörterbuchformbedingte Benutzerprobleme I. Ein Beitrag zur Wörterbuchkritik und zur Erweiterung der Theorie der Wörterbuchform Theory-determined Dictionary Structure Problems and Dictionary Structure Determined User Problems I. A Contribution to Dictionary Criticism and the Theory of Dictionary Structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Ernst Wiegand

    2012-01-01

    rterbuchartikel; theoriebedingtes Wörterbuchformproblem; wörterbuchformbedingtes Benutzerproblem; Wortfamilienfenster; zweifach komplexer Wörterbuchartikel

    The empirical domain of the subject matter of dictionary research changes, among others, due to the publication of new dictionaries. A noticeable trend seems to be the increasing occurrence of more new elements regarding dictionary structures in the front matter, central list and back matter. This makes dictionary structure more complex. For the theory of dictionary structures this leads to theory-determined dictionary structure problems: If the theory wants to take cognizance of the new developments it has to be expanded and becomes increasingly complex. If it is expanded one can recognise, in the light of the theory, the strengths and weaknesses of the new structural elements. This leads to dictionary criticism. The weaknesses, especially, lead to dictionary structure-determined user problems. In this first part of the contribution theory-determined article structure problems are treated that result from an investigation of an article type not previously examined, i.e. the complex dictionary articles in which two or more structurally identical words belonging to two or more part of speech classes are lexicographically treated. The theory-determined article structure problems prevail because there are no structural concept for articles of this type, no systematic terminology, no typology and partially no means and methods of presentation. The problems are thereby solved that the theory of dictionary structures is systematically expanded and the heuristics extended to provide for the missing elements.

    Keywords: article sequence with window; article structure scheme; article window; basic complex dictionary article; complex article structural image; complex dictionary article; dictionary structure determined user problem; noun-verb-adjective article; partial article; partial article external

  17. Factors of electric vehicle adoption: A comparison of conventional and electric car users based on an extended theory of planned behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Jensen, Anders Fjendbo

    2018-01-01

    Increasing the share of battery electric vehicles (BEV) in the total car fleet is regarded as a promising way to reduce local car emissions. Based on online surveys in Denmark and Sweden, this study compares BEV users' (n = 673) and conventional vehicle (CV) users' (n = 1794) socio......-demographic profiles, attitudinal profiles, and mobility patterns. In line with previous research, BEV users are typically male, highly educated, have high incomes, and often more than one car in their household. Additionally, BEV users perceive less functional barriers toward BEV use and have more positive attitudes...... distance seems of particular relevance. In multiple car households, we found the percentage of actual BEV usage related to the type of other cars in the household, perceived functional barriers of BEVs as well as (successful) behavioral adaption to longer trips by BEVs. Based on the results, we discuss...

  18. Development of a theory-based (PEN-3 and Health Belief Model), culturally relevant intervention on cervical cancer prevention among Latina immigrants using intervention mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Bandura, Lisa; Hidalgo, Bertha; Cherrington, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The development of efficacious theory-based, culturally relevant interventions to promote cervical cancer prevention among underserved populations is crucial to the elimination of cancer disparities. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention focusing on primary (sexual risk reduction) and secondary (Pap smear) prevention of cervical cancer among Latina immigrants using intervention mapping (IM). The PEN-3 and Health Belief Model provided theoretical guidance for the intervention development and implementation. IM provides a logical five-step framework in intervention development: delineating proximal program objectives, selecting theory-based intervention methods and strategies, developing a program plan, planning for adoption in implementation, and creating evaluation plans and instruments. We first conducted an extensive literature review and qualitatively examined the sociocultural factors associated with primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer. We then proceeded to quantitatively validate the qualitative findings, which led to development matrices linking the theoretical constructs with intervention objectives and strategies as well as evaluation. IM was a helpful tool in the development of a theory-based, culturally relevant intervention addressing primary and secondary prevention among Latina immigrants.

  19. Cultural Dimensions of Digital Library Development, Part I: Theory and Methodological Framework for a Comparative Study of the Cultures of Innovation in Five European National Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbello, Marija

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the influence of culture on digital libraries of the first wave. The local cultures of innovation of five European national libraries (Biblioteca nacional de Portugal, Bibliotheque nationale de France, Die Deutsche Bibliothek, the National Library of Scotland, and the British Library) are reconstructed in case histories from…

  20. Unrelenting Expectations: A More Nuanced Understanding of the Broken Windows Theory of Cultural Management in Urban Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Much has been written about the adaptation from criminology of the "Broken Windows" theory of order maintenance in successful urban educational models. Yet, the manner in which the theory is written and discussed often misses the nuances and feel of the theory as successfully applied. This misunderstanding has lead to its conflation with the "Zero…

  1. Language, Language Development and Teaching English to Emergent Bilingual Users: Challenging the Common Knowledge Theory in Teacher Education & K-12 School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltis, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Popular views about language and how children and youth learn language are based mainly in cognitive approaches in support of a common knowledge theory of language development. This common theory feeds into the efforts to increase teacher and learner accountability as measured on narrow assessments of what it means to use language well and in…

  2. ERP ASSIMILATION: AN END-USER APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurbean Luminita

    2013-07-01

    The paper discusses the ERP adoption based on the IT assimilation theory. The ERP lifecycle is associated with the IT assimilation steps. We propose a distribution of these steps along the lifecycle. Derived from the findings in the reviewed literature we will focus the cultural factors, in particular those related to the end-users (determined as a major impact factor in our previous study: Negovan et al., 2011. Our empirical study is centred on the end-users perspective and it tries to determine if and how their behaviour affects the achievement of the ERP assimilation steps. The paper reasons that organizations that understand the IT assimilation steps correlated to the ERP implementation critical factors are more likely to implement and use ERP successfully.

  3. The social cost of coastal erosion. Using cultural theory to enrich the interpretation of stated preference data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogianni, A.; Tourkolias, C.; Vousdoukas, M.; Skourtos, M.

    2012-04-01

    Natural coastal processes are to a great extent modified by proximity to man-made structures. Engineered interventions, port facilities, housing and industrial infrastructure, all can increase the coastline fluctuations significantly relative to those along a long unobstructed coastline. As a consequence, coastlines are increasingly exposed to coastal erosion, a phenomenon defined as the encroachment of land by the sea after averaging over a period, which is sufficiently long to eliminate the impacts of weather, storm events and local sediment dynamics. In order to provide cost effective management of coastal erosion it is crucial to estimate both the benefits and costs associated with various management alternatives. The initiatives on Integrated Coastal Zone Manegment in Europe, but also the upcoming Marine Strategy Framwork Directive would benefit greatly from a proliferation of socioeconomic information to assist decision makers who must weigh the impacts of various types of coastal improvement and the cost of beach protection/restoration. In that spirit, the objective of the present research is to report the results of a survey undertaken in two resort beaches on the island of Lesvos (Greece), designed to estimate public preferences for avoiding coastal erosion. A mixed methodological approach is employed by combining an open-ended contingent valuation survey with cultural theory of risk perception. The empirical models to analyze individual choices of erosion control programs and the associated welfare measures are presented, followed by the discussion of model specification and estimation issues, and the results of the data analysis. Some concluding remarks are then presented. By choosing this approach we aim at improving our understanding of preference structure for avoiding public risk, accepted level of risk and perceptions thereof. The framework can also be used for assessing the social cost of extreme weather events such as storm surges in the coastal

  4. Cross-cultural adaptation of an instrument measuring primary health care users' perceptions on competencies of their family physicians in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alla, Arben; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Roshi, Enver; Burazeri, Genc

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate an international instrument addressing family physicians' competency level from the primary health care sers' perspective in Albania, a post-communist country in Southeast Europe. This validation study, conducted in March-April 2012, included a sample of 114 primary health care users in Tirana municipality aged 18+ years (49 males and 65 females; mean age: 60 +/- 15 years). All participants were asked to self-assess the level of abilities, skills and competencies of their respective family physicians regarding different domains of quality of health care. Overall, the questionnaire included 37 items organized into 6 subscales/domains. Answers for each item of the tool ranged from 1 ("novice" physicians) to 5 ("expert" physicians). An overall summary score (including 37 items; range: 37-185) and a subscale summary score for each domain were calculated for male and female participants. Socioeconomic data were also collected. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the internal consistency, and Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare mean scores for the overall scale and each subscale between men and women. Overall, internal consistency of the whole scale (37 items) was Cronbach's alpha = 0.89; it was higher in women than in men (0.91 vs. 0.82, respectively). The overall summary score for the 37 items of the instrument was 89.3 +/- 9.1; it was slightly higher in women than in men (89.7 +/- 10.6 vs. 88.8 +/- 6.7, respectively, P = 0.218). There were no statistically significant differences in the subscale summary scores between men and women. Overall, there was no correlation of the whole summary score or subscale scores with age. Conversely, there was evidence of a weak positive correlation with educational level. In the Albanian context, we provide evidence on the process of cross-cultural adaptation of a simple instrument measuring patients' self-perceived level of abilities and competencies of their family physicians regarding

  5. Culturally Relevant Teaching: Hip-Hop Pedagogy in Urban Schools. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 396

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prier, Darius D.

    2012-01-01

    "Culturally Relevant Teaching" centers hip-hop culture as a culturally relevant form of critical pedagogy in urban pre-service teacher education programs. In this important book, Darius D. Prier explores how hip-hop artists construct a sense of democratic education and pedagogy with transformative possibilities in their schools and communities. In…

  6. Mental models and user training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Zupanič

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the functions of the reference service is user training which means teaching users how to use the library and it's information sorces (nowadays mainly computerized systems. While the scientific understanding of teaching/learning process is shifting, changes also affect the methods of user training in libraries.Human-computer interaction (HCI is an interdisciplinary and a very active research area which studies how humans use computers - their mental and behavioral characteristics. The application of psychological theories to HCI are especially great on three areas: psychological (mental, conceptual models, individual differences, and error behavior.The mental models theory is powerful tool for understanding the ways in which users interact with an information system. Claims, based on this theory can affect the methods (conceptualization of user training and the overall design of information systems.

  7. Cuidado sistematizado em pré-operatório cardíaco: Teoria do Cuidado Transpessoal na perspectiva de enfermeiros e usuários/Systematized care in cardiac preoperative: Theory of Human Caring in the perspective of nurses and users/Cuidado sistematizado en preoperatorio cardiaco: Teoría del Cuidado Humano en la perspectiva de las enfermeras y usuarios

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thais Vasconselos Amorim; Cristina Arreguy-Sena; Marcelo da Silva Alves; Anna Maria de Oliveira SalimenaI

    2014-01-01

      This is a case study research that aimed to know, with the adoption of the Theory of Human Caring, the meanings of therapeutic interpersonal relationship between nurse and user on the preoperative...

  8. Grindr Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shield, Andrew DJ

    2018-01-01

    intersections of sexuality with other socio-cultural categories such as race and migration background, but also gender and ability. I find that user experiences with exclusion and discrimination can be related to Grindr’s interface, such as its drop-down menus, the discourses circulated by Grindr users...

  9. The Conditions under which Growth-Fostering Relationships Promote Resilience and Alleviate Psychological Distress among Sexual Minorities: Applications of Relational Cultural Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H.; Poteat, V. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Relational cultural theory posits that resilience and psychological growth are rooted in relational connections and are facilitated through growth-fostering relationships. Framed within this theory, the current study examined the associations between growth-fostering relationships (i.e., relationships characterized by authenticity and mutuality) with a close friend and psychological distress among sexual minorities. More specifically, we tested the moderating effects of individuals’ internalized homophobia and their friend’s sexual orientation on the associations between growth-fostering relationship with their close friend and level of psychological distress. A sample of sexual minorities (N = 661) were recruited online and completed a questionnaire. The 3-way interaction between (a) growth-fostering relationship with a close friend, (b) the close friend’s sexual orientation, and (c) internalized homophobia was significant in predicting psychological distress. Among participants with low levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close heterosexual or LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress. Among participants with high levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress but not with a heterosexual friend. Our results demonstrate that growth-fostering relationships may be associated with less psychological distress but under specific conditions. These findings illuminate a potential mechanism for sexual minorities’ resilience and provide support for relational cultural theory. Understanding resilience factors among sexual minorities is critical for culturally sensitive and affirmative clinical practice and future research. PMID:26380836

  10. The Conditions under which Growth-Fostering Relationships Promote Resilience and Alleviate Psychological Distress among Sexual Minorities: Applications of Relational Cultural Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H; Poteat, V Paul

    2015-09-01

    Relational cultural theory posits that resilience and psychological growth are rooted in relational connections and are facilitated through growth-fostering relationships. Framed within this theory, the current study examined the associations between growth-fostering relationships (i.e., relationships characterized by authenticity and mutuality) with a close friend and psychological distress among sexual minorities. More specifically, we tested the moderating effects of individuals' internalized homophobia and their friend's sexual orientation on the associations between growth-fostering relationship with their close friend and level of psychological distress. A sample of sexual minorities ( N = 661) were recruited online and completed a questionnaire. The 3-way interaction between (a) growth-fostering relationship with a close friend, (b) the close friend's sexual orientation, and (c) internalized homophobia was significant in predicting psychological distress. Among participants with low levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close heterosexual or LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress. Among participants with high levels of internalized homophobia, a stronger growth-fostering relationship with a close LGBT friend was associated with less psychological distress but not with a heterosexual friend. Our results demonstrate that growth-fostering relationships may be associated with less psychological distress but under specific conditions. These findings illuminate a potential mechanism for sexual minorities' resilience and provide support for relational cultural theory. Understanding resilience factors among sexual minorities is critical for culturally sensitive and affirmative clinical practice and future research.

  11. The Theory of Industrial Society and Cultural Schemata: Does the “Cultural Myth of Stigma” Underlie the WHO Schizophrenia Paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescosolido, Bernice A.; Martin, Jack K.; Olafsdottir, Sigrun; Long, J. Scott; Kafadar, Karen; Medina, Tait R.

    2015-01-01

    The “Better Prognosis Hypothesis” stems from World Health Organization studies known as the International Studies of Schizophrenia (ISoS). Despite greater availability and sophistication of treatment options in the West, schizophrenia appears to have a more benign course and better outcomes in “developing” societies. We focus on this finding's most common corollary: a simplified version of sociological notions of cultural reality shaped by the transition from agrarian to industrial society. Developing societies are viewed as traditional, gemeinschaft cultures that neither develop nor endorse stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs about persons with mental illness that exist in modern, gesellschaft cultures of developed societies. Using the Stigma in Global Context-Mental Health Study (SGC-MHS), we formalize the “Cultural Myth of Stigma,” propositions linking level of development to intolerant, exclusionary, and individualistic attitudes. In 17 countries, we find no support for the corollary. Where significant associations are documented, the findings are opposite expectations: the public in more developed societies reports lower stigma levels. Extensions to reconceptualizations of the cultural landscape also reveal null or contrary findings. This correction to nostalgic myths of cultural context in developing societies thwarts misguided treatment, policy, and stigma-reduction efforts. PMID:26640277

  12. User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms; Myers, Brad A

    2008-01-01

    User Interfaces have been around as long as computers have existed, even well before the field of Human-Computer Interaction was established. Over the years, some papers on the history of Human-Computer Interaction and User Interfaces have appeared, primarily focusing on the graphical interface era...... and early visionaries such as Bush, Engelbart and Kay. With the User Interface being a decisive factor in the proliferation of computers in society and since it has become a cultural phenomenon, it is time to paint a more comprehensive picture of its history. This SIG will investigate the possibilities...... of  launching a concerted effort towards creating a History of User Interfaces. ...

  13. Historical and cultural aspects of the pineal gland: comparison between the theories provided by Spiritism in the 1940s and the current scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Daher, Jorge C; Iandoli, Decio; Gonçalves, Juliane P B; Lucchetti, Alessandra L G

    2013-01-01

    Significance has been attached to the pineal gland in numerous different cultures and beliefs. One religion that has advanced the role of the pineal gland is Spiritism. The objective of the present study was to compile information on the pineal gland drawing on the books of Francisco Cândido Xavier written through psychography and to carry out a critical analysis of their scientific bases by comparing against evidence in the current scientific literature. A systematic search using the terms "pineal gland" and "epiphysis" was conducted of 12 works allegedly dictated by the spirit "André Luiz". All information on the pineal having potential correlation with the field of medicine and current studies was included. Specialists in the area were recruited to compile the information and draw parallels with the scientific literature. The themes related to the pineal gland were: mental health, reproductive function, endocrinology, relationship with physical activity, spiritual connection, criticism of the theory that the organ exerts no function, and description of a hormone secreted by the gland (reference alluding to melatonin, isolated 13 years later). The historical background for each theme was outlined, together with the theories present in the Spiritist books and in the relevant scientific literature. The present article provides an analysis of the knowledge the scientific community can acquire from the history of humanity and from science itself. The process of formulating hypotheses and scientific theories can benefit by drawing on the cultural aspects of civilization, taking into account so-called non-traditional reports and theories.

  14. Reconsidering inequalities in preventive health care: an application of cultural health capital theory and the life-course perspective to the take-up of mammography screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missinne, Sarah; Neels, Karel; Bracke, Piet

    2014-11-01

    While there are abundant descriptions of socioeconomic inequalities in preventive health care, knowledge about the true mechanisms is still lacking. Recently, the role of cultural health capital in preventive health-care inequalities has been discussed theoretically. Given substantial analogies, we explore how our understanding of cultural health capital and preventive health-care inequalities can be advanced by applying the theoretical principles and methodology of the life-course perspective. By means of event history analysis and retrospective data from the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement, we examine the role of cultural capital and cultural health capital during childhood on the timely initiation of mammography screening in Belgium (N = 1348). In line with cumulative disadvantage theory, the results show that childhood cultural conditions are independently associated with mammography screening, even after childhood and adulthood socioeconomic position and health are controlled for. Lingering effects from childhood are suggested by the accumulation of cultural health capital that starts early in life. Inequalities in the take-up of screening are manifested as a lower probability of ever having a mammogram, rather than in the late initiation of screening. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Causal beliefs about depression in different cultural groups—what do cognitive psychological theories of causal learning and reasoning predict?

    OpenAIRE

    York eHagmayer; Neele eEngelmann

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive psychological research focuses on causal learning and reasoning while cognitive anthropological and social science research tend to focus on systems of beliefs. Our aim was to explore how these two types of research can inform each other. Cognitive psychological theories (causal model theory and causal Bayes nets) were used to derive predictions for systems of causal beliefs. These predictions were then applied to lay theories of depression as a specific test case. A systematic lite...

  16. Theories of practices: Agency, technology, and culture. Exploring the relevance of practice theories for the governance of sustainable consumption practices in the new world-order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaargaren, G.

    2011-01-01

    Within the environmental social sciences, theories of practices are used by an increasing number of authors to analyze the greening of consumption in the new, global order of reflexive modernity. The use of practices as key methodological units for research and governance is suggested as a way to

  17. Significance of Cultural-Historical Theory of Psychological Development of L.S. Vygotsky for the Development of Modern Models of Social Cognition and Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholmogorova A.B.,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article acknowledges the situation of methodical crisis in modern research of social cognition related to the domination of reductive approaches that ignore the uniqueness of human psyche. Heuristicity of concepts of cultural-historical theory of psychological development of L.S. Vygotsky, which serves to overcome the apparent inconsistencies is substantiated. Models of social cognition based on the principles of cultural-historical psychology are described, those being the model of social cognition within phylogenesis of M. Tomasello, and the model of social cognition within ontogenesis of C. Fernyhough. Current situation in the area of mental health is reviewed from the standpoint of cultural-historical psychology, its specifics reflected in the increased burden on reflexive functions, that is, skills lying within the sphere of social cognition is substantiated. Modern psychotherapeutic apparatus directed to compensate social cognition deficits due to various psychiatric disorders is reviewed. The assumption that adolescense is sensitive period for the development of higher forms of social cognition is made, and a summary of researches supporting this assertion is presented. Main contradictions of modern-day maturing are enunciated. To conclude the presented theoretical analysis, a comprehensive multiple-factor model of social cognition is presented based on concepts of cultural-historical theory of L.S. Vygotsky.

  18. Evidence for terror management theory: I. The effects of mortality salience on reactions to those who violate or uphold cultural values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, A; Greenberg, J; Solomon, S; Pyszczynski, T; Lyon, D

    1989-10-01

    On the basis of terror management theory, it was hypothesized that when mortality is made salient, Ss would respond especially positively toward those who uphold cultural values and especially negatively toward those who violate cultural values. In Experiment 1, judges recommended especially harsh bonds for a prostitute when mortality was made salient. Experiment 2 replicated this finding with student Ss and demonstrated that it occurs only among Ss with relatively negative attitudes toward prostitution. Experiment 3 demonstrated that mortality salience also leads to larger reward recommendations for a hero who upheld cultural values. Experiments 4 and 5 showed that the mortality salience effect does not result from heightened self-awareness or physiological arousal. Experiment 6 replicated the punishment effect with a different mortality salience manipulation. Implications for the role of fear of death in social behavior are discussed.

  19. Quantitative analysis of organizational culture in occupational health research: a theory-based validation in 30 workplaces of the organizational culture profile instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Alain; Haines, Victor Y; Dextras-Gauthier, Julie

    2013-05-04

    This study advances a measurement approach for the study of organizational culture in population-based occupational health research, and tests how different organizational culture types are associated with psychological distress, depression, emotional exhaustion, and well-being. Data were collected over a sample of 1,164 employees nested in 30 workplaces. Employees completed the 26-item OCP instrument. Psychological distress was measured with the General Health Questionnaire (12-item); depression with the Beck Depression Inventory (21-item); and emotional exhaustion with five items from the Maslach Burnout Inventory general survey. Exploratory factor analysis evaluated the dimensionality of the OCP scale. Multilevel regression models estimated workplace-level variations, and the contribution of organizational culture factors to mental health and well-being after controlling for gender, age, and living with a partner. Exploratory factor analysis of OCP items revealed four factors explaining about 75% of the variance, and supported the structure of the Competing Values Framework. Factors were labeled Group, Hierarchical, Rational and Developmental. Cronbach's alphas were high (0.82-0.89). Multilevel regression analysis suggested that the four culture types varied significantly between workplaces, and correlated with mental health and well-being outcomes. The Group culture type best distinguished between workplaces and had the strongest associations with the outcomes. This study provides strong support for the use of the OCP scale for measuring organizational culture in population-based occupational health research in a way that is consistent with the Competing Values Framework. The Group organizational culture needs to be considered as a relevant factor in occupational health studies.

  20. FACEBOOK USERS' MOTIVATION FOR CLICKING THE "LIKE" BUTTON

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chih-Yu Chin; Hsi-Peng Lu; Chao-Ming Wu

    2015-01-01

      To explore the motivation and behavior of Facebook users when clicking the "Like" button, we analyzed the behaviors of 743 university student Facebook users using motivational theory and the theory of reasoned action...

  1. Linked data and user interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Cervone, H Frank

    2015-01-01

    This collection of research papers provides extensive information on deploying services, concepts, and approaches for using open linked data from libraries and other cultural heritage institutions. With a special emphasis on how libraries and other cultural heritage institutions can create effective end user interfaces using open, linked data or other datasets. These papers are essential reading for any one interesting in user interface design or the semantic web.

  2. Impact of nurses' cross-cultural competence on nursing intellectual capital from a social cognitive theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsien-Cheng

    2016-05-01

    To understand the relationships among certain key factors such as organizational climate, self-efficacy and outcome expectation on registered nurses, with regard to the development of registered nurses' cross-cultural competence. The focus is specifically on the use of a social cognitive framework for nurses for providing intercultural nursing care to international patients. This study also aims to examine the relationship between nurses' cross-cultural competence and nursing intellectual capital. Given the influence of globalization on healthcare services, healthcare providers need to have enough cross-cultural competence to effectively care for patients from different cultures. Thus, the development of cross-cultural competence in nursing care has become an important issue. A quantitative method and a cross-sectional design were employed in this study. Data were collected from 309 RN working in 16 healthcare institutions in Taiwan from May to August 2013. Structural equation modelling, in combination with the smart partial least squares method, was used to measure the relationships in the research model. The results show that outcome expectation has a stronger impact on nurses' cross-cultural competence than self-efficacy. In addition, it was found that the cross-cultural competence of nurses has a positive impact on nursing intellectual capital. Nursing supervisors should promote a higher level of outcome expectation on nurses to enhance the improvement of their cross-cultural competence. Raising the cross-cultural competence of nurses will aid in the accumulation of nursing intellectual capital. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. CIRCE2/DEKGEN2: A software package for facilitated optical analysis of 3-D distributed solar energy concentrators. Theory and user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, V.J.

    1994-03-01

    CIRCE2 is a computer code for modeling the optical performance of three-dimensional dish-type solar energy concentrators. Statistical methods are used to evaluate the directional distribution of reflected rays from any given point on the concentrator. Given concentrator and receiver geometries, sunshape (angular distribution of incident rays from the sun), and concentrator imperfections such as surface roughness and random deviation in slope, the code predicts the flux distribution and total power incident upon the target. Great freedom exists in the variety of concentrator and receiver configurations that can be modeled. Additionally, provisions for shading and receiver aperturing are included.- DEKGEN2 is a preprocessor designed to facilitate input of geometry, error distributions, and sun models. This manual describes the optical model, user inputs, code outputs, and operation of the software package. A user tutorial is included in which several collectors are built and analyzed in step-by-step examples.

  4. Understanding users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav Viggo

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been...... tested in library contexts and the aim of this article is to identify the main approaches and to discuss their perspectives, including their strenghts and weaknesses in, especially, public library contexts. The purpose is also to prsent and discuss the results of a recent - 2014 - Danish library user...... segmentation project using computer-generated clusters. Compared to traditional marketing texts, this article also tries to identify user segments or images or metaphors by the library profession itself....

  5. User Interface Improvements in Computer-Assisted Instruction, the Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    Identifies user interface problems as they relate to computer-assisted instruction (CAI); reviews the learning theories and instructional theories related to CAI user interface; and presents potential CAI user interface improvements for research and development based on learning and instructional theory. Focuses on screen design improvements.…

  6. Myth Today: the Traditional Understanding of Myth in Critical Theories of Society and the Usefulness of Vernant's Concept of Ancient Greek Mythology for Contemporary Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Vogrinc

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no shortage of speaking about »myths« in contemporary popular culture, and often ancient Greek myths are evoked. »Myth«, however, is usually taken to mean a widely distributed story or belief which is inexact, false and/or fabricated – typically, to manipulate the multitude. In critical theories of society after Marx there are hints of different, theoretically more productive accounts of modern heritage or modern correspondences with Greek mythology. Marx himself has influenced cultural theorists with his account of the relationship between Greek mythology and Greek art as given in his Grundrisse. In his view, mythology serves as the arsenal and foundation of art because in mythology »nature and social forms are already reworked in an unconsciously artistic way by the popular imagination«. This account, together with a hint that there exist (in newspapers modern correspondences with such a relationship, has led to various theoretical elaborations of contemporary popular culture and ideology (e.g. in A. Gramsci, R. Williams, L. Althusser, P. Macherey etc.. None of them, however, retains »myth« as a concept; the word, when used, refers to ideology. Even R. Barthes, who developed a semiological concept of myth, did not refer to its Greek cultural meaning but used it explicitly as a tool for analysing the ideological manipulation of popular culture. C. Lévi-Strauss in social anthropology in general and J.-P. Vernant in the anthropology of ancient worlds have, on the other hand, developed the structural analysis of myths as essential to a culture without reducing it disparagingly to ideology. In our view, it should be possible to transpose Vernant's treatment of myth as a variable and shifting popular account of topics vital to its consumers to the study of today's popular culture and media.

  7. Vertical cultural transmission effects on demic front propagation: theory and application to the Neolithic transition in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Joaquim

    2011-05-01

    It is shown that Lotka-Volterra interaction terms are not appropriate to describe vertical cultural transmission. Appropriate interaction terms are derived and used to compute the effect of vertical cultural transmission on demic front propagation. They are also applied to a specific example, the Neolithic transition in Europe. In this example, it is found that the effect of vertical cultural transmission can be important (about 30%). On the other hand, simple models based on differential equations can lead to large errors (above 50%). Further physical, biophysical, and cross-disciplinary applications are outlined. © 2011 American Physical Society

  8. ?You look like them?: Drawing on Counselling Theory and Practice to Reflexively Negotiate Cultural Difference in Research Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiadou, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Located within a context of intercultural counselling research, this paper highlights the pertinence of the researcher’s reflexivity and cultural awareness in relation to research relationships. It draws on an excerpt between a white European interviewer and an Asian trainee counsellor discussing the latter’s experience of intercultural counselling practice. A reflexive analysis of a short passage aims to demonstrate how explicit negotiation of cultural difference within the interview setting...

  9. ¡Cocinar Para Su Salud! Development of a Culturally Based Nutrition Education Curriculum for Hispanic Breast Cancer Survivors Using a Theory-Driven Procedural Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycinena, Ana Corina; Jennings, Kerri-Ann; Gaffney, Ann Ogden; Koch, Pamela A; Contento, Isobel R; Gonzalez, Monica; Guidon, Ela; Karmally, Wahida; Hershman, Dawn; Greenlee, Heather

    2017-02-01

    We developed a theory-based dietary change curriculum for Hispanic breast cancer survivors with the goal of testing the effects of the intervention on change in dietary intake of fruits/vegetables and fat in a randomized, clinical trial. Social cognitive theory and the transtheoretical model were used as theoretical frameworks to structure curriculum components using the Nutrition Education DESIGN Procedure. Formative assessments were conducted to identify facilitators and barriers common to Hispanic women and test the degree of difficulty and appropriateness of program materials. Focus groups provided valuable insight and informed preimplementation modifications to the dietary program. The result was a systematically planned, evidence-based, culturally tailored dietary intervention for Hispanic breast cancer survivors, ¡Cocinar Para Su Salud! (Cook for Your Health!). The methodology described here may serve as a framework for the development of future dietary interventions among diverse and minority populations. Short- and long-term study results will be reported elsewhere.

  10. A Cross-cultural comparative study of user interface in social media : why social media can cross seas but not nationalisms

    OpenAIRE

    立石, 幹人; 当麻, 哲哉

    2011-01-01

    Since the late 2000s there has been a dramatic restructuring of relationship between user and information through the widespread use of Smart Devices. At the same time as its proliferation, the worldwide networking of Social Media due to its portability and operability has seen it become a global communication tool through the Internet. Although Social Media is seen to be global in size, in distribution however, it is wholly uneven. There exists a non-permeable intercultural barrier between c...

  11. Young Children's Understanding of Teaching and Learning and Their Theory of Mind Development: A Causal Analysis from a Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenlin; Wang, X. Christine; Chui, Wai Yip

    2017-01-01

    Children's understanding of the concepts of teaching and learning is closely associated with their theory of mind (ToM) ability and vital for school readiness. This study aimed to develop and validate a Preschool Teaching and Learning Comprehension Index (PTLCI) across cultures and examine the causal relationship between children's comprehension of teaching and learning and their mental state understanding. Two hundred and twelve children from 3 to 6 years of age from Hong Kong and the United States participated in study. The results suggested strong construct validity of the PTLCI, and its measurement and structural equivalence within and across cultures. ToM and PTLCI were significantly correlated with a medium effect size, even after controlling for age, and language ability. Hong Kong children outperformed their American counterparts in both ToM and PTLCI. Competing structural equation models suggested that children's performance on the PTLCI causally predicted their ToM across countries. PMID:28559863

  12. Young Children's Understanding of Teaching and Learning and Their Theory of Mind Development: A Causal Analysis from a Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlin Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Children's understanding of the concepts of teaching and learning is closely associated with their theory of mind (ToM ability and vital for school readiness. This study aimed to develop and validate a Preschool Teaching and Learning Comprehension Index (PTLCI across cultures and examine the causal relationship between children's comprehension of teaching and learning and their mental state understanding. Two hundred and twelve children from 3 to 6 years of age from Hong Kong and the United States participated in study. The results suggested strong construct validity of the PTLCI, and its measurement and structural equivalence within and across cultures. ToM and PTLCI were significantly correlated with a medium effect size, even after controlling for age, and language ability. Hong Kong children outperformed their American counterparts in both ToM and PTLCI. Competing structural equation models suggested that children's performance on the PTLCI causally predicted their ToM across countries.

  13. Culturally adapting a physical activity intervention for Somali women: the need for theory and innovation to promote equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kate E; Ermias, Azieb; Lung, Amber; Mohamed, Amina Sheik; Ellis, B Heidi; Linke, Sarah; Kerr, Jacqueline; Bowen, Deborah J; Marcus, Bess H

    2017-03-01

    There is pressing need for innovation in clinical research to more effectively recruit, engage, retain, and promote health among diverse populations overburdened by health disparities. The purpose of this study is to provide a detailed illustration of the cultural adaptation of an evidence-based intervention to bolster translational research with currently underserved communities. The cultural adaptation heuristic framework described by Barrera and colleagues is applied to the adaptation of a physical activity evidence-based intervention with adult Somali women. Widespread changes were required to ensure program feasibility and acceptability, including the reduction of assessment protocols and changes discordant with current trends in physical activity research. The cultural adaptation of evidence-based interventions offers an important mechanism for reducing health disparities. Improved reporting standards, assessment of features relevant to underserved communities, and greater funding requirements to ensure better representation are needed to promote more widespread access for all people.

  14. Differentiated Function of School in Socio-Culturally Disadvantaged Context: A Constructivist Grounded Theory Study from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Zuhal Zeybekoglu; Simsek, Hasan; Kondakci, Yasar

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses the functioning of a school as a social system in an atypical context with the purpose of generating propositions to tackle educational problems confronted by socially and economically disadvantaged groups attending these schools. Adopting the constructivist grounded theory, the analysis suggests that there is a kind of…

  15. Self-Control, Native Traditionalism, and Native American Substance Use: Testing the Cultural Invariance of a General Theory of Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gregory D.; Wood, Peter B.; Dunaway, R. Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Using a sample of White and Native American high school students, the authors provide a test of (a) self-control theory's invariance thesis and (b) native traditionalism as an explanation of Native American substance use. Self-control significantly influenced all forms of substance use when controlling for race and in race-specific analyses.…

  16. Teachers' Implicit Theories of Learning to Read: A Cross-Cultural Study in Ibero-American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Suárez, Natalia; O'Shanahan, Isabel; Villadiego, Yalov; Uribe, Claudia; Villalobos, Jose Angel; Rodas, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the nature and structure of implicit theories of Spanish-speaking in-service teachers on learning to read. The study sample consisted of 591 in-service teachers from various Ibero-American countries (Spain, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, and Ecuador). The study analyzed attributional structure or teacher…

  17. Bible Translation and Culture: the theory and practice of intercultural mediation in the translation of John 2.1-12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Lourens

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a theory of Bible translation as intercultural mediation and applies it to the translation of the story of the Cana Miracle in John 2:1-12. The theoretical framework draws on the notions of script, skopos, the ethics of loyalty and the distinction between three domains of

  18. "You Look Like Them": Drawing on Counselling Theory and Practice to Reflexively Negotiate Cultural Difference in Research Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadou, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Located within a context of intercultural counselling research, this paper highlights the pertinence of the researcher's reflexivity and cultural awareness in relation to research relationships. It draws on an excerpt between a white European interviewer and an Asian trainee counsellor discussing the latter's experience of intercultural…

  19. Bridging Theory and Practice: Using Hip-Hop Pedagogy as a Culturally Relevant Approach in the Urban Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Edmund S.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation explores the context of urban science education as it relates to the achievement and engagement of urban youth. This study provides a framework for Hip-Hop Pedagogy, an approach to teaching and learning anchored in the creative elements of Hip-Hop culture, in STEM as an innovative approach to teaching and learning demonstrates…

  20. An Examination of the Adoption of Preservation Metadata in Cultural Heritage Institutions: An Exploratory Study Using Diffusion of Innovations Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemneh, Daniel Gelaw

    2009-01-01

    Digital preservation is a significant challenge for cultural heritage institutions and other repositories of digital information resources. Recognizing the critical role of metadata in any successful digital preservation strategy, the Preservation Metadata Implementation Strategies (PREMIS) has been extremely influential on providing a "core" set…

  1. Social Studies Pedagogy for Latino/a Newcomer Youth: Toward a Theory of Culturally and Linguistically Relevant Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Ashley Taylor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how teachers in 4 urban newcomer high schools conceptualized and implemented social studies education for Latino/a newcomer youth through an emerging framework of culturally and linguistically relevant citizenship education. Through a multi-site, collective case study design, the perspectives and decision making of social…

  2. User acceptance of a picture archiving and communication system. Applying the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology in a radiological setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyck, P; Pynoo, B; Devolder, P; Voet, T; Adang, L; Vercruysse, J

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain insight into the individual user acceptance of PACS by the radiology department staff of the Ghent University Hospital. Hereto a basic--direct effects only--form of UTAUT was assessed. Ninety-four questionnaires were distributed and 56 usable questionnaires were returned (19 radiologists - 37 technologists). The questionnaire consisted of scales of Venkatesh et al. [13] for performance expectancy (PE), effort expectancy (EE), facilitating conditions (FC), social influence (SI), self-efficacy (SE), attitude (ATT), anxiety (ANX) and behavioral intention (BI), and a scale of Moore et al. [22] to assess the perceived voluntariness of PACS-use. The reliability of all scales, except FC and voluntariness, was acceptable to good. The voluntariness scale was divided into a mandatoriness (MAN) and a voluntariness (VOL) measure. Both radiologists and technologists seem to welcome PACS, with radiologists having higher ratings on PE, EE, ATT, VOL and BI. Only PE and FC were salient for predicting BI, while EE and SI were not salient. Variance explained in behavioral intention to use PACS was 48%. Both radiologists and technologists were positive towards PACS and had strong intentions to use PACS. As other healthcare professionals, they appear to make their technology acceptance decision independent from their superiors, hereby focusing on usefulness rather than on ease of use. It is also important that support is supplied. Basic UTAUT is an adequate model to assess technology acceptance in a radiological setting.

  3. ChISELS 1.0: theory and user manual :a theoretical modeler of deposition and etch processes in microsystems fabrication.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plimpton, Steven James; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Ho, Pauline; Musson, Lawrence Cale

    2006-09-01

    Chemically Induced Surface Evolution with Level-Sets--ChISELS--is a parallel code for modeling 2D and 3D material depositions and etches at feature scales on patterned wafers at low pressures. Designed for efficient use on a variety of computer architectures ranging from single-processor workstations to advanced massively parallel computers running MPI, ChISELS is a platform on which to build and improve upon previous feature-scale modeling tools while taking advantage of the most recent advances in load balancing and scalable solution algorithms. Evolving interfaces are represented using the level-set method and the evolution equations time integrated using a Semi-Lagrangian approach [1]. The computational meshes used are quad-trees (2D) and oct-trees (3D), constructed such that grid refinement is localized to regions near the surface interfaces. As the interface evolves, the mesh is dynamically reconstructed as needed for the grid to remain fine only around the interface. For parallel computation, a domain decomposition scheme with dynamic load balancing is used to distribute the computational work across processors. A ballistic transport model is employed to solve for the fluxes incident on each of the surface elements. Surface chemistry is computed by either coupling to the CHEMKIN software [2] or by providing user defined subroutines. This report describes the theoretical underpinnings, methods, and practical use instruction of the ChISELS 1.0 computer code.

  4. Maternal responsiveness and attachment theory: a critical discussion of the role of cross-cultural studies / Responsividade materna e teoria do apego: uma discussão crítica do papel de estudos transculturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana F. Paes Ribas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal responsiveness has been considered as an important concept for the understanding of different aspects of infant development, and this concept has been articulated with attachment theory. The objective of this article is to discuss critically the role of transcultural studies about maternal responsiveness, based on attachment theory, and to review of the recent literature about this subject. Considering attachment a valuable theoretical basis for investigations on mother-infant interactions and maternal responsiveness, the conclusions basically point to three issues: 1 the attachment theory needs to be investigated in different socio-cultural contexts, to be tested in its limits and to receive a transcultural validation; 2 research on maternal responsiveness should take into account the discussion on attachment theory and cultural differences; 3 the inclusion of the study of maternal responsiveness in a theoretical framework that takes into account socio-cultural variables is necessary.

  5. QMRPACK user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, R.W. [AT& T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Nachtigal, N.M.; Reeb, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-10-01

    QMRPACK is a library of FORTRAN 77 subroutines that may be used to solve linear systems of equations with the quasi-minimal residual (QMR) method and to compute eigenvalue approximations. This User`s Guide is designed to be an overview of the codes contained in QMRPACK. Installation information is provided, and the example matrix format is discussed. The relative merits of each algorithm, as well as usage criterion are described. The authors also provide instructions for making the test drivers, as well as test output from several machines.

  6. ppropriation of scientific discourse by protestant biology students: the contribution of Bakhtin's language theory to educational research and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sepulveda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies about the relations between classroom discourse interactions and processes of teaching and learning show that science learning is related to a process structured by speech genres and ways of establishing semantic links between events, objects, and people. Accordingly, it has been emphasized that science education research needs to incorporate theories and methods developed for the interpretative analysis of discourse. This paper shows the heuristic power that an interpretative analysis of discourse based on Bakhtin’s theory of language can have in the investigation of meaning making in science education in multicultural contexts. With this purpose, we discuss here results obtained in the analysis of the discourse about “nature” or “natural world” of protestant Biology preservice teachers of a Brazilian university, produced in the context of semi-structured interviews.

  7. Cross-cultural validity of the theory of planned behavior for predicting healthy food choice in secondary school students of Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Takashi; Bao, Hugejiletu; Deli, Geer; Uechi, Hiroaki; Lee, Ying-Hua; Miura, Kayo; Takenaka, Koji

    2017-11-01

    Unhealthy eating behavior is a serious health concern among secondary school students in Inner Mongolia. To predict their healthy food choices and devise methods of correcting unhealthy choices, we sought to confirm the cross-cultural validity of the theory of planned behavior among Inner Mongolian students. A cross-sectional study, conducted between November and December 2014. Overall, 3047 students were enrolled. We devised a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior to measure its components (intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control) in relation to healthy food choices; we also assessed their current engagement in healthy food choices. A principal component analysis revealed high contribution rates for the components (69.32%-88.77%). A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the components of the questionnaire had adequate model fit (goodness of fit index=0.997, adjusted goodness of fit index=0.984, comparative fit index=0.998, and root mean square error of approximation=0.049). Notably, data from participants within the suburbs did not support the theory of planned behavior construction. Several paths did not predict the hypothesis variables. However, attitudes toward healthy food choices strongly predicted behavioral intention (path coefficients 0.49-0.77, ptheory of planned behavior can apply to secondary school students in urban areas. Furthermore, attitudes towards healthy food choices were the best predictor of behavioral intentions to engage in such choices in Inner Mongolian students. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. School concept as an instrument of socio-cultural changes in postmodern philosophy of education: from theory to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokova Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the analysis of the socio-cultural changes taking place in the sphere of modern American education. The authors analyze the transformation of the School concept, starting with understanding school as a formal social institution and up to understanding school as a self-sufficient educational environment and intercultural interaction base. According to the authors, the formation of this concept is connected with significant shifts in the field of culture, which has entered a phase of development, well known as postmodernism. The influence of the postmodernism ideas and deconstruction as its main idea determine the character of the alternative education in the United States of nowadays.

  9. Revisiting the Continuing Bonds Theory: The Cultural Uniqueness of the Bei Dao Phenomenon in Taiwanese Widows/Widowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wan-Lin; Hou, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yaw-Sheng

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, we used the phenomenological approach to rediscover the ontological meaning of relationships with the deceased in Taiwanese widows/widowers. We first revised the original Western definitions of grief, bereavement, and mourning to fit Taiwanese culture. We used the word bei dao to indicate the mixed nature of grief and mourning in the Taiwanese bereavement process. Then we reanalyzed data from a previous study, which was conducted in 2006. In the previous qualitative research, each subject was interviewed 3 to 4 times in the mourning state over an 18-month interval that began at the point of the spouse's death. Results showed that two main themes emerged in the present analysis: (a) a blurred boundary of life and death and (b) a transformation of ethical bonds. The present study reveals the culturally unique aspects of the Taiwanese bei dao process. Limitations of the present study and future directions are discussed and reflected.

  10. "You look like them": Drawing on Counselling Theory and Practice to Reflexively Negotiate Cultural Difference in Research Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadou, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Located within a context of intercultural counselling research, this paper highlights the pertinence of the researcher's reflexivity and cultural awareness in relation to research relationships. It draws on an excerpt between a white European interviewer and an Asian trainee counsellor discussing the latter's experience of intercultural counselling practice. A reflexive analysis of a short passage aims to demonstrate how explicit negotiation of cultural difference within the interview setting advanced the researcher's understanding of the participant's experience, which was being investigated. The interrelated challenges, but also the importance of the interviewer's preparedness to explore power imbalances in the research relationship are also examined, as are some key limitations of such endeavours. This paper underlines the usefulness of counselling skills in qualitative research, hoping to function as an invitation for more practitioner involvement in therapeutic inquiry.

  11. Women's status and experiences of mistreatment during childbirth in Uttar Pradesh: a mixed methods study using cultural health capital theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; Treleaven, Emily; Melo, Jason; Singh, Kanksha; Diamond-Smith, Nadia

    2016-10-28

    Mistreatment of women in healthcare settings during childbirth has been gaining attention globally. Mistreatment during childbirth directly and indirectly affects health outcomes, patient satisfaction, and the likelihood of delivering in a facility currently or in the future. It is important that we study patients' reports of mistreatment and abuse to develop a deeper understanding of how it is perpetrated, its consequences, and to identify potential points of intervention. Patients' perception of the quality of care is dependent, not only on the content of care, but importantly, on women's expectations of care. This study uses rich, mixed-methods data to explore women's characteristics and experiences of mistreatment during childbirth among slum-resident women in Uttar Pradesh, India. To understand the ways in which women's social and cultural factors influence their expectations of care and consequently their perceptions of respectful care, we adopt a Cultural Health Capital (CHC) framework. The quantitative sample includes 392 women, and the qualitative sample includes 26 women. Quantitative results suggest high levels of mistreatment (over 57 % of women reported any form of mistreatment). Qualitative findings suggest that lack of cultural health capital disadvantages patients in their patient-provider relationships, and that women use resources to improve care they receive. Participants articulated how providers set expectations and norms regarding behaviors in facilities; patients with lower social standing may not always understand standard practices and are likely to suffer poor health outcomes as a result. Of importance, however, patients also blame themselves for their own lack of knowledge. Lack of cultural health capital disadvantages women during delivery care in India. Providers set expectations and norms around behaviors during delivery, while women are often misinformed and may have low expectations of care.

  12. Integrating Theory, Content, and Method to Foster Critical Consciousness in Medical Students: A Comprehensive Model for Cultural Competence Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Diane K; Goss, Adeline L; Hoekzema, Andrew S; Kelly, Lauren A; Logan, Alexander A; Mehta, Sanjiv D; Sandesara, Utpal N; Munyikwa, Michelle R; DeLisser, Horace M

    2017-03-01

    Many efforts to design introductory "cultural competence" courses for medical students rely on an information delivery (competence) paradigm, which can exoticize patients while obscuring social context, medical culture, and power structures. Other approaches foster a general open-minded orientation, which can remain nebulous without clear grounding principles. Medical educators are increasingly recognizing the limitations of both approaches and calling for strategies that reenvision cultural competence training. Successfully realizing such alternative strategies requires the development of comprehensive models that specify and integrate theoretical frameworks, content, and teaching principles.In this article, the authors present one such model: Introduction to Medicine and Society (IMS), a required cultural competence course launched in 2013 for first-year medical students at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. Building on critical pedagogy, IMS is centered on a novel specification of "critical consciousness" in clinical practice as an orientation to understanding and pragmatic action in three relational domains: internal, interpersonal, and structural. Instead of transmitting discrete "facts" about patient "types," IMS content provokes students to engage with complex questions bridging the three domains. Learning takes place in a small-group space specifically designed to spur transformation toward critical consciousness. After discussing the three key components of the course design and describing a representative session, the authors discuss the IMS model's implications, reception by students and faculty, and potential for expansion. Their early experience suggests the IMS model successfully engages students and prepares future physicians to critically examine experiences, manage interpersonal dynamics, and structurally contextualize patient encounters.

  13. Book review: Seeing Lithics: A Middle-range Theory for Testing for Cultural Transmission in the Pleistocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Davenport-Mackey

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeing Lithics represents a doctoral thesis submitted to Harvard University by Gilbert Tostevin in 2000. Tostevin is currently a professor of Anthropology at the University of Minnesota and has written extensively on human evolution, lithic technology, Old World archaeology, and Palaeolithic archaeology. These interests can be clearly seen in this book which develops a new theoretical and analytical approach to the study of cultural transmission in the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic transition. 

  14. Determinants of dietary compliance among Italian children: disentangling the effect of social origins using Bourdieu's cultural capital theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncini, Filippo; Guetto, Raffaele

    2017-01-01

    Making use of Bourdieu's threefold conceptualisation of cultural capital, this paper examines and disentangles the association between social origins and children's food consumption. The aim of the work is twofold. Using data from the Multipurpose survey on daily life conducted by Istat (2009-2012), we first show that children's compliance with dietary advice is indeed influenced by their social origins, but more so in terms of familial cultural resources than economic ones. All types of cultural capital enhance the quality of children's nutrition. Second, we concentrate on the role of the school canteen as a child-centred investment strategy intended to reduce health inequalities by providing a wholesome lunch for all children. Although the school meal effectively improves the degree of dietary compliance, the results indicate that this public service is less often used by children from lower social origins. Moreover, we do not find any equalising effect of the school meal on the diets of disadvantaged children. These findings are discussed in light of future research on sociology of health stratification and health promotion programmes. © 2016 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  15. Cultural adaptation of an evidence based intervention: from theory to practice in a Latino/a community context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech Rodríguez, Melanie M; Baumann, Ana A; Schwartz, Audrey L

    2011-03-01

    The cultural tailoring of interventions to reach underserved groups has moved from descriptive and proscriptive models to their application with existing evidence based treatments. To date few published examples illustrate the process of cultural adaptation. The current paper documents the adaptation of an evidence based parent training intervention, Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO™), for Spanish-speaking Latino parents using both process (Domenech Rodríguez and Wieling in Voices of color: first-person accounts of ethnic minority therapists, Sage, Thousand Oaks, 2004) and content (Bernal et al. in J Abnorm Child Psychol 23:67-82, 1995) models. The adaptation took place in stages: a pilot study to ensure feasibility, focus groups to establish appropriate format and goals, and a test of the intervention. Throughout the process the treatment manual was treated as a living document. Changes were applied and documented as the team developed improvements for the adaptation. The present discussion details both process adaptations, (e.g., engaging the treatment developer, community leaders, and parents, and decentering the manual), and content adaptations, (e.g., shaping the appropriateness of language, persons, metaphors, concepts, contexts, methods, and goals). The current research provides support for the idea that cultural adaptations can improve service delivery to diverse groups and can be conducted systematically with documentation for replication purposes. Suggestions for improving the empirical measurement and documentation of the adaptation process are included.

  16. Exploring Staff Clinical Knowledge and Practice with LGBT Residents in Long-Term Care: A Grounded Theory of Cultural Competency and Training Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Weston V; Vacha-Haase, Tammi

    2016-01-01

    Existing literature shows that LGBT residents are likely to face suboptimal care in LTC facilities due to prejudice and discriminatory policies. The aim of this project was to assess the LGBT cultural competency of staff working in LTC facilities, identify their current training needs, and develop a framework for understanding LGBT cultural competency among LTC staff and providers. This grounded theory study comprised data from focus groups of interdisciplinary staff from three LTC facilities. Results suggested that LTC staff struggle with how to be sensitive to LGBT residents' needs. Tension appeared to exist between wanting to provide an equal standard of care to all LTC residents and fearing they would show "favoritism" or "special treatment," which might be viewed as unprofessional. Participants indicated training could help to address the ambivalence they experience about providing sensitive care to subpopulations of residents who face stigma and oppression. LTC staff stand to benefit from cultural competency training focused on LGBT residents. Training should be not only informational in nature, but also facilitate greater self-awareness and self-efficacy with respect to providing care to LGBT people.

  17. Time, Attitude, and User Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Lene

    2008-01-01

    Assimilation of a standard ERP system to an organization is difficult. User involvement seems to be the crux of the matter. However, even the best intentions for user involvement may come to nothing. A case study of a five-year ERP implementation process reveals that a main reason may...... be that the perception of usefulness of the system in any given phase of the implementation is heavily dependent on preceding events—the process. A process model analysis identifies eight episodes and nine encounters in the case showing that the user’s attitude towards the ERP system changes between acceptance......, equivocation, resistance and rejection depending on three things: (1) the dynamic between user and consultants, (2) the dynamic between different user groups, and (3) the understanding of technical, organizational and socio-technical options. When relating the empirical findings to existing theory on user...

  18. Practical speech user interface design

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, James R

    2010-01-01

    Although speech is the most natural form of communication between humans, most people find using speech to communicate with machines anything but natural. Drawing from psychology, human-computer interaction, linguistics, and communication theory, Practical Speech User Interface Design provides a comprehensive yet concise survey of practical speech user interface (SUI) design. It offers practice-based and research-based guidance on how to design effective, efficient, and pleasant speech applications that people can really use. Focusing on the design of speech user interfaces for IVR application

  19. The applicability of the theory of cultural care from nurses in periodics about health of brazil (1992 - 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Cristina Mattara Camargo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Descrever e analisar a aplicabilidade da Teoria do Cuidado Cultural, nas pesquisas divulgadas nas revistas de Enfermagem brasileira, no período de 1992-2011. Método: Pesquisa bibliográfica, capturados 59 artigos, destacando procedência, ano de publicação, sujeito e área de conhecimento da Enfermagem. Resultado: Evidenciou-se a existência de artigos escritos em todas as áreas de Enfermagem, o que demonstra a abrangência de aceitação da Teoria. Entretanto, a tendência brasileira para aplicabilidade na área “Materno infantil” com 42,3% dos artigos que abordaram os valores culturais que interferem no processo de parir. Conclusão: A Teoria do Cuidado Cultural é uma proposta de oferecer um cuidado universal, e conhecer as diversidades de cada indivíduo, seu mundo e valores que interferem em suas reações. No Brasil são poucos os artigos com aplicabilidade da Teoria, entretanto a Enfermagem vem utilizando a mesma nas diversas áreas da sua atuação.

  20. Promoting cultural humility during labor and birth: putting theory into action during PRONTO obstetric and neonatal emergency training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Jenifer O; Cohen, Susanna R; Holme, Francesca; Buttrick, Elizabeth S; Dettinger, Julia C; Kestler, Edgar; Walker, Dilys M

    2013-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal mortality in Northern Guatemala, a region with a high percentage of indigenous people, is disproportionately high. Initiatives to improve quality of care at local health facilities equipped for births, and increasing the number of births attended at these facilities will help address this problem. PRONTO (Programa de Rescate Obstétrico y Neonatal: Tratamiento Óptimo y Oportuno) is a low-tech, high-fidelity, simulation-based, provider-to-provider training in the management of obstetric and neonatal emergencies. This program has been successfully tested and implemented in Mexico. PRONTO will now be implemented in Guatemala as part of an initiative to decrease maternal and perinatal mortality. Guatemalan health authorities have requested that the training include training on cultural humility and humanized birth. This article describes the process of curricular adaptation to satisfy this request. The PRONTO team adapted the existing program through 4 steps: (a) analysis of the problem and context through a review of qualitative data and stakeholder interviews, (b) literature review and adoption of a theoretical framework regarding cultural humility and adult learning, (c) adaptation of the curriculum and design of new activities and simulations, and (d) implementation of adapted and expanded curriculum and further refinement in response to participant response.

  1. Vygotsky’s socio-cultural theory of literacy Scaffolding children to read and write at an early age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahzan Arshad

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article the concept of semiotic mediation, appropriation, internalization,Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD and scaffolding in particular werereviewed to provide understanding of the process. Under the concept ofsemiotic mediation, the issue of how children learn through imitating adults wasexamined with inputs from second language acquisition theories. Vygotsky’sconcept of appropriation provides the springboard for a discussion on howchildren may appropriate the psychological tool of language through modelingand text meditation in the context of second language learning. It is hopedthat the understanding of these concepts could lead to more insights in orderto understand the various changes observable in children at early age as theynudge to achieve their potential in their literacy development. The informationgathered in the paper may be used by parents or teachers in preschool as thefoundation to help children acquire literacy skills at early age.

  2. Cultural Cognition in Usability Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2009-01-01

    ) and Easterners (people from China and the countries heavily influenced by its culture). We illustrate the impact of cultural cognition on four central elements of TA: (1) instructions and tasks, (2) the user's verbalizations, (3) the evaluator's reading of the user, and (4) the overall relationship between user...

  3. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Investigation of Contradictions in Open and Distance Higher Education among Alienated Adult Learners in Korea National Open University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Joo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Drawing upon cultural-historical activity theory, this research analyzed the structural contradictions existing in a variety of educational activities among a group of alienated adult students in Korea National Open University (KNOU. Despite KNOU’s quantitative development in student enrollment, the contradictions shed light on how the institution’s top-down, bureaucratic pedagogical system collided with individual expectations and needs. In particular, the participants’ critical viewpoints demonstrate the incompatible social roles that the open and distance higher education institution plays in Korean society. For example, while KNOU contributes to extending higher education opportunities for those who have unmet educational needs, the value of the KNOU degree has not been socially acknowledged since there is little, if any, competition in the entrance process. This study also documents how these contradictions were culturally and historically embedded in the participants’ distance higher education activities. Given the persistent contradictions, the research findings illuminate that KNOU’s efficiency-oriented model has not effectively facilitated the students’ learning as its distance higher education system is inevitably based on a compromise between a competitive, quality curriculum and the efficient extension of audiences.

  4. Activity Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Bødker, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    the young HCI research tradition. But HCI was already facing problems: lack of consideration for other aspects of human behavior, for interaction with other people, for culture. Cognitive science-based theories lacked means to address several issues that came out of the empirical projects....

  5. Viral epidemics in a cell culture: novel high resolution data and their interpretation by a percolation theory based model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Gönci

    Full Text Available Because of its relevance to everyday life, the spreading of viral infections has been of central interest in a variety of scientific communities involved in fighting, preventing and theoretically interpreting epidemic processes. Recent large scale observations have resulted in major discoveries concerning the overall features of the spreading process in systems with highly mobile susceptible units, but virtually no data are available about observations of infection spreading for a very large number of immobile units. Here we present the first detailed quantitative documentation of percolation-type viral epidemics in a highly reproducible in vitro system consisting of tens of thousands of virtually motionless cells. We use a confluent astroglial monolayer in a Petri dish and induce productive infection in a limited number of cells with a genetically modified herpesvirus strain. This approach allows extreme high resolution tracking of the spatio-temporal development of the epidemic. We show that a simple model is capable of reproducing the basic features of our observations, i.e., the observed behaviour is likely to be applicable to many different kinds of systems. Statistical physics inspired approaches to our data, such as fractal dimension of the infected clusters as well as their size distribution, seem to fit into a percolation theory based interpretation. We suggest that our observations may be used to model epidemics in more complex systems, which are difficult to study in isolation.

  6. Bio-Culturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2007-01-01

    The article argues on the basis of analyses of successful films for children that not only cultural determinants but also innate determinats are important, and that film studies should combine cultural studies with cognitive theory, evolutionary theory and neuroscience, an approach that is called...... Bio-culturalism....

  7. Conspiracy Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Ole; Presskorn-Thygesen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The paper is a contribution to current debates about conspiracy theories within philosophy and cultural studies. Wittgenstein’s understanding of language is invoked to analyse the epistemological effects of designating particular questions and explanations as a ‘conspiracy theory’. It is demonstr......The paper is a contribution to current debates about conspiracy theories within philosophy and cultural studies. Wittgenstein’s understanding of language is invoked to analyse the epistemological effects of designating particular questions and explanations as a ‘conspiracy theory......’. It is demonstrated how such a designation relegates these questions and explanations beyond the realm of meaningful discourse. In addition, Agamben’s concept of sovereignty is applied to explore the political effects of using the concept of conspiracy theory. The exceptional epistemological status assigned...... to alleged conspiracy theories within our prevalent paradigms of knowledge and truth is compared to the exceptional legal status assigned to individuals accused of terrorism under the War on Terror. The paper concludes by discussing the relation between conspiracy theory and ‘the paranoid style...

  8. User-Generated Video and Intertextuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Holmgaard; Rasmussen, Tove Arendt; Kofoed, Peter

    This paper discusses the changing relationship between texts, producers and audiences and tries to understand user-generated audio-visual content or to be more precise, intertextuality in user-generated videos in relation to distribution formats, cultural form and genres. Continuing on from...... people, in particular user-generated videos uploaded and shared in social media networks online. Finally we are informed by Paul Ricoeur's work on hermeneutics and self as another, we explore the role of user-generated content as a specific kind of mediated sociability we suggest that user...

  9. Tribes of Users and System Developers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Dingley

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective communication is essential for information systems development crossing functional, organisational and national boundaries. As organisations attempt to overcome cultural barriers to communication across the world, communication with colleagues across the corridor remains problematic; cultural barriers between departments remain unchallenged. This paper introduces the concepts of 'culture' and 'tribe' into the discussion of the relationship between business users and information systems developers. Previous research has focused on identifying specific barriers to user-systems developer communication and on ways of eliminating these barriers. In contrast, this paper suggests that much can be learnt through the recognition of cultural differences inherent to the differing roles of user and systems developer. Maintenance of cultural identity is essential to the individual if he/she is to function effectively as a member of his/her tribe, whether it is the 'tribe' of developers or the 'tribe' of users. Communication problems within the systems development process may be addressed by a mutual understanding of cultural differences between the 'tribes' of users and systems developers. This degree of understanding cannot be achieved by attempting to change, persuade or convert the other tribe. The problems of user-systems developer communication need to be addressed through effective communication which acknowledges the differing cultures.

  10. The Duty to Recognize Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2012-01-01

    On Taylor and Honneth's theories of recognition and whether one can derive a "duty to recognize Culture" from these......On Taylor and Honneth's theories of recognition and whether one can derive a "duty to recognize Culture" from these...

  11. User experience of lower-limb orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing-Shiang; Chen, Yen-Wan; Tong, Ji-Rou

    2017-06-09

    If an assistive device is not acceptable to the user, it will not achieve efficacy and would be resource-wasting. This study employed in-depth interviews to understand what users' individual activities of daily living, problems of using orthoses, and considerations for selecting orthoses are. We conducted qualitative interviews with 35 lower-limb orthosis users, and semi-structured interviews were applied in this study. We analyzed the interview data from transcripts, through coding and concepts, to theories based on grounded theory. The results showed that problems of using orthoses are mostly related to activities of daily living of the user and user's expectation. Therefore, in order to enhance its efficacy and use intention, the design and prescribing process of orthoses need to address the problems in the light of activities of daily living and user education.

  12. Justine user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.R.

    1995-10-01

    Justine is the graphical user interface to the Los Alamos Radiation Modeling Interactive Environment (LARAMIE). It provides LARAMIE customers with a powerful, robust, easy-to-use, WYSIWYG interface that facilitates geometry construction and problem specification. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with LARAMIE, and the transport codes available, i.e., MCNPTM and DANTSYSTM. No attempt is made in this manual to describe these codes in detail. Information about LARAMIE, DANTSYS, and MCNP are available elsewhere. It i also assumed that the reader is familiar with the Unix operating system and with Motif widgets and their look and feel. However, a brief description of Motif and how one interacts with it can be found in Appendix A.

  13. User resistance to information system implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Robert H.; Grimshaw, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Users often resist information system implementations and it has been established that this can cause an implementation to fail. In this paper, the user attitudes that can cause resistance are examined using an established attitude change theory from social and cognitive psychology: the Elaboration...

  14. Unpacking the Black Box: A Formative Research Approach to the Development of Theory-Driven, Evidence-Based, and Culturally Safe Text Messages in Mobile Health Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maar, Marion A; Yeates, Karen; Toth, Zsolt; Barron, Marcia; Boesch, Lisa; Hua-Stewart, Diane; Liu, Peter; Perkins, Nancy; Sleeth, Jessica; Wabano, Mary Jo; Williamson, Pamela; Tobe, Sheldon W

    2016-01-22

    Mobile-cellular subscriptions have increased steadily over the past decade. The accessibility of SMS messages over existing mobile networks is high and has almost universal availability even on older and unsophisticated mobile phones and in geographic settings where wireless coverage is weak. There is intensive exploration of this inexpensive mobile telecommunication technology to improve health services and promote behavior change among vulnerable populations. However, a neglected area of research is the documentation and critical analysis of the formative research process required in the development and refinement of effective SMS messages. The objective of this qualitative research study was to identify major factors that may impact on the effectiveness of evidence-based SMS messages designed to reduce health inequities in hypertension management in low resource settings, including Aboriginal populations in high-income countries and rural populations in low-income countries. Specifically, we were interested in uncovering the range of mediators that impact on appropriate message content transmission and, ultimately, on health behavior improvements in a range of these sociocultural settings. Collaborative qualitative research with Canadian Aboriginal and Tanzanian participants was conducted to deconstruct the content and transmission of evidence-based health information contained in SMS messages in the context of an international research project designed to address health inequalities in hypertension, and to develop a grounded theory of the major factors that mediate the effectiveness of this communication. We also examined the interrelationship of these mediators with the three essential conditions of the behavior system of the Behavioral Change Wheel model (capability, opportunity, and motivation) and cultural safety. Four focus groups with a total of 45 participants were conducted. Our grounded theory research revealed how discrepancies develop between the

  15. Towards a better understanding of the relationship between executive control and theory of mind: an intra-cultural comparison of three diverse samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahaeian, Ameneh; Henry, Julie D; Razmjoee, Maryam; Teymoori, Ali; Wang, Cen

    2015-09-01

    Previous research has consistently indicated that theory of mind (ToM) is associated with executive control in the preschool years. However, interpretation of this literature is limited by the fact that most studies have focused exclusively on urbanized Western cultural samples. Consequently, it is not clear whether the association between ToM and executive control reflects the specific features of this particular cohort or instead reflects a universal pattern. The present study provides the first empirical assessment of these two constructs in three diverse groups of Iranian children. Participants were 142 preschoolers (4-5 years old) from high-socioeconomic status (SES) urban (n = 33), low-SES urban (n = 37) and rural villages (n = 77). The results show that there is a robust association between ToM and executive control in all three groups, and that executive control contributes significant unique variance to ToM understanding, even after controlling for a range of variables that have been proposed as potential confounders of this relationship. However, although the three groups were equated in ToM, significant differences in executive control were evident. Moreover, cluster analysis identified three distinct clusters that were relatively homogeneous with respect to executive control and SES. One of these clusters was characterized by both low SES and low executive functioning, and showed little evidence of ToM understanding. Taken together, these findings provide possibly the clearest evidence to date that the association between ToM and executive control is not dependent on children's previous experiences on the tasks, or their family and cultural background. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A Cross-Cultural Assessment of Three Theories of Pro-Environmental Behavior: A Comparison between Business Students of Chile and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordano, Mark; Welcomer, Stephanie; Scherer, Robert F.; Pradenas, Lorena; Parada, Victor

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed business students in the United States (n = 256) and Chile (n = 310) to compare three theories of pro-environmental behavior.We examined Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of reasoned action, Schawartz's norm activation theory, and the values-beliefs-norms theory created by Stern, Dietz, Abel, Guagnano, and Kalof. We produced reliable…

  17. Culture evolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A.; Laland, Kevin N.; Stringer, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to facilitate cross-disciplinary fertilization. Each approach emphasizes important linkages between culture and evolutionary biology rather than quarantining one from the other. Recent studies reveal that processes important in cultural transmission are more widespread and significant across the animal kingdom than earlier recognized, with important implications for evolutionary theory. Recent archaeological discoveries have pushed back the origins of human culture to much more ancient times than traditionally thought. These developments suggest previously unidentified continuities between animal and human culture. A third new array of discoveries concerns the later diversification of human cultures, where the operations of Darwinian-like processes are identified, in part, through scientific methods borrowed from biology. Finally, surprising discoveries have been made about the imprint of cultural evolution in the predispositions of human minds for cultural transmission. PMID:21357216

  18. Cultural Influences on Play Style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialas, Mateusz; Tekofsky, Shoshannah; Spronck, P.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    In general, video game researchers do not differentiate between players’ nationalities. Cultural theories, however, show that cultural differences concern numerous values, including values associated with interaction with media. We therefore ask the question whether there exist cross-cultural

  19. Sketching user experiences the workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Saul; Marquardt, Nicolai; Buxton, Bill

    2012-01-01

    In Sketching User Experiences: The Workbook, you will learn, through step-by-step instructions and exercises, various sketching methods that will let you express your design ideas about user experiences across time. Collectively, these methods will be your sketching repertoire: a toolkit where you can choose the method most appropriate for developing your ideas, which will help you cultivate a culture of experience-based design and critique in your workplace. Features standalone modules detailing methods and exercises for practitioners who want to learn and develop their sketching skills E

  20. El cuidado y la cultura: Génesis, lazos y referentes teóricos en enfermería The care and culture: Origin, connections and theories in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candela Bonill de las Nieves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vivimos inmersos en una sociedad multicultural. La cultura da forma a la manera en la que la persona vive la salud y la enfermedad. Este hecho nos insta a que como profesionales dispongamos no solo del conocimiento necesario acerca de otras culturas y la propia, sino también de las actitudes y habilidades culturales necesarias para llevar a cabo unos cuidados culturalmente competentes en un contexto concreto. En este artículo se hace un recorrido por los conceptos de cultura y cuidados, sus conexiones y las principales corrientes y referentes teóricos con los que contamos en el campo de los cuidados culturales. Se trata de ofrecer alternativas que huyendo de una visión reduccionista de la persona defienden la importancia de atender las necesidades desde la perspectiva de la competencia cultural.We live immersed in a multicultural society. Culture determines the way in which a person lives in both health and illness. We need to have, as professionals, the necessary knowledge, not only about other cultures and their own, but also cultural attitudes, and have the skills needed to conduct culturally competent care in any given situation. This article discusses culture and care concepts, their connections and the current theories in the field of cultural care. The aims are to offer alternatives that defend the importance of seeing the needs of the patient from the perspective of cultural competence and to leave behind the reductionist view of the person.

  1. Information Privacy: Culture, Legislation and User Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Cockcroft

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Information privacy has received much public and research interest in recent years. Globally this has arisen from public anxiety following the September 11 attacks and within Australia a progressive tightening of privacy legislation in particular the privacy amendment (private sector Act of 2000 which became operative in 2001. This paper presents the results of a study into attitudes towards information privacy. Based on an instrument developed and validated by Smith et al (1996a this study sets out to measure individual concerns regarding organisational use of information along four dimensions: collection, errors, unauthorised secondary use, and improper access. The survey was completed by 67 undergraduate and postgraduate students enrolled in an e-commerce security subject at the University of Queensland. Comparisons are drawn between the results of this study and an identical one carried out at the University of North Alabama. Whilst it is too early to draw conclusions about the impact of these attitudes on the success of e-commerce in general, the results should be of interest to those within universities seeking to expand the use of networking technologies for handling sensitive information such as enrolment and fee processing (Vanscoy & Oakleaf 2003

  2. Unifying User-to-User Messaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wams, J.M.S.; van Steen, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Unification of user-to-user messaging systems facilitates message exchange independent of time, place, protocol, and end-user device. This article describes an approach to unification that is based on introducing a middleware layer instead of employing gateways. It entails a single system that

  3. A Critique of the Capacity of Strauss Grounded Theory for Prediction, Change, and Control in Organisational Strategy via a Grounded Theorisation of Leisure and Cultural Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakir, Ali; Bakir, Vian

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we critique grounded theory's ability to fulfil its aim of offering a practical vehicle for prediction, change, and control as stipulated in grounded theory's original formulation by Glaser and Strauss, and later developed by Strauss. We do this through a case study approach, whereby we develop a grounded theory of leisure and…

  4. User Interface Technology for Formal Specification Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Michael; Philpot, Andrew; Pressburger, Thomas; Underwood, Ian; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Formal specification development and modification are an essential component of the knowledge-based software life cycle. User interface technology is needed to empower end-users to create their own formal specifications. This paper describes the advanced user interface for AMPHION1 a knowledge-based software engineering system that targets scientific subroutine libraries. AMPHION is a generic, domain-independent architecture that is specialized to an application domain through a declarative domain theory. Formal specification development and reuse is made accessible to end-users through an intuitive graphical interface that provides semantic guidance in creating diagrams denoting formal specifications in an application domain. The diagrams also serve to document the specifications. Automatic deductive program synthesis ensures that end-user specifications are correctly implemented. The tables that drive AMPHION's user interface are automatically compiled from a domain theory; portions of the interface can be customized by the end-user. The user interface facilitates formal specification development by hiding syntactic details, such as logical notation. It also turns some of the barriers for end-user specification development associated with strongly typed formal languages into active sources of guidance, without restricting advanced users. The interface is especially suited for specification modification. AMPHION has been applied to the domain of solar system kinematics through the development of a declarative domain theory. Testing over six months with planetary scientists indicates that AMPHION's interactive specification acquisition paradigm enables users to develop, modify, and reuse specifications at least an order of magnitude more rapidly than manual program development.

  5. Rivet user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Andy; Butterworth, Jonathan; Grellscheid, David; Hoeth, Hendrik; Lönnblad, Leif; Monk, James; Schulz, Holger; Siegert, Frank

    2013-12-01

    This is the manual and user guide for the Rivet system for the validation and tuning of Monte Carlo event generators. As well as the core Rivet library, this manual describes the usage of the rivet program and the AGILe generator interface library. The depth and level of description is chosen for users of the system, starting with the basics of using validation code written by others, and then covering sufficient details to write new Rivet analyses and calculational components. Catalogue identifier: AEPS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEPS_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 571126 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4717522 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, Python. Computer: PC running Linux, Mac. Operating system: Linux, Mac OS. RAM: 20 MB Classification: 11.9, 11.2. External routines: HepMC (https://savannah.cern.ch/projects/hepmc/), GSL (http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/manual/gsl-ref.html), FastJet (http://fastjet.fr/), Python (http://www.python.org/), Swig (http://www.swig.org/), Boost (http://www.boostsoftware.com/), YAML (http://www.yaml.org/spec/1.2/spec.html) Nature of problem: Experimental measurements from high-energy particle colliders should be defined and stored in a general framework such that it is simple to compare theory predictions to them. Rivet is such a framework, and contains at the same time a large collection of existing measurements. Solution method: Rivet is based on HepMC events, a standardised output format provided by many theory simulation tools. Events are processed by Rivet to generate histograms for the requested list of analyses, incorporating all experimental phase space cuts and histogram definitions. Restrictions: Cannot calculate

  6. From Cultural Awareness to Intercultural Awareness: Culture in ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Will

    2012-01-01

    Cultural awareness (CA) has emerged over the last few decades as a significant part of conceptualizing the cultural dimension to language teaching. That is, L2 users need to understand L2 communication as a cultural process and to be aware of their own culturally based communicative behaviour and that of others. However, while CA has provided a…

  7. Meaning-making matters in product design: users' sensory perceptions and experience evaluations of long-acting vaginal gels and intravaginal rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Rochelle K; van den Berg, Jacob J; Vargas, Sara E; Senocak, Natali; Shaw, Julia G; Buckheit, Robert W; Smith, Kelley Alison; Guthrie, Kate Morrow

    2015-12-01

    Users' sensory perceptions and experiences of intravaginal products can inform acceptability and adherence. Focusing on the meanings women derive from formulation/device characteristics facilitates developers' design iterations toward optimizing user experience. We investigated how users of long-acting gels and intravaginal rings (IVRs) impute meaning to characteristics that may affect future product use. Focus groups were conducted with contraceptive IVR and vaginal lubricant users. Current perceptibility science and historical theory on the cultural acceptability of fertility regulating methods informed the analysis. A total of 21 IVR users and 29 lubricant users attended focus groups in which they manipulated products in their hands and discussed reactions to product characteristics. Participants used prior product experiences and sensory perceptions of prototype manipulations to inform meanings about product properties and performance for pregnancy, disease prevention, comfort, and perceived efficacy. The meanings derived from product characteristics depended on why the product would be used; a characteristic deemed problematic in one risk context may be considered preferable in another. Intravaginal product users create narratives that ascribe influence or causality to product characteristics. These meanings, whether correct or incorrect biologically, will shape vaginal product acceptability, use, and effectiveness. Long-acting and sustained-release drug delivery systems will be part of the multipurpose prevention continuum. Developers must consider how sensory experiences and culturally salient assumptions shape the meanings users make of product design characteristics. Those meanings will ultimately impact use and effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Making HCI Theory Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Kaptelinin, Victor; Nardi, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the use of activity theory in human–computer interaction (HCI) research. We analyse activity theory in HCI since its first appearance about 25 years ago. Through an analysis and meta-synthesis of 109 selected HCI activity theory papers, we created a taxonomy of 5...... different ways of using activity theory: (1) analysing unique features, principles, and problematic aspects of the theory; (2) identifying domain-specific requirements for new theoretical tools; (3) developing new conceptual accounts of issues in the field of HCI; (4) guiding and supporting empirical...... analyses of HCI phenomena; and (5) providing new design illustrations, claims, and guidelines. We conclude that HCI researchers are not only users of imported theory, but also theory-makers who adapt and develop theory for different purposes....

  9. Historicizing affordance theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sofie; Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss how mutually enriching points from both affordance theory and cultural-historical activity theory can promote theoretical ideas which may prove useful as analytical tools for the study of human life and human development. There are two issues that need...... to be overcome in order to explore the potentials of James Gibson’s affordance theory: it does not sufficiently theorize (a) development and (b) society. We claim that Gibson’s affordance theory still needs to be brought beyond “the axiom of immediacy.” Ambivalences in Gibson’s affordance theory...... societal character of affordance theory....

  10. Factors Influencing Users Satisfaction on E-Learning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josua Tarigan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available User satisfaction has held a central role in an organization as one of the measurements for the success of service delivery. The objectives of this study are to evaluate user satisfaction and examine the association between user satisfaction and the qualities in the e-learning systems of Multionational Company. A theoretical framework is developed, through the integration of e-learning satisfaction (ELS theory and global satisfaction theory. The analysis was organized from a set of data which involve 190 responses from end-users. The main finding confirms some degree of a positive association between user satisfaction and the qualities in the e-learning system.

  11. Culture from the Bottom Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight; Sohn, Jija

    2013-01-01

    The culture concept has been severely criticized for its top-down nature in TESOL, leading arguably to its falling out of favor in the field. But what of the fact that people do "live culturally" (Ingold, 1994)? This article describes a case study of culture from the bottom up--culture as understood and enacted by its individual users.…

  12. User Design: A Case Study on Corporate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Raymond S.; Carr-Chellman, Alison A.; Lohmann, Neal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of implementing user design strategies within the corporate culture. Using a case study design approach, this article explores the change process within a "Fortune" 100 company in which users were given significant decision-making powers. The main focus is on the unique nature of user design in…

  13. Cultural Usability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Qingxin

    2007-01-01

    Culture has already played an important role in the global market. It not only affects products, but also impacts on usability evaluation methods. This project aims to examine in the established thinking aloud usability evaluation method (TA UEM), how does the evaluator build a supportive...... relationship and communicate effectively with the user in order to find relevant usability problems in culturally localized applications. It includes three parts, pilot study, field study and experiments, to get both qualitative data and quantitative data. From this project, we hope to find an effective way...... to structure our TA UEM methodology to capture or be sensitive towards the mental models and ways of thinking in different cultural groups....

  14. Cultural Cognition in Usability Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2009-01-01

    ) and Easterners (people from China and the countries heavily influenced by its culture). We illustrate the impact of cultural cognition on four central elements of TA: (1) instructions and tasks, (2) the user’s verbalizations, (3) the evaluator’s reading of the user, and (4) the overall relationship between user...

  15. User Behavior Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, Melissa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Juston Shane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-28

    User Behaviour Analytics is the tracking, collecting and assessing of user data and activities. The goal is to detect misuse of user credentials by developing models for the normal behaviour of user credentials within a computer network and detect outliers with respect to their baseline.

  16. User Innovation Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille

    User Innovation Management (UIM) is a method for fo-opereation with users in innovation projects. The UIM method emphasizes the practice of a participatorty attitude.......User Innovation Management (UIM) is a method for fo-opereation with users in innovation projects. The UIM method emphasizes the practice of a participatorty attitude....

  17. The User Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    User experience (UX) is about arranging the elements of a product or service to optimize how people will interact with it. In this article, the author talks about the importance of user experience and discusses the design of user experiences in libraries. He first looks at what UX is. Then he describes three kinds of user experience design: (1)…

  18. Franklin: User Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Research Supercomputing Center; He, Yun (Helen); Kramer, William T.C.; Carter, Jonathan; Cardo, Nicholas

    2008-05-07

    The newest workhorse of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center is a Cray XT4 with 9,736 dual core nodes. This paper summarizes Franklin user experiences from friendly early user period to production period. Selected successful user stories along with top issues affecting user experiences are presented.

  19. Bastard Culture! How User Participation Transforms Cultural Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schäfer, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    Nieuwe online technologieën brengen een grote belofte van bevrijding met zich mee. Leken en amateurs worden enthousiast als helden van het digitale tijdperk omhelsd.
    In dit boek analyseert Mirko Tobias Schäfer hoe de participatie van gebruikers daadwerkelijk vorm krijgt door deze in de context

  20. Bastard Culture! : How User Participation Transforms Cultural Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schäfer, Mirko Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Nieuwe online technologieën brengen een grote belofte van bevrijding met zich mee. Leken en amateurs worden enthousiast als helden van het digitale tijdperk omhelsd. In dit boek analyseert Mirko Tobias Schäfer hoe de participatie van gebruikers daadwerkelijk vorm krijgt door deze in de context te