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Sample records for theory involving disharmony

  1. Pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in girls - a double neuro-osseous theory involving disharmony between two nervous systems, somatic and autonomic expressed in the spine and trunk: possible dependency on sympathetic nervous system and hormones with implications for medical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwell, R Geoffrey; Aujla, Ranjit K; Grevitt, Michael P; Dangerfield, Peter H; Moulton, Alan; Randell, Tabitha L; Anderson, Susan I

    2009-10-31

    Anthropometric data from three groups of adolescent girls - preoperative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), screened for scoliosis and normals were analysed by comparing skeletal data between higher and lower body mass index subsets. Unexpected findings for each of skeletal maturation, asymmetries and overgrowth are not explained by prevailing theories of AIS pathogenesis. A speculative pathogenetic theory for girls is formulated after surveying evidence including: (1) the thoracospinal concept for right thoracic AIS in girls; (2) the new neuroskeletal biology relating the sympathetic nervous system to bone formation/resorption and bone growth; (3) white adipose tissue storing triglycerides and the adiposity hormone leptin which functions as satiety hormone and sentinel of energy balance to the hypothalamus for long-term adiposity; and (4) central leptin resistance in obesity and possibly in healthy females. The new theory states that AIS in girls results from developmental disharmony expressed in spine and trunk between autonomic and somatic nervous systems. The autonomic component of this double neuro-osseous theory for AIS pathogenesis in girls involves selectively increased sensitivity of the hypothalamus to circulating leptin (genetically-determined up-regulation possibly involving inhibitory or sensitizing intracellular molecules, such as SOC3, PTP-1B and SH2B1 respectively), with asymmetry as an adverse response (hormesis); this asymmetry is routed bilaterally via the sympathetic nervous system to the growing axial skeleton where it may initiate the scoliosis deformity (leptin-hypothalamic-sympathetic nervous system concept = LHS concept). In some younger preoperative AIS girls, the hypothalamic up-regulation to circulating leptin also involves the somatotropic (growth hormone/IGF) axis which exaggerates the sympathetically-induced asymmetric skeletal effects and contributes to curve progression, a concept with therapeutic implications. In the somatic

  2. Pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in girls - a double neuro-osseous theory involving disharmony between two nervous systems, somatic and autonomic expressed in the spine and trunk: possible dependency on sympathetic nervous system and hormones with implications for medical therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulton Alan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anthropometric data from three groups of adolescent girls - preoperative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS, screened for scoliosis and normals were analysed by comparing skeletal data between higher and lower body mass index subsets. Unexpected findings for each of skeletal maturation, asymmetries and overgrowth are not explained by prevailing theories of AIS pathogenesis. A speculative pathogenetic theory for girls is formulated after surveying evidence including: (1 the thoracospinal concept for right thoracic AIS in girls; (2 the new neuroskeletal biology relating the sympathetic nervous system to bone formation/resorption and bone growth; (3 white adipose tissue storing triglycerides and the adiposity hormone leptin which functions as satiety hormone and sentinel of energy balance to the hypothalamus for long-term adiposity; and (4 central leptin resistance in obesity and possibly in healthy females. The new theory states that AIS in girls results from developmental disharmony expressed in spine and trunk between autonomic and somatic nervous systems. The autonomic component of this double neuro-osseous theory for AIS pathogenesis in girls involves selectively increased sensitivity of the hypothalamus to circulating leptin (genetically-determined up-regulation possibly involving inhibitory or sensitizing intracellular molecules, such as SOC3, PTP-1B and SH2B1 respectively, with asymmetry as an adverse response (hormesis; this asymmetry is routed bilaterally via the sympathetic nervous system to the growing axial skeleton where it may initiate the scoliosis deformity (leptin-hypothalamic-sympathetic nervous system concept = LHS concept. In some younger preoperative AIS girls, the hypothalamic up-regulation to circulating leptin also involves the somatotropic (growth hormone/IGF axis which exaggerates the sympathetically-induced asymmetric skeletal effects and contributes to curve progression, a concept with therapeutic

  3. How Communication Disharmonies between Patients and Nurses Can Affect Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Marianne Kirstine; Pedersen, Birthe D.

    2017-01-01

    verbatim and analyzed using a Ricoeur inspired technique, which started open-minded. Situations with harmony between patients’ experience of their health state and nurses’ signals in this regard were more peaceful and energizing for the patients than situations with disharmony, which gave limbo experiences...... and drained of energy. The Broaden and Build theory and the Sense of Coherence theory might support our findings. True presence of the nurse is important in order to meet the patient where she is and communicate from there. More evidence based suggestions for future clinical foci are given. Female cancer...

  4. DEVELOPMENTAL DISHARMONY OF PSYCHOTIC TYPE OVERVIEW FROM A NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslav KOPACHEV

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a case from the clinical praxis, the authors, adopting a neuropsy­ho­logical attitude, study and define the developmental disharmony of a psychotic type. They consider that the developmental disharmony of a psychotic type represents a global and profound destruction of structures and functions (motors, speech, emotions, cognition, socialization. The foundation thesis is that in basic of the disharmony developmental structure of the child. A “psychotic nucleus” is being created rather early in the age of Child’s development, with under pressure of the no favorable environmental factors leads to psychotic manifestation of the personality. The developmental disharmony of a psychotic type could have a various outcome. The child could manifest a progressive intellectual deterioration, to evolve in a direction of schizophrenic psychoses, to structure itself as a “Borderline” personality, while very rarely a relative normalization of the personality could occur. The authors promote the significance of early detection, qualitative diagnostics and adequate treatment by well educated and polyvalent, multidisciplinary expert team.

  5. Assessing Disharmony and Disaffection in Intimate Relationships: Revision of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory Factor Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Rachael L.; Mitchell, Alexandra E.; Castellani, Angela M.; Joseph, Jana I.; Snyder, Douglas K.; Gleaves, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has identified 2 broad components of distress in intimate relationships: overt conflict, or "disharmony", and emotional distance, or "disaffection". Using confirmatory factor analysis, the authors derived 2 broadband scales of disharmony and disaffection from the Marital Satisfaction Inventory-Revised (D. K. Snyder, 1997),…

  6. Parental Involvement and the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracke, Deborah; Corts, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The "Theory of Planned Behavior" provided a specific theoretical framework to evaluate the impact of attitudes, norms, and controls on parental involvement in a local school district. The "new knowledge" that resulted from the measurement of these constructs affirmed that regardless of the perceived level of parental involvement, virtually all…

  7. Compensation exercises for elimination of muscles disharmonies at the football players U13

    OpenAIRE

    Požárek, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Title Compensation exercises for elimination of muscles disharmonie at the football players U13 Objective The aim of the graduation theses is testing of young football players. We compite a group of exercises for injuries prevention at the football. Methods Football players (U13) of SK Dynamo České Budějovice and SK Slavia Praha were tested for muscles disharmony. The test was based on the method of Janda (1996). The results were listed to the test. Results A designed group of exercises for i...

  8. Effects of stress and relaxation on pain perception in subjects with pain-free occlusional disharmony compared with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscheweyh, R; Becker, T; Born, Y; Çolak-Ekici, R; Marziniak, M; Evers, S; Gerlach, A L; Wolowski, A

    2015-04-01

    The significance of occlusal disharmony for the development of painful temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is controversial. The ongoing biomechanical strain caused by occlusal disharmony might lead to sensitization processes in the nociceptive system. Understanding these processes might be an important step toward understanding the possible relationship between occlusal disharmony and TMD. In this study, we therefore investigated whether subjects with occlusal disharmony (n = 22) differ from healthy controls (n = 26) in their pain perception and pain modulation by stress and relaxation. Trigeminal and extratrigeminal experimental pain perception (pinprick, heat, and pressure pain) was assessed before and after stress (mental arithmetic) and relaxation (viewing of low-arousal pictures). There were no group differences in pain perception at baseline or during the stress task. Compared with controls, the occlusal disharmony group exhibited an inadequate reduction in pain perception during relaxation, which was significant for the extratrigeminal site (P < 0.01) and reached a trend for significance at the trigeminal site (P = 0.1). These results suggest that subjects with occlusal disharmony show signs of disturbed endogenous pain inhibition during relaxation. There is evidence for the presence of sensitization of the nociceptive system in subjects with occlusal disharmony. Possibly, deficient inhibition of extratrigeminal and trigeminal pain perception by relaxation might contribute to the development of TMD or other chronic pain disorders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Characteristics of psychosexual development of married couples with epilepsy in the husband in aspect of sexual disharmony formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shynder, V V

    2014-01-01

    Features of formation of sexual disharmony of married couples with epilepsy at the husband are studied. The role of psychosexual development in formation of sexual violations and a matrimonial disadaptation is defined.

  10. Muscles' disharmony of the football players in the age of pupil category

    OpenAIRE

    Hebnar, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Title: Museles disharmony at the football players in the age ofpupil category Generally speaking, problem of today's football players are persona! injuries. This is very annoying for everyone especially for soccer player because he cannot play for a long time, he comes off trainings and getting back to a good shape is very hard, slow-gaited and problematic. Objective: Diploma work is orientated to illuminate those difficulties and find the best solutions for prevention offootball's injuries. ...

  11. Intergenerational effects--a review of environmentally oriented studies concerning the relationship between parental alcohol problems and family disharmony in the genesis of alcohol and other problems. II: The intergenerational effects of family disharmony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velleman, R

    1992-04-01

    This paper is the second in a two-part series. In this paper the literature on the intergenerational transmission of family disharmony is reviewed from an environmental perspective. It is concluded that there is considerable evidence that children who grow up in a home which has a discordant atmosphere are at higher risk of developing a number of childhood problems and disorders than are comparison children. It is also clear that particularly likely outcomes for boys are antisocial behavior patterns and conduct disorder. The evidence also suggests that adults raised in a discordant atmosphere are still at high risk of developing a variety of problems once they reach adulthood. It is suggested that the negative effects of having a problem-drinking parent are mediated via family disharmony, and that in the absence of such disharmony the offspring will not be damaged. Suggestions are made for further research.

  12. Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thissen, David

    2016-01-01

    David Thissen, a professor in the Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Quantitative Program at the University of North Carolina, has consulted and served on technical advisory committees for assessment programs that use item response theory (IRT) over the past couple decades. He has come to the conclusion that there are usually two purposes…

  13. Social Cooperation and Disharmony in Communities Mediated through Common Pool Resource Exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiarto, H S; Lansing, J S; Chung, N N; Lai, C H; Cheong, S A; Chew, L Y

    2017-05-19

    It was theorized that when a society exploits a shared resource, the system can undergo extreme phase transition from full cooperation in abiding by a social agreement, to full defection from it. This was shown to happen in an integrated society with complex social relationships. However, real-world agents tend to segregate into communities whose interactions contain features of the associated community structure. We found that such social segregation softens the abrupt extreme transition through the emergence of multiple intermediate phases composed of communities of cooperators and defectors. Phase transitions thus now occur through these intermediate phases which avert the instantaneous collapse of social cooperation within a society. While this is beneficial to society, it nonetheless costs society in two ways. First, the return to full cooperation from full defection at the phase transition is no longer immediate. Community linkages have rendered greater societal inertia such that the switch back is now typically stepwise rather than a single change. Second, there is a drastic increase in social disharmony within the society due to the greater tension in the relationship between segregated communities of defectors and cooperators. Intriguingly, these results on multiple phases with its associated phenomenon of social disharmony are found to characterize the level of cooperation within a society of Balinese farmers who exploit water for rice production.

  14. The solid Earth's involvement in oxygen cycling: Observations and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorttle, O.; Stolper, E.; Antoshechkina, P. M.; Asimow, P. D.; Jennings, E. S.; Gaetani, G. A.; Graham, D. W.; Hartley, M. E.; Williams, H. M.; Brounce, M. N.; Halldorsson, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Interactions between the hydrosphere, atmosphere, and silicate portion of Earth regulate atmospheric oxygen. Whilst oxygen is produced by photosynthesis, its buildup in the atmosphere is regulated by oxidation of organic matter, reduced volcanic gasses, and the ferrous iron in silicates. We focus on this latter part of the abiotic oxygen cycle, and interrogate with new observations and modelling the long term cycling of oxygen between the mantle and atmosphere via ocean crust formation, oxidation, subduction, and its eventual inclusion in the source regions of hotspots. We present new Fe-XANES measurements on basalts from three localities: two mid-ocean ridges (MOR) free from hotspot influence, Juan de Fuca and the South East Indian Ridges; and one plume locality exhibiting significant geochemical heterogeneity, Iceland. These samples constrain the redox heterogeneity of their respective mantle source regions and the processes involved in ferric iron transfer from the mantle into basalts. The MORs erupt basalts with very uniform ferric iron proportions, despite their exhibiting large changes in ridge axial depth and geochemical variability. In contrast, Icelandic basalts vary widely in their ferric iron proportions, and are systematically more oxidised than MOR basalts by 0.8 log units. We find that the Icelandic mantle contains oxidised domains with the major element, trace element, and isotopic signatures of recycled basalt components. These geochemical characteristics support a model in which alteration of oceanic crust provides a long-term sink for oxygen in the deep mantle. Complementary to the observational work, we perform new thermodynamic calculations characterising the behaviour of ferric iron during mantle melting. These models enable us to identify what aspects of basalt ferric iron are attributable to melting processes as opposed to source composition. The models' prediction of basalt ferric iron contents decreasing with increasing mantle potential

  15. Orthognathic treatment of dentofacial disharmonies: its impact on temporomandibular disorders, quality of life, and psychosocial wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi Lin; Yap, Adrian U Jin

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this literature review was to assess the effect of orthognathic surgical treatment on temporomandibular disorders (TMD), quality of life (QoL), and psychosocial wellness. Journal articles and systematic reviews published in English between 1982 and 2015 were searched using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane database using the search terms "orthognathic," "temporomandibular disorders," "quality of life," and "psychosocial." The articles were then reviewed and discussed. Both objective and subjective parameters play a role in orthognathic treatment outcome satisfaction and QoL. Psychological factors and TMD exerted a stronger influence on patients' QoL more than objective treatment outcome measures. A paradigm shift in clinical mindset from solely objective measures to a more holistic, patient-centric approach of addressing patients' expectations and improving QoL is warranted when treating patients with dentofacial disharmonies.

  16. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Children's Theory of Mind and Adolescent Involvement in Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Sania; Jaffee, Sara R.; Bowes, Lucy; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Andreou, Penelope; Happe, Francesca; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Background: Theory of mind (ToM) allows the understanding and prediction of other people's behaviours based on their mental states (e.g. beliefs). It is important for healthy social relationships and thus may contribute towards children's involvement in bullying. The present study investigated whether children involved in bullying during early…

  17. A matter of timing: developmental theories of romantic involvement and psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Wyndol; Collibee, Charlene

    2014-11-01

    The present study compared two theories of the association between romantic involvement and adjustment: a social timetable theory and a developmental task theory. We examined seven waves of longitudinal data on a community based sample of 200 participants (Wave 1 mean age = 15 years, 10 months). In each wave, multiple measures of substance use, externalizing symptoms, and internalizing symptoms were gathered, typically from multiple reporters. Multilevel modeling revealed that greater levels of romantic involvement in adolescence were associated with higher levels of substance use and externalizing symptoms but became associated with lower levels in adulthood. Having a romantic partner was associated with greater levels of substance use, externalizing symptoms, and internalizing symptoms in adolescence but was associated with lower levels in young adulthood. The findings were not consistent with a social timetable theory, which predicts that nonnormative involvement is associated with poor adjustment. Instead, the findings are consistent with a developmental task theory, which predicts that precocious romantic involvement undermines development and adaptation, but when romantic involvement becomes a salient developmental task in adulthood, it is associated with positive adjustment. Discussion focuses on the processes that may underlie the changing nature of the association between romantic involvement and adjustment.

  18. Even with the best of intentions: paternal involvement and the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Armon Rashard; Langley, Cheri

    2013-06-01

    Implicit in much of the fatherhood discourse is the assumption that if fathers want to take an active role in their children's lives, they could and would do so. While research has highlighted the factors associated with fathers' involvement, very few, if any, of these studies have been guided by a theory that accounts for both fathers' involvement intentions and their ability to follow through on those intentions. The theory of planned behavior and its emphasis on attitudes, the beliefs of significant others, and whether one has control over engaging in behavior is a conceptual fit to respond to questions related to the complex nature of paternal involvement. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study, the purpose of this study was to test the utility of the theory of planned behavior in predicting fathers' involvement intentions and reports of involvement. The results revealed that the theory of planned behavior can be useful in examining paternal involvement and should be used in future research to enhance the fatherhood literature. © FPI, Inc.

  19. Discussion of David Thissen's Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, Howard

    2016-01-01

    The usual role of a discussant is to clarify and correct the paper being discussed, but in this case, the author, Howard Wainer, generally agrees with everything David Thissen says in his essay, "Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory." This essay expands on David Thissen's statement that there are typically two principal…

  20. A prospective longitudinal study of children’s theory of mind and adolescent involvement in bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sania, Shakoor; Jaffee, Sara R; Bowes, Lucy; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Andreou, Penelope; Happé, Francesca; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Background Theory of mind allows the understanding and prediction of other people’s behaviours based on their mental states (e.g. beliefs). It is important for healthy social relationships and thus may contribute towards children’s involvement in bullying. The present study investigated whether children involved in bullying during early adolescence had poor theory of mind in childhood. Method Participants were members of the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative sample of 2,232 children and their families. Families were visited by the authors when children were 5, 7, 10 and 12 years. Theory of mind was assessed when the children were 5 years using eight standardized tasks. Identification of those children who were involved in bullying as victims, bullies and bully-victims using mothers’, teachers’ and children’s reports was carried out when they were 12 years’ old. Results Poor theory of mind predicted becoming a victim (effect size, d=0.26), bully (d=0.25) or bully-victim (d=0.44) in early adolescence. These associations remained for victims and bully-victims when child-specific (e.g., IQ) and family factors (e.g., child maltreatment) were controlled for. Emotional and behavioural problems during middle childhood did not modify the association between poor theory of mind and adolescent bullying experiences. Conclusion Identifying and supporting children with poor theory of mind early in life could help reduce their vulnerability for involvement in bullying and thus limit its adverse effects on mental health. PMID:22081896

  1. Clinical and therapeutic aspects in dento-alveolar disharmony (DAD) with crowding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauten, Anne-Marie; Şurlin, Petra; Olteanu, Mădălina; Maglaviceanu, Camelia; Popescu, M.R.; Teodorescu, Elina

    2013-01-01

    Dento-alveolar disharmony (DAD) with crowding represents a predispose factor for periodontal pathology installing, especially when septic inflammation is associated. In this context, the identification of integrity or presence of the periodontal structure modifications becomes essential, any discovered element of periodontal pathology transforming into an important factor for a correct and beneficial orthodontic or periodontal-orthodontic therapy setup. The purpose of our study was to reveal the relations between the DAD existence and periodontal modifications within a lot of 528 subjects of 7 to 19 years old wearing different DAD who asked for an orthodontic control, and also the effects of orthodontic therapy upon periodontal structures for the situations in which this therapy was instituted. 74,87% was the percentage for patients with DAD and crowding who accepted the initiation of an orthodontic treatment and 12,75% of them had a friable C type periodontium (with great possibility to evolve towards a periodontal pathology), 25,62% had chronic gingivitis, and in 15,43% there have been noticed gingival recessions more than 2 mm. The orthodontic treatment was finalized for 44,96% of the patients, in 13,43% we noticed the persistence of C type periodontium, in 8,95% of gingival recessions more than 2 mm, in 25,37% chronic gingivitis and in 22,38% hypertrophic gingivitis. Conclusion: it is important to initiate an exhaustive control of the patient with DAD before, during and after the orthodontic treatment, especially if the patient is susceptible to develop a periodontal pathology, and also to maintain a good oral hygiene along the treatment. PMID:24778853

  2. The Investigation of Relationship among Relational-Interdependent Self-Construal, Cyberbullying, and Psychological Disharmony in Adolescents: An Investigation of Structural Equation Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Bayram; Eroglu, Yuksel; Peker, Adem; Akbaba, Sirri; Pepsoy, Sevim

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of relational-interdependent self-construal on cyberbullying and the effect of cyberbullying on psychological disharmony. Participants were 258 high school students. In this study, the Relational-Interdependent Self-Construal Scale, the Revised Cyberbullying Inventory, and the Depression, Anxiety,…

  3. Swedish pediatric diabetes teams' perception of fathers' involvement: A Grounded Theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Ase; Povlsen, Lene; Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth; Borup, Ina

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze how Swedish pediatric diabetes teams perceived and discussed fathers' involvement in the care of their child with type 1 diabetes. It also aimed to discuss how the teams' attitudes towards the fathers' involvement developed during the data collection process. The Constructivist Grounded Theory design was used and data were collected during three repeated focus group discussions with three Swedish pediatric diabetes teams. The core category of the teams' perception of fathers' involvement emerged as: If dad attends, we are happy - if mom doesn't, we become concerned. Initially the teams balanced their perception of fathers' involvement on the mother's role as the primary caregiver. In connection with the teams' directed attention on fathers, in the focus group discussions, the teams' awareness of the importance of fathers increased. As a consequence, the team members began to encourage fathers' engagement in their child's care. We conclude that by increasing the teams' awareness of fathers as a health resource, an active health promotion perspective could be implemented in pediatric diabetes care. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. A close examination of trait reactance and issue involvement as moderators of psychological reactance theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Brian L; Scott, Allison M; Ledbetter, Andrew M

    2011-07-01

    This study used psychological reactance theory (PRT) to investigate (a) the effectiveness of 2 message features (freedom-threatening language and character frame) and (b) the role of trait reactance and issue involvement as moderators of a perceived freedom threat. Within the context of organ donation, the results indicated no differences for character frame among the donor, recipient, or waiting list narratives. However, freedom-threatening language was positively associated with a perceived freedom threat. In turn, a perceived freedom threat was positively associated with state reactance, which was inversely, albeit nonsignificantly, associated with organ donation attitudes. Attitudes predicted intentions to be an organ donor. Results also revealed that trait reactance was positively associated with a perceived freedom threat. Although not associated with a freedom threat, issue involvement was positively associated with organ donation attitudes and intent to be a donor. Additionally, a trait reactance by issue involvement by freedom-threatening language interaction predicted a perceived freedom threat. Results are discussed with an emphasis on these moderators in PRT.

  5. Analysis of the enzyme network involved in cattle milk production using graph theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Sholeh; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Masoudi Nejad, Ali; Nasiri, Mohammad; Asgari, Yazdan

    2015-06-01

    Understanding cattle metabolism and its relationship with milk products is important in bovine breeding. A systemic view could lead to consequences that will result in a better understanding of existing concepts. Topological indices and quantitative characterizations mostly result from the application of graph theory on biological data. In the present work, the enzyme network involved in cattle milk production was reconstructed and analyzed based on available bovine genome information using several public datasets (NCBI, Uniprot, KEGG, and Brenda). The reconstructed network consisted of 3605 reactions named by KEGG compound numbers and 646 enzymes that catalyzed the corresponding reactions. The characteristics of the directed and undirected network were analyzed using Graph Theory. The mean path length was calculated to be4.39 and 5.41 for directed and undirected networks, respectively. The top 11 hub enzymes whose abnormality could harm bovine health and reduce milk production were determined. Therefore, the aim of constructing the enzyme centric network was twofold; first to find out whether such network followed the same properties of other biological networks, and second, to find the key enzymes. The results of the present study can improve our understanding of milk production in cattle. Also, analysis of the enzyme network can help improve the modeling and simulation of biological systems and help design desired phenotypes to increase milk production quality or quantity.

  6. The "Mysteries of Hypnosis:" Helping Us Better Understand Hypnosis and Empathic Involvement Theory (EIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekala, Ronald J

    2016-01-01

    Wickramasekera II (2015) has penned a comprehensive and thoughtful review article demonstrating how empathy is intimately involved in the psychology and neurophysiology of hypnosis and the self. Hypnosis is a very "mental" or subjective phenomenon for both the client and the research participant. To better assess the mind of the client/participant during hypnosis, it is my belief that we need to generate more "precise" phenomenological descriptors of the mind during hypnosis and related empathic conditions, as Wickramasekera II (2015) has suggested in his article. Although any phenomenological methodology will have its limits and disadvantages, noetics (as defined in the article below) can help us better understand hypnosis, empathic involvement theory, and the brain/mind/behavior interface. By quantifying the mind in a comprehensive manner, just as the brain is comprehensively quantified via fMRI and qEEG technologies, noetic analysis can help us more precisely assess the mind and relate it to the brain and human behavior and experience.

  7. Adolescent grandchildren’s perceptions of grandparents’ involvement in UK: an interpretation from life course and evolutionary theory perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsbacka, Mirkka; Tanskanen, Antti O.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we study grandparental involvement from the viewpoint of evolutionary theory and sociological life course perception. We have used ‘the Involved Grandparenting and Child Well-Being 2007’ survey, which is the first nationally representative sample of British and Welsh adolescents aged 11–16 (n = 1,488). First, we explore with the descriptive statistics the amount of grandparental involvement reported by adolescents. The result follows the predicted pattern: maternal grandparen...

  8. Social anxiety disorder exhibit impaired networks involved in self and theory of mind processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanman, Eric J.; Long, Zhiliang; Pang, Yajing; Chen, Yuyan; Wang, Yifeng; Duan, Xujun; Chen, Heng; Gong, Qiyong; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Most previous studies regarding social anxiety disorder (SAD) have focused on the role of emotional dysfunction, while impairments in self- and theory of mind (ToM)-processing have relatively been neglected. This study utilised functional connectivity density (FCD), resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and discriminant analyses to investigate impairments in self- and ToM-related networks in patients with SAD. Patients with SAD exhibited decreased long-range FCD in the right rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and decreased short-range FCD in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG)—key nodes involved in self- and ToM-processing, respectively. Decreased RSFC of the right rACC and STG with widespread frontal, temporal, posteromedial, sensorimotor, and somatosensory, regions was also observed in patients with SAD. Altered RSFC between the right rACC and bilateral superior frontal gyrus, between the right rACC and right middle frontal gyrus, and within the right STG itself provided the greatest contribution to individual diagnoses of SAD, with an accuracy of 84.5%. These results suggest that a lack of cognitive inhibition on emotional self-referential processing as well as impairments in social information integration may play critical roles in the pathomechanism of SAD and highlight the importance of recognising such features in the diagnosis and treatment of SAD. PMID:28398578

  9. Tendencies of Comprehension and Acceptance of Theory of Evolution: A Study Involving Students from the Faculties of Education and Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilen, Kadir; Ercan, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify the views of students from the Faculty of Education and the Faculty of Theology from the University of Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam regarding their comprehension and acceptance of the theory of evolution. A survey model was used involving a quantitative research design. The working group of the study was composed of…

  10. A Time Varying Evaluation of Identity Theory and Father Involvement for Full Custody, Shared Custody, and No Custody Divorced Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGarmo, David S.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested identity theory models of father involvement for 230 divorced fathers of young children aged 4 to 11 followed over 18 months. Research questions were (1) Do measures of identity salience and centrality of the fathering role predict fathering involvement over time? (2) Does father involvement predict fathering identity over time? (3) Does father custody moderate these relationships? Involvement was assessed as contact frequency, number of father-child activities, and positive involvement observed during father-child interaction. Comparisons showed that the quantity of involvement differed by custody but there were few differences in the quality of involvement. Fathers did not exhibit significant mean decreases in involvement and custodial groups did not differ in the growth rates for involvement nor identity measures. However, there were significant individual differences in growth rates, meaning there was variance in fathers increasing and decreasing in measures over time. Time 1 father identities, measured as salience and centrality, predicted days per month, overnights per month, and father child activities over time. Time-varying predictors suggested that identities were more predictive of growth in involvement than vice versa although father involvement predicted salience and primarily centrality. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:20617120

  11. A Time Varying Evaluation of Identity Theory and Father Involvement for Full Custody, Shared Custody, and No Custody Divorced Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degarmo, David S

    2010-01-01

    This study tested identity theory models of father involvement for 230 divorced fathers of young children aged 4 to 11 followed over 18 months. Research questions were (1) Do measures of identity salience and centrality of the fathering role predict fathering involvement over time? (2) Does father involvement predict fathering identity over time? (3) Does father custody moderate these relationships? Involvement was assessed as contact frequency, number of father-child activities, and positive involvement observed during father-child interaction. Comparisons showed that the quantity of involvement differed by custody but there were few differences in the quality of involvement. Fathers did not exhibit significant mean decreases in involvement and custodial groups did not differ in the growth rates for involvement nor identity measures. However, there were significant individual differences in growth rates, meaning there was variance in fathers increasing and decreasing in measures over time. Time 1 father identities, measured as salience and centrality, predicted days per month, overnights per month, and father child activities over time. Time-varying predictors suggested that identities were more predictive of growth in involvement than vice versa although father involvement predicted salience and primarily centrality. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  12. Prospect Theory and the Risks Involved in Decision-Making: Content Analysis in ProQuest Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sady Darcy da Silva-Junior

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the objective is to perform content analysis on articles of a reliable database, dealing with the prospect theory and the risks involved in the decision making process, evaluating some criteria for the theoretical and methodological approaches that allow a joint analysis and comparative. Therefore, a search in ProQuest database was performed which resulted in 15 articles that were submitted to content analysis process, based on the evaluation of nine factors identified by researchers. Among the results highlight the critical attitude to the prospect theory, in contrast to the assertion of his representative capacity of real situations and application in various situations.

  13. Complex networks for data-driven medicine: the case of Class III dentoskeletal disharmony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, A.; Auconi, P.; Scazzocchio, M.; Caldarelli, G.; McNamara, JA; Franchi, L.

    2014-11-01

    In the last decade, the availability of innovative algorithms derived from complexity theory has inspired the development of highly detailed models in various fields, including physics, biology, ecology, economy, and medicine. Due to the availability of novel and ever more sophisticated diagnostic procedures, all biomedical disciplines face the problem of using the increasing amount of information concerning each patient to improve diagnosis and prevention. In particular, in the discipline of orthodontics the current diagnostic approach based on clinical and radiographic data is problematic due to the complexity of craniofacial features and to the numerous interacting co-dependent skeletal and dentoalveolar components. In this study, we demonstrate the capability of computational methods such as network analysis and module detection to extract organizing principles in 70 patients with excessive mandibular skeletal protrusion with underbite, a condition known in orthodontics as Class III malocclusion. Our results could possibly constitute a template framework for organising the increasing amount of medical data available for patients’ diagnosis.

  14. THERAPEUTIC PROCEDURES OF CHILDREN WITH DISHARMONIOUS DEVELOPMENT AT THE EARLY SCHOOL PERIOD IN CONDITIONS OF DAY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Dragoslav KOPACEV

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The term disharmonious is determined against the harmonious development of children. It is stressed that these children, because of the whole bio-psycho-social growth which is at a lower level, very often react with psychical disorders, compared with the children which normally develop and this seems to be not only a serious problem in the diagnostics but also in the performing of the adequate and in due time treatment.Trained by the existing experiences in the work with these children it is indicated that the best differential-diagnostics is performed in conditions of Day hospital where a whole treatment is provided by a professional team. In the treatment in this category of children it is insisted on the respect of the developmental dynamic approach, and for this, the acknowledgments that are given by the neuropsychology are used. The need of early treatment of a child, parents and the closest environment is stressed because if these children are neglected, they show the tendency to organize themselves at their lowest values, they intellectually decline and lead to severe psycho social results .Working with these children in our Day care hospital although we use a great number of therapeutic activities, we put the stress on the application of psycho-motor re education. The use of remedial therapy is the only technical, without including the parents in the working plan, has shown as unadequate. Although there is an intellectual insufficiency, we tend these children to be mentally healthy, if we succeed to achieve bigger harmony in the function of the cognitive, emotional, motor and social aspects of the individual. Providing continuity in the treatment of this category of children, it is insisted to provide the preschool institutions with planned and professional team work. The stress is put on the defectological activity, in a way to prepare the children to enroll in school.

  15. Teachers' implicit personality theories about the gifted: an experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudson, Tanja Gabriele; Preckel, Franzis

    2013-03-01

    The implicit theories teachers hold about the gifted influence their perception of and behavior toward highly able students, thus impacting the latter's educational opportunities. Two persistent stereotypes about the gifted can be distinguished: the harmony hypothesis (gifted students are superior in almost all domains) and the disharmony hypothesis (giftedness implies maladaptive social behavior and emotional problems). The present study investigated whether teachers' implicit personality theories about the gifted are in line with the harmony or the disharmony hypothesis. Using an experimental vignette approach, we examined 321 prospective and practicing teachers' implicit personality theories (based on the big five personality framework) about students described along three dimensions (ability level, gender, and age, resulting in 8 different vignettes), controlling for teachers' age, gender, experience with gifted students, and knowledge about giftedness. Ability level had the strongest effect on teachers' ratings (partial η² = .60). Students described as gifted were perceived as more open to new experiences, more introverted, less emotionally stable, and less agreeable (all ps < .001). No differences were found for conscientiousness. Gender and its interaction with ability level had a small effect (partial η²s = .04 and .03). Thus, teachers' implicit personality theories about the gifted were in line with the disharmony hypothesis. Possible consequences for gifted identification and education are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. What Will Teachers Do to Involve Parents in Education?: Using a Theory of Reasoned Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Brandt W.; Pryor, Caroline R.

    2009-01-01

    Parents' involvement in their children's education is associated with a variety of benefits, including higher achievement, yet teachers are not uniformly supportive and encouraging. Teacher attitudes and beliefs about parental involvement are a predictive factor which schools, and preservice programs, could influence, yet little is known about how…

  17. The concept of Watson’s carative factors in nursing and their (disharmony with patient satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majda Pajnkihar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Constant reviews of the caring behavior of nurses and patient satisfaction help to improve the quality of nursing. The aim of our research was to explore relationships between the level of nursing education, the perception of nurses and nursing assistants of Watson’s carative factors, and patient satisfaction. Methods A questionnaire survey using a convenience sample of 1,098 members of nursing teams and a purposive sample of 1,123 patients in four health care institutions in Slovenia was conducted in August 2012. A demographic questionnaire and the Caring Nurse-Patient Interactions Scale (nurse version were delivered to the nurses. A Hospital Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey was delivered to discharged patients. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results Carative factor sensibility was related to the level of nursing education. Patients were satisfied with the care received from nurses, nursing assistants and hospitals, although we found differences between the perceptions of nurses and nursing assistants of carative factors and patient satisfaction. By comparing only the perceptions of nurses and nursing assistants of carative factors in health care institutions, differences were found for seven out of ten carative factors. Discussion We did not find major significant differences between carative factors and level of nurse education, except in one carative factor. Differences in perceptions of carative factors between health care institutions are probably the result of different institutional factors. The results can be of great benefit to nurse administrators and educators, indicating the factors that must be taken into account for enhancing patient satisfaction. Emphasis on caring theories should be placed in nursing education and their application in nursing practice.

  18. The concept of Watson's carative factors in nursing and their (dis)harmony with patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajnkihar, Majda; Štiglic, Gregor; Vrbnjak, Dominika

    2017-01-01

    Constant reviews of the caring behavior of nurses and patient satisfaction help to improve the quality of nursing. The aim of our research was to explore relationships between the level of nursing education, the perception of nurses and nursing assistants of Watson's carative factors, and patient satisfaction. A questionnaire survey using a convenience sample of 1,098 members of nursing teams and a purposive sample of 1,123 patients in four health care institutions in Slovenia was conducted in August 2012. A demographic questionnaire and the Caring Nurse-Patient Interactions Scale (nurse version) were delivered to the nurses. A Hospital Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey was delivered to discharged patients. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Carative factor sensibility was related to the level of nursing education. Patients were satisfied with the care received from nurses, nursing assistants and hospitals, although we found differences between the perceptions of nurses and nursing assistants of carative factors and patient satisfaction. By comparing only the perceptions of nurses and nursing assistants of carative factors in health care institutions, differences were found for seven out of ten carative factors. We did not find major significant differences between carative factors and level of nurse education, except in one carative factor. Differences in perceptions of carative factors between health care institutions are probably the result of different institutional factors. The results can be of great benefit to nurse administrators and educators, indicating the factors that must be taken into account for enhancing patient satisfaction. Emphasis on caring theories should be placed in nursing education and their application in nursing practice.

  19. Protection motivation theory and adolescent drug trafficking: relationship between health motivation and longitudinal risk involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Stanton, Bonita F; Li, Xiaoming; Galbraith, Jennifer; Cole, Matthew L

    2005-03-01

    To assess health protection motivation as explained by the constructs of protection motivation theory (PMT) and its association with drug trafficking over 2 years. The sample included 817 African American youth (13-16 years old) participating in an adolescent risk-reduction program. We developed an instrument measuring the level of health protection motivation (LHPM) using factor analysis. Changes in LHPM over time were examined among drug traffickers, abstainers, initiators, and nonrisk youths. In sum, 151 participants reported selling and/or delivering drugs during the study period. The significant inverse correlation between drug-trafficking intention and health protection motivation was consistent with PMT. Changes in LHPM were strongly associated with the dynamics of behavior over 2 years. Adolescent drug trafficking can be predicted by an overall level of health protection motivation. PMT and related theories should be considered in the design of drug-trafficking prevention intervention.

  20. Involving service users in interprofessional education narrowing the gap between theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Helen; Spencer-Dawe, Eileen

    2006-12-01

    Calls for greater collaboration between professionals in health and social care have led to pressures to move toward interprofessional education (IPE) at both pre- and post-registration levels. Whilst this move has evolved out of "common sense" demands, such a multiple systems approach to education does not fit easily into existing traditional educational frameworks and there is, as yet, no proven theoretical framework to guide its development. A research study of an IPE intervention at the University of Liverpool in the UK drew on complexity theory to conceptualize the intervention and to evaluate its impact on a group of approximately 500 students studying physiotherapy, medicine, occupational therapy, nursing and social work. The intervention blended a multidisciplinary (non-interactive) plenary with self-directed e-learning and a series of interdisciplinary (interactive) workshops. Two evaluations took place: the first when the workshops were facilitated by trained practitioners; the second when the practitioners co-facilitated with trained service users. This paper reports findings from the second evaluation which focused on narrowing the gap between theory and practice. A multi-stakeholder evaluation was used including: students' reflective narratives, a focus group with practitioners and individual semi-structured interviews with service users. Findings showed that service users can make an important contribution to IPE for health and social care students in the early stages of their training. By exposure to a service user perspective, first year students can begin to learn and apply the principles of team work, to place the service user at the centre of the care process, to make connections between theory and "real life" experiences, and to narrow the gap between theory and practice. Findings also revealed benefits for facilitators and service users.

  1. Toward a Theory of Military Involvement in National Development in Underdeveloped Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    mobilization, bureaucratic behavior, industrialization, urbanization , and elites. Development Theory (1979), edited by David Lehmann. This book is a compilation...military was called upon to serve as a model of productiveness to prevent people from migrating into urban areas. Ngeria in Search of a Stable Civil...between the period of the fall of the Manchu dynasty and the victory of the Communists reflects this category. 2. The military in political monopuly. The

  2. Students with Disabilities and Involvement in Peer Victimization: Theory, Research, and Considerations for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas; Wike, Traci L.; Alexander, Quentin R.; Rodkin, Philip C.; Mehtaji, Meera

    2015-01-01

    The overarching goal of this special issue is to consider peer victimization involvement and corresponding interventions for youth with disabilities from a social dynamics perspective that situates risks for being a victim, perpetrator, or both within a person-in-context framework. The focus here is not on a specific age range or type of…

  3. Adolescent grandchildren's perceptions of grandparents' involvement in UK: an interpretation from life course and evolutionary theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsbacka, Mirkka; Tanskanen, Antti O

    2012-12-01

    In this article, we study grandparental involvement from the viewpoint of evolutionary theory and sociological life course perception. We have used 'the Involved Grandparenting and Child Well-Being 2007' survey, which is the first nationally representative sample of British and Welsh adolescents aged 11-16 (n = 1,488). First, we explore with the descriptive statistics the amount of grandparental involvement reported by adolescents. The result follows the predicted pattern: maternal grandparent is reported to involve in a grandchild's life the most, second maternal grandfather, third paternal grandmother and the last paternal grandfather. Second, we focus more closely on separate grandparents and show with four linear regression models which factors are connected to each grandparent's involvement. Grandchild's age, grandparent's health, grandparent's labour force participation and distance between a grandparent and a grandchild were factors that have similar effects in relation to all grandparents. Marital status mattered only for grandfathers, whereas family structure of a grandchild has opposite effects in relation to maternal and paternal grandparents. Grandchild's sex, grandparent's age, the number of grandchildren and the number of living grandparents all mattered, but only with respect to some grandparents. The study shows that it is advantageous to merge sociological and evolutionary viewpoints when studying a grandparental involvement in a modern society.

  4. On sponsoring and CSR involvement. Two theories explaining their effects on a company’s attractiveness for candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wozniak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of e-recruitment for hiring personnel is constantly expanding. However, the scientific understanding of factors affecting company employer brand during e-recruitment, is still poor. Research into corporate social responsibilities (CSR shows that information about the company’s involvement in these areas makes its image more positive, including its image as an employer. CSR is an umbrella concept, which includes activities similar to traditional sponsoring of sports and cultural events. Two theories explaining the impact of information on attractiveness of the employer’s brand in the e-recruitment process are presented. The aim of the text is to check which of them – cultural fit or signaling theory – more adequately explains the changes in how a candidate perceives a company’s attractiveness, when given information about its’ sports and cultural sponsoring and environment-related activities. The effect of both positive and negative information concerning a company’s activities on its employer image in the e-recruitment situation is analyzed. Data from an questionnaire filled in by 80 young full-time workers shows that positive information about a company’s CSR and sponsoring activities affects candidates according to the cultural fit model, while negative – according to the signaling theory model. The consequences for theory and managerial practice are described.

  5. Involving High School Students in Computational Physics University Research: Theory Calculations of Toluene Adsorbed on Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Jonas; Husmark, Teodor; Mathiesen, Christoffer; Sepahvand, Benjamin; Borck, Øyvind; Gunnarsson, Linda; Lydmark, Pär; Schröder, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    To increase public awareness of theoretical materials physics, a small group of high school students is invited to participate actively in a current research projects at Chalmers University of Technology. The Chalmers research group explores methods for filtrating hazardous and otherwise unwanted molecules from drinking water, for example by adsorption in active carbon filters. In this project, the students use graphene as an idealized model for active carbon, and estimate the energy of adsorption of the methylbenzene toluene on graphene with the help of the atomic-scale calculational method density functional theory. In this process the students develop an insight into applied quantum physics, a topic usually not taught at this educational level, and gain some experience with a couple of state-of-the-art calculational tools in materials research.

  6. Involving high school students in computational physics university research: Theory calculations of toluene adsorbed on graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Ericsson, Jonas; Mathiesen, Christoffer; Sepahvand, Benjamin; Borck, Øyvind; Gunnarsson, Linda; Lydmark, Pär; Schröder, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    To increase public awareness of theoretical materials physics, a small group of high school students is invited to participate actively in a current research projects at Chalmers University of Technology. The Chalmers research group explores methods for filtrating hazardous and otherwise unwanted molecules from drinking water, for example by adsorption in active carbon filters. In this project, the students use graphene as an idealized model for active carbon, and estimate the energy of adsorption of the methylbenzene toluene on graphene with the help of the atomic-scale calculational method density functional theory. In this process the students develop an insight into applied quantum physics, a topic usually not taught at this educational level, and gain some experience with a couple of state-of-the-art calculational tools in materials research.

  7. Factors involved in nurses' responses to burnout: a grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikravesh Mansoure

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intense and long-standing problems in burn centers in Tehran have led nurses to burnout. This phenomenon has provoked serious responses and has put the nurses, patients and the organization under pressure. The challenge for managers and nurse executives is to understand the factors which would reduce or increase the nurses' responses to burnout and develop delivery systems that promote positive adaptation and facilitate quality care. This study, as a part of more extensive research, aims to explore and describe the nurses' perceptions of the factors affecting their responses to burnout. Methods Grounded theory was used as the method. Thirty- eight participants were recruited. Data were generated by unstructured interviews and 21 sessions of participant observations. Constant comparison was used for data analysis. Results Nurses' and patients' personal characteristics and social support influenced nurses' responses to burnout. Personal characteristics of the nurses and patients, especially when interacting, had a more powerful effect. They altered emotional, attitudinal, behavioral and organizational responses to burnout and determined the kind of caring behavior. Social support had a palliative effect and altered emotional responses and some aspects of attitudinal responses. Conclusions The powerful effect of positive personal characteristics and its sensitivity to long standing and intense organizational pressures suggests approaches to executing stress reduction programs and refreshing the nurses' morale by giving more importance to ethical aspects of caring. Moreover, regarding palliative effect of social support and its importance for the nurses' wellbeing, nurse executives are responsible for promoting a work environment that supports nurses and motivates them.

  8. Autism: reduced connectivity between cortical areas involved in face expression, theory of mind, and the sense of self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Rolls, Edmund T; Gu, Huaguang; Zhang, Jie; Feng, Jianfeng

    2015-05-01

    Whole-brain voxel-based unbiased resting state functional connectivity was analysed in 418 subjects with autism and 509 matched typically developing individuals. We identified a key system in the middle temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus region that has reduced cortical functional connectivity (and increased with the medial thalamus), which is implicated in face expression processing involved in social behaviour. This system has reduced functional connectivity with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which is implicated in emotion and social communication. The middle temporal gyrus system is also implicated in theory of mind processing. We also identified in autism a second key system in the precuneus/superior parietal lobule region with reduced functional connectivity, which is implicated in spatial functions including of oneself, and of the spatial environment. It is proposed that these two types of functionality, face expression-related, and of one's self and the environment, are important components of the computations involved in theory of mind, whether of oneself or of others, and that reduced connectivity within and between these regions may make a major contribution to the symptoms of autism. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  9. A Unification between Dynamical System Theory and Thermodynamics Involving an Energy, Mass, and Entropy State Space Formalism

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    Wassim M. Haddad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we combine the two universalisms of thermodynamics and dynamical systems theory to develop a dynamical system formalism for classical thermodynamics. Specifically, using a compartmental dynamical system energy flow model involving heat flow, work energy, and chemical reactions, we develop a state-space dynamical system model that captures the key aspects of thermodynamics, including its fundamental laws. In addition, we show that our thermodynamically consistent dynamical system model is globally semistable with system states converging to a state of temperature equipartition. Furthermore, in the presence of chemical reactions, we use the law of mass-action and the notion of chemical potential to show that the dynamic system states converge to a state of temperature equipartition and zero affinity corresponding to a state of chemical equilibrium.

  10. Exploring racial/ethnic differences in substance use: a preliminary theory-based investigation with juvenile justice-involved youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Racial/ethnic differences in representation, substance use, and its correlates may be linked to differential long-term health outcomes for justice-involved youth. Determining the nature of these differences is critical to informing more efficacious health prevention and intervention efforts. In this study, we employed a theory-based approach to evaluate the nature of these potential differences. Specifically, we hypothesized that (1) racial/ethnic minority youth would be comparatively overrepresented in the juvenile justice system, (2) the rates of substance use would be different across racial/ethnic groups, and (3) individual-level risk factors would be better predictors of substance use for Caucasian youth than for youth of other racial/ethnic groups. Methods To evaluate these hypotheses, we recruited a large, diverse sample of justice-involved youth in the southwest (N = 651; M age = 15.7, SD = 1.05, range = 14-18 years); 66% male; 41% Hispanic, 24% African American, 15% Caucasian, 11% American Indian/Alaska Native). All youth were queried about their substance use behavior (alcohol, marijuana, tobacco, illicit hard drug use) and individual-level risk factors (school involvement, employment, self-esteem, level of externalizing behaviors). Results As predicted, racial/ethnic minority youth were significantly overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. Additionally, Caucasian youth reported the greatest rates of substance use and substance-related individual-level risk factors. In contrast, African American youth showed the lowest rates for substance use and individual risk factors. Contrary to predictions, a racial/ethnic group by risk factor finding emerged for only one risk factor and one substance use category. Conclusions This research highlights the importance of more closely examining racial/ethnic differences in justice populations, as there are likely to be differing health needs, and subsequent treatment approaches, by racial/ethnic group

  11. Effects of theory of mind performance training on reducing bullying involvement in children and adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Meng-Jung; Ma, Le-Yin; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chen, Yu-Min; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hsiao, Ray C.; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2018-01-01

    Bullying involvement is prevalent among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined the effects of theory of mind performance training (ToMPT) on reducing bullying involvement in children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD. Children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD completed ToMPT (n = 26) and social skills training (SST; n = 23) programs. Participants in both groups and their mothers rated the pretraining and posttraining bullying involve...

  12. Measuring Student Involvement: A Comparison of Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory in the Construction of Scales from Student Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkness, Jessica; DeAngelo, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the psychometric utility of Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT) for scale construction with data from higher education student surveys. Using 2008 Your First College Year (YFCY) survey data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program at the Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA, two scales…

  13. The use of fragments of thin veneers as a restorative therapy for anterior teeth disharmony: a case report with 3 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okida, Ricardo Coelho; Filho, Aljomar Jose Vechiato; Barao, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho

    2012-05-01

    The present case report described the use of contact lens of thin porcelain veneers as a restorative therapy to solve anterior teeth disharmony. Fragments of thin veneers are minimally invasive restorations with little or no dental preparation and present thickness ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 mm. They are used in case of diastema closure, small changes of teeth, color and restoration of teeth with small fractures. A 25-year-old man was admitted at a dental clinic complaining about the diastema presence on the upper anterior teeth. Patient was referred to an orthodontic treatment in order to provide better distribution of the diastemas and harmonious proportion of the teeth. Afterwards, contact lens of thin porcelain veneers were fabricated on the six upper anterior teeth. Based on the outcomes of this clinical report, we considered the use of fragments of thin veneers as a successful treatment option after 3 years of follow-up. The fragments of thin veneers have been established to be an interesting alternative to esthetically restore the anterior teeth with minimal invasiveness. However, since it is a new treatment modality, longitudinal studies are necessary to understand the material's behavior.

  14. School-Family-Community Partnerships: Applying Epstein's Theory of the Six Types of Involvement to School Counselor Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dana; Steen, Sam

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates school counselor involvement in partnerships using Epstein's six types of school-family-community involvement interactions (i.e., parenting, communicating, volunteering, learning at home, decision-making, and collaborating with the community). Findings show more involvement in parenting and collaborating with the…

  15. Early user involvement and participation in employee self-service application deployment: theory and evidence from four Dutch governmental cases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, G.; Batenburg, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper theoretically and empirically addresses the notion that user participation and involvement is one of the important factors for IS success. Different models and studies are reviewed to define and classify types of early end-user involvement and participation. Next, five case studies are

  16. Early user involvement and participation in employee self-service application deployment: theory and evidence from four Dutch governmental cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Koopman, G; Batenburg, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper theoretically and empirically addresses the notion that user participation and involvement is one of the important factors for IS success. Different models and studies are reviewed to define and classify types of early end-user involvement and participation. Next, five case studies are presented of Dutch governmental organizations (Ministries) that have recently deployed an employee self-service application. Based on interviews with developers, project managers and users it can be ...

  17. Promoting HIV Vaccine Research in African American Communities: Does the Theory of Reasoned Action Explain Potential Outcomes of Involvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Paula M; Archibald, Matthew; Martinez, Nina; del Rio, Carlos; Mulligan, Mark J

    2007-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to challenge the African American community with disproportionate rates of infection, particularly among young women ages 25 to 34 years. Development of a preventive HIV vaccine may bring a substantial turning point in this health crisis. Engagement of the African American community is necessary to improve awareness of the effort and favorably influence attitudes and referent norms. The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) may be a useful framework for exploration of community engagement outcomes including future attendance, community mobilization, and study participation. Within the context of HIV vaccine outreach, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in early 2007 with 175 African-American adults (>/= 18 years). Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were performed and the findings support the potential of the model in understanding behavioral intentions toward HIV vaccine research.

  18. Fitness Costs Predict Inbreeding Aversion Irrespective of Self-Involvement: Support for Hypotheses Derived from Evolutionary Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Antfolk; Debra Lieberman; Pekka Santtila

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that in humans, the lowered fitness of inbred offspring has produced a sexual aversion between close relatives. Generally, the strength of this aversion depends on the degree of relatedness between two individuals, with closer relatives inciting greater aversion than more distant relatives. Individuals are also expected to oppose acts of inbreeding that do not include the self, as inbreeding between two individuals posits fitness costs not only to the individuals involved in th...

  19. Shift work that involves circadian disruption and breast cancer: a first application of chronobiological theory and the consequent challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschi, Lin; Valérie Groß, J; Wild, Ursula; Heyworth, Jane S; Glass, Deborah C; Erren, Thomas C

    2017-08-03

    In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified shift work involving circadian disruption (CD) as probably carcinogenic to humans. Circadian disruption could be conceptualised as the overlap of activity, such as work, with an individual's biological night. The latter can be approximated from a worker's chronotype (or morning/evening preference). Few previous studies have taken chronotype into account when assessing CD caused by shift work. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that women working during their biological night would be at increased risk of breast cancer. We used data from our case-control study of breast cancer to investigate associations between shift work involving CD and breast cancer risks. Previously, we had assumed that everyone working in jobs which involved work for two or more shifts between midnight and 05:00 hours was equally exposed to CD. In the present analyses, we reclassified as unexposed those who had a late chronotype in which their preferred bedtime was 2 hours after the end of their shift. Only 30 of 1385 night jobs changed classification and the overall finding (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.41) was not different to the original finding when chronotype was not considered. We found virtually no difference between our new and old classifications of exposure. However, we were not able to calculate the total number of chronodisrupted shifts over a lifetime in order to assess dose and nor were we able to determine how many women were exposed to CD when doing shifts which began before midnight. Our first practical application highlights challenges for future chronobiology-based research. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Effective Floquet Hamiltonian theory of multiple-quantum NMR in anisotropic solids involving quadrupolar spins: Challenges and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Vinay; Ramachandran, Ramesh

    2017-10-14

    The response of a quadrupolar nucleus (nuclear spin with I >12) to an oscillating radio-frequency pulse/field is delicately dependent on the ratio of the quadrupolar coupling constant to the amplitude of the pulse in addition to its duration and oscillating frequency. Consequently, analytic description of the excitation process in the density operator formalism has remained less transparent within existing theoretical frameworks. As an alternative, the utility of the "concept of effective Floquet Hamiltonians" is explored in the present study to explicate the nuances of the excitation process in multilevel systems. Employing spin I =32 as a case study, a unified theoretical framework for describing the excitation of multiple-quantum transitions in static isotropic and anisotropic solids is proposed within the framework of perturbation theory. The challenges resulting from the anisotropic nature of the quadrupolar interactions are addressed within the effective Hamiltonian framework. The possible role of the various interaction frames on the convergence of the perturbation corrections is discussed along with a proposal for a "hybrid method" for describing the excitation process in anisotropic solids. Employing suitable model systems, the validity of the proposed hybrid method is substantiated through a rigorous comparison between simulations emerging from exact numerical and analytic methods.

  1. Effective Floquet Hamiltonian theory of multiple-quantum NMR in anisotropic solids involving quadrupolar spins: Challenges and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Vinay; Ramachandran, Ramesh

    2017-10-01

    The response of a quadrupolar nucleus (nuclear spin with I > 1/2) to an oscillating radio-frequency pulse/field is delicately dependent on the ratio of the quadrupolar coupling constant to the amplitude of the pulse in addition to its duration and oscillating frequency. Consequently, analytic description of the excitation process in the density operator formalism has remained less transparent within existing theoretical frameworks. As an alternative, the utility of the "concept of effective Floquet Hamiltonians" is explored in the present study to explicate the nuances of the excitation process in multilevel systems. Employing spin I = 3/2 as a case study, a unified theoretical framework for describing the excitation of multiple-quantum transitions in static isotropic and anisotropic solids is proposed within the framework of perturbation theory. The challenges resulting from the anisotropic nature of the quadrupolar interactions are addressed within the effective Hamiltonian framework. The possible role of the various interaction frames on the convergence of the perturbation corrections is discussed along with a proposal for a "hybrid method" for describing the excitation process in anisotropic solids. Employing suitable model systems, the validity of the proposed hybrid method is substantiated through a rigorous comparison between simulations emerging from exact numerical and analytic methods.

  2. Fitness Costs Predict Inbreeding Aversion Irrespective of Self-Involvement: Support for Hypotheses Derived from Evolutionary Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antfolk, Jan; Lieberman, Debra; Santtila, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that in humans, the lowered fitness of inbred offspring has produced a sexual aversion between close relatives. Generally, the strength of this aversion depends on the degree of relatedness between two individuals, with closer relatives inciting greater aversion than more distant relatives. Individuals are also expected to oppose acts of inbreeding that do not include the self, as inbreeding between two individuals posits fitness costs not only to the individuals involved in the sexual act, but also to their biological relatives. Thus, the strength of inbreeding aversion should be predicted by the fitness costs an inbred child posits to a given individual, irrespective of this individual’s actual involvement in the sexual act. To test this prediction, we obtained information about the family structures of 663 participants, who reported the number of same-sex siblings, opposite-sex siblings, opposite-sex half siblings and opposite-sex cousins. Each participant was presented with three different types of inbreeding scenarios: 1) Participant descriptions, in which participants themselves were described as having sex with an actual opposite-sex relative (sibling, half sibling, or cousin); 2) Related third-party descriptions, in which participants’ actual same-sex siblings were described as having sex with their actual opposite-sex relatives; 3) Unrelated third-party descriptions, in which individuals of the same sex as the participants but unrelated to them were described as having sex with opposite-sex relatives. Participants rated each description on the strength of sexual aversion (i.e., disgust-reaction). We found that unrelated third-party descriptions elicited less disgust than related third-party and participant descriptions. Related third-party and participant descriptions elicited similar levels of disgust suggesting that the strength of inbreeding aversion is predicted by inclusive fitness costs. Further, in the related and unrelated

  3. Fitness costs predict inbreeding aversion irrespective of self-involvement: support for hypotheses derived from evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antfolk, Jan; Lieberman, Debra; Santtila, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that in humans, the lowered fitness of inbred offspring has produced a sexual aversion between close relatives. Generally, the strength of this aversion depends on the degree of relatedness between two individuals, with closer relatives inciting greater aversion than more distant relatives. Individuals are also expected to oppose acts of inbreeding that do not include the self, as inbreeding between two individuals posits fitness costs not only to the individuals involved in the sexual act, but also to their biological relatives. Thus, the strength of inbreeding aversion should be predicted by the fitness costs an inbred child posits to a given individual, irrespective of this individual's actual involvement in the sexual act. To test this prediction, we obtained information about the family structures of 663 participants, who reported the number of same-sex siblings, opposite-sex siblings, opposite-sex half siblings and opposite-sex cousins. Each participant was presented with three different types of inbreeding scenarios: 1) Participant descriptions, in which participants themselves were described as having sex with an actual opposite-sex relative (sibling, half sibling, or cousin); 2) Related third-party descriptions, in which participants' actual same-sex siblings were described as having sex with their actual opposite-sex relatives; 3) Unrelated third-party descriptions, in which individuals of the same sex as the participants but unrelated to them were described as having sex with opposite-sex relatives. Participants rated each description on the strength of sexual aversion (i.e., disgust-reaction). We found that unrelated third-party descriptions elicited less disgust than related third-party and participant descriptions. Related third-party and participant descriptions elicited similar levels of disgust suggesting that the strength of inbreeding aversion is predicted by inclusive fitness costs. Further, in the related and unrelated conditions

  4. Fitness costs predict inbreeding aversion irrespective of self-involvement: support for hypotheses derived from evolutionary theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Antfolk

    Full Text Available It is expected that in humans, the lowered fitness of inbred offspring has produced a sexual aversion between close relatives. Generally, the strength of this aversion depends on the degree of relatedness between two individuals, with closer relatives inciting greater aversion than more distant relatives. Individuals are also expected to oppose acts of inbreeding that do not include the self, as inbreeding between two individuals posits fitness costs not only to the individuals involved in the sexual act, but also to their biological relatives. Thus, the strength of inbreeding aversion should be predicted by the fitness costs an inbred child posits to a given individual, irrespective of this individual's actual involvement in the sexual act. To test this prediction, we obtained information about the family structures of 663 participants, who reported the number of same-sex siblings, opposite-sex siblings, opposite-sex half siblings and opposite-sex cousins. Each participant was presented with three different types of inbreeding scenarios: 1 Participant descriptions, in which participants themselves were described as having sex with an actual opposite-sex relative (sibling, half sibling, or cousin; 2 Related third-party descriptions, in which participants' actual same-sex siblings were described as having sex with their actual opposite-sex relatives; 3 Unrelated third-party descriptions, in which individuals of the same sex as the participants but unrelated to them were described as having sex with opposite-sex relatives. Participants rated each description on the strength of sexual aversion (i.e., disgust-reaction. We found that unrelated third-party descriptions elicited less disgust than related third-party and participant descriptions. Related third-party and participant descriptions elicited similar levels of disgust suggesting that the strength of inbreeding aversion is predicted by inclusive fitness costs. Further, in the related and

  5. Theory of ultra dense matter and the dynamics of high energy interactions involving nuclei. Progress report, December 15, 1993--December 14, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1994-09-12

    This report summarizes the progress made during the second year of the three year DOE agreement DE-FG02-93ER40764 on theoretical nuclear physics research performed at the Columbia University and presents a detailed budget adjustment for the third year period December 15, 1994 to December 14, 1995. Sections 1.1 to 1.8 highlight the technical progress made on the following general areas: Multiple scattering and radiative processes in QCD; the quark-gluon plasma transition in nuclear matter; QCD transport theory and dissipative mechanism in dense matter; phenomenological models of high energy interactions involving nuclei; signatures of quark-gluon plasma formation in A+A; neurocomputation theory. Section 2 contains a bibliography of published papers and invited conference papers. Section 3 lists the Columbia nuclear theory members for the December 15, 1994 to December 14, 1995 period. Finally, the budget adjustment requesting $319,830 for the third year relative to the original $320,000 is presented in section 6. Copies of the research papers accompany this report.

  6. Adjusting team involvement: a grounded theory study of challenges in utilizing a surgical safety checklist as experienced by nurses in the operating room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wæhle Hilde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though the use of perioperative checklists have resulted in significant reduction in postoperative mortality and morbidity, as well as improvements of important information communication, the utilization of checklists seems to vary, and perceived barriers are likely to influence compliance. In this grounded theory study we aimed to explore the challenges and strategies of performing the WHO’s Safe Surgical Checklist as experienced by the nurses appointed as checklist coordinators. Methods Grounded theory was used in gathering and analyzing data from observations of the checklist used in the operating room, in conjunction with single and focus group interviews. A purposeful sample of 14 nurse-anesthetists and operating room nurses as surgical team members in a tertiary teaching hospital participated in the study. Results The nurses’ main concern regarding checklist utilization was identified as “how to obtain professional and social acceptance within the team”. The emergent grounded theory of “adjusting team involvement” consisted of three strategies; distancing, moderating and engaging team involvement. The use of these strategies explains how they resolved their challenges. Each strategy had corresponding conditions and consequences, determining checklist compliance, and how the checklist was used. Conclusion Even though nurses seem to have a loyal attitude towards the WHO’s checklist regarding their task work, they adjusted their surgical team involvement according to practical, social and professional conditions in their work environment. This might have resulted in the incomplete use of the checklist and therefore a low compliance rate. Findings also emphasized the importance of: a management support when implementing WHO’s Safe Surgical Checklist, and b interprofessional education approach to local adaptation of the checklists use.

  7. Multiple and substitute addictions involving prescription drugs misuse among 12th graders: gateway theory revisited with Market Basket Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardene, Wasantha Parakrama; YoussefAgha, Ahmed Hassan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the sequential patterns of drug use initiation, which included prescription drugs misuse (PDM), among 12th-grade students in Indiana. The study also tested the suitability of the data mining method Market Basket Analysis (MBA) to detect common drug use initiation sequences in large-scale surveys. Data from 2007 to 2009 Annual Surveys of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use by Indiana Children and Adolescents were used for this study. A close-ended, self-administered questionnaire was used to ask adolescents about the use of 21 substance categories and the age of first use. "Support%" and "confidence%" statistics of Market Basket Analysis detected multiple and substitute addictions, respectively. The lifetime prevalence of using any addictive substance was 73.3%, and it has been decreasing during past few years. Although the lifetime prevalence of PDM was 19.2%, it has been increasing. Males and whites were more likely to use drugs and engage in multiple addictions. Market Basket Analysis identified common drug use initiation sequences that involved 11 drugs. High levels of support existed for associations among alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana, whereas associations that included prescription drugs had medium levels of support. Market Basket Analysis is useful for the detection of common substance use initiation sequences in large-scale surveys. Before initiation of prescription drugs, physicians should consider the adolescents' risk of addiction. Prevention programs should address multiple addictions, substitute addictions, common sequences in drug use initiation, sex and racial differences in PDM, and normative beliefs of parents and adolescents in relation to PDM.

  8. A critical analysis of the implementation of service user involvement in primary care research and health service development using normalization process theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Edel; McEvoy, Rachel; O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary; de Brún, Tomas; Okonkwo, Ekaterina; Rooney, Michelle; Dowrick, Chris; Rogers, Anne; MacFarlane, Anne

    2016-06-01

    There have been recent important advances in conceptualizing and operationalizing involvement in health research and health-care service development. However, problems persist in the field that impact on the scope for meaningful involvement to become a routine - normalized - way of working in primary care. In this review, we focus on current practice to critically interrogate factors known to be relevant for normalization - definition, enrolment, enactment and appraisal. Ours was a multidisciplinary, interagency team, with community representation. We searched EBSCO host for papers from 2007 to 2011 and engaged in an iterative, reflexive approach to sampling, appraising and analysing the literature following the principles of a critical interpretive synthesis approach and using Normalization Process Theory. Twenty-six papers were chosen from 289 papers, as a purposeful sample of work that is reported as service user involvement in the field. Few papers provided a clear working definition of service user involvement. The dominant identified rationale for enrolling service users in primary care projects was linked with policy imperatives for co-governance and emancipatory ideals. The majority of methodologies employed were standard health services research methods that do not qualify as research with service users. This indicates a lack of congruence between the stated aims and methods. Most studies only reported positive outcomes, raising questions about the balance or completeness of the published appraisals. To improve normalization of meaningful involvement in primary care, it is necessary to encourage explicit reporting of definitions, methodological innovation to enhance co-governance and dissemination of research processes and findings. © 2014 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effects of theory of mind performance training on reducing bullying involvement in children and adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Jung; Ma, Le-Yin; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chen, Yu-Min; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hsiao, Ray C; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2018-01-01

    Bullying involvement is prevalent among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined the effects of theory of mind performance training (ToMPT) on reducing bullying involvement in children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD. Children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD completed ToMPT (n = 26) and social skills training (SST; n = 23) programs. Participants in both groups and their mothers rated the pretraining and posttraining bullying involvement of participants on the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire. The paired t test was used to evaluate changes in bullying victimization and perpetration between the pretraining and posttraining assessments. Furthermore, the linear mixed-effect model was used to examine the difference in the training effect between the ToMPT and SST groups. The paired t test indicated that in the ToMPT group, the severities of both self-reported (p = .039) and mother-reported (p = .003) bullying victimization significantly decreased from the pretraining to posttraining assessments, whereas in the SST group, only self-reported bullying victimization significantly decreased (p = .027). The linear mixed-effect model indicated that compared with the SST program, the ToMPT program significantly reduced the severity of mother-reported bullying victimization (p = .041). The present study supports the effects of ToMPT on reducing mother-reported bullying victimization in children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD.

  10. Effects of theory of mind performance training on reducing bullying involvement in children and adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Jung Liu

    Full Text Available Bullying involvement is prevalent among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. This study examined the effects of theory of mind performance training (ToMPT on reducing bullying involvement in children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD. Children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD completed ToMPT (n = 26 and social skills training (SST; n = 23 programs. Participants in both groups and their mothers rated the pretraining and posttraining bullying involvement of participants on the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire. The paired t test was used to evaluate changes in bullying victimization and perpetration between the pretraining and posttraining assessments. Furthermore, the linear mixed-effect model was used to examine the difference in the training effect between the ToMPT and SST groups. The paired t test indicated that in the ToMPT group, the severities of both self-reported (p = .039 and mother-reported (p = .003 bullying victimization significantly decreased from the pretraining to posttraining assessments, whereas in the SST group, only self-reported bullying victimization significantly decreased (p = .027. The linear mixed-effect model indicated that compared with the SST program, the ToMPT program significantly reduced the severity of mother-reported bullying victimization (p = .041. The present study supports the effects of ToMPT on reducing mother-reported bullying victimization in children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD.

  11. An update of the oxidation-inflammation theory of aging: the involvement of the immune system in oxi-inflamm-aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Fuente, Mónica; Miquel, Jaime

    2009-01-01

    The aging process is one of the best examples of the effects of a deterioration of homeostasis, since aging is accompanied by an impairment of the physiological systems including the homeostatic systems such as the immune system. We propose an integrative theory of aging providing answers to the how (oxidation), where first (mitochondria of differentiated cells) and why (pleiotropic genes) this process occurs. In agreement with this oxidation-mitochondrial theory of aging, we have observed that the age-related changes of immune functions have as their basis an oxidative and inflammatory stress situation, which has among its intracellular mechanisms the activation of NFkappaB in immune cells. Moreover, we have also observed that several functions of immune cells are good markers of biological age and predictors of longevity. Based on the above we have proposed the theory of oxidation-inflammation as the main cause of aging. Accordingly, the chronic oxidative stress that appears with age affects all cells and especially those of the regulatory systems, such as the nervous, endocrine and immune systems and the communication between them. This fact prevents an adequate homeostasis and, therefore, the preservation of health. We have also proposed a key involvement of the immune system in the aging process of the organism, concretely in the rate of aging, since there is a relation between the redox state and functional capacity of the immune cells and the longevity of individuals. Moreover, the role of the immune system in senescence could be of universal application. A confirmation of the central role of the immune system in oxi-inflamm-aging is that the administration of adequate amounts of antioxidants in the diet, improves the immune functions, decreasing their oxidative stress, and consequently increases the longevity of the subjects.

  12. Viability Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aubin, Jean-Pierre; Saint-Pierre, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Viability theory designs and develops mathematical and algorithmic methods for investigating the adaptation to viability constraints of evolutions governed by complex systems under uncertainty that are found in many domains involving living beings, from biological evolution to economics, from environmental sciences to financial markets, from control theory and robotics to cognitive sciences. It involves interdisciplinary investigations spanning fields that have traditionally developed in isolation. The purpose of this book is to present an initiation to applications of viability theory, explai

  13. Exploring the theory, barriers and enablers for patient and public involvement across health, social care and patient safety: a protocol for a systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocloo, Josephine; Garfield, Sarah; Dawson, Shoba; Dean Franklin, Bryony

    2017-10-24

    The emergence of patient and public involvement (PPI) in healthcare in the UK can be traced as far back as the 1970s. More recently, campaigns by harmed patients and their relatives have emerged as a result of clinical failings in the NHS, challenging paternalistic healthcare, which have led to a new focus on PPI in quality and safety, nationally and internationally. Evidence suggests that PPI within patient safety is often atheoretical and located within a biomedical discourse. This review will explore the literature on PPI across patient safety, healthcare and social care to identify theory, barriers and enablers that can be used to develop PPI in patient safety. Systematic searches of three electronic bibliographic databases will be conducted, using both MeSH and free-text terms to identify empirical literature published from database inception to May 2017. The screening process will involve input from at least two researchers and any disagreement will be resolved through discussion with a third reviewer. Initial inclusion and exclusion criteria have been developed and will be refined iteratively throughout the process. Data extraction from included articles will be conducted by at least two researchers using a data extraction form. Extracted information will be analysed using a narrative review approach, which synthesises data using a descriptive method. No ethical approval is required for this review as no empirical data were collected. We believe that the findings and recommendations from this review will be particularly relevant for an audience of academics and policymakers. The findings will, therefore, be written up and disseminated in international peer-reviewed journals and academic conferences with a health focus. They will also be disseminated to leading health policy organisations in the NHS, such as NHS England and NHS Improvement and national policy bodies such as the Health Foundation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  14. Using Principal-Agent Theory as a Framework for Analysis in Evaluating the Multiple Stakeholders Involved in the Accreditation and Quality Assurance of International Medical Branch Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgos, Jill E.

    2013-01-01

    This article applies the theoretical framework of principal-agent theory in order to better understand the complex organisational relationships emerging between entities invested in the establishment and monitoring of cross-border international branch campus medical schools. Using the key constructs of principal-agent theory, information asymmetry…

  15. Dividing the oils: An application of the theory of dynamic bargaining to three cases involving resource-rich developing countries and multinational oil corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosman, Laura

    This dissertation takes as a point of departure Theodore Moran's dynamic bargaining model, which posits that resource-rich developing countries ascend a bargaining learning curve in their negotiations with multinational corporations and do better for themselves over time. Moran's theory is applied to three new case studies---Kazakhstan, Nigeria, and Indonesia---to test whether it holds across relevant, yet diverse scenarios. The dissertation utilizes game theory to systematize both the application of the theory and the analysis of the bargaining, combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies. It investigates the possibility that developing countries may systematically utilize game theory to better understand how to be efficient negotiators and, in this way, ascend the bargaining learning curve at an accelerated rate.

  16. A critical analysis of the implementation of service user involvement in primary care research and health service development using normalization process theory

    OpenAIRE

    Tierney, Edel; McEvoy, Rachel; O'Reilly de Br?n, Mary; de Br?n, Tomas; Okonkwo, Ekaterina; Rooney, Michelle; Dowrick, Chris; Rogers, Anne; MacFarlane, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background There have been recent important advances in conceptualizing and operationalizing involvement in health research and health?care service development. However, problems persist in the field that impact on the scope for meaningful involvement to become a routine ? normalized ? way of working in primary care. In this review, we focus on current practice to critically interrogate factors known to be relevant for normalization ? definition, enrolment, enactment and appraisal. M...

  17. Value of Information and Prospect theory as tools to involve decision-makers in water-related design, operation and planning of water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Leonardo

    2013-04-01

    The role of decision-makers is to take the outputs from hydrological and hydraulic analyses and, in some extent, use them as inputs to make decisions that are related to planning, design and operation of water systems. However, the use of these technical analyses is frequently limited, since there are other non-hydrological issues that must be considered, that may end up in very different solutions than those envisaged by the purely technical ones. A possibility to account for the nature of the human decisions under uncertainty is by exploring the use of concepts from decision theory and behavioural economics, such as Value of Information and Prospect Theory and embed them into the methodologies we use in the hydrology practice. Three examples are presented to illustrate these multidisciplinary interactions. The first one, for monitoring network design, uses Value of Information within a methodology to locate water level stations in a complex canal of networks in the Netherlands. The second example, for operation, shows how the Value of Information concept can be used to formulate alternative methods to evaluate flood risk according to the set of options available for decision-making during a flood event. The third example, for planning, uses Prospect Theory concepts to understand how the "losses hurt more than gains feel good" effect can determine the final decision of urbanise or not a flood-prone area. It is demonstrated that decision theory and behavioural economic principles are promising to evaluate the complex decision-making process in water-related issues.

  18. On the Theory of Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Involving Electron Transfer. V. Comparison and Properties of Electrochemical and Chemical Rate Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, R. A.

    1962-01-01

    Using a theory of electron transfers which takes cognizance of reorganization of the medium outside the inner coordination shell and of changes of bond lengths inside it, relations between electrochemical and related chemical rate constants are deduced and compared with the experimental data. A correlation is found, without the use of arbitrary parameters. Effects of weak complexes with added electrolytes are included under specified conditions. The deductions offer a way of coordinating a variety of data in the two fields, internally as well as with each those in another. For example, the rate of oxidation or reduction of a series of related reactants by one reagent is correlated with that of another and with that of the corresponding electrochemical oxidation-reduction reaction, under certain specified conditions. These correlations may also provide a test for distinguishing an electron from an atom transfer mechanism. (auth)

  19. Inhibition of spoilage mould conidia by acetic acid and sorbic acid involves different modes of action, requiring modification of the classical weak-acid theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Malcolm; Plumridge, Andrew; Nebe-von-Caron, Gerhardt; Archer, David B

    2009-11-30

    Fungal spoilage of many foods is prevented by weak-acid preservatives such as sorbic acid or acetic acid. We show that sorbic and acetic acids do not both inhibit cells by lowering of internal pH alone and that the "classical weak-acid theory" must be revised. The "classical weak-acid theory" suggests that all lipophilic acids with identical pK(a) values are equally effective as preservatives, causing inhibition by diffusion of molecular acids into the cell, dissociation, and subsequent acidification of the cytoplasm. Using a number of spoilage fungi from different genera, we have shown that sorbic acid was far more toxic than acetic acid, and no correlation existed between resistance to acetic acid and resistance to sorbic acid. The molar ratio of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) (acetic: sorbic) was 58 for Paecilomyces variotii and 14 for Aspergillus phoenicis. Using flow cytometry on germinating conidia of Aspergillusniger, acetic acid at pH 4.0 caused an immediate decline in the mean cytoplasmic pH (pH(i)) falling from neutrality to approximately pH 4.7 at the MIC (80 mM). Sorbic acid also caused a rapid but far smaller drop in pH(i), at the MIC (4.5 mM); the pH remained above pH 6.3. Over 0-5 mM, a number of other weak acids caused a similar fall in cytoplasmic pH. It was concluded that while acetic acid inhibition of A. niger conidia was due to cytoplasmic acidification, inhibition by sorbic acid was not. A possible membrane-mediated mode of action of sorbic acid is discussed.

  20. Evaluación de la oclusión en pacientes con trastornos temporomandibulares y desarmonías oclusales Occlusion assessment in patients with temporomandibular disorders and occlusal disharmony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Grau León

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para identificar relación que existe entre los trastornos temporomandibulares y las desarmonías oclusales. Se estudiaron 40 pacientes de ambos sexos, con edades comprendidas entre 18 y 45 años, que solicitaron atención en el Servicio de Trastornos Temporomandibulares, del Departamento de Prótesis de la Facultad de Estomatología, que cumplieron los requisitos expresados para este estudio y refirieron signos y síntomas de trastornos temporomandibulares. Se analizó el comportamiento de las interferencias oclusales a los movimientos mandibulares. Se analizaron las interferencias oclusales a dichos movimientos en los modelos de estudios, montados en un articulador semiajustable. Los resultados obtenidos reflejaron un predominio en las interferencias oclusales, en los pacientes analizados con trastornos temporomandibulares. El mayor porcentaje de interferencias se encontró durante el movimiento propulsivo. Las interferencias fueron más frecuentes en el lado de no trabajo para los movimientos analizados y el grupo de molares resultó ser el más afectado, tanto para los movimientos de propulsión como de lateralidad.A study was conducted to identify the direct relation among the temporomandibular disorders and occlusal disharmonies, which always has been an attention matter by all Stomatology fields. Forty patients of both sexes were studied aged between 18 and 45 seeking care in the temporomandibular disorders service of Prosthesis Department from the Stomatology Faculty who fulfilled the expressed requirements for this type of study and presenting with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, thus we analyzed the occlusal interferences behavior to mandibular movements in study models, mounted in a semiadjustable articulator. Results obtained demonstrated predominance in occlusal interferences in study patients with temporomandibular disorders; the greater percentage of interferences was found during the

  1. Assessing photocatalytic power of g-C3N4 for solar fuel production: A first-principles study involving quasi-particle theory and dispersive forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Guillén, J M; Espinosa-García, W F; Moyses Araujo, C

    2015-09-07

    First-principles quasi-particle theory has been employed to assess catalytic power of graphitic carbon nitride, g-C3N4, for solar fuel production. A comparative study between g-h-triazine and g-h-heptazine has been carried out taking also into account van der Waals dispersive forces. The band edge potentials have been calculated using a recently developed approach where quasi-particle effects are taken into account through the GW approximation. First, it was found that the description of ground state properties such as cohesive and surface formation energies requires the proper treatment of dispersive interaction. Furthermore, through the analysis of calculated band-edge potentials, it is shown that g-h-triazine has high reductive power reaching the potential to reduce CO2 to formic acid, coplanar g-h-heptazine displays the highest thermodynamics force toward H2O/O2 oxidation reaction, and corrugated g-h-heptazine exhibits a good capacity for both reactions. This rigorous theoretical study shows a route to further improve the catalytic performance of g-C3N4.

  2. A call to incorporate systems theory and human factors into the existing investigation of harm in clinical research involving healthcare products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brian D; Bégaud, Bernard; Daemen, Esther; Dokas, Ioannis; Fishbein, Jonathan M; Greenberg, Howard E; Hochberg, Alan; Le Louet, Hervé; Lyngvig, Jytte; Mogles, Nataliya; Owen, Kathryn; Prendergast, Christine; Rejzek, Martin; Trantza, Sophia; Webb, David J; Whalen, Matthew; Whiteley, Simon

    2017-11-01

    This is a joint statement from individual pharmacology and pharmaceutical professionals acting in their own capacity, including members of the Alliance for Clinical Research Excellence and Safety (ACRES) and the International Society of Pharmacovigilance (ISoP). By building on the extensive pharmacological and regulatory investigations that already take place, we are calling for a fuller and more robust systems-based approach to the independent investigation of clinical research when serious incidents of harm occur, starting with first-in-human clinical trials. To complement existing activities and regulations, we propose an additional approach blending evidence derived from both pharmacological and organizational science, which addresses human factors and transparency, to enhance organizational learning and continuous improvement. As happens with investigations in other sectors of society, such as the chemical and aviation sector, this systems approach should be seen as an additional way to understand how problems occur and how they might be prevented in the future. We believe that repetition of potentially preventable and adverse outcomes during clinical research, by failing to identify and act upon all systematic vulnerabilities, is a situation that needs urgent change. As we will discuss further on, approaches based on applying systems theory and human factors are much more likely to improve objectivity and transparency, leading to better system design. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. A novel embryological theory of autism causation involving endogenous biochemicals capable of initiating cellular gene transcription: a possible link between twelve autism risk factors and the autism 'epidemic'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chiara R

    2011-05-01

    post-1980 increase in US autism diagnoses. In addition to explaining the epidemic within the wider retinoic acid/estradiol model of causation, this theory leads to potential explanations for certain genetic findings in autism, autistic regression, and changing trends in autism symptomatology with regard to mental retardation, wheat allergy, and gastrointestinal problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Severity of Occlusal Disharmonies in Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Bauer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To quantify the severity of malocclusion and dental esthetic problems in untreated Down syndrome (DS and untreated non-Down syndrome children age 8–14 years old using the PAR and ICON Indices. Materials and Methods. This retrospective study evaluated pretreatment study models, intraoral photographs, and panoramic radiographs of 30 Down syndrome and two groups of 30 non-Down syndrome patients (private practice and university clinic age 8–14 years. The models were scored via PAR and ICON Indices, and descriptive characteristics such as Angle classification, missing or impacted teeth, crossbites, open bites, and other dental anomalies were recorded. Results. The DS group had significantly greater PAR and ICON scores, as well as 10 times more missing teeth than the non-DS group. The DS group possessed predominantly Class III malocclusions, with the presence of both anterior and posterior crossbites in a majority of the patients. The non-DS group had mostly Class I or II malocclusion with markedly fewer missing teeth and crossbites. The DS group also had more severe malocclusions based upon occlusal traits such as open bite and type of malocclusion. Conclusion. The DS group had very severe malocclusions, while the control group from the university clinic had more severe malocclusions than a control group from a private practice.

  5. Harmoni dan Disharmoni Sosial Etnis di Perkotaan

    OpenAIRE

    Darwis, H.M Darwis

    2013-01-01

    Latar hitoris menunjukkan bahwa Sudah tiga kali konflik antaretnik keturunan Tionghoa dengan penduduk setempat (Makassar) terjadi, khususnya di kota Makassar. Konflik itu pecah dengan modus Perusakan properti milik para etnik keturunan Tionghoa. Dalam konflik itu, etnik keturunan Tionghoa selalu dirugikan, meskipun mereka tidak tahu menahu sebab musababnya. Adapun tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisa penyebab intensitas interaksi sosial antara etnik keturunan Tionghoa dengan etnik M...

  6. Multiculturalism, Europhilia and harmonization: harmony or disharmony?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Sefton-Green

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the difficulties of reconciling the values promoted by multiculturalism with the objectives of harmonization. In the event of conflict, examples from English and French law show that harmonization of private law rules does not always achieve its aim of approximating national laws but, on the contrary, often backfires. The question of whether and why these divergences produce Europhile or Eurosceptic positions amongst Member States is addressed. It appears that when maximum harmonisation clashes with multiculturalism this can lead to legal nationalism, whereas minimum harmonization has less negative effects and can stimulate legal experimentation. It is suggested that harmonization requires a mutual listening and learning process in order to accommodate the multiculturalism of Member States and enable Europhilia to flourish in the European Union.

  7. Ethics and Leadership: Integration or Disharmony

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    governments, as well as the soldiers who act on their behalf, have a prima facie obligation to uphold those tenets. Second, treaty making is a kind of 9...utilitarianism should be a last resort as a guide for leaders, as it can only truly judge behaviors after the fact, not beforehand. Rule- or Duty ...should not be done. The spirit of this approach is dutiful compliance with rules. However, there are many rules, which sometimes confuse leaders

  8. Variational Transition State Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhlar, Donald G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-09-29

    This is the final report on a project involving the development and applications of variational transition state theory. This project involved the development of variational transition state theory for gas-phase reactions, including optimized multidimensional tunneling contributions and the application of this theory to gas-phase reactions with a special emphasis on developing reaction rate theory in directions that are important for applications to combustion. The development of variational transition state theory with optimized multidimensional tunneling as a useful computational tool for combustion kinetics involved eight objectives.

  9. A "theory of relativity" for cognitive elasticity of time and modality dimensions supporting constant working memory capacity: involvement of harmonics among ultradian clocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, R B

    2000-02-01

    1. The capacity of working memory (WM) for about 7+/-2 ("the magical number") serially organized simple verbal items may represent a fundamental constant of cognition. Indeed, there is the same capacity for sense of familiarity of a number of recently encountered places, observed in radial maze performance both of lab rats and of humans. 2. Moreover, both species show a peculiar capacity for retaining WM of place over delays. The literature also describes paradoxes of extended time duration in certain human verbal recall tasks. Certain bird species have comparable capacity for delayed recall of about 4 to 8 food caches in a laboratory room. 3. In addition to these paradoxes of the time dimension with WM (still sometimes called "short-term" memory) there are another set of paradoxes of dimensionality for human judgment of magnitudes, noted by Miller in his classic 1956 paper on "the magical number." We are able to reliably refer magnitudes to a rating scale of up to about seven divisions. Remarkably, that finding is largely independent of perceptual modality or even of the extent of a linear interval selected within any given modality. 4. These paradoxes suggest that "the magical number 7+/2" depends on fundamental properties of mammalian brains. 5. This paper theorizes that WM numerosity is conserved as a fundamental constant, by means of elasticity of cognitive dimensionality, including the temporal pace of arrival of significant items of cognitive information. 6. A conjectural neural code for WM item-capacity is proposed here, which extends the hypothetical principle of binding-by-synchrony. The hypothesis is that several coactive frequencies of brain electrical rhythms each mark a WM item. 7. If, indeed, WM does involve a brain wave frequency code (perhaps within the gamma frequency range that has often been suggested with the binding hypothesis) mathematical considerations suggest additional relevance of harmonic relationships. That is, if copresent sinusoids

  10. Parental involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Ezra S Simon

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted in Ghana to investigate, (1) factors that predict parental involvement, (2) the relationship between parental home and school involvement and the educational achievement of adolescents, (3) the relationship between parental authoritativeness and the educational achievement of adolescent students, (4) parental involvement serving as a mediator between their authoritativeness and the educational achievement of the students, and (5) whether parental involvement decreases...

  11. E-gravity theory

    OpenAIRE

    Linker, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    A couple of quantum gravity theories were proposed to make theoretical predictions about the behavior of gravity. The most recent approach to quantum gravity, called E-theory, is proposed mathematical, but there is not formulated much about what dynamics of gravity this theory proposes. This research paper treats the main results of the application of E-theory to General relativity involving conservation laws and scattering of particles in presence of gravity. Also the low-energy limit of thi...

  12. Generalizability Theory and Classical Test Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Broadly conceived, reliability involves quantifying the consistencies and inconsistencies in observed scores. Generalizability theory, or G theory, is particularly well suited to addressing such matters in that it enables an investigator to quantify and distinguish the sources of inconsistencies in observed scores that arise, or could arise, over…

  13. Waltz's Theory of Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæver, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Kenneth N. Waltz's 1979 book, Theory of International Politics, is the most influential in the history of the discipline. It worked its effects to a large extent through raising the bar for what counted as theoretical work, in effect reshaping not only realism but rivals like liberalism and refle......Kenneth N. Waltz's 1979 book, Theory of International Politics, is the most influential in the history of the discipline. It worked its effects to a large extent through raising the bar for what counted as theoretical work, in effect reshaping not only realism but rivals like liberalism...... and reflectivism. Yet, ironically, there has been little attention to Waltz's very explicit and original arguments about the nature of theory. This article explores and explicates Waltz's theory of theory. Central attention is paid to his definition of theory as ‘a picture, mentally formed' and to the radical anti......-empiricism and anti-positivism of his position. Followers and critics alike have treated Waltzian neorealism as if it was at bottom a formal proposition about cause-effect relations. The extreme case of Waltz being so victorious in the discipline, and yet being consistently mis-interpreted on the question of theory...

  14. Roles and relationships between health professionals involved in insulin initiation for people with type 2 diabetes in the general practice setting: a qualitative study drawing on relational coordination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski-Nankervis, Jo-Anne; Furler, John; Blackberry, Irene; Young, Doris; O'Neal, David; Patterson, Elizabeth

    2014-01-31

    The majority of care for people with type 2 diabetes occurs in general practice, however when insulin initiation is required it often does not occur in this setting or in a timely manner and this may have implications for the development of complications. Increased insulin initiation in general practice is an important goal given the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and a relative shortage of specialists. Coordination between primary and secondary care, and between medical and nursing personnel, may be important in achieving this. Relational coordination theory identifies key concepts that underpin effective interprofessional work: communication which is problem solving, timely, accurate and frequent and relationships between professional roles which are characterized by shared goals, shared knowledge and mutual respect. This study explores roles and relationships between health professionals involved in insulin initiation in order to gain an understanding of factors which may impact on this task being carried out in the general practice setting. 21 general practitioners, practice nurses, diabetes nurse educators and physicians were purposively sampled to participate in a semi-structured interview. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed using framework analysis. There were four closely interlinked themes identified which impacted on how health professionals worked together to initiate people with type 2 diabetes on insulin: 1. Ambiguous roles; 2. Uncertain competency and capacity; 3. Varying relationships and communication; and 4. Developing trust and respect. This study has shown that insulin initiation is generally recognised as acceptable in general practice. The role of the DNE and practice nurse in this space and improved communication and relationships between health professionals across organisations and levels of care are factors which need to be addressed to support this clinical work. Relational coordination provides a useful framework for

  15. String Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Marino Beiras, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    We give an overview of the relations between matrix models and string theory, focusing on topological string theory and the Dijkgraaf--Vafa correspondence. We discuss applications of this correspondence and its generalizations to supersymmetric gauge theory, enumerative geometry and mirror symmetry. We also present a brief overview of matrix quantum mechanical models in superstring theory.

  16. Game Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....

  17. Ring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jara, Pascual; Torrecillas, Blas

    1988-01-01

    The papers in this proceedings volume are selected research papers in different areas of ring theory, including graded rings, differential operator rings, K-theory of noetherian rings, torsion theory, regular rings, cohomology of algebras, local cohomology of noncommutative rings. The book will be important for mathematicians active in research in ring theory.

  18. Comments on quantum probability theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Quantum probability theory (QP) is the best formal representation available of the most common form of judgment involving attribute comparison (inside judgment). People are capable, however, of judgments that involve proportions over sets of instances (outside judgment). Here, the theory does not do so well. I discuss the theory both in terms of descriptive adequacy and normative appropriateness. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Data structures theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Berztiss, A T

    1971-01-01

    Computer Science and Applied Mathematics: Data Structures: Theory and Practice focuses on the processes, methodologies, principles, and approaches involved in data structures, including algorithms, decision trees, Boolean functions, lattices, and matrices. The book first offers information on set theory, functions, and relations, and graph theory. Discussions focus on linear formulas of digraphs, isomorphism of digraphs, basic definitions in the theory of digraphs, Boolean functions and forms, lattices, indexed sets, algebra of sets, and order pair and related concepts. The text then examines

  20. When is a theory a theory? A case example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkin, Marvin C

    2017-08-01

    This discussion comments on the approximately 20years history of writings on the prescriptive theory called Empowerment Evaluation. To do so, involves examining how "Empowerment Evaluation Theory" has been defined at various points of time (particularly 1996 and now in 2015). Defining a theory is different from judging the success of a theory. This latter topic has been addressed elsewhere by Michael Scriven, Michael Patton, and Brad Cousins. I am initially guided by the work of Robin Miller (2010) who has written on the issue of how to judge the success of a theory. In doing so, she provided potential standards for judging the adequacy of theories. My task is not judging the adequacy or success of the Empowerment Evaluation prescriptive theory in practice, but determining how well the theory is delineated. That is, to what extent do the writings qualify as a prescriptive theory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Matching theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lovász, László

    2009-01-01

    This book surveys matching theory, with an emphasis on connections with other areas of mathematics and on the role matching theory has played, and continues to play, in the development of some of these areas. Besides basic results on the existence of matchings and on the matching structure of graphs, the impact of matching theory is discussed by providing crucial special cases and nontrivial examples on matroid theory, algorithms, and polyhedral combinatorics. The new Appendix outlines how the theory and applications of matching theory have continued to develop since the book was first publish

  2. Quantum theory elements

    CERN Document Server

    1962-01-01

    Quantum Theory: A Treatise in Three Volumes, I: Elements focuses on the principles, methodologies, and approaches involved in quantum theory, including quantum mechanics, linear combinations, collisions, and transitions. The selection first elaborates on the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, exactly soluble bound state problems, and continuum. Discussions focus on delta function normalization, spherically symmetric potentials, rectangular potential wells, harmonic oscillators, spherically symmetrical potentials, Coulomb potential, axiomatic basis, consequences of first three postula

  3. Linear network theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sander, K F

    1964-01-01

    Linear Network Theory covers the significant algebraic aspect of network theory, with minimal reference to practical circuits. The book begins the presentation of network analysis with the exposition of networks containing resistances only, and follows it up with a discussion of networks involving inductance and capacity by way of the differential equations. Classification and description of certain networks, equivalent networks, filter circuits, and network functions are also covered. Electrical engineers, technicians, electronics engineers, electricians, and students learning the intricacies

  4. Getting involved in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, Davina; Grant, Lyle G

    2011-01-01

    The need for quality nursing research to promote evidence-based practice and optimize patient care is well recognized. This is particularly pertinent in cardiovascular nursing, where cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide (World Health Organization, 2007). Across the spectrum of academic, clinical, and health care administration nursing roles, research remains fundamental to bridging theory, practice, and education (LoBiondo-Wood, Haber, Cameron, & Singh, 2009). Despite recognition of the importance of nursing research, the gap between research and practice continues to be an ongoing issue (Funk, Tornquist, & Champagne, 1995; Pettengill, Gillies, & Clark, 1994; Rizzuto, Bostrom, Suterm, & Chenitz, 1994; Rolfe, 1998). Nurses are appropriately situated to contribute to research that improves clinical outcomes and health service delivery. However, the majority of nurses in clinical practice do not have a significant research component structured into their nursing role. In this research column, the authors outline the importance of nurses being engaged in research and present some different levels of involvement that nurses may assume. A continuum of nursing research involvement includes asking researchable questions, being a savvy consumer of research evidence, finding your own level of research involvement, and aspiring to lead.

  5. Topos theory

    CERN Document Server

    Johnstone, PT

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on topos theory's integration of geometric and logical ideas into the foundations of mathematics and theoretical computer science, this volume explores internal category theory, topologies and sheaves, geometric morphisms, other subjects. 1977 edition.

  6. Reassessing the causal structure of enduring involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard T. Kyle; James D. Absher; William E. Hammitt

    2009-01-01

    Guided by tenets of identity theory, we hypothesized a causal structure of enduring involvement suggesting that self-relevant components precede the other dimensions. We used Kyle et al.'s (2004a) Modified Involvement Scale, in which leisure involvement is conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of identity affirmation, identity expression,...

  7. Grounded theory

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate app...

  8. Ring theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rowen, Louis H

    1991-01-01

    This is an abridged edition of the author's previous two-volume work, Ring Theory, which concentrates on essential material for a general ring theory course while ommitting much of the material intended for ring theory specialists. It has been praised by reviewers:**""As a textbook for graduate students, Ring Theory joins the best....The experts will find several attractive and pleasant features in Ring Theory. The most noteworthy is the inclusion, usually in supplements and appendices, of many useful constructions which are hard to locate outside of the original sources....The audience of non

  9. Atomic theories

    CERN Document Server

    Loring, FH

    2014-01-01

    Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec

  10. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  11. Number theory via Representation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-09

    Number theory via Representation theory. Eknath Ghate. November 9, 2014. Eightieth Annual Meeting, Chennai. Indian Academy of Sciences1. 1. This is a non-technical 20 minute talk intended for a general Academy audience.

  12. Dual Headquarters Involvement in Multibusiness Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Kappen, Philip; Dellestrand, Henrik

    The strategy literature has shown that headquarters involve themselves into subsidiary operations to add value. Yet, little is known about the extent to which multiple headquarters do so. Therefore, we investigate antecedents of corporate and divisional headquarters’ involvement in innovation...... of the firm) lead to greater dual headquarters involvement, especially when the innovation development network is large. The results contribute to the literature on complex parenting and theory of selective headquarters involvement....

  13. Variational transition state theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhlar, D.G. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research program involves the development of variational transition state theory (VTST) and semiclassical tunneling methods for the calculation of gas-phase reaction rates and selected applications. The applications are selected for their fundamental interest and/or their relevance to combustion.

  14. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, CC

    2012-01-01

    Model theory deals with a branch of mathematical logic showing connections between a formal language and its interpretations or models. This is the first and most successful textbook in logical model theory. Extensively updated and corrected in 1990 to accommodate developments in model theoretic methods - including classification theory and nonstandard analysis - the third edition added entirely new sections, exercises, and references. Each chapter introduces an individual method and discusses specific applications. Basic methods of constructing models include constants, elementary chains, Sko

  15. Má oclusão Classe II, divisão 1, de Angle com discrepância ântero-posterior acentuada Angle Class II malocclusion with severe anteroposterior disharmony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Curado de Freitas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A má oclusão Classe II de Angle é caracterizada por uma discrepância dentária ântero-posterior, que pode ou não estar associada a alterações esqueléticas. Além do comprometimento estético, o fato de vir associada a um overjet acentuado faz com que o paciente fique mais exposto a traumas dentários. Este caso foi apresentado à Diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, representando a categoria 4, ou seja, uma má oclusão com discrepância ântero-posterior acentuada, Classe II com ANB maior ou igual a 5º, como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBO. Possui uma característica incomum, que é a ausência congênita de um incisivo inferior.Angle Class II malocclusion is characterized by an anteroposterior dental discrepancy which may or may not be accompanied by skeletal changes. In general, distressed by a significantly compromised facial aspect, patients tend to seek treatment. This case report was submitted to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO as part of the board certification process, as representative of Category 4, i.e., a Class II malocclusion with severe anteroposterior discrepancy and ANB Angle equal to or bigger than 5º (ANB > 5º. The case involves an unusual event - the congenital absence of one lower incisor tooth.

  16. Confabulation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Soren; Smith, Andrew; Minnett, Rupert; Hecht-Nielsen, Robert

    2008-06-01

    Confabulation Theory [Hecht-Nielsen R. Confabulation theory. Springer-Verlag; 2007] is the first comprehensive theory of human and animal cognition. Here, we briefly describe Confabulation Theory and discuss experimental results that suggest the theory is correct. Simply put, Confabulation Theory proposes that thinking is like moving. In humans, the theory postulates that there are roughly 4000 thalamocortical modules, the “muscles of thought”. Each module performs an internal competition ( confabulation) between its symbols, influenced by inputs delivered via learned axonal associations with symbols in other modules. In each module, this competition is controlled, as in an individual muscle, by a single graded (i.e., analog) thought control signal. The final result of this confabulation process is a single active symbol, the expression of which also results in launching of action commands that trigger and control subsequent movements and/or thought processes. Modules are manipulated in groups under coordinated, event-contingent control, in a similar manner to our 700 muscles. Confabulation Theory hypothesizes that the control of thinking is a direct evolutionary outgrowth of the control of movement. Establishing a complete understanding of Confabulation Theory will require launching and sustaining a massive new phalanx of confabulation neuroscience research.

  17. Elastoplasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hashiguchi, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    This book details the mathematics and continuum mechanics necessary as a foundation of elastoplasticity theory. It explains physical backgrounds with illustrations and provides descriptions of detailed derivation processes..

  18. Field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Intended for graduate courses or for independent study, this book presents the basic theory of fields. The first part begins with a discussion of polynomials over a ring, the division algorithm, irreducibility, field extensions, and embeddings. The second part is devoted to Galois theory. The third part of the book treats the theory of binomials. The book concludes with a chapter on families of binomials - the Kummer theory. This new edition has been completely rewritten in order to improve the pedagogy and to make the text more accessible to graduate students.  The exercises have also been im

  19. Game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufwenberg, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Game theory is a toolkit for examining situations where decision makers influence each other. I discuss the nature of game-theoretic analysis, the history of game theory, why game theory is useful for understanding human psychology, and why game theory has played a key role in the recent explosion of interest in the field of behavioral economics. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 167-173 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.119 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Lectures in accelerator theory

    CERN Document Server

    Month, M

    1981-01-01

    Accelerator theory is a broad area of study involving the behaviour of particle beams. Out of the many categories, the author has chosen to describe three phenomena taken from (1) the theory of single particle motion in nonlinear fields; (2) the theory of high intensity coherent motion and; (3) the theory of current accumulation. He deals with the behaviour of particles in the nonlinear field arising from the electromagnetic interaction of colliding beams. An analysis of the development of traveling waves on particle beams is presented. The situation studied is that of a uniform beam current in a circular accelerator and the excitation for the coherent motion is induced by the resistivity of the vacuum chamber wall. A description of the current accumulation process used at the proton storage rings at CERN (ISR) is given. (0 refs).

  1. READING THEORIES AND READING COMPREHENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Novary Ngabut

    2015-01-01

    In this article several reading theories in their relations to reading comprehension teachers and lecturers of English need to know are reviewed. At the theory level, three other Models of Reading, namely Bottom-Up, Top-Down, and Interactive are previously discussed to the Schema Theory. In reviewing the reading comprehension, the history of reading instruction, types and purposes of reading, and cognitive reading skills are discussed. Finally, it reviews six variables involved in the compreh...

  2. Stasis Theory and Paleontology Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcut, Kathryn M.

    2007-01-01

    Stasis theory is a powerful tool for rhetorical analysis, recently under fresh consideration by rhetorical theorists (e.g. Gross) and scholars who identify its utility in the writing classroom (e.g. Carroll). In this study, the author applies stasis theory to a paleontological argument involving a controversial fossil, "Protoavis texensis."…

  3. Shielding Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion N.Chiuta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper determines relations for shieldingeffectiveness relative to several variables, includingmetal type, metal properties, thickness, distance,frequency, etc. It starts by presenting some relationshipsregarding magnetic, electric and electromagnetic fieldsas a pertinent background to understanding and applyingfield theory. Since literature about electromagneticcompatibility is replete with discussions about Maxwellequations and field theory only a few aspects arepresented.

  4. Uncertainty theory

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Baoding

    2015-01-01

    When no samples are available to estimate a probability distribution, we have to invite some domain experts to evaluate the belief degree that each event will happen. Perhaps some people think that the belief degree should be modeled by subjective probability or fuzzy set theory. However, it is usually inappropriate because both of them may lead to counterintuitive results in this case. In order to rationally deal with belief degrees, uncertainty theory was founded in 2007 and subsequently studied by many researchers. Nowadays, uncertainty theory has become a branch of axiomatic mathematics for modeling belief degrees. This is an introductory textbook on uncertainty theory, uncertain programming, uncertain statistics, uncertain risk analysis, uncertain reliability analysis, uncertain set, uncertain logic, uncertain inference, uncertain process, uncertain calculus, and uncertain differential equation. This textbook also shows applications of uncertainty theory to scheduling, logistics, networks, data mining, c...

  5. Potential Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lukeš, Jaroslav; Netuka, Ivan; Veselý, Jiří

    1988-01-01

    Within the tradition of meetings devoted to potential theory, a conference on potential theory took place in Prague on 19-24, July 1987. The Conference was organized by the Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, with the collaboration of the Institute of Mathematics, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, the Department of Mathematics, Czech University of Technology, the Union of Czechoslovak Mathematicians and Physicists, the Czechoslovak Scientific and Technical Society, and supported by IMU. During the Conference, 69 scientific communications from different branches of potential theory were presented; the majority of them are in­ cluded in the present volume. (Papers based on survey lectures delivered at the Conference, its program as well as a collection of problems from potential theory will appear in a special volume of the Lecture Notes Series published by Springer-Verlag). Topics of these communications truly reflect the vast scope of contemporary potential theory. Some contributions deal...

  6. Field theory

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-11-08

    In these lectures I will build up the concept of field theory using the language of Feynman diagrams. As a starting point, field theory in zero spacetime dimensions is used as a vehicle to develop all the necessary techniques: path integral, Feynman diagrams, Schwinger-Dyson equations, asymptotic series, effective action, renormalization etc. The theory is then extended to more dimensions, with emphasis on the combinatorial aspects of the diagrams rather than their particular mathematical structure. The concept of unitarity is used to, finally, arrive at the various Feynman rules in an actual, four-dimensional theory. The concept of gauge-invariance is developed, and the structure of a non-abelian gauge theory is discussed, again on the level of Feynman diagrams and Feynman rules.

  7. Adolescent Mothers' Perceptions of Fathers' Parental Involvement: Satisfaction and Desire for Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Melissa J.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Madden-Derdich, Debra A.; Leonard, Stacie A.

    2007-01-01

    Grounded in family systems and ecological theories, this study examined teenage mothers' perceptions of fathers' parental involvement and the role of teenage mothers' gatekeeping beliefs. Fathers' involvement was perceived to be greater when teenage parents were romantically involved (n = 55). When they no longer shared a romantic relationship (n…

  8. Symposium on Optimal Control Theory

    CERN Document Server

    1987-01-01

    Control theory can be roughly classified as deterministic or stochastic. Each of these can further be subdivided into game theory and optimal control theory. The central problem of control theory is the so called constrained maximization (which-­ with slight modifications--is equivalent to minimization). One can then say, heuristically, that the major problem of control theory is to find the maximum of some performance criterion (or criteria), given a set of constraints. The starting point is, of course, a mathematical representation of the performance criterion (or criteria)-­ sometimes called the objective functional--along with the constraints. When the objective functional is single valued (Le. , when there is only one objective to be maximized), then one is dealing with optimal control theory. When more than one objective is involved, and the objectives are generally incompatible, then one is dealing with game theory. The first paper deals with stochastic optimal control, using the dynamic programming ...

  9. Logical Theories for Agent Introspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    several such logical theories which we prove to be consistent. These theories are all based on first-order predicate logic. To prove our consistency results, we develop a general mathematical framework, suitable for proving a large number of consistency results concerning logical theories involving...... by developments within semantics for logic programming within computational logic and formal theories of truth within philosophical logic. The thesis provides a number of examples showing how the developed theories can be used as reasoning frameworks for agents with introspective abilities. In Danish...... by self-reference. In the standard approach taken in artificial intelligence, the model that an agent has of its environment is represented as a set of beliefs. These beliefs are expressed as logical formulas within a formal, logical theory. When the logical theory is expressive enough to allow...

  10. Peer Involvement in Adolescent Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Pam S.; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ways in which peers are involved in adolescent dating violence. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-21 were interviewed and asked to reflect on aggressive dating relationships they experienced as teens. The researchers used grounded theory to analyze the data. Findings showed that male and female peers were involved in…

  11. The Drug Involvement Scale for Adolescents (DISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, Leona L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Posits a multidimensional measurement theory of adolescent drug involvement and tests its measurement properties as captured in the Drug Involvement Scale for Adolescents (DISA). Results attest to the reliability, validity, and brevity (22 indicators constructed from 29 items) of this composite index. Recommends further validation of the DISA.…

  12. Bullying Prevention and the Parent Involvement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbert, Jered B.; Schultz, Danielle; Crothers, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of bullying prevention programs provides support for social-ecological theory, in which parent involvement addressing child bullying behaviors is seen as important in preventing school-based bullying. The purpose of this manuscript is to suggest how Epstein and colleagues' parent involvement model can be used as a…

  13. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  14. Lattice theory

    CERN Document Server

    Birkhoff, Garrett

    1940-01-01

    Since its original publication in 1940, this book has been revised and modernized several times, most notably in 1948 (second edition) and in 1967 (third edition). The material is organized into four main parts: general notions and concepts of lattice theory (Chapters I-V), universal algebra (Chapters VI-VII), applications of lattice theory to various areas of mathematics (Chapters VIII-XII), and mathematical structures that can be developed using lattices (Chapters XIII-XVII). At the end of the book there is a list of 166 unsolved problems in lattice theory, many of which still remain open. I

  15. Agency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting, and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... ante (‘hidden characteristics’) as well as ex post information asymmetry (‘hidden action’), and examines conditions under which various kinds of incentive instruments and monitoring arrangements can be deployed to minimize the welfare loss. Its clear predictions and broad applicability have allowed...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....

  16. Agency Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Agency theory studies the problems and solutions linked to delegation of tasks from principals to agents in the context of conflicting interests between the parties. Beginning from clear assumptions about rationality, contracting and informational conditions, the theory addresses problems of ex...... ante (“hidden characteristics”) as well as ex post information asymmetry (“hidden action”), and examines conditions under which various kinds of incentive instruments and monitoring arrangements can be deployed to minimize the welfare loss. Its clear predictions and broad applicability have allowed...... agency theory to enjoy considerable scientific impact on social science; however, it has also attracted considerable criticism....

  17. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E

    1994-01-01

    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  18. Continuity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed, self-contained theory of continuous mappings. It is mainly addressed to students who have already studied these mappings in the setting of metric spaces, as well as multidimensional differential calculus. The needed background facts about sets, metric spaces and linear algebra are developed in detail, so as to provide a seamless transition between students' previous studies and new material. In view of its many novel features, this book will be of interest also to mature readers who have studied continuous mappings from the subject's classical texts and wish to become acquainted with a new approach. The theory of continuous mappings serves as infrastructure for more specialized mathematical theories like differential equations, integral equations, operator theory, dynamical systems, global analysis, topological groups, topological rings and many more. In light of the centrality of the topic, a book of this kind fits a variety of applications, especially those that contribute to ...

  19. [Theory? Practice?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Moya, José Luis

    2005-04-01

    This second article about the difficult balance between academic and professional development in pre-European Spain poses the issue of the theory-practice, or learning-treatment, relationship as the historical dissolution of the practical in the theoretical.

  20. Model theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hodges, Wilfrid

    1993-01-01

    An up-to-date and integrated introduction to model theory, designed to be used for graduate courses (for students who are familiar with first-order logic), and as a reference for more experienced logicians and mathematicians.

  1. Concept theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2009-01-01

      Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......). It is also argued that the historicist and pragmatist understandings of concepts are the most fruitful views and that this understanding may be part of a broader paradigm shift that is also beginning to take place in information science.  The importance of historicist and pragmatic theories of concepts...

  2. Graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    This introduction to graph theory focuses on well-established topics, covering primary techniques and including both algorithmic and theoretical problems. The algorithms are presented with a minimum of advanced data structures and programming details. This thoroughly corrected 1988 edition provides insights to computer scientists as well as advanced undergraduates and graduate students of topology, algebra, and matrix theory. Fundamental concepts and notation and elementary properties and operations are the first subjects, followed by examinations of paths and searching, trees, and networks. S

  3. Conspiracy Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Ole; Presskorn-Thygesen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The paper is a contribution to current debates about conspiracy theories within philosophy and cultural studies. Wittgenstein’s understanding of language is invoked to analyse the epistemological effects of designating particular questions and explanations as a ‘conspiracy theory’. It is demonstr......The paper is a contribution to current debates about conspiracy theories within philosophy and cultural studies. Wittgenstein’s understanding of language is invoked to analyse the epistemological effects of designating particular questions and explanations as a ‘conspiracy theory......’. It is demonstrated how such a designation relegates these questions and explanations beyond the realm of meaningful discourse. In addition, Agamben’s concept of sovereignty is applied to explore the political effects of using the concept of conspiracy theory. The exceptional epistemological status assigned...... to alleged conspiracy theories within our prevalent paradigms of knowledge and truth is compared to the exceptional legal status assigned to individuals accused of terrorism under the War on Terror. The paper concludes by discussing the relation between conspiracy theory and ‘the paranoid style...

  4. Disharmony of the spheres: Recent trends in planetary surface nomenclature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Inadvisable departures from tradition in naming newly mapped features on Mars, Mercury, and the Moon have been implemented and proposed since 1970. Functional need for place names also has become confused with cartographic convenience. Much of the resulting new nomenclature is neither unique, efficient, nor imaginative. The longstanding classical orientation in Solar System geography needs to be firmly reasserted. The Ma??dler scheme for designating smaller craters on the Moon should be retained and extended to the farside. Names of surface features on other bodies might best reflect the traditional connotations of planet and satellite names: for example, most crates on Mars would be named for mythical heroes and military personalities in ancient history, craters on Mercury might commemorate explorers or commercial luminaries, and features on Venus would bear the names of famous women. ?? 1976.

  5. Problems in equilibrium theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aliprantis, Charalambos D

    1996-01-01

    In studying General Equilibrium Theory the student must master first the theory and then apply it to solve problems. At the graduate level there is no book devoted exclusively to teaching problem solving. This book teaches for the first time the basic methods of proof and problem solving in General Equilibrium Theory. The problems cover the entire spectrum of difficulty; some are routine, some require a good grasp of the material involved, and some are exceptionally challenging. The book presents complete solutions to two hundred problems. In searching for the basic required techniques, the student will find a wealth of new material incorporated into the solutions. The student is challenged to produce solutions which are different from the ones presented in the book.

  6. Compatible quantum theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, R; Hohenberg, P C

    2014-09-01

    requires a macroscopic mechanism for selecting a physical framework, which is part of the macroscopic theory (MAQM). The selection of a physical framework involves the breaking of the microscopic 'framework symmetry', which can proceed either phenomenologically as in the standard quantum measurement theory, or more fundamentally by considering the quantum system under study to be a subsystem of a macroscopic quantum system. The decoherent histories formulation of Gell-Mann and Hartle, as well as that of Omnès, are theories of this fundamental type, where the physical framework is selected by a coarse-graining procedure in which the physical phenomenon of decoherence plays an essential role. Various well-known interpretations of QM are described from the perspective of CQT. Detailed definitions and proofs are presented in the appendices.

  7. A landscape of field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxfield, Travis [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago,Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Robbins, Daniel [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University,College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Sethi, Savdeep [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago,Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2016-11-28

    Studying a quantum field theory involves a choice of space-time manifold and a choice of background for any global symmetries of the theory. We argue that many more choices are possible when specifying the background. In the context of branes in string theory, the additional data corresponds to a choice of supergravity tensor fluxes. We propose the existence of a landscape of field theory backgrounds, characterized by the space-time metric, global symmetry background and a choice of tensor fluxes. As evidence for this landscape, we study the supersymmetric six-dimensional (2,0) theory compactified to two dimensions. Different choices of metric and flux give rise to distinct two-dimensional theories, which can preserve differing amounts of supersymmetry.

  8. Short distance universality in random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezin, E. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies

    1997-09-01

    We argue that all conjectured dualities involving various string, M- and F-theory compactifications can be `derived` from the conjectured duality between type I and SO(32) heterotic string theory, T-dualities, and the definition of M-and F- theories. (orig.).

  9. Who and What Does Involvement Involve?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Oute; Petersen, Anders; Huniche, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This article gives an account of aspects of a multi-sited field study of involvement of relatives in Danish psychiatry. By following metaphors of involvement across three sites of the psychiatric systema family site, a clinical site and a policy sitethe first author (J.O.) investigated how...... theoretical perspective laid out by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, the aim of this study is to show how the dominant discourse about involvement at the political and clinical sites is constituted by understandings of mentally ill individuals and by political objectives of involvement. The analysis...... is constituted by a broader discourse of neoliberalism and market orientation, which justifies involvement as a subtle institutionalization of social control. The article highlights that the role of the relative as a co-therapist may be contested by the families' discourse, which emphasizes issues concerning...

  10. Nevanlinna theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kodaira, Kunihiko

    2017-01-01

    This book deals with the classical theory of Nevanlinna on the value distribution of meromorphic functions of one complex variable, based on minimum prerequisites for complex manifolds. The theory was extended to several variables by S. Kobayashi, T. Ochiai, J. Carleson, and P. Griffiths in the early 1970s. K. Kodaira took up this subject in his course at The University of Tokyo in 1973 and gave an introductory account of this development in the context of his final paper, contained in this book. The first three chapters are devoted to holomorphic mappings from C to complex manifolds. In the fourth chapter, holomorphic mappings between higher dimensional manifolds are covered. The book is a valuable treatise on the Nevanlinna theory, of special interests to those who want to understand Kodaira's unique approach to basic questions on complex manifolds.

  11. Persistence theory

    CERN Document Server

    Oudot, Steve Y

    2015-01-01

    Persistence theory emerged in the early 2000s as a new theory in the area of applied and computational topology. This book provides a broad and modern view of the subject, including its algebraic, topological, and algorithmic aspects. It also elaborates on applications in data analysis. The level of detail of the exposition has been set so as to keep a survey style, while providing sufficient insights into the proofs so the reader can understand the mechanisms at work. The book is organized into three parts. The first part is dedicated to the foundations of persistence and emphasizes its conne

  12. Probability theory

    CERN Document Server

    S Varadhan, S R

    2001-01-01

    This volume presents topics in probability theory covered during a first-year graduate course given at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences. The necessary background material in measure theory is developed, including the standard topics, such as extension theorem, construction of measures, integration, product spaces, Radon-Nikodym theorem, and conditional expectation. In the first part of the book, characteristic functions are introduced, followed by the study of weak convergence of probability distributions. Then both the weak and strong limit theorems for sums of independent rando

  13. Galois theory

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Ian

    2003-01-01

    Ian Stewart's Galois Theory has been in print for 30 years. Resoundingly popular, it still serves its purpose exceedingly well. Yet mathematics education has changed considerably since 1973, when theory took precedence over examples, and the time has come to bring this presentation in line with more modern approaches.To this end, the story now begins with polynomials over the complex numbers, and the central quest is to understand when such polynomials have solutions that can be expressed by radicals. Reorganization of the material places the concrete before the abstract, thus motivating the g

  14. Towards a Theory Grounded Theory of Language

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Christopher G.; Mislivec, Eric J.; Kosolapov, Oleksandr V.; Lykken, Troy R.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we build upon the idea of theory grounding and propose one specific form of theory grounding, a theory of language. Theory grounding is the idea that we can imbue our embodied artificially intelligent systems with theories by modeling the way humans, and specifically young children, develop skills with theories. Modeling theory development promises to increase the conceptual and behavioral flexibility of these systems. An example of theory development in children is the social ...

  15. Combinatorial Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Marshall

    2011-01-01

    Includes proof of van der Waerden's 1926 conjecture on permanents, Wilson's theorem on asymptotic existence, and other developments in combinatorics since 1967. Also covers coding theory and its important connection with designs, problems of enumeration, and partition. Presents fundamentals in addition to latest advances, with illustrative problems at the end of each chapter. Enlarged appendixes include a longer list of block designs.

  16. Mapping Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Shelley

    This paper came about within the context of a 13-month research project, Focus Area 1 - Method and Theory, at the Center for Public Space Research at the Royal Academy of the Arts School of Architecture in Copenhagen, Denmark. This project has been funded by RealDania. The goals of the research p...

  17. Matching theory

    CERN Document Server

    Plummer, MD

    1986-01-01

    This study of matching theory deals with bipartite matching, network flows, and presents fundamental results for the non-bipartite case. It goes on to study elementary bipartite graphs and elementary graphs in general. Further discussed are 2-matchings, general matching problems as linear programs, the Edmonds Matching Algorithm (and other algorithmic approaches), f-factors and vertex packing.

  18. Framing theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Lecheler, S.; Mazzoleni, G.; Barnhurst, K.G.; Ikeda, K.; Maia, R.C.M.; Wessler, H.

    2016-01-01

    Political issues can be viewed from different perspectives and they can be defined differently in the news media by emphasizing some aspects and leaving others aside. This is at the core of news framing theory. Framing originates within sociology and psychology and has become one of the most used

  19. Autocommunication Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger

    2016-01-01

    they communicate with and evaluate themselves as social beings. This latter point was clearly illustrated in Jane Dutton and Janet Dukerich’s (1991) now classic study of the New York Port Authority, in which employees used external perceptions of their workplace to judge their individual characters. This entry...... covers the theory of autocommunication and its implications for corporate reputation and managerial applications....

  20. Theory U

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monthoux, Pierre Guillet de; Statler, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The recent Carnegie report (Colby, et al., 2011) characterizes the goal of business education as the development of practical wisdom. In this chapter, the authors reframe Scharmer’s Theory U as an attempt to develop practical wisdom by applying certain European philosophical concepts. Specifically...

  1. Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William H K.

    2016-01-01

    A complex system consists of many interacting parts, generates new collective behavior through self organization, and adaptively evolves through time. Many theories have been developed to study complex systems, including chaos, fractals, cellular automata, self organization, stochastic processes, turbulence, and genetic algorithms.

  2. Activity Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Bødker, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    the young HCI research tradition. But HCI was already facing problems: lack of consideration for other aspects of human behavior, for interaction with other people, for culture. Cognitive science-based theories lacked means to address several issues that came out of the empirical projects....

  3. Theory U

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillet de Monthoux, Pierre; Statler, Matt

    2017-01-01

    The recent Carnegie report (Colby, et al., 2011) characterizes the goal of business education as the development of practical wisdom. In this chapter, the authors reframe Scharmer's Theory U as an attempt to develop practical wisdom by applying certain European philosophical concepts. Specifically...

  4. Singularity theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    The space of functions – or maps – is huge. Fortunately, many of its elements may be regarded as equivalent in a natural way, for example under right- or left-right transformations. Singularity theory studies how such equivalences foliate these spaces into a more manageable family of orbits of

  5. Two Dimensions of Parental Involvement: What Affects Parental Involvement in Dual Language Immersion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ee, Jongyeon

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates parental involvement in Korean two-way immersion (TWI) programs from the social capital theory perspective. This study explores the degree to which parental involvement is affected by parents' demographic features and parent-related variables by analyzing data from 454 parents of students enrolled in seven elementary…

  6. Elastoplasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hashiguchi, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    This book was written to serve as the standard textbook of elastoplasticity for students, engineers and researchers in the field of applied mechanics. The present second edition is improved thoroughly from the first edition by selecting the standard theories from various formulations and models, which are required to study the essentials of elastoplasticity steadily and effectively and will remain universally in the history of elastoplasticity. It opens with an explanation of vector-tensor analysis and continuum mechanics as a foundation to study elastoplasticity theory, extending over various strain and stress tensors and their rates. Subsequently, constitutive equations of elastoplastic and viscoplastic deformations for monotonic, cyclic and non-proportional loading behavior in a general rate and their applications to metals and soils are described in detail, and constitutive equations of friction behavior between solids and its application to the prediction of stick-slip phenomena are delineated. In additi...

  7. Potential theory

    CERN Document Server

    Helms, Lester L

    2014-01-01

    Potential Theory presents a clear path from calculus to classical potential theory and beyond, with the aim of moving the reader into the area of mathematical research as quickly as possible. The subject matter is developed from first principles using only calculus. Commencing with the inverse square law for gravitational and electromagnetic forces and the divergence theorem, the author develops methods for constructing solutions of Laplace's equation on a region with prescribed values on the boundary of the region. The latter half of the book addresses more advanced material aimed at those with the background of a senior undergraduate or beginning graduate course in real analysis. Starting with solutions of the Dirichlet problem subject to mixed boundary conditions on the simplest of regions, methods of morphing such solutions onto solutions of Poisson's equation on more general regions are developed using diffeomorphisms and the Perron-Wiener-Brelot method, culminating in application to Brownian motion. In ...

  8. Operator theory

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    A one-sentence definition of operator theory could be: The study of (linear) continuous operations between topological vector spaces, these being in general (but not exclusively) Fréchet, Banach, or Hilbert spaces (or their duals). Operator theory is thus a very wide field, with numerous facets, both applied and theoretical. There are deep connections with complex analysis, functional analysis, mathematical physics, and electrical engineering, to name a few. Fascinating new applications and directions regularly appear, such as operator spaces, free probability, and applications to Clifford analysis. In our choice of the sections, we tried to reflect this diversity. This is a dynamic ongoing project, and more sections are planned, to complete the picture. We hope you enjoy the reading, and profit from this endeavor.

  9. Communication theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Irene F.; Stelter, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Communication theory covers a wide variety of theories related to the communication process (Littlejohn, 1999). Communication is not simply an exchange of information, in which we have a sender and a receiver. This very technical concept of communication is clearly outdated; a human being...... is not a data processing device. In this chapter, communication is understood as a process of shared meaning-making (Bruner, 1990). Human beings interpret their environment, other people, and themselves on the basis of their dynamic interaction with the surrounding world. Meaning is essential because people...... ascribe specific meanings to their experiences, their actions in life or work, and their interactions. Meaning is reshaped, adapted, and transformed in every communication encounter. Furthermore, meaning is cocreated in dialogues or in communities of practice, such as in teams at a workplace or in school...

  10. Percolation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Wierman, John C.

    1982-01-01

    An introduction is provided to the mathematical tools and problems of percolation theory. A discussion of Bernoulli percolation models shows the role of graph duality and correlation inequalities in the recent determination of the critical probability in the square, triangular, and hexagonal lattice bond models. An introduction to first passage percolation concentrates on the problems of existence of optimal routes, length of optimal routes, and conditions for convergence of first passage tim...

  11. Scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Harald

    2016-01-01

    This corrected and updated second edition of "Scattering Theory" presents a concise and modern coverage of the subject. In the present treatment, special attention is given to the role played by the long-range behaviour of the projectile-target interaction, and a theory is developed, which is well suited to describe near-threshold bound and continuum states in realistic binary systems such as diatomic molecules or molecular ions. It is motivated by the fact that experimental advances have shifted and broadened the scope of applications where concepts from scattering theory are used, e.g. to the field of ultracold atoms and molecules, which has been experiencing enormous growth in recent years, largely triggered by the successful realization of Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute atomic gases in 1995. The book contains sections on special topics such as near-threshold quantization, quantum reflection, Feshbach resonances and the quantum description of scattering in two dimensions. The level of abstraction is k...

  12. Graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Diestel, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    This standard textbook of modern graph theory, now in its fifth edition, combines the authority of a classic with the engaging freshness of style that is the hallmark of active mathematics. It covers the core material of the subject with concise yet reliably complete proofs, while offering glimpses of more advanced methods in each field by one or two deeper results, again with proofs given in full detail. The book can be used as a reliable text for an introductory course, as a graduate text, and for self-study. From the reviews: “This outstanding book cannot be substituted with any other book on the present textbook market. It has every chance of becoming the standard textbook for graph theory.”Acta Scientiarum Mathematiciarum “Deep, clear, wonderful. This is a serious book about the heart of graph theory. It has depth and integrity. ”Persi Diaconis & Ron Graham, SIAM Review “The book has received a very enthusiastic reception, which it amply deserves. A masterly elucidation of modern graph theo...

  13. Moral learning as intuitive theory revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Wellman, Henry

    2017-10-01

    We argue that moral learning, like much of conceptual development more generally, involves development and change in children's intuitive theories of the world. Children's intuitive theories involve coherent and abstract representations of the world, which point to domain-specific, unobservable causal-explanatory entities. From this perspective, children rely on intuitive sociological theories (in particular, an abstract expectation that group memberships constrain people's obligations), and their intuitive psychological theories (including expectations that mental states motivate individual behavior) to predict, explain, and evaluate morally-relevant action. Thus, moral learning involves development and change in each of these theories of the world across childhood, as well as developmental change in how children integrate information from these two intuitive theories. This perspective is supported by a series of research studies on young children's moral reasoning and learning, and compared to other developmental approaches, including more traditional forms of constructivism and more recent nativist perspectives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Colloquium: Topological band theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansil, A.; Lin, Hsin; Das, Tanmoy

    2016-04-01

    The first-principles band theory paradigm has been a key player not only in the process of discovering new classes of topologically interesting materials, but also for identifying salient characteristics of topological states, enabling direct and sharpened confrontation between theory and experiment. This review begins by discussing underpinnings of the topological band theory, which involve a layer of analysis and interpretation for assessing topological properties of band structures beyond the standard band theory construct. Methods for evaluating topological invariants are delineated, including crystals without inversion symmetry and interacting systems. The extent to which theoretically predicted properties and protections of topological states have been verified experimentally is discussed, including work on topological crystalline insulators, disorder and interaction driven topological insulators (TIs), topological superconductors, Weyl semimetal phases, and topological phase transitions. Successful strategies for new materials discovery process are outlined. A comprehensive survey of currently predicted 2D and 3D topological materials is provided. This includes binary, ternary, and quaternary compounds, transition metal and f -electron materials, Weyl and 3D Dirac semimetals, complex oxides, organometallics, skutterudites, and antiperovskites. Also included is the emerging area of 2D atomically thin films beyond graphene of various elements and their alloys, functional thin films, multilayer systems, and ultrathin films of 3D TIs, all of which hold exciting promise of wide-ranging applications. This Colloquium concludes by giving a perspective on research directions where further work will broadly benefit the topological materials field.

  15. Graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Merris, Russell

    2001-01-01

    A lively invitation to the flavor, elegance, and power of graph theoryThis mathematically rigorous introduction is tempered and enlivened by numerous illustrations, revealing examples, seductive applications, and historical references. An award-winning teacher, Russ Merris has crafted a book designed to attract and engage through its spirited exposition, a rich assortment of well-chosen exercises, and a selection of topics that emphasizes the kinds of things that can be manipulated, counted, and pictured. Intended neither to be a comprehensive overview nor an encyclopedic reference, th

  16. Graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Diestel, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    HauptbeschreibungThis standard textbook of modern graph theory, now in its fourth edition, combinesthe authority of a classic with the engaging freshness of style that is the hallmarkof active mathematics. It covers the core material of the subject with concise yetreliably complete proofs, while offering glimpses of more advanced methodsin each field by one or two deeper results, again with proofs given in full detail.The book can be used as a reliable text for an introductory course, as a graduatetext, and for self-study. Rezension"Deep, clear, wonderful. This is a serious book about the

  17. Function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sawyer, Eric T

    2009-01-01

    These lecture notes take the reader from Lennart Carleson's first deep results on interpolation and corona problems in the unit disk to modern analogues in the disk and ball. The emphasis is on introducing the diverse array of techniques needed to attack these problems rather than producing an encyclopedic summary of achievements. Techniques from classical analysis and operator theory include duality, Blaschke product constructions, purely Hilbert space arguments, bounded mean oscillation, best approximation, boundedness of the Beurling transform, estimates on solutions to the \\bar\\partial equ

  18. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  19. Practical theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Klaus Bruhn

    2016-01-01

    This article revisits the place of normative and other practical issues in the wider conceptual architecture of communication theory, building on the tradition of philosophical pragmatism. The article first characterizes everyday concepts of communication as the accumulated outcome of natural...... evolution and history: practical resources for human existence and social coexistence. Such practical concepts have served as the point of departure for diverse theoretical conceptions of what communication is. The second part of the article highlights the past neglect and current potential of normative...

  20. Biocultural Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Joseph; Clasen, Mathias; Jonsson, Emelie

    2017-01-01

    of research as contributions to a coherent, collective research program. This article argues that a mature biocultural paradigm needs to be informed by at least 7 major research clusters: (a) gene-culture coevolution; (b) human life history theory; (c) evolutionary social psychology; (d) anthropological...... research on contemporary hunter-gatherers; (e) biocultural socioeconomic and political history; (f) evolutionary aesthetics; and (g) biocultural research in the humanities (religions, ideologies, the history of ideas, and the arts). This article explains the way these research clusters are integrated...

  1. Design theory

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with the basic subjects of design theory. It begins with balanced incomplete block designs, various constructions of which are described in ample detail. In particular, finite projective and affine planes, difference sets and Hadamard matrices, as tools to construct balanced incomplete block designs, are included. Orthogonal latin squares are also treated in detail. Zhu's simpler proof of the falsity of Euler's conjecture is included. The construction of some classes of balanced incomplete block designs, such as Steiner triple systems and Kirkman triple systems, are also given.

  2. Some empirical evidence for ecological dissonance theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D I; Verhoek-Miller, N; Giesen, J M; Wells-Parker, E

    2000-04-01

    Using Festinger's cognitive dissonance theory as a model, the extension to Barker's ecological theory, referred to as ecological dissonance theory, was developed. Designed to examine the motivational dynamics involved when environmental systems are in conflict with each other or with cognitive systems, ecological dissonance theory yielded five propositions which were tested in 10 studies. This summary of the studies suggests operationally defined measures of ecological dissonance may correlate with workers' satisfaction with their jobs, involvement with their jobs, alienation from their work, and to a lesser extent, workers' conflict resolution behavior and communication style.

  3. Comparative Evaluation of the Cognitive Theories of Piaget and Ausubel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Loretta A.

    Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development and David Ausubel's assimilation theory of learning are explicated and selected research involving both theories is reviewed in this paper. The two theories are compared on selected dimensions to demonstrate that they are compatible and that, in conjunction with one another, they form a strong…

  4. Theory into practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to explore how theory is integrated into practice in students’ academic work within upper secondary education. In order to study this, the paper develops an analytical framework for situated reflection that conceptualises reflective processes in direct relation...... phases of student activities. Each of these phases involves different kinds of situated reflection that result in different learning outcomes within the same subject area. From the utilisation of the analytical framework, the study further identifies a number of sub-processes within student work...

  5. Simplicial gauge theory and quantum gauge theory simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Tore Gunnar, E-mail: toregha@gmail.com [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Sorensen, Torquil Macdonald, E-mail: t.m.sorensen@matnat.uio.no [Centre of Mathematics for Applications, University of Oslo, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway)

    2012-01-01

    We propose a general formulation of simplicial lattice gauge theory inspired by the finite element method. Numerical tests of convergence towards continuum results are performed for several SU(2) gauge fields. Additionally, we perform simplicial Monte Carlo quantum gauge field simulations involving measurements of the action as well as differently sized Wilson loops as functions of {beta}.

  6. Middle range theory evaluation: bridging the theory-practice gap ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance underlying the practice of nursing education must continue to be explored through theories to bring about refinement of educational strategies for nursing discipline. The involvement of students learning using this process will help create learning values that serve to retain inquisitive and reflective nursing ...

  7. Control theory

    CERN Document Server

    Simrock, S

    2008-01-01

    In engineering and mathematics, control theory deals with the behaviour of dynamical systems. The desired output of a system is called the reference. When one or more output variables of a system need to follow a certain reference over time, a controller manipulates the inputs to a system to obtain the desired effect on the output of the system. Rapid advances in digital system technology have radically altered the control design options. It has become routinely practicable to design very complicated digital controllers and to carry out the extensive calculations required for their design. These advances in implementation and design capability can be obtained at low cost because of the widespread availability of inexpensive and powerful digital processing platforms and high-speed analog IO devices.

  8. JOINT INVOLVEMENT IN SYPHILIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Zlobina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint involvement in syphilis has been considered as casuistry in recent years. At the same time, the high incidence of primary syphilis and the notified cases of late neurosyphilis may suggest that joint involvement in this disease is by no means always verified. Traditionally there are two forms of syphilitic arthritis: primary synovial (involving the articular membranes and sac and primary bone (involving the articular bones and cartilages ones. The paper describes the authors' clinical case of the primary bone form of articular syphilis in a 34-year-old man. 

  9. 'Theory of Mind' I: a theory of knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastow, Michael

    2012-06-01

    'Theory of mind' is a cognitive notion introduced by Simon Baron-Cohen and colleagues to explain certain deficits in autistic disorders. It has, however, been extended beyond this, and applied more broadly. It proposes a means of knowing the mind of others, and suggests that this means fails in autism. The epistemological basis of 'theory of mind' will be examined critically, not just in terms of its endeavour as a theory of knowledge, but also in regard to the principles that underlie it. The proponents of 'theory of mind' eschew the rich field of psychological and phenomenological research, privileging only the biological sciences into which they endeavour to place their theorizations. In doing this, they fail to recognize the epistemological problems involved. This leads to the theory remaining hamstrung by the very Cartesian ontological problems that it seeks to avoid. For some, 'theory of mind' is but an artefact of the cognitive approach that it employs. It is argued that these difficulties are compounded by the failure of 'theory of mind' to take account of the place of language in the interpersonal encounters it attempts to describe.

  10. Supergravity and M-Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, B.Q.P.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070710945; van Zalk, M.

    2009-01-01

    Supergravity provides the effective field theories for string compactifications. The deformation of the maximal supergravities by non-abelian gauge interactions is only possible for a restricted class of charges. Generically these ‘gaugings’ involve a hierarchy of p-form fields which belong to

  11. Toward a theory of holistic needs and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silton, Nava R; Flannelly, Laura T; Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews Maslow's theory of motivation wherein he proposes a hierarchy of human needs. First, it describes the principal elements of Maslow's theory and discusses considerations relating to the flexibility of the hierarchy. Second, it explains the relationship among Maslow's theory of human needs, attachment theory, and evolutionary threat assessment system theory. Third, it provides an overview of the brain structures posited to be involved in attachment and evolutionary threat assessment system theory and their relation to Maslow's hierarchy. Finally, it explains how the 3 theories converge to form a theory of holistic needs.

  12. Review of Hydroelasticity Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xu-jun; Wu, You-sheng; Cui, Wei-cheng

    2006-01-01

    Existing hydroelastic theories are reviewed. The theories are classified into different types: two-dimensional linear theory, two-dimensional nonlinear theory, three-dimensional linear theory and three-dimensional nonlinear theory. Applications to analysis of very large floating structures (VLFS...

  13. General Theories of Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertog, J.A. den

    1999-01-01

    This chapter makes a distinction between three types of theories of regulation: public interest theories, the Chicago theory of regulation and the public choice theories. The Chicago theory is mainly directed at the explanation of economic regulation; public interest theories and public choice

  14. Conversational Involvement and Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    Assessed the relationship of conversational involvement and loneliness among college students. Found that lonely participants in this study had lower rates of talkativeness, interruptions, and attention than the nonlonely; they were also perceived as less involved and less interpersonally attractive. (PD)

  15. Involvement Bulletin Boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugge, Dorothy J.; And Others

    "Thoroughly engrossing children and stimulating in them the desire to discover as much as possible about the materials displayed, involvement bulletin boards encourage their viewers to interact positively with these materials: to relate and respond." This pamphlet first discusses the rationale and strategies for planning involvement bulletin…

  16. Scattering theory for Riemannian Laplacians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, Kenichi; Skibsted, Erik

    condition is certain bounds of derivatives up to order one of the trace of this quantity. These conditions are shown to be optimal for existence and completeness of a wave operator. Our theory does not involve prescribed asymptotic behaviour of the metric at infinity (like asymptotic Euclidean or hyperbolic......In this paper we introduce a notion of scattering theory for the Laplace-Beltrami operator on non-compact, connected and complete Riemannian manifolds. A principal condition is given by a certain positive lower bound of the second fundamental form of angular submanifolds at infinity. Another...... metrics studied previously in the literature). A consequence of the theory is spectral theory for the Laplace-Beltrami operator including identification of the continuous spectrum and absence of singular continuous spectrum....

  17. Quantum mechanics theory and experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This textbook presents quantum mechanics at the junior/senior undergraduate level. It is unique in that it describes not only quantum theory, but also presents five laboratories that explore truly modern aspects of quantum mechanics. These laboratories include "proving" that light contains photons, single-photon interference, and tests of local realism. The text begins by presenting the classical theory of polarization, moving on to describe the quantum theory of polarization. Analogies between the two theories minimize conceptual difficulties that students typically have when first presented with quantum mechanics. Furthermore, because the laboratories involve studying photons, using photon polarization as a prototypical quantum system allows the laboratory work to be closely integrated with the coursework. Polarization represents a two-dimensional quantum system, so the introduction to quantum mechanics uses two-dimensional state vectors and operators. This allows students to become comfortable with the mat...

  18. Contributions to Persistence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Dong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistence theory discussed in this paper is an application of algebraic topology (Morse Theory [29] to Data Analysis, precisely to qualitative understanding of point cloud data, or PCD for short. PCD can be geometrized as a filtration of simplicial complexes (Vietoris-Rips complex [25] [36] and the homology changes of these complexes provide qualitative information about the data. Bar codes describe the changes in homology with coefficients in a fixed field. When the coefficient field is ℤ2, the calculation of bar codes is done by ELZ algorithm (named after H. Edelsbrunner, D. Letscher, and A. Zomorodian [20]. When the coefficient field is ℝ, we propose an algorithm based on the Hodge decomposition [17]. With Dan Burghelea and Tamal K. Dey we developed a persistence theory which involves level sets discussed in Section 4. We introduce and discuss new computable invariants, the “relevant level persistence numbers” and the “positive and negative bar codes”, and explain how they are related to the bar codes for level persistence. We provide enhancements and modifications of ELZ algorithm to calculate such invariants and illustrate them by examples.

  19. Is string theory a theory of strings?

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Clifford V.; Kaloper, Nemanja; Khuri, Ramzi R.; Myers, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    Recently a great deal of evidence has been found indicating that type IIA string theory compactified on K3 is equivalent to heterotic string theory compactified on T^4. Under the transformation which relates the two theories, the roles of fundamental and solitonic string solutions are interchanged. In this letter we show that there exists a solitonic membrane solution of the heterotic string theory which becomes a singular solution of the type IIA theory, and should therefore be interpreted a...

  20. Theory of Optimal Human Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Albert Loongtak

    1990-01-01

    This thesis presents optimal theories for punching and running. The first is a theory of the optimal karate punch in terms of the duration and the speed of the punch. This theory is solved and compared with experimental data. The theory incorporates the force vs velocity equation (Hill's eq.) and Wilkie's equation for elbow flexation in determining the optimal punch. The time T and the final speed of the punch are dependent on a few physiological parameters for arm muscles. The theoretical punch agrees fairly well with our experiments and other independent experiments. Second, a theory of optimal running is presented, solved and compared with world track records. The theory is similar to Keller's theory for running (1973) except that the power consumed by a runner is assumed to be proportional to the runner's speed v, P = Hv, whereas Keller took P = constant. There are differential equations for velocity and energy, two initial conditions and two constraint inequalities, involving a total of four free parameters. Optimal control techniques are used to solve this problem and minimize the running time T given the race distance D. The resultant predicted times T agree well with the records and the parameter values are consistent with independent physiological measurements.

  1. Doctors' involvement in torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesper, Sonntag

    2008-01-01

    Doctors from both non-democratic and democratic countries are involved in torture. The majority of doctors involved in torture are doctors at risk. Doctors at risk might compromise their ethical duty towards patients for the following possible reasons: individual factors (such as career, economic or ideological reasons), threats, orders from a higher ranking officer, political initiatives, working in atrocity-producing situations or dual loyalty. In dual loyalty conflicts, factors that might compromise doctors' ethical obligations towards detainees/patients are: ideological totalitarianism, moral disengagement, victim blame, patriotism, individual factors or threats. Another important reason why doctors are involved in torture is that not all doctors are trained in addressing human rights issues of detainees. Torture survivors report that they have experienced doctors' involvement in torture and doctors themselves report that they have been involved in torture. Testimonies from both torture survivors and doctors demonstrate that the most common way doctors are involved is in the diagnosis/medical examination of torture survivors/prisoners. And it is common before, during and after torture. Both torture survivors and doctors state that doctors are involved during torture by treatment and direct participation. Doctors also falsify journals, certificates and reports. When doctors are involved in torture it has devastating consequences for both torture survivors and doctors. The consequences for the survivors can be mistrust of doctors, avoidance of seeking doctors' help and nightmares involving doctors. Mistrust and avoidance of doctors could be especially fatal to the survivor, as it could mean a survivor who is ill may not seek medical attention. When the unambiguous role of the doctor as the protector and helper of people is questioned, it affects the medical profession all over the world.

  2. Noncommutative Geometry in M-Theory and Conformal Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morariu, Bogdan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-05-01

    In the first part of the thesis I will investigate in the Matrix theory framework, the subgroup of dualities of the Discrete Light Cone Quantization of M-theory compactified on tori, which corresponds to T-duality in the auxiliary Type II string theory. After a review of matrix theory compactification leading to noncommutative supersymmetric Yang-Mills gauge theory, I will present solutions for the fundamental and adjoint sections on a two-dimensional twisted quantum torus and generalize to three-dimensional twisted quantum tori. After showing how M-theory T-duality is realized in supersymmetric Yang-Mills gauge theories on dual noncommutative tori I will relate this to the mathematical concept of Morita equivalence of C*-algebras. As a further generalization, I consider arbitrary Ramond-Ramond backgrounds. I will also discuss the spectrum of the toroidally compactified Matrix theory corresponding to quantized electric fluxes on two and three tori. In the second part of the thesis I will present an application to conformal field theory involving quantum groups, another important example of a noncommutative space. First, I will give an introduction to Poisson-Lie groups and arrive at quantum groups using the Feynman path integral. I will quantize the symplectic leaves of the Poisson-Lie group SU(2)*. In this way we obtain the unitary representations of Uq(SU(2)). I discuss the X-structure of SU(2)* and give a detailed description of its leaves using various parametrizations. Then, I will introduce a new reality structure on the Heisenberg double of Funq (SL(N,C)) for q phase, which can be interpreted as the quantum phase space of a particle on the q-deformed mass-hyperboloid. I also present evidence that the above real form describes zero modes of certain non-compact WZNW-models.

  3. Poincare and the Theory of Automorphic Functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    He has been involved in the Math- ematical Olympiad. Programme at different levels since 1989. His research interests lie in number theory; his other interests include classical music and mountaineering. The theory of automorphic functions in which. Poincare did pioneering work led eventually to the proof of. 'Fermat's last.

  4. Sport involvement, sport violence and health behaviours of Greek adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Papaioannou, Athanasios; Karastogiannidou, Calliope; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2004-01-01

    Within the context of problem-behaviour theory, this study investigated the intra-relationship between attitudes and behaviours towards exercise, sport involvement, violence in sport-related events...

  5. Coherence, Abstraction, and Personal Involvement: Albert Einstein, Physicist and Humanist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ne'eman, Yuval

    1979-01-01

    Reviews Einstein's main contributions to physics, and analyzes the importance of a coherent body of theory. Einstein's involvement in nonscientific issues such as nuclear disarmament is also included. (HM)

  6. Assessment of public involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) employs a range of methods and strategies to incorporate Texans in the many aspects of planning, project implementation and partnerships. This public involvement process is supported by TxDOT specific, s...

  7. Paragonimiasis involving ovary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Ho; Lim, J. H.; Koh, Y. T. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    A case of paragonimiasis involving the left ovary is reported. The ultrasonographic examination detected a homogeneously echogenic mass in the left iliac fossa in association with enlargement of the adjacent lymph nodes, mimicking an ovarian cancer

  8. Community Involvement Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    A dynamic training conference that brings together more than 450 people from EPA and the Agency’s partners and stakeholders who plan and implement environmental community involvement, partnership, stewardship, outreach, and education programs.

  9. Transformative Theory in Social and Organizational Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2016-01-01

    In social and organizational research, theory is conventionally used to explain social phenomena. However, theory may be transformative in the sense that in using and testing the theory in a practical domain, researchers may attempt to help practitioners transform and improve their social practic......-known qualities of scientific research, including theoretical grounding, a coherent ontology, testable hypotheses, systematic evaluation, external validity, and theory–action consistency.......In social and organizational research, theory is conventionally used to explain social phenomena. However, theory may be transformative in the sense that in using and testing the theory in a practical domain, researchers may attempt to help practitioners transform and improve their social practices...... and institutions. This idea is illustrated by a research-and-development project in Denmark, headed by the author, which used transformative theory to design professional conferences that are more conducive to participant learning and involvement than is the conventional, lecture-based format. A number of learning...

  10. AN EDUCATIONAL THEORY MODEL--(SIGGS), AN INTEGRATION OF SET THEORY, INFORMATION THEORY, AND GRAPH THEORY WITH GENERAL SYSTEMS THEORY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MACCIA, ELIZABETH S.; AND OTHERS

    AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF 20 ITEMS AND A DISCUSSION OF ITS SIGNIFICANCE WAS PRESENTED TO DESCRIBE CURRENT UTILIZATION OF SUBJECT THEORIES IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN EDUCATIONAL THEORY. ALSO, A THEORY MODEL WAS USED TO DEMONSTRATE CONSTRUCTION OF A SCIENTIFIC EDUCATIONAL THEORY. THE THEORY MODEL INCORPORATED SET THEORY (S), INFORMATION THEORY…

  11. Democratic Theory and Citizen Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegelbauer, Peter; Hansen, Janus

    2011-01-01

    Citizen participation in terms of participatory technology assessment (PTA) has caused a lot of debate in science and technology policy. However, there are still many open questions: What is the actual impact of PTA on policy-making? On which normative theory of democracy is the evaluation of PTA...... based and does it make a difference which theory is used? Which framework is appropriate to evaluate the often fuzzy impact of PTA on policy-making? Is PTA actually a central element for policy-making or are other factors much more relevant such as politicians' involvement or the presence of industry...

  12. Recursion Theory Week

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Gert; Sacks, Gerald

    1990-01-01

    These proceedings contain research and survey papers from many subfields of recursion theory, with emphasis on degree theory, in particular the development of frameworks for current techniques in this field. Other topics covered include computational complexity theory, generalized recursion theory, proof theoretic questions in recursion theory, and recursive mathematics.

  13. Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis*, **

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessrine, Akasbi; Zahra, Abourazzak Fatima; Taoufik, Harzy

    2014-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown cause. It most commonly affects the pulmonary system but can also affect the musculoskeletal system, albeit less frequently. In patients with sarcoidosis, rheumatic involvement is polymorphic. It can be the presenting symptom of the disease or can appear during its progression. Articular involvement is dominated by nonspecific arthralgia, polyarthritis, and Löfgren's syndrome, which is defined as the presence of lung adenopathy, arthralgia (or arthritis), and erythema nodosum. Skeletal manifestations, especially dactylitis, appear mainly as complications of chronic, multiorgan sarcoidosis. Muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is rare and usually asymptomatic. The diagnosis of rheumatic sarcoidosis is based on X-ray findings and magnetic resonance imaging findings, although the definitive diagnosis is made by anatomopathological study of biopsy samples. Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis is generally relieved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or corticosteroids. In corticosteroid-resistant or -dependent forms of the disease, immunosuppressive therapy, such as treatment with methotrexate or anti-TNF-α, is employed. The aim of this review was to present an overview of the various types of osteoarticular and muscle involvement in sarcoidosis, focusing on their diagnosis and management. PMID:24831403

  14. Creating Learning at Conferences Through Participant Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen

    The typical conference is brimming with PowerPoint presentations that leave very little time for participant involvement. Students of learning have long abandoned the transfer model that underlies this massive show of one-way communication. We propose an alternative theory of the conference...... in Denmark to introduce a variety of simple learning techniques related to the design principles at thirty real conferences of some 100-200 participants each. We present twelve of these techniques and the data evaluating them and conclude that by spending a fraction of the time at a conference on involving...

  15. Cardiovascular involvement in myositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise P

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on cardiovascular involvement in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). Studies from the past 18 months are identified and reviewed. Finally, the clinical impact of these findings is discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological...... on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging suggests that CMR should be considered as a potentially viable diagnostic tool to evaluate the possibility of silent myocardial inflammation in IIM with normal routine noninvasive evaluation. SUMMARY: Updated literature on cardiovascular involvement in IIM has...... identified an increased risk for subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease in these rare inflammatory muscle diseases....

  16. The theory of finitely generated commutative semigroups

    CERN Document Server

    Rédei, L; Stark, M; Gravett, K A H

    1966-01-01

    The Theory of Finitely Generated Commutative Semigroups describes a theory of finitely generated commutative semigroups which is founded essentially on a single """"fundamental theorem"""" and exhibits resemblance in many respects to the algebraic theory of numbers. The theory primarily involves the investigation of the F-congruences (F is the the free semimodule of the rank n, where n is a given natural number). As applications, several important special cases are given. This volume is comprised of five chapters and begins with preliminaries on finitely generated commutative semigroups before

  17. Editor's message: Student involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Block

    2012-01-01

    In the initial Editor's Message of this volume, I stated my intent to involve more students in the publication process. A number of people commented on it being a good idea, but only a couple have followed up. One was Paul Krausman, President of The Wildlife Society. We matched graduate students from the University of Montana wildlife program with manuscripts...

  18. A theory in progress?Issues in transformative learning theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cranton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The scholarship about transformative learning theory has continued to grow exponentially, although much of the research is redundant with a deterministic emphasis while overlooking the need for more in-depth theoretical analysis.Explanations for this oversight are numerous, including a failure to ground research in primary sources, an over-reliance on literature reviews of transformative learning, lack of critique of original research; marginal engagement in positivist and critical research paradigms, and a lack of involvement in transformative learning by European adult education scholars. In order to stimulate theoretical development, this paper discusses five specific issues that will hopefully provoke further discussion and research. They include the role of experience, empathy, the desire to change, the theory's inherently positive orientation, and the need for research involving positivist and critical approaches.

  19. Theory into practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to explore how theory is integrated into practice in students’ academic work within upper secondary education. In order to study this, the paper develops an analytical framework for situated reflection that conceptualises reflective processes in direct relation...... to practical activities of students. The framework develops a distinction between empirical and theoretical reflection, which is used as a basis for an empirical study of nine product-oriented courses in four Danish upper secondary schools. The main finding of the study is the identification of four different...... phases of student activities. Each of these phases involves different kinds of situated reflection that result in different learning outcomes within the same subject area. From the utilisation of the analytical framework, the study further identifies a number of sub-processes within student work...

  20. MEDIA EFFECTS THEORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena MAFTEI-GOLOPENȚIA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the world and the various existing points of view play sometimes the role of barriers to understanding the events that take place around us or in which we are directly involved, that we may find overwhelming sometimes. In this context, we have no choice but to find instruments that can help us find a meaning beyond ”raw” information. Frames and other media effects theories can be this instrument, that can help us understand ”the stories” about the surrounding world. Frames are useful to us because our mind can’t simply process each new situation from scratch. This paper aims mainly at analysing frames, their function, their types, their roles and the levels at which they manifest themselves. It also represents the theoretical background of a future case study about the way in which the academic world is symbolically seen by the press.

  1. Foundations for a theory of gravitation theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, K. S.; Lee, D. L.; Lightman, A. P.

    1972-01-01

    A foundation is laid for future analyses of gravitation theories. This foundation is applicable to any theory formulated in terms of geometric objects defined on a 4-dimensional spacetime manifold. The foundation consists of (1) a glossary of fundamental concepts; (2) a theorem that delineates the overlap between Lagrangian-based theories and metric theories; (3) a conjecture (due to Schiff) that the Weak Equivalence Principle implies the Einstein Equivalence Principle; and (4) a plausibility argument supporting this conjecture for the special case of relativistic, Lagrangian-based theories.

  2. Prosocial Involvement as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ching Man Lam

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of prosocial involvement as a positive youth development construct. How prosocial involvement is defined and how the different theories conceptualize prosocial involvement are reviewed. Antecedents of prosocial involvement such as biological traits, personality, cognitive and emotional processes, socialization experience, culture, and their social context are examined. The relationship between prosocial involvement and adolescent developmental outcomes, togeth...

  3. Theory of thermal stresses

    CERN Document Server

    Boley, Bruno A

    1997-01-01

    Highly regarded text presents detailed discussion of fundamental aspects of theory, background, problems with detailed solutions. Basics of thermoelasticity, heat transfer theory, thermal stress analysis, more. 1985 edition.

  4. Involved Node Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Aznar, Marianne C; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy...... to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. RESULTS: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field......, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7...

  5. Microorganisms involved in MIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, K. [Danish Technological Institute (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a widespread problem that is difficult to detect and assess because of its complex mechanism. This paper presents the involvement of microorganisms in MIC. Some of the mechanisms that cause MIC include hydrogen consumption, production of acids, anode-cathode formation and electron shuttling. A classic bio-corrosive microorganism in the oil and gas industry is sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP). Methanogens also increase corrosion rates in metals. Some of the phylogenetic orders detected while studying SRP and methanogens are archaeoglobales, clostridiales, methanosarcinales and methanothermococcus. There were some implications, such as growth of SRP not being correlated with growth of methanogens; methanogens were included in MIC risk assessment. A few examples are used to display how microorganisms are involved in topside corrosion and microbial community in producing wells. From the study, it can be concluded that, MIC risk assessment includes system data and empirical knowledge of the distribution and number of microorganisms in the system.

  6. Avoiding the Theory Trap When Discussing Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, David

    2006-02-01

    Public opinion polls tell us that we are losing the battle to explain the nature of evolution and its central role in science. One problem, I believe, is letting the opponents of evolution frame the discussion to our disadvantage. Framing involves the selective use of language or context to trigger responses, either support or opposition. As a prime example, we undercut our communications efforts with many nonscientists by defending the `theory of evolution.' Theory is the wrong word to use in addressing the public. In the contemporary U.S., theory means a hunch or idea that has not been established by evidence. It is thus no surprise that polls show that nearly three quarters of U.S. people think that ``evolution is commonly referred to as the theory of evolution because it has not yet been proven scientifically.'' Those who advocate adding ``only a theory'' disclaimers in textbooks know that to call evolution a theory is sufficient to undermine its acceptance.

  7. Fiscal ethics, policies, and theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Blanco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The connections between ethics, policies and economic theories regarding fiscal matters need a more thorough analysis than the one carried out so far. On one hand, even though there are some ethical proposals on taxation, in general such proposals have not been grounded on explanatory theories of the economy. On the other hand, schools of thought about economy usually fail to ethically justify their political proposals. However, such distinctions cannot be sustained rationally: any ethical proposal concerning fiscal matters involves an explanation of economy, and conversely any proposal related to fiscal policies does not only involve a theory but also an ethical understanding. This article will review such connections, and general conclusions will be applied to two specific cases: first, Rawls’s proposal concerning taxation will be reviewed, having previously studied its descriptive assumptions, and then the lack of an ethical connection between the post Keynesian theory on the monetary circuit and its fiscal proposal will be examined. Finally, a possible “taxation compliance ethic” of tax-payers will be likewise analysed.

  8. Intervention or Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebst, Lasse Suonperä; Ejbye-Ernst, Peter; Heinskou, Marie Bruvik

    patrons plays in bouncers’ use of violence. To address this gap, we offer a micro-interactional analysis of violent behavior of bouncers. We observed video surveillance footage of naturally occurring barroom conflicts involving bouncers. A quantitative analysis shows that violence is relatively uncommon...... in bouncer studies, and consider how knowledge about the interactional routines of bouncers can inform crime prevention strategies in the nighttime economy....

  9. Involvement through photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, J

    2016-12-01

    As a photographer living in Tokyo, I have been visiting Suetsugi village regularly to take photographs and show the printed photographs to the residents. What is the role of photography? What does it mean to be involved in the life of Suetsugi through photography? This article discusses some of the answers to these questions 5 years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

  10. Associational Involvement in Dutch Municipalities and Neighbourhoods: Does Ethnic Diversity Influence Bonding and Bridging Involvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Savelkoul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We test whether ethnic diversity in Dutch neighbourhoods and municipalities drives down associational involvement and build on earlier research in two important ways. First, we explicitly take into account the ethnic composition of local voluntary associations, distinguishing involvement in bonding (only in-group members and bridging (with out-group members associations. Second, we aim to explain relationships between ethnic diversity and associational involvement, testing two competing sets of predictions derived from conflict and contact theories. Using data from the Netherlands Longitudinal Lifecourse Study (2013, ethnic diversity turns out to hardly affect associational involvement negatively. Only for leisure associations, living in ethnically more diverse municipalities substantially decreases the likelihood to be involved in bonding associations, whereas higher levels of neighbourhood ethnic diversity increase the likelihood to be involved in bridging associations. Moreover, ethnic diversity indirectly affects associational involvement via interethnic contact. Higher levels of ethnic diversity increase interethnic contact which, in turn, is negatively related to involvement in bonding associations. Whereas higher levels of ethnic diversity in neighbourhoods increase perceptions of ethnic threat, these perceptions decrease with higher levels of ethnic diversity in the municipality. Perceptions of ethnic threat do not, however, affect associational involvement. Our results shed more light on the direct and indirect relationships between ethnic diversity and bonding and bridging associational involvement.

  11. The spectral theory of commutative C*-algebras: the constructive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... theory which expresses one's natural intuition of the notion involved, and then to establish various properties, leading up to the final result, by formal reasoning within these theories. Keywords: locale; commutative C*-algebra; spectrum; propositional geometric theory; constructive; Gelfand duality; Gelfand-Mazur theorem

  12. The Concept of the Moral Domain in Moral Foundations Theory and Cognitive Developmental Theory: Horses for Courses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Bruce; Beaulac, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    Moral foundations theory chastises cognitive developmental theory for having foisted on moral psychology a restrictive conception of the moral domain which involves arbitrarily elevating the values of justice and caring. The account of this negative influence on moral psychology, referred to in the moral foundations theory literature as the…

  13. A theory of everything?

    CERN Multimedia

    't Hooft, Gerardus; Witten, Edward

    2005-01-01

    In his later years, Einstein sought a unified theory that would extend general relativity and provide an alternative to quantum theory. There is now talk of a "theory of everything"; fifty years after his death, how close are we to such a theory? (3 pages)

  14. Theories and Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsche, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    In his work on the Theory of Modes, Beck (1996) suggested that there were flaws with his cognitive theory. He suggested that though there are shortcomings to his cognitive theory, there were not similar shortcomings to the practice of Cognitive Therapy. The author suggests that if there are shortcomings to cognitive theory the same shortcomings…

  15. Game theory in philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Game theory is the mathematical study of strategy and conflict. It has wide applications in economics, political science, sociology, and, to some extent, in philosophy. Where rational choice theory or decision theory is concerned with individual agents facing games against nature, game theory deals

  16. Administrative Attribution Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasher, James M.; Frasher, Ramona S.

    1981-01-01

    Hypothesizes that the growing body of empirical data concerning attribution theory offers insight into the administrative process. To stimulate research to test this hypothesis, presents previous relevant research and a theory entitled Administrative Attribution Theory. Research questions applying the theory to educational administration are…

  17. Descriptive set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakis, YN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in paperback, this monograph is a self-contained exposition of the main results and methods of descriptive set theory. It develops all the necessary background material from logic and recursion theory, and treats both classical descriptive set theory and the effective theory developed by logicians.

  18. String theory for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmerman Jones, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Making Everything Easier!. String Theory for Dummies. Learn:. The basic concepts of this controversial theory;. How string theory builds on physics concepts;. The different viewpoints in the field;. String theory's physical implications. Andrew Zimmerman Jones. Physics Guide, About.com. with Daniel Robbins, PhD in Physics. Your plain-English guide to this complex scientific theory. String theory is one of the most complicated sciences being explored today. Not to worry though! This informative guide clearly explains the basics of this hot topic, discusses the theory's hypotheses and prediction

  19. Between Involvement and Detachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Gry

    Between Involvement and Detachment takes grasp with the Johnson administration’s (1963-1969) perceptions of and responses to the Western European realignments. Arguing that the Johnson administration set out to maintain the American unilateralist position in the transatlantic relation, not just...... of the Western world. De Gaulle’s withdrawal from NATO’s integrated command in 1966, and the subsequent British and Belgian calls for a reform of the alliance and a détente with East, contributed to the administration’s fear of alliance disintegration and return to European power politics. The thesis argues...

  20. M theory as a holographic field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hořava, Petr

    1999-02-01

    We suggest that M theory could be nonperturbatively equivalent to a local quantum field theory. More precisely, we present a ``renormalizable'' gauge theory in eleven dimensions, and show that it exhibits various properties expected of quantum M theory, most notably the holographic principle of 't Hooft and Susskind. The theory also satisfies Mach's principle: A macroscopically large space-time (and the inertia of low-energy excitations) is generated by a large number of ``partons'' in the microscopic theory. We argue that at low energies in large eleven dimensions, the theory should be effectively described by eleven-dimensional supergravity. This effective description breaks down at much lower energies than naively expected, precisely when the system saturates the Bekenstein bound on energy density. We show that the number of partons scales like the area of the surface surrounding the system, and discuss how this holographic reduction of degrees of freedom affects the cosmological constant problem. We propose the holographic field theory as a candidate for a covariant, nonperturbative formulation of quantum M theory.

  1. Identity theory and personality theory: mutual relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Sheldon

    2007-12-01

    Some personality psychologists have found a structural symbolic interactionist frame and identity theory relevant to their work. This frame and theory, developed in sociology, are first reviewed. Emphasized in the review are a multiple identity conception of self, identities as internalized expectations derived from roles embedded in organized networks of social interaction, and a view of social structures as facilitators in bringing people into networks or constraints in keeping them out, subsequently, attention turns to a discussion of the mutual relevance of structural symbolic interactionism/identity theory and personality theory, looking to extensions of the current literature on these topics.

  2. Gauge theory loop operators and Liouville theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drukker, Nadav [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Gomis, Jaume; Okuda, Takuda [Perimeter Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Teschner, Joerg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    We propose a correspondence between loop operators in a family of four dimensional N=2 gauge theories on S{sup 4} - including Wilson, 't Hooft and dyonic operators - and Liouville theory loop operators on a Riemann surface. This extends the beautiful relation between the partition function of these N=2 gauge theories and Liouville correlators found by Alday, Gaiotto and Tachikawa. We show that the computation of these Liouville correlators with the insertion of a Liouville loop operator reproduces Pestun's formula capturing the expectation value of a Wilson loop operator in the corresponding gauge theory. We prove that our definition of Liouville loop operators is invariant under modular transformations, which given our correspondence, implies the conjectured action of S-duality on the gauge theory loop operators. Our computations in Liouville theory make an explicit prediction for the exact expectation value of 't Hooft and dyonic loop operators in these N=2 gauge theories. The Liouville loop operators are also found to admit a simple geometric interpretation within quantum Teichmueller theory as the quantum operators representing the length of geodesics. We study the algebra of Liouville loop operators and show that it gives evidence for our proposal as well as providing definite predictions for the operator product expansion of loop operators in gauge theory. (orig.)

  3. Towards a theory of spacetime theories

    CERN Document Server

    Schiemann, Gregor; Scholz, Erhard

    2017-01-01

    This contributed volume is the result of a July 2010 workshop at the University of Wuppertal Interdisciplinary Centre for Science and Technology Studies which brought together world-wide experts from physics, philosophy and history, in order to address a set of questions first posed in the 1950s: How do we compare spacetime theories? How do we judge, objectively, which is the “best” theory? Is there even a unique answer to this question? The goal of the workshop, and of this book, is to contribute to the development of a meta-theory of spacetime theories. Such a meta-theory would reveal insights about specific spacetime theories by distilling their essential similarities and differences, deliver a framework for a class of theories that could be helpful as a blueprint to build other meta-theories, and provide a higher level viewpoint for judging which theory most accurately describes nature. But rather than drawing a map in broad strokes, the focus is on particularly rich regions in the “space of spaceti...

  4. What genre theory does

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To provide a small overview of genre theory and its associated concepts and to show how genre theory has had its antecedents in certain parts of the social sciences and not in the humanities. Findings The chapter argues that the explanatory force of genre theory may be explained with its...... emphasis on everyday genres, de facto genres. Originality/value By providing an overview of genre theory, the chapter demonstrates the wealth and richness of forms of explanations in genre theory....

  5. Foundations of Information Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Information is the basic concept of information theory. However, there is no definition of this concept that can encompass all uses of the term information in information theories and beyond. Many question a possibility of such a definition. However, foundations of information theory developed in the context of the general theory of information made it possible to build such a relevant and at the same time, encompassing definition. Foundations of information theory are built in a form of onto...

  6. Teaching Theory X and Theory Y in Organizational Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Carey

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the activity described here is to integrate McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y into a group application: design a syllabus that embodies either Theory X or Theory Y tenets. Students should be able to differentiate between Theory X and Theory Y, create a syllabus based on Theory X or Theory Y tenets, evaluate the different syllabi…

  7. Involvement in Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,096 adolescents participated in 123 focus groups regarding the perceived outcomes of their involvement in sports and physical activity (PA. The groups, segmented by grade level, sex, and school types, were conducted in both public and private high schools in Montreal, Quebec. We sought to understand, through the participants’ own words, their perception of the outcome matrix of involvement in sports and PA. Focus group questions emphasized changes that adolescents associated with such engagement. In particular, participants were asked how sports and PA might influence behaviors, emotional states, personal characteristics, and other outcomes. Twelve themes were identified in the responses: Positive Health and Physical Changes (18.5%, Activity-Related Positive Emotions (15.6%, and Personal Learning (11.3% were most prevalent in the discussions. A cluster of deeper personal changes thematically described as Self-Identity, Autonomy, and Positive Character Development accounted for another 16.5% of the responses. Relatively few commentaries emphasized negative effects (7.1%. Converting the proportions of qualitative data into a quantitative index allowed us to analyze potential differences in emphasis according to sex, age, and school type. Though a few significant findings emerged, the larger pattern was of a uniform perceptual map across the variables for this adolescent sample. Implications drawn from this investigation highlight the need to clearly articulate concrete pathways to positive nonphysical changes (e.g., mood states, autonomy, positive character development from engagements in sports and PA.

  8. Active Learning: The Dewey, Piaget, Vygotsky, and Constructivist Theory Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardjono Pardjono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Active Learning Approach has long been implemented in Indonesian schools, and until now the implementation of Active Learning Approach remains to be suggested to improve the quality of learning process in Indonesian classrooms. However, the constraint is still on the definition of active learning itself. This article discusses the nature of Active Learning from the perspectives of four theories: Dewey's theory of progressive education, Piaget's theory of assimilation and accommodation, Vygotsky's theory of social context and zone of proximal development, and theory of constructivism. The discussion involves the nature of knowledge, learning, and teaching including the roles of teachers in active learning based on the four theories

  9. Involvement Without Participation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a case study of a knowledge-intensive company that launched a 2-year project to improve their psychosocial working environment. All parties agreed on the project, and the methods used aimed to promote the involvement of the employees. Surprisingly, the psychosocial working en...... and participation. In order to develop a more sustainable and viable psychosocial working environment, a broader and more democratic notion of organisational learning and managing is proposed....... environment did not improve; on the contrary, it deteriorated. The article highlights cultural and structural obstacles to the process, including an inadequate understanding of organisational learning and a narrow focus on market and competition. The endeavours did not consistently increase delegation...

  10. Involving people. Project planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses the benefits of community participation in any project. Participation means inclusion of the entire community affected by the work, which includes staff, clients, and the wider community. When projects target a particular situation or group of people, it is necessary to rely on the target groups' identification of their concerns and problems, priorities, and solutions. Senior managers and decision makers must be willing and able to accept the views of the participating community. When deciding about who in the community to involve in decisions, decision makers must first include those people who are directly affected by the decision. This may mean less influential persons, such as the sick, youth, drug users, or sex workers. Decision makers must include donors, managers, and leaders in the community whose active support is necessary for the success of the project. Project staff must deal with those who are threatened by the possibility of change by gaining their support or challenging their opposition. The people who will implement the decision must be involved. Communities reflect a variety of views, which may vary with people's age, race, workplace, religion, or family. Some groups are discriminated against, especially women. It is important to record the number of women staff and volunteers on the project, the nature of their decision making roles and work in project and communities activities, and the level of their education and literacy. It is key to identify women's roles at home and in the community. Employment opportunities for men and women should be located. It is also useful to record the ability of men and women to negotiate safe sexual behavior, the level of reported and unreported domestic violence, the legal status of women, women's income and access to credit, and the number of married or unmarried women with accessible reproductive health care.

  11. Effectiveness of citizen involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, L. [Prince William Sound Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper reviewed the rise of citizen involvement in industry that affects their community. Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) in 1989, the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 provided funding by industry for a citizens group to provide oversite of the Alyeska Pipeline Service Agency terminal and associated tankers. That role is currently filled by the Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's Advisory Council, a volunteer organization that represents communities that were affected by the EVOS. The history of the Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's Advisory Council was discussed along with its structure, funding and overview of projects and research into safer transportation of oil, better oil spill response capabilities and improved environmental protection practices. Some of the successes involving citizen input include the requirement that all tankers going into Prince William Sound be double hull by 2015; a world-class system of tugs escorting tankers in Prince William Sound; installation of an ice-detection radar on a small island near the site of the EVOS; a guidebook for communities affected by man-made disasters; identification of nearshore locations that should be the first to be protected in the case of another spill; and, the installation of a system to capture crude oil vapors when tankers take on cargo. Other projects underway include the study of invasive species that can be transported in the ballast water of tankers, efficacy of dispersants, soil contamination at the tanker loading site, emissions of hazardous air pollutants from ballast water treatment processes, and continual review of emergency response plans. In the 17 years since the formation of the Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's Advisory Council, it has been shown that communication and transparency are the keys to solving complacency, which is believed to have been a contributing factor to the EVOS. 3 refs.

  12. Logarithmic conformal field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainutdinov, Azat; Ridout, David; Runkel, Ingo

    2013-12-01

    describing supersymmetric sigma models beyond the topological sector. We refer the reader to the reviews in this collection for further applications and details. More recently, our understanding of logarithmic CFT has improved dramatically thanks largely to a better understanding of the underlying mathematical structures. This includes those associated to the vertex operator algebras themselves (representations, characters, modular transformations, fusion, braiding) as well as structures associated with applications to two-dimensional statistical models (diagram algebras, eg. Temperley-Lieb quantum groups). Not only are we getting to the point where we understand how these structures differ from standard (rational) theories, but we are starting to tackle applications both in the boundary and bulk settings. It is now clear that the logarithmic case is generic, so it is this case that one should expect to encounter in applications. We therefore feel that it is timely to review what has been accomplished in order to disseminate this improved understanding and motivate further applications. We now give a quick overview of the articles that constitute this special issue. Adamović and Milas provide a detailed summary of their rigorous results pertaining to logarithmic vertex operator (super)algebras constructed from lattices. This survey discusses the C2-cofiniteness of the (p, p') triplet models (this is the generalisation of rationality to the logarithmic setting), describes Zhu's algebra for (some of) these theories and outlines the difficulties involved in explicitly constructing the modules responsible for their logarithmic nature. Cardy gives an account of a popular approach to logarithmic theories that regards them, heuristically at least, as limits of ordinary (but non-rational) CFTs. More precisely, it seems that any given correlator may be computed as a limit of standard (non-logarithmic) correlators, any logarithmic singularities that arise do so because of a

  13. Generalizability theory and item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Item response theory is usually applied to items with a selected-response format, such as multiple choice items, whereas generalizability theory is usually applied to constructed-response tasks assessed by raters. However, in many situations, raters may use rating scales consisting of items with a

  14. Rotor theories by Professor Joukowsky: Momentum theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kuik, G. A. M.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Okulov, V. L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the first of two papers on the history of rotor aerodynamics with special emphasis on the role of Joukowsky. The present one focuses on the development of the momentum theory while the second one surveys the development of vortex theory for rotors. Joukowsky has played a major role ...

  15. Theory system classics and theory of emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Pavle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problematization of emotions within the systems theory in sociology, with special reference to Talcott Parsons and Niklas Luhmann. After considering the ambivalent interrelation of (studying emotions and sociology, as well as the basic postulates of systems theory, we offer a (reinterpretation of the role and place of emotions within this theoretical tradition. It is argued that emotions as a variable have a prominent place and play a significant role in the formulation of the basic assumptions of systems theory in sociology. Attention is drawn to the fact that systems theories offer a useful theoretical framework for problematization and explanation of human emotions and emotionality in a comprehensive and relevant manner. Finally, we discuss systems theory as a potential connecting point or a bridge between sociology and psychology (of emotions.

  16. Quantum potential theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schürmann, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This volume contains the revised and completed notes of lectures given at the school "Quantum Potential Theory: Structure and Applications to Physics," held at the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg in Greifswald from February 26 to March 10, 2007. Quantum potential theory studies noncommutative (or quantum) analogs of classical potential theory. These lectures provide an introduction to this theory, concentrating on probabilistic potential theory and it quantum analogs, i.e. quantum Markov processes and semigroups, quantum random walks, Dirichlet forms on C* and von Neumann algebras, and boundary theory. Applications to quantum physics, in particular the filtering problem in quantum optics, are also presented.

  17. Historicizing affordance theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sofie; Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss how mutually enriching points from both affordance theory and cultural-historical activity theory can promote theoretical ideas which may prove useful as analytical tools for the study of human life and human development. There are two issues that need...... to be overcome in order to explore the potentials of James Gibson’s affordance theory: it does not sufficiently theorize (a) development and (b) society. We claim that Gibson’s affordance theory still needs to be brought beyond “the axiom of immediacy.” Ambivalences in Gibson’s affordance theory...... societal character of affordance theory....

  18. Bosonic M Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Gary T.; Susskind, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    We conjecture that there exists a strong coupling limit of bosonic string theory which is related to the 26 dimensional theory in the same way that 11 dimensional M theory is related to superstring theory. More precisely, we believe that bosonic string theory is the compactification on a line interval of a 27 dimensional theory whose low energy limit contains gravity and a three-form potential. The line interval becomes infinite in the strong coupling limit, and this may provide a stable grou...

  19. Nonequilibrium perturbation theory for complex scalar fields

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrie, I. D.; McKernan, D. B.

    1996-01-01

    Real-time perturbation theory is formulated for complex scalar fields away from thermal equilibrium in such a way that dissipative effects arising from the absorptive parts of loop diagrams are approximately resummed into the unperturbed propagators. Low order calculations of physical quantities then involve quasiparticle occupation numbers which evolve with the changing state of the field system, in contrast to standard perturbation theory, where these occupation numbers are frozen at their ...

  20. Titchmarsh-Weyl theory for canonical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshav Raj Acharya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to develop Titchmarsh- Weyl theory of canonical systems. To this end, we first observe the fact that Schrodinger and Jacobi equations can be written into canonical systems. We then discuss the theory of Weyl m-function for canonical systems and establish the relation between the Weyl m-functions of Schrodinger equations and that of canonical systems which involve Schrodinger equations.

  1. Introduction to the theory of games

    CERN Document Server

    McKinsey, John C C

    1952-01-01

    One of the classic early monographs on game theory, this comprehensive overview illustrates the theory's applications to situations involving conflicts of interest, including economic, social, political, and military contexts. Contents include a survey of rectangular games; a method of approximating the value of a game; games in extensive form and those with infinite strategies; distribution functions; Stieltjes integrals; the fundamental theorem for continuous games; separable games; games with convex payoff functions; applications to statistical inference; and much more. Appropriate for adva

  2. Influence of Involvement in Sports on Students' Involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... significant relationship between students' involvement in outdoor sports activities and their involvement in academic activities. However, there was a significant negative relationship between students' involvement in indoor sports activities and their involvement in academic activities. Keywords: Extra-curricular activities; ...

  3. How to Develop a Multi-Grounded Theory: the evolution of a business process theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Lind

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In the information systems field there is a great need for different theories. Theory development can be performed in different ways – deductively and/or inductively. Different approaches with their pros and cons for theory development exists. A combined approach, which builds on inductive as well as deductive thinking, has been put forward – a Multi-Grounded Theory approach. In this paper the evolution of a business process theory is regarded as the development of a multi-grounded theory. This evolution is based on empirical studies, theory-informed conceptual development and the creation of conceptual cohesion. The theoretical development has involved a dialectic approach aiming at a theoretical synthesis based on antagonistic theories. The result of this research process was a multi-grounded business process theory. Multi-grounded means that the theory is empirically, internally and theoretically founded. This business process theory can be used as an aid for business modellers to direct attention towards relevant aspects when business process determination is performed.

  4. Rigour and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Adeline

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores ways to enhance and demonstrate rigour in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory is sometimes criticised for a lack of rigour. Beck (1993) identified credibility, auditability and fittingness as the main standards of rigour for qualitative research methods. These criteria were evaluated for applicability to a Straussian grounded theory study and expanded or refocused where necessary. The author uses a Straussian grounded theory study (Cooney, In press) to examine how the revised criteria can be applied when conducting a grounded theory study. Strauss and Corbin (1998b) criteria for judging the adequacy of a grounded theory were examined in the context of the wider literature examining rigour in qualitative research studies in general and grounded theory studies in particular. A literature search for 'rigour' and 'grounded theory' was carried out to support this analysis. Criteria are suggested for enhancing and demonstrating the rigour of a Straussian grounded theory study. These include: cross-checking emerging concepts against participants' meanings, asking experts if the theory 'fit' their experiences, and recording detailed memos outlining all analytical and sampling decisions. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH PRACTICE: The criteria identified have been expressed as questions to enable novice researchers to audit the extent to which they are demonstrating rigour when writing up their studies. However, it should not be forgotten that rigour is built into the grounded theory method through the inductive-deductive cycle of theory generation. Care in applying the grounded theory methodology correctly is the single most important factor in ensuring rigour.

  5. Quantum Field Theory in a Semiotic Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Günter Dosch, Hans; Sieroka, Norman

    2005-01-01

    Viewing physical theories as symbolic constructions came to the fore in the middle of the nineteenth century with the emancipation of the classical theory of the electromagnetic field from mechanics; most notably this happened through the work of Helmholtz, Hertz, Poincaré, and later Weyl. The epistemological problems that nourished this development are today highlighted within quantum field theory. The present essay starts off with a concise and non-technical outline of the firmly based aspects of relativistic quantum field theory, i.e. the very successful description of subnuclear phenomena. The particular methods, by which these different aspects have to be accessed, then get described as distinct facets of quantum field theory. The authors show how these different facets vary with respect to the relation between quantum fields and associated particles. Thus, by emphasising the respective role of various basic concepts involved, the authors claim that only a very general epistemic approach can properly ac...

  6. A lattice formulation of chiral gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodwin, G.T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.

    1995-12-01

    The authors present a method for formulating gauge theories of chiral fermions in lattice field theory. The method makes use of a Wilson mass to remove doublers. Gauge invariance is then restored by modifying the theory in two ways: the magnitude of the fermion determinant is replaced with the square root of the determinant for a fermion with vector-like couplings to the gauge field; a double limit is taken in which the lattice spacing associated with the fermion field is taken to zero before the lattice spacing associated with the gauge field. The method applies only to theories whose fermions are in an anomaly-free representation of the gauge group. They also present a related technique for computing matrix elements of operators involving fermion fields. Although the analyses of these methods are couched in weak-coupling perturbation theory, it is argued that computational prescriptions are gauge invariant in the presence of a nonperturbative gauge-field configuration.

  7. Craniocerebral involvement in lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge D. Correale

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine-hundred-eighty-nine patients with lymphoma were studied. Fifty-three cases (5.3% had lymphomatous craniocerebral infiltration. The principal factors of risk for this complication were: advanced stage of the lymphoma (III or IV, diffuse histiocytic, diffuse poorly differentiated lymphocytic, or mixed cellularity lymphoma histological type, bone marrow involvement, and previous systemic chemotherapy. Thirty-two per cent of the cases of meningeal lymphomatous infiltration were asymptomatic and represented autopsy findings. CT-scan was an useful test to detect brain focal parenchymatous infiltration, as opposed to meningeal infiltration. Mean survival time in patients with lymphomatous meningeal infiltration was 4.3 months, following the combined use of systemic chemotherapy, radiation therapy and intrathecal methotrexate. Two cases had primary cerebral lymphoma, although without associated immunodeficiency Twenty patients (2% had intracranial hemorrhage, in clear relationship with platelet alterations. Fifteen patients (1.5% had CNS infection, caused by common bacteriae or opportunistic agents. In 7 cases, the diagnosis was made at autopsy. Thirty-six autopsies were performed. In 8 cases (22%, pathologic findings such as, demyelination, microcalcificat ons, coagulative necrosis, or gliosis, suggested complications from treatment.

  8. Positive and Negative Effects of Family Involvement on Work-Related Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brummelhuis, Lieke L.; van der Lippe, Tanja; Kluwer, Esther S.; Flap, Henk

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to explain the influence of family involvement on feelings of burnout among employees who combine work and family tasks. As proxies for family involvement, we used the family structure (partner, number and age of children) and family tasks (e.g. hours spent on household chores). We compared conflict theory and enrichment theory, and…

  9. Introduction to spectral theory in Hilbert space

    CERN Document Server

    Helmberg, Gilbert; Koiter, W T

    1969-01-01

    North-Holland Series in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Volume 6: Introduction to Spectral Theory in Hilbert Space focuses on the mechanics, principles, and approaches involved in spectral theory in Hilbert space. The publication first elaborates on the concept and specific geometry of Hilbert space and bounded linear operators. Discussions focus on projection and adjoint operators, bilinear forms, bounded linear mappings, isomorphisms, orthogonal subspaces, base, subspaces, finite dimensional Euclidean space, and normed linear spaces. The text then takes a look at the general theory of lin

  10. The theory of remainders

    CERN Document Server

    Rothbart, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    An imaginative introduction to number theory and abstract algebra, this unique approach employs a pair of fictional characters whose dialogues explain theories and demonstrate applications in terms of football scoring, chess moves, and more.

  11. [Mathematics and string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, A.; Yau, Shing-Tung.

    1993-01-01

    Work on this grant was centered on connections between non- commutative geometry and physics. Topics covered included: cyclic cohomology, non-commutative manifolds, index theory, reflection positivity, space quantization, quantum groups, number theory, etc.

  12. Psychological reactance theory (3)

    OpenAIRE

    Fukada, Hiromi

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe psychological reactance theory in detail and discuss and refine the theory. The paper consists of following two parts. 9. Effects of reactance 10. Attitudinal freedoms

  13. Discourse theory and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Available in both print and electronic formats, the Encyclopedia of Communication Theory provides students and researchers with a comprehensive two-volume overview of contemporary communication theory. Reference librarians report that students frequently approach them seeking a source that will

  14. Economic theories of dictatorship

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Debs

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in economic theories of dictatorships and their lessons for the political stability and economic performance of dictatorships. It reflects on the general usefulness of economic theories of dictatorship, with an application to foreign relations.

  15. Constructivist Grounded Theory?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-01-01

    AbstractI refer to and use as scholarly inspiration Charmaz’s excellent article on constructivist grounded theory as a tool of getting to the fundamental issues on why grounded theory is not constructivist...

  16. Making HCI Theory Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Kaptelinin, Victor; Nardi, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the use of activity theory in human–computer interaction (HCI) research. We analyse activity theory in HCI since its first appearance about 25 years ago. Through an analysis and meta-synthesis of 109 selected HCI activity theory papers, we created a taxonomy of 5...... different ways of using activity theory: (1) analysing unique features, principles, and problematic aspects of the theory; (2) identifying domain-specific requirements for new theoretical tools; (3) developing new conceptual accounts of issues in the field of HCI; (4) guiding and supporting empirical...... analyses of HCI phenomena; and (5) providing new design illustrations, claims, and guidelines. We conclude that HCI researchers are not only users of imported theory, but also theory-makers who adapt and develop theory for different purposes....

  17. Introduction to percolation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Stauffer, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    Percolation theory deals with clustering, criticallity, diffusion, fractals, phase transitions and disordered systems. This book covers the basic theory for the graduate, and also professionals dealing with it for the first time

  18. Higher spin gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A

    2017-01-01

    Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...

  19. A Theory of Immersion Freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, Donifan

    2017-01-01

    Immersion freezing is likely involved in the initiation of precipitation and determines to large extent the phase partitioning in convective clouds. Theoretical models commonly used to describe immersion freezing in atmospheric models are based on the classical nucleation theory which however neglects important interactions near the immersed particle that may affect nucleation rates. This work introduces a new theory of immersion freezing based on two premises. First, immersion ice nucleation is mediated by the modification of the properties of water near the particle-liquid interface, rather than by the geometry of the ice germ. Second, the same mechanism that leads to the decrease in the work of germ formation also decreases the mobility of water molecules near the immersed particle. These two premises allow establishing general thermodynamic constraints to the ice nucleation rate. Analysis of the new theory shows that active sites likely trigger ice nucleation, but they do not control the overall nucleation rate nor the probability of freezing. It also suggests that materials with different ice nucleation efficiency may exhibit similar freezing temperatures under similar conditions but differ in their sensitivity to particle surface area and cooling rate. Predicted nucleation rates show good agreement with observations for a diverse set of materials including dust, black carbon and bacterial ice nucleating particles. The application of the new theory within the NASA Global Earth System Model (GEOS-5) is also discussed.

  20. W_\\infty and w_\\infty Gauge Theories and Contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Kavalov, An.; Sakita, B.

    1996-01-01

    We present a general method of constructing Winf and winf gauge theories in terms of d+2 dimensional local fields. In this formulation the \\Winf gauge theory Lagrangians involve non-local interactions, but the winf theories are entirely local. We discuss the so-called classical contraction procedure by which we derive the Lagrangian of winf gauge theory from that of the corresponding Winf gauge theory. In order to discuss the relationship between quantum Winf and quantum winf gauge theory we ...

  1. Quantum algorithmic information theory

    OpenAIRE

    Svozil, Karl

    1995-01-01

    The agenda of quantum algorithmic information theory, ordered `top-down,' is the quantum halting amplitude, followed by the quantum algorithmic information content, which in turn requires the theory of quantum computation. The fundamental atoms processed by quantum computation are the quantum bits which are dealt with in quantum information theory. The theory of quantum computation will be based upon a model of universal quantum computer whose elementary unit is a two-port interferometer capa...

  2. Vygotsky theories & meaningful relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Michelle Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    This Project contains two main topics: "The Vygotsky Theories" and "Meaningful Relationships". Both were selected to be taught to teachers, principals, managing officials and supervisors in Mexico's context, all of which will be done in workshops under my supervision and care. The first theme: "The Vygotsky's Theories" explains his Theories and Notions on "Early Childhood Education", "Social Development Theory"; "Learning and Development of Preschool Children" and "The Zone of Proximal Develo...

  3. Massive spin-2 theories

    CERN Document Server

    Folkerts, Sarah; Wintergerst, Nico

    2014-01-01

    We give an introduction to massive spin-2 theories (including massive gravity) and the problem of their non-linear completion. We review the Boulware-Deser ghost problem and two ways to circumvent classic no-go theorems. In turn, massive spin-2 theories are not uniquely defined. In the case of truncated theories, we show that the Boulware-Deser ghost may only be avoided if the derivative structure of the theory is not tuned to be Einsteinian.

  4. Constructivist Grounded Theory?

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, Barney G.

    2007-01-01

    In meinem Beitrag greife ich zurück auf den ausgezeichneten und inspirierenden Artikel von CHARMAZ zu konstruktivistischer Grounded Theory, um an diesem Beispiel zu diskutieren, dass und warum die Grounded Theory kein konstruktivistisches Unterfangen ist. Ich versuche zu zeigen, dass "konstruktivistische Daten" bzw. konstruktivistische Anwendungen der Grounded Theory, sofern sie überhaupt existieren bzw. sinnvoll sein könnten, nur einen verschwindend kleinen Teil der Grounded Theory ausmachen...

  5. Philosophical theories of probability

    CERN Document Server

    Gillies, Donald

    2000-01-01

    The Twentieth Century has seen a dramatic rise in the use of probability and statistics in almost all fields of research. This has stimulated many new philosophical ideas on probability. Philosophical Theories of Probability is the first book to present a clear, comprehensive and systematic account of these various theories and to explain how they relate to one another. Gillies also offers a distinctive version of the propensity theory of probability, and the intersubjective interpretation, which develops the subjective theory.

  6. Prosocial Involvement as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Man Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the concept of prosocial involvement as a positive youth development construct. How prosocial involvement is defined and how the different theories conceptualize prosocial involvement are reviewed. Antecedents of prosocial involvement such as biological traits, personality, cognitive and emotional processes, socialization experience, culture, and their social context are examined. The relationship between prosocial involvement and adolescent developmental outcomes, together with strategies to promote prosocial involvement in adolescents, are discussed. Finally, directions for future research and practice are proposed.

  7. Prosocial involvement as a positive youth development construct: a conceptual review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ching Man

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of prosocial involvement as a positive youth development construct. How prosocial involvement is defined and how the different theories conceptualize prosocial involvement are reviewed. Antecedents of prosocial involvement such as biological traits, personality, cognitive and emotional processes, socialization experience, culture, and their social context are examined. The relationship between prosocial involvement and adolescent developmental outcomes, together with strategies to promote prosocial involvement in adolescents, are discussed. Finally, directions for future research and practice are proposed.

  8. Conversation at the Border Between Organizational Culture Theory and Institutional Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo; Zilber, Tammar

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects our conversation at the border - a dividing line but also a potential meeting place - of organizational culture theory and institutional theory. First, we discuss the border between institutional theory and organizational culture theory by exploring two notions central to both...... - taken for grantedness and meanings. We ask what is taken for granted about institutions and organizational culture and how institutions and organizational cultures materialize? Our conversation reveals that although the notion of the taken for granted is important to institutional theory...... and organizational culture theory, what this means and implies is quite different for each. We also found that even though institutions and cultures involve meaning and evolve through meaning making, the two are understood and hence explored methodologically in quite different ways. So what seemed to be similar...

  9. Superspace conformal field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quella, Thomas [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.

  10. Handbook of argumentation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eemeren, F.H.; Garssen, B.; Krabbe, E.C.W.; Snoeck Henkemans, A.F.; Verheij, B.; Wagemans, J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Handbook Argumentation Theory provides an up to date survey of the various theoretical contributions to the development of argumentation theory for all scholars interested in argumentation, informal logic and rhetoric. It describes the historical roots of modern argumentation theory that are

  11. Algebraic theory of molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Iachello, F

    1995-01-01

    1. The Wave Mechanics of Diatomic Molecules. 2. Summary of Elements of Algebraic Theory. 3. Mechanics of Molecules. 4. Three-Body Algebraic Theory. 5. Four-Body Algebraic Theory. 6. Classical Limit and Coordinate Representation. 8. Prologue to the Future. Appendices. Properties of Lie Algebras; Coupling of Algebras; Hamiltonian Parameters

  12. Introduction to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vazzana, Anthony; Garth, David

    2007-01-01

    One of the oldest branches of mathematics, number theory is a vast field devoted to studying the properties of whole numbers. Offering a flexible format for a one- or two-semester course, Introduction to Number Theory uses worked examples, numerous exercises, and two popular software packages to describe a diverse array of number theory topics.

  13. Constructivist Grounded Theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractI refer to and use as scholarly inspiration Charmaz’s excellent article on constructivist grounded theory as a tool of getting to the fundamental issues on why grounded theory is not constructivist. I show that constructivist data, if it exists at all, is a very, very small part of the data that grounded theory uses.

  14. Whither Social Theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola

    2014-01-01

    What is the place of social theory in mathematics education research, and what is it for? This special issue of "Educational Studies in Mathematics" offers insights on what could be the role of some sociological theories in a field that has historically privileged learning theories coming from psychology and mathematics as the main…

  15. Analytic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Kohji

    2002-01-01

    The book includes several survey articles on prime numbers, divisor problems, and Diophantine equations, as well as research papers on various aspects of analytic number theory such as additive problems, Diophantine approximations and the theory of zeta and L-function Audience Researchers and graduate students interested in recent development of number theory

  16. Cognitive Theories of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Gnanathusharan; Mitchell, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article considers three theories of autism: The Theory of Mind Deficit, Executive Dysfunction and the Weak Central Coherence accounts. It outlines each along with studies relevant to their emergence, their expansion, their limitations and their possible integration. Furthermore, consideration is given to any implication from the theories in…

  17. Constructor theory of probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Unitary quantum theory, having no Born Rule, is non-probabilistic. Hence the notorious problem of reconciling it with the unpredictability and appearance of stochasticity in quantum measurements. Generalizing and improving upon the so-called ‘decision-theoretic approach’, I shall recast that problem in the recently proposed constructor theory of information—where quantum theory is represented as one of a class of superinformation theories, which are local, non-probabilistic theories conforming to certain constructor-theoretic conditions. I prove that the unpredictability of measurement outcomes (to which constructor theory gives an exact meaning) necessarily arises in superinformation theories. Then I explain how the appearance of stochasticity in (finitely many) repeated measurements can arise under superinformation theories. And I establish sufficient conditions for a superinformation theory to inform decisions (made under it) as if it were probabilistic, via a Deutsch–Wallace-type argument—thus defining a class of decision-supporting superinformation theories. This broadens the domain of applicability of that argument to cover constructor-theory compliant theories. In addition, in this version some of the argument's assumptions, previously construed as merely decision-theoretic, follow from physical properties expressed by constructor-theoretic principles. PMID:27616914

  18. Papers in auction theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderstal, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis is a collection of six papers in auction theory, with several economic applications, both to real life auctions and to other economic phenomena. In the introduction to the thesis, Onderstal argues why auction theory is an important branch of economic theory, and discusses several

  19. Frankl's Theory and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missinne, Leo E.; Wilcox, Victoria

    This paper discusses the life, theories, and therapeutic techniques of psychotherapist, Viktor E. Frankl. A brief biography of Frankl is included discussing the relationship of his early experiences as a physician to his theory of personality. Frankl's theory focusing on man's need for meaning and emphasizing the spiritual dimension in each human…

  20. Algorithmic information theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünwald, P.D.; Vitányi, P.M.B.; Adriaans, P.; van Benthem, J.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce algorithmic information theory, also known as the theory of Kolmogorov complexity. We explain the main concepts of this quantitative approach to defining 'information'. We discuss the extent to which Kolmogorov's and Shannon's information theory have a common purpose, and where they are

  1. Algorithmic information theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünwald, P.D.; Vitányi, P.M.B.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce algorithmic information theory, also known as the theory of Kolmogorov complexity. We explain the main concepts of this quantitative approach to defining `information'. We discuss the extent to which Kolmogorov's and Shannon's information theory have a common purpose, and where they are

  2. Essays in auction theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maasland, E.

    2012-01-01

    Auction theory is a branch of game theory that considers human behavior in auction markets and the ensuing market outcomes. It is also successfully used as a tool to design real-life auctions. This thesis contains five essays addressing a variety of topics within the realm of auction theory. The

  3. Local Varying-Alpha Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper we demonstrated how the simplest model for varying alpha may be interpreted as the effect of a dielectric material, generalized to be consistent with Lorentz invariance. Unlike normal dielectrics, such a medium cannot change the speed of light, and its dynamics obey a Klein-Gordon equation. This work immediately suggests an extension of the standard theory, even if we require compliance with Lorentz invariance. Instead of a wave equation, the dynamics may satisfy a local algebraic relation involving the permittivity and the properties of the electromagnetic field, in analogy with more conventional dielectric (but still preserving Lorentz invariance). We develop the formalism for such theories and investigate some phenomenological implications. The problem of the divergence of the classical self-energy can be solved, or at least softened, in this framework. Some interesting new cosmological solutions for the very early universe are found, including the possibility of a bounce, inflation and e...

  4. Paleoanthropology and evolutionary theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Paleoanthropologists of the first half of the twentieth century were little concerned either with evolutionary theory or with the technicalities and broader implications of zoological nomenclature. In consequence, the paleoanthropological literature of the period consisted largely of a series of descriptions accompanied by authoritative pronouncements, together with a huge excess of hominid genera and species. Given the intellectual flimsiness of the resulting paleoanthropological framework, it is hardly surprising that in 1950 the ornithologist Ernst Mayr met little resistance when he urged the new postwar generation of paleoanthropologists to accept not only the elegant reductionism of the Evolutionary Synthesis but a vast oversimplification of hominid phylogenetic history and nomenclature. Indeed, the impact of Mayr's onslaught was so great that even when developments in evolutionary biology during the last quarter of the century brought other paleontologists to the realization that much more has been involved in evolutionary histories than the simple action of natural selection within gradually transforming lineages, paleoanthropologists proved highly reluctant to follow. Even today, paleoanthropologists are struggling to reconcile an intuitive realization that the burgeoning hominid fossil record harbors a substantial diversity of species (bringing hominid evolutionary patterns into line with that of other successful mammalian families), with the desire to cram a huge variety of morphologies into an unrealistically minimalist systematic framework. As long as this theoretical ambivalence persists, our perception of events in hominid phylogeny will continue to be distorted.

  5. Theory and context / Theory in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    It is debatable whether the psychology of creativity is a field in crisis or not. There are clear signs of increased fragmenta-tion and a scarcity of integrative efforts, but is this necessari-ly bad? Do we need more comprehensive theories of creativ-ity and a return to old epistemological...... questions? This de-pends on how one understands theory. Against a view of theoretical work as aiming towards generality, universality, uniformity, completeness, and singularity, I advocate for a dynamic perspective in which theory is plural, multifaceted, and contextual. Far from ‘waiting for the Messiah......’, theoreti-cal work in the psychology of creativity can be integrative without having the ambition to explain or, even more, predict, creative expression across all people, at all times, and in all domains. To avoid such ambition, the psychology of creativi-ty requires a theory of context that doesn...

  6. Measure and integration theory

    CERN Document Server

    Burckel, Robert B

    2001-01-01

    This book gives a straightforward introduction to the field as it is nowadays required in many branches of analysis and especially in probability theory. The first three chapters (Measure Theory, Integration Theory, Product Measures) basically follow the clear and approved exposition given in the author's earlier book on ""Probability Theory and Measure Theory"". Special emphasis is laid on a complete discussion of the transformation of measures and integration with respect to the product measure, convergence theorems, parameter depending integrals, as well as the Radon-Nikodym theorem. The fi

  7. Model theory and modules

    CERN Document Server

    Prest, M

    1988-01-01

    In recent years the interplay between model theory and other branches of mathematics has led to many deep and intriguing results. In this, the first book on the topic, the theme is the interplay between model theory and the theory of modules. The book is intended to be a self-contained introduction to the subject and introduces the requisite model theory and module theory as it is needed. Dr Prest develops the basic ideas concerning what can be said about modules using the information which may be expressed in a first-order language. Later chapters discuss stability-theoretic aspects of module

  8. Game theory an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, E N

    2013-01-01

    An exciting new edition of the popular introduction to game theory and its applications The thoroughly expanded Second Edition presents a unique, hands-on approach to game theory. While most books on the subject are too abstract or too basic for mathematicians, Game Theory: An Introduction, Second Edition offers a blend of theory and applications, allowing readers to use theory and software to create and analyze real-world decision-making models. With a rigorous, yet accessible, treatment of mathematics, the book focuses on results that can be used to

  9. Nuclear structure theory

    CERN Document Server

    Irvine, J M

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear Structure Theory provides a guide to nuclear structure theory. The book is comprised of 23 chapters that are organized into four parts; each part covers an aspect of nuclear structure theory. In the first part, the text discusses the experimentally observed phenomena, which nuclear structure theories need to look into and detail the information that supports those theories. The second part of the book deals with the phenomenological nucleon-nucleon potentials derived from phase shift analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering. Part III talks about the phenomenological parameters used to de

  10. Model theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Belegradek, OV

    1999-01-01

    This volume is a collection of papers on model theory and its applications. The longest paper, "Model Theory of Unitriangular Groups" by O. V. Belegradek, forms a subtle general theory behind Mal‴tsev's famous correspondence between rings and groups. This is the first published paper on the topic. Given the present model-theoretic interest in algebraic groups, Belegradek's work is of particular interest to logicians and algebraists. The rest of the collection consists of papers on various questions of model theory, mainly on stability theory. Contributors are leading Russian researchers in the

  11. Extremal graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bollobas, Bela

    2004-01-01

    The ever-expanding field of extremal graph theory encompasses a diverse array of problem-solving methods, including applications to economics, computer science, and optimization theory. This volume, based on a series of lectures delivered to graduate students at the University of Cambridge, presents a concise yet comprehensive treatment of extremal graph theory.Unlike most graph theory treatises, this text features complete proofs for almost all of its results. Further insights into theory are provided by the numerous exercises of varying degrees of difficulty that accompany each chapter. A

  12. Politics, Security, Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæver, Ole

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines three ways of analysing the ‘politics of securitization’, emphasizing an often-overlooked form of politics practised through theory design. The structure and nature of a theory can have systematic political implications. Analysis of this ‘politics of securitization......’ is distinct from both the study of political practices of securitization and explorations of competing concepts of politics among security theories. It means tracking what kinds of analysis the theory can produce and whether such analysis systematically impacts real-life political struggles. Securitization...... theory is found to ‘act politically’ through three structural features that systematically shape the political effects of using the theory. The article further discusses – on the basis of the preceding articles in the special issue – three emerging debates around securitization theory: ethics...

  13. Applied number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This textbook effectively builds a bridge from basic number theory to recent advances in applied number theory. It presents the first unified account of the four major areas of application where number theory plays a fundamental role, namely cryptography, coding theory, quasi-Monte Carlo methods, and pseudorandom number generation, allowing the authors to delineate the manifold links and interrelations between these areas.  Number theory, which Carl-Friedrich Gauss famously dubbed the queen of mathematics, has always been considered a very beautiful field of mathematics, producing lovely results and elegant proofs. While only very few real-life applications were known in the past, today number theory can be found in everyday life: in supermarket bar code scanners, in our cars’ GPS systems, in online banking, etc.  Starting with a brief introductory course on number theory in Chapter 1, which makes the book more accessible for undergraduates, the authors describe the four main application areas in Chapters...

  14. Resource Theory of Superposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, T; Killoran, N; Egloff, D; Plenio, M B

    2017-12-08

    The superposition principle lies at the heart of many nonclassical properties of quantum mechanics. Motivated by this, we introduce a rigorous resource theory framework for the quantification of superposition of a finite number of linear independent states. This theory is a generalization of resource theories of coherence. We determine the general structure of operations which do not create superposition, find a fundamental connection to unambiguous state discrimination, and propose several quantitative superposition measures. Using this theory, we show that trace decreasing operations can be completed for free which, when specialized to the theory of coherence, resolves an outstanding open question and is used to address the free probabilistic transformation between pure states. Finally, we prove that linearly independent superposition is a necessary and sufficient condition for the faithful creation of entanglement in discrete settings, establishing a strong structural connection between our theory of superposition and entanglement theory.

  15. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  16. Computational invariant theory

    CERN Document Server

    Derksen, Harm

    2015-01-01

    This book is about the computational aspects of invariant theory. Of central interest is the question how the invariant ring of a given group action can be calculated. Algorithms for this purpose form the main pillars around which the book is built. There are two introductory chapters, one on Gröbner basis methods and one on the basic concepts of invariant theory, which prepare the ground for the algorithms. Then algorithms for computing invariants of finite and reductive groups are discussed. Particular emphasis lies on interrelations between structural properties of invariant rings and computational methods. Finally, the book contains a chapter on applications of invariant theory, covering fields as disparate as graph theory, coding theory, dynamical systems, and computer vision. The book is intended for postgraduate students as well as researchers in geometry, computer algebra, and, of course, invariant theory. The text is enriched with numerous explicit examples which illustrate the theory and should be ...

  17. Resource Theory of Superposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, T.; Killoran, N.; Egloff, D.; Plenio, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    The superposition principle lies at the heart of many nonclassical properties of quantum mechanics. Motivated by this, we introduce a rigorous resource theory framework for the quantification of superposition of a finite number of linear independent states. This theory is a generalization of resource theories of coherence. We determine the general structure of operations which do not create superposition, find a fundamental connection to unambiguous state discrimination, and propose several quantitative superposition measures. Using this theory, we show that trace decreasing operations can be completed for free which, when specialized to the theory of coherence, resolves an outstanding open question and is used to address the free probabilistic transformation between pure states. Finally, we prove that linearly independent superposition is a necessary and sufficient condition for the faithful creation of entanglement in discrete settings, establishing a strong structural connection between our theory of superposition and entanglement theory.

  18. Intercorporeality as a theory of social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shogo

    2015-08-01

    The main aim of this article is to revisit Merleau-Ponty's notion of intercorporeality (intercorporéité) and elaborate it as a new theory of social cognition. As is well known, theory of mind has been the central issue in the field of social cognition for more than two decades. In reviewing the basic concepts involved in two major theories (theory theory and simulation theory), I make clear that both theories have been missing the embodied dimension because of their mind-body dualistic supposition. The notion of intercorporeality, in accordance with the recent interaction theory, stresses the role of embodied interactions between the self and the other in the process of social understanding. I develop this notion into two directions and describe the related process of social cognition: one is behavior matching and primordial empathy, the other is interactional synchrony and the sense of mutual understanding. Through these embodied interactions, intersubjective meanings are created and directly shared between the self and the other, without being mediated by mental representations.

  19. Gauge field theories spin one and spin two : 100 years after general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Scharf, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    One of the main problems of theoretical physics concerns the unification of gravity with quantum theory. This monograph examines unification by means of the appropriate formulation of quantum gauge invariance. Topics include free fields, causal perturbation theory, spin-1 gauge theories involving both massless and massive gauge fields, spin-2 gauge theories, and non-geometric general relativity.

  20. Development of Affective Theory of Mind Across Adolescence: Disentangling the Role of Executive Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vetter, N.C.; Altgassen, A.M.; Phillips, L.H.; Mahy, C.E.V.; Kliegel, M.

    2013-01-01

    Theory of mind, the ability to understand mental states, involves inferences about others' cognitive (cognitive theory of mind) and emotional (affective theory of mind) mental states. The current study explored the role of executive functions in developing affective theory of mind across

  1. Application of group theory to data reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perey, F.G.

    1982-09-01

    The analysis within the framework of a theory of what was observed in experiments is essential to the testing of theories and is fundamental to physics. It is shown in this report how group theory can be used to provide a general method of data reduction whereby only the laws of a particular theory are used in the analysis of observations. This application of group theory involves introducing a group of transformations of the physical system upon which the observations were made. This group of transformations leaves invariant the entities of the theory corresponding to the observations made but transforms the entities that were not observed from what they are presumed to be in this theory into what they are not, called possibilities for what they are. This group of transformations is called the possibilities-generating group for the entities for which the observations are being reduced. Since possibilities for entities of theories so obtained are functionals of a known group of transformations, the subsequent use of these possibilities in the theories must be made consistent with the theory of representations of groups. There is a well-known invariant associated with functionals of group elements which is invariant with respect to the parametrization of this group. It is the normalized volume measure in the group manifold of the possibilities-generating group. In this report this invariant measure is called the physical probability of the possibilities since it is a probability measure which has a Borel algebra. The above proposed method of data reduction allows us to deal unambiguously with the uncertainties in entities of physical theories obtained from all of the observations made in experiments and the distinction between systematic and statistical uncertainties disappears. Concrete realizations of possibilities-generating groups are given and explanations in group theoretical terms are offered for several important intuitive notions related to probabilities.

  2. Introduction: games and subcultural theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Benoit Carbone

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This issue of GAME Journal offers a recognition and a series of case studies on video games from the point of view of subcultural theory. Game studies have hitherto focused little on their object from this perspective, which offers a theoretical frame for the historical and ever growing complexity of the audiences involved with the medium of the video game. The study of subcultures on the other hand has a long standing and complex tradition which culminates in what has been recently defined as the “post-subcultural” theoretical scenario.

  3. A Reconciliation of Collision Theory and Transition State Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Y. G.

    2001-01-01

    A statistical-mechanical treatment of collision leads to a formal connection with transition-state theory, suggesting that collision theory and transition-state theory might be joined ultimately as a collision induced transition state theory.

  4. Topological duality twist and brane instantons in F-theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martucci, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova andINFN - Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2014-06-30

    A variant of the topological twist, involving SL(2,ℤ) dualities and hence named topological duality twist, is introduced and explicitly applied to describe a U(1) N=4 super Yang-Mills theory on a Kähler space with holomorphically space-dependent coupling. Three-dimensional duality walls and two-dimensional chiral theories naturally enter the formulation of the duality twisted theory. Appropriately generalized, this theory is relevant for the study of Euclidean D3-brane instantons in F-theory compactifications. Some of its properties and implications are discussed.

  5. What’s the Theory in International Practice Theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Is there a theory in practice theory? Responding to Bueger and Gadinger’s excellent article, I agree that practice theory is indeed a theory – or a rather a bundle of theories – that can help explain world politics. Bueger and Gadinger distinguish between critical theory and pragmatism as practice...

  6. Models in cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Branzei, Rodica; Tijs, Stef

    2008-01-01

    This book investigates models in cooperative game theory in which the players have the possibility to cooperate partially. In a crisp game the agents are either fully involved or not involved at all in cooperation with some other agents, while in a fuzzy game players are allowed to cooperate with infinite many different participation levels, varying from non-cooperation to full cooperation. A multi-choice game describes the intermediate case in which each player may have a fixed number of activity levels. Different set and one-point solution concepts for these games are presented. The properties of these solution concepts and their interrelations on several classes of crisp, fuzzy, and multi-choice games are studied. Applications of the investigated models to many economic situations are indicated as well. The second edition is highly enlarged and contains new results and additional sections in the different chapters as well as one new chapter.

  7. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis with ocular involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, D T; Mandelbaum, S; Chuck, D A; Nichols, P W; Smith, R E

    1985-01-01

    Lymphomatoid granulomatosis is an angiocentric and angiodestructive lymphoproliferative disorder that involves multiple organs including the lung, skin, kidney and central nervous system. A case of lymphomatoid granulomatosis with ocular involvement is reported herein. Bilateral peripheral retinal vasculitis involving both arterioles and veins, with posterior uveitis, is the prominent clinical finding.

  8. Class field theory from theory to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Gras, Georges

    2003-01-01

    Global class field theory is a major achievement of algebraic number theory, based on the functorial properties of the reciprocity map and the existence theorem. The author works out the consequences and the practical use of these results by giving detailed studies and illustrations of classical subjects (classes, idèles, ray class fields, symbols, reciprocity laws, Hasse's principles, the Grunwald-Wang theorem, Hilbert's towers,...). He also proves some new or less-known results (reflection theorem, structure of the abelian closure of a number field) and lays emphasis on the invariant (/cal T) p, of abelian p-ramification, which is related to important Galois cohomology properties and p-adic conjectures. This book, intermediary between the classical literature published in the sixties and the recent computational literature, gives much material in an elementary way, and is suitable for students, researchers, and all who are fascinated by this theory. In the corrected 2nd printing 2005, the author improves s...

  9. Communication Theory's Role in the Reference Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glogoff, Stuart

    1983-01-01

    Notes the applicability of communication science theory to the reference process, particularly in areas involving human behavior, and discusses the roles of both verbal and nonverbal communication (body language, paralanguage, proxemics, and environmental factors) in the reference interview. Forty-one references are provided. (EJS)

  10. Density functional theory and multiscale materials modeling*

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    wide class of problems involving nanomaterials, interfacial science and soft condensed matter has been addressed using the density based ... Keywords. Density functional theory; soft condensed matter; materials modeling. 1. Introduction ... the basic laws of quantum mechanics, their prediction through a direct ab initio ...

  11. Activation Theory and Uses and Gratifications Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, E. D.

    Uses and gratifications research involves a critical appraisal of conceptual and theoretical issues in mass communication and is concerned with what audience members do with the media. Activation theory understands people as active manipulators of their environment. (Activation refers to that level of psychological and physiological excitement an…

  12. CONNECTING THEORY AND PRACTICE IN EDUCATION FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    action research is now seen as a common methodology underpinning the development of classroom teaching, curricula, teachers as professionals, and sustainable communities. All involve bringing the politics of existing knowledge, and theory-practice relationships, into the open and developing more socially useful.

  13. Dynamic Systems Theory and Team Sport Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gréhaigne, Jean-Francis; Godbout, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the theory of dynamic systems and its use in the domains of the study and coaching of team sports. The two teams involved in a match are looked at as two interacting systems in movement, where opposition is paramount. A key element for the observation of game play is the notion of configuration of play and its ever-changing…

  14. Theories and myths of European foreign policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    , multilateralising and multipolarising processes. In order to make greater sense of EFP in a global political-cultural context, this chapter will consider the ways in which political theories and cultural myths co-constitute each other in both symbolic and substantive terms. EFP is understood here to involve...

  15. Reducing Bullying: Application of Social Cognitive Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearer, Susan M.; Wang, Cixin; Berry, Brandi; Myers, Zachary R.

    2014-01-01

    Social cognitive theory (SCT) is an important heuristic for understanding the complexity of bullying behaviors and the social nature of involvement in bullying. Bullying has been heralded as a social relationship problem, and the interplay between the individual and his or her social environment supports this conceptualization. SCT has been used…

  16. Reconditioning in Discrete Quantum Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudder, S.

    2017-12-01

    We consider a discrete scalar, quantum field theory based on a cubic 4-dimensional lattice. We mainly investigate a discrete scattering operator S( x 0, r) where x 0 and r are positive integers representing time and maximal total energy, respectively. The operator S( x 0, r) is used to define transition amplitudes which are then employed to compute transition probabilities. These probabilities are conditioned on the time-energy ( x 0, r). In order to maintain total unit probability, the transition probabilities need to be reconditioned at each ( x 0, r). This is roughly analogous to renormalization in standard quantum field theory, except no infinities or singularities are involved. We illustrate this theory with a simple scattering experiment involving a common interaction Hamiltonian. We briefly mention how discreteness of spacetime might be tested astronomically. Moreover, these tests may explain the existence of dark energy and dark matter.

  17. Domains and Naive Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Susan A; Noles, Nicholaus S

    2011-09-01

    Human cognition entails domain-specific cognitive processes that influence memory, attention, categorization, problem-solving, reasoning, and knowledge organization. This review examines domain-specific causal theories, which are of particular interest for permitting an examination of how knowledge structures change over time. We first describe the properties of commonsense theories, and how commonsense theories differ from scientific theories, illustrating with children's classification of biological and non-biological kinds. We next consider the implications of domain-specificity for broader issues regarding cognitive development and conceptual change. We then examine the extent to which domain-specific theories interact, and how people reconcile competing causal frameworks. Future directions for research include examining how different content domains interact, the nature of theory change, the role of context (including culture, language, and social interaction) in inducing different frameworks, and the neural bases for domain-specific reasoning.

  18. Game theory, alive

    CERN Document Server

    Karlin, Anna R

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a rigorous introduction to the mathematics of game theory without losing sight of the joy of the subject. This is done by focusing on theoretical highlights (e.g., at least six Nobel Prize winning results are developed from scratch) and by presenting exciting connections of game theory to other fields, such as computer science, economics, social choice, biology, and learning theory. Both classical topics, such as zero-sum games, and modern topics, such as sponsored search auctions, are covered. Along the way, beautiful mathematical tools used in game theory are introduced, including convexity, fixed-point theorems, and probabilistic arguments. The book is appropriate for a first course in game theory at either the undergraduate or graduate level, whether in mathematics, economics, computer science, or statistics. Game theory's influence is felt in a wide range of disciplines, and the authors deliver masterfully on the challenge of presenting both the breadth and coherence of its underlying ...

  19. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    terms. CTT provides a computational interpretation of functional extensionality, enjoys canonicity for the natural numbers type, and is conjectured to support decidable type-checking. Our new type theory, guarded cubical type theory (GCTT), provides a computational interpretation of extensionality......This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...

  20. Classical field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Classical field theory, which concerns the generation and interaction of fields, is a logical precursor to quantum field theory, and can be used to describe phenomena such as gravity and electromagnetism. Written for advanced undergraduates, and appropriate for graduate level classes, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to field theories, with a focus on their relativistic structural elements. Such structural notions enable a deeper understanding of Maxwell's equations, which lie at the heart of electromagnetism, and can also be applied to modern variants such as Chern–Simons and Born–Infeld. The structure of field theories and their physical predictions are illustrated with compelling examples, making this book perfect as a text in a dedicated field theory course, for self-study, or as a reference for those interested in classical field theory, advanced electromagnetism, or general relativity. Demonstrating a modern approach to model building, this text is also ideal for students of theoretic...

  1. Practice change in chronic conditions care: an appraisal of theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Melanie; Lawn, Sharon J; Morello, Andrea; Battersby, Malcolm W; Ratcliffe, Julie; McEvoy, R Doug; Tieman, Jennifer J

    2017-02-28

    Management of chronic conditions can be complex and burdensome for patients and complex and costly for health systems. Outcomes could be improved and costs reduced if proven clinical interventions were better implemented, but the complexity of chronic care services appears to make clinical change particularly challenging. Explicit use of theories may improve the success of clinical change in this area of care provision. Whilst theories to support implementation of practice change are apparent in the broad healthcare arena, the most applicable theories for the complexities of practice change in chronic care have not yet been identified. We developed criteria to review the usefulness of change implementation theories for informing chronic care management and applied them to an existing list of theories used more widely in healthcare. Criteria related to the following characteristics of chronic care: breadth of the field; multi-disciplinarity; micro, meso and macro program levels; need for field-specific research on implementation requirements; and need for measurement. Six theories met the criteria to the greatest extent: the Consolidate Framework for Implementation Research; Normalization Process Theory and its extension General Theory of Implementation; two versions of the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework and Sticky Knowledge. None fully met all criteria. Involvement of several care provision organizations and groups, involvement of patients and carers, and policy level change are not well covered by most theories. However, adaptation may be possible to include multiple groups including patients and carers, and separate theories may be needed on policy change. Ways of qualitatively assessing theory constructs are available but quantitative measures are currently partial and under development for all theories. Theoretical bases are available to structure clinical change research in chronic condition care. Theories will however

  2. Introduction to superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Carmen [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], e-mail: carmen@iafe.uba.ar

    2009-07-01

    This is a very basic introduction to the AdS/CFT correspondence. The first lecture motivates the duality between gauge theories and gravity/string theories. The next two lectures introduce the bosonic and supersymmetric string theories. The fourth lecture is devoted to study Dp-branes and finally, in the fifth lecture I discuss the two worlds: N=4 SYM in 3+1 flat dimensions and type IIB superstrings in AdS{sub 5} x S5. (author)

  3. Translation Theory 'Translated'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings....

  4. DARWINIAN THEORY OF BEAUTY

    OpenAIRE

    Rasim Basak

    2016-01-01

    “What is beauty?” has been a difficult question for philosophers for thousands of years. Since Plato, beauty has been theorized sometimes as being a subjective judgment or sometimes defined as being “in culturally condioned eye of the beholder”. None of these theories had been grounded upon scientific, objective support until Denis Dutton’s theory (2003). Denis Dutton structured his theory based on Darwinian evolution and defined beauty as another Darwinian adaptation built over millions of y...

  5. Overview of Management Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    theory orients command leadership for the enormous task of managing organizations in our environment fraught with volatility, uncertainty...performance and organizational ethics. A THEORY OF MANAGEMENT BACKGROUND BASIC MANAGEMENT BEHAVIORAL Definitions FUNCTIONS ASPECTS History Planning Leadership ...the best way to manage in their theory of managerial leadership . To them, the 9,9 position on their model, "is acknowledged by managers as the

  6. Introductory graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chartrand, Gary

    1984-01-01

    Graph theory is used today in the physical sciences, social sciences, computer science, and other areas. Introductory Graph Theory presents a nontechnical introduction to this exciting field in a clear, lively, and informative style. Author Gary Chartrand covers the important elementary topics of graph theory and its applications. In addition, he presents a large variety of proofs designed to strengthen mathematical techniques and offers challenging opportunities to have fun with mathematics. Ten major topics - profusely illustrated - include: Mathematical Models, Elementary Concepts of Grap

  7. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  8. Elements of set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Enderton, Herbert B

    1977-01-01

    This is an introductory undergraduate textbook in set theory. In mathematics these days, essentially everything is a set. Some knowledge of set theory is necessary part of the background everyone needs for further study of mathematics. It is also possible to study set theory for its own interest--it is a subject with intruiging results anout simple objects. This book starts with material that nobody can do without. There is no end to what can be learned of set theory, but here is a beginning.

  9. [Medical theory and psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolas Stepke, F

    1990-01-01

    The need for a theory is grounded on the heterogeneity of Medicine: Of basic situation, of medical subsystems and of praxis. The relationship between theory and practice in Medicine should be considered as a task of theoretical reflection, beyond contexts, application, and orientation. As a theory of theories--metatheory--its model lies closer to a "science of actions" than a "science of objects", considered as paradigmatic forms of Medicine. The relevance of these concepts to Psychiatry is illustrated on the basis of the influence of behavioral sciences upon biomedicine, whose advancement rests with Psychiatry.

  10. Modular Invariant Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, HEA

    2011-01-01

    This book covers the modular invariant theory of finite groups, the case when the characteristic of the field divides the order of the group, a theory that is more complicated than the study of the classical non-modular case. Largely self-contained, the book develops the theory from its origins up to modern results. It explores many examples, illustrating the theory and its contrast with the better understood non-modular setting. It details techniques for the computation of invariants for many modular representations of finite groups, especially the case of the cyclic group of prime order. It

  11. Radical theory of rings

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, JW

    2003-01-01

    Radical Theory of Rings distills the most noteworthy present-day theoretical topics, gives a unified account of the classical structure theorems for rings, and deepens understanding of key aspects of ring theory via ring and radical constructions. Assimilating radical theory's evolution in the decades since the last major work on rings and radicals was published, the authors deal with some distinctive features of the radical theory of nonassociative rings, associative rings with involution, and near-rings. Written in clear algebraic terms by globally acknowledged authorities, the presentation

  12. Theory of superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Crisan, Mircea

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the most important aspects of the theory. The phenomenological model is followed by the microscopic theory of superconductivity, in which modern formalism of the many-body theory is used to treat most important problems such as superconducting alloys, coexistence of superconductivity with the magnetic order, and superconductivity in quasi-one-dimensional systems. It concludes with a discussion on models for exotic and high temperature superconductivity. Its main aim is to review, as complete as possible, the theory of superconductivity from classical models and methods up t

  13. Proof theory an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Pohlers, Wolfram

    1989-01-01

    Although this is an introductory text on proof theory, most of its contents is not found in a unified form elsewhere in the literature, except at a very advanced level. The heart of the book is the ordinal analysis of axiom systems, with particular emphasis on that of the impredicative theory of elementary inductive definitions on the natural numbers. The "constructive" consequences of ordinal analysis are sketched out in the epilogue. The book provides a self-contained treatment assuming no prior knowledge of proof theory and almost none of logic. The author has, moreover, endeavoured not to use the "cabal language" of proof theory, but only a language familiar to most readers.

  14. Generalized etale cohomology theories

    CERN Document Server

    Jardine, John F

    1997-01-01

    A generalized etale cohomology theory is a theory which is represented by a presheaf of spectra on an etale site for an algebraic variety, in analogy with the way an ordinary spectrum represents a cohomology theory for spaces. Examples include etale cohomology and etale K-theory. This book gives new and complete proofs of both Thomason's descent theorem for Bott periodic K-theory and the Nisnevich descent theorem. In doing so, it exposes most of the major ideas of the homotopy theory of presheaves of spectra, and generalized etale homology theories in particular. The treatment includes, for the purpose of adequately dealing with cup product structures, a development of stable homotopy theory for n-fold spectra, which is then promoted to the level of presheaves of n-fold spectra.   This book should be of interest to all researchers working in fields related to algebraic K-theory. The techniques presented here are essentially combinatorial, and hence algebraic. An extensive background in traditional stable hom...

  15. String theory for pedestrians

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    In this 3-lecture series I will discuss the basics of string theory, some physical applications, and the outlook for the future. I will begin with the main concepts of the classical theory and the application to the study of cosmic superstrings. Then I will turn to the quantum theory and discuss applications to the investigation of hadronic spectra and the recently discovered quark-gluon plasma. I will conclude with a sketch of string models of particle physics and showing some avenues that may lead to a complete formulation of string theory.

  16. Between Theory and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wepster, Steven

    Three great mathematicians dominate the history of lunar theory in the middle of the eighteenth century: Leonhard Euler, Alexis Clairaut, and Jean le Rond d’Alembert. Each of them made a lasting contribution to the theory of celestial mechanics and their results had a broader impact than on lunar theory alone. To name but a few examples, Euler codified the trigonometric functions and pioneered the method of variation of orbital constants; Clairaut solved the arduous problem of the motion of the lunar apogee, thereby dealing a decisive blow to the sceptics of Newton’s law of gravitation; and d’Alembert worked out an accurate theory of precession and nutation.

  17. Information systems theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dwivedi, Yogesh K; Schneberger, Scott L

    2011-01-01

    The overall mission of this book is to provide a comprehensive understanding and coverage of the various theories and models used in IS research. Specifically, it aims to focus on the following key objectives: To describe the various theories and models applicable to studying IS/IT management issues. To outline and describe, for each of the various theories and models, independent and dependent constructs, reference discipline/originating area, originating author(s), seminal articles, level of analysis (i.e. firm, individual, industry) and links with other theories. To provide a critical revie

  18. Theory of colours

    CERN Document Server

    Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von

    2006-01-01

    The wavelength theory of light and color had been firmly established by the time the great German poet published his Theory of Colours in 1810. Nevertheless, Goethe believed that the theory derived from a fundamental error, in which an incidental result was mistaken for a elemental principle. Far from affecting a knowledge of physics, he maintained that such a background would inhibit understanding. The conclusions Goethe draws here rest entirely upon his personal observations.This volume does not have to be studied to be appreciated. The author's subjective theory of colors permits him to spe

  19. Theory Meets Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlamovitz, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Process thinking and process-based theory are receiving increased attention in the field of organization studies and organization theory development (Tsoukas & Chia, 2002; Langley & Tsoukas, 2010; Hernes, 2014). The aim has been to study processes rather than structures, in organizations. This has...... recently inspired research on the organizing of projects and the development of a (new) theory of temporary organizations (Bakker, 2010; Blomquist et al. 2010; Söderlund, 2013). These theories are still under development and need empirical studies that can show their relevance for practice. This paper...

  20. Theory in Social Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastings, Gerard; Brown, Abraham; Anker, Thomas Boysen

    2010-01-01

    The chapter looks at three important theories which help social marketers to think more systematically about the key questions they need to address:  (i) how does the target group or population feel about a particular behaviour (Stages of Change Theory); (ii) what social and contextual factors...... influence this positioning (Social Cognitive Theory and Social Norms) and; (iii) what offerings might encourage them to change their behaviour – or, those in a position to do so, to make the social context more conducive to change (Exchange Theory). Moreover, the chapter outlines how social marketers might...... benefit from a social epistemological approach....

  1. Quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mandl, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Following on from the successful first (1984) and revised (1993) editions, this extended and revised text is designed as a short and simple introduction to quantum field theory for final year physics students and for postgraduate students beginning research in theoretical and experimental particle physics. The three main objectives of the book are to: Explain the basic physics and formalism of quantum field theory To make the reader proficient in theory calculations using Feynman diagrams To introduce the reader to gauge theories, which play a central role in elementary particle physic

  2. Games, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, L C

    2011-01-01

    Anyone with a knowledge of basic mathematics will find this an accessible and informative introduction to game theory. It opens with the theory of two-person zero-sum games, two-person non-zero sum games, and n-person games, at a level between nonmathematical introductory books and technical mathematical game theory books. Succeeding sections focus on a variety of applications - including introductory explanations of gaming and meta games - that offer nonspecialists information about new areas of game theory at a comprehensible level. Numerous exercises appear with full solutions, in addition

  3. CHAOS-COMPLEXITY THEORY AT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekai Öztürk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Internal and external environment where operating continues their activities have a changeable structure continuously. It is stated that operating has to adapt to this structure which causes unexpected, undesirable and sudden results. How operatings behave during this period is stated in chaos-complexity theory. Thus, it is pointed out that organizations can evaluate the environment from not only one perspective but also different perspectives. This study contains three parts. First part involves theoretical information about chaos term. It mentions how some researchers use the chaos term. At the second part, how chaos complexity theory undergoes changes until today is uttered. Moreover, in recent years, the importance of chaos complexity theory from administrative perspective has been mentioned. The last part contains some main features of chaos complexity theory. In this regard, some basic properties like butterfly effect, mutual attachment, edge of chaos and self-organization have been analyzed in this study.

  4. Mathematical aspects of quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    de Faria, Edson

    2010-01-01

    Over the last century quantum field theory has made a significant impact on the formulation and solution of mathematical problems and inspired powerful advances in pure mathematics. However, most accounts are written by physicists, and mathematicians struggle to find clear definitions and statements of the concepts involved. This graduate-level introduction presents the basic ideas and tools from quantum field theory to a mathematical audience. Topics include classical and quantum mechanics, classical field theory, quantization of classical fields, perturbative quantum field theory, renormalization, and the standard model. The material is also accessible to physicists seeking a better understanding of the mathematical background, providing the necessary tools from differential geometry on such topics as connections and gauge fields, vector and spinor bundles, symmetries and group representations.

  5. Social theory and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitzkin, H; Waterman, B

    1976-01-01

    Three sociolgists-Talcott Parson, Eliot Freidson, and Mechanic-have explained medical phneomena within a broader theoretical framework. Although all three have made significant contributions, their conclusions remain incomplete on the theoretical level and seldom have been helpful for workers concerned with ongoing problems of health care. Our purpose here is to summarize some of the strengths and weakness of each theoretical position. Parsons has elucidated the sick role as a deviant role in society, the function of physicians as agents of social control, and the normative patterns governing the doctor-patient relationship. The principal problems in Parsons' analysis center on an uncritical acceptance of physicians' social control functions, his inattention tot the ways in which physicians' behavior may inhibit change in society, and overoptimism about the medical profession's ability to regulate itself and to prevent the exploitation of patients. Viewing medical phenomena within a broader theory of the professions in general, Freidson has formulated w wide ranging critique of the medical profession and professional dominance. On the other hand, Freidson's work neglects the full political implications of bringing professional autonomy under control. Mechanic's coceptual approach emphasizes the social psychologic factors, rather than the institutional conditions, which are involved in the genesis of illness behavior. Mechanic also overlooks the ways in which illness behavior, by permitting a controllable from of deviance, fosters institutional stability. In conclusion, we present a breif overview of a theoretical framework whose general orientation is that of Marixian analysis. Several themes recur in this framework: illness as a source of exploitation, the sick role as a conservative mechanism fostering social stability, stratification in medicine, and the imperialsm of large medical institutions and health-related industries.

  6. Theory of Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter an analysis of the behavior of an arbitrary (perhaps massive) collective of computational processes in terms of an associated "world" utility function is presented We concentrate on the situation where each process in the collective can be viewed as though it were striving to maximize its own private utility function. For such situations the central design issue is how to initialize/update the collective's structure, and in particular the private utility functions, so as to induce the overall collective to behave in a way that has large values of the world utility. Traditional "team game" approaches to this problem simply set each private utility function equal to the world utility function. The "Collective Intelligence" (COIN) framework is a semi-formal set of heuristics that recently have been used to construct private utility. functions that in many experiments have resulted in world utility values up to orders of magnitude superior to that ensuing from use of the team game utility. In this paper we introduce a formal mathematics for analyzing and designing collectives. We also use this mathematics to suggest new private utilities that should outperform the COIN heuristics in certain kinds of domains. In accompanying work we use that mathematics to explain previous experimental results concerning the superiority of COIN heuristics. In that accompanying work we also use the mathematics to make numerical predictions, some of which we then test. In this way these two papers establish the study of collectives as a proper science, involving theory, explanation of old experiments, prediction concerning new experiments, and engineering insights.

  7. A unified theory of bone healing and nonunion: BHN theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D S; Newman, K J H; Forward, D P; Hahn, D M; Ollivere, B; Kojima, K; Handley, R; Rossiter, N D; Wixted, J J; Smith, R M; Moran, C G

    2016-07-01

    This article presents a unified clinical theory that links established facts about the physiology of bone and homeostasis, with those involved in the healing of fractures and the development of nonunion. The key to this theory is the concept that the tissue that forms in and around a fracture should be considered a specific functional entity. This 'bone-healing unit' produces a physiological response to its biological and mechanical environment, which leads to the normal healing of bone. This tissue responds to mechanical forces and functions according to Wolff's law, Perren's strain theory and Frost's concept of the "mechanostat". In response to the local mechanical environment, the bone-healing unit normally changes with time, producing different tissues that can tolerate various levels of strain. The normal result is the formation of bone that bridges the fracture - healing by callus. Nonunion occurs when the bone-healing unit fails either due to mechanical or biological problems or a combination of both. In clinical practice, the majority of nonunions are due to mechanical problems with instability, resulting in too much strain at the fracture site. In most nonunions, there is an intact bone-healing unit. We suggest that this maintains its biological potential to heal, but fails to function due to the mechanical conditions. The theory predicts the healing pattern of multifragmentary fractures and the observed morphological characteristics of different nonunions. It suggests that the majority of nonunions will heal if the correct mechanical environment is produced by surgery, without the need for biological adjuncts such as autologous bone graft. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:884-91. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  8. A certain sequence of functions involving the Aleph function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, P.; Chand, M.; Onur Kiymaz, İ.; Çetinkaya, A.

    2016-01-01

    Sequences of functions play an important role in approximation theory. In this paper, we aim to establish a (presumably new) sequence of functions involving the Aleph function by using operational techniques. Some generating relations and finite summation formulas of the sequence presented here are also considered.

  9. A certain sequence of functions involving the Aleph function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequences of functions play an important role in approximation theory. In this paper, we aim to establish a (presumably new sequence of functions involving the Aleph function by using operational techniques. Some generating relations and finite summation formulas of the sequence presented here are also considered.

  10. Dynasting Theory: Lessons in learning grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnben Teik-Cheok Loy, MBA, MTS, Ph.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article captures the key learning lessons gleaned from the author’s experience learning and developing a grounded theory for his doctoral dissertation using the classic methodology as conceived by Barney Glaser. The theory was developed through data gathered on founders and successors of Malaysian Chinese family-own businesses. The main concern for Malaysian Chinese family businesses emerged as dynasting . the building, maintaining, and growing the power and resources of the business within the family lineage. The core category emerged as dynasting across cultures, where founders and successors struggle to transition from traditional Chinese to hybrid cultural and modernized forms of family business from one generation to the next. The key learning lessons were categorized under five headings: (a sorting through different versions of grounded theory, (b educating and managing research stakeholders, (c embracing experiential learning, (d discovering the core category: grounded intuition, and (e recognizing limitations and possibilities.Keywords: grounded theory, learning, dynasting, family business, Chinese

  11. Kontextualisierung von Queer Theory Contextualizing Queer Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Voigt

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Christine M. Klapeer legt in diesem Einführungsband dar, aus welchen politischen und theoretischen Kontexten heraus sich ‚queer‘ zu einem Begriff mit besonderem politischem und theoretischem Gehalt entwickelt hat. Wesentlich zielt sie dabei auf eine kritische Kontextualisierung von „queer theory”. Die Autorin geht zunächst auf das Gay Liberation Movement ein, grenzt die Queer Theory vom Poststrukturalismus, von feministischen Theorien und den Lesbian and Gay Studies ab, beleuchtet Eckpunkte queeren Denkens und zeichnet schließlich die Entwicklungen in Österreich sowohl politisch-rechtlich als auch bewegungsgeschichtlich und in der Wissenschaftslandschaft nach.Christine M. Klapeer’s introductory volume demonstrates the manner in which ‘queer’ grew out of various political and theoretical contexts to become a term with special political and theoretical content. She focuses primarily on a critical contextualization of “queer theory.” The author begins by approaching the Gay Liberation Movement and then distinguishes Queer Theory from poststructuralism, from feminist theories, and from Lesbian and Gay Studies. She continues on to illuminate the key aspects of queer thought and concludes by sketching the development in Austria in terms of politics and the law, the history of movements, and within the landscape of knowledge.

  12. On Teaching Administrative Theory as Political Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ronald

    1984-01-01

    In public administration courses, administrative theory is usually taught from a managerial perspective--raising questions about organizations from the perspective of the public manager. This perspective is incomplete and needs to be supplemented with a political perspective--asking questions from the viewpoint of the polity as a whole. (RM)

  13. [United theory of aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubitsyn, A G

    2012-01-01

    In attempts to develop a means of life prolongation the humankind has created more than three hundred theories of the aging; each of them offers the original cause of aging. However, none of them has given practical result by now. The majority of the theories have now only historical interest. There are several different theories that are mainly under consideration currently. They are based on reliable, proven evidence: the free radical theory, the protein error theory, the replicative senescence theory, the theory of reparation weakening, the immunological theory, several versions of neuroendocrinal theories, and programmed aging theory. The theory presented here is based on conception that the life as the phenomenon represents many of the interconnected physical and chemical processes propelled by energy of the mitochondrial bioenergetical machine. Gradual degradation of all vital processes is caused by the programmed decrease in level of bioenergetics. This theory unites all existing theories of aging constructed on authentic facts: it is shown, that such fundamental phenomena accompanying aging process as the increase in level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the decrease in the general level of protein synthesis, the limitation of cellular dividing (Haiflick limit), decrease in efficiency of reparation mechanisms are caused by bioenergetics attenuation. Each of these phenomena in turn generates a number of harmful secondary processes. Any of the theories bases on one of these destructive phenomena or their combination. Hence, each of them describes one of sides of process of the aging initially caused by programmed decrease of level of bioenergetics. This united theory gives the chance to understand the nature of aging clock and explains a phenomenon of increase in longevity at the condition of food restriction. Failures of attempts to develop means from aging are explained by that the manipulations with the separate secondary phenomena of attenuation of

  14. Speech perception: motoric contributions versus the motor theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Joseph T; Aydelott, Jennifer

    2009-03-10

    Recent studies indicate that the motor cortex is involved not only in the production of speech, but also in its perception. These studies have sparked a renewed interest in gesture-based theories of speech perception.

  15. BRST renormalization of the first order Yang-Mills theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, J.; Taylor, John C.

    2017-12-01

    We examine the renormalization of the first order formulation of the Yang-Mills theory, by using the BRST identities. These preserve the gauge invariance of the theory and enable a recursive proof of renormalizability to higher orders in perturbation theory. The renormalization involves non-linear mixings as well as re-scalings of the fields and sources, which lead to a renormalized action at all orders.

  16. Anal Involvement in Pemphigus Vularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Khezri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pemphigus vulgaris (PV is an autoimmune blistering disease of the skin and mucosa. Anal mucosa may be involved in PV, but the frequency and clinical profile are not fully ascertained. Objective. The aim was to investigate the involvement of the anal area in newly diagnosed PV patients. Patients and Methods. A total of 168 consecutive newly diagnosed PV patients were enrolled. Anal symptoms and signs, involvement of other body sites, and severity of disease were recorded. Results. A total of 47 out of 168 patients (27.9% had involvement of the anal area. Anal involvement was significantly associated with PV lesions in ophthalmic (, nasal (, and genital mucosa ( but not the oral cavity (. There was a significant association between number of involved mucosal sites and anal involvement (. Anal involvement was associated with oral severity (. Constipation was the most frequent symptom (73.8% followed by pain on defecation (50%. Seventeen patients (36% were symptom-free. Erosion was the most frequent sign (91.5%. Conclusion. Anal involvement in PV seems to be more frequent than previously assumed. Routine anal examination is recommended even in asymptomatic patients as anal involvement appears to correlate with the severity of PV.

  17. New Approaches and Applications for Monte Carlo Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aufiero, Manuele; Bidaud, Adrien; Kotlyar, Dan; Leppänen, Jaakko; Palmiotti, Giuseppe; Salvatores, Massimo; Sen, Sonat; Shwageraus, Eugene; Fratoni, Massimiliano

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents some of the recent and new advancements in the extension of Monte Carlo Perturbation Theory methodologies and application. In particular, the discussed problems involve Brunup calculation, perturbation calculation based on continuous energy functions, and Monte Carlo Perturbation Theory in loosely coupled systems.

  18. Applying Learning Theories and Instructional Design Models for Effective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Elkhider, Ihsan A.

    2016-01-01

    Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning…

  19. Theories and Conflict: The Origins of Natural Gas. Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan

    This unit explores a recent and controversial theory of the origin of much of the Earth's natural gas and oil. The materials provided will give students the opportunity to: (1) gain an understanding of science and what is involved in the acceptance or rejection of theories; (2) learn about fossil fuels, especially natural gas; (3) learn the…

  20. Lay Theories of Creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritter, Simone; Rietzschel, Eric; Zedelius, Claire; Müller, Barbara; Schooler, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Creativity is of great appeal and importance to people, and they strive to understand creativity by developing lay theories. Such lay theories about creativity concern, for example, the characteristics of creative persons, such as the ‘mad genius’ idea, or environmental factors that contribute to

  1. Axiomatic set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Suppes, Patrick

    1972-01-01

    This clear and well-developed approach to axiomatic set theory is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. It examines the basic paradoxes and history of set theory and advanced topics such as relations and functions, equipollence, finite sets and cardinal numbers, rational and real numbers, and other subjects. 1960 edition.

  2. Worldviews for Design Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    2006-01-01

    I suspect that the growing 'body' of design theory may be infected by more inconsistency than is justifiable by genuine disagreement among design researchers. Taking my clue from Peirce, who argued that theory inevitably rests on basics metaphysical assumptions that theorists ought to be critical...

  3. Theory of bridge aerodynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Strømmen, Einar N

    2006-01-01

    ... knowledge of basic structural dynamics, particularly of solution procedures in a modal format. None of the theory related to the determination of eigen values and the corresponding eigen modes are included in this book, i.e. it is taken for granted that the reader is familiar with this part of the theory of structural dynamics. Otherwise...

  4. Theory of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Pauli, W

    1958-01-01

    This classic work offers a concise and comprehensive review of the literature on relativity as of 1921, along with the author's insightful update of later developments in relativity theory and coverage of subsequent controversies. Special attention is given to unified field theories. 1958 edition.

  5. In Defense of Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackendoff, Ray

    2017-01-01

    Formal theories of mental representation have receded from the importance they had in the early days of cognitive science. I argue that such theories are crucial in any mental domain, not just for their own sake, but to guide experimental inquiry, as well as to integrate the domain into the mind as a whole. To illustrate the criteria of adequacy…

  6. Theory in practice

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    With the start of next year, CERN's Theory Division and Experimental Physics Division will merge to form the new Department of Physics. The Bulletin looks back at an era, has a closer a look at what the Theory Division is and what makes it so special.

  7. The Sign Learning Theory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KING OF DAWN

    The Sign Learning Theory. Although a blend of both Gestalt psychology and behaviourism, the sign learning theory is actually a drift from the behaviourist perspective with an attempt to explain certain phenomena commonly seen in behaviour which could not be satisfactorily accounted for by stimulus-response paradigms.

  8. Reimagining Critical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexhepi, Jevdet; Torres, Carlos Alberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses Critical Theory, a model of theorizing in the field of the political sociology of education. We argue for a "reimagined" Critical Theory to herald an empowering, liberatory education that fosters curiosity and critical thinking, and a means for successful bottom-up, top-down political engagement. We present arguments…

  9. Posthuman Critical Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braidotti, R.

    2016-01-01

    This essay proposes a genealogical cartography of the emergence of a posthuman turn in critical theory, including feminist theory, based on the convergence of posthumanism with post-anthropocentrism. The former critiques the universalist posture of the idea of ‘Man’ as the alleged ‘measure of all

  10. Rewriting the Opportunity Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.

    The aim of this paper is to further the discussion of opportunity theory by discussing its ontological and epistemological underpinnings, which have been neglected in previous discussions. The idea that opportunities have an objective component is critically examined drawing on insights from social...... constructionism. It is argued that opportunity theory needs to be rewritten....

  11. Game Theory .net.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  12. Beyond Dependency Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, Pedro

    1983-01-01

    Dependency theory was part of the reaction against the thesis that proclaimed the benefits of economic integration into the capitalist world. The theory emphasizes the interplay between the internal structures of developing nations and international structures, and analyzes desirable national strategies and policies for structural changes. (CS)

  13. Evaluating Conceptual Metaphor Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Raymond W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    A major revolution in the study of metaphor occurred 30 years ago with the introduction of "conceptual metaphor theory" (CMT). Unlike previous theories of metaphor and metaphorical meaning, CMT proposed that metaphor is not just an aspect of language, but a fundamental part of human thought. Indeed, most metaphorical language arises from…

  14. Science and information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brillouin, Léon

    1962-01-01

    A classic source for exploring the connections between information theory and physics, this text is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. The author, a giant of 20th-century mathematics, applies the principles of information theory to a variety of issues, including Maxwell's demon, thermodynamics, and measurement problems. 1962 edition.

  15. Building theory through design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    hallmark of this type of research, others argue for design work being the primary achievement, with theory serving the auxiliary function of inspiring new designs. This paper demonstrates how design work and theory can be appreciated as two equally important outcomes of research through design. To set...

  16. Quantum Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Wilczek, Frank

    1998-01-01

    I discuss the general principles underlying quantum field theory, and attempt to identify its most profound consequences. The deepest of these consequences result from the infinite number of degrees of freedom invoked to implement locality. I mention a few of its most striking successes, both achieved and prospective. Possible limitations of quantum field theory are viewed in the light of its history.

  17. The Learning Theory Jungle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the myriad of pedagogical and andragogical issues facing university educators in the student learning process. It briefly explores the proliferation of learning theories in an attempt to develop awareness among faculty who teach at the university/college levels that not all theories of learning apply to the adult learner. In…

  18. Discrete gauge theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wild Propitius, M.; Bais, F.A.; Semenoff, G.; Vinet, L.

    1999-01-01

    In these lectures, we present a self-contained treatment of planar gauge theories broken down to some finite residual gauge group $H$ via the Higgs mechanism. The main focus is on the discrete $H$ gauge theory describing the long distance physics of such a model. The spectrum features global $H$

  19. Gauge theory and renormalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    1996-01-01

    Early developments leading to renormalizable non-Abelian gauge theories for the weak, electromagnetic and strong interactions, are discussed from a personal viewpoint. They drastically improved our view of the role of field theory, symmetry and topology, as well as other branches of mathematics, in

  20. Theory of Constraints (TOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Aage U.

    2004-01-01

    Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process.......Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process....

  1. What is CPH Theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Daei Kasmaei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    is the mechanism of increasing in the photon energy that causes increase in its frequency growth? So, in CPH theory (Creative particles of Higgs Theory), it has been attempted to scrutinize the interface between classical mechanics, relativity and quantum mechanics through a novel approach to the established...

  2. theory of gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-02

    Nov 2, 2016 ... the existence of dark energy and dark matter, several modified theories of gravitation have been proposed as alternative to Einstein's theory. By modifying the geometrical part of Einstein–Hilbert action of general relativity, we obtain the modified gravity. Modified gravity is of great importance because it can ...

  3. Modeling and Compensatory Processes Underlying Involvement in Child Care among Kibbutz-Reared Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Ruth; Bassi, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined modeling and compensatory processes underlying the effects of an early paternal model on father involvement in child care. Drawing on social learning theory, it was hypothesized that father-son relationships would moderate the association between a father's involvement and his own father's involvement. A sample of 136 kibbutz…

  4. Monoarticular Hip Involvement in Pseudogout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Kocyigit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudogout is the acutest form of arthritis in the elderly. Although clinical manifestations vary widely, polyarticular involvement is typical mimicking osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. Monoarticular involvement is relatively rare and is generally provoked by another medical condition. There are reported cases of hip involvement by pseudogout in monoarticular form. However, all of the cases were presented as septic arthritis. In this report, we present a case of monoarticular hip involvement mimicking soft tissue abscess. We confirmed the pseudogout diagnosis after ultrasonographic evaluation of the involved hip joint and pathological and biochemical analysis of synovial fluid analysis. Diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary medical and surgical treatment in cases of the bizarre involvement of hip in pseudogout.

  5. Nonlocal continuum field theories

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Nonlocal continuum field theories are concerned with material bodies whose behavior at any interior point depends on the state of all other points in the body -- rather than only on an effective field resulting from these points -- in addition to its own state and the state of some calculable external field. Nonlocal field theory extends classical field theory by describing the responses of points within the medium by functionals rather than functions (the "constitutive relations" of classical field theory). Such considerations are already well known in solid-state physics, where the nonlocal interactions between the atoms are prevalent in determining the properties of the material. The tools developed for crystalline materials, however, do not lend themselves to analyzing amorphous materials, or materials in which imperfections are a major part of the structure. Nonlocal continuum theories, by contrast, can describe these materials faithfully at scales down to the lattice parameter. This book presents a unif...

  6. Governance and organizational theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Quintero Castellanos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this essay is to propose a way to link the theoretical body that has been weaved around governance and organizational theory. For this, a critical exposition is done about what is the theoretical core of governance, the opportunity areas are identified for the link of this theory with organizational theory. The essay concludes with a proposal for the organizational analysis of administrations in governance. The essay addresses with five sections. The first one is the introduction. In the second one, I present a synthesis of the governance in its current use. In the next one are presented the work lines of the good governance. In the fourth part, I show the organizational and managerial limits in the governance theory. The last part develops the harmonization proposal for the governance and organizational theories.

  7. Theory of gravitational interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Gasperini, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    This reference textbook is an up-to-date and self-contained introduction to the theory of gravitational interactions. The first part of the book follows the traditional presentation of general relativity as a geometric theory of the macroscopic gravitational field. A second, advanced part then discusses the deep analogies (and differences) between a geometric theory of gravity and the gauge theories of the other fundamental interactions. This fills a gap which is present in the context of the traditional approach to general relativity, and which usually makes students puzzled about the role of gravity. The necessary notions of differential geometry are reduced to the minimum, leaving more room for those aspects of gravitational physics of current phenomenological and theoretical interest, such as the properties of gravitational waves, the gravitational interactions of spinors, and the supersymmetric and higher-dimensional generalization of the Einstein equations. Theory of Gravitational Interactions will be o...

  8. Statistical theory and inference

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, David J

    2014-01-01

    This text is for  a one semester graduate course in statistical theory and covers minimal and complete sufficient statistics, maximum likelihood estimators, method of moments, bias and mean square error, uniform minimum variance estimators and the Cramer-Rao lower bound, an introduction to large sample theory, likelihood ratio tests and uniformly most powerful  tests and the Neyman Pearson Lemma. A major goal of this text is to make these topics much more accessible to students by using the theory of exponential families. Exponential families, indicator functions and the support of the distribution are used throughout the text to simplify the theory. More than 50 ``brand name" distributions are used to illustrate the theory with many examples of exponential families, maximum likelihood estimators and uniformly minimum variance unbiased estimators. There are many homework problems with over 30 pages of solutions.

  9. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Alvita Nathaniel, DSN, APRN, BC

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Grounded Theory Perspective III: Theoretical Coding, Barney G. Glaser (Sociology Press, 2005. Not intended for a beginner, this book further defi nes, describes, and explicates the classic grounded theory (GT method. Perspective III lays out various facets of theoretical coding as Glaser meticulously distinguishes classic GT from other subsequent methods. Developed many years after Glaser’s classic GT, these methods, particularly as described by Strauss and Corbin, adopt the grounded theory name and engender ongoing confusion about the very premises of grounded theory. Glaser distinguishes between classic GT and the adscititious methods in his writings, referring to remodeled grounded theory and its offshoots as Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA models.

  10. Dual double field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A. [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Hohm, Olaf [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3636 (United States); Penas, Victor A. [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Riccioni, Fabio [INFN - Sezione di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”,Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2016-06-06

    We present the dual formulation of double field theory at the linearized level. This is a classically equivalent theory describing the duals of the dilaton, the Kalb-Ramond field and the graviton in a T-duality or O(D,D) covariant way. In agreement with previous proposals, the resulting theory encodes fields in mixed Young-tableau representations, combining them into an antisymmetric 4-tensor under O(D,D). In contrast to previous proposals, the theory also requires an antisymmetric 2-tensor and a singlet, which are not all pure gauge. The need for these additional fields is analogous to a similar phenomenon for “exotic' dualizations, and we clarify this by comparing with the dualizations of the component fields. We close with some speculative remarks on the significance of these observations for the full non-linear theory yet to be constructed.

  11. Opportunities in martensite theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, G.B. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-12-01

    A workshop has explored interactions of materials science, applied mechanics, physics and mathematics in understanding fundamentals of martensitic transformations. System theory offers a framework for addressing realistic complexity. Theory of invariant-plane kinematics has been extended to multivariant plate groups and hierarchical structures. Electronic total energy calculations explore the origins of martensitic phase stability, and Landau-Ginzberg models for transformations with and without shuffles provide nonlocal continuum theories for treatment of interfacial structure and mobility as well as the competition between classical and nonclassical transformation mechanisms. Quantitative kinetic theory incorporates defect distributions, but requires further analysis of the evolution of mean particle volume. Kinetic theory provides the basis for constitutive relations for transformation plasticity. (orig.).

  12. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald

    2016-01-01

    types. This further expands the foundations of CTT as a basis for formalisation in mathematics and computer science. We present examples to demonstrate the expressivity of our type theory, all of which have been checked using a prototype type-checker implementation, and present semantics in a presheaf......This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type-checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...

  13. Quantal density functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sahni, Viraht

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with quantal density functional theory (QDFT) which is a time-dependent local effective potential theory of the electronic structure of matter. The treated time-independent QDFT constitutes a special case. In the 2nd edition, the theory is extended to include the presence of external magnetostatic fields. The theory is a description of matter based on the ‘quantal Newtonian’ first and second laws which is in terms of “classical” fields that pervade all space, and their quantal sources. The fields, which are explicitly defined, are separately representative of electron correlations due to the Pauli exclusion principle, Coulomb repulsion, correlation-kinetic, correlation-current-density, and correlation-magnetic effects. The book further describes Schrödinger theory from the new physical perspective of fields and quantal sources. It also describes traditional Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham DFT, and explains via QDFT the physics underlying the various energy functionals and functional derivatives o...

  14. Design Theory in Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley Gregor

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore an important category of information systems knowledge that is termed “design theory”. This knowledge is distinguished as the fifth of five types of theory: (i) theory for analysing and describing, (ii) theory for understanding, (iii) theory for predicting, (iv) theory for explaining and predicting, and (v) theory for design and action. Examples of design theory in information systems are provided, with associated research methods. The limited understanding...

  15. Solid modeling and applications rapid prototyping, CAD and CAE theory

    CERN Document Server

    Um, Dugan

    2016-01-01

    The lessons in this fundamental text equip students with the theory of Computer Assisted Design (CAD), Computer Assisted Engineering (CAE), the essentials of Rapid Prototyping, as well as practical skills needed to apply this understanding in real world design and manufacturing settings. The book includes three main areas: CAD, CAE, and Rapid Prototyping, each enriched with numerous examples and exercises. In the CAD section, Professor Um outlines the basic concept of geometric modeling, Hermite and Bezier Spline curves theory, and 3-dimensional surface theories as well as rendering theory. The CAE section explores mesh generation theory, matrix notion for FEM, the stiffness method, and truss Equations. And in Rapid Prototyping, the author illustrates stereo lithographic theory and introduces popular modern RP technologies. Solid Modeling and Applications: Rapid Prototyping, CAD and CAE Theory is ideal for university students in various engineering disciplines as well as design engineers involved in product...

  16. Geomorphology as science: the role of theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Bruce L.; Thorn, Colin E.

    1993-04-01

    Because geomorphology is a science, it is permeated by theory. Overt recognition of this actuality is frequently resisted by geomorphologists. Earth history does not represent an alternative to earth science, it is an essential component of earth science. In its broadest sense science seeks to discover new knowledge through a two-stage activity involving the creation and justification of ideas (theory). Deduction is generally regarded as the only logically-consistent method of justifying ideas. The creation of ideas is a much more controversial topic. Some methodologists deem it beyond logic; certainly deductive arguments, which are nothing more than formal, logical expressions of theory, play no role in the conception of new ideas. Many earth scientists generate possible explanations of observed phenomena based on abductive reasoning. Others advocate reliance on purported forms of "pure" induction, such as serendipity and intuition, in which observations assume primacy over theory. Besides lacking consistency and educability, the latter posture is flawed because it mistakenly implies that becoming well-versed in theory is irrelevant to or impedes scientific discovery. Irrational or subjective factors play a role in the creation of ideas, but it is erroneous to claim that these factors are divorced from theory. Science is first and foremost a cognitive activity; thus, the primacy of observations in science is a myth. All observations are theory-laden in the sense that the act of observation inherently involves interpretation and classification, both of which can only occur within the context of theoretical preconceptions. Even discoveries based on unexpected observations require the fortunate investigator to recognize the theoretical importance of what is seen or measured. The most useful view of geomorphology as a science is one in which theory is seen as central, but fragile, and in which theory and observation are viewed symbiotically with theory providing the

  17. Quantum Theory and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Ted

    2009-07-01

    List of participants; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. The function of the colloquium - editorial; 2. The conceptual problem of quantum theory from the experimentalist's point of view O. R. Frisch; Part II. Niels Bohr and Complementarity: The Place of the Classical Language: 3. The Copenhagen interpretation C. F. von Weizsäcker; 4. On Bohr's views concerning the quantum theory D. Bohm; Part III. The Measurement Problem: 5. Quantal observation in statistical interpretation H. J. Groenewold; 6. Macroscopic physics, quantum mechanics and quantum theory of measurement G. M. Prosperi; 7. Comment on the Daneri-Loinger-Prosperi quantum theory of measurement Jeffrey Bub; 8. The phenomenology of observation and explanation in quantum theory J. H. M. Whiteman; 9. Measurement theory and complex systems M. A. Garstens; Part IV. New Directions within Quantum Theory: What does the Quantum Theoretical Formalism Really Tell Us?: 10. On the role of hidden variables in the fundamental structure of physics D. Bohm; 11. Beyond what? Discussion: space-time order within existing quantum theory C. W. Kilmister; 12. Definability and measurability in quantum theory Yakir Aharonov and Aage Petersen; 13. The bootstrap idea and the foundations of quantum theory Geoffrey F. Chew; Part V. A Fresh Start?: 14. Angular momentum: an approach to combinatorial space-time Roger Penrose; 15. A note on discreteness, phase space and cohomology theory B. J. Hiley; 16. Cohomology of observations R. H. Atkin; 17. The origin of half-integral spin in a discrete physical space Ted Bastin; Part VI. Philosophical Papers: 18. The unity of physics C. F. von Weizsäcker; 19. A philosophical obstacle to the rise of new theories in microphysics Mario Bunge; 20. The incompleteness of quantum mechanics or the emperor's missing clothes H. R. Post; 21. How does a particle get from A to B?; Ted Bastin; 22. Informational generalization of entropy in physics Jerome Rothstein; 23. Can life explain quantum mechanics? H. H

  18. Story of the string theory. From hadrons to Planck scale; Histoire de la theorie des cordes. Des hadrons a l'echelle de Planck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petropoulos, P.M. [Centre de physique theorique, Ecole polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France)

    2010-12-15

    Originally the string theory was devised to describe the scattering between hadron particles but was quickly put aside by the success of the quantum chromodynamics. Now string theory appears in the quantum gravity theory and has been involved in almost all attempts to define a physics beyond the standard model and to unify basic interactions. (A.C.)

  19. Prediction of Exercise in Patients across Various Stages of Bariatric Surgery: A Comparison of the Merits of the Theory of Reasoned Action versus the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Hillary R.; Gross, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide health concern approaching epidemic proportions. Successful long-term treatment involves a combination of bariatric surgery, diet, and exercise. Social cognitive models, such as the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), are among the most commonly tested theories utilized in the…

  20. Stakeholder involvement in CSR strategy-making?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Leila

    2014-01-01

    listening to others in the strategy-making process rather than directly involving others in decision-making. Also, because non-stakeholders, such as paid-for consultants, are found to be note-worthy influencers in the CSR strategy-making process, it is concluded that the process is not only a stakeholder......A given characteristic of successful corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs is that they reflect stakeholder expectations and preferences for corporate behavior. This study examines the process by which this alignment is sought by CSR managers in the CSR strategy-making process. Through...... reliance on stakeholder management theories, and with a particular focus on how and why managers communicate with stakeholders, the extent to which the company-stakeholder alignment process in CSR strategy-making reflects modern, enlightened approaches to stakeholder relations is assessed. This assessment...

  1. Set theory and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svozil, K. [Univ. of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    1995-11-01

    Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible {open_quotes}solution of supertasks,{close_quotes} and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvantages for physical applications are discussed: Cantorian {open_quotes}naive{close_quotes} (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author`s opinion, an attitude, of {open_quotes}suspended attention{close_quotes} (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to {open_quotes}bizarre{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}mindboggling{close_quotes} new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the time of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.

  2. Baudrillard's Theory of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Pär Ola

    2014-01-01

    Jean Baudrillard outlined a theory of value in his early writings that built on, but also criticized, Marxist concepts of use value and exchange value. In this paper, I use a close reading to delineate the diachronic transition of Baudrillard's writings toward anti-Marxism and (allegedly) postmod......Jean Baudrillard outlined a theory of value in his early writings that built on, but also criticized, Marxist concepts of use value and exchange value. In this paper, I use a close reading to delineate the diachronic transition of Baudrillard's writings toward anti-Marxism and (allegedly......) postmodernism, with specific focus on his value theory, in order to understand his own reasons for abandoning his previous position. I then follow the marginal stream of scholars who are making use of the early Baudrillard. I find his value theory promising but still a mere sketch rather than an actual general...... theory. The paper concludes that Baudrillard's arguments for abandoning Marxism altogether are problematic and led him away from developing a more finished theory of value. This is unfortunate because it remains a project that may yield interesting insights even in contemporary social theory, not least...

  3. Modern graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bollobás, Béla

    1998-01-01

    The time has now come when graph theory should be part of the education of every serious student of mathematics and computer science, both for its own sake and to enhance the appreciation of mathematics as a whole. This book is an in-depth account of graph theory, written with such a student in mind; it reflects the current state of the subject and emphasizes connections with other branches of pure mathematics. The volume grew out of the author's earlier book, Graph Theory -- An Introductory Course, but its length is well over twice that of its predecessor, allowing it to reveal many exciting new developments in the subject. Recognizing that graph theory is one of several courses competing for the attention of a student, the book contains extensive descriptive passages designed to convey the flavor of the subject and to arouse interest. In addition to a modern treatment of the classical areas of graph theory such as coloring, matching, extremal theory, and algebraic graph theory, the book presents a detailed ...

  4. Oceanic thermohaline intrusions: theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddick, Barry; Kerr, Oliver

    2003-03-01

    This is a review of theories governing growth and evolution of thermohaline intrusive motions. We discuss theories based on eddy coefficients and salt finger flux ratios and also on molecular Fickian diffusion, drawing relationships and parallels where possible. We discuss linear theories of various physical configurations, effects of rotation and shear, and nonlinear theories. A key requirement for such theories to become quantitatively correct is the development and field testing of relationships between double-diffusive fluxes and average vertical gradients of temperature and salinity. While we have some ideas about the functional dependencies and rough observational constraints on the magnitudes of such flux/gradient relationships, many questions will not be answered until usable ‘flux laws’ exist. Furthermore, numerical experiments on double-diffusive intrusions are currently feasible, but will have more quantitative meaning when fluxes are parameterised with such laws. We conclude that more work needs to be done in at least two areas. Firstly, tests of linear theory against observations should continue, particularly to discover the extent to which linear theories actually explain the genesis of intrusions. Secondly, theoretical studies are needed on the nonlinear effects that control the evolution and finite amplitude state of intrusions, since these determine the lateral fluxes of salt, heat, and momentum.

  5. Condensed Matter Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altland, Alexander; Simons, Ben

    2006-06-01

    Over the past few decades, in concert with ground-breaking experimental advances, condensed matter theory has drawn increasingly from the language of low-energy quantum field theory. This primer is aimed at elevating graduate students of condensed matter theory to a level where they can engage in independent research. It emphasizes the development of modern methods of classical and quantum field theory with applications oriented around condensed matter physics. Topics covered include second quantization, path and functional field integration, mean-field theory and collective phenomena, the renormalization group, and topology. Conceptual aspects and formal methodology are emphasized, but the discussion is rooted firmly in practical experimental application. As well as routine exercises, the text includes extended and challenging problems, with fully worked solutions, designed to provide a bridge between formal manipulations and research-oriented thinking. This book will complement graduate level courses on theoretical quantum condensed matter physics. Spans the field of modern condensed matter theory focusing on field theory techniques Written to facilitate learning, with numerous challenging exercises, with fully worked solutions, aimed at physicists starting graduate-level courses The theoretical methods are firmly set in concrete experimental applications

  6. Parental Involvement and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Sarah Christine

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the correlation between student achievement and parent's perceptions of their involvement in their child's schooling. Parent participants completed the Parent Involvement Project Parent Questionnaire. Results slightly indicated parents of students with higher level of achievement perceived less demand or invitations…

  7. Coparenting and Parental School Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, M. Blake

    2017-01-01

    Background: Parental school involvement is associated with social, psychological, and academic child outcomes. Beyond school, demographic, and individual influences, research on the relationship between family level processes and parental school involvement is limited. Coparenting is a unique family level relationship that influences parental…

  8. Clinical theory at the border(s): Emerging and unintended crossings in the development of clinical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Steven H

    2015-04-01

    The author provides some scaffolding for thinking about emerging and unintended integrative developments in clinical theory. The emergent theory to which the author refers works at a different level of theoretical discourse than explicit attempts at comparative translation of psychoanalytic concepts or theories. In contrast, most of the theory that is explored in this paper involves clinical discourse aimed at solving important common clinical problems. The work of a group of authors (Jay Greenberg, John Steiner, Anton Kris, Michael Feldman and Charles Spezzano) is described as simultaneously embedded within a particular orientation while demonstrating a kind of unwitting reach to a broad swathe of analysts. Distinctions are made between this kind of linking of clinical theory versus self-consciously syncretic and integrative approaches to theory development. The author also discusses the educational implications of this emergent theory for teaching and learning during psychoanalytic training. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  9. Quantum mechanics of 4-derivative theories

    CERN Document Server

    Salvio, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    A renormalizable theory of gravity is obtained if the dimension-less 4-derivative kinetic term of the graviton, which classically suffers from negative unbounded energy, admits a sensible quantisation. We find that a 4-derivative degree of freedom involves a canonical coordinate with unusual time-inversion parity, and that a correspondingly unusual representation must be employed for the relative quantum operator. The resulting theory has positive energy eigenvalues, normalisable wave functions, unitary evolution in a negative-norm configuration space. We present a formalism for quantum mechanics with a generic norm.

  10. Quantum mechanics of 4-derivative theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvio, Alberto [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid and Instituto de Fisica Teorica IFT-UAM/CSIC, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Strumia, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa (Italy); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva (Switzerland); INFN, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    A renormalizable theory of gravity is obtained if the dimension-less 4-derivative kinetic term of the graviton, which classically suffers from negative unbounded energy, admits a sensible quantization. We find that a 4-derivative degree of freedom involves a canonical coordinate with unusual time-inversion parity, and that a correspondingly unusual representation must be employed for the relative quantum operator. The resulting theory has positive energy eigenvalues, normalizable wavefunctions, unitary evolution in a negative-norm configuration space. We present a formalism for quantum mechanics with a generic norm. (orig.)

  11. Filamentary ion flow theory and experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Lattarulo, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Presents all-new laboratory-tested theory for calculating more accurate ionized electric fields to aid in designing high-voltage devices and its components Understanding and accurately calculating corona originated electric fields are important issues for scientists who are involved in electromagnetic and electrostatic studies. High-voltage dc lines and equipment, in particular, can generate ion flows that can give rise to environmental inconveniences. Filamentary Ion Flow: Theory and Experiments provides interdisciplinary theoretical arguments to attain a final model for computational elect

  12. Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.

  13. Advanced number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cohn, Harvey

    1980-01-01

    ""A very stimulating book ... in a class by itself."" - American Mathematical MonthlyAdvanced students, mathematicians and number theorists will welcome this stimulating treatment of advanced number theory, which approaches the complex topic of algebraic number theory from a historical standpoint, taking pains to show the reader how concepts, definitions and theories have evolved during the last two centuries. Moreover, the book abounds with numerical examples and more concrete, specific theorems than are found in most contemporary treatments of the subject.The book is divided into three parts

  14. Fundamentals of electroweak theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hořejší, Jiří

    2002-01-01

    This monograph of Prof. Horejší is based on a series of his lectures which took place at Faculty of Mathematics and Physics of Charles University during 1990s. The author gives a thorough and easy-to-read account of the basic principles of the standard model of electroweak interactions, describes various theories of electromagnetic and weak interactions, and explains the gauge theory of electroweak interactions. Five appendices expound on some special techniques of the Standard Model, used in the main body of the text. Thanks to the author's pedagogical skills and professional erudition, the book can be read just with a preliminary knowledge of quantum field theory.

  15. Developments in sensitivity theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacuci, D.G.; Greenspan, E.; Marable, J.H.; Williams, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    A review of recent developments in sensitivity theory is presented with an emphasis on (a) extensions to new areas such as thermal hydraulics, reactor depletion, multi-constraint and extrema problems, and (b) recent mathematical refinements to and extensions of the basic theory. The diverse new areas of application are discussed from a unified theoretical viewpoint based on nonlinear functional analysis. Several new applications of sensitivity theory are presented for problems in constrained reactor physics calculations, irradiation experiment analysis, reactor burnup calculations, and transient thermal-hydraulic analysis. Future directions of the research are suggested.

  16. Irreversible processes kinetic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brush, Stephen G

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic Theory, Volume 2: Irreversible Processes deals with the kinetic theory of gases and the irreversible processes they undergo. It includes the two papers by James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann in which the basic equations for transport processes in gases are formulated, together with the first derivation of Boltzmann's ""H-theorem"" and a discussion of this theorem, along with the problem of irreversibility.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the fundamental nature of heat and of gases, along with Boltzmann's work on the kinetic theory of gases and s

  17. Anthropology and social theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that anthropology may represent untapped perspectives of relevance to social theory. The article starts by critically reviewing how anthropology has come to serve as the ‘Other’ in various branches of social theory, from Marx and Durkheim to Parsons to Habermas, engaged...... in a hopeless project of positing ‘primitive’ or ‘traditional’ society as the opposite of modernity. In contemporary debates, it is becoming increasingly recognized that social theory needs history, back to the axial age and beyond. The possible role of anthropology in theorizing modernity receives far less...

  18. Theory of simple liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Jean-Pierre

    1986-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of the theory of ""simple"" liquids. The new second edition has been rearranged and considerably expanded to give a balanced account both of basic theory and of the advances of the past decade. It presents the main ideas of modern liquid state theory in a way that is both pedagogical and self-contained. The book should be accessible to graduate students and research workers, both experimentalists and theorists, who have a good background in elementary mechanics.Key Features* Compares theoretical deductions with experimental r

  19. Theory of relations

    CERN Document Server

    Fraïssé, R

    2011-01-01

    The first part of this book concerns the present state of the theory of chains (= total or linear orderings), in connection with some refinements of Ramsey's theorem, due to Galvin and Nash-Williams. This leads to the fundamental Laver's embeddability theorem for scattered chains, using Nash-Williams' better quasi-orderings, barriers and forerunning.The second part (chapters 9 to 12) extends to general relations the main notions and results from order-type theory. An important connection appears with permutation theory (Cameron, Pouzet, Livingstone and Wagner) and with logics (existence criter

  20. Economic Selection Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn

    2003-01-01

    principles of variation, continuity and selection, it is argued that economic selection theory should mimic the causal structure of neo-Darwinian theory. Two of the most influential explanations of economic evolution, Alchian's and Nelson and Winter's, are used to illustrate how this could be achieved.......The present article provides a minimal description of the causal structure of economic selection theory and outlines how the internal selection dynamics of business organisations can be reconciled with selection in competitive markets. In addition to generic similarity in terms of the Darwinian...

  1. Documentary and Cognitive Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the benefits of using cognitive theory in documentary film studies. The article outlines general aspects of cognitive theory in humanities and social science, however the main focus is on the role of narrative, visual style and emotional dimensions of different types...... of documentaries. Dealing with cognitive theories of film and media and with memory studies, the article analyses how a cognitive approach to documentaries can increase our under-standing of how documentaries influence us on a cognitive and emotional level and contribute to the forming of our social and cultural...

  2. Theories of information behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Erdelez, Sandra; McKechnie, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    This unique book presents authoritative overviews of more than 70 conceptual frameworks for understanding how people seek, manage, share, and use information in different contexts. A practical and readable reference to both well-established and newly proposed theories of information behavior, the book includes contributions from 85 scholars from 10 countries. Each theory description covers origins, propositions, methodological implications, usage, links to related conceptual frameworks, and listings of authoritative primary and secondary references. The introductory chapters explain key concepts, theory–method connections, and the process of theory development.

  3. Between Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Dalsgaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We present the notion of ‘bridging concepts’ as a particular form of intermediary knowledge in HCI research, residing between theory and practice. We argue that bridging concepts address the challenge of facilitating exchange between theory and practice in HCI, and we compare it to other....... These constituents specify how bridging concepts, as a form of knowledge, are accountable to both theory and practice. We present an analysis of the concept of ‘peepholes’ as an example of a bridging concept aimed at spurring user curiosity and engagement....

  4. Handbook of knot theory

    CERN Document Server

    Menasco, William

    2005-01-01

    This book is a survey of current topics in the mathematical theory of knots. For a mathematician, a knot is a closed loop in 3-dimensional space: imagine knotting an extension cord and then closing it up by inserting its plug into its outlet. Knot theory is of central importance in pure and applied mathematics, as it stands at a crossroads of topology, combinatorics, algebra, mathematical physics and biochemistry.* Survey of mathematical knot theory* Articles by leading world authorities* Clear exposition, not over-technical* Accessible to readers with undergraduate background in mathematics

  5. Analytic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Iwaniec, Henryk

    2004-01-01

    Analytic Number Theory distinguishes itself by the variety of tools it uses to establish results, many of which belong to the mainstream of arithmetic. One of the main attractions of analytic number theory is the vast diversity of concepts and methods it includes. The main goal of the book is to show the scope of the theory, both in classical and modern directions, and to exhibit its wealth and prospects, its beautiful theorems and powerful techniques. The book is written with graduate students in mind, and the authors tried to balance between clarity, completeness, and generality. The exercis

  6. Elementary matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Eves, Howard

    1980-01-01

    The usefulness of matrix theory as a tool in disciplines ranging from quantum mechanics to psychometrics is widely recognized, and courses in matrix theory are increasingly a standard part of the undergraduate curriculum.This outstanding text offers an unusual introduction to matrix theory at the undergraduate level. Unlike most texts dealing with the topic, which tend to remain on an abstract level, Dr. Eves' book employs a concrete elementary approach, avoiding abstraction until the final chapter. This practical method renders the text especially accessible to students of physics, engineeri

  7. Theory of distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Georgiev, Svetlin G

    2015-01-01

    This book explains many fundamental ideas on the theory of distributions. The theory of partial differential equations is one of the synthetic branches of analysis that combines ideas and methods from different fields of mathematics, ranging from functional analysis and harmonic analysis to differential geometry and topology. This presents specific difficulties to those studying this field. This book, which consists of 10 chapters, is suitable for upper undergraduate/graduate students and mathematicians seeking an accessible introduction to some aspects of the theory of distributions. It can also be used for one-semester course.

  8. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  9. Nonstandard Methods in Lie Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbring, Isaac Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we apply model theory to Lie theory and geometric group theory. These applications of model theory come via nonstandard analysis. In Lie theory, we use nonstandard methods to prove two results. First, we give a positive solution to the local form of Hilbert's Fifth Problem, which asks whether every locally euclidean local…

  10. M-Theory and Maximally Supersymmetric Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Neil

    2012-01-01

    In this informal review for non-specalists we discuss the construction of maximally supersymmetric gauge theories that arise on the worldvolumes branes in String Theory and M-Theory. Particular focus is made on the relatively recent construction of M2-brane worldvolume theories. In a formal sense, the existence of these quantum field theories can be viewed as predictions of M-Theory. Their construction is therefore a reinforcement of the ideas underlying String Theory and M-Theory. We also briefly discuss the six-dimensional conformal field theory that is expected to arise on M5-branes. The construction of this theory is not only an important open problem for M-Theory but also a significant challenge to our current understanding of quantum field theory more generally.

  11. Dynamical Systems Theory: Application to Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jane L.

    Theories of learning affect how cognition is viewed, and this subsequently leads to the style of pedagogical practice that is used in education. Traditionally, educators have relied on a variety of theories on which to base pedagogy. Behavioral learning theories influenced the teaching/learning process for over 50 years. In the 1960s, the information processing approach brought the mind back into the learning process. The current emphasis on constructivism integrates the views of Piaget, Vygotsky, and cognitive psychology. Additionally, recent scientific advances have allowed researchers to shift attention to biological processes in cognition. The problem is that these theories do not provide an integrated approach to understanding principles responsible for differences among students in cognitive development and learning ability. Dynamical systems theory offers a unifying theoretical framework to explain the wider context in which learning takes place and the processes involved in individual learning. This paper describes how principles of Dynamic Systems Theory can be applied to cognitive processes of students, the classroom community, motivation to learn, and the teaching/learning dynamic giving educational psychologists a framework for research and pedagogy.

  12. Toward a general evolutionary theory of oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Paul W; Swain Ewald, Holly A

    2013-01-01

    We propose an evolutionary framework, the barrier theory of cancer, which is based on the distinction between barriers to oncogenesis and restraints. Barriers are defined as mechanisms that prevent oncogenesis. Restraints, which are more numerous, inhibit but do not prevent oncogenesis. Processes that compromise barriers are essential causes of cancer; those that interfere with restraints are exacerbating causes. The barrier theory is built upon the three evolutionary processes involved in oncogenesis: natural selection acting on multicellular organisms to mold barriers and restraints, natural selection acting on infectious organisms to abrogate these protective mechanisms, and oncogenic selection which is responsible for the evolution of normal cells into cancerous cells. The barrier theory is presented as a first step toward the development of a general evolutionary theory of cancer. Its attributes and implications for intervention are compared with those of other major conceptual frameworks for understanding cancer: the clonal diversification model, the stem cell theory and the hallmarks of cancer. The barrier theory emphasizes the practical value of distinguishing between essential and exacerbating causes. It also stresses the importance of determining the scope of infectious causation of cancer, because individual pathogens can be responsible for multiple essential causes in infected cells.

  13. Theory of mind in early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Robyn; Still, Megan; Connors, Michael H; Ward, Philip B; Catts, Stanley V

    2014-08-01

    A deficit in theory of mind--the ability to infer and reason about the mental states of others - might underpin the poor social functioning of patients with psychosis. Unfortunately, however, there is considerable variation in how such a deficit is assessed. The current study compared three classic tests of theory of mind in terms of their ability to detect impairment in patients in the early stages of psychosis. Twenty-three patients within 2 years of their first psychotic episode and 19 healthy controls received picture-sequencing, joke-appreciation and story-comprehension tests of theory of mind. Whereas the picture-sequencing and joke-appreciation tests successfully detected a selective theory-of-mind deficit in patients, the story-comprehension test did not. The findings suggest that tests that place minimal demands on language processing and involve indirect, rather than explicit, instructions to assess theory of mind might be best suited to detecting theory-of-mind impairment in early stages of psychosis. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Development of affective theory of mind across adolescence: disentangling the role of executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Nora C; Altgassen, Mareike; Phillips, Louise; Mahy, Caitlin E V; Kliegel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Theory of mind, the ability to understand mental states, involves inferences about others' cognitive (cognitive theory of mind) and emotional (affective theory of mind) mental states. The current study explored the role of executive functions in developing affective theory of mind across adolescence. Affective theory of mind and three subcomponents of executive functions (inhibition, updating, and shifting) were measured. Affective theory of mind was positively related to age, and all three executive functions. Specifically, inhibition explained the largest amount of variance in age-related differences in affective theory of mind.

  15. Anomalies involving the space of couplings and the Zamolodchikov metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Yuji

    2017-12-01

    The anomaly polynomial of a theory can involve not only curvature two-forms of the flavor symmetry background but also two-forms on the space of coupling constants. As an example, we point out that there is a mixed anomaly between the R-symmetry and the topology of the space of exactly marginal couplings of class S theories. Using supersymmetry, we translate this anomaly to the Kähler class of the Zamolodchikov metric. We compare the result against a holographic computation in the large N limit.

  16. Theories of everything

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Physicist Frank Close takes the reader to the frontiers of science in a vividly told investigation of revolutionary science and enterprise from the seventeenth century to the present. He looks at what has been meant by theories of everything, explores the scientific breakthroughs they have allowed, and shows the far-reaching effects they have had on crucial aspects of life and belief. Theories of everything, he argues, can be described as those which draw on all relevant branches of knowledge to explain everything known about the universe. Such accounts may reign supreme for centuries. Then, often as a result of the advances they themselves have enabled, a new discovery is made which the current theory cannot explain. A new theory is needed which inspiration, sometimes, supplies. Moving from Isaac Newton's work on gravity and motion in the seventeenth century to thermodynamics and James Clerk Maxwell's laws of electromagnetism in the nineteenth to Max Planck's and Paul Dirac's quantum physics in the twentiet...

  17. Algebraic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvis, Frazer

    2014-01-01

    The technical difficulties of algebraic number theory often make this subject appear difficult to beginners. This undergraduate textbook provides a welcome solution to these problems as it provides an approachable and thorough introduction to the topic. Algebraic Number Theory takes the reader from unique factorisation in the integers through to the modern-day number field sieve. The first few chapters consider the importance of arithmetic in fields larger than the rational numbers. Whilst some results generalise well, the unique factorisation of the integers in these more general number fields often fail. Algebraic number theory aims to overcome this problem. Most examples are taken from quadratic fields, for which calculations are easy to perform. The middle section considers more general theory and results for number fields, and the book concludes with some topics which are more likely to be suitable for advanced students, namely, the analytic class number formula and the number field sieve. This is the fi...

  18. Theory of electroelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Kuang, Zhen-Bang

    2014-01-01

    Theory of Electroelasticity analyzes the stress, strain, electric field and electric displacement in electroelastic structures such as sensors, actuators and other smart materials and structures. This book also describes new theories such as the physical variational principle and the inertial entropy theory. It differs from the traditional method by using the physical variational principle to derive the governing equations of the piezoelectric material, whereas the Maxwell stress is obtained automatically. By using the inertial entropy theory, the temperature wave equation is obtained very easily. The book is intended for scientists, researchers and engineers in the areas of mechanics, physics, smart material and control engineering as well as mechanical, aeronautical and civil engineering, etc. Zhen-Bang Kuang is a professor at Shanghai Jiao Tong University.

  19. Electromagnetic scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, J. F.; Farrell, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Electromagnetic scattering theory is discussed with emphasis on the general stochastic variational principle (SVP) and its applications. The stochastic version of the Schwinger-type variational principle is presented, and explicit expressions for its integrals are considered. Results are summarized for scalar wave scattering from a classic rough-surface model and for vector wave scattering from a random dielectric-body model. Also considered are the selection of trial functions and the variational improvement of the Kirchhoff short-wave approximation appropriate to large size-parameters. Other applications of vector field theory discussed include a general vision theory and the analysis of hydromagnetism induced by ocean motion across the geomagnetic field. Levitational force-torque in the magnetic suspension of the disturbance compensation system (DISCOS), now deployed in NOVA satellites, is also analyzed using the developed theory.

  20. Contribution to contract theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oliver Hart and Bengt Holmstrom share the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for 2016, awarded to them by Sveriges Riksbank. They have been rewarded for their work in enhancing the design of contracts, i.e. arrangements connecting employers with employees or companies with clients, in other words, for their contribution to contract theory in the 1970s and 1980s. Their analysis of optimal contractual arrangements lays an intellectual foundation for designing policies and institutions in many areas, from bankruptcy legislation to political constitutions. Hart is an expert in contract theory, theory of the firm, corporate finance, and law and economics. His contribution to contract theory is exquisite when it comes to designing contracts which cover eventualities that cannot be precisely specified in advance.

  1. String Theory Rocks!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    String Theory supporters argue that the universe we live in has eleven dimensions, out of which three spacial dimensions and a temporal one, which define the void and the space-time environment we experience daily.

  2. Algorithms in invariant theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sturmfels, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    J. Kung and G.-C. Rota, in their 1984 paper, write: "Like the Arabian phoenix rising out of its ashes, the theory of invariants, pronounced dead at the turn of the century, is once again at the forefront of mathematics". The book of Sturmfels is both an easy-to-read textbook for invariant theory and a challenging research monograph that introduces a new approach to the algorithmic side of invariant theory. The Groebner bases method is the main tool by which the central problems in invariant theory become amenable to algorithmic solutions. Students will find the book an easy introduction to this "classical and new" area of mathematics. Researchers in mathematics, symbolic computation, and computer science will get access to a wealth of research ideas, hints for applications, outlines and details of algorithms, worked out examples, and research problems.

  3. Theory of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Landau, Lev Davidovich; Kosevich, A M; Pitaevskii, Lev Petrovich

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive textbook covering not only the ordinary theory of the deformation of solids, but also some topics not usually found in textbooks on the subject, such as thermal conduction and viscosity in solids.

  4. New urban theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Bo

    2002-01-01

    Concept of urbanity, urban theory a short overview, Johan Asplund, William Whyte, Henri Lefebvre, Richard Serenelt, Bill Hillrer and Spree Syntax Analyses. Forelæsningsnoter til kursus 3.314 i 2001 og 3.308 i 2002....

  5. DARWINIAN THEORY OF BEAUTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasim Basak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available “What is beauty?” has been a difficult question for philosophers for thousands of years. Since Plato, beauty has been theorized sometimes as being a subjective judgment or sometimes defined as being “in culturally condioned eye of the beholder”. None of these theories had been grounded upon scientific, objective support until Denis Dutton’s theory (2003. Denis Dutton structured his theory based on Darwinian evolution and defined beauty as another Darwinian adaptation built over millions of years since Pleistocene. Is beauty another Darwinian adaptation and is hardwired in our brain and genes? Is there a human instinct responding to art and beauty? Dutton answers these questions based on surprise archeological findings of Acheulian hand axes and other scientific research. If so, this new theory will change all paradigms about beauty in not only aesthetics, but in art and education.

  6. Relativistic theories of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bressan, Aldo

    1978-01-01

    The theory of relativity was created in 1905 to solve a problem concerning electromagnetic fields. That solution was reached by means of profound changes in fundamental concepts and ideas that considerably affected the whole of physics. Moreover, when Einstein took gravitation into account, he was forced to develop radical changes also in our space-time concepts (1916). Relativistic works on heat, thermodynamics, and elasticity appeared as early as 1911. However, general theories having a thermodynamic basis, including heat conduction and constitutive equations, did not appear in general relativity until about 1955 for fluids and appeared only after 1960 for elastic or more general finitely deformed materials. These theories dealt with materials with memory, and in this connection some relativistic versions of the principle of material indifference were considered. Even more recently, relativistic theories incorporating finite deformations for polarizable and magnetizable materials and those in which couple s...

  7. Design Theory Projectability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Technological knowledge has been characterized as having a scope that is specific to a particular problem. However, the information systems community is exploring forms of design science research that provide a promising avenue to technological knowledge with broader scope: design theories. Because...... design science research is materially prescriptive, it requires a different perspective in developing the breadth of applications of design theories. In this paper we propose different concepts that embody forms of general technological knowledge The concept of projectability, developed originally...... as a means of distinguishing realized generalizations from unrealized generalizations, helps explain how design theories, being prescriptive, possess a different form of applicability. The concept of entrenchment describes the use of a theory in many projections. Together these concepts provide a means...

  8. Elementary decision theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chernoff, Herman

    1988-01-01

    This well-respected introduction to statistics and statistical theory covers data processing, probability and random variables, utility and descriptive statistics, computation of Bayes strategies, models, testing hypotheses, and much more. 1959 edition.

  9. Whither social theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola

    2014-01-01

    What is the place of social theory in mathematics education research, and what is it for? This special issue of Educational Studies in Mathematics offers insights on what could be the role of some sociological theories in a field that has historically privileged learning theories coming from...... psychology and mathematics as the main theoretical frames informing research. Although during the last 10 years the term “socio-cultural” has become part of the accepted and widespread trends of mathematics education research when addressing learning, this issue gathers a collection of papers that depart...... the six papers. We will try to synthetize what we think are the benchmarks of the social approach to mathematics education that they propose. We will also take a critical stance and indicate some possible extensions of the use of social theory that are not addressed in this special issue but nonetheless...

  10. Lectures on Dispersion Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, A.

    1956-04-01

    Lectures with mathematical analysis are given on Dispersion Theory and Causality and Dispersion Relations for Pion-nucleon Scattering. The appendix includes the S-matrix in terms of Heisenberg Operators. (F. S.)

  11. Why We "Knead" Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a seminar by the Critical Educational Policy and Leadership Research Interest Group in June 2012. The article reports on the papers and our engagement with the need to use theory to develop descriptions and understandings.

  12. Theory of gravitational interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Gasperini, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    This is the second edition of a well-received book that is a modern, self-contained introduction to the theory of gravitational interactions. The new edition includes more details on gravitational waves of cosmological origin, the so-called brane world scenario, and gravitational time-delay effects. The first part of the book follows the traditional presentation of general relativity as a geometric theory of the macroscopic gravitational field, while the second, more advanced part discusses the deep analogies (and differences) between a geometric theory of gravity and the “gauge” theories of the other fundamental interactions. This fills a gap within the traditional approach to general relativity which usually leaves students puzzled about the role of gravity. The required notions of differential geometry are reduced to the minimum, allowing room for aspects of gravitational physics of current phenomenological and theoretical interest, such as the properties of gravitational waves, the gravitational inter...

  13. Dalton's Atomic Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DOBBIN, LEONARD

    1896-01-01

    WITH reference to the communications from the authors and from the reviewer of the "New View of the Origin of Dalton's Atomic Theory," published in NATURE for May 14, I beg leave to offer the following remarks...

  14. Introduction to graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Robin J

    1985-01-01

    Graph Theory has recently emerged as a subject in its own right, as well as being an important mathematical tool in such diverse subjects as operational research, chemistry, sociology and genetics. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject.

  15. Basic ergodic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nadkarni, M G

    2013-01-01

    This is an introductory book on Ergodic Theory. The presentation has a slow pace and the book can be read by any person with a background in basic measure theory and metric topology. A new feature of the book is that the basic topics of Ergodic Theory such as the Poincare recurrence lemma, induced automorphisms and Kakutani towers, compressibility and E. Hopf's theorem, the theorem of Ambrose on representation of flows are treated at the descriptive set-theoretic level before their measure-theoretic or topological versions are presented. In addition, topics around the Glimm-Effros theorem are discussed. In the third edition a chapter entitled 'Additional Topics' has been added. It gives Liouville's Theorem on the existence of invariant measure, entropy theory leading up to Kolmogorov-Sinai Theorem, and the topological dynamics proof of van der Waerden's theorem on arithmetical progressions.

  16. Theory of random sets

    CERN Document Server

    Molchanov, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    This monograph, now in a thoroughly revised second edition, offers the latest research on random sets. It has been extended to include substantial developments achieved since 2005, some of them motivated by applications of random sets to econometrics and finance. The present volume builds on the foundations laid by Matheron and others, including the vast advances in stochastic geometry, probability theory, set-valued analysis, and statistical inference. It shows the various interdisciplinary relationships of random set theory within other parts of mathematics, and at the same time fixes terminology and notation that often vary in the literature, establishing it as a natural part of modern probability theory and providing a platform for future development. It is completely self-contained, systematic and exhaustive, with the full proofs that are necessary to gain insight. Aimed at research level, Theory of Random Sets will be an invaluable reference for probabilists; mathematicians working in convex and integ...

  17. Road rage and collision involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Robert E; Zhao, Jinhui; Stoduto, Gina; Adlaf, Edward M; Smart, Reginald G; Donovan, John E

    2007-01-01

    To assess the contribution of road rage victimization and perpetration to collision involvement. The relationship between self-reported collision involvement and road rage victimization and perpetration was examined, based on telephone interviews with a representative sample of 4897 Ontario adult drivers interviewed between 2002 and 2004. Perpetrators and victims of both any road rage and serious road rage had a significantly higher risk of collision involvement than did those without road rage experience. This study provides epidemiological evidence that both victims and perpetrators of road rage experience increased collision risk. More detailed studies of the contribution of road rage to traffic crashes are needed.

  18. Chaos theory in politics

    CERN Document Server

    Erçetin, Şefika; Tekin, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigates global politics and political implications of social science and management with the aid of the latest complexity and chaos theories. Until now, deterministic chaos and nonlinear analysis have not been a focal point in this area of research. This book remedies this deficiency by utilizing these methods in the analysis of the subject matter. The authors provide the reader a detailed analysis on politics and its associated applications with the help of chaos theory, in a single edited volume.

  19. Theories of Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Physics I: Ontology for Liquids. In Formal Theories of the Commonsense World, Ablex, 1985. [21] P. Hayes. The Second Naive Physics Manifesto. In...those used by a trained engineer. de Kleer’s succes- sor programs, QUAL [6] and EQUAL [7], improved on SYN by exploiting the qualitative knowledge and...humans reason effectively about complex phys- ical systems would have many uses. A theory of the knowledge used in qualitative physics would make it much

  20. Leadership theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Northouse, Peter G

    1997-01-01

    Leadership: Theory and Practice provides a description and analysis of a wide variety of different theoretical approaches to leadership, giving special attention to how each theory can be employed to improve leadership in real-world organizations. Written in a clear, concise manner, the first edition has been widely used in undergraduate and graduate courses in business, organizational communication, political science, public administration, training and development, and health services.

  1. Perspectives in Lie theory

    CERN Document Server

    Carnovale, Giovanna; Caselli, Fabrizio; Concini, Corrado; Sole, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Lie theory is a mathematical framework for encoding the concept of symmetries of a problem, and was the central theme of an INdAM intensive research period at the Centro de Giorgi in Pisa, Italy, in the academic year 2014-2015. This book gathers the key outcomes of this period, addressing topics such as: structure and representation theory of vertex algebras, Lie algebras and superalgebras, as well as hyperplane arrangements with different approaches, ranging from geometry and topology to combinatorics.

  2. Universal homotopy theories

    OpenAIRE

    Dugger, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Given a small category C, we show that there is a universal way of expanding C into a model category, essentially by formally adjoining homotopy colimits. The technique of localization becomes a method for imposing `relations' into these universal gadgets. The paper develops this formalism and discusses various applications, for instance to the study of homotopy colimits, the Dwyer-Kan theory of framings, and to the homotopy theory of schemes.

  3. Recursion theory for metamathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Smullyan, Raymond M

    1993-01-01

    This work is a sequel to the author''s Godel''s Incompleteness Theorems, though it can be read independently by anyone familiar with Godel''s incompleteness theorem for Peano arithmetic. The book deals mainly with those aspects of recursion theory that have applications to the metamathematics of incompleteness, undecidability, and related topics. It is both an introduction to the theory and a presentation of new results in the field.

  4. Leadership styles and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltinane, Charlotte Louise

    It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice.

  5. Leadership and attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnahan, Christopher G; Mitroff, Ian I

    2007-09-01

    Comments on the six articles contained in the special issue of the American Psychologist (January 2007) devoted to leadership, written by W. Bennis; S. J. Zaccaro; V. H. Vroom and A. G. Yago; B. J. Avolio; R. J. Sternberg; and R. J. Hackman and R. Wageman. The current authors opine that the inclusion of attachment theory in the study of leadership could strengthen leadership theories as a whole.

  6. The Bering Strait Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ewen, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Much has been written, literally for centuries, on the origins of Natives in the Americas and still there is no consensus on the date or even the embarkation point of the people who first populated this continent. In this collection of essays from Indian Country Today Media, Historian Alexander Ewen (Purepecha) explores not only the ever-controversial Bering Strait Theory, but more importantly, the other theories, research, evidence and science that have evolved along with it, allowing the re...

  7. Extended Theories of Gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatibene Lorenzo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of extended theories of gravitation we shall discuss physical equivalences among different formalisms and classical tests. As suggested by the Ehlers-Pirani-Schild framework, the conformal invariance will be preserved and its effect on observational protocols discussed. Accordingly, we shall review standard tests showing how Palatini f(R-theories naturally passes solar system tests. Observation protocols will be discussed in this wider framework.

  8. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2018-01-01

    of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...

  9. Geometric measure theory

    CERN Document Server

    Waerden, B

    1996-01-01

    From the reviews: "... Federer's timely and beautiful book indeed fills the need for a comprehensive treatise on geometric measure theory, and his detailed exposition leads from the foundations of the theory to the most recent discoveries. ... The author writes with a distinctive style which is both natural and powerfully economical in treating a complicated subject. This book is a major treatise in mathematics and is essential in the working library of the modern analyst." Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society.

  10. Viscous conformal gauge theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toniato, Arianna; Sannino, Francesco; Rischke, Dirk H.

    2017-01-01

    We present the conformal behavior of the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio and the fermion-number diffusion coefficient within the perturbative regime of the conformal window for gauge-fermion theories.......We present the conformal behavior of the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio and the fermion-number diffusion coefficient within the perturbative regime of the conformal window for gauge-fermion theories....

  11. Representation of analysis results involving aleatory and epistemic uncertainty.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jay Dean (ProStat, Mesa, AZ); Helton, Jon Craig (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Oberkampf, William Louis; Sallaberry, Cedric J.

    2008-08-01

    Procedures are described for the representation of results in analyses that involve both aleatory uncertainty and epistemic uncertainty, with aleatory uncertainty deriving from an inherent randomness in the behavior of the system under study and epistemic uncertainty deriving from a lack of knowledge about the appropriate values to use for quantities that are assumed to have fixed but poorly known values in the context of a specific study. Aleatory uncertainty is usually represented with probability and leads to cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) or complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for analysis results of interest. Several mathematical structures are available for the representation of epistemic uncertainty, including interval analysis, possibility theory, evidence theory and probability theory. In the presence of epistemic uncertainty, there is not a single CDF or CCDF for a given analysis result. Rather, there is a family of CDFs and a corresponding family of CCDFs that derive from epistemic uncertainty and have an uncertainty structure that derives from the particular uncertainty structure (i.e., interval analysis, possibility theory, evidence theory, probability theory) used to represent epistemic uncertainty. Graphical formats for the representation of epistemic uncertainty in families of CDFs and CCDFs are investigated and presented for the indicated characterizations of epistemic uncertainty.

  12. Adventures in graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Joyner, W David

    2017-01-01

    This textbook acts as a pathway to higher mathematics by seeking and illuminating the connections between graph theory and diverse fields of mathematics, such as calculus on manifolds, group theory, algebraic curves, Fourier analysis, cryptography and other areas of combinatorics. An overview of graph theory definitions and polynomial invariants for graphs prepares the reader for the subsequent dive into the applications of graph theory. To pique the reader’s interest in areas of possible exploration, recent results in mathematics appear throughout the book, accompanied with examples of related graphs, how they arise, and what their valuable uses are. The consequences of graph theory covered by the authors are complicated and far-reaching, so topics are always exhibited in a user-friendly manner with copious graphs, exercises, and Sage code for the computation of equations. Samples of the book’s source code can be found at github.com/springer-math/adventures-in-graph-theory. The text is geared towards ad...

  13. Theory of heterogeneous viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmacher, Walter; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Mazzone, Valerio

    2016-03-01

    We review a new theory of viscoelasticity of a glass-forming viscous liquid near and below the glass transition. In our model, we assume that each point in the material has a specific viscosity, which varies randomly in space according to a fluctuating activation free energy. We include a Maxwellian elastic term, and assume that the corresponding shear modulus fluctuates as well with the same distribution as that of the activation barriers. The model is solved in coherent potential approximation, for which a derivation is given. The theory predicts an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence of the viscosity in the vanishing frequency limit, independent of the distribution of the activation barriers. The theory implies that this activation energy is generally different from that of a diffusing particle with the same barrier height distribution. If the distribution of activation barriers is assumed to have the Gaussian form, the finite-frequency version of the theory describes well the typical low-temperature alpha relaxation peak of glasses. Beta relaxation can be included by adding another Gaussian with centre at much lower energies than that is responsible for the alpha relaxation. At high frequencies, our theory reduces to the description of an elastic medium with spatially fluctuating elastic moduli (heterogeneous elasticity theory), which explains the occurrence of the boson peak-related vibrational anomalies of glasses.

  14. On complicity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, A David

    2006-04-01

    The received account of whistleblowing, developed over the last quarter century, is identified with the work of Norman Bowie and Richard DeGeorge. Michael Davis has detailed three anomalies for the received view: the paradoxes of burden, missing harm and failure. In addition, he has proposed an alternative account of whistleblowing, viz., the Complicity Theory. This paper examines the Complicity Theory. The supposed anomalies rest on misunderstandings of the received view or misreadings of model cases of whistleblowing, for example, the Challenger disaster and the Ford Pinto. Nevertheless, the Complicity Theory is important for as in science the contrast with alternative competing accounts often helps us better understand the received view. Several aspects of the received view are reviewed and strengthened through comparison with Complicity Theory, including why whistleblowing needs moral justification. Complicity Theory is also critiqued. The fundamental failure of Complicity Theory is its failure to explain why government and the public encourage and protect whistleblowers despite the possibility of considerable harm to the relevant company in reputation, lost jobs, and lost shareholder value.

  15. An introduction to information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Reza, Fazlollah M

    1994-01-01

    Graduate-level study for engineering students presents elements of modern probability theory, information theory, coding theory, more. Emphasis on sample space, random variables, capacity, etc. Many reference tables and extensive bibliography. 1961 edition.

  16. Performance Assessment, Psychometric Theory and Cognitive Learning Theory: Ships Crossing in the Night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Victor L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses educational performance assessment and alternative assessment practices. Currently, achievement assessment involves classical psychometrics, performance-based evaluation, and cognitive theory, which must all be invoked to improve understanding of student achievement. This article suggests developing performance tests from a coherent…

  17. Abdominal Actinomycetoma With Lymphnode Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damisetty Rajetha

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycotic mycetoma of the anterior abdominal wall with inguinal lymphnode involvement, an exceedingly rare entity is described here with mycological histological features. Remarkable therapeutic response was noted with Welsh regimen.

  18. Work Experience and Work Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorence, Jon; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the interrelations of work experience and psychological involvement in work among male college graduates over a 10-year period. Both the occupational socialization and the occupational selection hypotheses are supported by the data analysis. (Author/JOW)

  19. User Involvement And Entrepreneurial Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Heiskanen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Involving users in the innovation process is a subject of much research, experimentation, and debate. Less attention has been given to the limits to user involvement that ensue from specific organizational characteristics. This article explores barriers to the utilization of users’ input in two small companies developing interactive digital applications. We contrast our findings to earlier research involving large companies to identify features of entrepreneurial sensemaking and action that influence the utilization of users’ input. We find that the small companies follow a distinct action rationality, leading to rapid implementation of some user inputs, and defensiveness toward others. Both sets of data also reveal common features that are often overlooked in the literature. We reconceptualize user involvement as a form of interaction between users and innovating companies that is facilitated and constrained by micro-sociological processes, on the one hand, and the nature of the competitive environment, on the other.

  20. A Critique of Feminist Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Lay

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Feminism has grown rapidly in the last 40 years as both a multidisciplinary voice advocating for change and an area of scholarship and theory building. A review of empirical articles describes 17 studies that indicate a wide range of applications of feminist theory, but theory is applied primarily as a lens for other issues, rather than to expand theory development. Advocacy and philosophical views seem to overshadow theory development. Suggestions for improving feminist theory are offered.