WorldWideScience

Sample records for theory high-energy behavior

  1. High-energy behavior of non-Abelian gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieh, H.T.; Yao, Y.

    1976-01-01

    This paper is a detailed account of a study in perturbation theory of the high-energy behavior of non-Abelian gauge theories. The fermion-fermion scattering amplitude is calculated up to sixth order in the coupling constant in the high-energy limit s → infinity with fixed t, in the approximation of keeping only the leading logarithmic terms. Results indicate that the high-energy behavior of non-Abelian gauge theories are complicated, and quite different from the known behaviors of other field theories studied so far

  2. On the consistency and high-energy behavior of string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mende, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    In Part I, it is shown that the heterotic string is free of gauge and gravitational anomalies by showing that (a) unless the gauge group is E S x E S or Spin(32)/Z 2 or a subgroup, the internal sector partition function vanishes so there is no consistent theory; and (b) for E 8 x E 8 and Spin(32)/Z 2 compactifications, the longitudinal modes of the massless gauge particles decouple, as required by gauge invariance. We discuss the geometric interpretation for string theory when the action is invariant under a modular subgroup. In Part II, the high-energy behavior of string scattering amplitudes is studied to all orders in perturbation theory, with the aim of exploring the short-distance structure of string theory. It is shown that the sum over all Riemann surfaces is dominated by a saddle point. Consequently, the high-energy limit is universal and simple to calculate. In this limit the amplitudes fall off much faster than allowed by field theory. The dominant saddle points are identified as coming from world sheets which are Z G+1 symmetric algebraic curves, and their contribution to the scattering amplitude is evaluated for the bosonic to all orders and for the heterotic string to two-loop order. An interesting spacetime picture of the high-energy limit emerges. The issue of summing the perturbation expansion is addressed

  3. Developments in high energy theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. July 2009 physics pp. 3–60. Developments in high energy theory .... and operated by CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), this ma- ...... [2] S Dodelson, Modern cosmology (Academic Press, Amsterdam, 2003).

  4. High-energy behavior of fermion-meson and meson-meson scattering in a supersymmetric field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opoien, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The high-energy behavior of fermion-boson and boson-boson scattering amplitudes of a supersymmetric field theory containing a spin-1/2 fermion field, a scalar field, and a pseudoscalar field is investigated. The results can be easily modified to apply to the Yukawa model and the neutral version of the linear sigma model. The results are also compared to those of fermion-fermion scattering in the same model. In the leading-logarithm approximation, ladders with fermions running along the sides in the t channel and mesons as rungs dominate in each order of two classes of diagrams. The sum of the dominant series give rise to fixed Regge cuts for all amplitudes in each of the three theories. All amplitudes in the supersymmetric theory possess a definite signature factor, while the amplitudes for fermion-fermion and fermion-antifermion scattering in the Y model and the sigma model lack it. The results of the supersymmetric theory are also compared to the results of the spontaneously broken non-Abelian gauge theory

  5. High energy behaviour of nonabelian gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.

    1979-10-01

    The high energy behavior (in the Regge limit) of nonabelian gauge theories is reviewed. After a general remark concerning the question to what extent the Regge limit can be approached within perturbation theory, we first review the reggeization of elementary particles within nonabelian gauge theories. Then the derivation of a unitary high energy description of a massive (= spontaneously broken) nonabelian gauge model is described, which results in a complete reggeon calculus. There is strong evidence that the zero mass limit of this reggeon calculus exists, thus giving rise to the hope that the Regge behavior in pure Yang-Mills theories (QCD) can be reached in this way. In the final part of these lectures two possible strategies for solving this reggeon calculus (both for the massive and the massless case) are outlined. One of them leads to a geometrical picture in which the distribution of the wee partons obeys a diffusion law. The other one makes contact with reggeon field theory and predicts that QCD in the high energy limit is described by critical reggeon field theory. (orig.)

  6. Gauge theory high-energy behavior from j-plane unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coriano, C.; Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL; White, A.R.

    1996-01-01

    In a non-abelian gauge theory the t-channel multiparticle unitarity equations continued in the complex j-plane can be systematically expanded around j=1 and t=0. The combination of Ward identity constraints with unitarity is sufficient to produce directly many of the results obtained by Regge limit leading-log and next-to-leading log momentum-space calculations. The O(g 2 ) BFKL kernel is completely determined. O(g 4 ) infrared contributions to this kernel are also obtained, including the leading contribution of a new partial-wave amplitude - previously identified as a separate forward component with a holomorphically factorizable spectrum. For this amplitude the only scale ambiguity is the overall normalization and it is anticipated to be a new conformally invariant kernel. While scale-dependent non-leading reggeon interactions can not be derived by the techniques developed, it is conjectured that all conformally invariant interactions may be determined by t-channel unitarity. (orig.)

  7. High energy behavior of a six-point R-current correlator in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, Jochen; Hentschinski, Martin; Mischler, Anna-Maria

    2009-12-01

    We study the high energy limit of a six-point R-current correlator in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory for finite N c . We make use of the framework of perturbative resummation of large logarithms of the energy. More specifically, we apply the (extended) generalized leading logarithmic approximation. We find that the same conformally invariant two-to-four gluon vertex occurs as in non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. As a new feature we find a direct coupling of the four-gluon t-channel state to the R-current impact factor. (orig.)

  8. High energy approximations in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzalesi, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    New theoretical methods in hadron physics based on a high-energy perturbation theory are discussed. The approximated solutions to quantum field theory obtained by this method appear to be sufficiently simple and rich in structure to encourage hadron dynamics studies. Operator eikonal form for field - theoretic Green's functions is derived and discussion is held on how the eikonal perturbation theory is to be renormalized. This method is extended to massive quantum electrodynamics of scalar charged bosons. Possible developments and applications of this theory are given [pt

  9. High-energy behavior of field-strength interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, D.N.

    1976-01-01

    It is known that spontaneously broken gauge theories are the only renormalizable theories of massive spin-one particles with mass dimension less than or equal to 4. This paper describes a search for renormalizable interactions with higher mass dimension. Specifically, we examine the high-energy behavior of a class of models which involve field-strength interactions. Power counting shows that the high-energy behavior of these models is no worse than the naively estimated high-energy behavior of a gauge theory in the U gauge. Therefore, there may be a ''soft'' symmetry-breaking mechanism (for instance, a soft divergence of an antisymmetric tensor current) which enforces renormalizable high-energy behavior in the same way that spontaneously broken gauge invariance guarantees the renormalizability of gauge theories. This hope is supported by the existence of ''gauge theories'' of strings, which describe analogous interactions of strings and field strengths. Unfortunately, this idea is tarnished by explicit calculations in which renormalizability is imposed in the form of unitarity bounds. These unitarity bounds imply that all possible field-strength couplings must be zero and that the remaining interactions describe a spontaneously broken gauge theory. Thus this result supports an earlier conjecture that gauge theories are the only renormalizable theories of massive vector bosons

  10. High-energy symmetries of string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Jenchi.

    1990-01-01

    The author studies the high-energy symmetry structure of string theory corresponding to the massive excitations of the string. These enlarged gauge symmetries are closely related to the existence of zero-norm states in the string spectrum. He has derived these symmetries in the framework of the Hamiltonian version of the first-quantized generalized σ-model formalism. It is conjectured that these infinite space-time symmetry structures could shed light on the finiteness of string perturbation theory. Two interesting phenomena were discovered for these massive states symmetries. One is the inter-'spin' symmetry for the different 'spin' states at each fixed mass level. Specifically, the four physical propagating states with 'spins' up to six of the second massive level of the closed bosonic string are found to form a large gauge multiplet. This is demonstrated by the existence of gauge transformations induced by the type II zero-norm states at this mass level. It is argued that this is a σ-model three loop result for the second massive level and is a general feature for higher massive levels at each fixed mass. The other one is the decoupling of some degenerate positive-norm states. As an example, he explicitly demonstrates that the 'spin' two and scalar physical propagating fields of the third massive level of the open bosonic string are mere gauge artifacts of the higher 'spin' fields at the same mass level. It is conjectured that this phenomenon comes from the well-known ambiguity in defining the positive-norm states due to the existence of zero-norm states in the same Young representation

  11. Unifying logarithmic and factorial behavior in high-energy scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornwall, J.M.; Morris, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The elegant instanton calculus of Lipatov and others used to find factorially divergent behavior (g N N exclamation point) for N g much-gt 1 in gφ 4 perturbation theory is strictly only applicable when all external momenta vanish; a description of high-energy 2→N scattering with N massive particles is beyond the scope of such techniques. On the other hand, a standard multiperipheral treatment of scattering with its emphasis on leading logarithms gives a reasonable picture of high-energy behavior but does not result in factorial divergences. Using a straightforward graphical analysis we present a unified picture of both these phenomena as they occur in the two-particle total cross section of gφ 4 theory. We do not attempt to tame the unitarity violations associated with either multiperipheralism or the Lipatov technique at strong coupling

  12. Theory Summary: Very High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Subir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a summary of ISVHECRI 2012 from a theorist’s perspective. A hundred years after their discovery, there is renewed interest in very high energy cosmic raysand their interactions which can provide unique information on new physics well beyond the Standard Model if only we knew how to unambiguously decipher the experimental data. While the observational situation has improved dramatically on the past decade with regard to both improved statistics and better understood systematics, the long standing questions regarding the origin of cosmic rays remain only partially answered, while further questions have been raised by new data. A recent development discussed at this Symposium is the advent of forward physics data from several experiments at the LHC, which have broadly vindicated the air shower simulation Monte Carlos currently in use and reduced their uncertainties further. Nevertheless there is still a major extrapolation required to interpret the highest energy air showers observed which appear to be undergoing a puzzling change in their elemental composition, even casting doubt on whether the much vaunted GZK cutoff has indeedbeen observed. The situation is further compounded by the apparent disagreement between Auger and Telescope Array data. A crucial diagnostic will be provided by the detection of the accompanying ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos — two intriguing events have recently been recorded by IceCube.

  13. High energy nuclear collisions: theory review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, Rainer J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: High Energy Nuclear Collisions are studied at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and, starting next year, also at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to study the formation and properties of quark gluon plasma (QGP). This effort is driven by the prediction that above a certain critical temperature quarks and gluons are deconfined. For the past ten years of running RHIC has performed marvelously. Data from RHIC has answered many initial questions, but it has also provided new, more challenging problems to understand the nature of quark gluon plasma and the dynamics of heavy ion collisions. In this talk I review some of the basic concepts of high energy nuclear collisions and quark gluon plasma formation. We also discuss some of the novel and open questions that we are faced with. We discuss recent predictions on properties of hot quantum chromodynamics, emerging signatures for the color glass condensate, the fascinating idea of local P and CP violation in QCD, as well as ongoing research on hard probes and electromagnetic signatures

  14. Remarks on high energy stability and renormalizability of gravity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1978-02-01

    Arguing that high-energy (Froissart) boundedness of gravitational cross-sections may make it necessary to supplement Einstein's Lagrangian with terms containing R 2 and Rsup(μν)Rsub(μν), criteria are suggested which, if satisfied, could make the tensor ghost in such a theory innocuous

  15. Task A, High energy physics program experiment and theory: Task B, High energy physics program numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses progress in experimental and theoretical High Energy Physics at Florida State University. Fixed target experiments, collider experiments, computing, networking, VAX upgrade, SSC preparation, detector development, and particle theory are some of the areas covered

  16. The accuracy of QCD perturbation theory at high energies

    CERN Document Server

    Dalla Brida, Mattia; Korzec, Tomasz; Ramos, Alberto; Sint, Stefan; Sommer, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the determination of the strong coupling $\\alpha_\\mathrm{\\overline{MS}}^{}(m_\\mathrm{Z})$ or equivalently the QCD $\\Lambda$-parameter. Its determination requires the use of perturbation theory in $\\alpha_s(\\mu)$ in some scheme, $s$, and at some energy scale $\\mu$. The higher the scale $\\mu$ the more accurate perturbation theory becomes, owing to asymptotic freedom. As one step in our computation of the $\\Lambda$-parameter in three-flavor QCD, we perform lattice computations in a scheme which allows us to non-perturbatively reach very high energies, corresponding to $\\alpha_s = 0.1$ and below. We find that perturbation theory is very accurate there, yielding a three percent error in the $\\Lambda$-parameter, while data around $\\alpha_s \\approx 0.2$ is clearly insufficient to quote such a precision. It is important to realize that these findings are expected to be generic, as our scheme has advantageous properties regarding the applicability of perturbation theory.

  17. High Energy Theory: Task B and Task L. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Research areas briefly covered in this report include semi-leptonic and non-leptonic B- and D-decays, CP violation, lattice gauge theory, light cone field theory, supersymmetry, fermion mass matrices, superstrings derived SUSY GUTs, neutrino physics and cosmology

  18. Theory of ion-atom collisions at high energy, I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, T.; Hino, K.

    1985-01-01

    Electron capture process by an ion from a neutral atom is one of the fundamental problems in the theory of atomic collision physics. Here a brief review is given mainly on the processes of non-radiative and radiative electron capture (charge transfer and REC). The main mechanism which govern the charge transfer process is introduced and the characteristic feature which is predicted by the theory is explained. As for the radiative electron capture process, after introducting the present theories, the full-quantum mechanical theoretical treatment is introduced. The theory leads a result which includes some inconsistency with formulae obtained by guage transformation. The relativistic quantum mechanical treatment is being tried in order to remove this inconsistency. The some results including mass and velocity dependence are reported and discussed. (author)

  19. Boson-fermion and boson-boson scattering in a Yang-Mills theory at high energy: Sixth-order perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, B.M.; Wu, T.T.

    1976-01-01

    Our previous study of Yang-Mills fields is extended by calculating the high-energy behavior of the boson-fermion and of the boson-boson amplitude in sixth-order perturbation theory. In the isovector and isoscalar channels of both these processes the behavior of the amplitude is the same as that found in fermion-fermion scattering

  20. K-theory and phase transitions at high energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Obikhod

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The duality between E8xE8 heteritic string on manifold K3xT2 and Type IIA string compactified on a Calabi-Yau manifold induces a correspondence between vector bundles on K3xT2 and Calabi-Yau manifolds. Vector bundles over compact base space K3xT2 form the set of isomorphism classes, which is a semi-ring under the operation of Whitney sum and tensor product. The construction of semi-ring V ect X of isomorphism classes of complex vector bundles over X leads to the ring KX = K(V ect X, called Grothendieck group. As K3 has no isometries and no non-trivial one-cycles, so vector bundle winding modes arise from the T2 compactification. Since we have focused on supergravity in d = 11, there exist solutions in d = 10 for which space-time is Minkowski space and extra dimensions are K3xT2. The complete set of soliton solutions of supergravity theory is characterized by RR charges, identified by K-theory. Toric presentation of Calabi-Yau through Batyrev's toric approximation enables us to connect transitions between Calabi-Yau manifolds, classified by enhanced symmetry group, with K-theory classification.

  1. [High energy particle physics]: Task A, High energy physics program: Experiment and theory; Task B, High energy physics program: Numerical simulation of quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannutti, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following research: fixed target experiments; collider experiments; computing, networking and VAX upgrade; SSC preparation, detector development and detector construction; solid argon calorimetry; absorption of CAD system geometries into GEANT for SSC; and particle theory programs

  2. High energy instanton induced processes in electroweak theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLerran, L.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that in electroweak theory, baryon plus lepton number is conserved by the classical equations of motion. This is of course consistent with the lack of experimental observation of such processes. It is a little less well known that when quantum corrections are included in electroweak theory, baryon plus lepton number is not conserved. This was first discovered as a consequence of the Adler-Bardeen-Bell-Jackiw triangle anomaly. It is perhaps most easily understood as a consequence of vacuum degeneracy, fermion energy level crossing and filling of the negative energy Dirac sea upon second quantization. To understand how baryon plus lepton number is not conserved upon second quantization, consider the situation shown in the energy of the system is shown as a function of a parameter which characterizes the gauge fields, the Chern-Simons charge. The Chern-Simons charge is a function only of the gauge fields, and the B + L change is equal to the change in Chern-Simons charge, ΔQ B+L = ΔQ CS

  3. Comments on the interaction between theory and experiment in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses work being conducted in High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics where theory and experiment go hand in hand. Pion capture, proton-antiproton interactions, kaon-pion interactions and hypernuclei decay are discussed as examples

  4. Multiple direct exchange in a Yang-Mills theory at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, B.M.; Wu, T.T.

    1976-01-01

    For eighth and higher orders, we obtain the leading high-energy behavior of the sum of all one-layer Feynman diagrams in Yang-Mills theory. These are the contributions from Feynman diagrams where the two incident fast particles exchange directly Yang-Mills bosons that are much less energetic. The incident particles may be either bosons or fermions of arbitrary isospin, and the result is also generalized to include the case of the Higgs scalar. The scattering amplitudes in all these cases are closely related, and all behave as s ln/sub n/ -1 s in the 2n + 2 order. Furthermore, in this leading order for n > or = 2, the exchanged isospins are always 0 and 2, no matter how high the isospins of the incident particles are

  5. Endpoint behavior of high-energy scattering cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chay, Junegone; Kim, Chul

    2010-01-01

    In high-energy processes near the endpoint, there emerge new contributions associated with spectator interactions. Away from the endpoint region, these new contributions are suppressed compared to the leading contribution, but the leading contribution becomes suppressed as we approach the endpoint and the new contributions become comparable. We present how the new contributions scale as we reach the endpoint and show that they are comparable to the suppressed leading contributions in deep inelastic scattering by employing a power-counting analysis. The hadronic tensor in deep inelastic scattering is shown to factorize including the spectator interactions, and it can be expressed in terms of the light cone distribution amplitudes of initial hadrons. We also consider the contribution of the spectator contributions in Drell-Yan processes. Here the spectator interactions are suppressed compared to double parton annihilation according to the power counting.

  6. High Energy Physics Model Database - HEPMDB - Towards decoding the underlying theory at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, M.; Belyaev, A.; Basso, L.; Boos, E.; Bunichev, V.; Sekhar Chivukula, R.; Christensen, D.; Cox, S.; De Roeck, A.; Moretti, S.; Pukhov, A.; Sekmen, S.; Semenov, A.; Simmons, E.H.; Shepherd-Themistocleus, C.; Speckner, C.

    2012-01-01

    We present here the first stage of development of the High Energy Physics Model Data-Base (HEPMDB) which is a convenient centralized storage environment for HEP (High Energy Physics) models, and can accommodate, via web interface to the HPC cluster, the validation of models, evaluation of LHC predictions and event generation-simulation chain. The ultimate goal of HEPMDB is to perform an effective LHC data interpretation isolating the most successful theory for explaining LHC observations. (authors)

  7. Fluence behavior of polyethylene films irradiated with high energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino, Eddy Segura; Silva, Leonardo G. Andrade e

    1999-01-01

    Polymers are viscoelastic materials at all temperatures, so that mechanical loads induce time dependable deformations. The recovery of these deformations, on load release, take some time and it is not always recovered completely. The main objective of this work was to analyse the creep behavior of electron irradiated polyethylene films. From the experimental results, it was sated that polyethylene creeps less with an increase on irradiation dose and also that creep recovery in this material increases with doses but it is not complete. This behavior can be attributed to the crosslinking effect witch stabilize elements of the molecular structure of the polyethylene, thus reducing their mobility and so inhibiting the creep mechanism. The partial creep recovery could be also attributed to the reticulation effect and to the polyethylene plastic behavior. Additional information on the creep behavior was obtained by fitting the experimental data with exponential functions and evaluating the mathematical parameters with a modified Kelvin-Voigt mechanical model. (author)

  8. Discovery of hydrodynamic behavior in high energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamagaki, Hideki

    2010-01-01

    The objective of high energy heavy ion collision experiments is creating high temperature and high density states to investigate hadron matter properties in such extreme conditions. Since the start of heavy ion collision experiments with BEVALAC, knowledge of the space-time evolution of collision has become indispensable for understanding the hadronic matter properties. This problem is reviewed here from the hydrodynamics view point. Although its importance has been generally recognized since the time of BEVALAC, the hydrodynamic description has not been successful because the hydrodynamic model assuming non-viscous or small fluid had not been considered to be enough to properly describe the space-time evolution of hadron-hadron collisions until the RHIC experiments. Items of the following titles are picked up and reviewed here: Development of heavy ion accelerations; Space-time evolution of hadron collision process and hydrodynamic model; Chemical freezing and kinematical freezing, including transverse momentum spectra at proton-proton collisions and particle spectra in heavy ion collisions; Elliptical azimuthal angle anisotropy; Discovery of hydrodynamic flow at BEVALAC; Problems of incident beam dependence of v2; Elliptic azimuthal angle anisotropy at RHIC; What is it that carries the elliptic anisotropy? Discussion of attainment of thermodynamical equilibrium state at RHIC; and finally investigations of fluid properties other than azimuthal anisotropy, such as, Fluid properties probed by heavy quarks and Observing QCD fluid responses. (S. Funahashi)

  9. Collective processes in a tokamak with high-energy particles: general problems of the linear theory of Alfven instabilities of a tokamak with high-energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailovskii, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    Some general problems of the theory of Alfven instabilities of a tokamak with high-energy ions are considered. It is assumed that such ions are due to either ionization of fast neutral atoms, injected into the tokamak, or production of them under thermo-nuclear conditions. Small-oscillation equations are derived for the Alfven-type waves, which allow for both destabilizing effects, associated with the high-energy particles, and stabilizing ones, such as effects of shear and bulk-plasm dissipation. A high-energy ion contribution is calculated into the growth rate of the Alfven waves. The author considers the role of trapped-electron collisional dissipation

  10. High energy physics program: Task A, Experiment and theory; Task B, Numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses research in High Energy Physics at Florida State University. Contained in this paper are: highlights of activities during the past few years; five year summary; fixed target experiments; collider experiments; SSC preparation, detector development and detector construction; computing, networking and VAX upgrade to ALPHA; and particle theory programs

  11. High-energy behaviour in a non-abelian gauge theory. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.

    1991-07-01

    The high energy limit (Regge limit) of a spontaneously broken SU(2) gauge theory is studied beyond the leading-lns approximation. Calculations are based upon the analytic structure of scattering amplitudes in generalized Regge limits, and the resulting amplitudes satisfy reggeon unitarity in the t-channel as well as unitarity in the s-channel. The calculations lead to a systematic construction of a reggeon field theory. (orig.)

  12. Zero-norm states and high-energy symmetries of string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.-T.; Lee, J.-C.

    2004-01-01

    We derive stringy Ward identities from the decoupling of two types of zero-norm states in the old covariant first quantized (OCFQ) spectrum of open bosonic string. These Ward identities are valid to all energy α' and all loop orders χ in string perturbation theory. The high-energy limit α'→∞ of these stringy Ward identities can then be used to fix the proportionality constants between scattering amplitudes of different string states algebraically without referring to Gross and Mende's saddle point calculation of high-energy string-loop amplitudes. As examples, all Ward identities for the mass level M 2 =4,6 are derived, their high-energy limits are calculated and the proportionality constants between scattering amplitudes of different string states are determined. In addition to those identified before, we discover some new nonzero components of high-energy amplitudes not found previously by Gross and Manes. These components are essential to preserve massive gauge invariances or decouple massive zero-norm states of string theory. A set of massive scattering amplitudes and their high-energy limits are calculated explicitly for each mass level M 2 =4,6 to justify our results

  13. Eikonal propagators and high-energy parton-parton scattering in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meggiolaro, Enrico

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we consider 'soft' high-energy parton-parton scattering processes in gauge theories, i.e., elastic scattering processes involving partons at very high squared energies s in the center of mass and small squared transferred momentum t (s→∞, t 2 ). By a direct resummation of perturbation theory in the limit we are considering, we derive expressions for the truncated-connected quark (antiquark) propagator in an external gluon field, as well as for the residue at the pole of the full unrenormalized propagator, both for scalar and fermion gauge theories. These are the basic ingredients to derive high-energy parton-parton scattering amplitudes, using the LSZ reduction formulae and a functional integral approach. The above procedure is also extended to include the case in which at least one of the partons is a gluon. The meaning and the validity of the results are discussed

  14. Feigenbaum scenario for turbulence and Cantorian E-infinity theory of high energy particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naschie, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    The work draws some fundamental connections between Feigenbaum's golden mean renormalization group and scenario for turbulence on the one side and high energy particle physics on the other side. The analysis which is based on the natural and obvious connections between the Fibonacci-like geometrical growth rate of ε (∞) spacetime and Feigenbaum's renormalization gives vital information to basic questions not only of quantum geometry, but also of quantum field theory

  15. New Trends in high-energy physics (experiment, phenomenology, theory). Proceedings of the International Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogolyubov, P.N.; Bugrij, G.V.; Jenkovszky, L.L.

    2001-01-01

    The subject of 'New Trends in High-Energy Physics' conference has been gradually extended (the number of participants still remain limited), now including: elastic and diffractive scattering of hadrons and nuclei, deep inelastic scattering and multiparticle dynamics, collective properties of the strongly interacting matter, heavy flavours and hadron spectroscopy, duality, strings and confinement, the standard model (and beyond), advances in quantum field theory, as well as new physics at future colliders

  16. Theory of ultra dense matter and the dynamics of high energy interactions involving nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1993-01-01

    Progress in the areas of pQCD radiative processes in dense matter, QCD transport theories to describe the evolution of nonequilibrium phenomena in dense matter, and the development and testing of phenomenological models of high-energy nuclear collisions is summarized. The evolution of the total energy density of quarks and gluons with minijet initial conditions at RHIC energy is shown for Au+Au

  17. High-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes: Ladder diagrams in φ3 theory. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osland, P.; Wu, T.T.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA

    1987-01-01

    Relativistic quantum field theories may give us useful guidance to understanding high-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes, where the center-of-mass energy is much larger than the transverse momentum transfers, which are in turn much larger than the masses of the participating particles. With this possibility in mind, we study the ladder diagrams in φ 3 theory. In this paper, some of the necessary techniques are developed and applied to the simplest cases of the fourth- and sixth-order ladder diagrams. (orig.)

  18. Discussion of electron capture theories for ion-atom collisions at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miraglia, J E [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Piacentini, R D [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rivarola, R D [Rosario Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica; Salin, A [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Talence (France)

    1981-03-14

    Different theories of charge exchange processes in ion-atom collisions at high energies for the H/sup +/-H system are considered. Large discrepancies are found in the differential cross sections obtained from the various models. The validity of Dettmann's peaking approximation is analysed by comparison with exact values for the first- and second-order Oppenheimer-Brinkman-Kramers (OBK 1 and OBK 2) theories. It is also shown that for energies up to a few MeV the OBK 2 differential cross sections are higher than the corresponding OBK 1 ones. Total cross sections in the OBK 2 approximation are given.

  19. The Theory of High Energy Collision Processes - Final Report DOE/ER/40158-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tai, T.

    2011-09-15

    In 1984, DOE awarded Harvard University a new Grant DE-FG02-84ER40158 to continue their support of Tai Tsun Wu as Principal Investigator of research on the theory of high energy collision processes. This Grant was renewed and remained active continuously from June 1, 1984 through November 30, 2007. Topics of interest during the 23-year duration of this Grant include: the theory and phenomenology of collision and production processes at ever higher energies; helicity methods of QED and QCD; neutrino oscillations and masses; Yang-Mills gauge theory; Beamstrahlung; Fermi pseudopotentials; magnetic monopoles and dyons; cosmology; classical confinement; mass relations; Bose-Einstein condensation; and large-momentum-transfer scattering processes. This Final Report describes the research carried out on Grant DE-FG02-84ER40158 for the period June 1, 1984 through November 30, 2007. Two books resulted from this project and a total of 125 publications.

  20. High-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes: Ladder diagrams in φ3 theory. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osland, P.; Wu, T.T.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA

    1987-01-01

    The scattering amplitude for the four-rung ladder diagram in φ 3 theory is evaluated at high energies and for large momentum transfers. The result takes the form of s -1 vertical stroketvertical stroke -3 multiplied by a homogeneous sixth-order polynomial in ln s and 1nvertical stroketvertical stroke. The novel and unexpected feature is that this polynomial is different depending on whether 1n vertical stroketvertical stroke is larger or less than 1/2 1n s. Thus the asymptotic formula is not analytic at 1n vertical stroketvertical stroke=1/2 1n s, although the first five derivatives are continuous. (orig.)

  1. Scattering of massless vector, tensor, and other particles in string theory at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, E.N.

    1990-01-01

    The 2 → 2 and 2 → 3 processes are studied in the multi-Regge kinematics for gluons and gravitons, the first excited states of the open and closed strings. The factorization of the corresponding amplitudes is demonstrated. Explicit relations generalizing the Low-Gribov expressions are obtained in the kinematics where one of the external particles is produced with small transverse momentum. The expressions in the limit α' → 0 coincide with the results of Yang-Mills theory and gravitation at high energies

  2. Theory of elementary particles and accelerator theory: Task C: Experimental high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brau, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The experimental high energy physics group at the University of Oregon broadened its effort during the past year. The SLD effort extends from maintaining and operating the SLD luminosity monitor which was built at Oregon, to significant responsibility in physics analysis, such as event selection and background analysis for the left-right asymmetry measurement. The OPAL work focussed on the luminosity monitor upgrade to a silicon-tungsten calorimeter. Building on the work done at Oregon for SLD, the tungsten for this upgrade was machined by the Oregon shops and shipped to CERN for assembly. The Oregon GEM effort now concentrates on tracking, specifically silicon tracking. Oregon also has developed a silicon strip preradiator prototype, and tested it in a Brookhaven beam

  3. Transport theory applied to hadron and light fragment production in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuermann, B.; Malfliet, R.; Mies, S.; Zwermann, W.

    1984-01-01

    Foundations of the transport theory for studying K + , K - , π - and light fragment production in nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energies are given. Inclusive production of protons, K + and π - in the Ne+NaF reaction at 400 MeV and 21 GeV/nucleon is consdered, their differential cross sections are caculated. Differential cross sections of K - and π - production in Si+Si → K + +X and Ne+NaF → π - +X reactions at the energy of 2.1 GeV/nucleon, their energy dependence are estimated. Comparison of the calculated and experimental data is graphically presented. The model of the transport theory is shown to successfully reproduce inclusive spectra of different particles (p, d, π, K + , K - ) in a wide energy range of incident particles (from 400 MeV to 2 GeV/nucleon). This approach can be generalized for lower energies by generating a mean nuclear potentiasl field

  4. High-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes: Ladder diagrams in var-phi 3 theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, C.L.J.

    1990-01-01

    Relativistic quantum field theories may help one to understand high-energy, large-momentum-transfer processes, where the center-of-mass energy is much larger than the transverse momentum transfers, which are in turn much larger than the masses of the participating particles. With this possibility in mind, the author studies ladder diagrams in var-phi 3 theory. He shows that in the limit s much-gt |t| much-gt m 2 , the scattering amplitude for the N-rung ladder diagram takes the form s -1 |t| -N+1 times a homogeneous polynomial of degree 2N - 2 and ln s and ln |t|. This polynomial takes different forms depending on the relation of ln |t| to ln s. More precisely, the asymptotic formula for the N-rung ladder diagram has points of non-analytically when ln |t| = γ ln s for γ = 1/2, 1/3, hor-ellipsis, 1/N-2

  5. Determination of the QCD Λ-parameter and the accuracy of perturbation theory at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Brida, Mattia; Fritzsch, Patrick; Korzec, Tomasz; Ramos, Alberto; Sint, Stefan; Sommer, Rainer; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the determination of the strong coupling α_M_S(m_Z) or equivalently the QCD Λ-parameter. Its determination requires the use of perturbation theory in α_s(μ) in some scheme, s, and at some energy scale μ. The higher the scale μ the more accurate perturbation theory becomes, owing to asymptotic freedom. As one step in our computation of the Λ-parameter in three-flavor QCD, we perform lattice computations in a scheme which allows us to non-perturbatively reach very high energies, corresponding to α_s=0.1 and below. We find that (continuum) perturbation theory is very accurate there, yielding a three percent error in the Λ-parameter, while data around α_s∼0.2 is clearly insufficient to quote such a precision. It is important to realize that these findings are expected to be generic, as our scheme has advantageous properties regarding the applicability of perturbation theory.

  6. Determination of the QCD Λ-parameter and the accuracy of perturbation theory at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalla Brida, Mattia [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Fritzsch, Patrick [Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC; Korzec, Tomasz [Wuppertal Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Physics; Ramos, Alberto [CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Sint, Stefan [Trinity College Dublin (Ireland). School of Mathematics; Sommer, Rainer [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration

    2016-04-15

    We discuss the determination of the strong coupling α{sub MS}(m{sub Z}) or equivalently the QCD Λ-parameter. Its determination requires the use of perturbation theory in α{sub s}(μ) in some scheme, s, and at some energy scale μ. The higher the scale μ the more accurate perturbation theory becomes, owing to asymptotic freedom. As one step in our computation of the Λ-parameter in three-flavor QCD, we perform lattice computations in a scheme which allows us to non-perturbatively reach very high energies, corresponding to α{sub s}=0.1 and below. We find that (continuum) perturbation theory is very accurate there, yielding a three percent error in the Λ-parameter, while data around α{sub s}∼0.2 is clearly insufficient to quote such a precision. It is important to realize that these findings are expected to be generic, as our scheme has advantageous properties regarding the applicability of perturbation theory.

  7. Theory of high energy collision processes. Final report, June 1, 1969-May 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.T.

    1984-01-01

    We have developed a comprehensive theory for scattering processes at extremely high energies. On the basis of relativistic quantum field theories with or without isotopic spin, we have obtained a simple physical picture, called the impact picture, which gives a number of unusual predictions. Many of these have been verified experimentally, including the increasing total cross sections, the increasing total elastic cross sections, the moving dip, and the rising plateau. An especially accurate experimental verification of the prediction of increasing total cross section has been provided by the CERN p anti p Collider at a c.m. energy of 540 GeV. All of these predictions were obtained by resumming the perturbation series. The natural next step is to look for important physical effects that cannot be seen by any method of resumming the perturbation series. One such method is to find nonperturbative effects already present on the classical level; another is to construct exactly solvable models of quantum field theory. Both approaches have been pursued. Recent theoretical results include the possible occurrence of indeterminate-mass particles, dynamic determination of coupling constants, a solvable Z 2 lattice gauge theory, a generalization of the method of helicity amplitudes, classical models of confinement, and a monopole as a short-distance probe. 152 publications are listed

  8. Large-angle theory for pion-nucleus scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoock, D.W. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    An approximate solution for high-energy, projectile-nucleus, multiple scattering is developed from the exact Watson series and applied to pion scattering for 12 C and 4 He. Agreement with measured differential cross sections available from the literature for the range 150 to 260 MeV pion laboratory energies is surprisingly good. The approximation method expands the propagators of the Watson series about the transverse component of the momentum transfer. Contributions of each of the first two terms to double scattering from a Gaussian potential are compared to the exact solution. The purely plane-wave propagation produces a scattering amplitude that agrees to order (k 0 a) -1 with the exact solution at the forward and backward directions at high energies. The second (off-axis) propagation term produces an amplitude that is one order smaller at forward angles and two orders smaller at 180 0 than the exact amplitude. At intermediate angles it is of the same order. The general multiple-scattering series is approximated with selection of plane-wave propagation as the fundamental process at large and small angles. This model suggests that a single nucleon accepts most of the momentum transfer for backward scattering. The resulting multiple-scattering formula agrees with the well-known high-energy eikonal theory at small angles and the backward-angle scattering formula of Chen at exactly 180 0 . A lowest-order formula that includes off-axis propagation is also derived. Predicted differential cross sections are found to be sensitive to nucleon motion and binding. For 4 He the effect of the nuclear potential on the pion kinetic energy is also examined and found to produce significant changes in the predicted cross sections

  9. A quark is born: discovery and theory development in high-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edge, D.O.

    1979-04-01

    The aim was to gather empirical data on the social construction of the technical core of scientific culture and to contribute to sociological theory through an analysis of these data. The development of high energy physics between 1974 and 1977, specifically the production of experimental and theoretical knowledge on a family of 'new particles', was studied. By the end of this period theoretical consensus on the nature of these particles had been achieved. Methods of investigation included a literature survey and the collection of archival material and of opinions and recollections of important personalities involved. The work of R.K. Merton and his followers was used as a basis for investigating the sociology of scientific communities; also the work of T.S. Kuhn. A brief summary of the sociological analysis of the empirical data is given. (author)

  10. Classical solutions in quantum field theory solitons and instantons in high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, Erick J

    2012-01-01

    Classical solutions play an important role in quantum field theory, high energy physics and cosmology. Real-time soliton solutions give rise to particles, such as magnetic monopoles, and extended structures, such as domain walls and cosmic strings, that have implications for early universe cosmology. Imaginary-time Euclidean instantons are responsible for important nonperturbative effects, while Euclidean bounce solutions govern transitions between metastable states. Written for advanced graduate students and researchers in elementary particle physics, cosmology and related fields, this book brings the reader up to the level of current research in the field. The first half of the book discusses the most important classes of solitons: kinks, vortices and magnetic monopoles. The cosmological and observational constraints on these are covered, as are more formal aspects, including BPS solitons and their connection with supersymmetry. The second half is devoted to Euclidean solutions, with particular emphasis on ...

  11. High-energy behaviour in a non-abelian gauge theory. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.

    1980-01-01

    In this second part of our attempt to construct a unitary high-energy description of a spontaneously broken non-abelian gauge theory we calculate, for the n → m amplitude in the multi-Regge limit, the first corrections beyond the leading logarithmic approximation. The resulting amplitudes come in the form of the reggeon calculus where the number of reggeons in each t-channel is restricted to one or two. We then study the limit where the mass of the vector particle is taken to zero: for the 2 → 2 amplitude show that this limit exists, not only for the approximation of the present paper but also for higher-order corrections. (orig.)

  12. Theories of information behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Erdelez, Sandra; McKechnie, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    This unique book presents authoritative overviews of more than 70 conceptual frameworks for understanding how people seek, manage, share, and use information in different contexts. A practical and readable reference to both well-established and newly proposed theories of information behavior, the book includes contributions from 85 scholars from 10 countries. Each theory description covers origins, propositions, methodological implications, usage, links to related conceptual frameworks, and listings of authoritative primary and secondary references. The introductory chapters explain key concepts, theory–method connections, and the process of theory development.

  13. Theory and phenomenology of strong and weak interaction high energy physics: Progress report, May 1, 1987-April 30, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, P.; Thews, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper contains progress information on the following topics in High Energy Physics: strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions; aspects of quark-gluon models for hadronic interactions, decays, and structure; the dynamical generation of a mass gap and the role and truthfulness of perturbation theory; statistical and dynamical aspects of hadronic multiparticle production; and realization of chiral symmetry and temperature effects in supersymmetric theories

  14. High-energy behavior of the charge-transfer cross section in the eikonal approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewangan, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    In the now popular version of the eikonal theory of charge transfer, the eikonal wave function does not satisfy the proper boundary conditions and the charge-transfer amplitude is uncertain by an undefined phase factor. The inclusion of the internuclear potential in a consistent way, in the eikonal theory overcomes theses difficulties. However, it also changes the high-energy asymptotic form of proton-hydrogen charge-transfer cross section from sigma/sub eik/ approx.(23/48) sigma/sub BK/ by a small amount to sigma/sub G/approx.(20.109/48)sigma/sub BK/ where sigma/sub BK/ is the Brinkman-Kramers cross section

  15. The high energy behavior of QCD. The effective action and the triple-Pomeron-vertex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hentschinski, Martin

    2009-07-15

    We study integrations over light-cone momenta in the high energy effective action of QCD. After a brief review of the effective action, we arrive on a regularization mechanism from matching of effective action diagrams with QCD diagrams, which we apply to a re-derivation of the reggeized gluon and of the BFKL-equation. We study consequences of the proposed regularization on the analytic structure of 2{yields}3 and 2{yields}4 production amplitudes in the Multi-Regge-Kinematics. We derive a certain part of the 1-loop corrections to the production vertex and demonstrate that they yield the on-set of corrections demanded by the Steinmann-relations. The Reggeon-Particle-2-Reggeon vertex is determined and applied to the construction of various signature configurations of the production amplitudes. We extend the proposed regularization method to states of three and four reggeized gluons and propose a supplement to the effective Lagrangian. We derive vertices for the 1-3 and 2-4 reggeized-gluon-transition inside the elastic amplitude and verify that signature conservation is obeyed. Integral equations for the state of three and four reggeized gluons are formulated and shown to be in accordance with a result by Bartels and Wuesthoff. In a second part we investigate the high-energy behavior of QCD for different surface topologies of color graphs. After a brief review of the planar limit (bootstrap and gluon reggeization) and of the cylinder topology (BFKL) we investigate the 3{yields}3 scattering in the triple Regge limit which belongs to the pair-of-pants topology. We re-derive the triple Pomeron vertex function and show that it belongs to a specific set of graphs in color space which we identify as the analog of the Mandelstam diagram. We then extend the study to the high-energy behavior of N=4 SYM where we find a new class of color graphs not present in QCD. (orig.)

  16. The high energy behavior of QCD. The effective action and the triple-Pomeron-vertex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschinski, Martin

    2009-07-01

    We study integrations over light-cone momenta in the high energy effective action of QCD. After a brief review of the effective action, we arrive on a regularization mechanism from matching of effective action diagrams with QCD diagrams, which we apply to a re-derivation of the reggeized gluon and of the BFKL-equation. We study consequences of the proposed regularization on the analytic structure of 2→3 and 2→4 production amplitudes in the Multi-Regge-Kinematics. We derive a certain part of the 1-loop corrections to the production vertex and demonstrate that they yield the on-set of corrections demanded by the Steinmann-relations. The Reggeon-Particle-2-Reggeon vertex is determined and applied to the construction of various signature configurations of the production amplitudes. We extend the proposed regularization method to states of three and four reggeized gluons and propose a supplement to the effective Lagrangian. We derive vertices for the 1-3 and 2-4 reggeized-gluon-transition inside the elastic amplitude and verify that signature conservation is obeyed. Integral equations for the state of three and four reggeized gluons are formulated and shown to be in accordance with a result by Bartels and Wuesthoff. In a second part we investigate the high-energy behavior of QCD for different surface topologies of color graphs. After a brief review of the planar limit (bootstrap and gluon reggeization) and of the cylinder topology (BFKL) we investigate the 3→3 scattering in the triple Regge limit which belongs to the pair-of-pants topology. We re-derive the triple Pomeron vertex function and show that it belongs to a specific set of graphs in color space which we identify as the analog of the Mandelstam diagram. We then extend the study to the high-energy behavior of N=4 SYM where we find a new class of color graphs not present in QCD. (orig.)

  17. Multi-instantons at high energies: Premature unitarization and supercritical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggiore, M.; Shifman, M.

    1992-01-01

    We investigate the role of multi-instantons at high energies in weakly coupled theories. We perform an explicit computation of their effect and we find that they become as important as the one-instanton contribution at energies where the latter is still exponentially small (''premature unitarization''). The computation relies on various simplifying assumptions, and we discuss them. We argue, however, that premature unitarization is a phenomenon of a very general nature, which should survive our simplifying assumptions. If this is the case, there exists a critical energy where a change of regime is forced, and the dilute-instanton-gas approximation totally collapses. Possible scenarios in the critical and supercritical domain are discussed at the qualitative level

  18. Prediction of catastrophe theory for heavy-ion collisions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchin, I.A.

    2002-01-01

    Studying the nature of limiting fragmentation of nuclei in high energy heavy-ion collisions has shown that the dynamic system of the nucleus is inclined to enter a nonequilibrium state, schottische and disintegrate on separate nucleons under conditions typical to each collision. There is a question: how the phenomenon of multifragmentation is possible here, i. e. formation of several nucleus with masses on interval from a nucleon up to a material nucleus A in a final state. What is it - debris of a material nucleus or newly created daughter nuclei? The purpose of offered report is discussion of this question. The initial for us statement is taken from the theory of dynamic systems. Chaos is a result of hashing of phase space which is carried out by means of operations of distension and compression. The appropriate transformation are called baker-transformation or Smale's horseshoe. The geometrical picture of chaos is a folded relief of multi-dimensional phase space. The stochastic amplification is understood as growth of folder number and their size. In typical interactions of massive ions, chaos formation conditions are provided automatically due to alternate force influence of Coulomb and Yukawa fields - compression is replaced by distension, and distension - by compression. Extending this representation on a case of massive ion collision, we supplement it accounting a possibility of constituents (nucleons) strong interaction on small distances. The easiest way to make it is approximating minima of potential function V(x, c) in catastrophe theory by rectangular holes of Fermi-gas in nuclear physics. The catastrophe theory is necessary to find connection between channels of fragments birth of different charge and masses, proceeding from the general form of a multi-dimensional phase space relief (a kind of potential function). The main result which can be taken from this theory at the given stage of researches consists in the general form of a curve of a

  19. Theory of high-energy-collision processes. Technical progress report, January 1-December 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Progress is described in the following areas: (1) several years ago, surprisingly simple expressions were obtained for the differential cross sections of e + e - → μ + μ - γ and e + e - → e + e - γ at high energies. Such simple expressions were generalized to twelve other similar radiative processes in QED and QCD. Afterwards, it was found that these results can be derived easily with the help of helicity amplitudes. This method is being investigated for many other radiative processes; (2) in the two-dimensional Ising model, the horizontal and vertical interaction energies are usually taken to be different. When this idea of different interactions in different directions is applied to the Z 2 lattice gauge theory in four dimensions, a limiting case is found which is exactly solvable. Contrary to numerical calculations at the symmetry point, the phase transition is found to be of second order; (3) on the subject of supersymmetry, general helicity and spin sum rules were obtained for massless and massive supermultiplets, and a functional integral approach was found as a natural setting for Witten's criterion for the occurrence of dynamic symmetry breaking of supersymmetry. A systematic and exhaustive analysis of explicit soft breaking of global supersymmetry has also been carried out using the methods of superfields; (4) the renormalization of the massless Thirring model in the neighborhood of g = -π/2 was studied. The results are consistent with those found previously by placing the model on a lattice; and (5) in studying the effect of laboratory temperature on scattering processes, it was found that transport phenomena play an important role. As a preparation for this study, an exactly solvable case of the nonlinear Boltzmann equation has been found and studied

  20. Removal of nonorthogonality in the Born theory used for study of electron capture in high energy ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, M.

    1989-01-01

    We show the complete removal of the nonorthogonality of wave functions between initial and final states in the Born theory. Hence, this treatment offers more realistic electron capture cross sections in high energy ion-atom collisions. Representative results for resonant electron capture in H + + H collision are discussed in conjunction with other perturbative results. 10 refs., 1 fig

  1. Theory and phenomenology of strong and weak interaction high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews research done on theoretical high energy physics. Areas of discussion are: chiral symmetry; quantum chromodynamics; quark-gluon plasma; particle decay of kaons; photonuclear reactions from cosmic ray showers; symmetry breaking and other related topics

  2. Strings on AdS2 and the high-energy limit of noncritical M-theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horava, Petr; Horava, Petr; Keeler, Cynthia A.

    2007-01-01

    Noncritical M-theory in 2+1 dimensions has been defined as a double-scaling limit of a nonrelativistic Fermi liquid on a flat two-dimensional plane. Here we study this noncritical M-theory in the limit of high energies, analogous to the alpha(prime) → ∞ limit of string theory. In the related case of two-dimensional Type 0A strings, it has been argued that the conformal alpha(prime) → ∞ limit leads to AdS 2 with a propagating fermion whose mass is set by the value of the RR flux. Here we provide evidence that in the high-energy limit, the natural ground state of noncritical M-theory similarly describes the AdS 2 x S 1 spacetime, with a massless propagating fermion. We argue that the spacetime effective theory in this background is captured by a topological higher-spin extension of conformal Chern-Simons gravity in 2+1 dimensions, consistently coupled to a massless Dirac field. Intriguingly, the two-dimensional plane populated by the original nonrelativistic fermions is essentially the twistor space associated with the symmetry group of the AdS 2 x S 1 spacetime; thus, at least in the high-energy limit, noncritical M-theory can be nonperturbatively described as a 'Fermi liquid on twistor space'

  3. Apolipoprotein E expression and behavioral toxicity of high charge, high energy (HZE) particle radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yoshinori; Nelson, Gregory A.; Vazquez, Marcelo; Laskowitz, Daniel T.; Slater, James M.; Pearlstein, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a lipid binding protein that plays an important role in tissue repair following brain injury. In the present studies, we have investigated whether apoE affects the behavioral toxicity of high charge, high energy (HZE) particle radiation. METHODS: Sixteen male apoE knockout (KO) mice and sixteen genetically matched wild-type (WT) C57BL mice were used in this experiment. Half of the KO and half of the WT animals were irradiated with 600 MeV/amu iron particles (2 Gy whole body). The effect of irradiation on motor coordination and stamina (Rotarod test), exploratory behavior (open field test), and spatial working and reference memory (Morris water maze) was assessed. ROTAROD TEST: Performance was adversely affected by radiation exposure in both KO and WT groups at 30 d after irradiation. By 60 d after radiation, the radiation effect was lost in WT, but still apparent in irradiated KO mice. OPEN FIELD TEST: Radiation reduced open field exploratory activity 14, 28, 56, 84, and 168 d after irradiation of KO mice, but had no effect on WT mice. MORRIS WATER MAZE: Radiation adversely affected spatial working memory in the KO mice, but had no discernible effect in the WT mice as assessed 180 d after irradiation. In contrast, irradiated WT mice showed marked impairment of spatial reference memory in comparison to non-irradiated mice, while no effect of radiation was observed in KO mice. CONCLUSIONS: These studies show that apoE expression influences the behavioral toxicity of HZE particle radiation and suggest that apoE plays a role in the repair/recovery from radiation injury of the CNS. ApoE deficiency may exacerbate the previously reported effects of HZE particle radiation in accelerating the brain aging process.

  4. Apolipoprotein E expression and behavioral toxicity of high charge, high energy (HZE) particle radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Yoshinori; Nelson, G.A.; Slater, J.M.; Pearlstein, R.D.; Laskowitz, D.T.

    2002-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a lipid binding protein that plays an important role in tissue repair following brain injury. In the present studies, we have investigated whether apoE affects the behavioral toxicity of high charge, high energy (HZE) particle radiation. Sixteen male apoE knockout (KO) mice and sixteen genetically matched wild-type (WT) C57BL mice were used in this experiment. Half of the KO and half of the WT animals were irradiated with 600 MeV/amu iron particles (2 Gy whole body). The effect of irradiation on motor coordination and stamina (Rotarod test), exploratory behavior (open field test), and spatial working and reference memory (Morris water maze) was assessed. Rotarod test: Performance was adversely affected by radiation exposure in both KO and WT groups at 30 d after irradiation. By 60 d after radiation, the radiation effect was lost in WT, but still apparent in irradiated KO mice. Open field test: Radiation reduced open field exploratory activity 14, 28, 56, 84, and 168 d after irradiation of KO mice, but had no effect on WT mice. Morris water maze: Radiation adversely affected spatial working memory in the KO mice, but had no discernible effect in the WT mice as assessed 180 d after irradiation. In contrast, irradiated WT mice showed marked impairment of spatial reference memory in comparison to non-irradiated mice, while no effect of radiation was observed in KO mice. These studies show that apoE expression influences the behavioral toxicity of HZE particle radiation and suggest that apoE plays a role in the repair/recovery from radiation injury of the central nervous system (CNS). ApoE deficiency may exacerbate the previously reported effects of HZE particle radiation in accelerating the brain aging process. (author)

  5. Apolipoprotein E expression and behavioral toxicity of high charge, high energy (HZE) particle radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Yoshinori; Nelson, G.A.; Slater, J.M.; Pearlstein, R.D. [Loma Linda Univ., CA (United States). Medical Center; Vazquez, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Laskowitz, D.T. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Medical Center

    2002-12-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a lipid binding protein that plays an important role in tissue repair following brain injury. In the present studies, we have investigated whether apoE affects the behavioral toxicity of high charge, high energy (HZE) particle radiation. Sixteen male apoE knockout (KO) mice and sixteen genetically matched wild-type (WT) C57BL mice were used in this experiment. Half of the KO and half of the WT animals were irradiated with 600 MeV/amu iron particles (2 Gy whole body). The effect of irradiation on motor coordination and stamina (Rotarod test), exploratory behavior (open field test), and spatial working and reference memory (Morris water maze) was assessed. Rotarod test: Performance was adversely affected by radiation exposure in both KO and WT groups at 30 d after irradiation. By 60 d after radiation, the radiation effect was lost in WT, but still apparent in irradiated KO mice. Open field test: Radiation reduced open field exploratory activity 14, 28, 56, 84, and 168 d after irradiation of KO mice, but had no effect on WT mice. Morris water maze: Radiation adversely affected spatial working memory in the KO mice, but had no discernible effect in the WT mice as assessed 180 d after irradiation. In contrast, irradiated WT mice showed marked impairment of spatial reference memory in comparison to non-irradiated mice, while no effect of radiation was observed in KO mice. These studies show that apoE expression influences the behavioral toxicity of HZE particle radiation and suggest that apoE plays a role in the repair/recovery from radiation injury of the central nervous system (CNS). ApoE deficiency may exacerbate the previously reported effects of HZE particle radiation in accelerating the brain aging process. (author)

  6. New Trends in high-energy physics (experiment, phenomenology, theory). Proceedings of the International School-Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogolyubov, P.N.; Jenkovszky, L.L.

    2000-01-01

    The subject of 'New Trends in High-Energy Physics' conference has been gradually extended now including: elastic and diffractive scattering of hadrons and nuclei, deep inelastic scattering and multiparticle dynamics, collective properties of the strongly interacting matter, heavy flavours and hadron spectroscopy, duality, strings an confinement, the standard model (and beyond), advances in quantum field theory, as well as new physics at future colliders

  7. Reggeon, Pomeron and Glueball, Odderon-Hadron-Hadron Interaction at High Energies--From Regge Theory to Quantum Chromodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Wen-Yuan; HU Zhao-Hui; WANG Xin-Wen; ZHOU Li-Juan; XIA Li-Xin; MA Wei-Xing

    2008-01-01

    Based on analysis of scattering matrix S, and its properties such as analyticity, unitarity, Lorentz invariance, and crossing symmetry relation, the Regge theory was proposed to describe hadron-hadron scattering at high energies before the advent of QCD, and correspondingly a Reggeon concept was born as a mediator of strongly interaction. This theory serves as a successful approach and has explained a great number of experimental data successfully, which proves that the Regge theory can be regarded as a basic theory of hadron interaction at high energies and its validity in many applications. However, as new experimental data come out, we have some difficulties in explaining the data. The new experimental total cross section violates the predictions of Regge theory, which shows that Regge formalism is limited in its applications to high energy data. To understand new experimental measurements, a new exchange theory was consequently born and its mediator is called Pomeron, which has vacuum quantum numbers. The new theory named as Pomeron exchange theory which reproduces the new experimental data of diffractive processes successfully. There are two exchange mediators: Reggeon and Pomeron. Reggeon exchange theory can only produce data at the relatively lower energy region, while Pomeron exchange theory fits the data only at higher-energy region, separately. In order to explain the data in the whole energy region, we propose a Reggeon-Pomeron model to describe high-energy hadron-hadron scattering and other diffractive processes. Although the Reggeon-Pomeron model is successful in describing high-energy hadron-hadron interaction in the whole energy region, it is a phenomenological model After the advent of QCD, people try to reveal the mystery of the phenomenological theory from QCD since hadron-hadron processes is a strong interaction, which is believed to be described by QCD. According to this point of view, we study the QCD nature of Reggeon and Pomeron. We claim

  8. A dynamic elastic and inelastic scattering theory of high-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhonglin

    1990-01-01

    A review is given on the applications of elastic multislice theory for simulating the images and diffractions of reflection electron microscopy. The limitation of this theory is illustrated according to some experimental observations. A generalized elastic and inelastic multislice theory is then introduced from quantum mechanics; its applications for approaching inelastic plasmon excitation and phonon excitation (or thermal diffuse scattering) are discussed. The energy-filtered inelastic high resolution images can be simulated based on this theory

  9. Analytical properties and behaviour of scattering amplitude at high energies in the localizable quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazur, V.Yu.; Khimich, I.V.

    1977-01-01

    Analytical properties of the elastic πN-scattering amplitude in in the cos THETA are proved in the Lehmann ellipse. The instrument for establishing analytical properties of the scattering amplitude in the cos THETA is the Jost-Lehmann-Dyson integral representation proved in terms of the localizable quantum field theory containing the strictly localizable theory and theory of moderate growth as particular cases. On this basis the Greenberg-Low restriction is obtained in frames of this class theories for the πN-scattering amplitude. This result gives a possibility to prove the ordinary dispersion relations with a finite number of subtraction in frames of the localizable quantum field theory

  10. Field-theoretic model of Harari's two component phenomenological theory of high energy hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymski, T.C.

    1976-01-01

    For high energy scattering of pseudoscalar particles on spin 1 / 2 particles, the transition amplitude (for a given signature) is constructed as an infinite sum over spin of boson exchange graphs of the Feynman type, each of which has impact parameters up to some value R completely removed. This amplitude is advanced as a field theoretic realization of the nondiffractive component of Harari's dual absorption model. Comparing with π/sup +-/p→π/sup +-/p and π - p→π 0 n data shows that the imaginary parts of both helicity amplitudes are excellent, for either signature

  11. Neural nets with varying topology for high energy particle recognition. Theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrone, A.L.; Basti, G.; Messi, R.; Paoluzi, L.; Picozza, P.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we propose a strategy to solve the problem of parallel compuation based on a dynamic definition of the net topology showing its effectiveness for problems of particle track recognition in high-energy physics. In this way, we can maintain the linear architecture like in the geometric perceptron, but with a partial and dynamic connectivity so to overcome the intrinsic limiations of the geometric perceptron. Namely, the computation is truly parallel because of the partial connectivity but the net topology is always the optimal one because of its dynamic redefinition on the single input pattern. For these properties, we call this new architecture dynamic perceptron

  12. ESA Gaia & the multifrequency behavior of high-energy sources with ultra-low dispersion spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René; Šimon, Vojtěch; Hudec, L.; Hudcová, Věra

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 1 (2012), s. 342-346 ISSN 0037-8720. [Workshop on multifrequency behaviour of high energy cosmic sources. Vulcano, 23.05.2011-28.05.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : X-rays * high-energy sources * satellites Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  13. Theory of e+e/sup /minus// collisions at very high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1988-04-01

    In these lectures, the array of new phenomena are reviewed which might be discovered in electron-positron reactions conducted at energies well above the Z/degree/. Before beginning a discussion of what new phenomena we might find, or how we might uncover them, the question is addressed of why such a program of research is important. The question of what we should be looking for, and what discoveries will be the most illuminating, as we search for the next layer of fundamental physics is argued. With this background, we can then discuss in some considerable detail the contributions that the study of electron-positron collisions at high energy can make in this search

  14. Selected Topics in Light Front Field Theory and Applications to the High Energy Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Rajen

    1999-10-01

    In this thesis, we have presented some of the aspects of light-front (LF) field theory through their successful application in the Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS). We have developed a LFQCD Hamiltonian description of the DIS structure functions starting from Bjorken-Johnson-Low limit of virtual forward Compton scattering amplitude and using LF current commutators. We worked in the LF gauge A^+=0 and used the old-fashioned LFQCD perturbation theory in our calculations. The importance of our work are summarized below. Our approach shares the intution of parton model and addresses directly the structure functions, which are experimental objects, instead of its moments as in OPE method. Moreover, it can potentially incorporate the non-perturbative contents of the structure functions as we have demonstrated by introducing a new factorization scheme. In the context of nucleonic helicity structure, the well known gauge fixed LF helicity operator is shown to provide consistent physical information and helps us defining new relevant structure functions. The anomalous dimensions relevant for the Q^2-evolution of such structure functions are calculated. Our study is important in establishing the equivalance of LF field theory and the usual equal-time one through perturbative calculations of the dressed parton structure functions reproducing the well known results. Also the importance of Gallilean boost symmetry in understanding the correctness of any higher order calculation using (x^+)-ordered LFQCD perturbation theory are emphasized.

  15. Random matrix theory and analysis of nucleus-nucleus collision at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahaliev, E.I.; Inst. of Radiation Problems, Baku; ); Kuznetsov, A.A.; Suleymanov, M.K.; ); Teryaev, O.V.; )

    2006-01-01

    A novel method for analysis of experimental data obtained at relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is proposed. The method, based on the ideas of Random Matrix Theory, is applied to detect systematic errors that occur at measurements of momentum distributions of emitted particles. The unfolded momentum distribution is well described by the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble of random matrices, when the uncertainty in the momentum distribution is maximal. The method is free from unwanted background contributions [ru

  16. Unusual high-energy phenomenology of Lorentz-invariant noncommutative field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.; Kwee, Herry J.

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested that one may construct a Lorentz-invariant noncommutative field theory by extending the coordinate algebra to additional, fictitious coordinates that transform nontrivially under the Lorentz group. Integration over these coordinates in the action produces a four-dimensional effective theory with Lorentz invariance intact. Previous applications of this approach, in particular, to a specific construction of noncommutative QED, have been studied only in a low-momentum approximation. Here we discuss Lorentz-invariant field theories in which the relevant physics can be studied without requiring an expansion in the inverse scale of noncommutativity. Qualitatively, we find that tree-level scattering cross sections are dramatically suppressed as the center-of-mass energy exceeds the scale of noncommutativity, that cross sections that are isotropic in the commutative limit can develop a pronounced angular dependence, and that nonrelativistic potentials (for example, the Coloumb potential) become nonsingular at the origin. We consider a number of processes in noncommutative QED that may be studied at a future linear collider. We also give an example of scattering via a four-fermion operator in which the noncommutative modifications of the interaction can unitarize the tree-level amplitude, without requiring any other new physics in the ultraviolet

  17. High-energy scattering in strongly coupled N=4 super Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprenger, Martin

    2014-11-01

    This thesis concerns itself with the analytic structure of scattering amplitudes in strongly coupled N=4 super Yang-Mills theory (abbreviated N = 4 SYM) in the multi-Regge limit. Through the AdS/CFT-correspondence observables in strongly coupled N = 4 SYM are accessible via dual calculations in a weakly coupled string theory on an AdS 5 x S 5 -geometry, in which observables can be calculated using standard perturbation theory. In particular, the calculation of the leading order of the n-gluon amplitude in N = 4 SYM at strong coupling corresponds to the calculation of a minimal surface embedded into AdS 5 . This surface ends on the concatenation of the gluon momenta, which is a light-like curve. The calculation of the minimal surface area can be reduced to finding the solution of a set of non-linear, coupled integral equations, which have no analytic solution in arbitrary kinematics. In this thesis, we therefore specialise to the multi-Regge limit, the n-particle generalisation of the Regge limit. This limit is especially interesting as even in the description of scattering amplitudes in weakly coupled N = 4 SYM in this limit a certain set of Feynman diagrams has to be resummed. This description organises itself into orders of logarithms of the energy involved in the scattering process. In this expansion each order in logarithms includes terms from every order in the coupling constant and therefore contains information about the strong coupling sector of the theory, albeit in a very specific way. This raises the central question of this thesis, which is how much of the analytic structure of the scattering amplitudes in the multi-Regge limit is preserved as we go to the strong coupling regime. We show that the equations governing the area of the minimal surface simplify drastically in the multi-Regge limit, which allows us to obtain analytic results for the scattering amplitudes. We develop an algorithm for the calculation of scattering amplitudes in the multi

  18. The high energy behavior of the forward scattering parameters - an amplitude analysis update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, M.M.; Margolis, B.; White, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    Utilizing the most recent experimental data, we reanalyze high energy pp and pp data, using the asymptotic amplitude analysis, under the assumption that we have reached open-quotes asymptopiaclose quotes. This analysis gives strong evidence for a log (s/s 0 ) dependence at current energies and not log 2 (s/s 0 ), and also demonstrates that odderons are not necessary to explain the experimental data

  19. High-energy scattering of particles with anomalous magnetic moments in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguen Suan Khan; Pervushin, V.N.

    1976-01-01

    Eikonal type representations taking into account the anomalous magnetic moments of nucleons are obtained for the amplitude of pion-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon scattering in the asymptotic region s → infinity, (t) (<<) s in the framework of nonrenormalizable quantum field theory. The anomalous magnetic moment leads to additional terms in the amplitude which describe the spin flips in the scattering process. It is shown that the renormalization problem does not arise in the asymptotics s → infinity. As an application the Coulomb interference is considered

  20. Educational Theory and Classroom Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Ronald G.; Smith, William S.

    1979-01-01

    Described are two instruments used in a workshop designed to help teachers clarify their own beliefs about education and to shape their classroom behavior accordingly. The Student-Content Inventory concerns styles of student-teacher interaction and the Educational Theory Inventory correlates the respondent's beliefs to major educational theories.…

  1. Application of cavity theories to high-energy response of LiF dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunleye, O.T.; Fregene, A.O.

    1981-01-01

    The relative energy response of 0.4- and 1.16-mm thick LiF TLD-100 showed decreases of 5 and 9%, respectively, for 22-MV x rays and 6-, 9-, 12-, 15-, and 18-MeV electron energies when compared to responses for 60 Co γ rays in polystyrene and water media. The theories of Burlin, Burlin et al., Almond and McCray, and Holt et al. do not agree with these findings. Reasonable agreement is obtained with the Fregene expression and with Almond and McCray and Holt et al. only when the photon energy response at 60 Co is calculated from the Fregene expression. The hitherto conflicting results are resolved where sufficient experimental and theoretical details are given in light of the present findings

  2. High-energy hadron dynamics based on a stochastic-field multieikonal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    Multieikonal theory, using a stochastic-field representation for collective long-range rapidity correlations, is developed and applied to the calculation of Regge-pole parameters, high-transverse-momentum enhancements, and fluctuation patterns in rapidity densities. If a short-range-order model, such as the one-dimensional planar bootstrap, with only leading t-channel meson poles, is utilized as input to the multieikonal method, the pole spectrum is modified in three ways: promotion and renormalization of leading trajectories (suggesting an effective Pomeron above unity at intermediate energies), and a proliferation of dynamical secondary trajectories, reminiscent of dual models. When transverse dimensions are included, the collective effects produce a growth with energy of large-P/sub T/ inclusive cross sections. Typical-event rapidity distributions, at energies of a few TeV, can be estimated by suitable approximations; the fluctuations give rise to ''domain'' patterns, which have the appearance of clusters separated by rapidity gaps. The relations between this approach to strong-interaction dynamics and a possible unification of weak, electromagnetic, and strong interactions are outlined

  3. High energy hadron dynamics based on a Stochastic-field multi-eikonal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.C.

    1977-06-01

    Multi-eikonal theory, using a stoichastic-field representation for collective long range rapidity correlations, is developed and applied to the calculation of Regge pole parameters, high transverse momentum enhancements, and fluctuation patterns in rapidity densities. If a short-range-order model, such as the one-dimensional planar bootstrap, with only leading t-channel meson poles, is utilized as input to the multi-eikonal method, the pole spectrum is modified in three ways; promotion and renormalization of leading trajectories (suggesting an effective pomeron above unity at intermediate energies), and a proliferation of dynamical secondary trajectories, reminiscent of dual models. When transverse dimensions are included, the collective effects produce a growth with energy of large-P/sub tau/ inclusive cross-sections. Typical-event rapidity distributions, at energies of a few TeV, can be estimated by suitable approximations; the fluctuations give rise to ''domain'' patterns, which have the appearance of clusters separated by rapidity gaps. The relations between this approach to strong-interaction dynamics and a possible unification of weak, electromagnetic, and strong interactions are outlined

  4. Supersaturation-nucleation behavior of poorly soluble drugs and its impact on the oral absorption of drugs in thermodynamically high-energy forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Shunsuke; Minamisono, Takuma; Yamashita, Taro; Kato, Takashi; Kushida, Ikuo

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the oral absorption behavior of poorly water-soluble drugs, their supersaturation-nucleation behavior was characterized in fasted state simulated intestinal fluid. The induction time (t(ind)) for nucleation was measured for four model drugs: itraconazole, erlotinib, troglitazone, and PLX4032. Supersaturated solutions were prepared by solvent shift method, and nucleation initiation was monitored by ultraviolet detection. The relationship between t(ind) and degree of supersaturation was analyzed in terms of classical nucleation theory. The defined supersaturation stability proved to be compound specific. Clinical data on oral absorption were investigated for drugs in thermodynamically high-energy forms such as amorphous forms and salts and was compared with in vitro supersaturation-nucleation characteristics. Solubility-limited maximum absorbable dose was proportionate to intestinal effective drug concentrations, which are related to supersaturation stability and thermodynamic solubility. Supersaturation stability was shown to be an important factor in determining the effect of high-energy forms. The characterization of supersaturation-nucleation behavior by the presented method is, therefore, valuable for assessing the potential absorbability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. The high energy behavior of the forward scattering parameters -- σtot, ρ, and B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, M.M.; Halzen, F.; Margolis, B.; White, A.R.

    1994-10-01

    Utilizing the most recent experimental data, the authors reanalyze high energy anti pp and pp data, using, two distinct (and dissimilar) analysis techniques: (1) asymptotic amplitude analysis, under the assumption that they have reached ''asymptopia'', and (2) an eikonal model whose amplitudes are designed to mimic real QCD amplitudes. The former gives strong evidence for a log(s/s o ) dependence at current energies and not log 2 (s/s o ), and demonstrates that odderons are not necessary to explain the experimental data. The latter gives a unitary model for extrapolation into true ''asymptopia'' from current energies, allowing the authors to predict the values of the total cross section at future supercolliders. Using the QCD-model, they obtain σ tot (16 TeV) = 109 ± 4mb and σ tot (40 TeV) = 124 ± 4 mb

  6. Learning Theory and Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenhan, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Although theories of learning which stress the role of reinforcement can help us understand altruistic behaviors, it seems clear that a more complete comprehension calls for an expansion of our notions of learning, such that they incorporate affect and cognition. (Author/JM)

  7. Systematic Analysis of the Non-Extensive Statistical Approach in High Energy Particle Collisions—Experiment vs. Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Bíró

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of high-energy particle collisions is an excellent testbed for the non-extensive statistical approach. In these reactions we are far from the thermodynamical limit. In small colliding systems, such as electron-positron or nuclear collisions, the number of particles is several orders of magnitude smaller than the Avogadro number; therefore, finite-size and fluctuation effects strongly influence the final-state one-particle energy distributions. Due to the simple characterization, the description of the identified hadron spectra with the Boltzmann–Gibbs thermodynamical approach is insufficient. These spectra can be described very well with Tsallis–Pareto distributions instead, derived from non-extensive thermodynamics. Using the q-entropy formula, we interpret the microscopic physics in terms of the Tsallis q and T parameters. In this paper we give a view on these parameters, analyzing identified hadron spectra from recent years in a wide center-of-mass energy range. We demonstrate that the fitted Tsallis-parameters show dependency on the center-of-mass energy and particle species (mass. Our findings are described well by a QCD (Quantum Chromodynamics inspired parton evolution ansatz. Based on this comprehensive study, apart from the evolution, both mesonic and baryonic components found to be non-extensive ( q > 1 , besides the mass ordered hierarchy observed in the parameter T. We also study and compare in details the theory-obtained parameters for the case of PYTHIA8 Monte Carlo Generator, perturbative QCD and quark coalescence models.

  8. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    This progress report discusses research by Columbia University staff in high energy physics. Some of the topics discussed are as follows: lattice gauge theory; quantum chromodynamics; parity doublets; solitons; baryon number violation; black holes; magnetic monopoles; gluon plasma; Chern-Simons theory; and the inflationary universe

  9. Toward a Theory of Entrepreneurial Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teague, Bruce T.; Gartner, Bill

    2017-01-01

    The chapter reviews several of the most prominent entrepreneurship frameworks to demonstrate that the entrepreneurship field lacks a theory of entrepreneurial behavior. However, each of these existing frameworks would benefit from, and be complemented by, an entrepreneurial behavioral theory. Dra...

  10. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1990-05-01

    This report discusses progress on theoretical high energy physics at Columbia University in New York City. Some of the topics covered are: Chern-Simons gauge field theories; dynamical fermion QCD calculations; lattice gauge theory; the standard model of weak and electromagnetic interactions; Boson-fermion model of cuprate superconductors; S-channel theory of superconductivity and axial anomaly and its relation to spin in the parton model

  11. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses theoretical research in high energy physics at Columbia University. Some of the research topics discussed are: quantum chromodynamics with dynamical fermions; lattice gauge theory; scattering of neutrinos by photons; atomic physics constraints on the properties of ultralight-ultraweak gauge bosons; black holes; Chern- Simons physics; S-channel theory of superconductivity; charged boson system; gluon-gluon interactions; high energy scattering in the presence of instantons; anyon physics; causality constraints on primordial magnetic manopoles; charged black holes with scalar hair; properties of Chern-Aimona-Higgs solitons; and extended inflationary universe

  12. High Energy Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untitled Document [Argonne Logo] [DOE Logo] High Energy Physics Home Division ES&H Personnel Collider Physics Cosmic Frontier Cosmic Frontier Theory & Computing Detector R&D Electronic Design Mechanical Design Neutrino Physics Theoretical Physics Seminars HEP Division Seminar HEP Lunch Seminar HEP

  13. The VAK of vacuum fluctuation, Spontaneous self-organization and complexity theory interpretation of high energy particle physics and the mass spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naschie, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    The paper is a rather informal introduction to the concepts and results of the E-infinity Cantorian theory of quantum physics. The fundamental tools of complexity theory and non-linear dynamics (Hausdorff dimensions, fat fractals, etc.) are used to give what we think to be a new interpretation of high energy physics and to determine the corresponding mass-spectrum. Particular attention is paid to the role played by the VAK, KAM theorem, Arnold diffusion, Newhaus sinks and knot theory in determining the stability of an elementary 'particle-wave' which emerges in self-organizatory manner out of sizzling vacuum fluctuation

  14. Mimesis: Linking Postmodern Theory to Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybicz, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    This article elaborates mimesis as a theory of causality used to explain human behavior. Drawing parallels to social constructionism's critique of positivism and naturalism, mimesis is offered as a theory of causality explaining human behavior that contests the current dominance of Newton's theory of causality as cause and effect. The contestation…

  15. Study of the fire behavior of high-energy lithium-ion batteries with full-scale burning test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Ping; Wang, QingSong; Huang, PeiFeng; Li, Ke; Sun, JinHua; Kong, DePeng; Chen, ChunHua

    2015-07-01

    A full-scale burning test is conducted to evaluate the safety of large-size and high-energy 50 Ah lithium-iron phosphate/graphite battery pack, which is composed of five 10 Ah single cells. The complex fire hazards associated with the combustion process of the battery are presented. The battery combustion behavior can be summarized into the following stages: battery expansion, jet flame, stable combustion, a second cycle of a jet flame followed by stable combustion, a third cycle of a jet flame followed by stable combustion, abatement and extinguishment. The multiple jets of flame indicate serious consequences for the battery and pose a challenge for battery safety. The battery ignites when the battery temperature reaches approximately 175-180 °C. This critical temperature is related to an internal short circuit of the battery, which results from the melting of the separator. The maximum temperature of the flame can reach 1500 °C. The heat release rate (HRR) varies based on the oxygen generated by the battery and the Joule effect of the internal short circuit. The HRR and heat of combustion can reach 49.4 kW and 18,195.1 kJ, respectively. The state of charge of the battery has a significant effect on the maximum HRR, the overall heat generation and the mass loss of the battery.

  16. Coherent Behavior and the Bound State of Water and K(+) Imply Another Model of Bioenergetics: Negative Entropy Instead of High-energy Bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeken, Laurent; Vasilievich Matveev, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Observations of coherent cellular behavior cannot be integrated into widely accepted membrane (pump) theory (MT) and its steady state energetics because of the thermal noise of assumed ordinary cell water and freely soluble cytoplasmic K(+). However, Ling disproved MT and proposed an alternative based on coherence, showing that rest (R) and action (A) are two different phases of protoplasm with different energy levels. The R-state is a coherent metastable low-entropy state as water and K(+) are bound to unfolded proteins. The A-state is the higher-entropy state because water and K(+) are free. The R-to-A phase transition is regarded as a mechanism to release energy for biological work, replacing the classical concept of high-energy bonds. Subsequent inactivation during the endergonic A-to-R phase transition needs an input of metabolic energy to restore the low entropy R-state. Matveev's native aggregation hypothesis allows to integrate the energetic details of globular proteins into this view.

  17. Behavioral momentum theory: equations and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, John A; Shahan, Timothy A

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral momentum theory provides a quantitative account of how reinforcers experienced within a discriminative stimulus context govern the persistence of behavior that occurs in that context. The theory suggests that all reinforcers obtained in the presence of a discriminative stimulus increase resistance to change, regardless of whether those reinforcers are contingent on the target behavior, are noncontingent, or are even contingent on an alternative behavior. In this paper, we describe the equations that constitute the theory and address their application to issues of particular importance in applied settings. The theory provides a framework within which to consider the effects of interventions such as extinction, noncontingent reinforcement, differential reinforcement of alternative behavior, and other phenomena (e.g., resurgence). Finally, the theory predicts some counterintuitive and potentially counterproductive effects of alternative reinforcement, and can serve as an integrative guide for intervention when its terms are identified with the relevant conditions of applied settings.

  18. Light fragment emission within the model of transport theory for high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malfliet, R.; Martschew, E.; Schuermann, B.

    1983-01-01

    The model of transport theory is extended to include the formation of composite particles through thermodynamics. First results obtained are encouraging and show the significance of non-equilibrated components in the inclusive spectra. (author)

  19. Analysis of Health Behavior Theories for Clustering of Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Hee; Duffy, Sonia A

    The objective of this article was to review the utility of established behavior theories, including the Health Belief Model, Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Transtheoretical Model, and Health Promotion Model, for addressing multiple health behaviors among people who smoke. It is critical to design future interventions for multiple health behavior changes tailored to individuals who currently smoke, yet it has not been addressed. Five health behavior theories/models were analyzed and critically evaluated. A review of the literature included a search of PubMed and Google Scholar from 2010 to 2016. Two hundred sixty-seven articles (252 studies from the initial search and 15 studies from the references of initially identified studies) were included in the analysis. Most of the health behavior theories/models emphasize psychological and cognitive constructs that can be applied only to one specific behavior at a time, thus making them not suitable to address multiple health behaviors. However, the Health Promotion Model incorporates "related behavior factors" that can explain multiple health behaviors among persons who smoke. Future multiple behavior interventions guided by the Health Promotion Model are necessary to show the utility and applicability of the model to address multiple health behaviors.

  20. Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted in high energy physics in the following areas; quantum chromodynamics; drift chambers; proton-antiproton interactions; particle decays; particle production; polarimeters; quark-gluon plasma; and conformed field theory

  1. Problems of high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyshevskij, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    Some problems of high energy physics are discussed. The main attention is paid to describibg the standard model. The model comprises quantum chromodynamics and electroweak interaction theory. The problem of CP breaking is considered as well. 8 refs.; 1 tab

  2. Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted in high energy physics in the following areas: quantum chromodynamics; drift chambers; proton-antiproton interactions; particle decays; particle production; polarimeters; quark-gluon plasma; and conformed field theory

  3. High energy physics problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    Described are modern views on the particle structure and particle interactions at high energies. According to the latest data recieved, all particles can be classified in three groups: 1) strong interacting hadrons; 2) leptons, having no strong interactions; 3) photon. The particle structure is described in a quark model, and with the use of gluons. The elementary particle theory is based on the quantum field theory. The energy increase of interacting particles enables to check the main theory principles, such as conventions for causality, relativistic invariance and unitarity. Investigations of weak interactions are of great importance. The progress in this field is connected with unified gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions. For weak interactions promissing are the experiments with colliding electron-proton rings. The new data, especially at higher energies, will lead to a further refinement of the nature of particles and their interactions

  4. Comparison of LiF and FeSO4 dosimetry with cavity theory for high-energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fregene, A.O.

    1976-01-01

    Using FeSO 4 dosimetry in a comparative study, the response of LiF dosimeter rods 1 mm in diameter by 6 mm in length to electron beams of initial energies in the range 5 to 39 MeV was investigated. The electron beam cavity theories of T. E. Burlin, R. J. Shelling, and B. Owen (1969), P. R. Almond and K. McCray (1970), and L. H. Bragg-Gray (1937) were employed in the estimation of absorbed doses. The LiF dosimeter was found energy independent over the range of electron energies covered. Bragg-Gray's and Almond's electron beam theories confirm this finding within 2 percent. The overall experimental error in the work is within 2 percent. Burlin's electron beam theory gave values that were considerably out, especially at the lower end of the range of energy covered

  5. Some questions of using the algebraic coding theory for construction of special-purpose processors in high energy physics spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikityuk, N.M.

    1989-01-01

    The results of investigations of using the algebraic coding theory for the creation of parallel encoders, majority coincidence schemes and coordinate processors for the first and second trigger levels are described. Concrete examples of calculation and structure of special-purpose processor using the table arithmetic method are given for multiplicity t ≤ 5. The question of using parallel and sequential syndrome coding methods for the registration of events with clusters is discussed. 30 refs.; 10 figs

  6. Regge behavior saves string theory from causality violations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Vecchia, Paolo; Giuseppe, D'Appollonio; Russo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Higher-derivative corrections to the Einstein-Hilbert action are present in bosonic string theory leading to the potential causality violations recently pointed out by Camanho et al. [1]. We analyze in detail this question by considering high-energy string-brane collisions at impact parameters b....... Such violations are instead neatly avoided when the full structure of string theory — and in particular its Regge behavior — is taken into account....... ≤ l s (the string-length parameter) with l s ≫ R p (the characteristic scale of the Dp-brane geometry). If we keep only the contribution of the massless states causality is violated for a set of initial states whose polarization is suitably chosen with respect to the impact parameter vector...

  7. Statistical test theory for the behavioral sciences

    CERN Document Server

    de Gruijter, Dato N M

    2007-01-01

    Since the development of the first intelligence test in the early 20th century, educational and psychological tests have become important measurement techniques to quantify human behavior. Focusing on this ubiquitous yet fruitful area of research, Statistical Test Theory for the Behavioral Sciences provides both a broad overview and a critical survey of assorted testing theories and models used in psychology, education, and other behavioral science fields. Following a logical progression from basic concepts to more advanced topics, the book first explains classical test theory, covering true score, measurement error, and reliability. It then presents generalizability theory, which provides a framework to deal with various aspects of test scores. In addition, the authors discuss the concept of validity in testing, offering a strategy for evidence-based validity. In the two chapters devoted to item response theory (IRT), the book explores item response models, such as the Rasch model, and applications, incl...

  8. Use of Theory in Behavior Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluethmann, Shirley M; Bartholomew, L Kay; Murphy, Caitlin C; Vernon, Sally W

    2017-04-01

    Theory use may enhance effectiveness of behavioral interventions, yet critics question whether theory-based interventions have been sufficiently scrutinized. This study applied a framework to evaluate theory use in physical activity interventions for breast cancer survivors. The aims were to (1) evaluate theory application intensity and (2) assess the association between extensiveness of theory use and intervention effectiveness. Studies were previously identified through a systematic search, including only randomized controlled trials published from 2005 to 2013, that addressed physical activity behavior change and studied survivors who were theory items from Michie and Prestwich's coding framework were selected to calculate theory intensity scores. Studies were classified into three subgroups based on extensiveness of theory use (Level 1 = sparse; Level 2 = moderate; and Level 3 = extensive). Fourteen randomized controlled trials met search criteria. Most trials used the transtheoretical model ( n = 5) or social cognitive theory ( n = 3). For extensiveness of theory use, 5 studies were classified as Level 1, 4 as Level 2, and 5 as Level 3. Studies in the extensive group (Level 3) had the largest overall effect size ( g = 0.76). Effects were more modest in Level 1 and 2 groups with overall effect sizes of g = 0.28 and g = 0.36, respectively. Theory use is often viewed as essential to behavior change, but theory application varies widely. In this study, there was some evidence to suggest that extensiveness of theory use enhanced intervention effectiveness. However, there is more to learn about how theory can improve interventions for breast cancer survivors.

  9. Infrared behaviors of SU(2 gauge theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuominen Kimmo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We will discuss some recent results in the determination of the location of the conformal window in SU(2 gauge theory with Nf fermions in the fundamental representation of the gauge group. In particular, we will demonstrate that the long distance behavior of the continuum theory with Nf = 6 is governed by an infrared stable fixed point.

  10. IV. Workshop on High Energy Spin Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurushev, S.

    1992-01-01

    In this proceedings the results on high energy spin physics are summarized. The theory of spin phenomenon and the experimental results at intermediate energy and at high energy spin physics and new technical developments in polarization experiments are presented

  11. Theoretical High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Norman H.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2014-07-14

    we provide reports from each of the six faculty supported by the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Theory grant at Columbia University. Each is followed by a bibliography of the references cited. A complete list of all of the publications in the 12/1/2010-04/30/2014 period resulting from research supported by this grant is provided in the following section. The final section lists the Ph.D. dissertations based on research supported by the grant that were submitted during this period.

  12. Study of the sintering behavior of fine, ultrafine and nanocrystalline WC-CO mixtures obtained by high energy milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, M. D.; Bonache, V.; Amigo, V.; Busquets, D.

    2008-01-01

    In this work the sintering behaviour of fine, ultrafine and nanocrystalline WC-12Co mixtures obtained by high energy milling, as well commercial nano powders, have been studied, in order to evaluate the effect of the particle size and the powder processing, in the densification, microstructural development and mechanical properties of the final product. The consolidation of the mixtures has been made by uniaxial pressing and sintering in vacuum, and by hot isostatic pressing. The sintered materials have been evaluated by measures of density, hardness and indentation fracture toughness, and micro structurally characterized by optical microscopy and scanning and transmission electronic microscopy (SEM and TEM). The results show the improvements in resistant behaviour of the materials obtained from nanocrystalline powders, in spite of the grain growth experienced during the sintering. The best results were obtained for the milling nanocrystalline material, which presents values of hardness higher than 180 HV. (Author) 46 refs

  13. Solution Structures of Highly Active Molecular Ir Water-Oxidation Catalysts from Density Functional Theory Combined with High-Energy X-ray Scattering and EXAFS Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke R; Matula, Adam J; Kwon, Gihan; Hong, Jiyun; Sheehan, Stafford W; Thomsen, Julianne M; Brudvig, Gary W; Crabtree, Robert H; Tiede, David M; Chen, Lin X; Batista, Victor S

    2016-05-04

    The solution structures of highly active Ir water-oxidation catalysts are elucidated by combining density functional theory, high-energy X-ray scattering (HEXS), and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. We find that the catalysts are Ir dimers with mono-μ-O cores and terminal anionic ligands, generated in situ through partial oxidation of a common catalyst precursor. The proposed structures are supported by (1)H and (17)O NMR, EPR, resonance Raman and UV-vis spectra, electrophoresis, etc. Our findings are particularly valuable to understand the mechanism of water oxidation by highly reactive Ir catalysts. Importantly, our DFT-EXAFS-HEXS methodology provides a new in situ technique for characterization of active species in catalytic systems.

  14. Theory of ultra dense matter and the dynamics of high energy interactions involving nuclei. Progress report, December 15, 1993--December 14, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress made during the second year of the three year DOE agreement DE-FG02-93ER40764 on theoretical nuclear physics research performed at the Columbia University and presents a detailed budget adjustment for the third year period December 15, 1994 to December 14, 1995. Sections 1.1 to 1.8 highlight the technical progress made on the following general areas: Multiple scattering and radiative processes in QCD; the quark-gluon plasma transition in nuclear matter; QCD transport theory and dissipative mechanism in dense matter; phenomenological models of high energy interactions involving nuclei; signatures of quark-gluon plasma formation in A+A; neurocomputation theory. Section 2 contains a bibliography of published papers and invited conference papers. Section 3 lists the Columbia nuclear theory members for the December 15, 1994 to December 14, 1995 period. Finally, the budget adjustment requesting $319,830 for the third year relative to the original $320,000 is presented in section 6. Copies of the research papers accompany this report

  15. Theory of ultra dense matter and the dynamics of high energy interactions involving nuclei. Progress report, December 15, 1993--December 14, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1994-09-12

    This report summarizes the progress made during the second year of the three year DOE agreement DE-FG02-93ER40764 on theoretical nuclear physics research performed at the Columbia University and presents a detailed budget adjustment for the third year period December 15, 1994 to December 14, 1995. Sections 1.1 to 1.8 highlight the technical progress made on the following general areas: Multiple scattering and radiative processes in QCD; the quark-gluon plasma transition in nuclear matter; QCD transport theory and dissipative mechanism in dense matter; phenomenological models of high energy interactions involving nuclei; signatures of quark-gluon plasma formation in A+A; neurocomputation theory. Section 2 contains a bibliography of published papers and invited conference papers. Section 3 lists the Columbia nuclear theory members for the December 15, 1994 to December 14, 1995 period. Finally, the budget adjustment requesting $319,830 for the third year relative to the original $320,000 is presented in section 6. Copies of the research papers accompany this report.

  16. Quantum chromodynamics at high energy, theory and phenomenology at hadron colliders; Chromodynamique quantique a haute energie, theorie et phenomenologie appliquee aux collisions de hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquet, C

    2006-09-15

    When probing small distances inside a hadron, one can resolve its partonic constituents: quarks and gluons that obey the laws of perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). This substructure reveals itself in hadronic collisions characterized by a large momentum transfer: in such collisions, a hadron acts like a collection of partons whose interactions can be described in QCD. In a collision at moderate energy, a hadron looks dilute and the partons interact incoherently. As the collision energy increases, the parton density inside the hadron grows. Eventually, at some energy much bigger than the momentum transfer, one enters the saturation regime of QCD: the gluon density has become so large that collective effects are important. We introduce a formalism suitable to study hadronic collisions in the high-energy limit in QCD, and the transition to the saturation regime. In this framework, we derive known results that are needed to present our personal contributions and we compute different cross-sections in the context of hard diffraction and particle production. We study the transition to the saturation regime as given by the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation. In particular we derive properties of its solutions.We apply our results to deep inelastic scattering and show that, in the energy range of the HERA collider, the predictions of high-energy QCD are in good agreement with the data. We also consider jet production in hadronic collisions and discuss the possibility to test saturation at the Large Hadron Collider. (author)

  17. Why high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diddens, A.N.; Van de Walle, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    An argument is presented for high energy physics from the point of view of the practitioners. Three different angles are presented: The cultural consequence and scientific significance of practising high energy physics, the potential application of the results and the discovery of high energy physics, and the technical spin-offs from the techniques and methods used in high energy physics. (C.F.)

  18. Large transverse momentum behavior of gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coquereaux, Robert; De Rafael, Eduardo.

    1977-05-01

    The large transverse momentum behavior of Compton scattering and Moeller scattering in Quantum Electrodynamics; and of elastic quark-quark scattering in Quantum Chromodynamics are examined in perturbation theory. The results strongly suggest that the large transverse momentum regime in gauge theories is governed by a differential equation of the Callan-Symanzik type with a suitable momentum dependent anomalous dimension term. An explicit solution for the quark-quark elastic scattering amplitude at large transverse momentum is given

  19. Investigation of the leading and subleading high-energy behavior of hadron-hadron total cross sections using a best-fit analysis of hadronic scattering data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, M.; Meggiolaro, E.; Silva, P. V. R. G.

    2017-08-01

    In the present investigation we study the leading and subleading high-energy behavior of hadron-hadron total cross sections using a best-fit analysis of hadronic scattering data. The parametrization used for the hadron-hadron total cross sections at high energy is inspired by recent results obtained by Giordano and Meggiolaro [J. High Energy Phys. 03 (2014) 002, 10.1007/JHEP03(2014)002] using a nonperturbative approach in the framework of QCD, and it reads σtot˜B ln2s +C ln s ln ln s . We critically investigate if B and C can be obtained by means of best-fits to data for proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering, including recent data obtained at the LHC, and also to data for other meson-baryon and baryon-baryon scattering processes. In particular, following the above-mentioned nonperturbative QCD approach, we also consider fits where the parameters B and C are set to B =κ Bth and C =κ Cth, where Bth and Cth are universal quantities related to the QCD stable spectrum, while κ (treated as an extra free parameter) is related to the asymptotic value of the ratio σel/σtot. Different possible scenarios are then considered and compared.

  20. A Behavioral Theory of Human Capital Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper

    design in fostering the integration and use of human capital is bounded by individual cognitive limitations that may lead employees to deviate from expected behavior, both individually and in collaboration. The thesis consists of three research papers relying on comprehensive longitudinal project data...... with one another. The overarching contribution of the thesis is to demonstrate, through the combination of psychological and organizational theory, how the ability of firms to properly activate and apply the knowledge held by their employees is fundamentally contingent on the interplay of cognitive...... of a behavioral theory of human capital integration....

  1. Optimal search behavior and classic foraging theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartumeus, F; Catalan, J

    2009-01-01

    Random walk methods and diffusion theory pervaded ecological sciences as methods to analyze and describe animal movement. Consequently, statistical physics was mostly seen as a toolbox rather than as a conceptual framework that could contribute to theory on evolutionary biology and ecology. However, the existence of mechanistic relationships and feedbacks between behavioral processes and statistical patterns of movement suggests that, beyond movement quantification, statistical physics may prove to be an adequate framework to understand animal behavior across scales from an ecological and evolutionary perspective. Recently developed random search theory has served to critically re-evaluate classic ecological questions on animal foraging. For instance, during the last few years, there has been a growing debate on whether search behavior can include traits that improve success by optimizing random (stochastic) searches. Here, we stress the need to bring together the general encounter problem within foraging theory, as a mean for making progress in the biological understanding of random searching. By sketching the assumptions of optimal foraging theory (OFT) and by summarizing recent results on random search strategies, we pinpoint ways to extend classic OFT, and integrate the study of search strategies and its main results into the more general theory of optimal foraging.

  2. Developments in high energy theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion and particles that was our Universe about one picosecond after ..... explains the origin of the strangeness quantum number .... In superconducting systems, magnetic flux is con- fined into ...... whether the pair involved in solar neutrino oscil-.

  3. FSU High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Adams, Todd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Askew, Andrew [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Berg, Bernd [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Blessing, Susan K. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Okui, Takemichi [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Owens, Joseph F. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Reina, Laura [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Wahl, Horst D. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the group’s theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the

  4. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    Brief reports are given on the work of several professors. The following areas are included: quantum chromodynamics calculations using numerical lattice gauge theory and a high-speed parallel computer; the ''spin wave'' description of bosonic particles moving on a lattice with same-site exclusion; a high-temperature expansion to 13th order for the O(4)-symmetric φ 4 model on a four-dimensional F 4 lattice; spin waves and lattice bosons; superconductivity of C 60 ; meson-meson interferometry in heavy-ion collisions; baryon number violation in the Standard Model in high-energy collisions; hard thermal loops in QCD; electromagnetic interactions of anyons; the relation between Bose-Einstein and BCS condensations; Euclidean wormholes with topology S 1 x S 2 x R; vacuum decay and symmetry breaking by radiative corrections; inflationary solutions to the cosmological horizon and flatness problems; and magnetically charged black holes

  5. On a connection between the VAK, knot theory and El Naschie's theory of the mass spectrum of the high energy elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek-Crnjac, L.

    2004-01-01

    In the present work we give an introduction to the ε (∞) Cantorian space-time theory. In this theory every particle can be interpreted as a scaling of another particle. Some particles are a scaling of the proton and are expressed in terms of phi and α-bar 0 . Following the VAK suggestion of El Naschie, the limit sets of Kleinian groups are Cantor sets with Hausdorff dimension phi or a derivative of phi such as 1/phi, 1/phi 2 , 1/phi 3 , etc. Consequently and using ε (∞) theory, the mass spectrum of elementary particles may be found from the limit set of the Moebius-Klein geometry of quantum space-time as a function of the golden mean phi=(}5-1)/2=0.618033989 as discussed recently by Datta (see Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 17 (2003) 621-630)

  6. On a connection between the VAK, knot theory and El Naschie's theory of the mass spectrum of the high energy elementary particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marek-Crnjac, L

    2004-02-01

    In the present work we give an introduction to the {epsilon}{sup ({infinity}}{sup )} Cantorian space-time theory. In this theory every particle can be interpreted as a scaling of another particle. Some particles are a scaling of the proton and are expressed in terms of phi and {alpha}-bar{sub 0}. Following the VAK suggestion of El Naschie, the limit sets of Kleinian groups are Cantor sets with Hausdorff dimension phi or a derivative of phi such as 1/phi, 1/phi{sup 2}, 1/phi{sup 3}, etc. Consequently and using {epsilon}{sup ({infinity}}{sup )} theory, the mass spectrum of elementary particles may be found from the limit set of the Moebius-Klein geometry of quantum space-time as a function of the golden mean phi=({r_brace}5-1)/2=0.618033989 as discussed recently by Datta (see Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 17 (2003) 621-630)

  7. Technology and organization behavior: the relationship between the tools of technology and the structure and functioning of high-energy physics research laboratories. (Volumes I and II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernaghan, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation focuses upon the changes at the intraorganizational level - the institutionalization of organization behavior - at five high-energy physics laboratories in the United States. Institutionalization was defined as a shift from a Gemeinschaft (or Community) type social system and methods of control to a system characterized by a Gesellschaft (or Industrialized) approach to organizing and controlling social relationships and activities in basic research. It was hypothesized that this type of control strategy was implemented by the administration of the laboratories in order to cope with the problems imposed on the organization by an increase in the inertia of the technology on which the laboratories depend for their output. Data were collected at five high-energy physics laboratories over a three-year period. It was found that as the technology employed by the laboratories became more costly, larger in scale, and more complex, automated, and scarce, the management of the laboratories increased the degree of institutional control over the behavior of organizational members to compensate for management's lack of control over the technical element in the socio-technical system

  8. High-energy behavior of the double photoionization of helium from 2 to 12 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, J.C.; Sellin, I.A.; Johnson, B.M.; Lindle, D.W.; Miller, R.D.; Berrah, N.; Azuma, Y.; Berry, H.G.; Lee, D.

    1993-01-01

    We report the ratio of double-to-single photoionization of He at several photon energies from 2 to 12 keV. By time-of-flight methods, we find a ratio consistent with an asymptote at 1.5%±0.2%, essentially reached by hν∼4 keV. Fair agreement is obtained with older shake calculations of Byron and Joachain [Phys. Rev. 164, 1 (1967)], of Aberg [Phys. Rev. A 2, 1726 (1970)], and with recent many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) of Ishihara, Hino, and McGuire [Phys. Rev. A 44, 6980 (1991)]. The result lies below earlier MPBT calculations by Amusia et al. [J. Phys. B 8, 1248 (1975)] (2.3%), and well above semiempirical predictions of Samson [Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2861 (1990)], who expects no asymptote and predicts σ(He 2+ )/σ(He + )=0.3% at 12 keV

  9. Enhancing "theory of mind" through behavioral synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baimel, Adam; Severson, Rachel L; Baron, Andrew S; Birch, Susan A J

    2015-01-01

    Theory of mind refers to the abilities underlying the capacity to reason about one's own and others' mental states. This ability is critical for predicting and making sense of the actions of others, is essential for efficient communication, fosters social learning, and provides the foundation for empathic concern. Clearly, there is incredible value in fostering theory of mind. Unfortunately, despite being the focus of a wealth of research over the last 40 years relatively little is known about specific strategies for fostering social perspective taking abilities. We provide a discussion of the rationale for applying one specific strategy for fostering efficient theory of mind-that of engaging in "behavioral synchrony" (i.e., the act of keeping together in time with others). Culturally evolved collective rituals involving synchronous actions have long been held to act as social glue. Specifically, here we present how behavioral synchrony tunes our minds for reasoning about other minds in the process of fostering social coordination and cooperation, and propose that we can apply behavioral synchrony as a tool for enhancing theory of mind.

  10. On the theory of behavioral mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzendolet, E

    1999-12-01

    The Theory of Behavioral Mechanics is the behavioral analogue of Newton's laws of motion, with the rate of responding in operant conditioning corresponding to physical velocity. In an earlier work, the basic relation between rate of responding and sessions under two FI schedules and over a range of commonly used session values had been shown to be a power function. Using that basic relation, functions for behavioral acceleration, mass, and momentum are derived here. Data from other laboratories also support the applicability of a power function to VI schedules. A particular numerical value is introduced here to be the standard reference value for the behavioral force under the VI-60-s schedule. This reference allows numerical values to be calculated for the behavioral mass and momentum of individual animals. A comparison of the numerical values of the momenta of two animals can be used to evaluate their relative resistances to change, e.g., to extinction, which is itself viewed as a continuously changing behavioral force being imposed on the animal. This overall numerical approach allows behavioral force-values to be assigned to various experimental conditions such as the evaluation of the behavioral force of a medication dosage.

  11. Weak interactions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references

  12. A Comparative Density Functional Theory and Density Functional Tight Binding Study of Phases of Nitrogen Including a High Energy Density Material N8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Capel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative dispersion-corrected Density Functional Theory (DFT and Density Functional Tight Binding (DFTB-D study of several phases of nitrogen, including the well-known alpha, beta, and gamma phases as well as recently discovered highly energetic phases: covalently bound cubic gauche (cg nitrogen and molecular (vdW-bound N8 crystals. Among several tested parametrizations of N–N interactions for DFTB, we identify only one that is suitable for modeling of all these phases. This work therefore establishes the applicability of DFTB-D to studies of phases, including highly metastable phases, of nitrogen, which will be of great use for modelling of dynamics of reactions involving these phases, which may not be practical with DFT due to large required space and time scales. We also derive a dispersion-corrected DFT (DFT-D setup (atom-centered basis parameters and Grimme dispersion parameters tuned for accurate description simultaneously of several nitrogen allotropes including covalently and vdW-bound crystals and including high-energy phases.

  13. Effect of bainitic transformation temperature on the mechanical behavior of cold-rolled TRIP steels studied with in-situ high-energy X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, W.Y., E-mail: wyyang@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, L.F.; Sun, Z.Q. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-05-01

    The effect of bainitic transformation temperature (400 and 450 °C) after intercritical annealing on the mechanical behavior of a low alloyed C–Mn–Al–Si cold-rolled TRIP steel was investigated using the in-situ high-energy X-ray diffraction technique. It was found that the mechanical behaviors of TRIP steels were dominated by the micromechanical behaviors of constituent phases, such as yield strength of each phase and stress partitioning among different phases, as well as the transformation kinetics of retained austenite during plastic deformation. The microstructures obtained at different bainitic transformation temperatures were similar, but exhibited obviously different mechanical behaviors. The retained austenite in the sample treated at 450 °C with lower carbon content and yield strength was less stable and transformed into martensite at a relatively faster speed during deformation leading to a higher ultimate tensile strength but a smaller uniform elongation. In addition, stress partitioning among constituent phases was also obtained for the investigated steels in such a way that the ferrite matrix undertook smaller stresses and the bainitic ferrite, martensite and retained austenite bore larger ones during plastic deformation. The retained austenite in the sample treated at 400 °C with higher carbon content displayed significantly higher strength and relatively stronger work-hardening capabilities during deformation in comparison to those of the sample treated at 450 °C.

  14. Legislator voting and behavioral science theory: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Gregory J; Vernick, Jon S; Reiney, Erin V; Gielen, Andrea C

    2012-11-01

    To examine the application of behavioral science theories to explain the voting behavior of legislators for public health policies. We conducted a systematic review to identify studies that examined factors associated with legislator support, intention to vote, or actual votes on public health policies, emphasizing those grounded in behavior science theory. Twenty-one papers met our inclusion criteria, and 6 were explicitly grounded in a behavioral science theory. Behavioral science theories, and the theory of planned behavior in particular, provide a framework for understanding legislator voting behavior and can be used by advocates to advance pro-health policies.

  15. Symmetry behavior of the effective gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midorikawa, S.

    1981-01-01

    The restoration of spontaneously broken CP invariance is investigated by using the effective QED lagrangian obtained from the standard SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory with two Higgs doublets. It is shown that the large electromagnetic field may restore CP invariance by changing the relative phase angle of Higgs vacuum expectation values even before one of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets disappears. Further large magnetic field may lead to the fine structure constant with discontinuous behavior. (orig.)

  16. Strong interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmino, M.

    1995-01-01

    Spin effects in strong interaction high energy processes are subtle phenomena which involve both short and long distance physics and test perturbative and non perturbative aspects of QCD. Moreover, depending on quantities like interferences between different amplitudes and relative phases, spin observables always test a theory at a fundamental quantum mechanical level; it is then no surprise that spin data are often difficult to accommodate within the existing models. A report is made on the main issues and contributions discussed in the parallel Session on the open-quote open-quote Strong interactions at high energy close-quote close-quote in this Conference. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  17. Perceived enjoyment, concentration, intention, and speed violation behavior: Using flow theory and theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atombo, Charles; Wu, Chaozhong; Zhang, Hui; Wemegah, Tina D

    2017-10-03

    Road accidents are an important public health concern, and speeding is a major contributor. Although flow theory (FLT) is a valid model for understanding behavior, currently the nature of the roles and interplay of FLT constructs within the theory of planned behavior (TPB) framework when attempting to explain the determinants of motivations for intention to speed and speeding behavior of car drivers is not yet known. The study aims to synthesize TPB and FLT in explaining drivers of advanced vehicles intentions to speed and speed violation behaviors and evaluate factors that are critical for explaining intention and behavior. The hypothesized model was validated using a sample collected from 354 fully licensed drivers of advanced vehicles, involving 278 males and 76 females on 2 occasions separated by a 3-month interval. During the first of the 2 occasions, participants completed questionnaire measures of TPB and FLT variables. Three months later, participants' speed violation behaviors were assessed. The study observed a significant positive relationship between the constructs. The proposed model accounted for 51 and 45% of the variance in intention to speed and speed violation behavior, respectively. The independent predictors of intention were enjoyment, attitude, and subjective norm. The independent predictors of speed violation behavior were enjoyment, concentration, intention, and perceived behavioral control. The findings suggest that safety interventions for preventing speed violation behaviors should be aimed at underlying beliefs influencing the speeding behaviors of drivers of advanced vehicles. Furthermore, perceived enjoyment is of equal importance to driver's intention, influencing speed violation behavior.

  18. High energy neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavron, A.; Morley, K.; Morris, C.; Seestrom, S.; Ullmann, J.; Yates, G.; Zumbro, J.

    1996-01-01

    High-energy spallation neutron sources are now being considered in the US and elsewhere as a replacement for neutron beams produced by reactors. High-energy and high intensity neutron beams, produced by unmoderated spallation sources, open potential new vistas of neutron radiography. The authors discuss the basic advantages and disadvantages of high-energy neutron radiography, and consider some experimental results obtained at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility at Los Alamos

  19. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-01-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics Program at the University of California, Riverside. In 1990, we will concentrate on analysis of LEP data from the OPAL detector. We expect to record 10 5 Z's by the end of 1989 and 10 6 in 1990. This data will be used to measure the number of quark-lepton families in the universe. In the second half of 1990 we will also be occupied with the installation of the D-Zero detector in the Tevatron Collider and the preparation of software for the 1991 run. A new initiative made possible by generous university support is a laboratory for detector development at UCR. The focus will be on silicon strip tracking detectors both for the D-Zero upgrade and for SSC physics. The theory program will pursue further various mass-generating radiative mechanisms for understanding small quark and lepton masses as well as some novel phenomenological aspects of supersymmetry

  20. Perilaku Pembelian Konsumen: sebuah Tinjauan Literatur Theory Of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Meitiana, Meitiana

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the differences between several empirical articles on the theory of planned behavior. Theory of planned behavior provides a framework for studying attitudes toward behaviors that postulate three determinants of conceptual intent. Specifically, the intention is based on the variables of attitude toward behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Although this theory has been used frequently, there are still differences in outcomes in explaining atti...

  1. Infrared behavior of massless field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapirstein, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Typical infrared effects in several gauge field theories with massless particles are investigated in perturbation theory. It is first shown that divergences occurring in individual Feynman graphs arising from integrations over the long-wavelength modes of the fields cancel when the graphs are grouped together in a particular way, in a generalization of the Bloch-Nordsieck treatment of QED. As one of the requirements of finiteness is renormalization of the vector propagator off shell, the charge in these theories is not directly related to classical experiment. In an effort to find the meaning of charge the low-energy theorem is considered. Although in lowest order the graphs reproduce the Thompson limit, it is found that loop corrections are singular in the low-energy limit; a simple definition of the charge is thus precluded. Finally, the behavior of the quark color magnetic moment is treated. An apparent infrared singularity of this moment is shown to be due to an improper use of perturbation theory, and is removed and replaced with a finite, field-dependent moment, by use of Furry picture propagators

  2. High energy hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    High energy and small momentum transfer 2 'yields' 2 hadronic scattering processes are described in the physical framework of particle exchange. Particle production in high energy collisions is considered with emphasis on the features of inclusive reactions though with some remarks on exclusive processes. (U.K.)

  3. The high energy galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.

    1986-08-01

    The galaxy is host to a wide variety of high energy events. I review here recent results on large scale galactic phenomena: cosmic-ray origin and confinement, the connexion to ultra high energy gamma-ray emission from X-ray binaries, gamma ray and synchrotron emission in interstellar space, galactic soft and hard X-ray emission

  4. Very high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1986-03-01

    The luminosity and energy requirements are considered for both proton colliders and electron-positron colliders. Some of the basic design equations for high energy linear electron colliders are summarized, as well as design constraints. A few examples are given of parameters for very high energy machines. 4 refs., 6 figs

  5. High-energy electron diffraction and microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, L M; Whelan, M J

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to high energy electron diffraction and elastic and inelastic scattering of high energy electrons, with particular emphasis on applications to modern electron microscopy. Starting from a survey of fundamental phenomena, the authors introduce the most important concepts underlying modern understanding of high energy electron diffraction. Dynamical diffraction in transmission (THEED) and reflection (RHEED) geometries is treated using ageneral matrix theory, where computer programs and worked examples are provided to illustrate the concepts and to f

  6. The interplay between affect and theory of planned behavior variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keer, M.; van den Putte, B.; Neijens, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether affective evaluations of health behaviors moderate or mediate the influence of theory of planned behavior (TPB) variables on intention. Methods: For each of 20 health behaviors, respondents (N=300) completed questionnaire measures of affective evaluation, attitude,

  7. Cosmology for high energy physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, A.

    1987-11-01

    The standard big bang model of cosmology is presented. Although not perfect, its many successes make it a good starting point for most discussions of cosmology. Places are indicated where well understood laboratory physics is incorporated into the big bang, leading to successful predictions. Much less established aspects of high energy physics and some of the new ideas they have introduced into the field of cosmology are discussed, such as string theory, inflation and monopoles. 49 refs., 5 figs

  8. Perilaku Pembelian Konsumen: Sebuah Tinjauan Literatur Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meitiana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the differences between several empirical articles on the theory of planned behavior. Theory of planned behavior provides a framework for studying attitudes toward behaviors that postulate three determinants of conceptual intent. Specifically, the intention is based on the variables of attitude toward behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Although this theory has been used frequently, there are still differences in outcomes in explaining attitudes toward behavior. The results show that there is still a different view of the theory of planned behavior so it is necessary to identify the gaps that occur in this theory. For further research is expected to expand and enrich the discussion of the theory of planned behavior

  9. Expectations for ultra-high energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feynman, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    Strong interactions at ultra-high energies are discussed with emphasis on the hadrons produced in high energy collisions. Evidence is considered that quantum chromodynamics might be the right theory, and also some estimates are given of quantum chromodynamics asymptotic-freedom phenomena, the work under discussion being very preliminary. 6 references

  10. Basing assessment and treatment of problem behavior on behavioral momentum theory: Analyses of behavioral persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieltz, Kelly M; Wacker, David P; Ringdahl, Joel E; Berg, Wendy K

    2017-08-01

    The connection, or bridge, between applied and basic behavior analysis has been long-established (Hake, 1982; Mace & Critchfield, 2010). In this article, we describe how clinical decisions can be based more directly on behavioral processes and how basing clinical procedures on behavioral processes can lead to improved clinical outcomes. As a case in point, we describe how applied behavior analyses of maintenance, and specifically the long-term maintenance of treatment effects related to problem behavior, can be adjusted and potentially enhanced by basing treatment on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We provide a brief review of the literature including descriptions of two translational studies that proposed changes in how differential reinforcement of alternative behavior treatments are conducted based on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We then describe current clinical examples of how these translations are continuing to impact the definitions, designs, analyses, and treatment procedures used in our clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High energy astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    High energy astrophysical research carried out at the Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London is reviewed. Work considered includes cosmic ray particle detection, x-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, gamma and x-ray bursts. (U.K.)

  12. High energy positron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shengzu

    2003-01-01

    The technique of High Energy Positron Imaging (HEPI) is the new development and extension of Positron Emission Tomography (PET). It consists of High Energy Collimation Imaging (HECI), Dual Head Coincidence Detection Imaging (DHCDI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). We describe the history of the development and the basic principle of the imaging methods of HEPI in details in this paper. Finally, the new technique of the imaging fusion, which combined the anatomical image and the functional image together are also introduced briefly

  13. High Energy Physics Departments - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartke, J.

    1999-01-01

    Following the tradition, the activities of the seven new units created in 1997 on the basis of the former Department of High Energy Physics are presented under a common header, they are: Department of Particle Theory (Dept 5); Department of Leptonic Interactions (Dept 11); Department of Hadron Structure (Dept 12); Department of High Energy Nuclear Interactions (Dept 13); The ALICE Experiment Laboratory (NAL); The ATLAS Experiment Laboratory (NAT); High Energy Physics Detector Construction Group (PBD). The research covers a variety of problems of the experimental and theoretical high energy particle physics: the hadronic and leptonic interactions with nucleons and nuclei (characteristics of particle production, including heavy quark physics), e + e - interactions and tests of the Standard Model (also radiative corrections), ultrarelativistic heavy ion interactions and search for the quark-gluon plasma, as well as the spectra, composition and interactions of high energy cosmic ray particles. Research on detectors and accelerator components as well as the development of the apparatus for the high energy physics experiments at future accelerators: LHC (CERN, Geneva), RHIC (Brookhaven), B-Factory (KEK, Tsukuba) and TESLA (DESY) is also presented. The technology of new materials with unique properties such as carbon-carbon composites is also worked on from the point of view of their application in high energy physics experiments. The Division is located in a separate building on the campus of the University of Mining and Metallurgy (UMM). This location, close to the Jagiellonian University (JU), facilitates the collaboration with the latter and with the UMM. The joint weekly seminars carried out for nearly 40 years prove this long term tradition. A substantial part of the activities is teaching and training students from the academic community in Cracow. Joint research, teaching and academic training in the high energy physics are carried out within the M. Miesowicz

  14. REPORT OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES FOR THE YEARS 2000 - 2003; HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS GROUP; SOUTHERN METHODIST UNIVERSITY; EXPERIMENTAL TASK A AND THEORY TASK B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Ryszard Stroynowski

    2003-07-01

    The experimental program in High Energy Physics at SMU was initiated in 1992. Its main goal is the search for new physics phenomena beyond the Standard Model (SSC, LHC) and the study of the properties of heavy quarks and leptons (CLEO, BTeV).

  15. REPORT OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES FOR THE YEARS 2000 - 2003 AND REQUEST FOR RENEWAL HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS GROUP; SOUTHERN METHODIST UNIVERSITY. EXPERIMENTAL TASK A AND THEORY TASK B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Ryszard Stroynowski

    2003-01-01

    The experimental program in High Energy Physics at SMU was initiated in 1992. Its main goal is the search for new physics phenomena beyond the Standard Model (SSC, LHC) and the study of the properties of heavy quarks and leptons (CLEO, BTeV)

  16. A Lesson on Social Role Theory: An Example of Human Behavior in the Social Environment Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes M. Dulin

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the social role theory, a theory of Human Behavior in the Social Environment (HBSE). Relevance of this topic is briefly discussed, as well as a definition of the theory and its historical background. Empirical research that employs this theory will be discussed.Recommendations will be made for future theory development and implications for social work education will conclude the discussion.

  17. An Introduction to Item Response Theory for Health Behavior Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Russell T.; McKyer, E. J. Lisako; Smith, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To introduce item response theory (IRT) to health behavior researchers by contrasting it with classical test theory and providing an example of IRT in health behavior. Method: Demonstrate IRT by fitting the 2PL model to substance-use survey data from the Adolescent Health Risk Behavior questionnaire (n = 1343 adolescents). Results: An…

  18. Applying organizational behavior theory to primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullangi, Samyukta; Saint, Sanjay

    2017-03-01

    Addressing the mounting primary care shortage in the United States has been a focus of educators and policy makers, especially with the passage of the Affordable Care Act in 2010 and the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act in 2015, placing increased pressure on the system. The Association of American Medical Colleges recently projected a shortage of as many as 65,000 primary care physicians by 2025, in part because fewer than 20% of medical students are picking primary care for a career. We examined the issue of attracting medical students to primary care through the lens of organizational behavior theory. Assuming there are reasons other than lower income potential for why students are inclined against primary care, we applied various principles of the Herzberg 2-factor theory to reimagine the operational flow and design of primary care. We conclude by proposing several solutions to enrich the job, such as decreasing documentation requirements, reducing the emphasis on specialty consultations, and elevating physicians to a supervisory role.

  19. A unified treatment of high energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drescher, H.J.; Werner, K.; Ostapchenko, S.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes

    1999-01-01

    It is well known that high energy interactions as different as electron-positron annihilation, deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering, proton-proton interactions, and nucleus-nucleus collisions have many features in common. Based upon this observation, a model for all these interactions is constructed which relies on the fundamental hypothesis that the behavior of high energy interactions is universal. (author)

  20. High energy astrophysics. An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courvoisier, Thierry J.L. [Geneva Univ., Versoix (Switzerland). ISDC, Data Centre for Astrophysics

    2013-07-01

    Based on observational examples this book reveals and explains high-energy astrophysical processes. Presents the theory of astrophysical processes in a didactic approach by deriving equations step by step. With several attractive astronomical pictures. High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, and other objects), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad basis on which they should be able to build the more specific knowledge they will need. While in the first part of the book the physical processes are described and derived in detail, the second part studies astrophysical objects in which high-energy astrophysics plays a crucial role. This two-pronged approach will help students recognise physical processes by their observational signatures in contexts that may differ widely from those presented here.

  1. Theories of suicidal behavior applied to Sylvia Plath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, D

    1998-01-01

    The suicide of Sylvia Plath is examined from the perspective of 15 theories of suicidal behavior and is found to fit best with psychoanalytic and cognitive theories of suicide, in particular those of Aaron Beck, Henry Murray, and Edwin Shneidman.

  2. High energy radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosburgh, K.G.

    1975-01-01

    The high energy radiation detector described comprises a set of closely spaced wedge reflectors. Each wedge reflector is composed of three sides forming identical isoceles triangles with a common apex and an open base forming an equilateral triangle. The length of one side of the base is less than the thickness of the coat of material sensitive to high energy radiation. The wedge reflectors reflect the light photons spreading to the rear of the coat in such a way that each reflected track is parallel to the incident track of the light photon spreading rearwards. The angle of the three isosceles triangles with a common apex is between 85 and 95 deg. The first main surface of the coat of high energy radiation sensitive material is in contact with the projecting edges of the surface of the wedge reflectors of the reflecting element [fr

  3. High-energy detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  4. The utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting consistent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    disease. Objective: To examine the utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting consistent condom use intention of HIV .... (24-25), making subjective norms as better predictors of intention ..... Organizational Behavior and Human Decision.

  5. Multiplicity distributions in high energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannini, A.; Lupia, S.; Ugoccioni, R.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the important phases in the evolution of our understanding of multiplicity distributions in high energy collisions with particular emphasis to intermittent behavior and shoulder structure problem. (orig.)

  6. Multiplicity distributions in high energy collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannini, A.; Lupia, S.; Ugoccioni, R. (Dipt. di Fisica Teorica, Univ. Turin (Italy) INFN, Turin (Italy))

    1992-03-01

    We discuss the important phases in the evolution of our understanding of multiplicity distributions in high energy collisions with particular emphasis to intermittent behavior and shoulder structure problem. (orig.).

  7. High energy astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shklorsky, I.S.

    1979-01-01

    A selected list of articles of accessible recent review articles and conference reports, wherein up-to-date summaries of various topics in the field of high energy astrophysics can be found, is presented. A special report outlines work done in the Soviet Union in this area. (Auth.)

  8. High energy battery. Hochenergiebatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, H.; Beyermann, G.; Bulling, M.

    1992-03-26

    In a high energy battery with a large number of individual cells in a housing with a cooling medium flowing through it, it is proposed that the cooling medium should be guided so that it only affects one or both sides of the cells thermally.

  9. High energy beam cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Herr, H.; Linnecar, T.; Millich, A.; Milss, F.; Rubbia, C.; Taylor, C.S.; Meer, S. van der; Zotter, B.

    1980-01-01

    The group concerned itself with the analysis of cooling systems whose purpose is to maintain the quality of the high energy beams in the SPS in spite of gas scattering, RF noise, magnet ripple and beam-beam interactions. Three types of systems were discussed. The status of these activities is discussed below. (orig.)

  10. High energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.; Gallardo, J.C.

    1997-02-01

    The authors consider the high energy physics advantages, disadvantages and luminosity requirements of hadron (pp, p anti p), lepton (e + e - , μ + μ - ) and photon-photon colliders. Technical problems in obtaining increased energy in each type of machine are presented. The machines relative size are also discussed

  11. High energy physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    This research will focus on the implications of recent theories and experiments in high energy physics of the evolution of the early universe, and on the constraints that cosmological considerations can place on such theories. Several problems are under investigation, including studies of the nature of dark matter and the signature of annihilations in the galactic halo, where the resulting γ-ray fluxes are potentially observable, and in stars, where stellar evolution may be affects. We will develop constraints on the inflationary predictions of scale-free primordial fluctuations in a universe at critical closure density by studying their linear and non-linear evolution after they re-enter the particle horizon, examining the observable imprint of primordial density fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background radiation in both flat and curved cosmological models, and implications for observations of large-scale galaxy clustering and structure formation theories. We will also study spectral distortions in the microwave background radiation that are produced by exotic particle decays in the very early universe. We expect such astrophysical considerations to provide fruitful insights both into high-energy particle physics and into possible cosmological for the early universe

  12. Crisis behavior: An exploration of theories in concert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Jason B; Crudo, Christine

    2015-01-01

    How might prominent existing communication theory better explain behavior in a crisis context, when considered in concert with one another? This theoretical work highlights the insight to be gained using Situational Crisis Communication Theory and Bandura's notions of self-efficacy to heighten the explanatory power of the Theory of Planned Behavior as applied to communication during times of crisis. Situational Crisis Communication Theory better explains how past experience with crisis influences the attitudes and social norms of crisis behavior, while Bandura's notion of self-efficacy speaks more directly to the availability of resources as contributing factors to perceived behavioral control in a crisis situation. As such, the incorporation of these well-developed notions into the broader framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior affords greater understanding of the relationship between communication and behavior during a crisis. Further exploration of this theoretical relationship is warranted.

  13. Behavioral Theory and Culture Special Issue: Authors' Response to Commentaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasick, Rena J.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response to commentaries that focus on the "Behavioral Constructs and Culture in Cancer Screening" (3Cs) study. The 3Cs study had an unremarkable beginning, with two colleagues discussing their frustration over the narrow range of behavioral theories and the limited guidance the theories offered for a study…

  14. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. Second Edition. Theories of Psychotherapy Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craske, Michelle G.

    2017-01-01

    In this revised edition of "Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy," Michelle G. Craske discusses the history, theory, and practice of this commonly practiced therapy. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) originated in the science and theory of classical and instrumental conditioning when cognitive principles were adopted following dissatisfaction…

  15. High energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the High Energy Nuclear Physics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Laboratory research program is focused on the fundamental physics of interactions, on the new techniques for the acceleration of charged particles and on the nuclei double beta decay. The experiments are performed on the following topics: the measurement of the π 0 inclusive production and the photons production in very high energy nuclei-nuclei interactions and the nucleon stability. Concerning the experiments under construction, a new detector for LEP, the study and simulation of the hadronic showers in a calorimeter and the H1 experiment (HERA), are described. The future research programs and the published papers are listed [fr

  16. Aquatic Instructors' Beliefs Toward Inclusion: The Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conatser, Phillip; Block, Martin; Gansneder, Bruce

    2002-04-01

    The purpose was to (a) examine aquatic instructors' beliefs (female, n = 82; male, n = 29) about teaching swimming to individuals with disabilities in inclusive settings and (b) test the theory of planned behavior model (Ajzen, 1985, 1988, 2001). Aquatic instructors from 25 states representing 122 cities across the U.S. participated in this study. The instrument, named Aquatic Instructors' Beliefs Toward Inclusion (AIBTI), was an extended version of the Physical Educators' Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities- Swim (Conatser, Block, & Lepore, 2000). A correlated t test showed aquatic instructors' beliefs (attitudes toward the behavior, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, intention, behavior) were significantly more favorable toward teaching aquatics to individuals with mild disabilities than individuals with severe disabilities. Stepwise multiple regression showed perceived behavioral control and attitude significantly predicted intention, and intention predicted instructors' inclusive behavior for both disability groups. Further, results indicated the theory of planned behavior predicts aquatic instructors' behavior better than the theory of reasoned action.

  17. High energy medical accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandrillon, P.

    1990-01-01

    The treatment of tumours with charged particles, ranging from protons to 'light ions' (carbon, oxygen, neon), has many advantages, but up to now has been little used because of the absence of facilities. After the successful pioneering work carried out with accelerators built for physics research, machines dedicated to this new radiotherapy are planned or already in construction. These high energy medical accelerators are presented in this paper. (author) 15 refs.; 14 figs.; 8 tabs

  18. High energy nuclear excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogny, D.; Decharge, J.

    1983-09-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to see whether a simple description of the nuclear excitations permits one to characterize some of the high energy structures recently observed. The discussion is based on the linear response to different external fields calculated using the Random Phase Approximation. For those structure in heavy ion collisions at excitation energies above 50 MeV which cannot be explained with such a simple approach, we discuss a possible mechanism for this heavy ion scattering

  19. High energy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhm, W.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Currently, quantification of doses from high-energy radiation fields is a topical issue. This is so because high-energy neutrons play an important role for radiation exposure of air crew members and personnel outside the shielding of ion therapy facilities. In an effort to study air crew exposure from cosmic radiation in detail, two Bonner Sphere Spectrometers (BSSs) have recently been installed to measure secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation, one at the environmental research station 'Schneefernerhaus' at an altitude of 2650 m on the Zugspitze mountain, Germany, the other at the Koldewey station close to the North Pole on Spitsbergen. Based on the measured neutron fluence distributions and on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, mean ambient dose equivalent rate values of 75.0 ± 2.9 nSv/h and 8.7 ± 0.6 nSv/h were obtained for October 2008, respectively. Neutrons with energies above about 20 MeV contribute about 50% to dose, at 2650 m. Ambient dose equivalent rates measured by means of a standard rem counter and an extended rem counter at the Schneefernerhaus confirm this result. In order to study the response of state-of-the-art radiation instrumentation in such a high-energy radiation field, a benchmark exercise that included both measurements in and simulation of the stray neutron radiation field at the high-energy particle accelerator at GSI, Germany, were performed. This CONRAD (COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry) project was funded by the European Commission, and the organizational framework was provided by the European Radiation Dosimetry Group, EURADOS. The Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation field and the experimental determination of the neutron spectra with various Bonner Sphere Spectrometers suggest the neutron fluence distributions to be very similar to those of secondary neutrons from cosmic radiation. The results of this intercomparison exercise in terms of ambient dose equivalent are also discussed

  20. Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change: Background and Intervention Development

    OpenAIRE

    RYAN, POLLY

    2009-01-01

    An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change. Knowledge of technology and pharmacology has far outpaced knowledge of how to facilitate health behavior change, and new theories are needed to better understand how practitioners can facilitate health behavior change. In ...

  1. Comment on Gallistel: behavior theory and information theory: some parallels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, John A

    2012-05-01

    In this article, Gallistel proposes information theory as an approach to some enduring problems in the study of operant and classical conditioning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. High-energy particle diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone, V.; Predazzi, E.

    2002-01-01

    This monograph gives a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of soft and hard diffraction processes in strong interaction physics. The first part covers the general formalism (the optical analogy, the eikonal picture, high-energy kinematics, S-matrix theory) and soft hadron-hadron scattering (including the Regge theory) in a complete and mature presentation. It can be used as a textbook in particle physics classes. The remainder of the book is devoted to the 'new diffraction': the pomeron in QCD, low-x physics, diffractive deep inelastic scattering and related processes, jet production etc. It presents recent results and experimental findings and their phenomenological interpretations. This part addresses graduate students as well as researchers. (orig.)

  3. Developments in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhi, Sunil; Roy, Probir

    2009-01-01

    This non-technical review article is aimed at readers with some physics background, including beginning research students. It provides a panoramic view of the main theoretical developments in high energy physics since its inception more than half a century ago, a period in which experiments have spanned an enormous range of energies, theories have been developed leading up to the standard model, and proposals - including the radical paradigm of string theory - have been made to go beyond the standard model. The list of references provided here is not intended to properly credit all original work but rather to supply the reader with a few pointers to the literature, specifically highlighting work done by Indian authors. (author)

  4. The role of symmetry in the theory of inelastic high-energy electron scattering and its application to atomic-resolution core-loss imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, C

    2015-04-01

    The inelastic scattering of a high-energy electron in a solid constitutes a bipartite quantum system with an intrinsically large number of excitations, posing a considerable challenge for theorists. It is demonstrated how and why the utilization of symmetries, or approximate symmetries, can lead to significant improvements in both the description of the scattering physics and the efficiency of numerical computations. These ideas are explored thoroughly for the case of core-loss excitations, where it is shown that the coupled angular momentum basis leads to dramatic improvements over the bases employed in previous work. The resulting gains in efficiency are demonstrated explicitly for K-, L- and M-shell excitations, including such excitations in the context of atomic-resolution imaging in the scanning transmission electron microscope. The utilization of other symmetries is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamics of high energy reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    During last several years, a new framework to describe strong interaction physics has emerged, i.e. quantum chromodynamics (QCD). It is the simplest field theory which incorporates color-dependent force among quarks. This force is generated by the exchange of colored vector gluons coupled to the quarks in gauge-invariant manner. The theory is closely related to the most successful quantum field theory, QED, and the only but very important difference is the gauge group involved. Although the theory is well defined, precisely what it predicts is not yet clearly known. However, at very high energy or momentum transfer Q, the effective coupling between quarks and gluons decreases toward zero with increasing Q 2 , and the calculation of a process involving high Q 2 is possible by the use of perturbation theory. In this paper, many applications of QCD to the processes involving high momentum transfer are examined. The effective coupling resulting from strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the scale violation in deep inelastic lepton scattering, large mass muon pair production, quark and gluon fragmentation functions, large transverse momentum meson and jet production in hadron-hadron collision, and the search for three-jet events are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  6. Analyzing Test-Taking Behavior: Decision Theory Meets Psychometric Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budescu, David V; Bo, Yuanchao

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the implications of penalizing incorrect answers to multiple-choice tests, from the perspective of both test-takers and test-makers. To do so, we use a model that combines a well-known item response theory model with prospect theory (Kahneman and Tversky, Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk, Econometrica 47:263-91, 1979). Our results reveal that when test-takers are fully informed of the scoring rule, the use of any penalty has detrimental effects for both test-takers (they are always penalized in excess, particularly those who are risk averse and loss averse) and test-makers (the bias of the estimated scores, as well as the variance and skewness of their distribution, increase as a function of the severity of the penalty).

  7. The Behavior Intervention Support Team (BIST) Program: Underlying Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulden, Walter T.

    2010-01-01

    The Behavior Intervention Support Team (BIST) is a proactive school-wide behavior management plan for all students, emphasizing schools partnering with students and parents through caring relationships and high expectations. The BIST program is well-grounded in behavioral theory and combines strength-based and resiliency principles within the…

  8. Cultural Context and Modification of Behavior Change Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L.

    2009-01-01

    Although social and cultural contexts act on each level of the multilevel ecologic model to affect cancer risk, health behavior, and cancer screening and promotion in health behavior research, people have yet to develop theories that sufficiently integrate the social and environmental context with group and individual behavior. The "Behavioral…

  9. High energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    High energy ion implantation offers the oppertunity for unique structures in semiconductor processing. The unusual physical properties of such implantations are discussed as well as the special problems in masking and damage annealing. A review is made of proposed circuit structures which involve deep implantation. Examples are: deep buried bipolar collectors fabricated without epitaxy, barrier layers to reduce FET memory sensitivity to soft-fails, CMOS isolation well structures, MeV implantation for customization and correction of completed circuits, and graded reach-throughs to deep active device components. (orig.)

  10. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    This progress report presents a review of research done over the past five years by the Duke High Energy Physics Group. This research has been centered at Fermilab where we have had a continuing involvement with both the Tevatron collider and fixed-target programs. In 1988 we began extensive detector R ampersand D for the SSC through its Major Subsystem Program. Duke has been an active member of the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) since its formation. These last five years has also been used to finish the analysis of data from a series of hybrid bubble chamber experiments which formed the core of Duke's research program in the early 1980's

  11. High energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stanev, Todor

    2010-01-01

    Offers an accessible text and reference (a cosmic-ray manual) for graduate students entering the field and high-energy astrophysicists will find this an accessible cosmic-ray manual Easy to read for the general astronomer, the first part describes the standard model of cosmic rays based on our understanding of modern particle physics. Presents the acceleration scenario in some detail in supernovae explosions as well as in the passage of cosmic rays through the Galaxy. Compares experimental data in the atmosphere as well as underground are compared with theoretical models

  12. High Energy Physics Departments - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartke, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Following our long-time tradition we will present under a common header the activities of the seven new units created in 1997 on the basis of the former Department of High Energy Physics: Department of Particle Theory (Dept. V); Department of Leptonic Interactions (Dept XI); Department of Hadron Structure (Dept XII); Department of High Energy Nuclear Interactions (Dept XIII); The ALICE Experiment Laboratory (NAL); The ATLAS Experiment Laboratory (NAT); High Energy Physics Detector Construction Group (PBD). At the end we will list our common activities: lectures and courses as well as seminars. Our research covers a variety of problems of the experimental and theoretical high energy particle physics: the hadronic and leptonic interactions with nucleons and nuclei (characteristics of particle production, including heavy quark physics), e + e - interactions and tests of the Standard Model (also evaluation of radiative corrections), ultrarelativistic heavy ion interactions and search for the quark-gluon plasma, as well as the spectra, composition and interactions of high energy cosmic ray particles. Research on detectors and accelerator components as well as the development of the apparatus for the high energy physics experiments at future accelerators: LHC (CERN, Geneva), RHIC (Brookhaven), B-Factory (KEK, Tsukuba) and TESLA (DESY, Hamburg) is also carried out. The technology of new materials with unique properties such as carbon-carbon composites is also worked on from the point of view of their application in high energy physics experiments. The Division is located in a separate building on the campus of the University of Mining and Metallurgy. This location, close to the Jagiellonian University, facilitates the collaboration with the latter and with the University of Mining and Metallurgy. The joint weekly seminars carried out for nearly 40 years prove this long term tradition. A substantial part of our activities is teaching and training students from

  13. High energy excitations in itinerant ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prange, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Itinerant magnets, those whose electrons move throughout the crystal, are described by band theory. Single particle excitations offer confirmation of band theory, but their description requires important corrections. The energetics of magnetism in iron and nickel is also described in band theory but requires complex bands. Magnetism above the critical temperature and the location of the critical temperature offer discriminants between the two major models of magnetism at high temperature and can be addressed by high energy excitations

  14. Physical Activity Participation: Social Cognitive Theory versus the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzewaltowski, David A; Noble, John M; Shaw, Jeff M

    1990-12-01

    Social cognitive theory and the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior were examined in the prediction of 4 weeks of physical activity participation. The theories of reasoned action and planned behavior were supported. Attitude and perceived control predicted intention, and intention predicted physical activity participation. The social cognitive theory variables significantly predicted physical activity participation, with self-efficacy and self-evaluation of the behavior significantly contributing to the prediction. The greater the confidence in participating in physical activity and the greater the satisfaction with present physical activity, the more physical activity performed. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that perceived control and intentions did not account for any unique variation in physical activity participation over self-efficacy. Therefore the social cognitive theory constructs were better predictors of physical activity than those from the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior.

  15. A quantitative evolutionary theory of adaptive behavior dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J

    2013-10-01

    The idea that behavior is selected by its consequences in a process analogous to organic evolution has been discussed for over 100 years. A recently proposed theory instantiates this idea by means of a genetic algorithm that operates on a population of potential behaviors. Behaviors in the population are represented by numbers in decimal integer (phenotypic) and binary bit string (genotypic) forms. One behavior from the population is emitted at random each time tick, after which a new population of potential behaviors is constructed by recombining parent behavior bit strings. If the emitted behavior produced a benefit to the organism, then parents are chosen on the basis of their phenotypic similarity to the emitted behavior; otherwise, they are chosen at random. After parent behavior recombination, the population is subjected to a small amount of mutation by flipping random bits in the population's bit strings. The behavior generated by this process of selection, reproduction, and mutation reaches equilibrium states that conform to every empirically valid equation of matching theory, exactly and without systematic error. These equations are known to describe the behavior of many vertebrate species, including humans, in a variety of experimental, naturalistic, natural, and social environments. The evolutionary theory also generates instantaneous dynamics and patterns of preference change in constantly changing environments that are consistent with the dynamics of live-organism behavior. These findings support the assertion that the world of behavior we observe and measure is generated by evolutionary dynamics. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Scaling violations at ultra-high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, W.K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses some of the features of high energy lepton-hadron scattering, including the observed (Bjorken) scaling behavior. The cross-sections where all hadron final states are summed over, are examined and the general formulas for the differential cross-section are examined. The subjects of scaling, breaking and phenomenological consequences are studied, and a list of what ultra-high energy neutrino physics can teach QCD is given

  17. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR VIEW FROM THREE DIFFERENT THEORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Salvador Romero A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the subject is discussed from neoclassical concepts that explain consumer behavior by a utility function, taking into account budgetary constraints that determine it, as consumer behavior as revealed preferences are based on the transitivity also addresses variables to explain consumer final choice. It also integrates the innovative neuroeconomics approach, which explains the issue beyond budgetary constraints, delegating special interest in the study of cognitive aspects or brain impulses, as finally determined by consumer behavior.

  18. Theory and phenomenology of strong and weak interaction high energy physics: [Technical progress report, 5/1/86-4/30/87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thews, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The research reported includes: low energy quark-hadron dynamics; quark-gluon models for hadronic interactions, decays and structure; mathematical and physical properties of nonlinear sigma models, Yang-Mills theories, and Coulomb gases, which are of interest in both particle physics and condensed matter physics; statistical and dynamical aspects of hadronic multiparticle production. 28 refs

  19. High energy astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Poggiani, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, cosmic ray astronomy, neutrino astronomy, and gravitational wave astronomy as distinct research areas, focusing on the astrophysics targets and the requirements with respect to instrumentation and observation methods. The purpose of the book is to bridge the gap between the reference books and the specialized literature. For each type of astronomy, the discussion proceeds from the orders of magnitude for observable quantities. The physical principles of photon and particle detectors are then addressed, and the specific telescopes and combinations of detectors, presented. Finally the instruments and their limits are discussed with a view to assisting readers in the planning and execution of observations. Astronomical observations with high-energy photons and particles represent the newest additions to multimessenger astronomy and this book will be of value to all with an interest in the field.

  20. Prospects at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, C.

    1988-11-01

    I discuss some possibilities for neutrino experiments in the fixed-target environment of the SPS, Tevatron, and UNK, with their primary proton beams of 0.4, 0.9, and 3.0 TeV. The emphasis is on unfinished business: issues that have been recognized for some time, but not yet resolved. Then I turn to prospects for proton-proton colliders to explore the 1-TeV scale. I review the motivation for new physics in the neighborhood of 1 TeV and mention some discovery possibilities for high-energy, high-luminosity hadron colliders and the implications they would have for neutrino physics. I raise the possibility of the direct study of neutrino interactions in hadron colliders. I close with a report on the status of the SSC project. 38 refs., 17 figs

  1. Diffraction of high energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, A.

    1981-10-01

    The diffraction of electrons by a crystal is examined to study its structure. As the electron-substance interaction is strong, it must be treated in a dynamic manner. Using the N waves theory and physical optics the base equations giving the wave at the outlet are deduced for a perfect crystal and their equivalence is shown. The more complex case of an imperfect crystal is then envisaged in these two approaches. In both cases, only the diffraction of high energy electrons ( > 50 KeV) are considered since in the diffraction of slow electrons back scattering cannot be ignored. Taking into account an increasingly greater number of beams, through fast calculations computer techniques, enables images to be simulated in very varied conditions. The general use of the Fast Fourier Transform has given a clear cut practical advantage to the multi-layer method [fr

  2. Experimental game theory and behavior genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarini, David; Dawes, Christopher T; Johannesson, Magnus; Lichtenstein, Paul; Wallace, Björn

    2009-06-01

    We summarize the findings from a research program studying the heritability of behavior in a number of widely used economic games, including trust, dictator, and ultimatum games. Results from the standard behavior genetic variance decomposition suggest that strategies and fundamental economic preference parameters are moderately heritable, with estimates ranging from 18 to 42%. In addition, we also report new evidence on so-called "hyperfair" preferences in the ultimatum game. We discuss the implications of our findings with special reference to current efforts that seek to understand the molecular genetic architecture of complex social behaviors.

  3. On the short distance behavior of string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, R.; Konishi, K.; Provero, P.

    1991-01-01

    Short distance behavior of string theories is investigated by the use of the discretized path-integral formulation. In particular, the minimum physical length and the generalized uncertainty relation are re-derived from a set of Ward-Takahashi identities. In this paper several issues related to the form of the generalized uncertainty relation and to its implications are discussed. A consistent qualitative picture of short distance behavior of string theory seems to emerge from such a study

  4. Behavioral interventions for insomnia: Theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Mahendra P.; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2012-01-01

    Insomnia is a general clinical term that refers to a difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep. Insomnia is widely prevalent in the general population, especially in the elderly and in those with medical and psychiatric disorders. Hypnotic drug treatments of insomnia are effective but are associated with potential disadvantages. This article presents an overview of behavioral interventions for insomnia. Behavioral interventions for insomnia include relaxation training, stimulus control th...

  5. Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change: background and intervention development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Polly

    2009-01-01

    An essential characteristic of advanced practice nurses is the use of theory in practice. Clinical nurse specialists apply theory in providing or directing patient care, in their work as consultants to staff nurses, and as leaders influencing and facilitating system change. Knowledge of technology and pharmacology has far outpaced knowledge of how to facilitate health behavior change, and new theories are needed to better understand how practitioners can facilitate health behavior change. In this article, the Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change is described, and an example of its use as foundation to intervention development is presented. The Integrated Theory of Health Behavior Change suggests that health behavior change can be enhanced by fostering knowledge and beliefs, increasing self-regulation skills and abilities, and enhancing social facilitation. Engagement in self-management behaviors is seen as the proximal outcome influencing the long-term distal outcome of improved health status. Person-centered interventions are directed to increasing knowledge and beliefs, self-regulation skills and abilities, and social facilitation. Using a theoretical framework improves clinical nurse specialist practice by focusing assessments, directing the use of best-practice interventions, and improving patient outcomes. Using theory fosters improved communication with other disciplines and enhances the management of complex clinical conditions by providing holistic, comprehensive care.

  6. High energy beam manufacturing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geskin, E.S.; Leu, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    Technological progress continues to enable us to utilize ever widening ranges of physical and chemical conditions for material processing. The increasing cost of energy, raw materials and environmental control make implementation of advanced technologies inevitable. One of the principal avenues in the development of material processing is the increase of the intensity, accuracy, flexibility and stability of energy flow to the processing site. The use of different forms of energy beams is an effective way to meet these sometimes incompatible requirements. The first important technological applications of high energy beams were welding and flame cutting. Subsequently a number of different kinds of beams have been used to solve different problems of part geometry control and improvement of surface characteristics. Properties and applications of different specific beams were subjects of a number of fundamental studies. It is important now to develop a generic theory of beam based manufacturing. The creation of a theory dealing with general principles of beam generation and beam-material interaction will enhance manufacturing science as well as practice. For example, such a theory will provide a format approach for selection and integration of different kinds of beams for a particular application. And obviously, this theory will enable us to integrate the knowledge bases of different manufacturing technologies. The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells, as well as a number of more technical, although less exciting, publications demonstrate both the feasibility and effectiveness of the generic approach to the description of beam oriented technology. Without any attempt to compete with Wells, we still hope that this volume will contribute to the creation of the theory of beam oriented manufacturing

  7. Eating Behaviors of Older African Americans: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Neal, Catherine Walker

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study applies the theory of planned behavior to explain the fruit and vegetable eating behaviors, a broad construct consisting of preparing, self-monitoring, and consuming fruits and vegetables, of older African Americans. Design and Methods: Structural equation modeling was used to examine the applicability of the theory of planned behavior with data from 211 older African American women and men (73% women, 26% men; median age range of 57–63 years) participating in a larger intervention study. Results: Attitudes about eating fruit and vegetables, subjective social norms, and perceived behavioral control were related to older African Americans’ intentions to consume fruits and vegetables. Social norms and behavioral intentions were associated with fruit and vegetable eating behaviors. Perceived control did not moderate the influence of behavioral intentions on actual behavior. Implications: Results indicated that the theory of planned behavior can be used to explain variation in older African Americans’ eating behavior. This study also emphasizes the value of considering broader behavioral domains when employing the theory of planned behavior rather than focusing on specific behaviors. Furthermore, social service programs aimed at reducing the incidence of diseases commonly associated with poor eating behaviors among older African Americans must consider promoting not only fruit and vegetable consumption but also related behaviors including preparing and self-monitoring by eliminating structural, cognitive, and normative constraints. PMID:23241919

  8. Computing in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watase, Yoshiyuki

    1991-09-15

    The increasingly important role played by computing and computers in high energy physics is displayed in the 'Computing in High Energy Physics' series of conferences, bringing together experts in different aspects of computing - physicists, computer scientists, and vendors.

  9. Behavioral interventions for insomnia: Theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mahendra P; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2012-10-01

    Insomnia is a general clinical term that refers to a difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep. Insomnia is widely prevalent in the general population, especially in the elderly and in those with medical and psychiatric disorders. Hypnotic drug treatments of insomnia are effective but are associated with potential disadvantages. This article presents an overview of behavioral interventions for insomnia. Behavioral interventions for insomnia include relaxation training, stimulus control therapy, sleep restriction therapy, sleep hygiene, paradoxical intention therapy, cognitive restructuring, and other approaches. These are briefly explained. Research indicates that behavioral interventions are efficacious, effective, and likely cost-effective treatments for insomnia that yield reliable, robust, and long-term benefits in adults of all ages. Detailed guidance is provided for the practical management of patients with insomnia.

  10. Contributions of Socialization Theory to Consumer Behavior Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Scott

    1978-01-01

    Socialization theory can contribute to consumer research because it focuses on (1) youth and development, (2) interaction of factors affecting consumer behavior, and (3) linkages between mental processes and overt behavior. Various approaches to socialization research and consumer research are described, including cognitive development and…

  11. Self-Determination Theory: Intrinsic Motivation and Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Marie

    2017-03-01

    Motivation is a central concept in behavioral change. This article reviews the self-determination theory with an emphasis on "intrinsic motivation," which is facilitated when three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) are met. Intrinsic motivation is associated with improved well-being and sustained behavioral change.

  12. Hypnosis, behavioral theory, and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, N A; Bottari, M

    2001-04-01

    Although nicotine replacement and other pharmacological treatments head the list of popular interventions for smoking cessation, approaches based on psychology can also assist smokers. Hypnosis, suggestion, and behavior therapies have been offered to patients and studied experimentally for several decades. Although no single psychological approach has been found to be superior to others, psychological interventions contribute significantly to successful treatment outcome in smoking cessation. This article describes common hypnotic and behavioral approaches to smoking cessation and critically reviews some of the findings from clinical and experimental research studies. The authors also offer suggestions regarding treatment and future research.

  13. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-01-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics program at the University of California at Riverside. In hadron collider physics the authors will complete their transition from experiment UA1 at CERN to the DZERO experiment at Fermilab. On experiment UA1 their effort will concentrate on data analysis at Riverside. At Fermilab they will coordinate the high voltage system for all detector elements. They will also carry out hardware/software development for the D0 muon detector. The TPC/Two-Gamma experiment has completed its present phase of data-taking after accumulating 160 pb - 1 of luminosity. The UC Riverside group will continue data and physics analysis and make minor hardware improvement for the high luminosity run. The UC Riverside group is participating in design and implementation of the data acquisition system for the OPAL experiment at LEP. Mechanical and electronics construction of the OPAL hadron calorimeter strip readout system is proceeding on schedule. Data analysis and Monte Carlo detector simulation efforts are proceeding in preparation for the first physics run when IEP operation comenses in fall 1989

  14. High energy plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1985-05-01

    Colinear intense laser beams ω 0 , kappa 0 and ω 1 , kappa 1 shone on a plasma with frequency separation equal to the electron plasma frequency ω/sub pe/ are capable of creating a coherent large longitudinal electric field E/sub L/ = mc ω/sub pe//e of the order of 1GeV/cm for a plasma density of 10 18 cm -3 through the laser beat excitation of plasma oscillations. Accompanying favorable and deleterious physical effects using this process for a high energy beat-wave accelerator are discussed: the longitudinal dephasing, pump depletion, the transverse laser diffraction, plasma turbulence effects, self-steepening, self-focusing, etc. The basic equation, the driven nonlinear Schroedinger equation, is derived to describe this system. Advanced accelerator concepts to overcome some of these problems are proposed, including the plasma fiber accelerator of various variations. An advanced laser architecture suitable for the beat-wave accelerator is suggested. Accelerator physics issues such as the luminosity are discussed. Applications of the present process to the current drive in a plasma and to the excitation of collective oscillations within nuclei are also discussed

  15. Very high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1985-05-01

    The conclusions are relatively simple, but represent a considerable challenge to the machine builder. High luminosity is essential. We may in the future discover some new kind of high cross section physics, but all we know now indicates that the luminosity has to increase as the square of the center of mass energy. A reasonable luminosity to scale from for electron machines would be 10 33 cm -2 s -1 at a center of mass energy of 3 TeV. The required emittances in very high energy machines are small. It will be a real challenge to produce these small emittances and to maintain them during acceleration. The small emittances probably make acceleration by laser techniques easier, if such techniques will be practical at all. The beam spot sizes are very small indeed. It will be a challenge to design beam transport systems with the necessary freedom from aberration required for these small spot sizes. It would of course help if the beta functions at the collision points could be reduced. Beam power will be large - to paraphrase the old saying, ''power is money'' - and efficient acceleration systems will be required

  16. Longitudinal driving behavior : Theory and empirics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossen, S.J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Congestion is a serious problem in many countries around the world. Consequently a lot of effort is put in inventing smart methods for reducing congestion. Whether these measures lead to the desired effect appears to be largely dependent on the driving behavior of individual road users. It is

  17. High energy electron multibeam diffraction and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, Alain.

    1980-04-01

    The different theories of dynamical scattering of electrons are firstly reviewed with special reference to their basis and the validity of the different approximations. Then after a short description of the different experimental set ups, structural analysis and the investigation of the optical potential by means of high energy electrons will be surveyed

  18. High energy hadron-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koplik, J.; Mueller, A.H.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical expectations for hadron-nucleus scattering at high energy if the basic hadron-hadron interaction is due to Regge poles and cuts arising in multiperipheral or soft field theory models are described. Experiments at Fermilab may provide a critical test of such models

  19. Theoretical and experimental high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasiorowicz, S.; Ruddick, K.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses experimental and theoretical work in High Energy Physics. Some topics discussed are: quantum field theory; supersymmetry; cosmology; superstring model; relic photinos; inflationary universe; dark matter; standard model; supernovae; semileptonic decay; quantum Langevin equation; underground neutrino detection at Soudan; strange quark systems; cosmic ray detection; superconducting super collider detectors; and studies of direct photon production

  20. Heavy ion fragmentation in high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemes, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    A review is made on the theoretical aspects of heavy ion collisions at high energies. A comparison with several experimental data obtained in a large variety of experiments is present. An emphasis is given on the basis of Glauber's theory of scattering. (L.C.) [pt

  1. SU(5) at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueffel, H.

    1982-01-01

    By exhibiting the relationship between the full SU(5) theory in the unitary gauge and the underlying Higgs-Goldstone system in the t'Hooft-Feynman gauge the high energy limits of amplitudes (involving gauge and Higgs bosons) can be calculated easily. As an application tree unitarity bounds on Higgs parameters and masses are discussed. (Author)

  2. Studies in theorectical high energy particles physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Keung, Wai-Yee; Panigrahi, P.; Sukhatme, U.

    1990-02-01

    This paper discusses the research being done at the University of Illinois in theoretical high energy physics. Some areas discussed are string models, collider physics, symmetries in gauge theories, sigma model, radiative decay of mesons, supersymmetry, superconducting, and hydroproduction of charm

  3. Microphysics, cosmology, and high energy astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, F.

    1974-01-01

    The discussion of microphysics, cosmology, and high energy astrophysics includes particle motion in an electromagnetic field, conformal transformations, conformally invariant theory of gravitation, particle orbits, Friedman models with k = 0, +-1, the history and present status of steady-state cosmology, and the nature of mass. (U.S.)

  4. Basic research in theoretical high energy physics. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    Activities in numerous areas of basic research in theoretical high energy physics are listed, and some highlights are given. Areas of research include statistical mechanics, quantum field theory, lattice gauge theories, and quantum gravity. 81 references

  5. Weak interactions at high energies. [Lectures, review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references. (JFP)

  6. An experimental high energy physics program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.

    1988-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental high energy physics program is reviewed, including particle detectors. Topics discussed include τ and B physics, gamma-ray astronomy, neutrino oscillations in matter with three flavors applied to solar and supernova neutrinos, effective field theories, a possible fifth force, the dynamics of hadrons and superstrings, mathematics of grand unified theories, chiral symmetry breaking, physics at the Fermilab collider, and development of the TOPAZ detector

  7. Behaviorism Makes Its Debut: A Review of Lattal and Chase's Behavior Theory and Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Zuriff, G.E

    2005-01-01

    Behavior Theory and Philosophy, masterfully edited by Lattal and Chase, is a collection of 21 papers by major behaviorists, presented and discussed at a conference on the intersection of philosophy and behavior analysis held at West Virginia University in 2000. The chapters in Part I are devoted to philosophy of science (causality, constructs, theory, explanation, reductionism) and the relations among behavior analysis and several contemporary philosophical movements (humanism, empiricism, pr...

  8. The proposition of a general version of the theory of planned behavior: Predicting ecological behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, F.G.; Gutscher, H.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper explores whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB) must abandon the notion that perceived behavioral control (PBC) has a direct influence on behavior. In a cross-sectional survey of 895 Swiss residents, our hypothesis was tested by means of structural equation models. Applied

  9. Determinants of oral hygiene behavior : a study based on the theory of planned behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk-Werkhoven, Y.A.; Dijkstra, Arie; van der Schans, C.P.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to develop an index for oral hygiene behavior (OHB) and to examine potential predictors of this actual behavior based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Measures of oral health knowledge (OHK) and the expected effect of having healthy teeth on social

  10. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Counter Group continues to work on data analysis for Fermilab Experiment E653. Altogether, they expect several thousand reconstructed charm events and approximately 25 B pair events of which 12 have been observed thus far. Preparation continue for Fermilab Experiment E781, a high statistics study of charm baryon production. In the Theory Group, Cutkosky and collaborators study hadron phenomenology and non-perturbative QCD calculations. Levine has a long standing program in computational QED to obtain improved theoretical values for g-2 of the electron. Wolfenstein, Li, and their collaborators have worked on areas of weak interaction phenomenology that may yield insights beyond the standard model, e.g. CP violation and non-zero neutrino masses. Holman has been concerned with phase transitions in gauge theories relevant to cosmological problems. During 1991 most of the group effort was concentrated on the L3 experiment at CERN. Highlights of the results from the analysis of the Z degrees resonance include (a) a measurement of the strong coupling constant α s for b quarks (b) a precision measurement of the average time of B hadrons and (c) a direct determination of the number of light neutrino faculties from the reaction e + e - → ν bar νγ. We also began a major upgrade of the L3 luminosity monitor by replacing PWC chamber by a Si strip system in front of the BGO calorimeters. Finally we have continued our SSC R ampersand D work on BaF 2 by joining the GEM collaboration

  11. Citing and Reading Behaviors of High-Energy Physics or How a Community Stopped Worrying about Journals and Learned to Love Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentil-Beccot, Anne; Mele, Salvatore; Brooks, Travis C.

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary scholarly discourse follows many alternative routes in addition to the three-century old tradition of publication in peer-reviewed journals. The field of High-Energy Physics (HEP) has explored alternative communication strategies for decades, initially via the mass mailing of paper copies of preliminary manuscripts, then via the inception of the first online repositories and digital libraries. This field is uniquely placed to answer recurrent questions raised by the current trends in scholarly communication: is there an advantage for scientists to make their work available through repositories, often in preliminary form? Is there an advantage to publishing in Open Access journals? Do scientists still read journals or do they use digital repositories? The analysis of citation data demonstrates that free and immediate online dissemination of preprints creates an immense citation advantage in HEP, whereas publication in Open Access journals presents no discernible advantage. In addition, the analysis of clickstreams in the leading digital library of the field shows that HEP scientists seldom read journals, preferring preprints instead.

  12. Citing and Reading Behaviors of High-Energy Physics or How a Community Stopped Worrying about Journals and Learned to Love Repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentil-Beccot, Anne; Mele, Salvatore; /CERN; Brooks, Travis C.; /SLAC

    2009-10-17

    Contemporary scholarly discourse follows many alternative routes in addition to the three-century old tradition of publication in peer-reviewed journals. The field of High-Energy Physics (HEP) has explored alternative communication strategies for decades, initially via the mass mailing of paper copies of preliminary manuscripts, then via the inception of the first online repositories and digital libraries. This field is uniquely placed to answer recurrent questions raised by the current trends in scholarly communication: is there an advantage for scientists to make their work available through repositories, often in preliminary form? Is there an advantage to publishing in Open Access journals? Do scientists still read journals or do they use digital repositories? The analysis of citation data demonstrates that free and immediate online dissemination of preprints creates an immense citation advantage in HEP, whereas publication in Open Access journals presents no discernible advantage. In addition, the analysis of clickstreams in the leading digital library of the field shows that HEP scientists seldom read journals, preferring preprints instead.

  13. High energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-01-01

    Hadron collider studies will focus on: (i) the search for the top quark with the newly installed D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, (ii) the upgrade of the D0 detector to match the new main injector luminosity and (iii) R ampersand D on silicon microstrip tracking devices for the SSC. High statistics studies of Z 0 decay will continue with the OPAL detector at LEP. These studies will include a direct measurement of Z decay to neutrinos, the search for Higgs and heavy quark decays of Z. Preparations for the Large Scintillation Neutrino Detector (LSND) to measure neutrino oscillations at LAMPF will focus on data acquisition and testing of photomultiplier tubes. In the theoretical area E. Ma will concentrate on mass-generating radiative mechanisms for light quarks and leptons in renormalizable gauge field theories. J. Wudka's program includes a detailed investigation of the magnetic-flip approach to the solar neutrino

  14. Finite-temperature behavior of mass hierarchies in supersymmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsparg, P.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that Witten's mechanism for producing a large gauge hierarchy in supersymmetric theories leads to a novel symmetry behavior at finite temperature. The exponentially large expectation value in such models develops at a critical temperature of order of the small (supersymmetry-breaking) scale. The phase transition can proceed without need of vacuum tunnelling. Models based on Witten's mechanism thus require a reexamination of the standard cosmological treatment of grand unified theories. (orig.)

  15. Infrared behavior of the Reggeon field theory for the pomeron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.; Dash, J.W.; Pinsky, S.S.; Rabl, V.

    1975-01-01

    The infrared structure of Reggeon field theory is investigated using renormalization group methods. The infrared fixed point where only the phi 3 interaction is nontrivial is shown to be stable with respect to all higher order interactions within the context of perturbation theory both at D = 2 and in the epsilon-expansion. This may imply that the asymptotic behavior of the total cross section is model independent

  16. A Gas Calorimeter for High-Energy Experiment and Study of High-Energy Cascade Shower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Hitoshi [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan)

    1984-09-01

    High energy behavior of the electromagnetic cascade shower has been studied. high energy showers were created by electron and hadron beams with energies between 25 GeV and 150 GeV at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The showers were observed by a shower detector consisting of multi-layer of lead plates and proportional chambers. The experimental results were analyzed with special emphasis on the fluctuation problem of the electromagnetic cascade shower.

  17. Dosimetry of high energy radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Sahare, P D

    2018-01-01

    High energy radiation is hazardous to living beings and a threat to mankind. The correct estimation of the high energy radiation is a must and a single technique may not be very successful. The process of estimating the dose (the absorbed energy that could cause damages) is called dosimetry. This book covers the basic technical knowledge in the field of radiation dosimetry. It also makes readers aware of the dangers and hazards of high energy radiation.

  18. Bureaucratic Minimal Squawk Behavior: Theory and Evidence from Regulatory Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Clare Leaver

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that bureaucrats are susceptible to `minimal squawk` behavior. I develop a simple model in which a desire to avoid criticism can prompt, otherwise public-spirited, bureaucrats to behave inefficiently. Decisions are taken to keep interest groups quiet and mistakes out of the public eye. The policy implications of this behavior are at odds with the received view that agencies should be structured to minimise the threat of `capture`. I test between theories of bureaucratic beha...

  19. Mathematical Systems Theory : from Behaviors to Nonlinear Control

    CERN Document Server

    Julius, A; Pasumarthy, Ramkrishna; Rapisarda, Paolo; Scherpen, Jacquelien

    2015-01-01

    This treatment of modern topics related to mathematical systems theory forms the proceedings of a workshop, Mathematical Systems Theory: From Behaviors to Nonlinear Control, held at the University of Groningen in July 2015. The workshop celebrated the work of Professors Arjan van der Schaft and Harry Trentelman, honouring their 60th Birthdays. The first volume of this two-volume work covers a variety of topics related to nonlinear and hybrid control systems. After giving a detailed account of the state of the art in the related topic, each chapter presents new results and discusses new directions. As such, this volume provides a broad picture of the theory of nonlinear and hybrid control systems for scientists and engineers with an interest in the interdisciplinary field of systems and control theory. The reader will benefit from the expert participants’ ideas on exciting new approaches to control and system theory and their predictions of future directions for the subject that were discussed at the worksho...

  20. Research program in theoretical high-energy physics. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, D.; Fried, H.M.; Guralnik, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    Last year's research program dealt with a large range of topics in high energy theoretical physics. Included in the problems studied were: flavor mixing angles in flavor gauge theory; grand unification schemes; neutral current phenomenology; charmonium decays; perturbative aspects of soft hadronic phenomena within the framework of the dual topological expansion; Regge trajectory slopes and the shape of the inclusive spectra; bound states in quantum electrodynamics; calculations of the Lamb Shift and hyperfine splitting in hydrogen (and muonium) through order α(Zα) 6 ; perturbation theory resummation techniques; collective behavior of instantons in quantum chromodynamics; 1/N expansion and mean field expansion techniques (applied to the nonlinear sigma model, classical solutions to Yang-Mills theories, and renormalized four-Fermi models of weak interactions); semiclassical calculation of Z 1 (α) in scalar QED; group theoretic studies of spontaneous symmetry breaking; fibre bundles applied to the topological aspects of gauge theories; strong-coupling expansions (as an aspect of infrared behavior, as a systematic perturbation expansion with reference to lattice extrapolation, applied to classical statistical mechanics, applied to problems with nonquadratic kinetic energy terms, and in transfer matrix formulations); eikonal methods (three-body Coulomb scattering, quark-antiquark potentials); computer augmented solutions to quantum field theory; topological excitations in two-dimensional models and WKB approximation on a lattice. A list of publications is included

  1. Hadron dynamics at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storrow, J.K.

    1977-01-01

    The nine lectures give a very brief introduction to hadron dynamics at high energies. They concentrate on basic concepts such as Regge poles, duality and geometrical ideas, and simple applications of these ideas to the problem of understanding data. To some extent two body phenomenology is emphasized at the expense of multiparticle final states and when the latter have been considered they have concentrated on inclusive reactions. One lecture discussed data on 2-2 reactions in order to provide the motivation for Regge pole theory, then two lectures are devoted to basic concepts. Then duality is introduced and shown to provide reasonable restrictions on a pole model. A lecture is then devoted to discussing geometrical ideas i.e. the t-dependence of data is looked at from an s-channel point of view. The section on two-body phenomenology is then concluded by discussing applications of the above ideas to two reactions-pion-nucleon scattering and np charge exchange scattering. The remaining three lectures are devoted to multiparticle reactions. Exclusive reactions are considered briefly and then the remainder of the course is concerned with inclusive reactions. The concepts of scaling and limiting fragmentation are discussed and Mueller's generalised optical theorem introduced and then applied in various kinematic limits. (author)

  2. PENGUJIAN PERSONAL FINANCIAL BEHAVIOR, PLANNED BEHAVIOR TERHADAP SELF CONTROL BEHAVIOR DENGAN THEORY PLANNED OF BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Putra, Adrie

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan gambaran dan bukti tentang pentingnya perilakupengelolaan keuangan. Pengelolaan keuangan yang baik pada dasarnya sangat dibutuhkan karena dengan pengelolaan keuangan yang baik akan meningkatkan kesejahteraan. Berdasarkan data dari Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) peningkatan kesejahteraan baik barang maupun konsumsi pangan meningkat dari 47,71% menjadi 50,66%, hal ini menjadi cermin pentingnya pengelolaan keuangan. Didasarkan pada Theory Planned of Behavio...

  3. High energy physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.I.; Davis, M.

    1989-01-01

    This research will focus on the implications of recent theories and experiments in high energy physics for the evolution of the early Universe, and on the constraints that cosmological considerations can place on such theories. Several problems are under investigation, including the development of constraints on the inflationary predictions of scale--free primordial fluctuations in a universe at critical closure density by studying their linear and non-linear evolution after they re-enter the particle horizon. We will examine the observable imprint of primordial density fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background radiation curved cosmological models. Most astronomical evidence points to an open universe: one of our goals is to reconcile this conclusion with the particle physics input. We will investigate the response of the matter distribution to a network of cosmic strings produced during an early symmetry-breaking transition, and compute the resulting cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We will simulate the formation of large-scale structures whose dynamics are dominated by weakly interacting particles such as axions, massive neutrinos or photinos in order to model the formation of galaxies, galaxy clusters and superclusters. We will study of the distortions in the microwave background radiation, both spectral and angular, that are produced by ionized gas associated with forming clusters and groups of galaxies. We will also study constraints on exotic cooling mechanisms involving axions and majorons set by stellar evolution and the energy input into low mass stars by cold dark matter annihilation galactic nuclei. We will compute the detailed gamma ray spectrum predicted by various cold dark matter candidates undergoing annihilation in the galactic halo and bulge

  4. [High energy physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.I.; Davis, M.

    1988-01-01

    This research will focus on the implications of recent theories and experiments in high energy physics for the evolution of the early Universe, and on the constraints that cosmological considerations can place on such theories. Several problems are under investigation, including the development of constraints on the inflationary predictions of scale-free primordial fluctuations in a universe at critical closure density by studying their linear and non-linear evolution after they re-enter the particle horizon. We will examine the observable imprint of primordial density fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background radiation in curved cosmological models. Most astronomical evidence points to an open universe: one of our goals is to reconcile this conclusion with the particle physics input. We will investigate the response of the matter distribution to a network of cosmic strings produced during an early symmetry--breaking transition, and compute the resulting cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We will simulate the formation of large--scale structures whose dynamics are dominated by weakly interacting particles such as axions massive neutrinos or photinos in order to model the formation of galaxies, galaxy clusters and superclusters. We will study the distortions in the microwave background radiation, both spectral and angular, that are produced by ionized gas associated with forming clusters and groups of galaxies. We will also study constraints on exotic cooling mechanisms involving axions and majorons set by stellar evolution and the energy input into low mass stars by cold dark matter annihilation in galactic nuclei. We will compute the detailed gamma ray spectrum predicted by various cold dark matter candidates undergoing annihilation in the galactic halo and bulge

  5. High energy nuclear collisions: Theory overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, R.J.

    2010-08-01

    We review some basic concepts of relativistic heavy-ion physics and discuss our understanding of some key results from the experimental program at the relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC). We focus in particular on the early time dynamics of nuclear collisions, some result from lattice QCD, hard probes and photons.

  6. High energy nuclear collisions: Theory overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1012 K, were deconfined and existed as a quark gluon plasma (QGP). These ideas can be tested in collisions of nuclei at ultra-relativistic energies. At the relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC), nuclei as heavy as gold are accelerated to an energy of 100 GeV per nucleon. A total energy of 40 TeV is available in the collision of.

  7. Behaviorism Makes Its Debut: A Review of Lattal and Chase's Behavior Theory and Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuriff, G.E

    2005-01-01

    Behavior Theory and Philosophy, masterfully edited by Lattal and Chase, is a collection of 21 papers by major behaviorists, presented and discussed at a conference on the intersection of philosophy and behavior analysis held at West Virginia University in 2000. The chapters in Part I are devoted to philosophy of science (causality, constructs, theory, explanation, reductionism) and the relations among behavior analysis and several contemporary philosophical movements (humanism, empiricism, pragmatism, selectionism, analytic philosophy). Part II examines behavior-analytic interpretations of mentalistic concepts (intention, imagination, ethics, cognition). Part III presents extensions and applications of basic research in behavior analysis (verbal behavior, creativity, development, education, disability, and corporate culture). The publication of this book signals that behaviorism has developed mature philosophical foundations.

  8. Effects of high-energy electro-pulsing treatment on microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoxin; Wang, Lingsheng; Tse, Zion T H; Tang, Guoyi; Song, Guolin

    2015-04-01

    The effect of electro-pulsing treatment (EPT) on the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of cold-rolled Ti-6Al-4V alloy strips was investigated in this paper. It was found that the elongation to failure of materials obtains a noticeable enhancement with increased EPT processing time while slightly sacrificing strength. Fine recrystallized grains and the relative highest elongation to failure (32.5%) appear in the 11second-EPT samples. Grain coarsening and decreased ductility were brought in with longer EPT duration time. Fracture surface analysis shows that transition from intergranular brittle facture to transgranular dimple fracture takes place with an increase in processing time of EPT. Meanwhile, corrosion behavior of titanium alloys is greatly improved with increased EPT processing time, which is presented by polarization test and surface observation with the beneficial effect of forming a protective anatase-TiO2 film on the surface of alloys. The rapid recrystallization behavior and oxide formation of the titanium alloy strip under EPTs are attributed to the enhancement of nucleation rate, atomic diffusion and oxygen migration resulting from the coupling of the thermal and athermal effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Parental Involvement and the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracke, Deborah; Corts, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The "Theory of Planned Behavior" provided a specific theoretical framework to evaluate the impact of attitudes, norms, and controls on parental involvement in a local school district. The "new knowledge" that resulted from the measurement of these constructs affirmed that regardless of the perceived level of parental involvement, virtually all…

  10. Portfolio selection between rational and behavioral theories emergent markets case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouri Abdelfatteh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the determinants of Portfolio Choice under the investors, professionals and academics’ perception. We introduce an approach based on cognitive mapping technique with a series of semi-directive interviews. Among a sample of 30 Tunisian individuals, we propose tow different frameworks: a mean-variance framework and a behavioral framework. Each framework is oriented to capture the effect of some concepts as proposed by the mean-variance portfolio theory and the behavioral portfolio theory on the portfolio choice decision. The originality of this research paper is guaranteed since it traits the behavioral portfolio choice in emergent markets. In the best of our knowledge this is the first study in the Tunisian context that explores such area of research. Ours results show that the Tunisian investors behave as it prescribed by the behavioral portfolio theory. They use some concepts proposed by the rational mean-variance theory of portfolio choice but they are affected by their emotions and some others cognitive bias when constructing and managing they portfolio of assets.

  11. Toward a Behavioral Theory of Boards and Corporate Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ees, Hans; Gabrielsson, Jonas; Huse, Morten; Gabrielson, J.

    Review A coherent alternative to an economic approach of corporate governance is missing. In this paper we take steps towards developing a behavioral theory of boards and corporate governance. Building upon concepts such as political bargaining, routinization of decision making, satisficing, and

  12. Darwinism and the Behavioral Theory of Sociocultural Evolution: An Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, John

    1979-01-01

    Challenges the view that the social sciences are theoretically impoverished disciplines when compared with the natural sciences. Demonstrates that the synthesis of an abstract Darwinian model of systemic adaptation and the behavioral principles of social learning produces a logical theory of sociocultural evolution. (DB)

  13. Computing in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watase, Yoshiyuki

    1991-01-01

    The increasingly important role played by computing and computers in high energy physics is displayed in the 'Computing in High Energy Physics' series of conferences, bringing together experts in different aspects of computing - physicists, computer scientists, and vendors

  14. The Dark Side of Malleability: Incremental Theory Promotes Immoral Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Niwen; Zuo, Shijiang; Wang, Fang; Cai, Pan; Wang, Fengxiang

    2017-01-01

    Implicit theories drastically affect an individual's processing of social information, decision making, and action. The present research focuses on whether individuals who hold the implicit belief that people's moral character is fixed (entity theorists) and individuals who hold the implicit belief that people's moral character is malleable (incremental theorists) make different choices when facing a moral decision. Incremental theorists are less likely to make the fundamental attribution error (FAE), rarely make moral judgment based on traits and show more tolerance to immorality, relative to entity theorists, which might decrease the possibility of undermining the self-image when they engage in immoral behaviors, and thus we posit that incremental beliefs facilitate immorality. Four studies were conducted to explore the effect of these two types of implicit theories on immoral intention or practice. The association between implicit theories and immoral behavior was preliminarily examined from the observer perspective in Study 1, and the results showed that people tended to associate immoral behaviors (including everyday immoral intention and environmental destruction) with an incremental theorist rather than an entity theorist. Then, the relationship was further replicated from the actor perspective in Studies 2-4. In Study 2, implicit theories, which were measured, positively predicted the degree of discrimination against carriers of the hepatitis B virus. In Study 3, implicit theories were primed through reading articles, and the participants in the incremental condition showed more cheating than those in the entity condition. In Study 4, implicit theories were primed through a new manipulation, and the participants in the unstable condition (primed incremental theory) showed more discrimination than those in the other three conditions. Taken together, the results of our four studies were consistent with our hypotheses.

  15. The Dark Side of Malleability: Incremental Theory Promotes Immoral Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niwen Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Implicit theories drastically affect an individual’s processing of social information, decision making, and action. The present research focuses on whether individuals who hold the implicit belief that people’s moral character is fixed (entity theorists and individuals who hold the implicit belief that people’s moral character is malleable (incremental theorists make different choices when facing a moral decision. Incremental theorists are less likely to make the fundamental attribution error (FAE, rarely make moral judgment based on traits and show more tolerance to immorality, relative to entity theorists, which might decrease the possibility of undermining the self-image when they engage in immoral behaviors, and thus we posit that incremental beliefs facilitate immorality. Four studies were conducted to explore the effect of these two types of implicit theories on immoral intention or practice. The association between implicit theories and immoral behavior was preliminarily examined from the observer perspective in Study 1, and the results showed that people tended to associate immoral behaviors (including everyday immoral intention and environmental destruction with an incremental theorist rather than an entity theorist. Then, the relationship was further replicated from the actor perspective in Studies 2–4. In Study 2, implicit theories, which were measured, positively predicted the degree of discrimination against carriers of the hepatitis B virus. In Study 3, implicit theories were primed through reading articles, and the participants in the incremental condition showed more cheating than those in the entity condition. In Study 4, implicit theories were primed through a new manipulation, and the participants in the unstable condition (primed incremental theory showed more discrimination than those in the other three conditions. Taken together, the results of our four studies were consistent with our hypotheses.

  16. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain and Predict Behavior Intentions in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Lung

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to use the theory of planned behavior to verify undergraduates' behavioral intentions regarding their participation in aquatic sports. Undergraduates in Taiwan serve as the research subjects and a survey method employs questionnaires. A total of 200 valid questionnaires were received out of 230, thus giving a valid response rate of…

  17. Effect of Cognitive-Behavioral-Theory-Based Skill Training on Academic Procrastination Behaviors of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Betül; Avci, Rasit

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral theory (CBT) psycho-educational group program on the academic procrastination behaviors of university students and the persistence of any training effect. This was a quasi-experimental research based on an experimental and control group pretest, posttest, and followup test model.…

  18. The penetration, diffusion and energy deposition of high-energy photon in layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhengming, Luo; Chengjun, Gou; Laub, Wolfram

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new theory for calculating the transport of high-energy photons and their secondary charged particles. We call this new algorithm characteristic line method, which is completely analytic. Using this new method we can not only accurately calculate the transport behavior of energetic photons, but also precisely describes the transport behavior and energy deposition of secondary electrons, photoelectrons, Compton recoil electrons and positron-electron pairs. Its calculation efficiency is much higher than the Monte Carlo method's. The theory can be directly applied to layered media situation and obtain a pencil-beam-modeled solution. Therefore, it may be applied to clinical applications for radiation therapy

  19. Advancing Models and Theories for Digital Behavior Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekler, Eric B; Michie, Susan; Pavel, Misha; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M; Jimison, Holly B; Garnett, Claire; Parral, Skye; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2016-11-01

    To be suitable for informing digital behavior change interventions, theories and models of behavior change need to capture individual variation and changes over time. The aim of this paper is to provide recommendations for development of models and theories that are informed by, and can inform, digital behavior change interventions based on discussions by international experts, including behavioral, computer, and health scientists and engineers. The proposed framework stipulates the use of a state-space representation to define when, where, for whom, and in what state for that person, an intervention will produce a targeted effect. The "state" is that of the individual based on multiple variables that define the "space" when a mechanism of action may produce the effect. A state-space representation can be used to help guide theorizing and identify crossdisciplinary methodologic strategies for improving measurement, experimental design, and analysis that can feasibly match the complexity of real-world behavior change via digital behavior change interventions. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Grounded Theory on Helping Behavior and Its Shaping Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Grounded Theory on Helping Behavior and Its Shaping Factors

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In social psychology, the attribution model of helping behavior suggests that beliefs of the helping target’s responsibility for the need for help evoke affective motivators such as feelings of pity, sympathy, or anger. The affective motivation leads to helping or not helping the target. The current emergent theory is an enhancement of this theory by incorporating other personal and situational variables.Through the use of classic grounded theory, I interviewed 80 participants from different De La Salle Schools in the Philippines. This yielded over 1300 individual incidents that were compared and contrasted to form codes, categories and subcategories. A theory on the decision making process of helping emerged that incorporates the helper’s personal conviction, and rational deliberations of the situation. The desire to help is based on the helper’s rationalemotive beliefs (philosophical ideals and values that nurture helping and the knowledge of the nature of risk/problem and relational-emotive ties (with the one who needs help and with a social group that nurtures helping. The desire to help undergoes a process of rationalpragmatic-deliberations on the appropriateness of the recipients need of help, the cost of helping, the helper’s capability of helping, and the logistics of helping before the actual helping occurs. The theory has implications for current social psychological theories of helping, and the use of classic grounded theory research.

  1. Extending Theory-Based Quantitative Predictions to New Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, Leslie Ann D; Velicer, Wayne F; Redding, Colleen A; Rossi, Joseph S; Prochaska, James O

    2016-04-01

    Traditional null hypothesis significance testing suffers many limitations and is poorly adapted to theory testing. A proposed alternative approach, called Testing Theory-based Quantitative Predictions, uses effect size estimates and confidence intervals to directly test predictions based on theory. This paper replicates findings from previous smoking studies and extends the approach to diet and sun protection behaviors using baseline data from a Transtheoretical Model behavioral intervention (N = 5407). Effect size predictions were developed using two methods: (1) applying refined effect size estimates from previous smoking research or (2) using predictions developed by an expert panel. Thirteen of 15 predictions were confirmed for smoking. For diet, 7 of 14 predictions were confirmed using smoking predictions and 6 of 16 using expert panel predictions. For sun protection, 3 of 11 predictions were confirmed using smoking predictions and 5 of 19 using expert panel predictions. Expert panel predictions and smoking-based predictions poorly predicted effect sizes for diet and sun protection constructs. Future studies should aim to use previous empirical data to generate predictions whenever possible. The best results occur when there have been several iterations of predictions for a behavior, such as with smoking, demonstrating that expected values begin to converge on the population effect size. Overall, the study supports necessity in strengthening and revising theory with empirical data.

  2. Conference on High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Conference on High Energy Physics (HEP 2016) will be held from August 24 to 26, 2016 in Xi'an, China. This Conference will cover issues on High Energy Physics. It dedicates to creating a stage for exchanging the latest research results and sharing the advanced research methods. HEP 2016 will be an important platform for inspiring international and interdisciplinary exchange at the forefront of High Energy Physics. The Conference will bring together researchers, engineers, technicians and academicians from all over the world, and we cordially invite you to take this opportunity to join us for academic exchange and visit the ancient city of Xi’an.

  3. Theory-driven intervention for changing personality: expectancy value theory, behavioral activation, and conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magidson, Jessica F; Roberts, Brent W; Collado-Rodriguez, Anahi; Lejuez, C W

    2014-05-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that personality traits may be changeable, raising the possibility that personality traits most linked to health problems can be modified with intervention. A growing body of research suggests that problematic personality traits may be altered with behavioral intervention using a bottom-up approach. That is, by targeting core behaviors that underlie personality traits with the goal of engendering new, healthier patterns of behavior that, over time, become automatized and manifest in changes in personality traits. Nevertheless, a bottom-up model for changing personality traits is somewhat diffuse and requires clearer integration of theory and relevant interventions to enable real clinical application. As such, this article proposes a set of guiding principles for theory-driven modification of targeted personality traits using a bottom-up approach, focusing specifically on targeting the trait of conscientiousness using a relevant behavioral intervention, Behavioral Activation (BA), considered within the motivational framework of expectancy value theory (EVT). We conclude with a real case example of the application of BA to alter behaviors counter to conscientiousness in a substance-dependent patient, highlighting the EVT principles most relevant to the approach and the importance and viability of a theoretically driven, bottom-up approach to changing personality traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. High Energy Transport Code HETC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1985-09-01

    The physics contained in the High Energy Transport Code (HETC), in particular the collision models, are discussed. An application using HETC as part of the CALOR code system is also given. 19 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Computing in high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sarah; Devenish, Robin [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Oxford University (United Kingdom)

    1989-07-15

    Computing in high energy physics has changed over the years from being something one did on a slide-rule, through early computers, then a necessary evil to the position today where computers permeate all aspects of the subject from control of the apparatus to theoretical lattice gauge calculations. The state of the art, as well as new trends and hopes, were reflected in this year's 'Computing In High Energy Physics' conference held in the dreamy setting of Oxford's spires. The conference aimed to give a comprehensive overview, entailing a heavy schedule of 35 plenary talks plus 48 contributed papers in two afternoons of parallel sessions. In addition to high energy physics computing, a number of papers were given by experts in computing science, in line with the conference's aim – 'to bring together high energy physicists and computer scientists'.

  6. [Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses progress in the following research in high energy physics: The crystal ball experiment; delco at PEP; proton decay experiment; MACRO detector; mark III detector; SLD detector; CLEO II detector; and the caltech L3 group

  7. Computing in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Sarah; Devenish, Robin

    1989-01-01

    Computing in high energy physics has changed over the years from being something one did on a slide-rule, through early computers, then a necessary evil to the position today where computers permeate all aspects of the subject from control of the apparatus to theoretical lattice gauge calculations. The state of the art, as well as new trends and hopes, were reflected in this year's 'Computing In High Energy Physics' conference held in the dreamy setting of Oxford's spires. The conference aimed to give a comprehensive overview, entailing a heavy schedule of 35 plenary talks plus 48 contributed papers in two afternoons of parallel sessions. In addition to high energy physics computing, a number of papers were given by experts in computing science, in line with the conference's aim – 'to bring together high energy physicists and computer scientists'

  8. [Relational frame theory - a theoretical framework for contextual behavioral science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensche, M; Schweiger, U

    2015-05-01

    Therapists have to deal with verbal systems and often work with verbal exchange. Therefore, a psychological theory is required, which teaches the therapist how to accomplish this task. The BRT is a theory of human language and cognition that explains how people use their verbal behavior as stimuli in their interrelations and how they act and react, based on the resulting relationships. This behavior is learned very early in the course of language acquisition and functions as a generalized operant. A prerequisite for this is the ability of people to undergo mental simulation. This enables them to construct diverse relational frameworks between individual stimuli. Without relational frameworks, people cannot function. The ability to establish a relational framework is a prerequisite for the formation of rule-governed behavior. Rule-governed behavior economizes complex decision processes, creates interpersonal security and enables dealing with events before they take place. On the other hand, the same properties that enable people to solve problems effectively can also contribute to rigid adherence to rules and experience avoidance. Relational frameworks, once established, outweigh other sources of behavioral regulation. Thus, it can become the basis of psychopathology. Poor contextual control makes it difficult for people to devote flexible, focused and voluntary attention to the present and align their actions with the immediate present. Contextual psychotherapy methods that are based on the BRT start precisely at this point: Targeted establishment of new contingencies in the therapeutic interaction through systematic strengthening of metacognitive mode and through the establishment of new rules that make possible a change in the rule-governed behavior enable undermining of dysfunctional rule-governed behavior and build up desirable behavior. This allows any therapeutic process to be more effective - regardless of the patient's expressed symptoms. © Georg Thieme

  9. The interpersonal theory of suicide and adolescent suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, S; Feldman, D; Snir, A; Apter, A; Carli, V; Hoven, C W; Wasserman, C; Sarchiapone, M; Wasserman, D

    2015-09-01

    Joiner's interpersonal theory of suicide (IPTS) proposes that suicide results from the combination of a perception of burdening others, social alienation, and the capability for self-harm. The theory gained some empirical support, however the overall model has yet to be tested. This study aimed to test the main predictions of IPTS in a large community sample of Israeli adolescents. 1196 Israeli Jewish and Arab high-school pupils participating in the SEYLE project completed a self-report questionnaire measuring perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, health risk behaviors, and non-suicidal self-injury (risk variables), and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts (outcome measures). The data were tested in cross-sectional regression models. Consistent with IPTS, perceived burdensomeness was found to interact with thwarted belongingness, predicting suicidal ideation. Depression mediated most of the effect of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness on suicidal ideation. Acquired capability for self-harm, as measured by health risk behaviors and direct non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors, predicted suicide attempt. However, this mechanism operated independently from ideation rather than in interaction with it, at variance with IPTS-based predictions. The cross-sectional design precludes conclusions about causality and directionality. Proxy measures were used to test the interpersonal theory constructs. The findings support some of the IPTS predictions but not all, and imply two separate pathways for suicidal behavior in adolescents: one related to internalizing psychopathology and the other to self-harm behaviors. This conceptualization has clinical implications for the differential identification of adolescents at risk for suicidal behavior and for the development of prevention strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. From behavior to neural dynamics: An integrated theory of attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschman, Timothy J.; Kastner, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The brain has a limited capacity and therefore needs mechanisms to selectively enhance the information most relevant to one’s current behavior. We refer to these mechanisms as ‘attention’. Attention acts by increasing the strength of selected neural representations and preferentially routing them through the brain’s large-scale network. This is a critical component of cognition and therefore has been a central topic in cognitive neuroscience. Here we review a diverse literature that has studied attention at the level of behavior, networks, circuits and neurons. We then integrate these disparate results into a unified theory of attention. PMID:26447577

  11. The theory of planned behavior, materialism, and aggressive driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrat, Kalanit; Shoham, Aviv

    2013-10-01

    Aggressive driving is a growing problem worldwide. Previous research has provided us with some insights into the characteristics of drivers prone to aggressiveness on the road and into the external conditions triggering such behavior. Little is known, however, about the personality traits of aggressive drivers. The present study proposes planned behavior and materialism as predictors of aggressive driving behavior. Data was gathered using a questionnaire-based survey of 220 individuals from twelve large industrial organizations in Israel. Our hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Our results indicate that while planned behavior is a good predictor of the intention to behave aggressively, it has no impact on the tendency to behave aggressively. Materialism, however, was found to be a significant indicator of aggressive driving behavior. Our study is based on a self-reported survey, therefore might suffer from several issues concerning the willingness to answer truthfully. Furthermore, the sampling group might be seen as somewhat biased due to the relatively high income/education levels of the respondents. While both issues, aggressive driving and the theory of planned behavior, have been studied previously, the linkage between the two as well as the ability of materialism to predict aggressive behavior received little attention previously. The present study encompasses these constructs providing new insights into the linkage between them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Research in high energy theoretical physics: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavelli, L.J.; Harms, B.C.; Jones, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses many papers submitted in theoretical High Energy Physics by the Physics Department of the University of Alabama. Most papers cover superstring theory, parity violations, and particle decay

  13. THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR : STUDI KASUS SOFTLIFTING DI SURABAYA

    OpenAIRE

    Junaedi, C. Marliana

    2010-01-01

    Computer became popular among business community or education causing ethicproblem in its usage. One of the ethic problems is software piracy on individuallevel or popularly called as softlifting. This research tries to analyze softlifting instudent community that based on Theory of Planned Behavior.The respondents are 280 students in Surabaya. The result shows that not all externalfactors motive internal factors. It also shows that not all internal factors motivestudents to do softlifting. T...

  14. Theory Of Planned Behavior : Studi Kasus Softlifting di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Junaedi, Marliana

    2010-01-01

    Computer became popular among business community or education causing ethicproblem in its usage. One of the ethic problems is software piracy on individuallevel or popularly called as softlifting. This research tries to analyze softlifting instudent community that based on Theory of Planned Behavior.The respondents are 280 students in Surabaya. The result shows that not all externalfactors motive internal factors. It also shows that not all internal factors motivestudents to do softlifting. T...

  15. Bell inequalities in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yibing; Li Junli; Qiao Congfeng

    2007-01-01

    We review in this paper the research status on testing the completeness of Quantum mechanics in High Energy Physics, especially on the Bell Inequalities. We briefly introduce the basic idea of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen paradox and the results obtained in photon experiments. In the content of testing the Bell inequalities in high energy physics, the early attempts of using spin correlations in particle decays and later on the mixing of neutral mesons used to form the quasi-spin entangled states are covered. The related experimental results in K 0 and B 0 systems are presented and discussed. We introduce the new scheme, which is based on the non-maximally entangled state and proposed to implement in φ factory, in testing the Local Hidden Variable Theory. And, we also discuss about the possibility of realising it to the tau charm factory. (authors)

  16. 22nd DAE High Energy Physics Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    These proceedings gather invited and contributed talks presented at the XXII DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics (HEP) Symposium, which was held at the University of Delhi, India, on 12–16 December 2016. The contributions cover a variety of topics in particle physics, astroparticle physics, cosmology and related areas from both experimental and theoretical perspectives, namely (1) Neutrino Physics, (2) Standard Model Physics (including Electroweak, Flavour Physics), (3) Beyond Standard Model Physics, (4) Heavy Ion Physics & QCD (Quantum Chromodynamics), (5) Particle Astrophysics & Cosmology, (6) Future Experiments and Detector Development, (7) Formal Theory, and (8) Societal Applications: Medical Physics, Imaging, etc. The DAE-BRNS High Energy Physics Symposium, widely considered to be one of the leading symposiums in the field of Elementary Particle Physics, is held every other year in India and supported by the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS), Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), India. As man...

  17. High energy physics at UC Riverside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report discusses progress made for the following two tasks: experimental high energy physics, Task A, and theoretical high energy physics, Task B. Task A1 covers hadron collider physics. Information for Task A1 includes: personnel/talks/publications; D0: proton-antiproton interactions at 2 TeV; SDC: proton-proton interactions at 40 TeV; computing facilities; equipment needs; and budget notes. The physics program of Task A2 has been the systematic study of leptons and hadrons. Information covered for Task A2 includes: personnel/talks/publications; OPAL at LEP; OPAL at LEP200; CMS at LHC; the RD5 experiment; LSND at LAMPF; and budget notes. The research activities of the Theory Group are briefly discussed and a list of completed or published papers for this period is given

  18. Predictors of Prosthodontic Treatment-Related Behavior Using the Theory of Planned Behavior Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Antonio Helio; Castro e Silva, Donizete; Nogueira, Túlio Eduardo; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to assess subjects' intentions and behavior to predict willingness to undergo prosthodontic care. A questionnaire was administered to 225 adults with history of teeth loss who currently were not under prosthodontic treatment. The questionnaire comprised TPB components (attitude toward behaviour [ATB], subjective norm [SN], and perceived behavioral control [PBC]) containing items with potential influence on the intentions and behavior of individuals toward prosthodontic care. Clinical and socioeconomic data were also assessed. A path regression model was constructed explaining two dependent variables simultaneously: one explained the influence of PBC on intention (R2=0.04) and another explained the influence of dental arch, position of lost teeth, socioeconomic status, and PBC on behavior (R2=0.31). It was concluded that PBC was a relevant TPB component that encompasses perception of costs, opportunity cost, perceived need, and access to dental care. Clinical and socioeconomic factors were also major determinants of behavior toward prosthodontic treatment.

  19. Application of the Expanded Theory of Planned Behavior in Intercity Travel Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Jing; Zhi-cai, Juan; Lin-jie, Gao

    2014-01-01

    Congestion in intercity corridors of metropolitan area has been increasing steadily. To alleviate congestion, many major investment projects, such as the high speed railway projects, were proposed by agency. To evaluate the adequacy and efficiency of these projects, the intercity travel behavior should be analyzed in metropolitan area. The paper constructed a Multiple Indicators and Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model according to an expanded theory of planned behavior (TPB) to study the travel beh...

  20. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, Sergey V

    2007-01-01

    During the past decade, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant research utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Every two years, at the International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics, scientists interested in this emerging field discuss the progress in topics covering: - Stellar evolution, stellar envelopes, opacities, radiation transport - Planetary Interiors, high-pressure EOS, dense plasma atomic physics - Supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, exploding systems, strong shocks, turbulent mixing - Supernova remnants, shock processing, radiative shocks - Astrophysical jets, high-Mach-number flows, magnetized radiative jets, magnetic reconnection - Compact object accretion disks, x-ray photoionized plasmas - Ultrastrong fields, particle acceleration, collisionless shocks. These proceedings cover many of the invited and contributed papers presented at the 6th International Conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophys...

  1. Future of high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panofsky, W.K.H.

    1984-06-01

    A rough overview is given of the expectations for the extension of high energy colliders and accelerators into the xtremely high energy range. It appears likely that the SSC or something like it will be the last gasp of the conventional method of producing high energy proton-proton collisions using synchrotron rings with superconducting magnets. It is likely that LEP will be the highest energy e+e - colliding beam storage ring built. The future beyond that depends on the successful demonstrations of new technologies. The linear collider offers hope in this respect for some extension in energy for electrons, and maybe even for protons, but is too early to judge whether, by how much, or when such an extension will indeed take place

  2. Theory, evidence and Intervention Mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions.

    OpenAIRE

    Brug, Hans; Oenema, Anke; Ferreira, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. Discussion Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is the only foothold we have for the development of behavioral nutrition and physical activity interventions. Application of theory should improve the effectiveness of interventions. However, some of the the...

  3. The role of descriptive norm within the theory of planned behavior in predicting Korean Americans' exercise behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo

    2011-08-01

    There are few studies investigating psychosocial mechanisms in Korean Americans' exercise behavior. The present study tested the usefulness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting Korean American's exercise behavior and whether the descriptive norm (i.e., perceptions of what others do) improved the predictive validity of the theory of planned behavior. Using a retrospective design and self-report measures, web-survey responses from 198 Korean-American adults were analyzed using hierarchical regression analyses. The theory of planned behavior constructs accounted for 31% of exercise behavior and 43% of exercise intention. Intention and perceived behavioral control were significant predictors of exercise behavior. Although the descriptive norm did not augment the theory of planned behavior, all original constructs--attitude, injunctive norm (a narrow definition of subjective norm), and perceived behavioral control--statistically significantly predicted leisure-time physical activity intention. Future studies should consider random sampling, prospective design, and objective measures of physical activity.

  4. High energy cosmic ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, V.

    1996-01-01

    A brief introduction to High Energy Cosmic Ray Astronomy is presented. This field covers a 17 decade energy range (2.10 4 -10 20 ) eV. Recent discoveries done with gamma-ray detectors on-board satellites and ground-based Cherenkov devices are pushing for a fast development of new and innovative techniques, specially in the low energy region which includes the overlapping of satellite and ground-based measurements in the yet unexplored energy range 20 keV-250 GeV. Detection of unexpected extremely high energy events have triggered the interest of the international scientific community. (orig.)

  5. Theory, evidence and Intervention Mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Brug (Hans); A. Oenema (Anke); A. Ferreira (Isabel)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. DISCUSSION: Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is

  6. Theory, evidence and Intervention Mapping to improve behavior nutrition and physical activity interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Isabel

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper intends to contribute to the debate on the usefulness and barriers in applying theories in diet and physical activity behavior-change interventions. Discussion Since behavior theory is a reflection of the compiled evidence of behavior research, theory is the only foothold we have for the development of behavioral nutrition and physical activity interventions. Application of theory should improve the effectiveness of interventions. However, some of the theories we use lack a strong empirical foundation, and the available theories are not always used in the most effective way. Furthermore, many of the commonly-used theories provide at best information on what needs to be changed to promote healthy behavior, but not on how changes can be induced. Finally, many theories explain behavioral intentions or motivation rather well, but are less well-suited to explaining or predicting actual behavior or behavior change. For more effective interventions, behavior change theory needs to be further developed in stronger research designs and such change-theory should especially focus on how to promote action rather than mere motivation. Since voluntary behavior change requires motivation, ability as well as the opportunity to change, further development of behavior change theory should incorporate environmental change strategies. Conclusion Intervention Mapping may help to further improve the application of theories in nutrition and physical activity behavior change.

  7. Establishing a Relationship between Behavior Change Theory and Social Marketing: Implications for Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes relationships between behavior change theory and social marketing practice, noting challenges in making behavior change theory an important component of social marketing and proposing that social marketing is the framework to which theory can be applied, creating theory-driven, consumer-focused, more effective health education programs.…

  8. Suicide Prevention in Schools as Viewed through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The author has proposed a new theory of suicidal behavior--the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior (Joiner, 2005)--which attempts to answer the question "Why do people die by suicide?" In this commentary, he briefly describes the theory, and then argues that the theory's constructs may allow a new level of focus and specificity…

  9. Health Care Waste Segregation Behavior among Health Workers in Uganda: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Akulume, Martha; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting health care waste segregation behaviors and to examine the factors that influence waste segregation behaviors. Methodology. One hundred and sixty-three health workers completed a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey that examined the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention) and externa...

  10. Applying Psychological Theories to Promote Long-Term Maintenance of Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Daniel, Casey L.; Thind, Herpreet; Benitez, Tanya J.; Pekmezi, Dori

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral health theory provides a framework for researchers to design, implement, and evaluate the effects of health promotion programs. However, limited research has examined theories used in interventions to promote long-term maintenance of health behaviors. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the available literature and identify prominent behavioral health theories used in intervention research to promote maintenance of health behaviors. We reviewed theories used in intervention research assessing long-term maintenance (≥ 6 months post-intervention) of physical activity, weight loss, and smoking cessation. Five prominent behavioral theories were referenced by the 34 studies included in the review: Self-Determination Theory, Theory of Planned Behavior, Social Cognitive Theory, Transtheoretical Model, and Social Ecological Model. Descriptions and examples of applications of these theories are provided. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:28217036

  11. High energy HF pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, E.L.; Gerber, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Recent experiments show that pulsed HF lasers are capable of producing high energy with good efficiency. Preliminary experiments show that the laser radiation from the high-gain medium can be controlled with a low-power probe laser beam or with low-level feedback. These results indicate that the HF laser may have potential for second-generation laser fusion experiments

  12. High Energy Physics: Report of research accomplishments and future goals, FY 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barish, B C

    1983-12-31

    Continuing research in high energy physics carried out by the group from the California Institute of Technology. The program includes research in theory, phenomenology, and experimental high energy physics. The experimental program includes experiments at SLAC, FERMILAB, and DESY.

  13. High Energy Physics: Report of research accomplishments and furture goals, FY1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barish, B C

    1981-05-08

    Continuing research in high energy physics carried out by the group from the California Institute of Technology. The program includes research in theory, phenomenology, and experimental high energy physics. The experimental program includes experiments at SLAC and FERMILAB.

  14. Modern theories of suicidal behavior in adolescents and young people

    OpenAIRE

    T.S. Pavlova; G.S. Bannikov

    2014-01-01

    We propose three current models, formulated over the last decade and not yet published in Russian, focused on teenage suicide: the development model of suicidal behavior in adolescents (J.A. Bridge, T.R. Goldstein, D.A. Brent); interpersonal model of (T.E. Joiner); some recent developments in the cognitive theory (A. Spirito, J.D. Matthews, A. Wenzel, A.T. Beck). Four groups of psychological aid targets for adolescents with suicidal tendencies are revealed: 1) targets of the current emotional...

  15. European School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young experimental physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures notes on field theory and the Standard Model, quantum chromodynamics, flavour physics and CP violation, experimental aspects of CP violation in K and B decays, relativistic heavy-ion physics, and the scientific programme of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These core scientific topics are complemented by a lecture about the physics of ski jumping.

  16. High-energy proton scattering on nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Klovning, A; Schlüpmann, K

    1973-01-01

    High-energy proton scattering on Be, C, Cu and Pb targets is studied using a single-arm spectrometer. The projectile momenta were 19 and 24 GeV/c, the square of the four-momentum transfer varied from t=0.1 to t =4.4 GeV/sup 2/. Momentum distributions of scattered protons are recorded in the high-momentum range. An application of multiple- scattering theory yielded agreement of calculation and experimental results to within a +or-30% uncertainty of the former. (15 refs).

  17. UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherfoord, John P. [University of Arizona; Johns, Kenneth A. [University of Arizona; Shupe, Michael A. [University of Arizona; Cheu, Elliott C. [University of Arizona; Varnes, Erich W. [University of Arizona; Dienes, Keith [University of Arizona; Su, Shufang [University of Arizona; Toussaint, William Doug [University of Arizona; Sarcevic, Ina [University of Arizona

    2013-07-29

    The High Energy Physics Group at the University of Arizona has conducted forefront research in elementary particle physics. Our theorists have developed new ideas in lattice QCD, SUSY phenomenology, string theory phenomenology, extra spatial dimensions, dark matter, and neutrino astrophysics. The experimentalists produced significant physics results on the ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider and on the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. In addition, the experimentalists were leaders in detector development and construction, and on service roles in these experiments.

  18. Studies in theoretical high energy particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Brekke, L.; Keung, Wai-Yee; Sukhatme, U.

    1993-01-01

    Theoretical work on the following topics is briefly summarized: symmetry structure of conformal affine Toda model and KP hierarchy; solitons in the affine Toda and conformal affine Toda models; classical r-matrices and Poisson bracket structures on infinite-dimensional groups; R-matrix formulation of KP hierarchies and their gauge equivalence; statistics of particles and solitons; charge quantization in the presence of an Alice string; knotting and linking of nonabelian flux; electric dipole moments; neutrino physics in gauge theories; CP violation in the high energy colliders; supersymmetric quantum mechanics; parton structure functions in nuclei; dual parton model. 38 refs

  19. Predictions of High Energy Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comay E.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight predictions of high energy experimental results are presented. The predictions contain the $Sigma ^+$ charge radius and results of two kinds of experiments using energetic pionic beams. In addition, predictions of the failure to find the following objects are presented: glueballs, pentaquarks, Strange Quark Matter, magnetic monopoles searched by their direct interaction with charges and the Higgs boson. The first seven predictions rely on the Regular Charge-Monopole Theory and the last one relies on mathematical inconsistencies of the Higgs Lagrangian density.

  20. High energy model for irregular absorbing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiappetta, Pierre.

    1979-05-01

    In the framework of a high energy formulation of relativistic quantum scattering a model is presented which describes the scattering functions and polarization of irregular absorbing particles, whose dimensions are greater than the incident wavelength. More precisely in the forward direction an amplitude parametrization of eikonal type is defined which generalizes the usual diffraction theory, and in the backward direction a reflective model is used including a shadow function. The model predictions are in good agreement with the scattering measurements off irregular compact and fluffy particles performed by Zerull, Giese and Weiss (1977)

  1. Modern theories of suicidal behavior in adolescents and young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Pavlova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose three current models, formulated over the last decade and not yet published in Russian, focused on teenage suicide: the development model of suicidal behavior in adolescents (J.A. Bridge, T.R. Goldstein, D.A. Brent; interpersonal model of (T.E. Joiner; some recent developments in the cognitive theory (A. Spirito, J.D. Matthews, A. Wenzel, A.T. Beck. Four groups of psychological aid targets for adolescents with suicidal tendencies are revealed: 1 targets of the current emotional state of a teenager (feelings of abandonment, self-perception as a burden to the loved ones, anxiety, hopelessness, heartache; 2 targets affecting personal predispositions (primitive defense mechanisms, impulsivity, aggression; 3 targets associated with cognitive functioning (cognitive rigidity, black-and-white thinking, thinking errors; and 4 targets reflecting a need to work with behavioral manifestations (narrow range of coping strategies used.

  2. Predicting Problem Behaviors with Multiple Expectancies: Expanding Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Ashley; Earleywine, Mitchell; Huey, Stanley J.

    2004-01-01

    Expectancy-value theory emphasizes the importance of outcome expectancies for behavioral decisions, but most tests of the theory focus on a single behavior and a single expectancy. However, the matching law suggests that individuals consider expected outcomes for both the target behavior and alternative behaviors when making decisions. In this…

  3. The bounds of reason game theory and the unification of the behavioral sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Gintis, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Game theory is central to understanding human behavior and relevant to all of the behavioral sciences-from biology and economics, to anthropology and political science. However, as The Bounds of Reason demonstrates, game theory alone cannot fully explain human behavior and should instead complement other key concepts championed by the behavioral disciplines. Herbert Gintis shows that just as game theory without broader social theory is merely technical bravado, so social theory without game theory is a handicapped enterprise. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated. Reinvigorati

  4. Falsification of matching theory and confirmation of an evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics in a critical experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J; Calvin, Olivia L; Hackett, Ryan; Klapes, Bryan

    2017-07-01

    Two competing predictions of matching theory and an evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics, and one additional prediction of the evolutionary theory, were tested in a critical experiment in which human participants worked on concurrent schedules for money (Dallery et al., 2005). The three predictions concerned the descriptive adequacy of matching theory equations, and of equations describing emergent equilibria of the evolutionary theory. Tests of the predictions falsified matching theory and supported the evolutionary theory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of education based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Barfi

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: According to the results, Education based on the theory of planned behavior has a positive impact on smoking behavior, Therefore, it is recommended that the above educational model is used to modify the behavior of smokers.

  6. Behavioral and social sciences theories and models: are they used in unintentional injury prevention research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifiletti, L B; Gielen, A C; Sleet, D A; Hopkins, K

    2005-06-01

    Behavioral and social sciences theories and models have the potential to enhance efforts to reduce unintentional injuries. The authors reviewed the published literature on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury problems to enumerate and categorize the ways different theories and models are used in injury prevention research. The authors conducted a systematic review to evaluate the published literature from 1980 to 2001 on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury prevention and control. Electronic database searches in PubMed and PsycINFO identified articles that combined behavioral and social sciences theories and models and injury causes. The authors identified some articles that examined behavioral and social science theories and models and unintentional injury topics, but found that several important theories have never been applied to unintentional injury prevention. Among the articles identified, the PRECEDE PROCEED Model was cited most frequently, followed by the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior and Health Belief Model. When behavioral and social sciences theories and models were applied to unintentional injury topics, they were most frequently used to guide program design, implementation or develop evaluation measures; few examples of theory testing were found. Results suggest that the use of behavioral and social sciences theories and models in unintentional injury prevention research is only marginally represented in the mainstream, peer-reviewed literature. Both the fields of injury prevention and behavioral and social sciences could benefit from greater collaborative research to enhance behavioral approaches to injury control.

  7. Gender perspective on the factors predicting recycling behavior: Implications from the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin, Ceren; Teksöz, Gaye; Pamuk, Savas; Sahin, Elvan; Kilic, Dilek Sultan

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the role of some socio-psychological attributes in explaining recycling behavior of Turkish university community from a gender perspective within the context of the theory of planned behavior with an additional variable (past experience). The recycling behavior of whole sample, females and males, has been examined in 3 sessions -depending on the arguments that explain gendered pattern of private and public environmental behavior and sticking to the fact why females' stronger environmental values, beliefs, and attitudes do not translate consistently into greater engagement in public behavior. As a result of model runs, different variables shaping intention for behavior have been found, namely perceived behavior control for females and past behavior for males. Due to the low percent of the variance in explaining recycling behavior of females, they have been identified as the ones who do not carry out intentions (non-recyclers). Since intentions alone are capable of identifying recyclers accurately but not non-recyclers, there may be other factors to be considered to understand the reason for females not carrying out the intentions. The results of descriptive statistics supported the identification by attitudes toward recycling. Female attitudes were innate (recycling is good, necessary, useful and sensitive), whereas those of males were learnt (recycling is healthy, valuable and correct). Thus, it has been concluded that males' intention for recycling is shaped by their past behavior and the conclusion is supported by males having learnt attitude toward recycling whereas females' lack of intention for recycling is shaped by their perceived behavior control and is supported by their innate attitude for recycling. All in all, the results of the present study provide further support for the utility of the TPB as a model of behavioral prediction and concur with other studies examining the utility of the TPB in the context of recycling

  8. View from Behavioral Economics Theory: Case of Latvian Rural Entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igo Cals

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory of classical economics treats entrepreneurs as subjects who make rational economic decisions. Empirical surveys prove the fact that daily economic decisions made by a separate economic entity can be explained by concepts of behavioral economics rather than classical economics. The economic behavior of entrepreneurs happens to be based on bounded rationality instead of financial justification. The objective of an economic activity presented as economically efficient can turn out to be socially important to a specific entrepreneur and not to national economy as a whole. In the EU countries, agriculture is a subsidised industry of national economy. In this light, status consumption and purchase of positional goods should create a special interest among economists. The objective of this article is to present true reasons of economic decisions made by rural entrepreneurs and to analyse the value hierarchy of Latvian rural entrepreneurs through carrying out a field work and with the help of set of instruments developed by modern economics theory.

  9. Computer simulation of high energy displacement cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology developed for modeling many aspects of high energy displacement cascades with molecular level computer simulations is reviewed. The initial damage state is modeled in the binary collision approximation (using the MARLOWE computer code), and the subsequent disposition of the defects within a cascade is modeled with a Monte Carlo annealing simulation (the ALSOME code). There are few adjustable parameters, and none are set to physically unreasonable values. The basic configurations of the simulated high energy cascades in copper, i.e., the number, size and shape of damage regions, compare well with observations, as do the measured numbers of residual defects and the fractions of freely migrating defects. The success of these simulations is somewhat remarkable, given the relatively simple models of defects and their interactions that are employed. The reason for this success is that the behavior of the defects is very strongly influenced by their initial spatial distributions, which the binary collision approximation adequately models. The MARLOWE/ALSOME system, with input from molecular dynamics and experiments, provides a framework for investigating the influence of high energy cascades on microstructure evolution. (author)

  10. Computing in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzberger, L.O.; Hoogland, W.

    1986-01-01

    This book deals with advanced computing applications in physics, and in particular in high energy physics environments. The main subjects covered are networking; vector and parallel processing; and embedded systems. Also examined are topics such as operating systems, future computer architectures and commercial computer products. The book presents solutions that are foreseen as coping, in the future, with computing problems in experimental and theoretical High Energy Physics. In the experimental environment the large amounts of data to be processed offer special problems on-line as well as off-line. For on-line data reduction, embedded special purpose computers, which are often used for trigger applications are applied. For off-line processing, parallel computers such as emulator farms and the cosmic cube may be employed. The analysis of these topics is therefore a main feature of this volume

  11. Multiprocessors for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, M.

    1987-01-01

    I review the role, status and progress of multiprocessor projects relevant to high energy physics. A short overview of the large variety of multiprocessors architectures is given, with special emphasis on machines suitable for experimental data reconstruction. A lot of progress has been made in the attempt to make the use of multiprocessors less painful by creating a ''Parallel Programming Environment'' supporting the non-expert user. A high degree of usability has been reached for coarse grain (event level) parallelism. The program development tools available on various systems (subroutine packages, preprocessors and parallelizing compilers) are discussed in some detail. Tools for execution control and debugging are also developing, thus opening the path from dedicated systems for large scale, stable production towards support of a more general job mix. At medium term, multiprocessors will thus cover a growing fraction of the typical high energy physics computing task. (orig.)

  12. Harvard University High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The mainly experimental research program in high energy physics at Harvard is summarized in a descriptive fashion according to the following outline: Proton endash antiproton colliding beam program at Fermilab -- CDF (forward/backward electromagnetic calorimeters -- FEM, central muon extension -- CMX, gas calorimetry and electronics development, front-end electronics upgrades, software development, physics analysis, timetable), electron -- positron collisions in the upsilon region -- CLEO (the hardware projects including CLEO II barrel TOF system and silicon drift detector R ampersand D, physics analysis), search for ν μ to ν τ oscillations with the NOMAD experiment at CERN, the solenoidal detector collaboration at the SSC, muon scattering at FNAL -- E665, the L3 experiment, and phenomenological analysis of high-energy bar pp cross sections. 149 refs

  13. A high energy physics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    The status of the Standard model and role of symmetry in its development are reviewed. Some outstanding problems are surveyed and possible solutions in the form of additional open-quotes Hidden Symmetries close quotes are discussed. Experimental approaches to uncover open-quotes New Physicsclose quotes associated with those symmetries are described with emphasis on high energy colliders. An outlook for the future is given

  14. [Research in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LoSecco, J.

    1989-01-01

    We review the efforts of the Notre Dame non accelerator high energy physics group. Our major effort has been directed toward the IMB deep underground detector. Since the departure of the Michigan group our responsibilities to the group have grown. We are also very active in pursuing physics with the IMB 3 detector. Currently we are studying proton decay, point neutrino sources and neutrino oscillations with the contained event sample

  15. High Energy Physics in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    A thorough survey of the present and possible future activities and resources in high energy physics in the CERN Member States has been carried out by a Working Group of ECFA (European Committee for Future Accelerators) under the Chairmanship of John Mulvey. The aim has been to obtain a view of the present European scene and to see whether it looks well adapted to the effective exploitation of possible future machines in Europe (particular LEP) and the rest of the world

  16. Integrating Health Behavior Theory and Design Elements in Serious Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Colleen; Fleming, Theresa; Lucassen, Mathijs Fg; Bridgman, Heather; Stasiak, Karolina; Shepherd, Matthew; Orpin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Internet interventions for improving health and well-being have the potential to reach many people and fill gaps in service provision. Serious gaming interfaces provide opportunities to optimize user adherence and impact. Health interventions based in theory and evidence and tailored to psychological constructs have been found to be more effective to promote behavior change. Defining the design elements which engage users and help them to meet their goals can contribute to better informed serious games. To elucidate design elements important in SPARX, a serious game for adolescents with depression, from a user-centered perspective. We proposed a model based on an established theory of health behavior change and practical features of serious game design to organize ideas and rationale. We analyzed data from 5 studies comprising a total of 22 focus groups and 66 semistructured interviews conducted with youth and families in New Zealand and Australia who had viewed or used SPARX. User perceptions of the game were applied to this framework. A coherent framework was established using the three constructs of self-determination theory (SDT), autonomy, competence, and relatedness, to organize user perceptions and design elements within four areas important in design: computer game, accessibility, working alliance, and learning in immersion. User perceptions mapped well to the framework, which may assist developers in understanding the context of user needs. By mapping these elements against the constructs of SDT, we were able to propose a sound theoretical base for the model. This study's method allowed for the articulation of design elements in a serious game from a user-centered perspective within a coherent overarching framework. The framework can be used to deliberately incorporate serious game design elements that support a user's sense of autonomy, competence, and relatedness, key constructs which have been found to mediate motivation at all stages of the change

  17. Report of the Subpanel on High Energy Physics Manpower of the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    A report of a study by a Subpanel which was appointed by the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) to examine the production in recent years of new researchers in high energy physics and the rate at which they have moved into short term and permanent positions in the field. The Subpanel made use of the 1973 and 1975 ERDA Census data, statistics collected by others, as well as a number of surveys conducted by the Subpanel itself. Even though many uncertainties and gaps exist in the available data, several important points are presented. (1) New Ph.D. production in high energy physics has decreased in recent years even more rapidly than in physics as a whole. (2) New Ph.D.'s in experimental and theoretical high energy physics have been produced for many years in roughly equal numbers in spite of the fact that employment in the field at all levels shows a ratio of experiment-to-theory approaching two-to-one. (3) A very large fraction of the approximately 1700 Ph.D.'s in high energy physics (employed at 78 universities and 5 national laboratories) hold tenured positions (383 theorists and 640 experimentalists). (4) The age distribution of those in the tenured ranks reveals that the number of retirements will be extremely small during the next decade but will then start to have a significant impact on the opportunities for those who are seeking careers in the field. (5) Promotions to tenure at the universities during the 4 year interval AY72/73-AY76/77 have averaged about 10 per year in experiment and 10 per year in theory

  18. High energy electron positron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Soding, P.

    1987-01-01

    With the termination of the physics program at PETRA in a year from now, and with the start of TRISTAN and the SLC and later LEP, an era of e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics will come to an end and a new one begins. The field is changing from a field of a few specialists, to becoming one of the mainstream efforts of the high energy community. It seems appropriate at this moment to summarize what has been learned over the past years, in a way more useful to any high energy physicist in particular to newcomers in the e/sup +/e/sup -/ field. This is the purpose of the book. This book should be used as a reference for future workers in the field of e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions. It includes the most relevant data, parametrizations, theoretical background, and a chapter on detectors. Contents: Foreword; Detectors for High Energy e/sup +/e/sup -/ Physics; Lepton Pair Production and Electroweak Parameters; Hadron Production, Strong and Electroweak Properties; tau Physics; Recent Results on the Charm Sector; Bottom Physics; Lifetime Measurements of tau, Charmed and Beauty Hadrons; Υ Spectroscopy; Hadronic Decays of the Υ; Quark and Gluon Fragmentation in the e/sup +/e/sup -/ Continuum; Jet Production and QCD; Two Photon Physics; Search for New Particles

  19. Astrophysics at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharonian, Felix; Bergstroem, Lars; Dermer, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Presents three complementary lectures on very-high-energy astrophysics given by worldwide leaders in the field. Reviews the recent advances in and prospects of gamma-ray astrophysics and of multi-messenger astronomy. Prepares readers for using space and ground-based gamma-ray observatories, as well as neutrino and other multi-messenger detectors. With the success of Cherenkov Astronomy and more recently with the launch of NASA's Fermi mission, very-high-energy astrophysics has undergone a revolution in the last years. This book provides three comprehensive and up-to-date reviews of the recent advances in gamma-ray astrophysics and of multi-messenger astronomy. Felix Aharonian and Charles Dermer address our current knowledge on the sources of GeV and TeV photons, gleaned from the precise measurements made by the new instrumentation. Lars Bergstroem presents the challenges and prospects of astro-particle physics with a particular emphasis on the detection of dark matter candidates. The topics covered by the 40th Saas-Fee Course present the capabilities of current instrumentation and the physics at play in sources of very-high-energy radiation to students and researchers alike. This book will encourage and prepare readers for using space and ground-based gamma-ray observatories, as well as neutrino and other multi-messenger detectors.

  20. Quantum chromodynamics at high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kovchegov, Yuri V

    2012-01-01

    Filling a gap in the current literature, this book is the first entirely dedicated to high energy QCD including parton saturation. It presents groundbreaking progress on the subject and describes many of the problems at the forefront of research, bringing postgraduate students, theorists and advanced experimentalists up to date with the current status of the field. A broad range of topics in high energy QCD are covered, most notably on the physics of parton saturation and the Color Glass Condensate (CGC). The material is presented in a pedagogical way, with numerous examples and exercises. Discussion ranges from the quasi-classical McLerran–Venugopalan model to the linear and non-linear BFKL/BK/JIMWLK small-x evolution equations. The authors adopt both a theoretical and experimental outlook and present the physics of strong interactions in a universal way, making it useful to physicists from various sub-communities and applicable to processes studied at high energy accelerators around the world.

  1. High energy astrophysics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Courvoisier, Thierry J -L

    2013-01-01

    High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, and other objects), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad...

  2. High-energy evolution to three loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron-Huot, Simon; Herranen, Matti

    2018-02-01

    The Balitsky-Kovchegov equation describes the high-energy growth of gauge theory scattering amplitudes as well as nonlinear saturation effects which stop it. We obtain the three-loop corrections to the equation in planar N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory. Our method exploits a recently established equivalence with the physics of soft wide-angle radiation, so-called non-global logarithms, and thus yields at the same time the threeloop evolution equation for non-global logarithms. As a by-product of our analysis, we develop a Lorentz-covariant method to subtract infrared and collinear divergences in crosssection calculations in the planar limit. We compare our result in the linear regime with a recent prediction for the so-called Pomeron trajectory, and compare its collinear limit with predictions from the spectrum of twist-two operators.

  3. Intermediate/high energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vary, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Progress during the last year is reviewed under the following topics: relativistic hadron--nucleus and nucleus--nucleus collisions (heavy meson production, photon production and fragmentation functions--direct photon production with the QCM and photon fragmentation functions, Cronin efffect and multiple scattering, effective nuclear parton distributions); solving quantum field theories in nonperturbative regime; light-front dynamics and high-spin states (soft form factor of the pion and nucleon for transverse and longitudinal momentum transfers, light front spinors for high-spin objects); high-energy spin physics; relativistic wave equations, quarkonia, and e + e - resonances; associated production of Higgs boson at collider energies, and microscopic nuclear many-body theory and reactions. 135 refs

  4. Reward and Cognition: Integrating Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory and Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Drinking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasking, Penelope; Boyes, Mark; Mullan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Both Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory and Social Cognitive Theory have been applied to understanding drinking behavior. We propose that theoretical relationships between these models support an integrated approach to understanding alcohol use and misuse. We aimed to test an integrated model in which the relationships between reward sensitivity and drinking behavior (alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and symptoms of dependence) were mediated by alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy. Online questionnaires assessing the constructs of interest were completed by 443 Australian adults (M age = 26.40, sd = 1.83) in 2013 and 2014. Path analysis revealed both direct and indirect effects and implicated two pathways to drinking behavior with differential outcomes. Drinking refusal self-efficacy both in social situations and for emotional relief was related to alcohol consumption. Sensitivity to reward was associated with alcohol-related problems, but operated through expectations of increased confidence and personal belief in the ability to limit drinking in social situations. Conversely, sensitivity to punishment operated through negative expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy for emotional relief to predict symptoms of dependence. Two pathways relating reward sensitivity, alcohol expectancies, and drinking refusal self-efficacy may underlie social and dependent drinking, which has implications for development of intervention to limit harmful drinking.

  5. High energy hadron-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.T.

    1990-01-01

    Results of a study on high energy collision with the geometrical model are summarized in three parts: (i) the elastic hadron-hadron collision, (ii) the inelastic hadron-hadron collision, and (iii) the e + e - annihilation. The geometrical description of high-energy elastic scattering developed earlier is still in general agreement with experiments at the CERN-S bar ppS energies. A simple one-parameter expression for the blackness of bar pp system has been proposed recently which describes very well all existing data from ISR to S bar ppS energies. The geometrical description has also been extended to include processes of fragmentation and diffraction dissociation and other phenomena. In the past five years, a unified physical picture for multiparticle emission in hadron-hadron and e + e - collisions was developed. It focuses on the idea of the wide range of values for the total angular momentum in hadron-hadron collisions. An extension of this consideration yields a theory for the momentum distribution of the outgoing particles which agrees with bar pp and e + e - collision experiments. The results and conclusions of this theory have been extrapolated to higher energies and yielded many predictions which can be experimentally tested. 37 refs

  6. Application of the Expanded Theory of Planned Behavior in Intercity Travel Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congestion in intercity corridors of metropolitan area has been increasing steadily. To alleviate congestion, many major investment projects, such as the high speed railway projects, were proposed by agency. To evaluate the adequacy and efficiency of these projects, the intercity travel behavior should be analyzed in metropolitan area. The paper constructed a Multiple Indicators and Multiple Causes (MIMIC model according to an expanded theory of planned behavior (TPB to study the travel behavior of choosing from the choice set of the traditional train, the high speed railway and the coach by demographic and psychological factors. Through empirical data collection and analysis, we found that demographic factors of travelers indeed positively engender the latent variables in MIMIC, and descriptive norm and habit had direct or indirect significant effect on travel behavior and intention. On the basis of the effect of psychological constructors of the expanded TPB on the intercity travel behavior and differentiation of traveler's demographic characteristics, the agency can make reasonable policies and proper information for the intercity transportation. The results will support the basic theory of optimizing the transportation system in metropolitan area. Implications for researchers and suggestions for future research are also addressed in this study.

  7. Theory of planned behavior interventions for reducing heterosexual risk behaviors: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Mandy; Covey, Judith; Rosenthal, Harriet E S

    2014-12-01

    The meta-analysis reported here examined interventions informed by the theory of planned behavior (TPB) or theory of reasoned action (TRA) aimed at reducing heterosexual risk behaviors (prevention of STDs and unwanted pregnancy). Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were either randomized control trials or quasi-experimental studies that compared the TPB-based intervention against a control group. Search strategy consisted of articles identified in previous reviews, keyword search through search engines, examination of key journals, and contacting key experts. Forty-seven intervention studies were included in the meta-analysis. Random effects models revealed that pooled effect sizes for TPB-based interventions had small but significant effects on behavior and other secondary outcomes (i.e., knowledge, attitudes, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, and intentions). Significant heterogeneity found between effect sizes was explored using metaregression. Larger effects were found for interventions that provided opportunities for social comparison. The TPB provides a valuable framework for designing interventions to change heterosexual risk behaviors. However, effect sizes varied quite substantially between studies, and further research is needed to explore the reasons why.

  8. Comparing three attitude-behavior theories for predicting science teachers' intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zint, Michaela

    2002-11-01

    Social psychologists' attitude-behavior theories can contribute to understanding science teachers' behaviors. Such understanding can, in turn, be used to improve professional development. This article describes leading attitude-behavior theories and summarizes results from past tests of these theories. A study predicting science teachers' intention to incorporate environmental risk education based on these theories is also reported. Data for that study were collected through a mail questionnaire (n = 1336, radjusted = 80%) and analyzed using confirmatory factor and multiple regression analysis. All determinants of intention to act in the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior and some determinants in the Theory of Trying predicted science teachers' environmental risk education intentions. Given the consistency of results across studies, the Theory of Planned Behavior augmented with past behavior is concluded to provide the best attitude-behavior model for predicting science teachers' intention to act. Thus, science teachers' attitude toward the behavior, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norm need to be enhanced to modify their behavior. Based on the Theory of Trying, improving their attitude toward the process and toward success, and expectations of success may also result in changes. Future research should focus on identifying determinants that can further enhance the ability of these theories to predict and explain science teachers' behaviors.

  9. High energy physics above 10 TeV: a review of recent cosmic ray results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yodh, G.B.

    In cosmic rays the very high energy events and their interpretation are reviewed in a critical fashion so as to bring into focus the interesting aspects related to the behavior of high energy interactions

  10. Health Care Waste Segregation Behavior among Health Workers in Uganda: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Akulume

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting health care waste segregation behaviors and to examine the factors that influence waste segregation behaviors. Methodology. One hundred and sixty-three health workers completed a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey that examined the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention and external variables (sociodemographic factors, personal characteristics, organizational characteristics, professional characteristics, and moral obligation. Results. For their most recent client 21.5% of the health workers reported that they most definitely segregated health care waste while 5.5% did not segregate. All the theory of planned behavior constructs were significant predictors of health workers’ segregation behavior, but intention emerged as the strongest and most significant (r=0.524, P<0.001. The theory of planned behavior model explained 52.5% of the variance in health workers’ segregation behavior. When external variables were added, the new model explained 66.7% of the variance in behavior. Conclusion. Generally, health workers’ health care waste segregation behavior was high. The theory of planned behavior significantly predicted health workers’ health care waste segregation behaviors.

  11. Health Care Waste Segregation Behavior among Health Workers in Uganda: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akulume, Martha; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N

    2016-01-01

    Objective . The goal of this study was to assess the appropriateness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting health care waste segregation behaviors and to examine the factors that influence waste segregation behaviors. Methodology . One hundred and sixty-three health workers completed a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional survey that examined the theory of planned behavior constructs (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention) and external variables (sociodemographic factors, personal characteristics, organizational characteristics, professional characteristics, and moral obligation). Results . For their most recent client 21.5% of the health workers reported that they most definitely segregated health care waste while 5.5% did not segregate. All the theory of planned behavior constructs were significant predictors of health workers' segregation behavior, but intention emerged as the strongest and most significant ( r = 0.524, P theory of planned behavior model explained 52.5% of the variance in health workers' segregation behavior. When external variables were added, the new model explained 66.7% of the variance in behavior. Conclusion . Generally, health workers' health care waste segregation behavior was high. The theory of planned behavior significantly predicted health workers' health care waste segregation behaviors.

  12. The importance of theory in cognitive behavior therapy: a perspective of contextual behavioral science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, James D; Gaudiano, Brandon A; Forman, Evan M

    2013-12-01

    For the past 30 years, generations of scholars of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) have expressed concern that clinical practice has abandoned the close links with theory that characterized the earliest days of the field. There is also a widespread assumption that a greater working knowledge of theory will lead to better clinical outcomes, although there is currently very little hard evidence to support this claim. We suggest that the rise of so-called "third generation" models of CBT over the past decade, along with the dissemination of statistical innovations among psychotherapy researchers, have given new life to this old issue. We argue that theory likely does matter to clinical outcomes, and we outline the future research that would be needed to address this conjecture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Theory of planned behavior and adherence in chronic illness: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rich, A.; Brandes, K.; Mullan, B.; Hagger, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Social-cognitive models such as the theory of planned behavior have demonstrated efficacy in predicting behavior, but few studies have examined the theory as a predictor of treatment adherence in chronic illness. We tested the efficacy of the theory for predicting adherence to treatment in chronic

  14. Understanding Jordanian Psychiatric Nurses’ Smoking Behaviors: A Grounded Theory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoun M. Aldiabat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Smoking is prevalent in psychiatric facilities among staff and patients. However, there have been few studies of how contextual factors in specific cultures influence rates of smoking and the health promotion role of psychiatric nurses. This paper reports the findings of a classical grounded theory study conducted to understand how contextual factors in the workplace influences the smoking behaviors of Jordanian psychiatric nurses (JPNs. Method. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with a sample of eight male JPNs smokers at a psychiatric facility in Amman, Jordan. Findings. Constant comparative analysis identified becoming a heavy smoker as a psychosocial process characterized by four sub-categories: normalization of smoking; living in ambiguity; experiencing workplace conflict; and, facing up to workplace stressors. Conclusion. Specific contextual workplace factors require targeted smoking cessation interventions if JPNs are to receive the help they need to reduce health risks associated with heavy smoking.

  15. The high energy astronomy observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, A. K.; Doolittle, R. F.; Halpers, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The forthcoming NASA project of orbiting High Energy Astronomy Observatories (HEAO's) designed to probe the universe by tracing celestial radiations and particles is outlined. Solutions to engineering problems concerning HEAO's which are integrated, yet built to function independently are discussed, including the onboard digital processor, mirror assembly and the thermal shield. The principle of maximal efficiency with minimal cost and the potential capability of the project to provide explanations to black holes, pulsars and gamma-ray bursts are also stressed. The first satellite is scheduled for launch in April 1977.

  16. High energy elastic hadron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnly, T.A.

    1986-04-01

    The paper deals with the WA7 experiment at the CERN super proton synchrotron (SPS). The elastic differential cross sections of pion-proton, kaon-proton, antiproton-proton, and proton-proton at lower SPS energies over a wide range of momentum transfer were measured. Some theoretical models in the light of the experimental results are reviewed, and a comprehensive impact parameter analysis of antiproton-proton elastic scattering over a wide energy range is presented. A nucleon valence core model for high energy proton-proton and antiproton-proton elastic scattering is described

  17. Instrumentation in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serin, L.

    2007-01-01

    The instrumentation in high energy physics is a wide and advanced domain which cannot be covered in a single lesson. The main basic physics processes for charged and neutral particles are recalled with the definition of a few concepts needed to understand or design a detector. The application of these principles to charged particle measurement devices (momentum), light detection or energy measurement are presented mostly with examples from collider experiments. The particle identification which is often the combination of different techniques in a same experiment is also discussed. Finally in a very short section, a few considerations about electronics/processing with their impact on the detector performance are given

  18. High-energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaisser, Thomas K. [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)]. E-mail: gaisser@bartol.udel.edu; Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2006-10-17

    After a brief review of galactic cosmic rays in the GeV to TeV energy range, we describe some current problems of interest for particles of very high energy. Particularly interesting are two features of the spectrum, the knee above 10{sup 15} eV and the ankle above 10{sup 18} eV. An important question is whether the highest-energy particles are of extra-galactic origin and, if so, at what energy the transition occurs. A theme common to all energy ranges is use of nuclear abundances as a tool for understanding the origin of the cosmic radiation.

  19. Ultra high energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cosmic radiation was discovered 70 years ago but its origin remains an open question. The background to this problem is outlined and attempts to discover the origin of the most energetic and rarest group above 10 15 eV are described. Measurements of the energy spectrum and arrival direction pattern of the very highest energy particles, mean energy about 6 x 10 19 eV, are used to argue that these particles originate outside our galaxy. Recent evidence from the new field of ultra high energy γ-ray astronomy are discussed in the context of a galactic origin hypothesis for lower energy cosmic rays. (author)

  20. Psychosocial Predictors for Cancer Prevention Behaviors in Workplace Using Protection Motivation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Zare, Maryam; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Naghshineh, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds. The aim of this study was to describe the preventive behaviors of industrial workers and factors influencing occupational cancer prevention behaviors using protection motivation theory. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 161 petrochemical workers in Iran in 2014 which consisted of three sections: background information, protection motivation theory measures, and occupational cancers preventive behaviors. Results. A statistically significant positive corre...

  1. Prediction of attendance at fitness center: a comparison between the theory of planned behavior, the social cognitive theory, and the physical activity maintenance theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jekauc, Darko; Völkle, Manuel; Wagner, Matthias O.; Mess, Filip; Reiner, Miriam; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    In the processes of physical activity (PA) maintenance specific predictors are effective, which differ from other stages of PA development. Recently, Physical Activity Maintenance Theory (PAMT) was specifically developed for prediction of PA maintenance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictability of the future behavior by the PAMT and compare it with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Participation rate in a fitness center was observed...

  2. Predicting Facebook users' online privacy protection: risk, trust, norm focus theory, and the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeri, Alexander K; Ogilvie, Claudette; La Macchia, Stephen T; Smith, Joanne R; Louis, Winnifred R

    2014-01-01

    The present research adopts an extended theory of the planned behavior model that included descriptive norms, risk, and trust to investigate online privacy protection in Facebook users. Facebook users (N = 119) completed a questionnaire assessing their attitude, subjective injunctive norm, subjective descriptive norm, perceived behavioral control, implicit perceived risk, trust of other Facebook users, and intentions toward protecting their privacy online. Behavior was measured indirectly 2 weeks after the study. The data show partial support for the theory of planned behavior and strong support for the independence of subjective injunctive and descriptive norms. Risk also uniquely predicted intentions over and above the theory of planned behavior, but there were no unique effects of trust on intentions, nor of risk or trust on behavior. Implications are discussed.

  3. Qualitative application of the theory of planned behavior to understand beverage consumption behaviors among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie; Krzeski, Erin; Harden, Samantha; Cook, Emily; Allen, Kacie; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2012-11-01

    Despite strong scientific data indicating associations among sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and numerous adverse health outcomes, little is known about culturally specific beliefs and potential individual-level behavioral strategies to reduce SSB intake. The primary objective of this formative study targeting adults residing in rural southwest Virginia was to apply the Theory of Planned Behavior to investigate culturally specific attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control constructs related to the consumption of SSB, water, and artificially sweetened beverages. Using a homogenous sampling strategy, eight focus groups were conducted with 54 adult participants who exceeded recommendations of Theory of Planned Behavior, to execute the focus group. All focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Three researchers independently coded meaning units to the major themes and subsequently met to gain consensus in coding. Important beverage-specific themes emerged for attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions. Across all beverages, the most notable themes included taste (n=161 meaning units), availability/convenience (n=95 meaning units), habit/addiction (n=57 meaning units), and cost (n=28 meaning units). Health consequences associated with beverages and water-quality issues also surfaced, as well as normative beliefs, including the influence of doctors and peers. The identified themes and subthemes provide critical insight into understanding culturally relevant context and beliefs associated with beverage consumption behaviors and helps inform the development and evaluation of future intervention efforts targeting SSB consumption in the health disparate region of southwest Virginia. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Utility of the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior for predicting physician behavior: a prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, S G

    1996-09-01

    The utility of the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for prospectively predicting physicians' delivery of preventive services was compared. Primary care physicians (N = 765) completed 2 mail surveys at periods 6 months apart. The addition of perceived behavioral control to the TRA model significantly increased the variance accounted for in behavioral intention and subsequent behavior (p behavioral control had direct effects on behavior and interacted with social norms and behavioral intentions. Applications of models such as the TRA or TPB have focused primarily on predicting the behavioral intentions and behaviors of patients. Results suggest that these models have relevance for studying the behavior of health care providers as well.

  5. Duke University High Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1993-03-01

    The research program of the Duke High Energy Physics Group is described in this Progress Report and a separate Proposal containing their plans for 1994. These two documents are supplemented by compilations of selected publications, thesis abstracts, and the curriculum vitae of the eleven Ph.D. physicists who are carrying out this research program. This Progress Report contains a review of the research which has been done over the first half (1992 and 1993 to date) of the current three-year DOE grant, plus some earlier research to establish a broader perspective of the research interests. High energy physics research at Duke has three components. The first, Task A, is based upon experiments carried out at Fermilab's Tevatron Collider. The group is finishing the analysis of data from their first collider experiment (E735), a study of inclusive particle production from bar p p collisions at √ bar s = 1.8 TeV. The second component of the research, Task B, deals primarily with heavy flavor physics. The third part of the research program, Task D, deals with preparation for research at the SSC. The authors have been active in the development of tracking detectors for the SSC since 1989, and are now concentrating on the design and construction of straw tube drift chambers for the solenoid detector

  6. Spinoff from high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Hans

    1994-01-01

    This year the CERN Courier is featuring the spinoff and technological benefits arising from research in fundamental physics. After initial illustrations in applied data processing sectors, this article by Hans Hoffman of CERN examines the rationale and underlying objectives of the 'new awareness' of the market value of basic science. He is the Chairman of a new panel on the subject set up recently by the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA). The other members are: Oscar Barbalat of CERN, Hans Christian Dehne of DESY, Sin-ichi Kurakawa of KEK, Gennady Kulipanov of the Budker Institute (Novosibirsk), Anthony Montgomery, formerly of the SSC, A. H. Walenta of Siegen, Germany, and Zhongqiang Yu of IHEP Beijing. High energy physics - the quest to find and understand the structure of matter - is mainly seen as an essential part of human culture. However this basic science increasingly has to jostle for funding attention with other branches of science. Applied sciences aim for a rapid transformation of investment cash into viable market products. In times of economic difficulties this is attractive to funding agencies and governments, and economic usefulness and technological relevance also become criteria for a basic science like high energy physics.

  7. Duke University high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, L.R.; Goshaw, A.T.; Walker, W.D.

    1992-07-01

    This Progress Report presents a review of the research done in 1992 by the Duke High Energy Physics Group. This is the first year of a three-year grant which was approved by the Office of High Energy Physics at DOE after an external review of our research program during the summer of 1991. Our research is centered at Fermilab where we are involved with two active experiments, one using the Tevatron collider (CDF, the Collider Detector Facility) and the other using a proton beam in the high intensity laboratory (E771, study of beauty production). In addition to these running experiments we are continuing the analysis of data from experiments E735 (collider search for a quark-gluon plasma), E705 (fixed target study of direct photon and Χ meson production) and E597 (particle production from hadron-nucleus collisions). Finally, this year has seen an expansion of our involvement with the design of the central tracking detector for the Solenoidal Detector Collaboration (SDC) and an increased role in the governance of the collaboration. Descriptions of these research activities are presented in this report

  8. High energy proton PIXE [HEPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, J.S.C.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) have been widespread and detailed in recent years and despite the fact that most data obtained are from low energy 1-3 MeV experiments, the value of higher energy proton work with its emphasis on K X-ray emission has become more marked as time has progressed. The purpose of this review paper is to outline the history of analysis using high energy protons and to compare and contrast the results obtained with those from lower energy analysis using more firmly established analytical techniques. The work described will concentrate exclusively on proton induced processes and will attempt to outline the rationale for selecting an energy, greater than 20 and up to 70 MeV protons for initiating particles. The relative ease and accuracy of the measurements obtained will be addressed. Clearly such X-ray studies should be seen as complementing low energy work in many instances rather than competing directly with them. However, it will be demonstrated that above a Z value of approximately 20, K X-ray analysis using high energy protons is the only way to go in this type of analysis. (author)

  9. Predicting problem behaviors with multiple expectancies: expanding expectancy-value theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Ashley; Earleywine, Mitchell; Huey, Stanley J

    2004-01-01

    Expectancy-value theory emphasizes the importance of outcome expectancies for behavioral decisions, but most tests of the theory focus on a single behavior and a single expectancy. However, the matching law suggests that individuals consider expected outcomes for both the target behavior and alternative behaviors when making decisions. In this study, we expanded expectancy-value theory to evaluate the contributions of two competing expectancies to adolescent behavior problems. One hundred twenty-one high school students completed measures of behavior problems, expectancies for both acting out and academic effort, and perceived academic competence. Students' self-reported behavior problems covaried mostly with perceived competence and academic expectancies and only nominally with problem behavior expectancies. We suggest that behavior problems may result from students perceiving a lack of valued or feasible alternative behaviors, such as studying. We discuss implications for interventions and suggest that future research continue to investigate the contribution of alternative expectancies to behavioral decisions.

  10. The creation of high energy densities with antimatter beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.; Kruk, J.W.; Rice Univ., Houston, TX

    1989-01-01

    The use of antiprotons (and antideuterons) for the study of the behavior of nuclear matter at high energy density is considered. It is shown that high temperatures and high energy densities can be achieved for small volumes. Also investigated is the strangeness production in antimatter annihilation. It is found that the high rate of Lambda production seen in a recent experiment is easily understood. The Lambda and K-short rapidity distributions are also reproduced by the model considered. 11 refs., 6 figs

  11. High energy hadron-hadron collisions. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, T.T.

    1979-03-01

    Work on high energy hadron-hadron collisions in the geometrical model, performed under the DOE Contract No. EY-76-S-09-0946, is summarized. Specific items studied include the behavior of elastic hadron scatterings at super high energies and the existence of many dips, the computation of meson radii in the geometrical model, and the hadronic matter current effects in inelastic two-body collisions

  12. Predicting Factors of Worker Behavior for Proper Working Posture Based on Planed Behavior Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mohammadi Zeydi

    2008-12-01

    Introduction & Objective: Injuries resulting from ignoring proper working posture especially in employees who sitting at workplace for more than of working hours are costly, and create significant pain and discomfort. Decreasing of these injuries is most effectively accomplished through the application of ergonomic design principles. Sometimes, however, barriers (technical and economic preclude ergonomic improvement and, consequently, some organizations rely on the use of proper sitting techniques and maintaining proper working posture as a major control strategy during workday. The problem, however, is that these process performing is inconsistent and managers have a difficult time motivating use of these techniques. The main aim of this study was to understand the factors driving proper working posture among employees. Materials & Methods: This study used the theory of planned behavior to predict upright working posture maintenance among 222 of assembling, machinery and printing line’s employees at a Qazvin Alborz industrial town manufacturing organization. Structural equation modeling, explanatory and confirmatory factor analysis were employed to analyze relationships among constructs. Results: Results revealed that attitude (p< 0.05, β= 0.53 and intention (p< 0.05, β= 0.46 were the strongest predictors of proper working posture maintenance behavior. Perceived behavior control, to a lesser degree, were also important influences on intention (p< 0.05, β= 0.34 and behavior (p< 0.05, β= 0.28. Subjective norms did not surface as effective direct predictors of upright working posture maintenance, but did affect behavior and intent via mediating factors (attitudes subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. Finally, the TPB was supported as an effective model explaining upright working posture maintenance, and had potential application for many other safety-related behaviors. Conclusion: results of this study emphasis on considering factors such as

  13. Non-critical strings at high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Kenichiro; Aoki, Kenichiro; Hoker, Eric D'

    1996-01-01

    We consider scattering amplitudes in non-critical string theory of $N$ external states in the limit where the energy of all external states is large compared to the string tension. We argue that the amplitudes are naturally complex analytic in the matter central charge $c$ and we propose to define the amplitudes for arbitrary value of $c$ by analytic continuation. We show that the high energy limit is dominated by a saddle point that can be mapped onto an equilibrium electro-static energy configuration of an assembly of $N$ pointlike (Minkowskian) charges, together with a density of charges arising from the Liouville field. We argue that the Liouville charges accumulate on segments of curves, and produce quadratic branch cuts on the worldsheet. The electro-statics problem is solved for string tree level in terms of hyper-elliptic integrals and is given explicitly for 3- and 4-point functions. We show that the high energy limit should behave in a string-like fashion with exponential dependence on the energy sc...

  14. Parental factors and adolescents' smoking behavior: an extension of The theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H J; Vermulst, Ad A; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2004-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate whether general parenting factors (i.e., quality parent-child relationship, psychological control, strict control, parental knowledge) and parental smoking add to The theory of planned behaviour [Organ Behav. Hum. Dec. 50 (1991) 179] in predicting the onset of smoking. A mediation model is applied in which parental factors affect smoking behavior indirectly by affecting smoking cognitions (i.e., attitude, self-efficacy, and social norm). The model was tested in a longitudinal study on 1,070 adolescents, aged 10-14 years old. Structural equation models (SEM) on current and on future smoking behavior were tested. The findings showed that the quality of the parent-child relationship and parental knowledge affected adolescents' smoking behavior indirectly, while parental smoking behavior had a direct effect. Strict control and psychological control were found to be unrelated to adolescents' smoking onset. In prevention campaigns, parents should be informed of the extent to which they exert influence on their child's smoking behavior and should be given advice and information on how they can prevent their children from starting to smoke.

  15. Using the theory of planned behavior to determine factors influencing processed foods consumption behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Og Yeon; Shim, Soonmi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to identify how level of information affected intention, using the Theory of Planned Behavior. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study was conducted survey in diverse community centers and shopping malls in Seoul, which yielded N = 209 datasets. To compare processed foods consumption behavior, we divided samples into two groups based on level of information about food additives (whether respondents felt that information on food additives was sufficient or not). We analyzed differences in attitudes toward food additives and toward purchasing processed foods, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intentions to processed foods between sufficient information group and lack information group. RESULTS The results confirmed that more than 78% of respondents thought information on food additives was insufficient. However, the group who felt information was sufficient had more positive attitudes about consuming processed foods and behavioral intentions than the group who thought information was inadequate. This study found people who consider that they have sufficient information on food additives tend to have more positive attitudes toward processed foods and intention to consume processed foods. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests increasing needs for nutrition education on the appropriate use of processed foods. Designing useful nutrition education requires a good understanding of factors which influence on processed foods consumption. PMID:24944779

  16. Using the theory of planned behavior to determine factors influencing processed foods consumption behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sunhee; Kim, Og Yeon; Shim, Soonmi

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify how level of information affected intention, using the Theory of Planned Behavior. The study was conducted survey in diverse community centers and shopping malls in Seoul, which yielded N = 209 datasets. To compare processed foods consumption behavior, we divided samples into two groups based on level of information about food additives (whether respondents felt that information on food additives was sufficient or not). We analyzed differences in attitudes toward food additives and toward purchasing processed foods, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and behavioral intentions to processed foods between sufficient information group and lack information group. The results confirmed that more than 78% of respondents thought information on food additives was insufficient. However, the group who felt information was sufficient had more positive attitudes about consuming processed foods and behavioral intentions than the group who thought information was inadequate. This study found people who consider that they have sufficient information on food additives tend to have more positive attitudes toward processed foods and intention to consume processed foods. This study suggests increasing needs for nutrition education on the appropriate use of processed foods. Designing useful nutrition education requires a good understanding of factors which influence on processed foods consumption.

  17. High-energy atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drukarev, Evgeny G

    2016-01-01

    This self-contained text introduces readers to the field of high-energy atomic physics - a new regime of photon-atom interactions in which the photon energies significantly exceed the atomic or molecular binding energies, and which opened up with the recent advent of new synchrotron sources. From a theoretical point of view, a small-parameter characteristic of the bound system emerged, making it possible to perform analytic perturbative calculations that can in turn serve as benchmarks for more powerful numerical computations. The first part of the book introduces readers to the foundations of this new regime and its theoretical treatment. In particular, the validity of the small-parameter perturbation expansion and of the lowest-order approximation is critically reviewed. The following chapters then apply these insights to various atomic processes, such as photoionization as a many-body problem, dominant mechanisms for the production of ions at higher energies, Compton scattering and ionization accompanied b...

  18. High energy polarized electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossmanith, R.

    1987-01-01

    In nearly all high energy electron storage rings the effect of beam polarization by synchrotron radiation has been measured. The buildup time for polarization in storage rings is of the order of 10 6 to 10 7 revolutions; the spins must remain aligned over this time in order to avoid depolarization. Even extremely small spin deviations per revolution can add up and cause depolarization. The injection and the acceleration of polarized electrons in linacs is much easier. Although some improvements are still necessary, reliable polarized electron sources with sufficiently high intensity and polarization are available. With the linac-type machines SLC at Stanford and CEBAF in Virginia, experiments with polarized electrons will be possible

  19. The Effect of Training on Adopting Behaviors Preventing from Knee Osteoarthritis Based on Planned Behavior Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the arthritis is believed to be among common diseases which prevail in the developed and developing countries, including Iran. In demographic studies, the prevalence of knee arthritis which stands at %15/3 in the population above 15-years old was shown. Owing to the fact that societies are about to be aged than before, the issue has become a growing significance in the subject matter of public health. The present study is conducted with an aim to investigate into the effect of training based on the planned behavior model on preventing the teachers of preliminary schools from getting knee arthritis. Methods: the study as an intervention research is of quasi-experimental kind. The population in question included 114 individuals among female teachers of preliminary schools who were brought to the study randomly and divided into two groups intervention and non-intervention. Based on the primary results, the educational contents were designed and submitted in the intervention group. After two months of executing the training program, the post test was carried out. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 18. Due to the loss of normality in data distribution, non- parametric tests were used. Results: the study demonstrated that the components of the planned behavior theory (i.e. the attitudes, subjective norms and the control of perceived behavior could altogether estimate %37 of intention and %43 of behavior. Meanwhile, the role of subjective norms (β =56/0 in predicting intention was overriding, In this study,after the educational program, control of perceived behavior scores increased of 32/50 ± 4/05 to 34/82 ± 5/66. indicating that the major obstacles in adopting behaviors preventing from knee arthritis are the lack of regular physical activity (%72/4 and failure to use western-style toilet (%57. Conclusion: In this Study the effect theory of planned behavior support in predicting exercise intentions and behavior in the prevention of

  20. High energy multi-cycle terahertz generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahr, Frederike Beate

    2017-10-01

    Development of compact electron accelerators and free-electron lasers requires novel acceleration schemes at shorter driving wavelengths. The Axsis project seeks to develop terahertz based electron acceleration as well as the high energy terahertz sources required. This thesis explores the methods and optical material required for the generation of highenergy multi-cycle terahertz pulses. Two experimental concepts to generate high energy terahertz radiation are presented. In addition the theoretical background and the optical properties of pertinent optical materials in the terahertz range are discussed. Investigations of the materials are performed with a terahertz time domain spectrometer and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The nonlinear optical crystal lithium niobate as well as other crystals suitable for the terahertz generation and in addition polymers and other radiation attenuators are characterized in the range from 0.2 to 1 THz. The theory describing the generation of narrowband terahertz radiation is evaluated. The experimental setups to generate terahertz radiation and to characterize its properties are described. The specific crystals - periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) - used in the experiments to generate the multi-cycle terahertz radiation are examined to determine e.g. the poling period. The first experimental concept splits the ultra fast, broadband pump pulses into a pulse train in order to pump the PPLN at a higher fluence while increasing the damage limit. The measurements confirm that a pulse train of ultra short, broadband pump pulses increases not only the terahertz energy but also the energy conversion efficiency. The second experimental concept utilizes chirped and delayed infrared laser pulses. This pulse format makes it possible to pump the crystal with high energy pulses resulting in high energy terahertz radiation. The concept is optimized to reach energies up to 127 μJ exceeding the existing results of narrowband

  1. High energy multi-cycle terahertz generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahr, Frederike Beate

    2017-10-15

    Development of compact electron accelerators and free-electron lasers requires novel acceleration schemes at shorter driving wavelengths. The Axsis project seeks to develop terahertz based electron acceleration as well as the high energy terahertz sources required. This thesis explores the methods and optical material required for the generation of highenergy multi-cycle terahertz pulses. Two experimental concepts to generate high energy terahertz radiation are presented. In addition the theoretical background and the optical properties of pertinent optical materials in the terahertz range are discussed. Investigations of the materials are performed with a terahertz time domain spectrometer and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The nonlinear optical crystal lithium niobate as well as other crystals suitable for the terahertz generation and in addition polymers and other radiation attenuators are characterized in the range from 0.2 to 1 THz. The theory describing the generation of narrowband terahertz radiation is evaluated. The experimental setups to generate terahertz radiation and to characterize its properties are described. The specific crystals - periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) - used in the experiments to generate the multi-cycle terahertz radiation are examined to determine e.g. the poling period. The first experimental concept splits the ultra fast, broadband pump pulses into a pulse train in order to pump the PPLN at a higher fluence while increasing the damage limit. The measurements confirm that a pulse train of ultra short, broadband pump pulses increases not only the terahertz energy but also the energy conversion efficiency. The second experimental concept utilizes chirped and delayed infrared laser pulses. This pulse format makes it possible to pump the crystal with high energy pulses resulting in high energy terahertz radiation. The concept is optimized to reach energies up to 127 μJ exceeding the existing results of narrowband

  2. Nonextensive statistical mechanics and high energy physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsallis Constantino

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of the celebrated Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy and statistical mechanics is justified for ergodic-like systems. In contrast, complex systems typically require more powerful theories. We will provide a brief introduction to nonadditive entropies (characterized by indices like q, which, in the q → 1 limit, recovers the standard Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy and associated nonextensive statistical mechanics. We then present somerecent applications to systems such as high-energy collisions, black holes and others. In addition to that, we clarify and illustrate the neat distinction that exists between Lévy distributions and q-exponential ones, a point which occasionally causes some confusion in the literature, very particularly in the LHC literature

  3. Unparticles: Scales and high energy probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bander, Myron; Feng, Jonathan L.; Rajaraman, Arvind; Shirman, Yuri

    2007-01-01

    Unparticles from hidden conformal sectors provide qualitatively new possibilities for physics beyond the standard model. In the theoretical framework of minimal models, we clarify the relation between energy scales entering various phenomenological analyses. We show that these relations always counteract the effective field theory intuition that higher dimension operators are more highly suppressed, and that the requirement of a significant conformal window places strong constraints on possible unparticle signals. With these considerations in mind, we examine some of the most robust and sensitive probes and explore novel effects of unparticles on gauge coupling evolution and fermion production at high energy colliders. These constraints are presented both as bounds on four-fermion interaction scales and as constraints on the fundamental parameter space of minimal models

  4. Rational decision perspectives on alcohol consumption by youth. Revising the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuther, Tara L

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive and developmental approaches have made great strides in describing and predicting alcohol consumption by youth. The present review examines several theories of decision making with regard to alcohol consumption, including subjective expected utility (SEU) theory, the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, and alcohol-related outcome expectancy theory. In addition, the developmental literature on the contribution of parents and peers to adolescent alcohol consumption is reviewed. A model is proposed, which integrates the theory of planned behavior and alcohol-related outcome expectancy theory with modifications based on findings from the developmental literature. Implications for further research are discussed.

  5. Extreme Transients in the High Energy Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2013-01-01

    The High Energy Universe is rich in diverse populations of objects spanning the entire cosmological (time)scale, from our own present-day Milky Way to the re-ionization epoch. Several of these are associated with extreme conditions irreproducible in laboratories on Earth. Their study thus sheds light on the behavior of matter under extreme conditions, such as super-strong magnetic fields (in excess of 10^14 G), high gravitational potentials (e.g., Super Massive Black Holes), very energetic collimated explosions resulting in relativistic jet flows (e.g., Gamma Ray Bursts, exceeding 10^53 ergs). In the last thirty years, my work has been mostly focused on two apparently different but potentially linked populations of such transients: magnetars (highly magnetized neutron stars) and Gamma Ray Bursts (strongly beamed emission from relativistic jets), two populations that constitute unique astrophysical laboratories, while also giving us the tools to probe matter conditions in the Universe to redshifts beyond z=10, when the first stars and galaxies were assembled. I did not make this journey alone I have either led or participated in several international collaborations studying these phenomena in multi-wavelength observations; solitary perfection is not sufficient anymore in the world of High Energy Astrophysics. I will describe this journey, present crucial observational breakthroughs, discuss key results and muse on the future of this field.

  6. A Learning-Style Theory for Understanding Autistic Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ning; Lipkin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding autism's ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup table (LUT) learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT) learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities) from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low- and high-dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name–number association in a phonebook). However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response). The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm), restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity), impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn regularities

  7. A learning-style theory for understanding autistic behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eQian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding autism’s ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically-developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup-table (LUT learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low and high dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name-number association in a phonebook. However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response. The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm, restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity, impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn

  8. Social Learning Theory and Behavioral Therapy: Considering Human Behaviors within the Social and Cultural Context of Individuals and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough Chavis, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines theoretical thoughts of social learning theory and behavioral therapy and their influences on human behavior within a social and cultural context. The article utilizes two case illustrations with applications for consumers. It points out the abundance of research studies concerning the effectiveness of social learning theory, and the paucity of research studies regarding effectiveness and evidence-based practices with diverse groups. Providing a social and cultural context in working with diverse groups with reference to social learning theory adds to the literature for more cultural considerations in adapting the theory to women, African Americans, and diverse groups.

  9. Quantum Sensing for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; et al.

    2018-03-29

    Report of the first workshop to identify approaches and techniques in the domain of quantum sensing that can be utilized by future High Energy Physics applications to further the scientific goals of High Energy Physics.

  10. Lasers and future high energy colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1998-02-01

    Future high energy colliders, directions for particle physics and relationship to new technology such as lasers are discussed. Experimental approaches to explore New Physics with emphasis on the utility of high energy colliders are also discussed

  11. Review of high energy heavy ion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miake, Yasuo

    2000-01-01

    It has been proposed that in high energy heavy ion collisions a physical conditions similar to the early stage of the Universe can be established in the laboratory. New phase of matter expected to be created is called the quark gluon plasma (QGP). Based on the motivation to create the QGP in the laboratory, heavy ion beams have been accelerated at AGS of Brookhaven National Laboratory and also at CERN-SPS. Several interesting features of the data have been reported, among which are: the suppression of J/ψ production in Pb+Pb collisions, the enhancement of low mass lepton pairs, and the collective behavior of hadron production. These features are reviewed under the key words of Deconfinement, Chiral Restoration and Collectivity in the lecture. (author)

  12. High energy behaviour of particles and unified statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Theories and experiments suggest that particles at high energy appear to possess a new statistics unifying Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics via the GAMMA distribution. This hypothesis can be obtained from many models, and agrees quantitatively with scaling, the multiplicty, large transverse momentum, the mass spectrum, and other data. It may be applied to scatterings at high energy, and agrees with experiments and known QED's results. The Veneziano model and other theories have implied new statistics, such as, the B distribution and the Polya distribution. They revert to the GAMMA distribution at high energy. The possible inapplicability of Pauli's exclusion principle within the unified statistics is considered and associated to the quark constituents

  13. Five roles for using theory and evidence in the design and testing of behavior change interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, L Kay; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2011-01-01

    The prevailing wisdom in the field of health-related behavior change is that well-designed and effective interventions are guided by theory. Using the framework of intervention mapping, we describe and provide examples of how investigators can effectively select and use theory to design, test, and report interventions. We propose five roles for theory and evidence about theories: a) identification of behavior and determinants of behavior related to a specified health problem (i.e., the logic model of the problem); b) explication of a causal model that includes theoretical constructs for producing change in the behavior of interest (i.e., the logic model of change); c) selection of intervention methods and delivery of practical applications to achieve changes in health behavior; d) evaluation of the resulting intervention including theoretical mediating variables; and e) reporting of the active ingredients of the intervention together with the evaluation results. In problem-driven applied behavioral or social science, researchers use one or multiple theories, empiric evidence, and new research, both to assess a problem and to solve or prevent a problem. Furthermore, the theories for description of the problem may differ from the theories for its solution. In an applied approach, the main focus is on solving problems regarding health behavior change and improvement of health outcomes, and the criteria for success are formulated in terms of the problem rather than the theory. Resulting contributions to theory development may be quite useful, but they are peripheral to the problem-solving process.

  14. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior and Cheating Justifications to Predict Academic Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Thomas H.; Jawahar, I. M.; Kisamore, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show that academic misconduct appears to be on the rise; some research has linked academic misconduct to unethical workplace behaviors. Unlike previous empirically-driven research, this theory-based study seeks to examine the usefulness of a modification of Ajzen's theory of planned behavior to predict…

  15. How Settings Change People: Applying Behavior Setting Theory to Consumer-Run Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Louis D.; Shepherd, Matthew D.; Wituk, Scott A.; Meissen, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Self-help initiatives stand as a classic context for organizational studies in community psychology. Behavior setting theory stands as a classic conception of organizations and the environment. This study explores both, applying behavior setting theory to consumer-run organizations (CROs). Analysis of multiple data sets from all CROs in Kansas…

  16. Understanding Nature-Related Behaviors among Children through a Theory of Reasoned Action Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotch, Chad; Hall, Troy

    2004-01-01

    The Theory of Reasoned Action has proven to be a valuable tool for predicting and understanding behavior and, as such, provides a potentially important basis for environmental education program design. This study used a Theory of Reasoned Action approach to examine a unique type of behavior (nature-related activities) and a unique population…

  17. Ethical Decision Making in Academic Dishonesty with Application of Modified Theory of Planned Behavior: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chan Ling; Othman, Jamilah; D'Silva, Jeffrey Lawrence; Omar, Zoharah

    2014-01-01

    This conceptual paper studies the application of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TBP) in academic dishonesty with the mediating variable of ethical ideologies. The study reviews literature on the Theory of Planned Behavior and past studies pertaining to academic dishonesty. The paper analyses the relationship of the variables of TPB on academic…

  18. Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior Are Associated with Family Meal Frequency among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Kumi; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel R.; Adachi, Miyuki

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between Theory of Planned Behavior variables and the family meal frequency. Methods: Fifth-through seventh-grade students (n = 236) completed a self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms. The relationships between Theory of Planned Behavior variables (intention, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived…

  19. [Intermediate/high energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    We have continued to develop a theoretical framework for the quark and gluon structure of nuclei. Our approach features a successful phenomenological model, the quark cluster model (QCM), and an ambitious program in the non-perturbative solution of quantum field theories. The effort in quantum field theory provides theoretical results to test or replace assumed ingredients of the QCM. By the explicit example of a scalar field theory in 2D we have solved the long-standing problem of how to treat the dynamics of the vacuum in light-front quantization. We now propose to solve the same problem for simple Fermion field theories in 2D such as the Gross-Neveu model. We propose in subsequent years to address QCD in low dimensionality with the purpose of extracting non-perturbative predictions for quark and gluon amplitudes in few baryon systems. Simultaneously with this new effort we will continue to develop extensions and applications of the QCM. We propose to continue predicting phenomena to be observed in high energy particle-nucleus collisions that reflect the rearrangement of quarks and gluons in nuclei. We have completed our analysis of the SLAC E101 and E133 experiments on Deuterium to elucidate the degree to which a six-quark cluster contribution is admissable in the Bjorken x > 1 data. We have completed our development of a parameterized thermal liquid drop model for light nuclei. In addition we have completed a set of predictions for the formation of a ''nuclear stratosphere'' in nuclei created by intermediate energy heavy ion interactions. These results motivate a new investigation of the temperature dependence of the ion-ion potential with particular emphasis on the thermal dependence of the barrier height and radius. We have also shown that a consistent treatment of relativistic effects is important for a theoretical description of the elastic magnetic form factor of 17 O. 85 refs

  20. Some problems of high-energy elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, P.S.

    1995-01-01

    The problems of high-energy elementary particle physics are discussed. It is pointed out that the modern theory of elementary-particle physics has no solutions of some large physical problems: origin of the mass, electric charge, identity of particle masses, change of the mass of elementary particles in time and others. 7 refs

  1. Dictionary of high-energy physics English, German, French, Russian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sube, R.

    1987-01-01

    This volume contains nearly 4500 entries from branches of high-energy physics including cosmic radiation, elementary particles, elementary particle detection and measurement, field theories, and particle accelerators. Each English entry is numbered and followed by corresponding terms in the other languages. Alphabetical indexes of the German, French, and Russian terms are included

  2. [High energy particle physics at Purdue, 1990--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.

    1991-05-01

    Progress made in the experimental and theoretical high energy physics program is reviewed. The CLEO experiment, particle astrophysics, dynamical symmetry breaking in gauge theories, the Collider Detector at Fermilab, the TOPAZ Experiment, and elementary particle physics beyond the standard model are included

  3. High energy asymptotics of the scattering amplitude for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Keywords. Scattering matrix; asymptotic expansion; high energy; diagonal singula- ..... (see subsection 2 of § 3) with functions of the generator of dilations. A = 1. 2 d ..... ness in quantum scattering theory, Ann. Inst. Henri Poincaré, Phys. Théor.

  4. Proceedings of the school for young high energy physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCubbin, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    The paper concerns the Proceedings of the 'School for Young High Energy Physicists', which was held at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Sept. 1987. The lectures were presented in four courses, and were intended to give experimentalists a grounding in Relativistic Quantum Field Theory. The four lectures courses were each selected for INIS and indexed separately. (U.K.)

  5. Theory of mind in schizophrenia: correlation with clinical symptomatology, emotional recognition and ward behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Kyeong; Kim, Yong Kyu

    2013-09-01

    Several studies have suggested the presence of a theory of mind (ToM) deficit in schizophrenic disorders. This study examined the relationship of emotion recognition, theory of mind, and ward behavior in patients with schizophrenia. Fifty-five patients with chronic schizophrenia completed measures of emotion recognition, ToM, intelligence, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Nurse's Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation (NOSIE). Theory of mind sum score correlated significantly with IQ, emotion recognition, and ward behavior. Ward behavior was linked to the duration of the illness, and even more so to theory of mind deficits. Theory of mind contributed a significant proportion of the amount of variance to explain social behavior on the ward. Considering our study results, impaired theory of mind contributes significantly to the understanding of social competence in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. An Attempt to Extend Taylor-Spence Drive Theory to Vocational Choice Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Richard S.

    1972-01-01

    Predictions were made from Taylor-Spence drive theory about vocational choice behavior. Although the results did not specifically support the predictions made from Taylor-Spence theory, they indicated the potential usefulness of certain concepts in this theory and suggested several lines of inquiry for further research. (Author)

  7. Extending the Theory of Normative Social Behavior to Predict Hand-Washing among Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Minwoong; Lapinski, Maria Knight

    2018-04-10

    The current study tests the predictions of the theory of normative social behavior (TNSB) in a hand-washing context in a Korean sample and extends the theory to examine the role of perceived publicness, a variable believed to activate face concerns, as a moderator of the norm-behavior relationship. The findings show substantial main effects for all of the study variables on behavior. In addition, the descriptive norm-behavior relationship is moderated by perceived publicness and outcome expectations, but the nature of the interactions is not consistent with that evidenced in previous literature on US samples. Implications for normative theory and communication campaigns are discussed.

  8. 1997 European School of high-energy physics. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, N.; Neubert, M.

    1998-01-01

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young experimental physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures on Field Theory, the Standard Model, Quantum Chromodynamics, Flavour Physics, Physics at LEP II and Heavy Ion physics, as well as reports on Cosmology, Dark Matter and a Quantum Theory of two-dimensional space-time. (orig.)

  9. 1997 European School of high-energy physics. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, N; Neubert, M [eds.

    1998-05-20

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young experimental physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures on Field Theory, the Standard Model, Quantum Chromodynamics, Flavour Physics, Physics at LEP II and Heavy Ion physics, as well as reports on Cosmology, Dark Matter and a Quantum Theory of two-dimensional space-time. (orig.)

  10. Caging in high energy reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ache, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of caging high energy reactions is considered. It is noted that there is no easy and unambiguous way, short of a complete and very tedious product and mechanistic analysis, which is feasible only for very few systems, to determine the contribution made by caging. It is emphasized that some products resulting from the hot reaction with a certain substrate may be formed via caging while others are not. In research on the mechanism of caging the results of Roots work on the reactions of hot 18 F with the CF 3 CH 3 system seem to provide evidence for caging, with 18 F being the caged moiety, thus proceeding via a radical--radical recombination mechanism. Their work with H 2 S additive also seems to indicate that scavenging via hydrogen abstraction from H 2 S to form does not interfere with the radical--radical recombination consistent with Bunkers molecular approach to explain the cage effects. In other research a series of observations resulting from stereochemical and combined stereochemical density variation techniques seem to favor a caged-complex. It is clear that a more conclusive answer can only be reached by more systematic studies, utilizing the whole range of nuclear reactions such as (n,2n), (n,γ) and E.C. processes in mechanistically well defined systems to elucidate the effect of variations in the recoil energies, by carrying out studies in different solvents or host substances to assess the effect of the physical parameters, such as molecule size and intermolecular interactions on the escape probability or caging efficiencies

  11. Applying theory-driven approaches to understanding and modifying clinicians' behavior: what do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Matthew B; Jensen, Peter S; Jaccard, James; Gollwitzer, Peter; Oettingen, Gabriele; Pappadopulos, Elizabeth; Hoagwood, Kimberly E

    2007-03-01

    Despite major recent research advances, large gaps exist between accepted mental health knowledge and clinicians' real-world practices. Although hundreds of studies have successfully utilized basic behavioral science theories to understand, predict, and change patients' health behaviors, the extent to which these theories-most notably the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and its extension, the theory of planned behavior (TPB)-have been applied to understand and change clinician behavior is unclear. This article reviews the application of theory-driven approaches to understanding and changing clinician behaviors. MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched, along with bibliographies, textbooks on health behavior or public health, and references from experts, to find article titles that describe theory-driven approaches (TRA or TPB) to understanding and modifying health professionals' behavior. A total of 19 articles that detailed 20 studies described the use of TRA or TPB and clinicians' behavior. Eight articles describe the use of TRA or TPB with physicians, four relate to nurses, three relate to pharmacists, and two relate to health workers. Only two articles applied TRA or TPB to mental health clinicians. The body of work shows that different constructs of TRA or TPB predict intentions and behavior among different groups of clinicians and for different behaviors and guidelines. The number of studies on this topic is extremely limited, but they offer a rationale and a direction for future research as well as a theoretical basis for increasing the specificity and efficiency of clinician-targeted interventions.

  12. A STUDY ON THE SHAREHOLDERS’ BEHAVIOR OF LISTED COMPANIES BASED ON SYMBIOSIS THEORY: A RESEARCH FRAMEWORK

    OpenAIRE

    YANG Songling; LIU Tingli; CHEN Fang

    2014-01-01

    Research on shareholder’s behavior is a hot topic in recent years. Most researches are based on the theory of agency, which proposal that equity decentralization is the major way to solve the conflict problem between large shareholders and minority stockholders. Actually, major shareholder will never be eliminated. This paper introduces the symbiosis theory-ecology theory-to explain the motives and consequences of the behavior of different type shareholders in China’s from a new perspective. ...

  13. High energy physics and grid computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chuansong

    2004-01-01

    The status of the new generation computing environment of the high energy physics experiments is introduced briefly in this paper. The development of the high energy physics experiments and the new computing requirements by the experiments are presented. The blueprint of the new generation computing environment of the LHC experiments, the history of the Grid computing, the R and D status of the high energy physics grid computing technology, the network bandwidth needed by the high energy physics grid and its development are described. The grid computing research in Chinese high energy physics community is introduced at last. (authors)

  14. Statistical learning in high energy and astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, J.

    2005-06-16

    This thesis studies the performance of statistical learning methods in high energy and astrophysics where they have become a standard tool in physics analysis. They are used to perform complex classification or regression by intelligent pattern recognition. This kind of artificial intelligence is achieved by the principle ''learning from examples'': The examples describe the relationship between detector events and their classification. The application of statistical learning methods is either motivated by the lack of knowledge about this relationship or by tight time restrictions. In the first case learning from examples is the only possibility since no theory is available which would allow to build an algorithm in the classical way. In the second case a classical algorithm exists but is too slow to cope with the time restrictions. It is therefore replaced by a pattern recognition machine which implements a fast statistical learning method. But even in applications where some kind of classical algorithm had done a good job, statistical learning methods convinced by their remarkable performance. This thesis gives an introduction to statistical learning methods and how they are applied correctly in physics analysis. Their flexibility and high performance will be discussed by showing intriguing results from high energy and astrophysics. These include the development of highly efficient triggers, powerful purification of event samples and exact reconstruction of hidden event parameters. The presented studies also show typical problems in the application of statistical learning methods. They should be only second choice in all cases where an algorithm based on prior knowledge exists. Some examples in physics analyses are found where these methods are not used in the right way leading either to wrong predictions or bad performance. Physicists also often hesitate to profit from these methods because they fear that statistical learning methods cannot

  15. Statistical learning in high energy and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, J.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis studies the performance of statistical learning methods in high energy and astrophysics where they have become a standard tool in physics analysis. They are used to perform complex classification or regression by intelligent pattern recognition. This kind of artificial intelligence is achieved by the principle ''learning from examples'': The examples describe the relationship between detector events and their classification. The application of statistical learning methods is either motivated by the lack of knowledge about this relationship or by tight time restrictions. In the first case learning from examples is the only possibility since no theory is available which would allow to build an algorithm in the classical way. In the second case a classical algorithm exists but is too slow to cope with the time restrictions. It is therefore replaced by a pattern recognition machine which implements a fast statistical learning method. But even in applications where some kind of classical algorithm had done a good job, statistical learning methods convinced by their remarkable performance. This thesis gives an introduction to statistical learning methods and how they are applied correctly in physics analysis. Their flexibility and high performance will be discussed by showing intriguing results from high energy and astrophysics. These include the development of highly efficient triggers, powerful purification of event samples and exact reconstruction of hidden event parameters. The presented studies also show typical problems in the application of statistical learning methods. They should be only second choice in all cases where an algorithm based on prior knowledge exists. Some examples in physics analyses are found where these methods are not used in the right way leading either to wrong predictions or bad performance. Physicists also often hesitate to profit from these methods because they fear that statistical learning methods cannot be controlled in a

  16. Inelastic strong interactions at high energies. Final report, June 1, 1976-May 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suranyi, P.

    1984-01-01

    Work in Reggeon Field Theory is described. Multiparticle processes were studied. Cut RFT's were examined and convergence of perturbation expansions was considered. An RFT with an internal symmetry was also investigated. We made a study of model independent predictions for various high energy cross-sections, introducing the concept of sections. We examined the quantum mechanics of polynomial potentials as a model for quantum field theories. We determined various convergence properties of approximate calculational methods. Various aspects of GUT's were studied. The Higgs sector was examined and various symmetry breaking patterns were found using different representations for the Higgs. Bounds were put on parameters of the theory at finite temperature. Lattice gauge theories were studied. We looked at one exactly soluble one-dimensional model, and then began an extended investigation of Hamiltonian Lattice gauge theories. We studied the weak coupling behavior of global and local abelian lattice gauge theories in arbitrary dimensions, using various periodic trial functions and the WKB approximation. Supersymmetry and supergravity were investigated. We examine the compatibility of scale transformations in super space and the properties of scale invarient theories in ordinary spacetime. We discovered the largest possible local linear symmetry which is allowed given the structure of spacetime. We developed a systematic method for performing dimensional reduction on theories which admit abelian killing vectors. 68 references

  17. The extended Theory of Planned Behavior in explaining exclusive breastfeeding intention and behavior among women in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengku Ismail, Tengku Alina; Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan; Bakar, Mohd Isa

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to utilize an extended Theory of Planned Behavior in identifying predictors of exclusive breastfeeding intention and behavior among women in Kelantan, Malaysia. A prospective cohort study was conducted, recruiting pregnant womenthrough two-stage cluster sampling. Their exclusive breastfeeding intention, attitude, perceived norm, perceived behavioral control and past behavior were obtained at baseline through interviewer-guided questionnaire. At one month after delivery, another interview was conducted to determine the two additional variables in the extended theory, which were their postpartum support and breastfeeding difficulty. The behavior, which was the actual duration of exclusive breastfeeding, was obtained from the second follow-up at six months. Pearson correlation and two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted. A total of 200 women completed the study follow-up. Their median intended exclusive breastfeeding duration was 4.0 (IQR 5) months, and the median actual duration was 1.0 (IQR 4) month. The Theory of Planned Behavior explained 51.0% of the variance in intention, with perceived behavioral control and attitude were the significant predictors. It also explained 10.0% of the variance in behavior, but the addition of postpartum support and breastfeeding difficulty increased the amount of explained variance in behavior by 6.0%. The significant predictors of exclusive breastfeeding behavior were intention, postpartum support and breastfeeding difficulty. The extended Theory of Planned Behaviorhad a good predictive ability in explaining exclusive breastfeedingintention and behavior. The women's intention to practice exclusive breastfeeding may be improved by improving their perceived behavioral control and attitude. Providing correct postpartum support and skills to handle breastfeeding difficulties after delivery will improve their exclusive breastfeeding behavior.

  18. Experimental High Energy Physics Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohlmann, Marcus [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics and Space Sciences

    2016-01-13

    This final report summarizes activities of the Florida Tech High Energy Physics group supported by DOE under grant #DE-SC0008024 during the period June 2012 – March 2015. We focused on one of the main HEP research thrusts at the Energy Frontier by participating in the CMS experiment. We were exploiting the tremendous physics opportunities at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and prepared for physics at its planned extension, the High-Luminosity LHC. The effort comprised a physics component with analysis of data from the first LHC run and contributions to the CMS Phase-2 upgrades in the muon endcap system (EMU) for the High-Luminosity LHC. The emphasis of our hardware work was the development of large-area Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) for the CMS forward muon upgrade. We built a production and testing site for such detectors at Florida Tech to complement future chamber production at CERN. The first full-scale CMS GE1/1 chamber prototype ever built outside of CERN was constructed at Florida Tech in summer 2013. We conducted two beam tests with GEM prototype chambers at CERN in 2012 and at FNAL in 2013 and reported the results at conferences and in publications. Principal Investigator Hohlmann served as chair of the collaboration board of the CMS GEM collaboration and as co-coordinator of the GEM detector working group. He edited and authored sections of the detector chapter of the Technical Design Report (TDR) for the GEM muon upgrade, which was approved by the LHCC and the CERN Research Board in 2015. During the course of the TDR approval process, the GEM project was also established as an official subsystem of the muon system by the CMS muon institution board. On the physics side, graduate student Kalakhety performed a Z' search in the dimuon channel with the 2011 and 2012 CMS datasets that utilized 20.6 fb⁻¹ of p-p collisions at √s = 8 TeV. For the dimuon channel alone, the 95% CL lower limits obtained on the mass of a Z' resonance are 2770 Ge

  19. Theory X/Y in the Health Care Setting: Employee Perceptions, Attitudes, and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prottas, David J; Nummelin, Mary Rogers

    Douglas McGregor's conceptualization of Theory X and Theory Y has influenced management practices for almost six decades, despite the relative paucity of empirical support. This empirical study examined the relationships between health care employees' perceptions of (1) manager Theory Y and Theory X orientations; (2) work unit psychological safety, organizational citizenship behavior, and service quality; and (3) the employing entity. The study used survey data from more than 3500 employees of a large US health care system and analyzed them using confirmatory factor and hierarchical regression analyses. Results indicate that McGregor's conceptualization is best considered as two separate constructs-Theory Y and Theory X-rather than as one-dimensional X/Y construct. This study's three dependent variables were positively related to Theory Y and negatively related to Theory X, with larger Theory Y effect sizes. Psychological safety partially mediated the relationship between Theory Y and the dependent variables Y. Practical implications are presented.

  20. Teacher Attitudes and Behavior toward the Inclusion of Children with Social, Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties in Mainstream Schools: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Kate; Woolfson, Lisa Marks

    2013-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to examine relationships between teacher attitudes and behavior toward children with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties (SEBD). One hundred and eleven elementary school teachers completed questionnaires. Teacher perception of their school principals' expectations (subjective norm) predicted…

  1. A Theory of Planned Behavior Research Model for Predicting the Sleep Intentions and Behaviors of Undergraduate College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Sharma, Manoj; Bernard, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to operationalize the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict the sleep intentions and behaviors of undergraduate college students attending a Midwestern University. Data collection spanned three phases. The first phase included a semi-structured qualitative interview (n = 11), readability by…

  2. Contrasting the theory of planned behavior with the value-belief-norm model in explaning conservation behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, F.G.; Hübner, G.; Bogner, F.X.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we contrast the value-belief-norm (VBN) model and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for the first time regarding their ability to explain conservation behavior. The participants represent a convenience sample of 468 university students. Using survey data and adopting previously

  3. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassé, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT…

  4. Nonrelativistic closed string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomis, Jaume; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2001-01-01

    We construct a Galilean invariant nongravitational closed string theory whose excitations satisfy a nonrelativistic dispersion relation. This theory can be obtained by taking a consistent low energy limit of any of the conventional string theories, including the heterotic string. We give a finite first order worldsheet Hamiltonian for this theory and show that this string theory has a sensible perturbative expansion, interesting high energy behavior of scattering amplitudes and a Hagedorn transition of the thermal ensemble. The strong coupling duals of the Galilean superstring theories are considered and are shown to be described by an eleven-dimensional Galilean invariant theory of light membrane fluctuations. A new class of Galilean invariant nongravitational theories of light-brane excitations are obtained. We exhibit dual formulations of the strong coupling limits of these Galilean invariant theories and show that they exhibit many of the conventional dualities of M theory in a nonrelativistic setting

  5. Understanding Knowledge Sharing Behavior: An Examination of the Extended Model of Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina O. Sihombing

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Knowledge is recognized as one valuable asset for many organizations. Thus, knowledge-sharing is one of important activities in many organizations, including university. Knowledge sharing is defined as activities of transferring or disseminating organizationally relevant information, ideas, suggestions, and expertise with one another. This research applied Christian values as a moderating variable in the framework of theory of planned behavior. The aims of this research to assess applicability of the theory of planned behavior to predict knowledge sharing and to examine the effects of Christian values in the relationship between attitude and intention to share knowledge. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data for this study. The data was then analyzed using structural equation modeling. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  6. Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Healthy Eating among Danish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronhoj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Chan, Kara; Tsang, Lennon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to apply the theory of planned behavior to predict Danish adolescents' behavioral intention for healthy eating. Design/methodology/approach: A cluster sample survey of 410 students aged 11 to 16 years studying in Grade 6 to Grade 10 was conducted in Denmark. Findings: Perceived behavioral control followed by…

  7. Predicting Participation in Dual Language Immersion Using Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Andrea; Domenech Rodríguez, Melanie M.; Vázquez, Alejandro L.; Corralejo, Samantha M.

    2018-01-01

    Dual language immersion programs are increasing in popularity. Yet little is known about what motivates parents to enroll their children in dual language immersion. The theory of planned behavior posits that behavior is based on attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. The current study was an exploratory evaluation of the…

  8. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory in Predicting Water Saving Behaviors in Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter-mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha-viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. Methods: The cross-sectional study used random cluster sampling to recruit 200 heads of households to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was tested for its content validity and reliability. Analysis of data included descriptive statistics, simple correlation, hierarchical multiple regression. Results: Simple correlations between water saving behaviors and Reasoned Action Theory and Health Belief Model constructs were statistically significant. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory constructs explained 20.80% and 8.40% of the variances in water saving beha-viors, respectively. Perceived barriers were the strongest Predictor. Additionally, there was a sta-tistically positive correlation between water saving behaviors and intention. Conclusion: In designing interventions aimed at water waste prevention, barriers of water saving behaviors should be addressed first, followed by people's attitude towards water saving. Health Belief Model constructs, with the exception of perceived severity and benefits, is more powerful than is Reasoned Action Theory in predicting water saving behavior and may be used as a framework for educational interventions aimed at improving water saving behaviors.

  9. HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS: CERN Link Breathes Life Into Russian Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R

    2000-10-13

    Without fanfare, 600 Russian scientists here at CERN, the European particle physics laboratory, are playing key roles in building the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a machine that will explore fundamental questions such as why particles have mass, as well as search for exotic new particles whose existence would confirm supersymmetry, a popular theory that aims to unify the four forces of nature. In fact, even though Russia is not one of CERN's 20 member states, most top high-energy physicists in Russia are working on the LHC. Some say their work could prove the salvation of high-energy physics back home.

  10. Theoretical interpretation of high-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fai, G.

    1991-07-01

    Nuclear collision data are interpreted theoretically. The nuclear equation of state is investigated with particular emphasis on momentum-dependent mean field effects. Subnucleonic degrees of freedom are invoked at high energies and densities, and a short length-scales. A nontopological soliton model for baryons is studied in which effective meson fields are generated from extended quark-antiquark pairs. The major objective of this nuclear theory project is a better understanding of the properties of strongly interacting matter on the nuclear energy scale, as manifested in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

  11. Dynamic compaction with high energy of sandy hydraulic fills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khelalfa Houssam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A case study about the adoption of the dynamic compaction technique with high energy in a sandy hydraulic fill is presented. The feasibility of this technique to ensure the stability of the caisson workshop and to minimize the risk of liquefaction during manufacture. This Article is interested to establish diagnostic of dynamic compaction test, basing on the results of SPT tests and quality control as well as the details of work of compaction and the properties of filling materials. A theory of soil response to a high-energy impact during dynamic compaction is proposed.

  12. Theoretical interpretation of high-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fai, G.

    1992-06-01

    Nuclear collisions are interpreted theoretically. The nuclear equation of state is studied in a wide energy range. Subnucleonic degrees of freedom are invoked at high energy densities and at short length-scales. Questions of dynamical collision simulations are investigated. Direct support is provided for experiment in the form of collaborative projects. The major objective of this nuclear theory program is a better understanding of the properties of strongly interacting matter on the nuclear energy scale, as manifested in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

  13. Stringy symmetries and their high-energy limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.-T.; Lee, J.-C.

    2005-01-01

    We derive stringy symmetries with conserved charges of arbitrarily high spins from the decoupling of two types of zero-norm states in the old covariant first quantized (OCFQ) spectrum of open bosonic string. These symmetries are valid to all energy α ' and all loop orders χ in string perturbation theory. The high-energy limit α ' ->∞ of these stringy symmetries can then be used to fix the proportionality constants between scattering amplitudes of different string states algebraically without referring to Gross and Mende's saddle point calculation of high-energy string-loop amplitudes. These proportionality constants are, as conjectured by Gross, independent of the scattering angle φ CM and the order χ of string perturbation theory. However, we also discover some new nonzero components of high-energy amplitudes not found previously by Gross and Manes. These components are essential to preserve massive gauge invariances or decouple massive zero-norm states of string theory. A set of massive scattering amplitudes and their high energy limit are calculated explicitly to justify our results

  14. Significance of high energy spin effects in constituent pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.K.

    1977-01-01

    The spin information about high energy hadronic reactions is important for further understanding of the nature and the behavior of hadronic constituents. The usefulness of the information is discussed in the cases of dilepton production from hadronic collisions, large P/sub T/ inclusive and elastic scatterings, and small angle elastic scattering and quantum number exchanged reactions

  15. Total Cross Sections at High Energies An update

    CERN Document Server

    Fazal-e-Aleem, M; Alam, Saeed; Qadee-Afzal, M

    2002-01-01

    Current and Future measurements for the total cross sections at E-811, PP2PP, CSM, FELIX and TOTEM have been analyzed using various models. In the light of this study an attempt has been made to focus on the behavior of total cross section at very high energies.

  16. The Contributions of Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Theory to Innovative Research and Practice Cultures in Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Harold Eugene; Sharkey, Caroline; Briggs, Adam Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors tie the emergence of an empirical practice research culture, which enabled the rise in evidence-based practice in social work to the introduction of applied behavior analysis and behavioral theory to social work practice and research. The authors chronicle the: (1) scientific foundations of social work, (2) influence and push by corporatized university cultures for higher scholarship productivity among faculty, (3) significance of theory in general, (4) importance of behavioral theory in particular as a major trigger of the growth in research on effective social work practice approaches, and (5) commonalities between applied behavior analysis and evidence-based practice. The authors conclude with implications for addressing the dual challenges of building an enhanced research culture in schools of social work and the scholarship of transferring practice research to adoption in real world practice settings.

  17. Theories of reasoned action and planned behavior as models of condom use: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, D; Johnson, B T; Fishbein, M; Muellerleile, P A

    2001-01-01

    To examine how well the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior predict condom use, the authors synthesized 96 data sets (N = 22,594) containing associations between the models' key variables. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action's predictions, (a) condom use was related to intentions (weighted mean r. = .45), (b) intentions were based on attitudes (r. = .58) and subjective norms (r. = .39), and (c) attitudes were associated with behavioral beliefs (r. = .56) and norms were associated with normative beliefs (r. = .46). Consistent with the theory of planned behavior's predictions, perceived behavioral control was related to condom use intentions (r. = .45) and condom use (r. = .25), but in contrast to the theory, it did not contribute significantly to condom use. The strength of these associations, however, was influenced by the consideration of past behavior. Implications of these results for HIV prevention efforts are discussed.

  18. High energy physics: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, G.C.; Roberts, J.B. Jr.; Bonner, B.E.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of data on collision of protons with targets of He, Be, C, Al, Sn, and Pb continued. A jet signal has been clearly observed from all nuclei. A collaboration has been formed for carrying out an experiment studying the photoproduced jets from nuclei and propagation of quarks and gluons through nuclear matter. The production of lambda hyperons was studied using the primary polarized beam at BNL/AGS at 13.3 and 18.5 GeV/c. The effect of the proton beam polarization on the lambda production, A/sub N/ and spin transfer have been measured. A request was approved for additional polarized proton beam at the AGS to continue measurements of the spin transfer to hyperons. Progress is reported on an initial 200 GeV/c polarized beam-polarized target experiment. A collaborative experiment was approved for the saearch for exotic/hybrid mesons. Investigations in quantum field theories, especially quantum chromodynamics, were contined

  19. Applying the theory of planned behavior: nursing students' intention to seek clinical experiences using the essential clinical behavior database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Linda

    2002-03-01

    This study examined the antecedents and determinants predictive of whether nursing students (N = 92) intend to ask for assignments to perform nursing behaviors after using a database to record essential clinical behaviors. The results of applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to behavioral intention using multivariant path analysis suggested that the endogenous variables, attitude and subjective norms, had a significant effect on the intention to ask for assignments to perform nursing behaviors. In addition, it was primarily through attitudes and subjective norms that the respective antecedents or exogenous variables, behavioral beliefs and normative beliefs, affected the intention to ask for assignments to perform nursing behaviors. The lack of direct influence of perceived behavioral control on intention and the direct negative impact of control belief on intention were contrary to expectations, given the tenets of the TPB.

  20. Integration of Theory of Planned Behavior and Norm Activation Model on Student Behavior Model Using Cars for Traveling to Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiawan, R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there are clear environmental, economic, and social drawbacks in using private vehicles, students still choose cars to get to campus. This study reports an investigation of psychological factors influencing this behavior from the perspective of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Norm Activation Model. Students from three different university campuses in Surabaya, Indonesia, (n = 312 completed a survey on their car commuting behavior. Results indicated that perceived behavioral control and personal norm were the strongest factors that influence behavioral intention. Attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and personal norm explain 62.7% variance of the behavioral intention. In turn, behavioral intention explains 42.5% of the variance of the actual car use. Implications of these findings are that in order to alter the use of car, university should implement both structural and psychological interventions. Effective interventions should be designed to raise the awareness of negative aspects of car use.

  1. State of the evidence regarding behavior change theories and strategies in nutrition counseling to facilitate health and food behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Joanne M; Reeves, Rebecca S; Keim, Kathryn S; Laquatra, Ida; Kellogg, Molly; Jortberg, Bonnie; Clark, Nicole A

    2010-06-01

    Behavior change theories and models, validated within the field of dietetics, offer systematic explanations for nutrition-related behavior change. They are integral to the nutrition care process, guiding nutrition assessment, intervention, and outcome evaluation. The American Dietetic Association Evidence Analysis Library Nutrition Counseling Workgroup conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature related to behavior change theories and strategies used in nutrition counseling. Two hundred fourteen articles were reviewed between July 2007 and March 2008, and 87 studies met the inclusion criteria. The workgroup systematically evaluated these articles and formulated conclusion statements and grades based upon the available evidence. Strong evidence exists to support the use of a combination of behavioral theory and cognitive behavioral theory, the foundation for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), in facilitating modification of targeted dietary habits, weight, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors. Evidence is particularly strong in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving intensive, intermediate-duration (6 to 12 months) CBT, and long-term (>12 months duration) CBT targeting prevention or delay in onset of type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Few studies have assessed the application of the transtheoretical model on nutrition-related behavior change. Little research was available documenting the effectiveness of nutrition counseling utilizing social cognitive theory. Motivational interviewing was shown to be a highly effective counseling strategy, particularly when combined with CBT. Strong evidence substantiates the effectiveness of self-monitoring and meal replacements and/or structured meal plans. Compelling evidence exists to demonstrate that financial reward strategies are not effective. Goal setting, problem solving, and social support are effective strategies, but additional research is needed in more diverse populations. Routine documentation

  2. Health belief model and reasoned action theory in predicting water saving behaviors in yazd, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Momayyezi, Mahdieh; Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi

    2012-01-01

    People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter¬mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha¬viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. The cross-sectional study used random cluster sampling to recruit 200 heads of households to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was tested for its content validity and reliability. Analysis of data included descriptive statistics, simple correlation, hierarchical multiple regression. Simple correlations between water saving behaviors and Reasoned Action Theory and Health Belief Model constructs were statistically significant. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory constructs explained 20.80% and 8.40% of the variances in water saving beha-viors, respectively. Perceived barriers were the strongest Predictor. Additionally, there was a sta¬tistically positive correlation between water saving behaviors and intention. In designing interventions aimed at water waste prevention, barriers of water saving behaviors should be addressed first, followed by people's attitude towards water saving. Health Belief Model constructs, with the exception of perceived severity and benefits, is more powerful than is Reasoned Action Theory in predicting water saving behavior and may be used as a framework for educational interventions aimed at improving water saving behaviors.

  3. Superconducting magnets in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodell, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    The applications of superconducting magnets in high energy physics in the last ten years have made feasible developments which are vital to high energy research. These developments include high magnetic field, large volume detectors, such as bubble chambers, required for effective resolution of high energy particle trajectories, particle beam transport magnets, and superconducting focusing and bending magnets for the very high energy accelerators and storage rings needed to pursue the study of interactions between elementary particles. The acceptance of superconductivity as a proven technology in high energy physics was reinforced by the recognition that the existing large accelerators using copper-iron magnets had reached practical limits in terms of magnetic field intensity, cost, space, and energy usage, and that large-volume, high-field, copper-iron magnets were not economically feasible. Some of the superconducting magnets and associated systems being used in and being developed for high energy physics are described

  4. Harvard University High Energy Physics progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The principal goals of this work are to carry out forefront programs in high energy physics research and to provide first rate educational opportunities for students. The experimental program supported through HEPL is carried out at the major accelerator centers in the world and addresses some of the most important questions in high energy physics. The program is based at Harvard's High Energy Physics Laboratory, which has offices, computing facilities, and engineering support, and both electronics and machine shops

  5. Split School of High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Split School of High Energy Physics 2015 (SSHEP 2015) was held at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FESB), University of Split, from September 14 to September 18, 2015. SSHEP 2015 aimed at master and PhD students who were interested in topics pertaining to High Energy Physics. SSHEP 2015 is the sixth edition of the High Energy Physics School. Previous five editions were held at the Department of Physics, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  6. Particle accelerators and lasers high energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watteau, J.P.

    1985-04-01

    Particle accelerators and lasers are to-day precious devices for physicist and engineer. Their performance and scope do not stop growing. Producing thin beams of high energy particles or photons, they are able to be very high energy sources which interact strongly with matter. Numerous applications use them: research, industry, communication, medicine, agroalimentary, defence, and soon. In this note, their operation principles are described and some examples of their use as high energy sources are given [fr

  7. X-ray absorption intensity at high-energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Takashi; Kaneko, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically discuss X-ray absorption intensity in high-energy region far from the deepest core threshold to explain the morphology-dependent mass attenuation coefficient of some carbon systems, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and fullerenes (C 60 ). The present theoretical approach is based on the many-body X-ray absorption theory including the intrinsic losses (shake-up losses). In the high-energy region the absorption coefficient has correction term dependent on the solid state effects given in terms of the polarization part of the screened Coulomb interaction W p . We also discuss the tail of the valence band X-ray absorption intensity. In the carbon systems C 2s contribution has some influence on the attenuation coefficient even in the high energy region at 20 keV.

  8. Explaining Consumer Safe Food Handling Through Behavior-Change Theories: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian; Reimer, Danielle; Greig, Judy; Meldrum, Richard; Turgeon, Patricia; Waddell, Lisa

    2017-11-01

    Consumers often engage in unsafe food handling behaviors at home. Previous studies have investigated the ability of behavior-change theories to explain and predict these behaviors. The purpose of this review was to determine which theories are most consistently associated with consumers' safe food handling behaviors across the published literature. A standardized systematic review methodology was used, consisting of the following steps: comprehensive search strategy; relevance screening of identified references; confirmation of relevance and characterization of relevant articles; risk-of-bias assessment; data extraction; and descriptive analysis of study results. A total of 20 relevant studies were identified; they were mostly conducted in Australia (40%) and the United States (35%) and used a cross-sectional design (65%). Most studies targeted young adults (65%), and none focused on high-risk consumer groups. The outcomes of 70% of studies received high overall risk-of-bias ratings, largely due to a lack of control for confounding variables. The most commonly applied theory was the Theory of Planned Behavior (45% of studies), which, along with other investigated theories of behavior change, was frequently associated with consumer safe food handling behavioral intentions and behaviors. However, overall, there was wide variation in the specific constructs found to be significantly associated and in the percentage of variance explained in each outcome across studies. The results suggest that multiple theories of behavior change can help to explain consumer safe food handling behaviors and could be adopted to guide the development of future behavior-change interventions. In these contexts, theories should be appropriately selected and adapted to meet the needs of the specific target population and context of interest.

  9. High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) is the primary archive for NASA missions dealing with extremely energetic phenomena, from...

  10. High Energy Solid State Laser Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A suite of laboratories with advanced spectroscopic and laser equipment, this facility develops materials and techniques for advanced solid state high energy lasers....

  11. High energy physics and cloud computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yaodong; Liu Baoxu; Sun Gongxing; Chen Gang

    2011-01-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) has been a strong promoter of computing technology, for example WWW (World Wide Web) and the grid computing. In the new era of cloud computing, HEP has still a strong demand, and major international high energy physics laboratories have launched a number of projects to research on cloud computing technologies and applications. It describes the current developments in cloud computing and its applications in high energy physics. Some ongoing projects in the institutes of high energy physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, including cloud storage, virtual computing clusters, and BESⅢ elastic cloud, are also described briefly in the paper. (authors)

  12. High energy physics at UCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.

    1997-07-01

    The hadron collider group is studying proton-antiproton interactions at the world`s highest collision energy 2 TeV. Data-taking with the D0 detector is in progress at Fermilab and the authors have begun the search for the top quark. S. Wimpenny is coordinating the effort to detect t{bar t} decaying to two leptons, the most readily identifiable channel. At UC Riverside design and testing for a silicon tracker for the D0 upgrade is in progress; a parallel development for the SDC detector at SSC is also underway. The major group effort of the lepton group has been devoted to the OPAL experiment at LEP. They will continue to focus on data-taking to improve the quality and quantity of their data sample. A large number of papers have been published based on approximately 500,000 events taken so far. The authors will concentrate on physics analysis which provides stringent tests of the Standard Model. The authors are continuing participation in the RD5 experiment at the SPS to study muon triggering and tracking. The results of this experiment will provide critical input for the design of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment being proposed for the LHC. The theory group has been working on problems concerning the possible vilation of e-{mu}-{tau} universality, effective Lagrangians, neutrino physics, as well as quark and lepton mass matrices.

  13. High energy physics at UCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.

    1997-01-01

    The hadron collider group is studying proton-antiproton interactions at the world's highest collision energy 2 TeV. Data-taking with the D0 detector is in progress at Fermilab and the authors have begun the search for the top quark. S. Wimpenny is coordinating the effort to detect t bar t decaying to two leptons, the most readily identifiable channel. At UC Riverside design and testing for a silicon tracker for the D0 upgrade is in progress; a parallel development for the SDC detector at SSC is also underway. The major group effort of the lepton group has been devoted to the OPAL experiment at LEP. They will continue to focus on data-taking to improve the quality and quantity of their data sample. A large number of papers have been published based on approximately 500,000 events taken so far. The authors will concentrate on physics analysis which provides stringent tests of the Standard Model. The authors are continuing participation in the RD5 experiment at the SPS to study muon triggering and tracking. The results of this experiment will provide critical input for the design of the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment being proposed for the LHC. The theory group has been working on problems concerning the possible vilation of e-μ-τ universality, effective Lagrangians, neutrino physics, as well as quark and lepton mass matrices

  14. Understanding driver behavior at grade crossings through signal detection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report uses signal detection theory (SDT) to model motorists decisionmaking strategies at grade crossings in order to understand the factors that influence such decisions and to establish a framework for evaluating the impact of proposed coun...

  15. Understanding driver behavior at grade crossings through signal detection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    This report uses signal detection theory (SDT) to model motorists decisionmaking strategies at grade crossings in order to understand the factors that influence such decisions and to establish a framework for evaluating the impact of proposed coun...

  16. Precision probes of QCD at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alioli, Simone; Farina, Marco; Pappadopulo, Duccio; Ruderman, Joshua T.

    2017-07-01

    New physics, that is too heavy to be produced directly, can leave measurable imprints on the tails of kinematic distributions at the LHC. We use energetic QCD processes to perform novel measurements of the Standard Model (SM) Effective Field Theory. We show that the dijet invariant mass spectrum, and the inclusive jet transverse momentum spectrum, are sensitive to a dimension 6 operator that modifies the gluon propagator at high energies. The dominant effect is constructive or destructive interference with SM jet production. We compare differential next-to-leading order predictions from POWHEG to public 7 TeV jet data, including scale, PDF, and experimental uncertainties and their respective correlations. We constrain a New Physics (NP) scale of 3.5 TeV with current data. We project the reach of future 13 and 100 TeV measurements, which we estimate to be sensitive to NP scales of 8 and 60 TeV, respectively. As an application, we apply our bounds to constrain heavy vector octet colorons that couple to the QCD current. We project that effective operators will surpass bump hunts, in terms of coloron mass reach, even for sequential couplings.

  17. Essays in behavioral economics : Applied game theory and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mermer, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral Economics aims at understanding the decision of economic agents who are not necessarily monetary utility maximizers and accounts for the fact that agents may have other concerns next to economic gain. This thesis contributes to the literature by studying the behavior of economic agents

  18. [Intermediate/high energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    We have continued to develop a theoretical framework for the quark and gluon structure of nuclei. Our approach features a successful phenomenological model, the quark cluster model (QCM), and an ambitious program in the non-perturbative solution of quantum field theories. We have solved a non-trivial model field theory in the strong coupling regime using a discretized light front quantization (DLFQ) scheme. The method we developed expands upon the method of Pauli and Brodsky by incorporating a dynamical treatment of the vacuum. This is a major result since we have shown directly that the light-cone vacuum is not structureless as has been traditionally claimed by some particle theorists. We have thus succeeded in elucidating the consequences of spontaneous symmetry breaking in light-cone quantization. We now propose to address QCD in low dimensionality with the purpose of extracting non-perturbative predictions for quark and gluon amplitudes in few baryon systems. Simultaneously with this new effort we will continue to develop extensions and applications of the QCM. We propose to continue predicting phenomena to be observed in high energy particle-nucleus collisions that reflect the rearrangement of quarks and gluons in nuclei. We will complete our analysis of the SLAC NE3 data to explicate the degree to which they confirm the QCM prediction of ''steps'' in the ratio of nuclear structure functions when Bjorken x exceeds unity. In another effort, we will perform a search for narrow resonances in electron-positron interactions high in the continuum using the Bethe-Salpeter equation. We have completed our development of microscopic effective Hamiltonians for nuclear structure which include the explicit treatment of delta resonances. These effective Hamiltonians were successfully used in constrained mean field calculations evaluating conditions for nuclei to undergo a transition from nucleon matter to delta matter. 73 refs

  19. Mechanisms That Link Parenting Practices to Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior: A Test of Six Competing Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Sutton, Tara E; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Murry, Velma McBride

    2016-02-01

    Risky sexual behavior, particularly among adolescents, continues to be a major source of concern. In order to develop effective education and prevention programs, there is a need for research that identifies the antecedents of such behavior. This study investigated the mediators that link parenting experiences during early adolescence to subsequent risky sexual behaviors among a diverse sample of African American youth (N = 629, 55 % female). While there is ample evidence that parenting practices (e.g., supportive parenting, harsh parenting, parental management) are antecedent to risky sexual behavior, few studies have examined whether one approach to parenting is more strongly related to risky sex than others. Using a developmental approach, the current study focused on factors associated with six theories of risky sexual behavior. While past research has provided support for all of the theories, few studies have assessed the relative contribution of each while controlling for the processes proposed by the others. The current study addresses these gaps in the literature and reports results separately by gender. Longitudinal analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that the mediating mechanisms associated with social learning and attachment theories were significantly related to the risky sexual behavior of males and females. Additionally, there was support for social control and self-control theories only for females and for life history theory only for males. We did not find support for problem behavior theory, a perspective that dominates the risky sex literature, after controlling for the factors associated with the other theories. Finally, supportive parenting emerged as the parenting behavior most influential with regard to adolescents' risky sexual behavior. These results provide insight regarding efficacious approaches to education and preventative programs designed to reduce risky sexual behaviors among adolescents.

  20. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Identify Predictors of Oral Hygiene: A Collection of Unique Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brein, Daniel J; Fleenor, Thomas J; Kim, Soo-Woo; Krupat, Edward

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to identify predictors of performed oral hygiene behaviors (OHBs) based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), oral health knowledge, and demographic factors. Using a questionnaire, 381 participants in three general dental offices and one hospital dental department in York, Pennsylvania, were surveyed regarding performed OHB, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, oral health knowledge, income, age, and sex. Three unique elements of OHB were identified for analysis: brushing, interdental cleaning, and tongue cleaning. Regression analysis revealed that attitude was the strongest predictor of brushing behavior, followed by oral health knowledge, perceived behavior control, subjective norms, and income. Perceived behavior control was the strongest predictor of interdental cleaning, followed by increased age and attitude. Female sex was the strongest predictor of tongue cleaning, followed by subjective norms, decreased age, and perceived behavior control. Respectively, these three groups of predictive variables explained 22.5% of brushing behavior, 22.7% of interdental cleaning behavior, and 9.5% of tongue cleaning behavior. The present findings highlight the utility of viewing OHB as a set of unique behaviors with unique predictive variables and provide additional support for use of TPB in predicting OHB. Periodontal practitioners should consider the strong associations of attitude and perceived behavioral control with brushing and interdental cleaning behaviors when designing interventional efforts to improve patient home care.

  1. Residents’ Waste Separation Behaviors at the Source: Using SEM with the Theory of Planned Behavior in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongliang; Huang, Guangqing; Yin, Xiaoling; Gong, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that affect residents’ waste separation behaviors helps in constructing effective environmental campaigns for a community. Using the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study examines factors associated with waste separation behaviors by analyzing responses to questionnaires distributed in Guangzhou, China. Data drawn from 208 of 1000-field questionnaires were used to assess socio-demographic factors and the TPB constructs (i.e., attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and situational factors). The questionnaire data revealed that attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and situational factors significantly predicted household waste behaviors in Guangzhou, China. Through a structural equation modeling analysis, we concluded that campaigns targeting moral obligations may be particularly effective for increasing the participation rate in waste separation behaviors. PMID:26274969

  2. Applications of operant learning theory to the management of challenging behavior after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Rodger Ll; Alderman, Nick

    2011-01-01

    For more than 3 decades, interventions derived from learning theory have been delivered within a neurobehavioral framework to manage challenging behavior after traumatic brain injury with the aim of promoting engagement in the rehabilitation process and ameliorating social handicap. Learning theory provides a conceptual structure that facilitates our ability to understand the relationship between challenging behavior and environmental contingencies, while accommodating the constraints upon learning imposed by impaired cognition. Interventions derived from operant learning theory have most frequently been described in the literature because this method of associational learning provides good evidence for the effectiveness of differential reinforcement methods. This article therefore examines the efficacy of applying operant learning theory to manage challenging behavior after TBI as well as some of the limitations of this approach. Future developments in the application of learning theory are also considered.

  3. Chapter 2: Theoretical Models for Understanding Physical Activity Behavior among Children and Adolescents--Social Cognitive Theory and Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The study of physical activity behavior in youth generally lacks a sufficient theoretical foundation for examining variables that influence that behavior. This is a major limitation because theory guides the search for determinants of behavior and the subsequent interplay between research findings and application. Theory offers a systematically…

  4. Current status of high energy nucleon-meson transport code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Hiroshi; Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of design code of accelerator (NMTC/JAERI code), outline of physical model and evaluation of accuracy of code were reported. To evaluate the nuclear performance of accelerator and strong spallation neutron origin, the nuclear reaction between high energy proton and target nuclide and behaviors of various produced particles are necessary. The nuclear design of spallation neutron system used a calculation code system connected the high energy nucleon{center_dot}meson transport code and the neutron{center_dot}photon transport code. NMTC/JAERI is described by the particle evaporation process under consideration of competition reaction of intranuclear cascade and fission process. Particle transport calculation was carried out for proton, neutron, {pi}- and {mu}-meson. To verify and improve accuracy of high energy nucleon-meson transport code, data of spallation and spallation neutron fragment by the integral experiment were collected. (S.Y.)

  5. Critical behavior and duality in extended Sine-Gordon theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanovsky, D.; Holman, R.

    1991-01-01

    We study the critical properties of vectorial sine-Gordon theories based on the root system of simply-laced Lie algebras. We introduce the dual operators and study the renormalization aspects of these theories. These models are identified with vectorial Coulomb gas models of electric and magnetic charges and generalized Toda field theories. We prove that these theories are consistently renormalizable for simply-laced Lie algebras, but non-renormalizable in general in the non-simply-laced case. These models provide a description for the statistical mechanics of melting in the SU(3) case. They also provide a simplified model for strings compactified on root lattices. We compute the RG beta functions to quadratic order for general simply-laced algebras and find that in general there is a Weyl singlet, self-dual fixed point. This fixed point describes a critical theory with condensates of electric and magnetic charges corresponding to tachyonic and winding modes in string language. The different phases are related by Weyl and duality symmetry. The phase structure is conjectured in the general case, and analyzed in detail for SU(3) and SO(6). We compute Zamolodchikov's c-function to cubic order in the couplings in the general case and the conformal anomaly at the self-dual fixed point for SU(N). (orig.)

  6. User-Generated Content and travel planning: An application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Machado Mendes Filho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available User-Generated Content (UGC such as online travel reviews written by travelers and posted to virtual communities are being used more frequently to communicate travel-related information. UGC is therefore helping travelers to make decisions about their travel. Utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, which is one of the most comprehensive models explaining behavioral intention, this study contributes to the further development of theories of online consumer behavior by determining which factors are most important in relation to the use of UGC in the travel industry. The TPB has three independent determinants of behavioral intention: attitude toward the behavior, subjective norm, and perceived behavior control. Therefore the aim of this paper is to examine the roles of attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavior control in respect of travelers’ intention to use UGC when making travel plans.

  7. Social influence in child care centers: a test of the theory of normative social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Shugart, Alicia; Todd, Ewen

    2014-01-01

    Child care centers are a unique context for studying communication about the social and personal expectations about health behaviors. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB; Rimal & Real, 2005 ) provides a framework for testing the role of social and psychological influences on handwashing behaviors among child care workers. A cross-sectional survey of child care workers in 21 centers indicates that outcome expectations and group identity increase the strength of the relationship between descriptive norms and handwashing behavior. Injunctive norms also moderate the effect of descriptive norms on handwashing behavior such that when strong injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are positively related to handwashing, but when weak injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are negatively related to handwashing. The findings suggest that communication interventions in child care centers can focus on strengthening injunctive norms in order to increase handwashing behaviors in child care centers. The findings also suggest that the theory of normative social behavior can be useful in organizational contexts.

  8. CAMAC high energy physics electronics hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolpakov, I.F.

    1977-01-01

    CAMAC hardware for high energy physics large spectrometers and control systems is reviewed as is the development of CAMAC modules at the High Energy Laboratory, JINR (Dubna). The total number of crates used at the Laboratory is 179. The number of CAMAC modules of 120 different types exceeds 1700. The principles of organization and the structure of developed CAMAC systems are described. (author)

  9. New aspects of high energy density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Eiki

    2005-10-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on 'New aspects of high energy density plasma' held at National Institute for Fusion Science are collected in this proceedings. The papers reflect the present status and recent progress in the experiments and theoretical works on high energy density plasma produced by pulsed power technology. The 13 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  10. Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior as Models of Condom Use: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Albarracín, Dolores; Johnson, Blair T.; Fishbein, Martin; Muellerleile, Paige A.

    2001-01-01

    To examine how well the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior predict condom use, the authors synthesized 96 data sets (N = 22,594) containing associations between the models’ key variables. Consistent with the theory of reasoned action’s predictions, (a) condom use was related to intentions (weighted mean r. = .45), (b) intentions were based on attitudes (r. = .58) and subjective norms (r. = .39), and (c) attitudes were associated with behavioral beliefs (r. = .56) and norms were ...

  11. Health Behavior Theory in Popular Calorie Counting Apps: A Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Siena F; Ellsworth, Marisa A; Payne, Hannah E; Hall, Shelby M; West, Joshua H; Nordhagen, Amber L

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the Health & Fitness category of the Apple App Store features hundreds of calorie counting apps, the extent to which popular calorie counting apps include health behavior theory is unknown. Objective This study evaluates the presence of health behavior theory in calorie counting apps. Methods Data for this study came from an extensive content analysis of the 10 most popular calorie counting apps in the Health & Fitness category of the Apple App Store. Results Each app was ...

  12. Evaluation of physical activity web sites for use of behavior change theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Amol; Patrick, Kevin; Sallis, James F; Calfas, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) Web sites were assessed for their use of behavior change theories, including constructs of the health belief model, Transtheoretical Model, social cognitive theory, and the theory of reasoned action and planned behavior. An evaluation template for assessing PA Web sites was developed, and content validity and interrater reliability were demonstrated. Two independent raters evaluated 24 PA Web sites. Web sites varied widely in application of theory-based constructs, ranging from 5 to 48 on a 100-point scale. The most common intervention strategies were general information, social support, and realistic goal areas. Coverage of theory-based strategies was low, varying from 26% for social cognitive theory to 39% for health belief model. Overall, PA Web sites provided little assessment, feedback, or individually tailored assistance for users. They were unable to substantially tailor the on-line experience for users at different stages of change or different demographic characteristics.

  13. A behavior-analytic critique of Bandura's self-efficacy theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglan, Anthony

    1987-01-01

    A behavior-analytic critique of self-efficacy theory is presented. Self-efficacy theory asserts that efficacy expectations determine approach behavior and physiological arousal of phobics as well as numerous other clinically important behaviors. Evidence which is purported to support this assertion is reviewed. The evidence consists of correlations between self-efficacy ratings and other behaviors. Such response-response relationships do not unequivocally establish that one response causes another. A behavior-analytic alternative to self-efficacy theory explains these relationships in terms of environmental events. Correlations between self-efficacy rating behavior and other behavior may be due to the contingencies of reinforcement that establish a correspondence between such verbal predictions and the behavior to which they refer. Such a behavior-analytic account does not deny any of the empirical relationships presented in support of self-efficacy theory, but it points to environmental variables that could account for those relationships and that could be manipulated in the interest of developing more effective treatment procedures. PMID:22477956

  14. Models of alcohol use by young adults: an examination of various attitude-behavior theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, F V; Chang, D C; Callan, V J; Baglioni, A

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of various attitude-behavior theories in explaining alcohol use among young adults. The theory of reasoned action (TRA), the theory of planned behavior and an extension of the TRA that incorporates past behavior were compared by the method of maximum-likelihood estimation, as implemented in LISREL for Windows 8.12. Respondents consisted of 122 university students (82 female) who were questioned about their attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, past behavior and intentions relating to drinking behavior. Students received course credit for their participation in the research. Overall, the results suggest that the extension of the theory of reasoned action which incorporates past behavior provides the best fit to the data. For these young adults, their intentions to drink alcohol were predicted by their past behavior as well as their perceptions of what important others think they should do (subjective norm). The main conclusions drawn from the research concern the importance of focusing on normative influences and past behavior in explaining young adult alcohol use. Issues regarding the relative merit of various alternative models and the need for greater clarity in the measure of attitudes are also discussed.

  15. Improving measurement of injection drug risk behavior using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janulis, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Recent research highlights the multiple steps to preparing and injecting drugs and the resultant viral threats faced by drug users. This research suggests that more sensitive measurement of injection drug HIV risk behavior is required. In addition, growing evidence suggests there are gender differences in injection risk behavior. However, the potential for differential item functioning between genders has not been explored. To explore item response theory as an improved measurement modeling technique that provides empirically justified scaling of injection risk behavior and to examine for potential gender-based differential item functioning. Data is used from three studies in the National Institute on Drug Abuse's Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies. A two-parameter item response theory model was used to scale injection risk behavior and logistic regression was used to examine for differential item functioning. Item fit statistics suggest that item response theory can be used to scale injection risk behavior and these models can provide more sensitive estimates of risk behavior. Additionally, gender-based differential item functioning is present in the current data. Improved measurement of injection risk behavior using item response theory should be encouraged as these models provide increased congruence between construct measurement and the complexity of injection-related HIV risk. Suggestions are made to further improve injection risk behavior measurement. Furthermore, results suggest direct comparisons of composite scores between males and females may be misleading and future work should account for differential item functioning before comparing levels of injection risk behavior.

  16. Neutronics equations: Positiveness; compactness; spectral theory; time asymptotic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtar-Kharroubi, M.

    1987-12-01

    Neutronics equations are studied: the continuous model (with and without delayed neutrons) and the multigroup model. Asymptotic descriptions of these equations (t→+∞) are obtained, either by the Dunford method or by using semigroup perturbation techniques, after deriving the spectral theory for the equations. Compactness problems are reviewed, and a general theory of compact injection in neutronic functional space is derived. The effects of positiveness in neutronics are analyzed: the irreducibility of the transport semigroup, and the properties of the main eigenvalue (existence, nonexistence, frame, strict dominance, strict monotony in relation to all the parameters). A class of transport operators whose real spectrum can be completely described is shown [fr

  17. An extended theory of planned behavior to predict consumers' willingness to buy mobile slaughter unit meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, Djura L.; Gerritzen, Marien A.; Lokhorst, Anne Marike; Poortvliet, Marijn

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the determinants of consumers' intention to purchase meat from mobile slaughter units (MSU). The theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the value belief norm theory (VBN) were used as conceptual lenses to guide this investigation. We conducted a survey among 329

  18. The Efficacy of the Theory of Reasoned Action to Explain Gambling Behavior in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, Robert G.; Andrew, Damon P. S.; Mahony, Daniel F.

    2007-01-01

    Shaffer and Hall (1997) have estimated college student gambling to be three times as high as their adult counterparts. Despite a considerable amount of research on gambling, researchers have struggled to develop a universal theory that explains gambling behavior. This study explored the potential of Ajzen and Fishbein's (1980) Theory of Reasoned…

  19. Predicting entrepreneurial career intentions: Values and the theory of planned behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn (Marjan); U. Stephan (Ute); M. Laguna (Mariola); J.A. Moriano (Juan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIntegrating predictions from the theory of human values with the theory of planned behavior (TPB), our primary goal is to investigate mechanisms through which individual values are related to entrepreneurial career intentions using a sample of 823 students from four European countries.

  20. Perspectives on High-Energy-Density Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, R. Paul

    2008-11-01

    Much of 21st century plasma physics will involve work to produce, understand, control, and exploit very non-traditional plasmas. High-energy density (HED) plasmas are often examples, variously involving strong Coulomb interactions and few particles per Debeye sphere, dominant radiation effects, strongly relativistic effects, or strongly quantum-mechanical behavior. Indeed, these and other modern plasma systems often fall outside the early standard theoretical definitions of ``plasma''. This presentation will focus on two types of HED plasmas that exhibit non-traditional behavior. Our first example will be the plasmas produced by extremely strong shock waves. Shock waves are present across the entire realm of plasma densities, often in space or astrophysical contexts. HED shock waves (at pressures > 1 Mbar) enable studies in many areas, from equations of state to hydrodynamics to radiation hydrodynamics. We will specifically consider strongly radiative shocks, in which the radiative energy fluxes are comparable to the mechanical energy fluxes that drive the shocks. Modern HED facilities can produce such shocks, which are also present in dense, energetic, astrophysical systems such as supernovae. These shocks are also excellent targets for advanced simulations due to their range of spatial scales and complex radiation transport. Our second example will be relativistic plasmas. In general, these vary from plasmas containing relativistic particle beams, produced for some decades in the laboratory, to the relativistic thermal plasmas present for example in pulsar winds. Laboratory HED relativistic plasmas to date have been those produced by laser beams of irradiance ˜ 10^18 to 10^22 W/cm^2 or by accelerator-produced HED electron beams. These have applications ranging from generation of intense x-rays to production of proton beams for radiation therapy to acceleration of electrons. Here we will focus on electron acceleration, a spectacular recent success and a rare

  1. Behavioral Intention to Use Public Transport Based on Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambak Kamarudin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in population generates increasing in travel demand. In Malaysia, public transport become an important modes of transport that connection people. This paper presents behavioural intention to use public transport especially public bus based on Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB. A questionnaire survey was conducted to identify factors that contribute and influence users to use public bus and to determine factor that most dominant using TPB model. A total of 282 questionnaires were distributed in selected area of Batu Pahat and Kluang. Correlation and regression analysis were used for this study. Results show that the Attitude toward public transport is the most dominant factor compared with Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavior Control that influencing users to use public bus. Majority respondents were agreed that they prefer to use public bus because it is cheap to travel and no other choices of other transfer modes. As for the recommendation, this study can be extended in future as part of strategic sustainable transportation system in Batu Pahat and Kluang areas.

  2. Learning Theories Applied to Teaching Technology: Constructivism versus Behavioral Theory for Instructing Multimedia Software Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Cajah S.

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to find evidence for a beneficial learning theory to teach computer software programs. Additionally, software was analyzed for each learning theory's applicability to resolve whether certain software requires a specific method of education. The results are meant to give educators more effective teaching tools, so students…

  3. Attachment Theory and Theory of Planned Behavior: An Integrative Model Predicting Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lac, Andrew; Crano, William D.; Berger, Dale E.; Alvaro, Eusebio M.

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that peer and maternal bonds play important but sometimes contrasting roles in the outcomes of children. Less is known about attachment bonds to these 2 reference groups in young adults. Using a sample of 351 participants (18 to 20 years of age), the research integrated two theoretical traditions: attachment theory and theory of…

  4. Traditional finance : behavioral finance distinction in the context of expected utility and prospect theories

    OpenAIRE

    Tekin, Bilgehan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional finance has developed based on two fundamental assumptions, including the expected utility theory and rational choice or decision. However, this hypothesis has been criticized heavily by put forward that are not realistic enough. The basis of behavioral finance theory is based on the “prospect theory”. According to this theory individuals cannot act fully rational, they install more sense to loses than at the same amount of profit and they exhibit risk and loss aversion behaviour....

  5. Toward an understanding of late life suicidal behavior: the role of lifespan developmental theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Amy; O'Riley, Alisa A

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior in late life differs in important ways from suicidal behavior that occurs earlier in the lifespan, suggesting the possibility of developmental differences in the etiology of suicidal behavior. This paper examines late life suicidal behavior within the context of lifespan developmental theory. This paper presents a conceptual framework for using lifespan developmental theory to better understand late life suicidal behavior. We argue that the motivational theory of lifespan development, which focuses on control, is particularly relevant to late life suicide. This theory posits that opportunities to exert control over important aspects of one's life diminish in late life as a result of declines in physical functioning and other factors, and that successful aging is associated with adaptive regulation of this developmental change. Although continued striving to meet goals is normative throughout the lifespan, most individuals also increase the use of compensatory strategies in old age or when faced with a decline in functioning. We propose that individuals who do not adapt to developmental changes by altering their strategies for exerting control will be at risk for suicidal behavior in late life. This paper reviews evidence that supports the importance of control with respect to suicidal outcomes in older adults, as well as findings regarding specific types of control strategies that may be related to suicide risk in older adults with health-related limitations. Although suicidal behavior is not a normal part of aging, the application of lifespan developmental theory may be useful in understanding and potentially preventing suicide among older adults.

  6. Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert

    1977-01-01

    This research presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of "self-efficacy". (Editor/RK)

  7. COGNITIONS AND BEHAVIOR IN A HIERARCHY - MULDERS POWER THEORY REVISITED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WILKE, HAM

    1992-01-01

    In this study, Mulder's power theory consisting of the power distance reduction tendency (PDR) of less powerful group members towards more powerful others, and the power distance enlargement tendency (PDE) of more powerful group members towards less powerful others, is investigated. In particular,

  8. Experimental And Theoretical High Energy Physics Research At UCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, Robert D. [University of California Los Angeles

    2013-07-22

    This is the final report of the UCLA High Energy Physics DOE Grant No. DE-FG02- 91ER40662. This report covers the last grant project period, namely the three years beginning January 15, 2010, plus extensions through April 30, 2013. The report describes the broad range of our experimental research spanning direct dark matter detection searches using both liquid xenon (XENON) and liquid argon (DARKSIDE); present (ICARUS) and R&D for future (LBNE) neutrino physics; ultra-high-energy neutrino and cosmic ray detection (ANITA); and the highest-energy accelerator-based physics with the CMS experiment and CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. For our theory group, the report describes frontier activities including particle astrophysics and cosmology; neutrino physics; LHC interaction cross section calculations now feasible due to breakthroughs in theoretical techniques; and advances in the formal theory of supergravity.

  9. Fast Food Consumption Behaviors in High-School Students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal Mirkarimi; Morteza Mansourian; Mohammad Javad Kabir; Rahman Berdi Ozouni- Davaji; Maryam Eri; Seyed Ghadir Hosseini; Mostafa Qorbani; Omid Safari; Babak Rastgari Mehr; Mehdi Noroozi; Abdurrahman Charkazi; Hossein Shahnazi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies report inappropriate snack and junk food consumption patterns in children and young adults in Iran. The current survey was aimed to explore fast food consumption behaviors in high-school students based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among 500 high-school students. Samples were selected based on cluster sampling method at first and simple random at second. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire. ...

  10. The effect of (negative) emotion on pro-environmental behavior : an application of the theory of planned behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Ben

    2016-01-01

    With climate change becoming ever-present as a huge environmental issue for the modern era to address, pro-environmental behavior (PEB) is becoming an increasingly relevant area. There seems to be a divergence between how different actors try and encourage PEB when using emotion as the motivational tool. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore this effect of (negative) emotion on decision making. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used as the theoretical framework, with the primar...

  11. Effect of Theory of Planned Behavior-based Educational Intervention on Breastfeeding Behavior in Pregnant Women in Fasa City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Marjan Arshad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Breastfeeding is a matter of significant importance. Given the role of such factors as attitude and subjective norms on the behavior of mothers and the low level of exclusive breastfeeding, the present study aimed to determine the effect of educational program based on the theory of planned behavior on breastfeeding behavior among the pregnant women in Fasa, Iran. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 100 pregnant women with the gestational age of 30-35 weeks who referred to the health care centers of Fasa, Iran, in 2017. The study population was selected using random sampling technique, and then assigned into two groups of control (n=50 and intervention (n=50. The data were collected using a demographic form, components of the theory of planned behavior questionnaire, and a breastfeeding checklist. The intervention group received three 55-to-60-minute training sessions. The mothers' breastfeeding behavior was evaluated before the training sessions and 40 days post-delivery in both groups. The data were analyzed in SPSS software, version 22, using Chi-square test, independent t-test, and paired sample t-test. Results: According to the results, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the components of the theory of planned behavior before the educational intervention (P=0.208. However, after the training sessions, the intervention group showed a significant improvement in all components of the theory of planned behavior, including intention and breastfeeding behavior, compared to the control group (P=0.001. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, appropriate training programs, social network support, and suitable conditions for breastfeeding in the community are among the effective factors that can change the mothers’ attitudes towards lactation and result in successful breastfeeding in the first three months after childbirth.

  12. Theoretical-research summer: For a new generation of experts on high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Sánchez, Saúl

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the need to strengthen the comprehensive training of young Mexican physicists interested in theoretical high energy physics, the Theoretical-research summer on high energy physics program was conceived. This program, that celebrates its sixth anniversary, consists in a yearly, nationwide challenging contest in which a board of experts identify the best undergraduate contestants to support them during short research stays in high-energy- theory groups of prestigious international institutions. Out of 80 contestants, the eight awarded students have demonstrated their skills, producing highly advanced (and publicly available) reviews on particle physics, field theory, cosmology and string theory, and a published paper. (paper)

  13. 1993 European school of high-energy physics. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, N.; Gavela, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young experimental physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These Proceedings contain lectures on quantum field theory, quantum chromodynamics, CP violation, radiative corrections, cosmology, particle detectors and e + e - accelerators, as well as reports on results from HERA and LEP and accounts of particle physics research at CERN and in Poland and Russia. (orig.)

  14. Proceedings of 2011 European School of High-Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grojean, C; Mulders, M [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-07-01

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lecture notes on quantum field theory and the Standard Model, quantum chromodynamics, flavour physics, neutrino physics, physics beyond the Standard Model, cosmology, heavy ion physics, statistical data analysis, as well as an account for the physics results with the data accumulated during the first run of the LHC.

  15. 2011 European School of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mulders, M; ESHEP2011; ESHEP 2011

    2014-01-01

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lecture notes on quantum field theory and the Standard Model, quantum chromodynamics, flavour physics, neutrino physics, physics beyond the Standard Model, cosmology, heavy ion physics, statistical data analysis, as well as an account for the physics results with the data accumulated during the first run of the LHC.

  16. High energy physics research. Final technical report, 1957--1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, H.H.

    1995-01-01

    This is the final technical report to the Department of Energy on High Energy Physics at the University of Pennsylvania. It discusses research conducted in the following areas: neutrino astrophysics and cosmology; string theory; electroweak and collider physics; supergravity; cp violation and baryogenesis; particle cosmology; collider detector at Fermilab; the sudbury neutrino observatory; B-physics; particle physics in nuclei; and advanced electronics and detector development

  17. High energy physics research. Final technical report, 1957--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, H.H.

    1995-10-01

    This is the final technical report to the Department of Energy on High Energy Physics at the University of Pennsylvania. It discusses research conducted in the following areas: neutrino astrophysics and cosmology; string theory; electroweak and collider physics; supergravity; cp violation and baryogenesis; particle cosmology; collider detector at Fermilab; the sudbury neutrino observatory; B-physics; particle physics in nuclei; and advanced electronics and detector development.

  18. 1996 European school of high-energy physics. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, N; Neubert, M [eds.

    1997-07-02

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young experimental physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures on Field Theory, Physics Beyond the Standard Model, Flavour Physics, Neutrino Physics, Collider Physics and Astrophysics, as well as reports on Heavy-Ion Physics, the Large Hadron Collider Project and Physics in JINR/Russia. (orig.)

  19. 1996 European school of high-energy physics. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, N.; Neubert, M.

    1997-01-01

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young experimental physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures on Field Theory, Physics Beyond the Standard Model, Flavour Physics, Neutrino Physics, Collider Physics and Astrophysics, as well as reports on Heavy-Ion Physics, the Large Hadron Collider Project and Physics in JINR/Russia. (orig.)

  20. 1994 European school of high-energy physics. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, N [ed.; Gavela, B [ed.

    1995-06-30

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young experimental physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These Proceedings contain lectures on field theory, the Standard Model, physics beyond the Standard Model, Quantum Chromodynamics and CP violation, as well as reports on the search for gravitational waves, stellar death and accounts of particle physics at CERN and JINR. Two local subjects are also treated: Pompeii and Mount Vesuvius. (orig.).

  1. 1994 European school of high-energy physics. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, N.; Gavela, B.

    1995-01-01

    The European School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young experimental physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These Proceedings contain lectures on field theory, the Standard Model, physics beyond the Standard Model, Quantum Chromodynamics and CP violation, as well as reports on the search for gravitational waves, stellar death and accounts of particle physics at CERN and JINR. Two local subjects are also treated: Pompeii and Mount Vesuvius. (orig.)

  2. Factors influencing fast food consumption behaviors of middle-school students in Seoul: an application of theory of planned behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyun-Sun; Lee, Soo-Kyung; Nam, Soyoung

    2011-04-01

    Fast food is popular among children and adolescents; however, its consumption has often been associated with negative impacts on nutrition and health. This study examined current fast food consumption status among middle school students and explored factors influencing fast food consumption by applying Theory of Planned Behavior. A total of 354 (52.5% boys) students were recruited from a middle school. The subjects completed a pre-tested questionnaire. The average monthly frequency of fast food consumption was 4.05 (4.25 for boys, 3.83 for girls). As expected, fast food consumption was considered to be a special event rather than part of an everyday diet, closely associated with meeting friends or celebrating, most likely with friends, special days. The Theory of Planned Behavior effectively explained fast food consumption behaviors with relatively high R(2) around 0.6. Multiple regression analyses showed that fast food consumption behavior was significantly related to behavioral intention (b = 0.61, P intention was significantly related to subjective norm (b = 0.15, P fast food consumption was not significantly associated with behavioral intention. Therefore, effective nutrition education programs on fast food consumption should include components to change the subjective norms of fast food consumption, especially among peers, and perceived behavioral control. Further studies should examine effective ways of changing subjective norms and possible alternatives to fast food consumption for students to alter perceived behavioral control.

  3. Adult active transportation: adding habit strength to the Theory of Planned Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, G.J.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Singh, A.; van den Putte, B.; van Mechelen, W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Many health behaviors have a history of repetition and, as a result, may become habitual. Because including a measure of habit strength may add depth to current theoretical models on health behavior, the present study explored the issue of habit strength within the context of the theory

  4. Drivers for liquidation and transfer in small firms : Theory of Planned Behavior and firm conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Leory; Lex van Teeffelen

    2009-01-01

    Recently Leroy et al. (2008) tested if the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) predicts exit behavior of entrepreneurs: liquidation or transfer. He added the purchasers view to the TPB: firm viability and intangible assets. We retested Leroy et al. hypotheses on a more refined dataset of 136 firms in

  5. An Interpretation of Part of Gilbert Gottlieb's Legacy: Developmental Systems Theory Contra Developmental Behavior Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2015-01-01

    The main theme of this paper concerns the persistent critique of Gilbert Gottlieb on developmental behavior genetics and my reactions to this critique, the latter changing from rejection to complete acceptation. Concise characterizations of developmental behavior genetics, developmental systems theory (to which Gottlieb made essential…

  6. Pathway to Efficacy: Recognizing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as an Underlying Theory for Adventure Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Mark C.

    2003-01-01

    Adventure therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy share elements, including transformation of distorted thinking patterns, a focus on current and future functioning, consideration of the counselor-client relationship, and the use of stress in the change process. Recognizing cognitive behavioral therapy as an empirically sound theory underlying…

  7. Crowd-Designed Motivation: Motivational Messages for Exercise Adherence Based on Behavior Change Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.A.J.; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Kwint, Sigrid; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Evers, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Developing motivational technology to support long-term behavior change is a challenge. A solution is to incorporate insights from behavior change theory and design technology to tailor to individual users. We carried out two studies to investigate whether the processes of change, from the

  8. Improving hand hygiene compliance in healthcare settings using behavior change theories: reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Pittet, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Although hand hygiene is the most effective method for preventing healthcare-associated infections, hand hygiene practice falls short in many healthcare facilities. The compliance rate is mostly linked to system design and easily accessible hand hygiene products. System change, healthcare worker motivation, and complex behavioral considerations seem to play a significant role. This article discusses the application of behavioral theories in hand hygiene promotion in a theoretical manner. The program relies on the transtheoretical model (TTM) of health behavior change, John Keller's (ARCS) Model of Motivational Design, and the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Thus, the program links attitudes and behavior to hand hygiene promotion. The TTM of health behavior change helps to tailor interventions to predict and motivate individual movement across the pathway to change. A program could be based on this theory with multiple intercalations with John Keller's ARCS and the TPB. Such a program could be strengthened by linking attitudes and behavior to promote hand hygiene. The program could utilize different strategies such as organization cultural change that may increase the attention as well as fostering the movement in the ARCS stages. In addition, modeling TPB by creating peer pressure, ability to overcome obstacles, and increasing knowledge of the role of hand hygiene may lead to the desired outcome. The understanding and application of behavior change theories may result in an effective program to improve awareness and raise intention and thus may increase the potential for success of hand hygiene promotion programs.

  9. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict HPV Vaccination Intentions of College Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Hannah Priest; Knowlden, Adam P.; Birch, David A.; Leeper, James D.; Paschal, Angelia M.; Usdan, Stuart L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to test Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs in predicting human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination behavioral intentions of vaccine-eligible college men. Participants: Participants were unvaccinated college men aged 18-26 years attending a large public university in the southeastern United States…

  10. Theory of Planned Behavior in the Classroom: An Examination of the Instructor Confirmation-Interaction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Michael E.; Houser, Marian L.; Farris, Kristen LeBlanc

    2018-01-01

    The current study utilizes the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen "Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes," 50, 179-211 Ajzen 1991) to examine an instructor confirmation-interaction model in the instructional communication context to discover a means by which instructors might cultivate positive student attitudes and…

  11. The Theory of Planned Behavior and Helmet Use among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Ross, Thomas P.; Farber, Sarah; Davidson, Caroline; Trevino, Meredith; Hawkins, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess undergraduate helmet use attitudes and behaviors in accordance with the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We predicted helmet wearers and nonwearers would differ on our subscales. Methods: Participants (N = 414, 69% female, 84% white) completed a survey. Results: Principal component analysis and reliability analysis guided…

  12. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ward, Kristy K.; Sanchez, Ingrid A.; Cano, Miguel A.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer among Latinas in the United States it is important to understand factors that predict screening behavior. The aim of this study was to test the utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting cervical cancer screening among a group of Latinas. A sample of Latinas (N = 614) completed a baseline…

  13. Predicting Study Abroad Intentions Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnusenberg, Oliver; de Jong, Pieter; Goel, Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    The emphasis on study abroad programs is growing in the academic context as U.S. based universities seek to incorporate a global perspective in education. Using a model that has underpinnings in the theory of planned behavior (TPB), we predict students' intention to participate in short-term study abroad program. We use TPB to identify behavioral,…

  14. Why Do College Students Cheat? A Structural Equation Modeling Validation of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Dossary, Saeed Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Cheating on tests is a serious problem in education. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a modified form of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict cheating behavior among a sample of Saudi university students. This study also sought to test the influence of cheating in high school on cheating in college within the…

  15. Understanding work-related social media use: An extension of theory of planned behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoonen, W.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.; Elving, W.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the motives of employees to engage in work related social media use - i.e. the use of personal social media accounts to communicate about work-related issues. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to explain this behavior. Because social media can enable users to express

  16. Robustness of the Theory of Planned Behavior in predicting entrepreneurial intentions and actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kautonen, T.; van Gelderen, M.W.; Fink, M.

    2015-01-01

    This analysis demonstrates the relevance and robustness of the theory of planned behavior in the prediction of business start-up intentions and subsequent behavior based on longitudinal survey data (2011 and 2012; n=969) from the adult population in Austria and Finland. By doing so, the study

  17. Testing Theories of Dietary Behavior Change in Youth Using the Mediating Variable Model with Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerin, Ester; Barnett, Anthony; Baranowski, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review and critique current experimentally-based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Methods: Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) were identified via electronic database searches…

  18. Testing theories of dietary behavior change in youth using the mediating variable model with intervention programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our purpose was to review and critique current experimentally based evidence of theoretical mechanisms of dietary behavior change in youth, and provide recommendations on ways to enhance theory evaluation. Interventions that examined mediators of dietary behavior change in youth (age 5-18 years) wer...

  19. Hagedorn Behavior of Little String Theories from string corrections to NS5-branes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmark, Troels; Obers, N. A.

    2000-01-01

    We examine the Hagedorn behavior of little string theory using its conjectured duality with near-horizon NS5-branes. In particular, by studying the string-corrected NS5-brane supergravity solution, it is shown that tree-level corrections to the temperature vanish, while the leading one-loop string...... correction generates the correct temperature dependence of the entropy near the Hagedorn temperature. Finally, the Hagedorn behavior of ODp-brane theories, which are deformed versions of little string theory, is considered via their supergravity duals....

  20. Study of the sintering behavior of fine, ultrafine and nanocrystalline WC-CO mixtures obtained by high energy milling; Estudio del comportamiento durante la sinterizacion de mezclas WC-Co finas, ultrafinas y nanocristalinas obtenidas por molienda de alta energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, M. D.; Bonache, V.; Amigo, V.; Busquets, D.

    2008-07-01

    In this work the sintering behaviour of fine, ultrafine and nanocrystalline WC-12Co mixtures obtained by high energy milling, as well commercial nano powders, have been studied, in order to evaluate the effect of the particle size and the powder processing, in the densification, microstructural development and mechanical properties of the final product. The consolidation of the mixtures has been made by uniaxial pressing and sintering in vacuum, and by hot isostatic pressing. The sintered materials have been evaluated by measures of density, hardness and indentation fracture toughness, and micro structurally characterized by optical microscopy and scanning and transmission electronic microscopy (SEM and TEM). The results show the improvements in resistant behaviour of the materials obtained from nanocrystalline powders, in spite of the grain growth experienced during the sintering. The best results were obtained for the milling nanocrystalline material, which presents values of hardness higher than 180 HV. (Author) 46 refs.