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Sample records for theoretical quantum study

  1. Theoretical study of excitonic complexes in semiconductors quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacal, Luis Carlos Ogando

    2001-08-01

    A physical system where indistinguishable particles interact with each other creates the possibility of studying correlation and exchange effect. The simplest system is that one with only two indistinguishable particles. In condensed matter physics, these complexes are represented by charged excitons, donors and acceptors. In quantum wells, the valence band is not parabolic, therefore, the negatively charged excitons and donors are theoretically described in a simpler way. Despite the fact that the stability of charged excitons (trions) is known since the late 50s, the first experimental observation occurred only at the early 90s in quantum well samples, where their binding energies are one order of magnitude larger due to the one dimensional carriers confinement. After this, these complexes became the subject of an intense research because the intrinsic screening of electrical interactions in semiconductor materials allows that magnetic fields that are usual in laboratories have strong effects on the trion binding energy. Another rich possibility is the study of trions as an intermediate state between the neutral exciton and the Fermi edge singularity when the excess of doping carriers is increased. In this thesis, we present a theoretical study of charged excitons and negatively charged donors in GaAs/Al 0.3 Ga 0.7 As quantum wells considering the effects of external electric and magnetic fields. We use a simple, accurate and physically clear method to describe these systems in contrast with the few and complex treatments s available in the literature. Our results show that the QW interface defects have an important role in the trion dynamics. This is in agreement with some experimental works, but it disagrees with other ones. (author)

  2. Theoretical physics. Quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebhan, Eckhard

    2008-01-01

    From the first in two comprehensive volumes appeared Theoretical Physics of the author by this after Mechanics and Electrodynamics also Quantum mechanics appears as thinner single volume. First the illustrative approach via wave mechanics is reproduced. The more abstract Hilbert-space formulation introduces the author later by postulates, which are because of the preceding wave mechanics sufficiently plausible. All concepts of quantum mechanics, which contradict often to the intuitive understanding formed by macroscopic experiences, are extensively discussed and made by means of many examples as well as problems - in the largest part provided with solutions - understandable. To the interpretation of quantum mechanics an extensive special chapter is dedicated. this book arose from courses on theoretical physics, which the author has held at the Heinrich-Heine University in Duesseldorf, and was in numerous repetitions fitted to the requirement of the studyings. it is so designed that it is also after the study suited as reference book or for the renewing. All problems are very thoroughly and such extensively studied that each step is separately reproducible. About motivation and good understandability is cared much

  3. A theoretical study of exciton energy levels in laterally coupled quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barticevic, Z; Pacheco, M; Duque, C A; Oliveira, L E

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical study of the electronic and optical properties of laterally coupled quantum dots, under applied magnetic fields perpendicular to the plane of the dots, is presented. The exciton energy levels of such laterally coupled quantum-dot systems, together with the corresponding wavefunctions and eigenvalues, are obtained in the effective-mass approximation by using an extended variational approach in which the magnetoexciton states are simultaneously obtained. One achieves the expected limits of one single quantum dot, when the distance between the dots is zero, and of two uncoupled quantum dots, when the distance between the dots is large enough. Moreover, present calculations-with appropriate structural dimensions of the two-dot system-are shown to be in agreement with measurements in self-assembled laterally aligned GaAs quantum-dot pairs and naturally/accidentally occurring coupled quantum dots in GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wells.

  4. Quantum theoretical study of hydrogen under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, S.

    2001-12-01

    In the first chapter we will review our knowledge of the phase diagram of hydrogen. Chapter 2 is dedicated to a summary of the standard density functional and molecular dynamics methods and shows how these are combined in the Car-Parrinello method. Here the nuclei are still treated as classical particles obeying Newtonian mechanics. In chapter 3 we drop this approximation. The path integral description of quantum statistics is added on top of the classical Car-Parrinello method and yields a formalism that includes quantum effects due to the finite de Broglie wavelength of the nuclei. Some technical aspects, namely the parallel implementation of the Path Integral Car-Parrinello (PICP) method, are discussed in chapter 4. In chapter 5 we present the results of our PICP calculations and compare them with prior calculations using the classical Car-Parrinello method as described in chapter 2. (orig.)

  5. Quantum mechanics the theoretical minimum

    CERN Document Server

    Susskind, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    From the bestselling author of The Theoretical Minimum, an accessible introduction to the math and science of quantum mechanicsQuantum Mechanics is a (second) book for anyone who wants to learn how to think like a physicist. In this follow-up to the bestselling The Theoretical Minimum, physicist Leonard Susskind and data engineer Art Friedman offer a first course in the theory and associated mathematics of the strange world of quantum mechanics. Quantum Mechanics presents Susskind and Friedman’s crystal-clear explanations of the principles of quantum states, uncertainty and time dependence, entanglement, and particle and wave states, among other topics. An accessible but rigorous introduction to a famously difficult topic, Quantum Mechanics provides a tool kit for amateur scientists to learn physics at their own pace.

  6. A theoretical quantum chemical study of alanine formation in interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivani; Pandey, Parmanad; Misra, Alka; Tandon, Poonam

    2017-08-01

    The interstellar medium, the vast space between the stars, is a rich reservoir of molecular material ranging from simple diatomic molecules to more complex, astrobiologically important molecules such as amino acids, nucleobases, and other organic species. Radical-radical and radical-neutral interaction schemes are very important for the formation of comparatively complex molecules in low temperature chemistry. An attempt has been made to explore the possibility of formation of complex organic molecules in interstellar medium, through detected interstellar molecules like CH3CN and HCOOH. The gas phase reactions are theoretically studied using quantum chemical techniques. We used the density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311G( d, p) level. The reaction energies, potential barrier and optimized structures of all the geometries, involved in the reaction path, has been discussed. We report the potential energy surfaces for the reactions considered in this work.

  7. Theoretical study of the electronic structure of f-element complexes by quantum chemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetere, V.

    2002-09-01

    This thesis is related to comparative studies of the chemical properties of molecular complexes containing lanthanide or actinide trivalent cations, in the context of the nuclear waste disposal. More precisely, our aim was a quantum chemical analysis of the metal-ligand bonding in such species. Various theoretical approaches were compared, for the inclusion of correlation (density functional theory, multiconfigurational methods) and of relativistic effects (relativistic scalar and 2-component Hamiltonians, relativistic pseudopotentials). The performance of these methods were checked by comparing computed structural properties to published experimental data, on small model systems: lanthanide and actinide tri-halides and on X 3 M-L species (X=F, Cl; M=La, Nd, U; L = NH 3 , acetonitrile, CO). We have thus shown the good performance of density functionals combined with a quasi-relativistic method, as well as of gradient-corrected functionals associated with relativistic pseudopotentials. In contrast, functionals including some part of exact exchange are less reliable to reproduce experimental trends, and we have given a possible explanation for this result . Then, a detailed analysis of the bonding has allowed us to interpret the discrepancies observed in the structural properties of uranium and lanthanides complexes, based on a covalent contribution to the bonding, in the case of uranium(III), which does not exist in the lanthanide(III) homologues. Finally, we have examined more sizeable systems, closer to experimental species, to analyse the influence of the coordination number, of the counter-ions and of the oxidation state of uranium, on the metal-ligand bonding. (author)

  8. Thermalization and prethermalization in isolated quantum systems: a theoretical overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takashi; Ikeda, Tatsuhiko N.; Kaminishi, Eriko; Ueda, Masahito

    2018-06-01

    The approach to thermal equilibrium, or thermalization, in isolated quantum systems is among the most fundamental problems in statistical physics. Recent theoretical studies have revealed that thermalization in isolated quantum systems has several remarkable features, which emerge from quantum entanglement and are quite distinct from those in classical systems. Experimentally, well isolated and highly controllable ultracold quantum gases offer an ideal testbed to study the nonequilibrium dynamics in isolated quantum systems, promoting intensive recent theoretical endeavors on this fundamental subject. Besides thermalization, many isolated quantum systems show intriguing behavior in relaxation processes, especially prethermalization. Prethermalization occurs when there is a clear separation of relevant time scales and has several different physical origins depending on individual systems. In this review, we overview theoretical approaches to the problems of thermalization and prethermalization.

  9. Theoretical study of excitonic complexes in semiconductors quantum wells; Estudo teorico de complexos excitonicos em pocos quanticos de semicondutores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacal, Luis Carlos Ogando

    2001-08-01

    A physical system where indistinguishable particles interact with each other creates the possibility of studying correlation and exchange effect. The simplest system is that one with only two indistinguishable particles. In condensed matter physics, these complexes are represented by charged excitons, donors and acceptors. In quantum wells, the valence band is not parabolic, therefore, the negatively charged excitons and donors are theoretically described in a simpler way. Despite the fact that the stability of charged excitons (trions) is known since the late 50s, the first experimental observation occurred only at the early 90s in quantum well samples, where their binding energies are one order of magnitude larger due to the one dimensional carriers confinement. After this, these complexes became the subject of an intense research because the intrinsic screening of electrical interactions in semiconductor materials allows that magnetic fields that are usual in laboratories have strong effects on the trion binding energy. Another rich possibility is the study of trions as an intermediate state between the neutral exciton and the Fermi edge singularity when the excess of doping carriers is increased. In this thesis, we present a theoretical study of charged excitons and negatively charged donors in GaAs/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As quantum wells considering the effects of external electric and magnetic fields. We use a simple, accurate and physically clear method to describe these systems in contrast with the few and complex treatments s available in the literature. Our results show that the QW interface defects have an important role in the trion dynamics. This is in agreement with some experimental works, but it disagrees with other ones. (author)

  10. Syntheses, structural elucidation, thermal properties, theoretical quantum chemical studies (DFT and biological studies of barbituric–hydrazone complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina A. Soayed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Condensation of barbituric acid with hydrazine hydrate yielded barbiturichydrazone (L which was characterized using IR, 1H NMR and mass spectra. The Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II complexes derived from this ligand have been synthesized and structurally characterized by elemental analyses, spectroscopic methods (IR, UV–Vis and ESR and thermal analyses (TGA, DTG and DTA and the structures were further elucidated using quantum chemical density functional theory. Complexes of L were found to have the ML.nH2O stoichiometry with either tetrahedral or octahedral geometry. The ESR data showed the Cu(II complex to be in a tetragonal geometry. Theoretical investigation of the electronic structure of metal complexes at the TD-DFT/B3LYP level of theory has been carried out and discussed. The fundamental vibrational wavenumbers were calculated and a good agreement between observed and scaled calculated wavenumbers was achieved. Thermal studies were performed to deduce the stabilities of the ligand and complexes. Thermodynamic parameters, such as the order of reactions (n, activation energy ΔE∗, enthalpy of reaction ΔH∗ and entropy ΔS∗ were calculated from DTA curves using Horowitz–Metzger method. The ligand L and its complexes have been screened for their antifungal and antibacterial activities and were found to possess better biological activities compared to those of unsubstituted barbituric acid complexes.

  11. Theoretical and quantum mechanics fundamentals for chemists

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Provides the basics of theoretical and quantum mechanics in one place and emphasizes the continuity between themUniquely presented to be used for self-taught courses covering theoretical and quantum mechanicsEach chapter includes a detailed outline, a summary, self-assessment questions for which answers can be found in the textInvaluable for chemistry undergraduate and graduate students, chemists, other non-physical scientists, engineering students of modern techniques and technology, specialists who need a better understanding of quantum mechanics.

  12. A quantum theoretical study of reactions of methyldiazonium ion with DNA base pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.; Ganapathy, Vinay; Mishra, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Reactions of methyldiazonium ion at the different sites of the DNA bases in the Watson-Crick GC and AT base pairs were investigated employing density functional and second order Moller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theories. Display Omitted Highlights: → Methylation of the DNA bases is important as it can cause mutation and cancer. → Methylation reactions of the GC and AT base pairs with CH 3 N 2 + were not studied earlier theoretically. → Experimental observations have been explained using theoretical methods. - Abstract: Methylation of the DNA bases in the Watson-Crick GC and AT base pairs by the methyldiazonium ion was investigated employing density functional and second order Moller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theories. Methylation at the N3, N7 and O6 sites of guanine, N1, N3 and N7 sites of adenine, O2 and N3 sites of cytosine and the O2 and O4 sites of thymine were considered. The computed reactivities for methylation follow the order N7(guanine) > N3(adenine) > O6(guanine) which is in agreement with experiment. The base pairing in DNA is found to play a significant role with regard to reactivities of the different sites.

  13. Quantum number theoretic transforms on multipartite finite systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourdas, A; Zhang, S

    2009-06-01

    A quantum system composed of p-1 subsystems, each of which is described with a p-dimensional Hilbert space (where p is a prime number), is considered. A quantum number theoretic transform on this system, which has properties similar to those of a Fourier transform, is studied. A representation of the Heisenberg-Weyl group in this context is also discussed.

  14. Vibrational spectroscopic and quantum theoretical study of host-guest interactions in clathrates: I. Hofmann type clathrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR M. PETRUSEVSKI

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Hofmann type clatharates are host-guest compounds with the general formula M(NH32M'(CN4·2G, in which M(NH32M'(CN4 is the host lattice and G is benzene, the guest molecule. In previous studies, host-guest interactions have been investigated by analyzing the RT and LNT vibrational (infrared, far infrared and Raman spectra of these clathrates. All the observed changes in the vibrational spectra of these clathrates are referred to a host-guest interaction originating from weak hydrogen bonding between the ammonia hydrogen atoms from the host lattice and the p electron cloud of the guest (benzene molecules. In order to obtain an insight into the relative importance of the local crystalline field vs. the anharmonicity effects on the spectroscopic properties of the guest species upon enclathration, as well as to explain the observed band shifts and splittings, several quantum theoretical approaches are proposed.

  15. Field theoretic renormalization study of reduced quantum electrodynamics and applications to the ultrarelativistic limit of Dirac liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teber, S.; Kotikov, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The field theoretic renormalization study of reduced quantum electrodynamics (QED) is performed up to two loops. In the condensed matter context, reduced QED constitutes a very natural effective relativistic field theory describing (planar) Dirac liquids, e.g., graphene and graphenelike materials, the surface states of some topological insulators, and possibly half-filled fractional quantum Hall systems. From the field theory point of view, the model involves an effective (reduced) gauge field propagating with a fractional power of the d'Alembertian in marked contrast with usual QEDs. The use of the Bogoliubov-Parasiuk-Hepp-Zimmermann prescription allows for a simple and clear understanding of the structure of the model. In particular, in relation with the ultrarelativistic limit of graphene, we straightforwardly recover the results for both the interaction correction to the optical conductivity C*=(92 -9 π2)/(18 π ) and the anomalous dimension of the fermion field γψ(α ¯ ,ξ )=2 α ¯ (1 -3 ξ )/3 -16 (ζ2NF+4 /27 ) α¯ 2+O (α¯ 3) , where α ¯=e2/(4 π )2 and ξ is the gauge-fixing parameter.

  16. Hybrid quantum teleportation: A theoretical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Shuntaro; Mizuta, Takahiro; Fuwa, Maria; Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    Hybrid quantum teleportation – continuous-variable teleportation of qubits – is a promising approach for deterministically teleporting photonic qubits. We propose how to implement it with current technology. Our theoretical model shows that faithful qubit transfer can be achieved for this teleportation by choosing an optimal gain for the teleporter’s classical channel.

  17. Localization of firearm projectiles in the human body using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer: A theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall Barbosa, C.

    2004-06-01

    A technique had been previously developed, based on magnetic field measurements using a superconducting quantum interference device sensor, to localize in three dimensions steel needles lost in the human body. In all six cases that were treated until now, the technique allowed easy surgical localization of the needles with high accuracy. The technique decreases, by a large factor, the surgery time for foreign body extraction, and also reduces the generally high odds of failure. The method is accurate, noninvasive, and innocuous, and with clear clinical importance. Despite the importance of needle localization, the most prevalent foreign body in the modern society is the firearm projectile (bullet), generally composed of lead, a paramagnetic material, thus not presenting a remanent magnetic field as steel needles do. On the other hand, since lead is a good conductor, eddy current detection techniques can be employed, by applying an alternating magnetic field with the aid of excitation coils. The primary field induces eddy currents on the lead, which in turn generate a secondary magnetic field that can be detected by a magnetometer, and give information about position and volume of the conducting foreign body. In this article we present a theoretical study for the development of a localization technique for lead bullets inside the human body. Initially, we present a model for the secondary magnetic field generated by the bullet, given a known applied field. After that, we study possible excitation systems, and propose a localization algorithm based on the detected magnetic field.

  18. Quantum and classical studies of collisional excitation in H + CO and two other projects in theoretical chemical dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, L.C.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation is a collection of four projects in theoretical chemical dynamics. In the first two projects collisional excitation in H + CO was studied using the quasiclassical trajectory method and the quantum infinite order sudden approximation (QIOS). Integral cross sections calculated using these methods were found to agree well with experimental and classical IOS results. The trajectory study was also used to examine the effects of potential energy surface features on the dynamics. Two surfaces were examined: a fitted surface based on ab initio points and a global ab initio surface. Next, the quasiclassical trajectory method was used to obtain cross sections and rate constants for O + H 2 → OH + H and analogous deuterium isotope reactions. The results using the Johnson and Winter surface agreed well with those of transition state theory (TST) and experiment, except for O + HD → OH + D. TST rate constants were calculated using an ab initio surface. These results were in poor agreement with calculations using the Johnson and Winter surface. A theory of action-angle variables for coupled oscillator systems was developed in the fourth project

  19. How do ligands influence the quantum yields of cyclometalated platinum(ii) complexes, a theoretical research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baozhu; Huang, Shuang; Wang, Jianhao

    2017-08-30

    A series of cyclometalated platinum(ii) complexes have been investigated with the TDDFT method. These complexes have similar structures but distinct phosphorescence quantum yields. Theoretical calculations were carried out to explain the differences in quantum yields from the conjugation effect of the cyclometalated ligand, molecular rigidity and ligand-field strength of the monodentate ligand. The radiative decay rate constants (k r ) have been discussed with the oscillator strength (f n ), the strength of the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) interaction between the lowest energy triplet excited state (T 1 ) and singlet excited states (S n ), and the energy gaps between E(T 1 ) and E(S n ). To illustrate the nonradiative decay processes, the transition states (TS) between the triplet metal-centered state ( 3 MC) and T 1 states have been optimized. In addition, the minimum energy crossing points (MECPs) between 3 MC and the ground states (S 0 ) were optimized. Finally, the potential energy curves along the nonradiative decay pathways are simulated. To obtain a phosphorescent complex with a high quantum yield, the complex should retain molecular rigidity well in the S 1 and T 1 states, while showing significant structural distortion at the MECP structure.

  20. Theoretical modelling of quantum circuit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiffell, Peter Barry

    2002-01-01

    The work in this thesis concentrates on the interactions between circuit systems operating in the quantum regime. The main thrust of this work involves the use of a new model for investigating the way in which different components in such systems behave when coupled together. This is achieved by utilising the matrix representation of quantum mechanics, in conjunction with a number of other theoretical techniques (such as Wigner functions and entanglement entropies). With these tools in place it then becomes possible to investigate and review different quantum circuit systems. These investigations cover systems ranging from simple electromagnetic (cm) field oscillators in isolation to coupled SQUID rings in more sophisticated multi-component arrangements. Primarily, we look at the way SQUID rings couple to em fields, and how the ring-field interaction can be mediated by the choice of external flux, Φ x , applied to the SQUID ring. A lot of interest is focused on the transfer of energy between the system modes. However, we also investigate the statistical properties of the system, including squeezing, entropy and entanglement. Among the phenomena uncovered in this research we note the ability to control coupling in SQUID rings via the external flux, the capacity for entanglement between quantum circuit modes, frequency conversions of photons, flux squeezing and the existence of Schroedinger Cat states. (author)

  1. Control Theoretical Expression of Quantum Systems And Lower Bound of Finite Horizon Quantum Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagisawa, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    We provide a control theoretical method for a computational lower bound of quantum algorithms based on quantum walks of a finite time horizon. It is shown that given a quantum network, there exists a control theoretical expression of the quantum system and the transition probability of the quantum walk is related to a norm of the associated transfer function.

  2. Theoretical physics 6 quantum mechanics : basics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to the basics of quantum mechanics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, thus developing the physical understanding further on to quantized states. The first part of the book introduces wave equations while exploring the Schrödinger equation and the hydrogen atom. More complex themes are covered in the second part of the book, which describes the Dirac formulism of quantum mechanics. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical mechanics and electrodynamics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this...

  3. Effects of increasing number of rings on the ion sensing ability of CdSe quantum dots: a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Pragati; Kakkar, Rita

    2018-04-01

    A computational study on the structural and electronic properties of a special class of artificial atoms, known as quantum dots, has been carried out. These are semiconductors with unique optical and electronic properties and have been widely used in various applications, such as bio-sensing, bio-imaging, and so on. We have considered quantum dots belonging to II-VI types of semiconductors, due to their wide band gap, possession of large exciton binding energies and unique optical and electronic properties. We have studied their applications as chemical ion sensors by beginning with the study of the ion sensing ability of (CdSe) n ( n = 3, 6, 9 which are in the size range of 0.24, 0.49, 0.74 nm, respectively) quantum dots for cations of the zinc triad, namely Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, and various anions of biological and environmental importance, and studied the effect of increasing number of rings on their ion sensing ability. The various structural, electronic, and optical properties, their interaction energies, and charge transfer on interaction with metal ions and anions have been calculated and reported. Our studies indicate that the CdSe quantum dots can be employed as sensors for both divalent cations and anions, but they can sense cations better than anions.

  4. Information-theoretic temporal Bell inequality and quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikoshi, Fumiaki

    2006-01-01

    An information-theoretic temporal Bell inequality is formulated to contrast classical and quantum computations. Any classical algorithm satisfies the inequality, while quantum ones can violate it. Therefore, the violation of the inequality is an immediate consequence of the quantumness in the computation. Furthermore, this approach suggests a notion of temporal nonlocality in quantum computation

  5. Quantum dynamic imaging theoretical and numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Misha

    2011-01-01

    Studying and using light or "photons" to image and then to control and transmit molecular information is among the most challenging and significant research fields to emerge in recent years. One of the fastest growing areas involves research in the temporal imaging of quantum phenomena, ranging from molecular dynamics in the femto (10-15s) time regime for atomic motion to the atto (10-18s) time scale of electron motion. In fact, the attosecond "revolution" is now recognized as one of the most important recent breakthroughs and innovations in the science of the 21st century. A major participant in the development of ultrafast femto and attosecond temporal imaging of molecular quantum phenomena has been theory and numerical simulation of the nonlinear, non-perturbative response of atoms and molecules to ultrashort laser pulses. Therefore, imaging quantum dynamics is a new frontier of science requiring advanced mathematical approaches for analyzing and solving spatial and temporal multidimensional partial differ...

  6. Quantum theoretical physics is statistical and relativistic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, C.

    1980-01-01

    A new theoretical framework for the quantum mechanism is presented. It is based on a strict deterministic behavior of single systems. The conventional QM equation, however, is found to describe statistical results of many classical systems. It will be seen, moreover, that a rigorous synthesis of our theory requires relativistic kinematics. So, QM is not only a classical statistical theory, it is, of necessity, a relativistic theory. The equation of the theory does not just duplicate QM, it indicates an inherent nonlinearity in QM which is subject to experimental verification. It is shown, therefore, that conventional QM is a corollary of classical deterministic principles. It is suggested that this concept of nature conflicts with that prevalent in modern physics. (author)

  7. Theoretical studies of optical gain tuning by hydrostatic pressure in GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladysiewicz, M.; Wartak, M. S.; Kudrawiec, R.

    2014-01-01

    In order to describe theoretically the tuning of the optical gain by hydrostatic pressure in GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells (QWs), the optical gain calculations within kp approach were developed and applied for N-containing and N-free QWs. The electronic band structure and the optical gain for GaInNAs/GaAs QW were calculated within the 10-band kp model which takes into account the interaction of electron levels in the QW with the nitrogen resonant level in GaInNAs. It has been shown that this interaction increases with the hydrostatic pressure and as a result the optical gain for GaInNAs/GaAs QW decreases by about 40% and 80% for transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes, respectively, for the hydrostatic pressure change from 0 to 40 kilobars. Such an effect is not observed for N-free QWs where the dispersion of electron and hole energies remains unchanged with the hydrostatic pressure. This is due to the fact that the conduction and valence band potentials in GaInAs/GaAs QW scale linearly with the hydrostatic pressure

  8. A group theoretic approach to quantum information

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, Masahito

    2017-01-01

    This textbook is the first one addressing quantum information from the viewpoint of group symmetry. Quantum systems have a group symmetrical structure. This structure enables to handle systematically quantum information processing. However, there is no other textbook focusing on group symmetry for quantum information although there exist many textbooks for group representation. After the mathematical preparation of quantum information, this book discusses quantum entanglement and its quantification by using group symmetry. Group symmetry drastically simplifies the calculation of several entanglement measures although their calculations are usually very difficult to handle. This book treats optimal information processes including quantum state estimation, quantum state cloning, estimation of group action and quantum channel etc. Usually it is very difficult to derive the optimal quantum information processes without asymptotic setting of these topics. However, group symmetry allows to derive these optimal solu...

  9. Quantum field theoretic properties of nonabelian phase factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieczorek, E.

    1984-01-01

    The paper is concerned with quantum field theoretical properies of nonabelian phase factors. The phase factors defining parallel transport in fiber bundle space are the necessary tool for the construction of gauge invariant nonlocal operators describing bound states in QCD. General structures of such operators are discussed and renormalization properties as well as relations between meson and baryon operators are obtained from a study of the underlying phase factors

  10. Energy levels and quantum states of [Leu]enkephalin conformations based on theoretical and experimental investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdali, Salim; Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Bohr, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical and experimental study of [Leu]enkephalin conformations with respect to the quantum estates of the atomic structure of the peptide. Results from vibrational absorption measurements and quantum calculations are used to outline a quantum picture and to assign vibr...

  11. Quantum mechanics. Textbook on theoretical physics III. 4. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliessbach, T.

    2005-01-01

    This textbook present an intoduction to quantum mechanics, as it is offerred at the university in the cycle ''Theoretical Physics''. Special value has the author put on a well readable, understandable, and surveyable representation, so that the reader it can reproduce without larger difficulties. By the partition into chapters, which form separated course units, and the kind of the representation the book is also suited for bachelor curricula. The quantum mechanics are first introduced in the form of Schroedinge's wave mechanics. The fundamental relations of quantum mechanics and their interpretation are thereby explained by means of examples and first applications. In the following chapters the most important applications of the Schroedinger equation are studied, like the alpha decay, the scattering of a particle on a potential, and the hydrogen atom. Thereafter the abstract formulation of quantum mechanics (Hilbert space) is introduced in analogy to the known structure of the vector space. This formulation is then applied to concrete problems like the oscillator, tha angular momentum, and the spin. The most important approximation methods of quantum mechanics are then summarized. In the concluding part about many-particle systems the ideal Fermi gas is treated; simple applications of this model in atomic, solid-state, nuclear, ans astrophysics are discussed

  12. Quantum mechanics. Textbook on Theoretical Physics III. 5. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliessbach, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    This textbook gives an introduction to quantum mechanics, as it is presented at the university in the cycle ''Theoretical Physics''. Special care has the author put om a well readable, understandable, and clearly arranged presentation, so that the reader can it reproduce without greater difficulties. By the partition into chapters, which form self-contained teaching units, and the kind of presentation the book is also very well suited for bachelor courses. Quantum mechanics is first introduced in form of Schroedinger's wave mechanics. The fundamental relations and their interpretation are thereby explained hand in hand with examples and first applications. In the following parts the most important applications of the Schroedinger equation are studied, as the alpha decay, the scattering of particles on a potential, and the hydrogen atom. Thereafter the abstract formulation of quantum mechanics (Hilbert space) is introduced in analogy to the known structure of the vector space. This formulation is applied to concrete problems, as the oscillator, the angular momentum, and the spin. The most important approximation methods of quantum mechanics are then summarized. In the final part about many-particle systems the ideal Fermi gas is treated; simple application of this model in atomic, solid-state,and astrophysics are discussed

  13. Quantum information theoretical analysis of various constructions for quantum secret sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, K.P.T.; Schoenmakers, B.; Tuyls, P.T.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, an information theoretical model for quantum secret sharing (QSS) schemes was introduced. By using this model, we prove that pure state quantum threshold schemes (QTS) can be constructed from quantum MDS codes and vice versa. In particular, we consider stabilizer codes and give a

  14. Graph-theoretic approach to quantum correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Adán; Severini, Simone; Winter, Andreas

    2014-01-31

    Correlations in Bell and noncontextuality inequalities can be expressed as a positive linear combination of probabilities of events. Exclusive events can be represented as adjacent vertices of a graph, so correlations can be associated to a subgraph. We show that the maximum value of the correlations for classical, quantum, and more general theories is the independence number, the Lovász number, and the fractional packing number of this subgraph, respectively. We also show that, for any graph, there is always a correlation experiment such that the set of quantum probabilities is exactly the Grötschel-Lovász-Schrijver theta body. This identifies these combinatorial notions as fundamental physical objects and provides a method for singling out experiments with quantum correlations on demand.

  15. Information theoretic resources in quantum theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meznaric, Sebastian

    Resource identification and quantification is an essential element of both classical and quantum information theory. Entanglement is one of these resources, arising when quantum communication and nonlocal operations are expensive to perform. In the first part of this thesis we quantify the effective entanglement when operations are additionally restricted to account for both fundamental restrictions on operations, such as those arising from superselection rules, as well as experimental errors arising from the imperfections in the apparatus. For an important class of errors we find a linear relationship between the usual and effective higher dimensional generalization of concurrence, a measure of entanglement. Following the treatment of effective entanglement, we focus on a related concept of nonlocality in the presence of superselection rules (SSR). Here we propose a scheme that may be used to activate nongenuinely multipartite nonlocality, in that a single copy of a state is not multipartite nonlocal, while two or more copies exhibit nongenuinely multipartite nonlocality. The states used exhibit the more powerful genuinely multipartite nonlocality when SSR are not enforced, but not when they are, raising the question of what is needed for genuinely multipartite nonlocality. We show that whenever the number of particles is insufficient, the degrading of genuinely multipartite to nongenuinely multipartite nonlocality is necessary. While in the first few chapters we focus our attention on understanding the resources present in quantum states, in the final part we turn the picture around and instead treat operations themselves as a resource. We provide our observers with free access to classical operations - ie. those that cannot detect or generate quantum coherence. We show that the operation of interest can then be used to either generate or detect quantum coherence if and only if it violates a particular commutation relation. Using the relative entropy, the

  16. Self-generation of optical frequency comb in single section quantum dot Fabry-Perot lasers: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardella, Paolo; Columbo, Lorenzo Luigi; Gioannini, Mariangela

    2017-10-16

    Optical Frequency Comb (OFC) generated by semiconductor lasers are currently widely used in the extremely timely field of high capacity optical interconnects and high precision spectroscopy. In the last decade, several experimental evidences of spontaneous OFC generation have been reported in single section Quantum Dot (QD) lasers. Here we provide a physical understanding of these self-organization phenomena by simulating the multi-mode dynamics of a single section Fabry-Perot (FP) QD laser using a Time-Domain Traveling-Wave (TDTW) model that properly accounts for coherent radiation-matter interaction in the semiconductor active medium and includes the carrier grating generated by the optical standing wave pattern in the laser cavity. We show that the latter is the fundamental physical effect at the origin of the multi-mode spectrum appearing just above threshold. A self-mode-locking regime associated with the emission of OFC is achieved for higher bias currents and ascribed to nonlinear phase sensitive effects as Four Wave Mixing (FWM). Our results explain in detail the behaviour observed experimentally by different research groups and in different QD and Quantum Dash (QDash) devices.

  17. Group Theoretical Approach for Controlled Quantum Mechanical Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tarn, Tzyh-Jong

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research is the study of controllability of quantum mechanical systems and feedback control of de-coherence in order to gain an insight on the structure of control of quantum systems...

  18. Theoretical study of quantum molecular reaction dynamics and of the effects of intense laser radiation on a diatomic molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dardi, P.S.

    1984-11-01

    Within the very broad field of molecular dynamics, we have concentrated on two simple yet important systems. The systems are simple enough so that they are adequately described with a single Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface and that the dynamics can be calculated accurately. They are important because they give insight into solving more complicated systems. First we discuss H + H 2 reactive scattering. We present an exact formalism for atom-diatom reactive scattering which avoids the problem of finding a coordinate system appropriate for both reactants and products. We present computational results for collinear H + H 2 reactive scattering which agree very well with previous calculations. We also present a coupled channel distorted wave Born approximation for atom-diatom reactive scattering which we show is a first order approximation to our exact formalism. We present coupled channel DWBA results for three dimensional H + H 2 reactive scattering. The second system is an isolated HF molecule in an intense laser field. Using classical trajectories and quantum dynamics, we look at energy absorbed and transition probabilities as a function of the laser pulse time and also averaged over the pulse time. Calculations are performed for both rotating and nonrotating HF. We examine one and two photon absorption about the fundamental frequency, multiphoton absorption, and overtone absorption. 127 references, 31 figures, 12 tables

  19. Theoretical study of quantum molecular reaction dynamics and of the effects of intense laser radiation on a diatomic molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dardi, P.S.

    1984-11-01

    Within the very broad field of molecular dynamics, we have concentrated on two simple yet important systems. The systems are simple enough so that they are adequately described with a single Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface and that the dynamics can be calculated accurately. They are important because they give insight into solving more complicated systems. First we discuss H + H/sub 2/ reactive scattering. We present an exact formalism for atom-diatom reactive scattering which avoids the problem of finding a coordinate system appropriate for both reactants and products. We present computational results for collinear H + H/sub 2/ reactive scattering which agree very well with previous calculations. We also present a coupled channel distorted wave Born approximation for atom-diatom reactive scattering which we show is a first order approximation to our exact formalism. We present coupled channel DWBA results for three dimensional H + H/sub 2/ reactive scattering. The second system is an isolated HF molecule in an intense laser field. Using classical trajectories and quantum dynamics, we look at energy absorbed and transition probabilities as a function of the laser pulse time and also averaged over the pulse time. Calculations are performed for both rotating and nonrotating HF. We examine one and two photon absorption about the fundamental frequency, multiphoton absorption, and overtone absorption. 127 references, 31 figures, 12 tables.

  20. Unfolding the Quantum Nature of Proton Bound Symmetric Dimers of (MeOH)2H+ and (Me2O)2H+: a Theoretical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jake Acedera; Kuo, Jer-Lai

    2014-06-01

    A proton under a tug of war between two competing Lewis bases is a common motif in biological systems and proton transfer processes. Over the past decades, model compounds for such motifs can be prepared by delicate stoichiometric control of salt solutions. Unfortunately, condensed phase studies, which aims to identify the key vibrational signatures are complicated to analyze. As a result, gas-phase studies do provide promising insights on the behavior of the shared proton. This study attempts to understand the quantum nature of the shared proton under theoretical paradigms. Proton bound symmetric dimers of (MeOH)2H+ and (Me2O)2H+ are chosen as the model compounds. The simulation is performed using Density Functional Theory (DFT) at the B3LYP level with 6-311+G(d,p) as the basis set. It was found out that stretching mode of shared proton couples with several other normal modes and its corresponding oscillator strength do distribute to other normal modes. J.R. Roscioli, L.R. McCunn and M.A. Johnson. Science 2007, 316, 249 T.E. DeCoursey. Physiol. Rev., 2003, 83, 475 E.S. Stoyanov. Psys. Chem. Phys., 2000,2,1137

  1. A theoretical quantum study on the distribution of electrophilic and nucleophilic active sites on Cu(100) surfaces modeled as finite clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios R, C.H.; Romero R, M.; Ponce R, A.; Mendoza H, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, it is shown a theoretical quantum study of the active sites distribution on a monocrystalline surface of Cu(100). The copper surface was modeled as finite clusters of 14, 23, 38 and 53 atoms. We performed Hartree-Fock and Density Functional Theory (B3LYP) ab initio calculations employing the pseudopotentials of Hay and Wadt (LANLlMB y LANL2DZ). From calculations, we found a work function value of 4.1 eV. The mapping of the HOMO and LUMO in the frozen core approximation, allowed us finding the electrophilic and nucleophilic active sites distribution, respectively. The results indicated that electrophilic sites on the Cu(100) surface were located on hollow position and its numerical density was 8.6 x 10 16 sites cm -2 . From the nucleophilic local softness study, it was found that the nucleophilic sites were formed by a group of atoms and it had a numerical density of 2.4x 10 16 sitescm -2 . Last results indicated that adsorptions with 2 x 2 and 3 x 3 distributions can be favored onto a Cu(100) surface for the electrophilic and nucleophilic cases, respectively. (Author)

  2. Theoretical physics IV. Quantum mechanics with problems in MAPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinecker, Peter; Schulz, Michael; Schulz, Beatrix M.

    2008-01-01

    Quantum mechanics 2 is the fourth volume of the new and unique series for theoretical physics with Maple applications. This from basics newly concipated series mediates theoretical physics from contemporary view and in a way referring to a comprehensive lecture experience. Extensively and completely in five consecutively appearing volumes classical mechanics, electrodynamics, quantum mechanics 1 and 2, as well as statistical physics and thermodynamics are presented. Additionally for the elegant and extensive presentation on an each added CP applications for MAPLE trademark are contained, the software, which at more and more university is already applied in the lecture. They allow the experimenting with theory - and facilitate the understanding essentially. The present volume mediates extending, more complex contents of quantum mechanics, which are based on volume III of the series

  3. Theoretical physics vol. 2. Quantum mechanics, relativistic quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, elementar-particle theory, thermodynamics and statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebhan, E.

    2005-01-01

    The present second volume treats quantum mechanics, relativistic quantum mechanics, the foundations of quantum-field and elementary-particle theory as well as thermodynamics and statistics. Both volumes comprehend all fields, which are usually offered in a course about theoretical physics. In all treated fields a very careful introduction to the basic natural laws forms the starting point, whereby it is thoroughly analysed, which of them is based on empirics, which is logically deducible, and which role play basic definitions. Extendingly the matter extend of the corresponding courses starting from the relativistic quantum theory an introduction to the elementary particles is developed. All problems are very thoroughly and such extensively studied, that each step is singularly reproducible. On motivation and good understandability is cared much about. The mixing of mathematical difficulties with problems of physical nature often obstructive in the learning is so circumvented, that important mathematical methods are presented in own chapters (for instance Hilbert spaces, Lie groups). By means of many examples and problems (for a large part with solutions) the matter worked out is deepened and exercised. Developments, which are indeed important, but seem for the first approach abandonable, are pursued in excurses. This book starts from courses, which the author has held at the Heinrich-Heine university in Duesseldorf, and was in many repetitions fitted to the requirements of the students. It is conceived in such a way, that it is also after the study suited as dictionary or for the regeneration

  4. Theoretical studies on nuclear spin selective quantum dynamics of non-linear molecules; Theoretische Untersuchung zur Quantendynamik der Kernspinisomere nicht-linearer Molekuele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohmann, Thomas

    2012-05-31

    In this thesis the wave packet dynamics of nuclear spin isomers of polyatomic molecules after interaction with static and time-dependent magnetic fields and moderate intense nonresonant laser pulses is investigated. In particular, the process of inducing (internal) molecular rotation as well as alignment of molecules by manipulating their rotational or rotational-torsional degrees of freedom is studied. In the first part of the thesis all theoretical concepts for identifying nuclear spin isomers and for describing their quantum dynamics will be discussed. Especially the symmetrization postulate and themolecular symmetry group will be introduced and illustrated for some examples of molecules. These concepts will be extended to the case of identifying nuclear spin isomers in the presence of an external field. In the second part it is shown for nitromethane that magnetic fields are able to induce unidirectional rotations in opposite directions for different nuclear spin isomers of molecules containing methyl groups if the dipolar interaction is included. Additionally, it is demonstrated that different nuclear spin isomers of a chemical compound may show different alignment after the interaction with a moderate intense laser pulse. As shown for the rigid symmetric top propadien and the rigid asymmetric tops ethene and analogues, distinct pairs of nuclear spin isomers show at certain points in time a complementary behavior: while one isomer is showing alignment the partner isomer is showing anti-alignment. Moreover, it is illustrated that not every nuclear spin isomer can be aligned equally efficient. The alignment of non-rigid molecules is considered as well. As an example for a molecule with feasible torsion in the electronic ground state, the alignment of diboron tetrafluoride is investigated. It becomes apparent that not only rotational but also the torsional dynamics of the molecules is nuclear spin selective; different nuclear spin isomers have at distinct points

  5. [Studies in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    During the period 4/1/89--3/31/90 the theoretical physics group supported by Department of Energy Contract No. AC02-78ER04915.A015 and consisting of Professors Bender and Shrauner, Associate Professor Papanicolaou, Assistant Professor Ogilvie, and Senior Research Associate Visser has made progress in many areas of theoretical and mathematical physics. Professors Bender and Shrauner, Associate Professor Papanicolaou, Assistant Professor Ogilvie, and Research Associate Visser are currently conducting research in many areas of high energy theoretical and mathematical physics. These areas include: strong-coupling approximation; classical solutions of non-Abelian gauge theories; mean-field approximation in quantum field theory; path integral and coherent state representations in quantum field theory; lattice gauge calculations; the nature of perturbation theory in large order; quark condensation in QCD; chiral symmetry breaking; the 1/N expansion in quantum field theory; effective potential and action in quantum field theories, including OCD; studies of the early universe and inflation, and quantum gravity

  6. Theoretical physics 7 quantum mechanics : methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to methods and applications in quantum mechanics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, thus developing the understanding of quantized states further on. The first part of the book introduces the quantum theory of angular momentum and approximation methods. More complex themes are covered in the second part of the book, which describes multiple particle systems and scattering theory. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in the basics of quantum mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets.  About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this seri...

  7. Theoretical studies of chemical reaction dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, G.C. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This collaborative program with the Theoretical Chemistry Group at Argonne involves theoretical studies of gas phase chemical reactions and related energy transfer and photodissociation processes. Many of the reactions studied are of direct relevance to combustion; others are selected they provide important examples of special dynamical processes, or are of relevance to experimental measurements. Both classical trajectory and quantum reactive scattering methods are used for these studies, and the types of information determined range from thermal rate constants to state to state differential cross sections.

  8. Theoretical studies in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, R.H.; Madsen, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses: microscopic imaginary optical potential; isospin effects and charge exchange; multistep inelastic and charge exchange scattering; momentum space proton scattering; pion scattering from nuclei; antiproton studies; antikaons-nucleon interactions; and quantum mechanics. 11 refs

  9. A short course in quantum information theory an approach from theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Diosi, Lajos

    2011-01-01

    This short and concise primer takes the vantage point of theoretical physics and the unity of physics. It sets out to strip the burgeoning field of quantum information science to its basics by linking it to universal concepts in physics. An extensive lecture rather than a comprehensive textbook, this volume is based on courses delivered over several years to advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students, but essentially it addresses anyone with a working knowledge of basic quantum physics. Readers will find these lectures a most adequate entry point for theoretical studies in this field. For the second edition, the authors has succeeded in adding many new topics while sticking to the conciseness of the overall approach. A new chapter on qubit thermodynamics has been added, while new sections and subsections have been incorporated in various chapter to deal with weak and time-continuous measurements, period-finding quantum algorithms and quantum error corrections. From the reviews of the first edition...

  10. Basic course theoretical physics. Vol. 5/1. Quantum mechanics - foundations. 7. upd. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The favoured basic course theoretical physics covers in seven volumes all fields relevant for the diploma. Each volume mediates well thought the in each semester necessary theoretically-physical tools. Numerous exercise problem with extensive solutions serve for the deepening of the matter. The first part of the fifth volume begins with an inductive foundation of quantum mechanics in order to illustrate after a study and summary of the formal foundations of quantum mechanics on simple model systems the concepts and term formations. The present new edition was fundamentally worked out and supplemented. The meanwhile proved two-color presentation allows a very understandable and fast approach to the matter [de

  11. A short course in quantum information theory. An approach from theoretical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diosi, L.

    2007-01-01

    This short and concise primer takes the vantage point of theoretical physics and the unity of physics. It sets out to strip the burgeoning field of quantum information science to its basics by linking it to universal concepts in physics. An extensive lecture rather than a comprehensive textbook, this volume is based on courses delivered over several years to advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students, but essentially it addresses anyone with a working knowledge of basic quantum physics. Readers will find these lectures a most adequate entry point for theoretical studies in this field. (orig.)

  12. Quantum Hall effects recent theoretical and experimental developments

    CERN Document Server

    Ezawa, Zyun Francis

    2013-01-01

    Enthusiasm for research on the quantum Hall effect (QHE) is unbounded. The QHE is one of the most fascinating and beautiful phenomena in all branches of physics. Tremendous theoretical and experimental developments are still being made in this sphere. Composite bosons, composite fermions and anyons were among distinguishing ideas in the original edition. In the 2nd edition, fantastic phenomena associated with the interlayer phase coherence in the bilayer system were extensively described. The microscopic theory of the QHE was formulated based on the noncommutative geometry. Furthermore, the unconventional QHE in graphene was reviewed, where the electron dynamics can be treated as relativistic Dirac fermions and even the supersymmetric quantum mechanics plays a key role. In this 3rd edition, all chapters are carefully reexamined and updated. A highlight is the new chapter on topological insulators. Indeed, the concept of topological insulator stems from the QHE. Other new topics are recent prominent experime...

  13. Information–theoretic implications of quantum causal structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaves, Rafael; Majenz, Christian; Gross, David

    2015-01-01

    . However, no systematic method is known for treating such problems in a way that generalizes to quantum systems. Here, we describe a general algorithm for computing information–theoretic constraints on the correlations that can arise from a given causal structure, where we allow for quantum systems as well...... as classical random variables. The general technique is applied to two relevant cases: first, we show that the principle of information causality appears naturally in our framework and go on to generalize and strengthen it. Second, we derive bounds on the correlations that can occur in a networked architecture......It is a relatively new insight of classical statistics that empirical data can contain information about causation rather than mere correlation. First algorithms have been proposed that are capable of testing whether a presumed causal relationship is compatible with an observed distribution...

  14. Role of information theoretic uncertainty relations in quantum theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jizba, Petr, E-mail: p.jizba@fjfi.cvut.cz [FNSPE, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, 115 19 Praha 1 (Czech Republic); ITP, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Dunningham, Jacob A., E-mail: J.Dunningham@sussex.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Joo, Jaewoo, E-mail: j.joo@surrey.ac.uk [Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    Uncertainty relations based on information theory for both discrete and continuous distribution functions are briefly reviewed. We extend these results to account for (differential) Rényi entropy and its related entropy power. This allows us to find a new class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations (ITURs). The potency of such uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics is illustrated with a simple two-energy-level model where they outperform both the usual Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty relation and Shannon entropy based uncertainty relation. In the continuous case the ensuing entropy power uncertainty relations are discussed in the context of heavy tailed wave functions and Schrödinger cat states. Again, improvement over both the Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty principle and Shannon ITUR is demonstrated in these cases. Further salient issues such as the proof of a generalized entropy power inequality and a geometric picture of information-theoretic uncertainty relations are also discussed.

  15. Role of information theoretic uncertainty relations in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jizba, Petr; Dunningham, Jacob A.; Joo, Jaewoo

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty relations based on information theory for both discrete and continuous distribution functions are briefly reviewed. We extend these results to account for (differential) Rényi entropy and its related entropy power. This allows us to find a new class of information-theoretic uncertainty relations (ITURs). The potency of such uncertainty relations in quantum mechanics is illustrated with a simple two-energy-level model where they outperform both the usual Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty relation and Shannon entropy based uncertainty relation. In the continuous case the ensuing entropy power uncertainty relations are discussed in the context of heavy tailed wave functions and Schrödinger cat states. Again, improvement over both the Robertson–Schrödinger uncertainty principle and Shannon ITUR is demonstrated in these cases. Further salient issues such as the proof of a generalized entropy power inequality and a geometric picture of information-theoretic uncertainty relations are also discussed

  16. Macroscopic Quantum-Type Potentials in Theoretical Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Nottale

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We review in this paper the use of the theory of scale relativity and fractal space-time as a tool particularly well adapted to the possible development of a future genuine systems theoretical biology. We emphasize in particular the concept of quantum-type potentials, since, in many situations, the effect of the fractality of space—or of the underlying medium—can be reduced to the addition of such a potential energy to the classical equations of motion. Various equivalent representations—geodesic, quantum-like, fluid mechanical, stochastic—of these equations are given, as well as several forms of generalized quantum potentials. Examples of their possible intervention in high critical temperature superconductivity and in turbulence are also described, since some biological processes may be similar in some aspects to these physical phenomena. These potential extra energy contributions could have emerged in biology from the very fractal nature of the medium, or from an evolutive advantage, since they involve spontaneous properties of self-organization, morphogenesis, structuration and multi-scale integration. Finally, some examples of applications of the theory to actual biological-like processes and functions are also provided.

  17. A short course in quantum information theory. An approach from theoretical physics. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diosi, Lajos

    2011-01-01

    This short and concise primer takes the vantage point of theoretical physics and the unity of physics. It sets out to strip the burgeoning field of quantum information science to its basics by linking it to universal concepts in physics. An extensive lecture rather than a comprehensive textbook, this volume is based on courses delivered over several years to advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students, but essentially it addresses anyone with a working knowledge of basic quantum physics. Readers will find these lectures a most adequate entry point for theoretical studies in this field. For the second edition, the authors has succeeded in adding many new topics while sticking to the conciseness of the overall approach. A new chapter on qubit thermodynamics has been added, while new sections and subsections have been incorporated in various chapter to deal with weak and time-continuous measurements, period-finding quantum algorithms and quantum error corrections. From the reviews of the first edition: ''The best things about this book are its brevity and clarity. In around 100 pages it provides a tutorial introduction to quantum information theory, including problems and solutions.. it's worth a look if you want to quickly get up to speed with the language and central concepts of quantum information theory, including the background classical information theory.'' (Craig Savage, Australian Physics, Vol. 44 (2), 2007). (orig.)

  18. Quantum field theoretic behavior of a deterministic cellular automaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooft, G ' t; Isler, K; Kalitzin, S [Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1992-11-16

    A certain class of cellular automata in 1 space +1 time dimension is shown to be closely related to quantum field theories containing Dirac fermions. In the massless case this relation can be studied analytically, while the introduction of Dirac mass requires numerical simulations. We show that in the last case the cellular automation describes the corresponding field theory only approximately. (orig.).

  19. Theoretical physics 3. Quantum mechanics 1 with problems in MAPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reineker, P.; Schulz, M.; Schulz, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Historically heuristic introduction to quantum mechanics, the Schroedinger equation, foundations of quantum mechanics, the linear harmonic oscillator, quantum-mechanical motion in the central field, approximation methods for the solution of quantum mechanical problems, motion of particles in the electromagnetic field, spin and magnetic moment of the electron, many-particle systems, conceptional problems of quantum mechanics

  20. Quantum confined Stark effect in Gaussian quantum wells: A tight-binding study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramírez-Morales, A.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.

    2014-01-01

    The main characteristics of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) are studied theoretically in quantum wells of Gaussian profile. The semi-empirical tight-binding model and the Green function formalism are applied in the numerical calculations. A comparison of the QCSE in quantum wells with different kinds of confining potential is presented

  1. Quantum confined Stark effect in Gaussian quantum wells: A tight-binding study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez-Morales, A.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad Esquina Con Paseo La Bufa S/N, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2014-05-15

    The main characteristics of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) are studied theoretically in quantum wells of Gaussian profile. The semi-empirical tight-binding model and the Green function formalism are applied in the numerical calculations. A comparison of the QCSE in quantum wells with different kinds of confining potential is presented.

  2. Quantum Field Theoretic Derivation of the Einstein Weak Equivalence Principle Using Emqg Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ostoma, Tom; Trushyk, Mike

    1999-01-01

    We provide a quantum field theoretic derivation of Einstein's Weak Equivalence Principle of general relativity using a new quantum gravity theory proposed by the authors called Electro-Magnetic Quantum Gravity or EMQG (ref. 1). EMQG is based on a new theory of inertia (ref. 5) proposed by R. Haisch, A. Rueda, and H. Puthoff (which we modified and called Quantum Inertia). Quantum Inertia states that classical Newtonian Inertia is a property of matter due to the strictly local electrical force ...

  3. Information-theoretic limitations on approximate quantum cloning and broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemm, Marius; Wilde, Mark M.

    2017-07-01

    We prove quantitative limitations on any approximate simultaneous cloning or broadcasting of mixed states. The results are based on information-theoretic (entropic) considerations and generalize the well-known no-cloning and no-broadcasting theorems. We also observe and exploit the fact that the universal cloning machine on the symmetric subspace of n qudits and symmetrized partial trace channels are dual to each other. This duality manifests itself both in the algebraic sense of adjointness of quantum channels and in the operational sense that a universal cloning machine can be used as an approximate recovery channel for a symmetrized partial trace channel and vice versa. The duality extends to give control of the performance of generalized universal quantum cloning machines (UQCMs) on subspaces more general than the symmetric subspace. This gives a way to quantify the usefulness of a priori information in the context of cloning. For example, we can control the performance of an antisymmetric analog of the UQCM in recovering from the loss of n -k fermionic particles.

  4. Quantum field theory and coalgebraic logic in theoretical computer science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basti, Gianfranco; Capolupo, Antonio; Vitiello, Giuseppe

    2017-11-01

    We suggest that in the framework of the Category Theory it is possible to demonstrate the mathematical and logical dual equivalence between the category of the q-deformed Hopf Coalgebras and the category of the q-deformed Hopf Algebras in quantum field theory (QFT), interpreted as a thermal field theory. Each pair algebra-coalgebra characterizes a QFT system and its mirroring thermal bath, respectively, so to model dissipative quantum systems in far-from-equilibrium conditions, with an evident significance also for biological sciences. Our study is in fact inspired by applications to neuroscience where the brain memory capacity, for instance, has been modeled by using the QFT unitarily inequivalent representations. The q-deformed Hopf Coalgebras and the q-deformed Hopf Algebras constitute two dual categories because characterized by the same functor T, related with the Bogoliubov transform, and by its contravariant application T op , respectively. The q-deformation parameter is related to the Bogoliubov angle, and it is effectively a thermal parameter. Therefore, the different values of q identify univocally, and label the vacua appearing in the foliation process of the quantum vacuum. This means that, in the framework of Universal Coalgebra, as general theory of dynamic and computing systems ("labelled state-transition systems"), the so labelled infinitely many quantum vacua can be interpreted as the Final Coalgebra of an "Infinite State Black-Box Machine". All this opens the way to the possibility of designing a new class of universal quantum computing architectures based on this coalgebraic QFT formulation, as its ability of naturally generating a Fibonacci progression demonstrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cyclotron tubes - a theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourier, G

    1980-12-01

    The introduction presents a general discussion of electron cyclotron masers (ECM): resonance, relativistic effects, elementary quantum aspects, the classical relativistic bunching and the optimum value of the electric field. The practical structure - in particular that of the gyrotron - is specified only insofar as it is useful for understanding the following chapters. The main parameters are discussed. Section 2 develops a nonlinear adiabatic or orbital theory of electron motion which alleviates calculations considerably while keeping numerical errors low enough for many practical cases. Its results are compared to a rigorous integration in one case. Other cases show the importance of the electric field profile inside the resonant cavity. Section 3 is devoted to space charge phenomena, and, for the most part, to a linear theory with space charge. In its limited range of validity (low-energy electrons), the theory indicates a strong impact of space charge for low a.c. fields and exhibits a pure beam instability. Section 4 is devoted to circuit equations with emphasis on the special features of cavities consisting of a long waveguide near cutoff. The conclusion indicates some trends of gyrotron development and corresponding theoretical problems.

  6. Studies in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.M.; Mandula, J.E.; Shrauner, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Washington University is currently conducting research in many areas of high energy theoretical and mathematical physics. These areas include: strong-coupling approximation; classical solutions of non-Abelian gauge theories; mean-field approximation in quantum field theory; path integral and coherent state representations in quantum field theory; lattice gauge calculations; the nature of perturbation theory in large orders; quark condensation in QCD; chiral symmetry breaking; the l/N expansion in quantum field theory; effective potential and action in quantum field theories, including QCD

  7. Information-theoretic outlook of the quantum dissipation problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, A.M.; Plastino, A.; Proto, A.N.

    1992-08-01

    The interaction between two harmonic oscillators, a classical and a quantum one, coupled through a linear term, is analyzed by recourse to the generalized Ehrenfest theorem. The model is able to mimic dissipating behaviour for the quantum oscillator without violation of any quantum rule. (author). 13 refs, 5 figs

  8. Pressure dependence for the CO quantum yield in the photolysis of acetone at 248 nm: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somnitz, H; Fida, M; Ufer, T; Zellner, R

    2005-09-21

    The quantum yield of CO in the laser pulse photolysis of acetone at 248 nm and at 298 K in the pressure range 20-900 mbar (N2) has been measured directly using quantitative infrared diode laser absorption of CO. It is found that the quantum yield of CO shows a significant dependence on total pressure with Phi(CO) decreasing with pressure from around 0.45 at 20 mbar to approximately 0.25 at 900 mbar. From a combination of ab initio quantum chemical calculations on the molecular properties of the acetyl (CH3CO) radical and its unimolecular fragmentation as well as the application of statistical (RRKM) and dynamical calculations we show that CO production results from prompt secondary fragmentation (via(2a)) of the internally excited primary CH3CO* photolysis product with an excess energy of approximately 62.8 kJ mol(-1). Hence, our findings are consistent with a consecutive photochemically induced decomposition model, viz. step (1): CH3COCH3+hv--> CH3CO*+ CH3, step (2a): CH3CO*--> CH3+ CO or step (2b) CH3CO*-(+M)--> CH3CO. Formation of CO via a direct and/or concerted channel CH3COCH3+hv--> 2CH(3)+ CO (1') is considered to be unimportant.

  9. Theoretical investigation of CO interaction with copper sites in zeolites: Periodic DFT and hybrid quantum mechanical/interatomic potential function study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bludský, Ota; Šilhan, Martin; Nachtigall, Petr; Bucko, T.; Benco, L.; Hafner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 109, - (2005), s. 9631-9638 ISSN 1089-5647 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC512 Grant - others:Austrian Science Funds(AT) Pl 7020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Cu-exchanged zeolites * carbon-monoxide Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.679, year: 2003

  10. Theoretical studies of combustion dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, J.M. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The basic objectives of this research program are to develop and apply theoretical techniques to fundamental dynamical processes of importance in gas-phase combustion. There are two major areas currently supported by this grant. One is reactive scattering of diatom-diatom systems, and the other is the dynamics of complex formation and decay based on L{sup 2} methods. In all of these studies, the authors focus on systems that are of interest experimentally, and for which potential energy surfaces based, at least in part, on ab initio calculations are available.

  11. Self-organized quantum rings : Physical characterization and theoretical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fomin, V.M.; Gladilin, V.N.; Devreese, J.T.; Koenraad, P.M.; Fomin, V.M.

    2014-01-01

    An adequate modeling of the self-organized quantum rings is possible only on the basis of the modern characterization of those nanostructures.We discuss an atomic-scale analysis of the indium distribution of self-organized InGaAs quantum rings (QRs). The analysis of the shape, size and composition

  12. A Quantum Theoretical Explanation for Probability Judgment Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busemeyer, Jerome R.; Pothos, Emmanuel M.; Franco, Riccardo; Trueblood, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    A quantum probability model is introduced and used to explain human probability judgment errors including the conjunction and disjunction fallacies, averaging effects, unpacking effects, and order effects on inference. On the one hand, quantum theory is similar to other categorization and memory models of cognition in that it relies on vector…

  13. Information-theoretical aspects of quantum-mechanical entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrl, A.

    1990-01-01

    Properties of the quantum ( = von Neumann) entropy S(ρ) -k Trρ lnρ, ρ being a compact operator, are proved first, and differences against the classical case, e.g. the Shannon entropy, are worked out. The main result is on the strong subadditivity of this quantum entropy. Then another entropy, a function not of the state but of the dynamics of the system, is considered as a quantum analogue of the classical Kolmogorov-Sinai-entropy. An attempt in defining such a quantity had only recently sucess in a paper of Connes, Narnhofer and Thirring. A definition of this entropy is given. 34 refs

  14. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF FILMMUSIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egorova Tatiana K.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, author analyzes the theoretical aspects of the film music study taking into account with modern realities in the development of world film-process and attempts to its scientific understanding. Need for innovation in this area is long overdue, because the existing on this topic nonfiction no longer meets the new aesthetic and art-practical achievements and innovations in the film music development at the XXI century. Related to the phenomenon of music in screen arts a number of new terms and concepts require a certain adjustment as well. Their range of action is not yet fully defined. Author of the article offered her version of their content-semantic interpretation (largely experimental designed to promote new research methods for the film music study.

  15. Formation of InAs/GaAs quantum dots from a subcritical InAs wetting layer: A reflection high-energy electron diffraction and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H. Z.; Usuki, T.; Nakata, Y.; Yokoyama, N.; Sasakura, H.; Muto, S.

    2006-01-01

    InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QD's) are formed by postgrowth annealing of an InAs wetting layer thinner than the critical thickness for the transition from two- (2D) to three-dimensional (3D) growth mode. Reflection high energy electron diffraction is used to monitor the QD formation. Based on a mean-field theory [Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 897 (1997)], the time evolution of total QD's volume, first increasing and finally saturating, is well explained by precursors forming during wetting layer growth and converting into nucleated QD's after growth stop. Both the saturation QD's volume and the QD nucleation rate depend exponentially on the InAs coverage. These behaviors and their temperature and InAs growth rate dependences are essentially understandable in the frame of the mean-field theory. Similar analysis to conventional QD growth suggests that the often observed significant mass transport from wetting layer to QD's can be ascribed to the precursors existing before 2D-3D growth mode transition

  16. Theoretical description of copper Cu(I)/Cu(II) complexes in mixed ammine-aqua environment. DFT and ab initio quantum chemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavelka, Matej; Burda, Jaroslav V.

    2005-01-01

    This work is devoted to investigate the interactions of the Cu(I)/Cu(II) cation with variable ammonia-water ligand field by the quantum chemical approach. For that purpose, the optimization of the [Cu(NH 3 ) m (H 2 O) n ] 2+/+ complexes (where n varies from 0 to 4 or 6 and m + n = 4 or 6) has been performed at the DFT/6-31+G(d) level of theory in conjunction with the B3PW91 hybrid functional. Based on the results of the single-point B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2pd) calculations, the stabilization energies were determined. The two-coordinated copper(I) complexes appeared to be the most stable compounds with the remaining water or ammonia molecules in the second solvation shell. In the case of the Cu(II) systems, four-coordinated complexes were found to be the most stable. In order to examine and explain bonding characteristics, Morokuma interaction energy decomposition (for selected Cu + complexes) and Natural Population Analysis for all systems were performed. It was found that the most stable structures correlate with the highest donation effects. Therefore, more polarizable ammonia molecules exhibit higher donation than water and thus make stronger bonds to copper. This can be demonstrated by the fact that the NH 3 molecule always tries to occupy the first solvation shell in mixed ammine-aqua complexes

  17. Theoretical studies on the possible sensitizers of DSSC: Nanocomposites of graphene quantum dot hybrid phthalocyanine/tetrabenzoporphyrin/tetrabenzotriazaporphyrins/cis-tetrabenzodiazaporphyrins/tetrabenzomonoazaporphyrins and their Cu-metallated macrocycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Yang, Chuan-Lu; Wang, Mei-Shan; Ma, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Wen-Wang

    2018-04-01

    The feasibility of nanocomposites of cir-coronene graphene quantum dot (GQD) with phthalocyanine, tetrabenzoporphyrin, tetrabenzotriazaporphyrins, cis-tetrabenzodiazaporphyrins, tetrabenzomonoazaporphyrins and their Cu-metallated macrocycles as a sensitizer of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) are investigated. Based on the first principles density functional theory (DFT), the geometrical structures of the separate GQD and 10 macrocycles, and their hybridized nanocomposites are fully optimized. The energy stabilities of the obtained structures are confirmed by harmonic frequency analysis. The optical absorptions of the optimized structures are calculated with time-dependent DFT. The feasibility of the nanocomposites as the sensitizer of DSSC is examined by the charge spatial separation, the electron transfer, the molecular orbital energy levels of the nanocomposites and the electrolyte, and the conduction band minimum of TiO2 electrode. The results demonstrate that all the nanocomposites have enhanced absorptions in the visible light range, and their molecular orbital energies satisfy the requirement of sensitizers. However, only two of the ten considered nanocomposites demonstrate significantly charge spatial separation. The GQD-Cu-TBP is identified as the most favorable candidate sensitizer of DSSC by the most enhanced in optical absorption, obvious charge spatial separation, suitable LUMO energy levels and driving force for electron transfer, and low recombination rate of electron and hole.

  18. Proton transfer through hydrogen bonds in two-dimensional water layers: A theoretical study based on ab initio and quantum-classical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankura, Arindam; Chandra, Amalendu

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of proton transfer (PT) through hydrogen bonds in a two-dimensional water layer confined between two graphene sheets at room temperature are investigated through ab initio and quantum-classical simulations. The excess proton is found to be mostly solvated as an Eigen cation where the hydronium ion donates three hydrogen bonds to the neighboring water molecules. In the solvation shell of the hydronium ion, the three coordinated water molecules with two donor hydrogen bonds are found to be properly presolvated to accept a proton. Although no hydrogen bond needs to be broken for transfer of a proton to such presolvated water molecules from the hydronium ion, the PT rate is still found to be not as fast as it is for one-dimensional chains. Here, the PT is slowed down as the probability of finding a water with two donor hydrogen bonds in the solvation shell of the hydronium ion is found to be only 25%-30%. The hydroxide ion is found to be solvated mainly as a complex anion where it accepts four H-bonds through its oxygen atom and the hydrogen atom of the hydroxide ion remains free all the time. Here, the presolvation of the hydroxide ion to accept a proton requires that one of its hydrogen bonds is broken and the proton comes from a neighboring water molecule with two acceptor and one donor hydrogen bonds. The coordination number reduction by breaking of a hydrogen bond is a slow process, and also the population of water molecules with two acceptor and one donor hydrogen bonds is only 20%-25% of the total number of water molecules. All these factors together tend to slow down the hydroxide ion migration rate in two-dimensional water layers compared to that in three-dimensional bulk water

  19. Studies in theoretical particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report focuses on research on three distinct areas of particle physics: Chiral Fermions on the Lattice; Weak Scale Baryogenesis; analysis of parity violating nuclear forces, and other an attempt to render the electric dipole moment of the neutron immune from quantum gravity corrections

  20. Game Theoretic Interaction and Decision: A Quantum Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Faigle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An interaction system has a finite set of agents that interact pairwise, depending on the current state of the system. Symmetric decomposition of the matrix of interaction coefficients yields the representation of states by self-adjoint matrices and hence a spectral representation. As a result, cooperation systems, decision systems and quantum systems all become visible as manifestations of special interaction systems. The treatment of the theory is purely mathematical and does not require any special knowledge of physics. It is shown how standard notions in cooperative game theory arise naturally in this context. In particular, states of general interaction systems are seen to arise as linear superpositions of pure quantum states and Fourier transformation to become meaningful. Moreover, quantum games fall into this framework. Finally, a theory of Markov evolution of interaction states is presented that generalizes classical homogeneous Markov chains to the present context.

  1. Theoretical discussion for quantum computation in biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Wolfgang

    2010-04-01

    Analysis of the brain as a physical system, that has the capacity of generating a display of every day observed experiences and contains some knowledge of the physical reality which stimulates those experiences, suggests the brain executes a self-measurement process described by quantum theory. Assuming physical reality is a universe of interacting self-measurement loops, we present a model of space as a field of cells executing such self-measurement activities. Empty space is the observable associated with the measurement of this field when the mass and charge density defining the material aspect of the cells satisfy the least action principle. Content is the observable associated with the measurement of the quantum wave function ψ interpreted as mass-charge displacements. The illusion of space and its content incorporated into cognitive biological systems is evidence of self-measurement activity that can be associated with quantum operations.

  2. A measure theoretical approach to quantum stochastic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldenfels, Wilhelm von

    2014-04-01

    Authored by a leading researcher in the field. Self-contained presentation of the subject matter. Examines a number of worked examples in detail. This monograph takes as starting point that abstract quantum stochastic processes can be understood as a quantum field theory in one space and in one time coordinate. As a result it is appropriate to represent operators as power series of creation and annihilation operators in normal-ordered form, which can be achieved using classical measure theory. Considering in detail four basic examples (e.g. a two-level atom coupled to a heat bath of oscillators), in each case the Hamiltonian of the associated one-parameter strongly continuous group is determined and the spectral decomposition is explicitly calculated in the form of generalized eigen-vectors. Advanced topics include the theory of the Hudson-Parthasarathy equation and the amplified oscillator problem. To that end, a chapter on white noise calculus has also been included.

  3. Measure theoretical approach to recurrent properties for quantum dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otobe, Yoshiki; Sasaki, Itaru

    2011-01-01

    Poincaré's recurrence theorem, which states that every Hamiltonian dynamics enclosed in a finite volume returns to its initial position as close as one wishes, is a mathematical basis of statistical mechanics. It is Liouville's theorem that guarantees that the dynamics preserves the volume on the state space. A quantum version of Poincaré's theorem was obtained in the middle of the 20th century without any volume structures of the state space (Hilbert space). One of our aims in this paper is to establish such properties of quantum dynamics from an analog of Liouville's theorem, namely, we will construct a natural probability measure on the Hilbert space from a Hamiltonian defined on the space. Then we will show that the measure is invariant under the corresponding Schrödinger flow. Moreover, we show that the dynamics naturally causes an infinite-dimensional Weyl transformation. It also enables us to discuss the ergodic properties of such dynamics. (paper)

  4. A measure theoretical approach to quantum stochastic processes

    CERN Document Server

    Von Waldenfels, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    This monograph takes as starting point that abstract quantum stochastic processes can be understood as a quantum field theory in one space and in one time coordinate. As a result it is appropriate to represent operators as power series of creation and annihilation operators in normal-ordered form, which can be achieved using classical measure theory. Considering in detail four basic examples (e.g. a two-level atom coupled to a heat bath of oscillators), in each case the Hamiltonian of the associated one-parameter strongly continuous group is determined and the spectral decomposition is explicitly calculated in the form of generalized eigen-vectors. Advanced topics include the theory of the Hudson-Parthasarathy equation and the amplified oscillator problem. To that end, a chapter on white noise calculus has also been included.

  5. Theoretical studies of combustion dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The reactions of O( 3 P)+H 2 , D 2 , and HD are the focus of this research. Their approximate three-dimensional quantum calculations of the rate constant for both the ground and first excited vibrational states of the above reactions were completed last year. Comparisons of the calculated rate constants, isotope effects and branching ratios have been made with available experimental work and also with the variational transition state theory calculations. The main conclusion of that paper is that tunneling plays a major role in the reaction dynamics at room temperature and below

  6. Theoretical studies of molecular interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, W.A. Jr. [Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research program is directed at extending fundamental knowledge of atoms and molecules including their electronic structure, mutual interaction, collision dynamics, and interaction with radiation. The approach combines the use of ab initio methods--Hartree-Fock (HF) multiconfiguration HF, configuration interaction, and the recently developed quantum Monte Carlo (MC)--to describe electronic structure, intermolecular interactions, and other properties, with various methods of characterizing inelastic and reaction collision processes, and photodissociation dynamics. Present activity is focused on the development and application of the QMC method, surface catalyzed reactions, and reorientation cross sections.

  7. A quantum theoretical approach to information processing in neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona da Fonseca, José; Barahona da Fonseca, Isabel; Suarez Araujo, Carmen Paz; Simões da Fonseca, José

    2000-05-01

    A reinterpretation of experimental data on learning was used to formulate a law on data acquisition similar to the Hamiltonian of a mechanical system. A matrix of costs in decision making specifies values attributable to a barrier that opposed to hypothesis formation about decision making. The interpretation of the encoding costs as frequencies of oscillatory phenomena leads to a quantum paradigm based in the models of photoelectric effect as well as of a particle against a potential barrier. Cognitive processes are envisaged as complex phenomena represented by structures linked by valence bounds. This metaphor is used to find some prerequisites to certain types of conscious experience as well as to find an explanation for some pathological distortions of cognitive operations as they are represented in the context of the isolobal model. Those quantum phenomena are understood as representing an analogue programming for specific special purpose computations. The formation of complex chemical structures within the context of isolobal theory is understood as an analog quantum paradigm for complex cognitive computations.

  8. Doping effects in InN/GaN short-period quantum well structures-Theoretical studies based on density functional methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strak, Pawel; Kempisty, Pawel; Sakowski, Konrad; Krukowski, Stanislaw

    2014-09-01

    Density functional theory studies were conducted to determine an influence of the carrier concentration on the optical and electronic properties of InN/GaN superlattice system. The oscillator strength values, energy gaps and the band profiles were obtained. The band profiles were found to be strongly affected for technically possible heavy n-type doping while for p-type doping the carrier influence, both screening and band shift, is negligible. Blue shift of the transition energy between conduction band minima and valence band maxima was observed for high concentrations of both type carriers.

  9. Modeling the dynamic equilibrium between oligomers of (AlOCH3)n in methylaluminoxane (MAO). A theoretical study based on a combined quantum mechanical and statistical mechanical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, E; Woo, T K; Firman, T K; Ziegler, T

    2001-01-15

    Density functional theory (DFT) has been used to calculate the energies of 36 different methylaluminoxane (MAO) cage structures with the general formula (MeAlO)n, where n ranges from 4 to 16. A least-squares fit has been used to devise a formula which predicts the total energies of the MAO with different n's giving an rms deviation of 4.70 kcal/mol. These energies in conjunction with frequency calculations based on molecular mechanics have been used to estimate the finite temperature enthalpies, entropies, and free energies for these MAO structures. Furthermore, formulas have been devised which predict finite temperature enthalpies and entropies for MAO structures of any n for a temperature range of 198.15-598.15 K. Using these formulas, the free energies at different temperatures have been predicted for MAO structures where n ranges from 17 to 30. The free energy values were then used to predict the percentage of each n found at a given temperature. Our calculations give an average n value of 18.41, 17.23, 16.89, and 15.72 at 198.15, 298.15, 398.15, and 598.15 K, respectively. Topological arguments have also been used to show that the MAO cage structure contains a limited amount of square faces as compared to octagonal and hexagonal ones. It is also suggested that the limited number of square faces with their strained Al-O bonds explain the high molar Al:catalyst ratio required for activation. Moreover, in this study we outline a general methodology which may be used to calculate the percent abundance of an equilibrium mixture of oligomers with the general formula (X)n.

  10. A Combined Theoretical and Experimental Study for Silver Electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anmin; Ren, Xuefeng; An, Maozhong; Zhang, Jinqiu; Yang, Peixia; Wang, Bo; Zhu, Yongming; Wang, Chong

    2014-01-01

    A novel method combined theoretical and experimental study for environmental friendly silver electroplating was introduced. Quantum chemical calculations and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were employed for predicting the behaviour and function of the complexing agents. Electronic properties, orbital information, and single point energies of the 5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DMH), nicotinic acid (NA), as well as their silver(I)-complexes were provided by quantum chemical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). Adsorption behaviors of the agents on copper and silver surfaces were investigated using MD simulations. Basing on the data of quantum chemical calculations and MD simulations, we believed that DMH and NA could be the promising complexing agents for silver electroplating. The experimental results, including of electrochemical measurement and silver electroplating, further confirmed the above prediction. This efficient and versatile method thus opens a new window to study or design complexing agents for generalized metal electroplating and will vigorously promote the level of this research region.

  11. A Combined Theoretical and Experimental Study for Silver Electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anmin; Ren, Xuefeng; An, Maozhong; Zhang, Jinqiu; Yang, Peixia; Wang, Bo; Zhu, Yongming; Wang, Chong

    2014-01-01

    A novel method combined theoretical and experimental study for environmental friendly silver electroplating was introduced. Quantum chemical calculations and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were employed for predicting the behaviour and function of the complexing agents. Electronic properties, orbital information, and single point energies of the 5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DMH), nicotinic acid (NA), as well as their silver(I)-complexes were provided by quantum chemical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). Adsorption behaviors of the agents on copper and silver surfaces were investigated using MD simulations. Basing on the data of quantum chemical calculations and MD simulations, we believed that DMH and NA could be the promising complexing agents for silver electroplating. The experimental results, including of electrochemical measurement and silver electroplating, further confirmed the above prediction. This efficient and versatile method thus opens a new window to study or design complexing agents for generalized metal electroplating and will vigorously promote the level of this research region. PMID:24452389

  12. Double Exponential Relativity Theory Coupled Theoretically with Quantum Theory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Here the problem of special relativity is analyzed into the context of a new theoretical formulation: the Double Exponential Theory of Special Relativity with respect to which the current Special or Restricted Theory of Relativity (STR) turns to be a particular case only

  13. Measure theoretical approach to recurrent properties for quantum dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otobe, Yoshiki [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Shinshu University, Asahi 3-1-1, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Sasaki, Itaru, E-mail: otobe@math.shinshu-u.ac.jp, E-mail: isasaki@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Fiber-Nanotech Young Researcher Empowerment Center, Shinshu University, Asahi 3-1-1, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan)

    2011-11-18

    Poincare's recurrence theorem, which states that every Hamiltonian dynamics enclosed in a finite volume returns to its initial position as close as one wishes, is a mathematical basis of statistical mechanics. It is Liouville's theorem that guarantees that the dynamics preserves the volume on the state space. A quantum version of Poincare's theorem was obtained in the middle of the 20th century without any volume structures of the state space (Hilbert space). One of our aims in this paper is to establish such properties of quantum dynamics from an analog of Liouville's theorem, namely, we will construct a natural probability measure on the Hilbert space from a Hamiltonian defined on the space. Then we will show that the measure is invariant under the corresponding Schroedinger flow. Moreover, we show that the dynamics naturally causes an infinite-dimensional Weyl transformation. It also enables us to discuss the ergodic properties of such dynamics. (paper)

  14. Information-theoretic treatment of tripartite systems and quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, Patrick J.; Yu Li; Gheorghiu, Vlad; Griffiths, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    A Holevo measure is used to discuss how much information about a given positive operator valued measure (POVM) on system a is present in another system b, and how this influences the presence or absence of information about a different POVM on a in a third system c. The main goal is to extend information theorems for mutually unbiased bases or general bases to arbitrary POVMs, and especially to generalize ''all-or-nothing'' theorems about information located in tripartite systems to the case of partial information, in the form of quantitative inequalities. Some of the inequalities can be viewed as entropic uncertainty relations that apply in the presence of quantum side information, as in recent work by Berta et al. [Nature Physics 6, 659 (2010)]. All of the results also apply to quantum channels: For example, if E accurately transmits certain POVMs, the complementary channel F will necessarily be noisy for certain other POVMs. While the inequalities are valid for mixed states of tripartite systems, restricting to pure states leads to the basis invariance of the difference between the information about a contained in b and c.

  15. Optical gain in InAs/InGaAs quantum-dot structures: Experiments and theoretical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseev, P G; Li, H; Liu, G T; Stintz, A; Newell, T C; Lester, L E; Malloy, K J

    2000-01-01

    The dependence of the mode optical gain on current in InAs/InGaAs quantum-dot structures grown by the method of molecular-beam epitaxy is obtained from the experimental study of ultra-low-threshold laser diodes. The record lowest inversion threshold at room temperature was about 13 A cm -2 . A theoretical model is proposed that relates the optical gain to the ground-state transitions in quantum dots. The effective gain cross section is estimated to be ∼7 x 10 -15 cm -2 . (lasers)

  16. Puzzles in studies of quantum chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Gongou

    1994-01-01

    Puzzles in studies of quantum chaos are discussed. From the view of global properties of quantum states, it is clarified that quantum chaos originates from the break-down of invariant properties of quantum canonical transformations. There exist precise correspondences between quantum and classical chaos

  17. Physics. Experimental and theoretical foundations. Pt. 3. Atomic, molecular, and quantum physics. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Reinhart

    2012-01-01

    This textbook mediates in three volumes the matter of the first four semester of the bachelor respectively master course. The otherwise generally usual separate presentation of experimental and theoretical physics is canceled in favor of an integrated treatment. The advances are obvious: The studying is enabled to learn to understand knowledge gotten by means of experiments also immediately in a quantitative formulation. The can equally be used as textbook to an integrated course and to separated courses. Because the relevant theoretical concepts are developed without gap a special book of theoretical physics is unnecessary. Numerous exercise problems deepen the understanding and help directly in the preparation for examinations. The illustrations are mostly presented in two colours. Volume III treats atomic and molecular physics. After a semiclassical presentation the quantum-mechanical foundations are developed and in the following chapters applied to atomic systems and processes. An introduction in the foundations and application of the laser. The closure is formed by a chapter about entangled systems.

  18. Studies in theoretical high energy particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratyn, H.; Brekke, L.; Keung, Wai-Yee; Sukhatme, U.

    1993-01-01

    Theoretical work on the following topics is briefly summarized: symmetry structure of conformal affine Toda model and KP hierarchy; solitons in the affine Toda and conformal affine Toda models; classical r-matrices and Poisson bracket structures on infinite-dimensional groups; R-matrix formulation of KP hierarchies and their gauge equivalence; statistics of particles and solitons; charge quantization in the presence of an Alice string; knotting and linking of nonabelian flux; electric dipole moments; neutrino physics in gauge theories; CP violation in the high energy colliders; supersymmetric quantum mechanics; parton structure functions in nuclei; dual parton model. 38 refs

  19. Ultrafast Gain Dynamics in Quantum Dot Amplifiers: Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Mike van der; Gehrig, Edeltraud; Hess, Ortwin

    2005-01-01

    Ultrafast gain dynamics in an optical amplifier with an active layer of self-organized quantum dots (QDs) emitting near 1.3$muhbox m$is characterized experimentally in a pump-probe experiment and modeled theoretically on the basis of QD Maxwell–Bloch equations. Experiment and theory are in good......$factor) is theoretically predicted and demonstrated in the experiments. The fundamental analysis reveals the underlying physical processes and indicates limitations to QD-based devices....

  20. Theoretical study of the electronic structure of f-element complexes by quantum chemical methods; Analyse de la structure electronique des complexes contenant des elements F par des methodes de la chimie quantique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetere, V

    2002-09-15

    This thesis is related to comparative studies of the chemical properties of molecular complexes containing lanthanide or actinide trivalent cations, in the context of the nuclear waste disposal. More precisely, our aim was a quantum chemical analysis of the metal-ligand bonding in such species. Various theoretical approaches were compared, for the inclusion of correlation (density functional theory, multiconfigurational methods) and of relativistic effects (relativistic scalar and 2-component Hamiltonians, relativistic pseudopotentials). The performance of these methods were checked by comparing computed structural properties to published experimental data, on small model systems: lanthanide and actinide tri-halides and on X{sub 3}M-L species (X=F, Cl; M=La, Nd, U; L = NH{sub 3}, acetonitrile, CO). We have thus shown the good performance of density functionals combined with a quasi-relativistic method, as well as of gradient-corrected functionals associated with relativistic pseudopotentials. In contrast, functionals including some part of exact exchange are less reliable to reproduce experimental trends, and we have given a possible explanation for this result . Then, a detailed analysis of the bonding has allowed us to interpret the discrepancies observed in the structural properties of uranium and lanthanides complexes, based on a covalent contribution to the bonding, in the case of uranium(III), which does not exist in the lanthanide(III) homologues. Finally, we have examined more sizeable systems, closer to experimental species, to analyse the influence of the coordination number, of the counter-ions and of the oxidation state of uranium, on the metal-ligand bonding. (author)

  1. Studies in theoretical particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    This proposal focuses on research on three distinct areas of particle physics: (1) Nonperturbative QCD. I tend to continue work on analytic modelling of nonperturbative effects in the strong interactions. I have been investigating the theoretical connection between the nonrelativistic quark model and QCD. The primary motivation has been to understand the experimental observation of nonzero matrix elements involving current strange quarks in ordinary matter -- which in the quark model has no strange quark component. This has led to my present work on understanding constituent (quark model) quarks as collective excitations of QCD degrees of freedom. (2) Weak Scale Baryogenesis. A continuation of work on baryogenesis in the early universe from weak interactions. In particular, an investigation of baryogenesis occurring during the weak phase transition through anomalous baryon violating processes in the standard model of weak interactions. (3) Flavor and Compositeness. Further investigation of a new mechanism that I recently discovered for dynamical mass generation for fermions, which naturally leads to a family hierarchy structure. A discussion of recent past work is found in the next section, followed by an outline of the proposed research. A recent publication from each of these three areas is attached to this proposal

  2. The polarization response in InAs quantum dots: theoretical correlation between composition and electronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, Muhammad; O’Reilly, Eoin P; Tasco, Vittorianna; Todaro, Maria Teresa; De Giorgi, Milena; Passaseo, Adriana; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    III–V growth and surface conditions strongly influence the physical structure and resulting optical properties of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs). Beyond the design of a desired active optical wavelength, the polarization response of QDs is of particular interest for optical communications and quantum information science. Previous theoretical studies based on a pure InAs QD model failed to reproduce experimentally observed polarization properties. In this work, multi-million atom simulations are performed in an effort to understand the correlation between chemical composition and polarization properties of QDs. A systematic analysis of QD structural parameters leads us to propose a two-layer composition model, mimicking In segregation and In–Ga intermixing effects. This model, consistent with mostly accepted compositional findings, allows us to accurately fit the experimental PL spectra. The detailed study of QD morphology parameters presented here serves as a tool for using growth dynamics to engineer the strain field inside and around the QD structures, allowing tuning of the polarization response. (paper)

  3. On the relation of the theoretical foundations of quantum theory and general relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kober, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The specific content of the present thesis is presented in the following way. First the most important contents of quantum theory and general relativity theory are presented. In connection with the general relativity theory the mathematical property of the diffeomorphism invariance plays the deciding role, while concerning the quantum theory starting from the Copenhagen interpretation first the measurement problem is treated, before basing on the analysis of concrete phenomena and the mathematical apparatus of quantum theory the nonlocality is brought into focus as an important property. This means that both theories suggest a relationalistic view of the nature of the space. This analysis of the theoretical foundations of quantum theory and general relativity theory in relation to the nature of the space obtains only under inclusion of Kant's philosophy and his analysis of the terms space and time as fundamental forms of perception its full persuasive power. Then von Weizsaeckers quantum theory of the ur-alternatives is presented. Finally attempts are made to apply the obtained knowledge to the question of the quantum-theoretical formulation of general relativity theory.

  4. Physics in one dimension: theoretical concepts for quantum many-body systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhammer, K

    2013-01-09

    Various sophisticated approximation methods exist for the description of quantum many-body systems. It was realized early on that the theoretical description can simplify considerably in one-dimensional systems and various exact solutions exist. The focus in this introductory paper is on fermionic systems and the emergence of the Luttinger liquid concept.

  5. Theoretical description of quantum mechanical permeation of graphene membranes by charged hydrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzuca, James W.; Haut, Nathaniel K.

    2018-06-01

    It has been recently shown that in the presence of an applied voltage, hydrogen and deuterium nuclei can be separated from one another using graphene membranes as a nuclear sieve, resulting in a 10-fold enhancement in the concentration of the lighter isotope. While previous studies, both experimental and theoretical, have attributed this effect mostly to differences in vibrational zero point energy (ZPE) of the various isotopes near the membrane surface, we propose that multi-dimensional quantum mechanical tunneling of nuclei through the graphene membrane influences this proton permeation process in a fundamental way. We perform ring polymer molecular dynamics calculations in which we include both ZPE and tunneling effects of various hydrogen isotopes as they permeate the graphene membrane and compute rate constants across a range of temperatures near 300 K. While capturing the experimentally observed separation factor, our calculations indicate that the transverse motion of the various isotopes across the surface of the graphene membrane is an essential part of this sieving mechanism. An understanding of the multi-dimensional quantum mechanical nature of this process could serve to guide the design of other such isotopic enrichment processes for a variety of atomic and molecular species of interest.

  6. Theoretical description of quantum mechanical permeation of graphene membranes by charged hydrogen isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzuca, James W; Haut, Nathaniel K

    2018-06-14

    It has been recently shown that in the presence of an applied voltage, hydrogen and deuterium nuclei can be separated from one another using graphene membranes as a nuclear sieve, resulting in a 10-fold enhancement in the concentration of the lighter isotope. While previous studies, both experimental and theoretical, have attributed this effect mostly to differences in vibrational zero point energy (ZPE) of the various isotopes near the membrane surface, we propose that multi-dimensional quantum mechanical tunneling of nuclei through the graphene membrane influences this proton permeation process in a fundamental way. We perform ring polymer molecular dynamics calculations in which we include both ZPE and tunneling effects of various hydrogen isotopes as they permeate the graphene membrane and compute rate constants across a range of temperatures near 300 K. While capturing the experimentally observed separation factor, our calculations indicate that the transverse motion of the various isotopes across the surface of the graphene membrane is an essential part of this sieving mechanism. An understanding of the multi-dimensional quantum mechanical nature of this process could serve to guide the design of other such isotopic enrichment processes for a variety of atomic and molecular species of interest.

  7. Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots Theoretical and Computational Physics of Semiconductor Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots, 3rd Edition is aimed at providing all the essential information, both theoretical and computational, in order that the reader can, starting from essentially nothing, understand how the electronic, optical and transport properties of semiconductor heterostructures are calculated. Completely revised and updated, this text is designed to lead the reader through a series of simple theoretical and computational implementations, and slowly build from solid foundations, to a level where the reader can begin to initiate theoretical investigations or explanations of their

  8. Mathematica® for Theoretical Physics Electrodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity and Fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    Mathematica for Theoretical Physics: Electrodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity, and Fractals This second edition of Baumann's Mathematica® in Theoretical Physics shows readers how to solve physical problems and deal with their underlying theoretical concepts while using Mathematica® to derive numeric and symbolic solutions. Each example and calculation can be evaluated by the reader, and the reader can change the example calculations and adopt the given code to related or similar problems. The second edition has been completely revised and expanded into two volumes: The first volume covers classical mechanics and nonlinear dynamics. Both topics are the basis of a regular mechanics course. The second volume covers electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, relativity, and fractals and fractional calculus. New examples have been added and the representation has been reworked to provide a more interactive problem-solving presentation. This book can be used as a textbook or as a reference work, by student...

  9. Theoretical studies in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, R.H.; Madsen, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear theory in the following areas: Isospin effects and charge exchange; inelastic and charge exchange scattering; momentum space proton scattering; pion scattering from nuclei; and antiproton studies. 14 refs

  10. Theoretical studies of unconventional superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groensleth, Martin Sigurd

    2008-07-01

    This thesis presents four research papers. In the first three papers we have derived analytical results for the transport properties in unconventional superconductors and ferromagnetic systems with multiple broken symmetries. In Paper I and parts of Paper II we have studied tunneling transport between two non-unitary ferromagnetic spin-triplet superconductors, and found a novel interplay between ferromagnetism and superconductivity manifested in the Josephson effect as a spin- and charge-current in the absence of an applied voltage across the junction. The critical amplitudes of these currents can be adjusted by the relative magnetization direction on each side of the junction. Furthermore, in Paper II, we have found a way of controlling a spin-current between two ferromagnets with spin-orbit coupling. Paper III considers a junction consisting of a ferromagnet and a non-unitary ferromagnetic superconductor, and we show that the conductance spectra contains detailed information about the superconducting gaps and pairing symmetry of the Cooper-pairs. In the last paper we present a Monte Carlo study of an effective Hamiltonian describing orbital currents in the CuO2 layers of high-temperature superconductive cuprates. The model features two intrinsically anisotropic Ising models, coupled through an anisotropic next-nearest neighbor interaction, and an Ashkin-Teller nearest neighbor fourth order coupling. We have studied the specific heat anomaly, as well as the anomaly in the staggered magnetization associated with the orbital currents and its susceptibility. We have found that in a limited parameter regime, the specific heat anomaly is substantially suppressed, while the susceptibility has a non-analytical peak across the order-disorder transition. The model is therefore a candidate for describing the breakup of hidden order when crossing the pseudo-gap line on the under-doped side in the phase diagram of high-temperature superconductors. (Author) 64 refs., figs

  11. Theoretical investigation of confocal microscopy using an elliptically polarized cylindrical vector laser beam: Visualization of quantum emitters near interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boichenko, Stepan

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically study laser-scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy using elliptically polarized cylindrical vector excitation light as a tool for visualization of arbitrarily oriented single quantum dipole emitters located (1) near planar surfaces enhancing fluorescence, (2) in a thin supported polymer film, (3) in a freestanding polymer film, and (4) in a dielectric planar microcavity. It is shown analytically that by using a tightly focused azimuthally polarized beam, it is possible to exclude completely the orientational dependence of the image intensity maximum of a quantum emitter that absorbs light as a pair of incoherent independent linear dipoles. For linear dipole quantum emitters, the orientational independence degree higher than 0.9 can normally be achieved (this quantity equal to 1 corresponds to completely excluded orientational dependence) if the collection efficiency of the microscope objective and the emitter's total quantum yield are not strongly orientationally dependent. Thus, the visualization of arbitrarily oriented single quantum emitters by means of the studied technique can be performed quite efficiently.

  12. Theoretical investigations of quantum correlations in NMR multiple-pulse spin-locking experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasev, S. A.; Fedorova, A. V.; Fel'dman, E. B.; Kuznetsova, E. I.

    2018-04-01

    Quantum correlations are investigated theoretically in a two-spin system with the dipole-dipole interactions in the NMR multiple-pulse spin-locking experiments. We consider two schemes of the multiple-pulse spin-locking. The first scheme consists of π /2-pulses only and the delays between the pulses can differ. The second scheme contains φ-pulses (0Quantum discord is obtained for the first scheme of the multiple-pulse spin-locking experiment at different temperatures.

  13. Theoretical studies in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshalek, E.R.

    1991-11-01

    In this period, the work has centered on two topics. The first is the study of a novel type of collective rotation in which an atomic nucleus with an inversion-symmetric shape rotates uniformly about an axis that is not a principal axis of the quadrupole tensor of the density distribution. This mode is referred to as tilted rotation. By using the cranking model together with higher-order corrections, it was shown that tilted rotation is indeed possible, not only within a microscopic framework, but also within the framework of collective models such as the IBM. The maximum tilt angle of π/4 is realized for a certain class of states in the U(5) limit. The second topic, which actually was suggested during the course of the first investigation, is concerned with a new way of representing collective harmonic-oscillator algebras using boson-mapping techniques. In this approach, the many-phonon eigenvectors of a 2λ+1-dimensional oscillator having good angular momentum are represented by simple products of boson operators acting on a vacuum. This representation may simplify the calculation of reduced matrix elements of arbitrary operators in collective models, but more work needs to be done

  14. Quantum walk computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendon, Viv

    2014-01-01

    Quantum versions of random walks have diverse applications that are motivating experimental implementations as well as theoretical studies. Recent results showing quantum walks are “universal for quantum computation” relate to algorithms, to be run on quantum computers. We consider whether an experimental implementation of a quantum walk could provide useful computation before we have a universal quantum computer

  15. Three-dimensionality of space and the quantum bit: an information-theoretic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Markus P; Masanes, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    It is sometimes pointed out as a curiosity that the state space of quantum two-level systems, i.e. the qubit, and actual physical space are both three-dimensional and Euclidean. In this paper, we suggest an information-theoretic analysis of this relationship, by proving a particular mathematical result: suppose that physics takes place in d spatial dimensions, and that some events happen probabilistically (not assuming quantum theory in any way). Furthermore, suppose there are systems that carry ‘minimal amounts of direction information’, interacting via some continuous reversible time evolution. We prove that this uniquely determines spatial dimension d = 3 and quantum theory on two qubits (including entanglement and unitary time evolution), and that it allows observers to infer local spatial geometry from probability measurements. (paper)

  16. Electrochemistry of chlorogenic acid: experimental and theoretical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namazian, Mansoor [Department of Chemistry, Yazd University, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: namazian@yazduni.ac.ir; Zare, Hamid R. [Department of Chemistry, Yazd University, P.O. Box 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-08-10

    Cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and rotating disk electrode voltammetry as well as quantum chemical methods, are used for electrochemical study of chlorogenic acid, as an important biological molecule. The standard formal potential, diffusion coefficient, and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant of chlorogenic acid in aqueous solution are investigated. Acidic dissociation constant of chlorogenic acid is also obtained. Quantum mechanical calculations on oxidation of chlorogenic acid in aqueous solution, using density functional theory are presented. The change of Gibbs free energy and entropy of oxidation of chlorogenic acid are calculated using thermochemistry calculations. The calculations in aqueous solution are carried out with the use of polarizable continuum solvation method. Theoretical standard electrode potential of chlorogenic acid is achieved to be 0.580 V versus standard calomel electrode (SCE) which is in agreement with the experimental value of 0.617 V obtained experimentally in this work. The difference is consistent with the values we previously reported for other quinone derivatives.

  17. Black hole state counting in loop quantum gravity: a number-theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agulló, Iván; Barbero G, J Fernando; Díaz-Polo, Jacobo; Fernández-Borja, Enrique; Villaseñor, Eduardo J S

    2008-05-30

    We give an efficient method, combining number-theoretic and combinatorial ideas, to exactly compute black hole entropy in the framework of loop quantum gravity. Along the way we provide a complete characterization of the relevant sector of the spectrum of the area operator, including degeneracies, and explicitly determine the number of solutions to the projection constraint. We use a computer implementation of the proposed algorithm to confirm and extend previous results on the detailed structure of the black hole degeneracy spectrum.

  18. Surfactants, interfaces and pores : a theoretical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huinink, H.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of surfactants in porous media by theoretical means. The influence of curvature of a surface on the adsorption has been studied with a mean field lattice (MFL) model, as developed by Scheutjens and Fleer. An analytical theory has been

  19. Theoretical investigation of injection-locked high modulation bandwidth quantum cascade lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Bo; Wang, Qi Jie

    2012-01-16

    In this study, we report for the first time to our knowledge theoretical investigation of modulation responses of injection-locked mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) at wavelengths of 4.6 μm and 9 μm, respectively. It is shown through a three-level rate equations model that the direct intensity modulation of QCLs gives the maximum modulation bandwidths of ~7 GHz at 4.6 μm and ~20 GHz at 9 μm. By applying the injection locking scheme, we find that the modulation bandwidths of up to ~30 GHz and ~70 GHz can be achieved for QCLs at 4.6 μm and 9 μm, respectively, with an injection ratio of 5 dB. The result also shows that an ultrawide modulation bandwidth of more than 200 GHz is possible with a 10 dB injection ratio for QCLs at 9 μm. An important characteristic of injection-locked QCLs is the nonexistence of unstable locking region in the locking map, in contrast to their diode laser counterparts. We attribute this to the ultra-short upper laser state lifetimes of QCLs.

  20. Quantum noise in the mirror–field system: A field theoretic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Wu, Tai-Hung; Lee, Da-Shin; King, Sun-Kun; Wu, Chun-Hsien

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the quantum noise problem in the mirror–field system by a field-theoretic approach. Here a perfectly reflecting mirror is illuminated by a single-mode coherent state of the massless scalar field. The associated radiation pressure is described by a surface integral of the stress-tensor of the field. The read-out field is measured by a monopole detector, from which the effective distance between the detector and mirror can be obtained. In the slow-motion limit of the mirror, this field-theoretic approach allows to identify various sources of quantum noise that all in all leads to uncertainty of the read-out measurement. In addition to well-known sources from shot noise and radiation pressure fluctuations, a new source of noise is found from field fluctuations modified by the mirror’s displacement. Correlation between different sources of noise can be established in the read-out measurement as the consequence of interference between the incident field and the field reflected off the mirror. In the case of negative correlation, we found that the uncertainty can be lowered than the value predicted by the standard quantum limit. Since the particle-number approach is often used in quantum optics, we compared results obtained by both approaches and examine its validity. We also derive a Langevin equation that describes the stochastic dynamics of the mirror. The underlying fluctuation–dissipation relation is briefly mentioned. Finally we discuss the backreaction induced by the radiation pressure. It will alter the mean displacement of the mirror, but we argue this backreaction can be ignored for a slowly moving mirror. - Highlights: ► The quantum noise problem in the mirror–field system is re-visited by a field-theoretic approach. ► Other than the shot noise and radiation pressure noise, we show there are new sources of noise and correlation between them. ► The noise correlations can be used to suppress the overall quantum noise on the mirror.

  1. Quantum noise in the mirror-field system: A field theoretic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiang, Jen-Tsung, E-mail: cosmology@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Dong-Hwa University, Hua-lien, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Tai-Hung [Department of Physics, National Dong-Hwa University, Hua-lien, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Da-Shin, E-mail: dslee@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Dong-Hwa University, Hua-lien, Taiwan, ROC (China); King, Sun-Kun [Institutes of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Chun-Hsien [Department of Physics, Soochow University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-02-15

    We revisit the quantum noise problem in the mirror-field system by a field-theoretic approach. Here a perfectly reflecting mirror is illuminated by a single-mode coherent state of the massless scalar field. The associated radiation pressure is described by a surface integral of the stress-tensor of the field. The read-out field is measured by a monopole detector, from which the effective distance between the detector and mirror can be obtained. In the slow-motion limit of the mirror, this field-theoretic approach allows to identify various sources of quantum noise that all in all leads to uncertainty of the read-out measurement. In addition to well-known sources from shot noise and radiation pressure fluctuations, a new source of noise is found from field fluctuations modified by the mirror's displacement. Correlation between different sources of noise can be established in the read-out measurement as the consequence of interference between the incident field and the field reflected off the mirror. In the case of negative correlation, we found that the uncertainty can be lowered than the value predicted by the standard quantum limit. Since the particle-number approach is often used in quantum optics, we compared results obtained by both approaches and examine its validity. We also derive a Langevin equation that describes the stochastic dynamics of the mirror. The underlying fluctuation-dissipation relation is briefly mentioned. Finally we discuss the backreaction induced by the radiation pressure. It will alter the mean displacement of the mirror, but we argue this backreaction can be ignored for a slowly moving mirror. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The quantum noise problem in the mirror-field system is re-visited by a field-theoretic approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other than the shot noise and radiation pressure noise, we show there are new sources of noise and correlation between them. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The noise

  2. EXPERIMENT AL AND THEORETICAL STUDY OF PRECAST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EXPERIMENT AL AND THEORETICAL STUDY OF PRECAST BEAM-SLAB. CONSTRUCTION. Girma Zerayohannes and Adil Zekaria. Department of Civil Engineering. Addis Ababa University. ABSTRACT. The use of partially precast beam elements ivith shear connectors in slab construction relieves the requirement of ...

  3. A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A combined theoretical and experimental study was also performed, which demonstrated that the clus- ters 1–3 with ... silica gel TLC plates (MERCK TLC Plates). The NMR .... tronic μ3-Se and maintains the same number of clus- ter valance ...

  4. Theoretical and simulation studies of seeding methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, Claudio [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-12-11

    We report the theoretical and experimental studies done with the support of DOE-Grant DE-SC0009983 to increase an X-ray FEL peak power from the present level of 20 to 40 GW to one or more TW by seeding, undulator tapering and using the new concept of the Double Bunch FEL.

  5. Quantum wells, wires and dots theoretical and computational physics of semiconductor nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots provides all the essential information, both theoretical and computational, to develop an understanding of the electronic, optical and transport properties of these semiconductor nanostructures. The book will lead the reader through comprehensive explanations and mathematical derivations to the point where they can design semiconductor nanostructures with the required electronic and optical properties for exploitation in these technologies. This fully revised and updated 4th edition features new sections that incorporate modern techniques and extensive new material including: - Properties of non-parabolic energy bands - Matrix solutions of the Poisson and Schrodinger equations - Critical thickness of strained materials - Carrier scattering by interface roughness, alloy disorder and impurities - Density matrix transport modelling -Thermal modelling Written by well-known authors in the field of semiconductor nanostructures and quantum optoelectronics, this user-friendly guide is pr...

  6. Theoretical modelling of electron transport in InAs/GaAs quantum dot superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukmirovic, Nenad; Ikonic, Zoran; Savic, Ivana; Indjin, Dragan; Harrison, Paul

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical model describing the electron transport in InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors, modelled as ideal quantum dot superlattices, is presented. The carrier wave functions and energy levels were evaluated using the strain dependent 8-band k.p Hamiltonian and used to calculate all intra- and inter-period transition rates due to interaction with phonons and electromagnetic radiation. The interaction with longitudinal acoustic phonons and electromagnetic radiation was treated perturbatively within the framework of Fermi's golden rule, while the interaction with longitudinal optical phonons was considered taking into account their strong coupling to electrons. The populations of energy levels were then found from a system of rate equations, and the electron current in the superlattice was subsequently extracted. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Theoretical modelling of electron transport in InAs/GaAs quantum dot superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukmirovic, Nenad; Ikonic, Zoran; Savic, Ivana; Indjin, Dragan; Harrison, Paul [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    A theoretical model describing the electron transport in InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors, modelled as ideal quantum dot superlattices, is presented. The carrier wave functions and energy levels were evaluated using the strain dependent 8-band k.p Hamiltonian and used to calculate all intra- and inter-period transition rates due to interaction with phonons and electromagnetic radiation. The interaction with longitudinal acoustic phonons and electromagnetic radiation was treated perturbatively within the framework of Fermi's golden rule, while the interaction with longitudinal optical phonons was considered taking into account their strong coupling to electrons. The populations of energy levels were then found from a system of rate equations, and the electron current in the superlattice was subsequently extracted. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. An Information-Theoretic Perspective on the Quantum Bit Commitment Impossibility Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Nagy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a different approach to pinpoint the causes for which an unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment protocol cannot be realized, beyond the technical details on which the proof of Mayers’ no-go theorem is constructed. We have adopted the tools of quantum entropy analysis to investigate the conditions under which the security properties of quantum bit commitment can be circumvented. Our study has revealed that cheating the binding property requires the quantum system acting as the safe to harbor the same amount of uncertainty with respect to both observers (Alice and Bob as well as the use of entanglement. Our analysis also suggests that the ability to cheat one of the two fundamental properties of bit commitment by any of the two participants depends on how much information is leaked from one side of the system to the other and how much remains hidden from the other participant.

  9. Detecting strain wave propagation through quantum dots by pump-probe spectroscopy: A theoretical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huneke, J; Kuhn, T; Axt, V M

    2010-01-01

    The influence of strain waves traveling across a quantum dot structure on its optical response is studied for two different situations: First, a strain wave is created by the optical excitation of a single quantum dot near a surface which, after reflection at the surface, reenters the dot; second, a phonon wave packet is emitted by the excitation of a nearby second dot and then travels across the quantum dot. Pump-probe type excitations are simulated for quantum dots in the strong confinement limit. We show that the optical signals allow us to monitor crossing strain waves for both structures in the real-time response as well as in the corresponding pump-probe spectra. In the time-derivative of the phase of the polarization a distinct trace reflects the instantaneous shifts of the transition energy during the passage while in the spectra pronounced oscillations reveal the passage of the strain waves.

  10. Quantum Computing With Quasiparticles of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Averin, Dmitri

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this project was the theoretical study of quantum computation based on controlled transfer of individual quasiparticles in systems of quantum antidots in the regime of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect (FQHE...

  11. Studies of quantum dots in the quantum Hall regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, Eyal

    We present two studies of quantum dots in the quantum Hall regime. In the first study, presented in Chapter 3, we investigate the edge reconstruction phenomenon believed to occur when the quantum dot filling fraction is n≲1 . Our approach involves the examination of large dots (≤40 electrons) using a partial diagonalization technique in which the occupancies of the deep interior orbitals are frozen. To interpret the results of this calculation, we evaluate the overlap between the diagonalized ground state and a set of trial wavefunctions which we call projected necklace (PN) states. A PN state is simply the angular momentum projection of a maximum density droplet surrounded by a ring of localized electrons. Our calculations reveal that PN states have up to 99% overlap with the diagonalized ground states, and are lower in energy than the states identified in Chamon and Wen's study of the edge reconstruction. In the second study, presented in Chapter 4, we investigate quantum dots in the fractional quantum Hall regime using a Hartree formulation of composite fermion theory. We find that under appropriate conditions, the chemical potential of the dots oscillates periodically with B due to the transfer of composite fermions between quasi-Landau bands. This effect is analogous the addition spectrum oscillations which occur in quantum dots in the integer quantum Hall regime. Period f0 oscillations are found in sharply confined dots with filling factors nu = 2/5 and nu = 2/3. Period 3 f0 oscillations are found in a parabolically confined nu = 2/5 dot. More generally, we argue that the oscillation period of dots with band pinning should vary continuously with B, whereas the period of dots without band pinning is f0 .

  12. K theoretical approach to the fusion rules of conformal quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recknagel, A.

    1993-09-01

    Conformally invariant quantum field theories are investigated using concepts of the algebraic approach to quantum field theory as well as techniques from the theory of operator algebras. Arguments from the study of statistical lattice models in one and two dimensions, from recent developments in algebraic quantum field theory, and from other sources suggest that there exists and intimate connection between conformal field theories and a special class of C*-algebras, the so-called AF-algebras. For a series of Virasoro minimal models, this correspondence is made explicit by constructing path representations of the irreducible highest weight modules. We then focus on the K 0 -invariant of these path AF-algebras and show how its functorial properties allow to exploit the abstract theory of superselection sectors in order to derive the fusion rules of the W-algebras hidden in the Virasoro minimal models. (orig.)

  13. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Plasmonic Polymer Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsafaei, Mina; Adam, Jost; Madsen, Morten

    The organic bulk hetero-junction solar cell has remarkable advantages such as low cost, mechanical flexibility and simple process techniques. Recently, low-band gap photoactive materials have obtained a significant attention due to their potential to absorb a wider range of the solar spectrum...... to attain higher power conversion efficiencies. Many low-band gap photoactive materials, however, still show a relatively low external quantum efficiency of less than 60% [1]. One possible approach to improve the device performance is to increase the light absorption in the active layer. This may, amongst...... other approaches, be achieved by using nano- or micro-structures that trap light at specific wavelengths [2], or by using the localized surface plasmon resonance effect of metal nanoparticles in the devices. In this work, we theoretically studied planar polymer solar cell based on finite-difference time...

  14. CO oxidation on gold nanoparticles: Theoretical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remediakis, Ioannis; Lopez, Nuria; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2005-01-01

    We present a summary of our theoretical results regarding CO oxidation on both oxide-supported and isolated gold nanoparticles. Using Density Functional Theory we have studied the adsorption of molecules and the oxidation reaction of CO on gold clusters. Low-coordinated sites on the gold...... nanoparticles can adsorb small inorganic molecules such as O2 and CO, and the presence of these sites is the key factor for the catalytic properties of supported gold nanoclusters. Other contributions, induced by the presence of the support, can provide parallel channels for the reaction and modulate the final...

  15. Theoretical study of diaquamalonatozinc(II) single crystal for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MITESH CHAKRABORTY

    2017-11-28

    Nov 28, 2017 ... 2Laser and Spectroscopy Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Indian Institute of ... The aim of the present paper is to employ theoretical methods to investigate the zero field splitting .... using quantum chemistry computational models has ..... The authors are grateful to the Science and Engineer-.

  16. Strong correlation effects in theoretical STM studies of magnetic adatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hung T.; dos Santos Dias, Manuel; Liebsch, Ansgar; Lounis, Samir

    2016-03-01

    We present a theoretical study for the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) spectra of surface-supported magnetic nanostructures, incorporating strong correlation effects. As concrete examples, we study Co and Mn adatoms on the Cu(111) surface, which are expected to represent the opposite limits of Kondo physics and local moment behavior, using a combination of density functional theory and both quantum Monte Carlo and exact diagonalization impurity solvers. We examine in detail the effects of temperature T , correlation strength U , and impurity d electron occupancy Nd on the local density of states. We also study the effective coherence energy scale, i.e., the Kondo temperature TK, which can be extracted from the STM spectra. Theoretical STM spectra are computed as a function of STM tip position relative to each adatom. Because of the multiorbital nature of the adatoms, the STM spectra are shown to consist of a complicated superposition of orbital contributions, with different orbital symmetries, self-energies, and Kondo temperatures. For a Mn adatom, which is close to half-filling, the STM spectra are featureless near the Fermi level. On the other hand, the quasiparticle peak for a Co adatom gives rise to strongly position-dependent Fano line shapes.

  17. Quantum stereodynamics study for the reaction F + HD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Fang, Liu; Wei, Zhang; De-Heng, Shi; Jin-Feng, Sun

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the quantum stereodynamics of the F + HD(ν = 0,j = 0) → HD + F/HF + D reaction at the collision energies of 0.52 and 0.87 kcal/mol. The quantum scattering calculations, based on Stark–Werner potential energy surfaces, show that the differential cross sections for the HF(ν' = 2) + D and DF(ν' = 3) + H channels are consistent with the recent theoretical results. Furthermore, the product rotational angular momentum orientation and alignment have been determined for some selected rovibrational states of the HF + D and DF + H channels. (atomic and molecular physics)

  18. Quantum Humor: The Playful Side of Physics at Bohr's Institute for Theoretical Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Paul

    2012-09-01

    From the 1930s to the 1950s, a period of pivotal developments in quantum, nuclear, and particle physics, physicists at Niels Bohr's Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen took time off from their research to write humorous articles, letters, and other works. Best known is the Blegdamsvej Faust, performed in April 1932 at the close of one of the Institute's annual conferences. I also focus on the Journal of Jocular Physics, a humorous tribute to Bohr published on the occasions of his 50th, 60th, and 70th birthdays in 1935, 1945, and 1955. Contributors included Léon Rosenfeld, Victor Weisskopf, George Gamow, Oskar Klein, and Hendrik Casimir. I examine their contributions along with letters and other writings to show that they offer a window into some issues in physics at the time, such as the interpretation of complementarity and the nature of the neutrino, as well as the politics of the period.

  19. Quantum physics meets the philosophy of mind new essays on the mind-body relation in quantum-theoretical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Meixner, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Quantum physics, unlike classical physics, suggests a non-physicalistic metaphysics. Whereas physicalism implies a reductive position in the philosophy of mind, quantum physics is compatible with non-reductionism, and actually seems to support it. The essays in this book explore, from various points of view, the possibilities of basing a non-reductive philosophy of mind on quantum physics.

  20. Quantum mechanical simulation methods for studying biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicout, D.; Field, M.

    1996-01-01

    Most known biological mechanisms can be explained using fundamental laws of physics and chemistry and a full understanding of biological processes requires a multidisciplinary approach in which all the tools of biology, chemistry and physics are employed. An area of research becoming increasingly important is the theoretical study of biological macromolecules where numerical experimentation plays a double role of establishing a link between theoretical models and predictions and allowing a quantitative comparison between experiments and models. This workshop brought researchers working on different aspects of the development and application of quantum mechanical simulation together, assessed the state-of-the-art in the field and highlighted directions for future research. Fourteen lectures (theoretical courses and specialized seminars) deal with following themes: 1) quantum mechanical calculations of large systems, 2) ab initio molecular dynamics where the calculation of the wavefunction and hence the energy and forces on the atoms for a system at a single nuclear configuration are combined with classical molecular dynamics algorithms in order to perform simulations which use a quantum mechanical potential energy surface, 3) quantum dynamical simulations, electron and proton transfer processes in proteins and in solutions and finally, 4) free seminars that helped to enlarge the scope of the workshop. (N.T.)

  1. Information-theoretic security proof for quantum-key-distribution protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, Renato; Gisin, Nicolas; Kraus, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    We present a technique for proving the security of quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols. It is based on direct information-theoretic arguments and thus also applies if no equivalent entanglement purification scheme can be found. Using this technique, we investigate a general class of QKD protocols with one-way classical post-processing. We show that, in order to analyze the full security of these protocols, it suffices to consider collective attacks. Indeed, we give new lower and upper bounds on the secret-key rate which only involve entropies of two-qubit density operators and which are thus easy to compute. As an illustration of our results, we analyze the Bennett-Brassard 1984, the six-state, and the Bennett 1992 protocols with one-way error correction and privacy amplification. Surprisingly, the performance of these protocols is increased if one of the parties adds noise to the measurement data before the error correction. In particular, this additional noise makes the protocols more robust against noise in the quantum channel

  2. Information-theoretic security proof for quantum-key-distribution protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Renato; Gisin, Nicolas; Kraus, Barbara

    2005-07-01

    We present a technique for proving the security of quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols. It is based on direct information-theoretic arguments and thus also applies if no equivalent entanglement purification scheme can be found. Using this technique, we investigate a general class of QKD protocols with one-way classical post-processing. We show that, in order to analyze the full security of these protocols, it suffices to consider collective attacks. Indeed, we give new lower and upper bounds on the secret-key rate which only involve entropies of two-qubit density operators and which are thus easy to compute. As an illustration of our results, we analyze the Bennett-Brassard 1984, the six-state, and the Bennett 1992 protocols with one-way error correction and privacy amplification. Surprisingly, the performance of these protocols is increased if one of the parties adds noise to the measurement data before the error correction. In particular, this additional noise makes the protocols more robust against noise in the quantum channel.

  3. Semiclassical and quantum field theoretic bounds for traversable Lorentzian stringy wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Kamal Kanti; Zhang Yuanzhong; Kumar, K.B. Vijaya

    2004-01-01

    A lower bound on the size of a Lorentzian wormhole can be obtained by semiclassically introducing the Planck cutoff on the magnitude of tidal forces (Horowitz-Ross constraint). Also, an upper bound is provided by the quantum field theoretic constraint in the form of the Ford-Roman Quantum Inequality for massless minimally coupled scalar fields. To date, however, exact static solutions belonging to this scalar field theory have not been worked out to verify these bounds. To fill this gap, we examine the wormhole features of two examples from the Einstein frame description of the vacuum low energy string theory in four dimensions which is the same as the minimally coupled scalar field theory. Analyses in this paper support the conclusion of Ford and Roman that wormholes in this theory can have sizes that are indeed only a few order of magnitudes larger than the Planck scale. It is shown that the two types of bounds are also compatible. In the process, we point out a 'wormhole' analog of naked black holes

  4. Theoretical pluralism in psychoanalytic case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Jochem; Cornelis, Shana; Geerardyn, Filip M; Desmet, Mattias; Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Cauwe, Joachim M B D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the scientific activity of different psychoanalytic schools of thought in terms of the content and production of case studies published on ISI Web of Knowledge. Between March 2013 and November 2013, we contacted all case study authors included in the online archive of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic case studies (www.singlecasearchive.com) to inquire about their psychoanalytic orientation during their work with the patient. The response rate for this study was 45%. It appears that the two oldest psychoanalytic schools, Object-relations psychoanalysis and Ego psychology or "Classical psychoanalysis" dominate the literature of published case studies. However, most authors stated that they feel attached to two or more psychoanalytic schools of thought. This confirms that the theoretical pluralism in psychoanalysis stretches to the field of single case studies. The single case studies of each psychoanalytic school are described separately in terms of methodology, patient, therapist, or treatment features. We conclude that published case studies features are fairly similar across different psychoanalytic schools. The results of this study are not representative of all psychoanalytic schools, as some do not publish their work in ISI ranked journals.

  5. Theoretical pluralism in psychoanalytic case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Jochem; Cornelis, Shana; Geerardyn, Filip M.; Desmet, Mattias; Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Cauwe, Joachim M. B. D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the scientific activity of different psychoanalytic schools of thought in terms of the content and production of case studies published on ISI Web of Knowledge. Between March 2013 and November 2013, we contacted all case study authors included in the online archive of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic case studies (www.singlecasearchive.com) to inquire about their psychoanalytic orientation during their work with the patient. The response rate for this study was 45%. It appears that the two oldest psychoanalytic schools, Object-relations psychoanalysis and Ego psychology or “Classical psychoanalysis” dominate the literature of published case studies. However, most authors stated that they feel attached to two or more psychoanalytic schools of thought. This confirms that the theoretical pluralism in psychoanalysis stretches to the field of single case studies. The single case studies of each psychoanalytic school are described separately in terms of methodology, patient, therapist, or treatment features. We conclude that published case studies features are fairly similar across different psychoanalytic schools. The results of this study are not representative of all psychoanalytic schools, as some do not publish their work in ISI ranked journals. PMID:26483725

  6. Theoretical study of rock mass investigation efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmen, Johan G.; Outters, Nils

    2002-05-01

    The study concerns a mathematical modelling of a fractured rock mass and its investigations by use of theoretical boreholes and rock surfaces, with the purpose of analysing the efficiency (precision) of such investigations and determine the amount of investigations necessary to obtain reliable estimations of the structural-geological parameters of the studied rock mass. The study is not about estimating suitable sample sizes to be used in site investigations.The purpose of the study is to analyse the amount of information necessary for deriving estimates of the geological parameters studied, within defined confidence intervals and confidence level In other words, how the confidence in models of the rock mass (considering a selected number of parameters) will change with amount of information collected form boreholes and surfaces. The study is limited to a selected number of geometrical structural-geological parameters: Fracture orientation: mean direction and dispersion (Fisher Kappa and SRI). Different measures of fracture density (P10, P21 and P32). Fracture trace-length and strike distributions as seen on horizontal windows. A numerical Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) was used for representation of a fractured rock mass. The DFN-model was primarily based on the properties of an actual fracture network investigated at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The rock mass studied (DFN-model) contained three different fracture sets with different orientations and fracture densities. The rock unit studied was statistically homogeneous. The study includes a limited sensitivity analysis of the properties of the DFN-model. The study is a theoretical and computer-based comparison between samples of fracture properties of a theoretical rock unit and the known true properties of the same unit. The samples are derived from numerically generated boreholes and surfaces that intersect the DFN-network. Two different boreholes are analysed; a vertical borehole and a borehole that is

  7. Theoretical studies on aerosol agglomeration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, K.E.J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

    1997-12-31

    In this thesis, theoretical modeling of certain aerosol systems has been presented. At first, the aerosol general dynamic equation is introduced, along with a discretization routine for its numerical solution. Of the various possible phenomena affecting aerosol behaviour, this work is mostly focused on aerosol agglomeration. The fundamentals of aerosol agglomeration theory are thus briefly reviewed. The two practical applications of agglomeration studied in this thesis are flue gas cleaning using an electrical agglomerator and nanomaterial synthesis with a free jet reactor. In an electrical agglomerator the aerosol particles are charged and brought into an alternating electric field. The aim is to remove submicron particles from flue gases by collisions with larger particles before conventional gas cleaning devices that have a clear penetration window in the problematic 0.1-1{mu}m size range. A mathematical model was constructed to find out the effects of the different system parameters on the agglomerator`s performance. A crucial part of this task was finding out the collision efficiencies of particles of varying size and charge. The original idea was to use unipolar charging of the particles, and a laboratory scale apparatus was constructed for this purpose. Both theory and experiments clearly show that significant removal of submicron particles can not be achieved by such an arrangement. The theoretical analysis further shows that if the submicron particles and the large collector particles were charged with opposite polarity, significant removal of the submicron particles could be obtained. The second application of agglomeration considered in this thesis is predicting/controlling nanoparticle size in the gas-to-particle aerosol route to material synthesis. In a typical material reactor, a precursor vapor reacts to form molecules of the desired material. In a cooling environment, a particulate phase forms, the dynamics of which are determined by the rates of

  8. Theoretical studies on aerosol agglomeration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, K E.J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

    1998-12-31

    In this thesis, theoretical modeling of certain aerosol systems has been presented. At first, the aerosol general dynamic equation is introduced, along with a discretization routine for its numerical solution. Of the various possible phenomena affecting aerosol behaviour, this work is mostly focused on aerosol agglomeration. The fundamentals of aerosol agglomeration theory are thus briefly reviewed. The two practical applications of agglomeration studied in this thesis are flue gas cleaning using an electrical agglomerator and nanomaterial synthesis with a free jet reactor. In an electrical agglomerator the aerosol particles are charged and brought into an alternating electric field. The aim is to remove submicron particles from flue gases by collisions with larger particles before conventional gas cleaning devices that have a clear penetration window in the problematic 0.1-1{mu}m size range. A mathematical model was constructed to find out the effects of the different system parameters on the agglomerator`s performance. A crucial part of this task was finding out the collision efficiencies of particles of varying size and charge. The original idea was to use unipolar charging of the particles, and a laboratory scale apparatus was constructed for this purpose. Both theory and experiments clearly show that significant removal of submicron particles can not be achieved by such an arrangement. The theoretical analysis further shows that if the submicron particles and the large collector particles were charged with opposite polarity, significant removal of the submicron particles could be obtained. The second application of agglomeration considered in this thesis is predicting/controlling nanoparticle size in the gas-to-particle aerosol route to material synthesis. In a typical material reactor, a precursor vapor reacts to form molecules of the desired material. In a cooling environment, a particulate phase forms, the dynamics of which are determined by the rates of

  9. Synthesis, crystal structure, vibrational spectra and theoretical calculations of quantum chemistry of a potential antimicrobial Meldrum's acid derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campelo, M. J. M.; Freire, P. T. C.; Mendes Filho, J.; de Toledo, T. A.; Teixeira, A. M. R.; da Silva, L. E.; Bento, R. R. F.; Faria, J. L. B.; Pizani, P. S.; Gusmão, G. O. M.; Coutinho, H. D. M.; Oliveira, M. T. A.

    2017-10-01

    A new derivative of Meldrum's acid 5-((5-chloropyridin-2-ylamino)methylene)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione (CYMM) of molecular formula C12H11ClN2O4 was synthesized and structurally characterized using single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The vibrational properties of the crystal were studied by Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR), Fourier Transform Raman (FT-Raman) techniques and theoretical calculations of quantum chemistry using Density functional theory (DFT) and Density functional perturbation theory (DFPT). A comparison with experimental spectra allowed the assignment of all the normal modes. The descriptions of the normal modes were carried by means of potential energy distribution (PED). Additionally, analysis of the antimicrobial activity and antibiotic resistance modulatory activity was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the CYMM.

  10. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Quantum Magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Barbara, Bernard; Sawatzky, G; Stamp, P. C. E

    2008-01-01

    This book is based on some of the lectures during the Pacific Institute of Theoretical Physics (PITP) summer school on "Quantum Magnetism", held during June 2006 in Les Houches, in the French Alps. The school was funded jointly by NATO, the CNRS, and PITP, and entirely organized by PITP. Magnetism is a somewhat peculiar research field. It clearly has a quantum-mechanical basis – the microsopic exchange interactions arise entirely from the exclusion principle, in conjunction with respulsive interactions between electrons. And yet until recently the vast majority of magnetism researchers and users of magnetic phenomena around the world paid no attention to these quantum-mechanical roots. Thus, eg., the huge ($400 billion per annum) industry which manufactures hard discs, and other components in the information technology sector, depends entirely on room-temperature properties of magnets - yet at the macroscopic or mesoscopic scales of interest to this industry, room-temperature magnets behave entirely classic...

  11. Theoretical study of defect properties in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindzingre, P.

    1987-01-01

    Several characteristic properties (formation and migration enthalpies and volumes, dipole tensors, effects on shear elastic constants) of several point defects (vacancy, divacancy, interstitial, di-interstitial) in different metals: f.c.c. metals (Al, Cu, Ag, Au), h.c.p. metals (Be, Mg, Zn, Cd, Na, Co, Ti, Zr), b.c.c. metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) have been calculated. The calculated properties are evaluated from static computations performed with pair potentials derived from pseudo-potential theory (for simple or noble metals) or deduced empirically. Results are compared with available experimental data with previous theoretical works. The first part of this work where we have studied point defects properties in f.c.c. metals lead us to suggest a more convincing interpretation of X-ray scattering and elastic relation measurements concerning interstitials in Al and Cu, and a new interpretation for X-ray scattering measurements concerning di-interstitials in Al. In the second part, devoted to h.c.p. metals we are brought to propose for each studied metal the interstitial configurations which yield the best agreement with experimental results. The third part, devoted to the study of point defects in alkalin b.c.c. metals lead us to interpret self-diffusion in these metals with the assumption of a simultaneous contribution of monovacancies, divacancies and interstitials [fr

  12. Theoretical and experimental studies of elementary physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodek, A.; Ferbel, T.; Melissinos, A.C.; Slattery, P.; Tipton, P.; Das, A.; Hagen, C.R.; Rajeev, S.G.; Okubo, S.; Orr, L.

    1993-01-01

    The various components of the high-energy physics research program at the University of Rochester are presented. (I)Fixed-target experimentation at FNAL includes studies of direct photon production by p and π on H, Be, and Cu, and hybrid mesons and other physics issues in Coulomb excitation at high energies. (II)The status of the GEM (Gammas, Electrons, and Muons) Experiment at the SSC is given. (III)The D-Zero experiment at FNAL is reviewed. (IV)Deep inelastic lepton--nucleon scattering experiments are summarized: electron scattering experiments at SLAC, FNAL neutrino quad triplet runs, FNAL neutrino sign selected experiments, and SDC cosmic ray test and test beam calibration. (V)Studies of nonlinear QED at SLAC concentrated on a study of QED at critical field strength in intense laser--high-energy electron collisions. (VI)Development work on the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) emphasized the CDF silicon vertex detector, the end plug calorimeter, and the SDC tile/fiber calorimetry. (VII)The theoretical physics effort is sketched

  13. Surface chemistry and density distribution influence on visible luminescence of silicon quantum dots: an experimental and theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Ateet; Matsumoto, Yasuhiro; Santana-Rodríguez, G; Ramos, Estrella; Monroy, B Marel; Santoyo Salazar, J

    2017-01-04

    The impact of the surface reconstruction of the density distribution and photoluminescence of silicon quantum dots (QDs) embedded in a silicon oxide matrix (SiO x ) has been studied. Annealing treatments carried out on the as-deposited samples provoked the effusion of hydrogen species. Moreover, depending on the surrounding density and coalescence of QDs, they resulted in a change in the average size of the particles depending on the initial local environment. The shift in the luminescence spectra all over the visible region (blue, green and red) shows a strong dependence on the resultant change in the size and/or the passivation environment of QDs. Density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations support this fact and explain the possible electronic transitions (HOMO-LUMO gap) involved. Passivation in the presence of oxygen species lowers the band gap of Si 29 and Si 35 nanoclusters up to 1.7 eV, whereas, surface passivation in the environment of hydrogen species increases the band gap up to 4.4 eV. These results show a good agreement with the quantum confinement model described in this work and explain the shift in the luminescence all over the visible region. The results reported here offer vital insight into the mechanism of emission from silicon quantum dots which has been one of the most debated topics in the last two decades. QDs with multiple size distribution in different local environments (band gap) observed in this work could be used for the fabrication of light emission diodes (LEDs) or shift-conversion thin films in third generation efficient tandem solar cells for the maximum absorption of the solar spectrum in different wavelength regions.

  14. Theoretical and observational studies of stellar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J.H.M.M.

    1984-01-01

    In the theoretical part of this thesis, doubly-diffusive MHD instabilities are studied as a means of breaking up a diffuse magnetic field at the bottom of the solar convection zone. The analysis is linear and local, and assumes short meridional wavelengths; the effects of rotation and diffusion of vorticity, magnetic fields and heat are included. Results show that the instability depends sensitively on the temperature stratification, but rather insensitively on the assumed magnetic field configuration; instability time scales considerably less than the solar cycle period can be easily obtained. In the observational part of the thesis, results are reported of a survey of the x-ray emission of stars with shallow connection zones to study the onset of convection and dynamo activity along the main sequence. Complications arising from stellar multiplicity are discussed extensively; it is demonstrated that binaries have statistically higher x-ray luminosities; and it is shown that physical parameters can only be deduced from single stars. It is further shown that the x-ray luminosities of stars with spectral type in the color range 0.1 less than or equal to B. V less than or equal to 0.5 increase rapidly, whereas stars with B. V approx. 0.0 appear to have no intrinsic x-ray emission at presently detectable levels

  15. Theoretical and experimental study of thermoacoustic engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspet, Richard; Bass, Henry E.; Arnott, W. P.

    1992-12-01

    A three year study of thermoacoustic engines operating as prime movers and refrigerators was completed. The major thrust of this effort was the use and theoretical description of ceramic honeycomb structures as the active element in thermoacoustic engines. An air-filled demonstration prime mover was constructed and demonstrated at Acoustical Society of America and IEE meetings. A helium-filled test prime mover was designed and built an is being employed in studies of the threshold of oscillation as a function of temperature difference and pressure. In addition, acoustically based theories of the thermoacoustic engine have been developed and tested for a parallel plate stack at the Naval Postgraduate School and for a honeycomb stack at the University of Mississippi. Most of this work is described in detail in the attached publications. In this report we will give an overview of the research completed to date and its relationship to work performed at the Naval Postgraduate School and to future work at the University of Mississippi.

  16. Studies In Theoretical High Energy Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keung, Wai Yee [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This is a final technical report for grant no. DE-SC0007948 describing research activities in theoretical high energy physics at University of Illinois at Chicago for the whole grant period from July 1, 2012 to March 31, 2017.

  17. Theoretical Foundations of Study of Cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhofer, Václav; Hošková-Mayerová, Šárka

    2018-05-01

    Cartography and geoinformatics are technical-based fields which deal with modelling and visualization of landscape in the form of a map. The theoretical foundation is necessary to obtain during study of cartography and geoinformatics based mainly on mathematics. For the given subjects, mathematics is necessary for understanding of many procedures that are connected to modelling of the Earth as a celestial body, to ways of its projection into a plane, to methods and procedures of modelling of landscape and phenomena in society and visualization of these models in the form of electronic as well as classic paper maps. Not only general mathematics, but also its extension of differential geometry of curves and surfaces, ways of approximation of lines and surfaces of functional surfaces, mathematical statistics and multi-criterial analyses seem to be suitable and necessary. Underestimation of the significance of mathematical education in cartography and geoinformatics is inappropriate and lowers competence of cartographers and professionals in geographic information science and technology to solve problems.

  18. Information-theoretical approach to control of quantum-mechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Shiro

    2003-01-01

    Fundamental limits on the controllability of quantum mechanical systems are discussed in the light of quantum information theory. It is shown that the amount of entropy-reduction that can be extracted from a quantum system by feedback controller is upper bounded by a sum of the decrease of entropy achievable in open-loop control and the mutual information between the quantum system and the controller. This upper bound sets a fundamental limit on the performance of any quantum controllers whose designs are based on the possibilities to attain low entropy states. An application of this approach pertaining to quantum error correction is also discussed

  19. Quantum physics meets the philosophy of mind. New essays on the mind-body relation in quantum-theoretical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, Antonella; Meixner, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Quantum physics, in contrast to classical physics, allows non-locality and indeterminism in nature. Moreover, the role of the observer seems indispensable in quantum physics. In fact, quantum physics, unlike classical physics, suggests a metaphysics that is not physicalism (which is today's official metaphysical doctrine). As is well known, physicalism implies a reductive position in the philosophy of mind, specifically in its two core areas, the philosophy of consciousness and the philosophy of action. Quantum physics, in contrast, is compatible with psychological non-reductionism, and actually seems to support it. The essays in this book explore, from various points of view, the possibilities of basing a non-reductive philosophy of mind on quantum physics. In doing so, they not only engage with the ontological and epistemological aspects of the question but also with the neurophysiological ones.

  20. Quantum physics meets the philosophy of mind. New essays on the mind-body relation in quantum-theoretical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, Antonella [Catholic Univ., Milan (Italy); Meixner, Uwe (ed.) [Augsburg Univ. (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Quantum physics, in contrast to classical physics, allows non-locality and indeterminism in nature. Moreover, the role of the observer seems indispensable in quantum physics. In fact, quantum physics, unlike classical physics, suggests a metaphysics that is not physicalism (which is today's official metaphysical doctrine). As is well known, physicalism implies a reductive position in the philosophy of mind, specifically in its two core areas, the philosophy of consciousness and the philosophy of action. Quantum physics, in contrast, is compatible with psychological non-reductionism, and actually seems to support it. The essays in this book explore, from various points of view, the possibilities of basing a non-reductive philosophy of mind on quantum physics. In doing so, they not only engage with the ontological and epistemological aspects of the question but also with the neurophysiological ones.

  1. Theoretical studies of Anderson impurity models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glossop, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    A Local Moment Approach (LMA) is developed for single-particle excitations of a symmetric single impurity Anderson model (SIAM) with a soft-gap hybridization vanishing at the Fermi level, Δ I ∝ vertical bar W vertical bar r with r > 0, and for the generic asymmetric case of the 'normal' (r = 0) SIAM. In all cases we work within a two-self-energy description with local moments introduced explicitly from the outset, and in which single-particle excitations are coupled dynamically to low-energy transverse spin fluctuations. For the soft-gap symmetric SIAM, the resultant theory is applicable on all energy scales, and captures both the spin-fluctuation regime of strong coupling (large-U), as well as the weak coupling regime where it is perturbatively exact for those r-domains in which perturbation theory in U is non-singular. While the primary emphasis is on single-particle dynamics, the quantum phase transition between strong coupling (SC) and local moment (LM) phases can also be addressed directly; for the spin-fluctuation regime in particular a number of asymptotically exact results are thereby obtained, notably for the behaviour of the critical U c (r) separating SC/LM states and the Kondo scale w m (r) characteristic of the SC phase. Results for both single-particle spectra and SG/LM phase boundaries are found to agree well with recent numerical renormalization group (NRG) studies; and a number of further testable predictions are made. Single-particle spectra are examined systematically for both SC and LM states; in particular, for all 0 ≤ r 0 SC phase which, in agreement with conclusions drawn from recent NRG work, may be viewed as a non-trivial but natural generalization of Fermi liquid physics. We also reinvestigate the problem via the NRG in light of the predictions arising from the LMA: all are borne out and excellent agreement is found. For the asymmetric single impurity Anderson model (ASIAM) we establish general conditions which must be satisfied

  2. Quantum mechanical studies of complex ferroelectric perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramer, Nicholas John

    In many electronic device applications, there is a need to interconvert electrical energy and other types of energy. Ferroelectric materials, which possess a voltage-dependent polarization, can enable this energy conversion process. Because of the broad interest in ferroelectric materials for these devices, there is a critical research effort, both experimental and theoretical, to understand these materials and aid in the development of materials with improved properties. This thesis presents detailed quantum mechanical investigations of the behavior of a complex ferroelectric perovskite under applied stress. In particular, we have chosen to study the solid solution PbZr1-xTix O3 (PZT). Since the study of ferroelectricity involves understanding both its structural and electronic signatures in materials, it has necessitated the development of a novel theoretical technique which improves the accuracy of the pseudopotentials used in our density functional theory calculations as well as a new method for constructing three-dimensional atomistic responses to small amounts of external stress. To examine the material's behavior under larger amounts of stress, we have studied the behavior of a composition of PZT lying near a structural phase boundary. On either side of the phase boundary, the material is characterized by a different polarization direction and may easily be switched between phases by applying external stress. In addition to stress-induced phase transitions, most ferroelectric materials also have composition dependent phase boundaries. Since different compositions of PZT would require increased computational effort, we have formulated an improved virtual crystal approach that makes tractable the study of the entire composition range. Using this method, we have been able to show for the first time via first-principles calculations, a composition dependent phase transition in a ferroelectric material. This thesis has accomplished three important goals: new

  3. Sibutramine characterization and solubility, a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-Hernández, Juan M.; Nicolás Vázquez, Inés; Hinojosa-Torres, Jaime; Penieres Carrillo, Guillermo; Arroyo Razo, Gabriel; Miranda Ruvalcaba, René

    2013-04-01

    Solubility data from sibutramine (SBA) in a family of alcohols were obtained at different temperatures. Sibutramine was characterized by using thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction technique. Solubility data were obtained by the saturation method. The van't Hoff equation was used to obtain the theoretical solubility values and the ideal solvent activity coefficient. No polymorphic phenomena were found from the X-ray diffraction analysis, even though this compound is a racemic mixture of (+) and (-) enantiomers. Theoretical calculations showed that the polarisable continuum model was able to reproduce the solubility and stability of sibutramine molecule in gas phase, water and a family of alcohols at B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) level of theory. Dielectric constant, dipolar moment and solubility in water values as physical parameters were used in those theoretical calculations for explaining that behavior. Experimental and theoretical results were compared and good agreement was obtained. Sibutramine solubility increased from methanol to 1-octanol in theoretical and experimental results.

  4. Introduction to modern theoretical physics. Volume II. Quantum theory and statistical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    The topics discussed include the history and principles, some solvable problems, and symmetry in quantum mechanics, interference phenomena, approximation methods, some applications of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, relativistic wave equations, quantum theory of radiation, second quantization, elementary particles and their interactions, thermodynamics, equilibrium statistical mechanics and its applications, the kinetic theory of gases, and collective phenomena

  5. Theoretical studies of binaries in astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dischler, Johann Sebastian

    This thesis introduces and summarizes four papers dealing with computer simulations of astrophysical processes involving binaries. The first part gives the rational and theoretical background to these papers. In paper I and II a statistical approach to studying eclipsing binaries is described. By using population synthesis models for binaries the probabilities for eclipses are calculated for different luminosity classes of binaries. These are compared with Hipparcos data and they agree well if one uses a standard input distribution for the orbit sizes. If one uses a random pairing model, where both companions are independently picked from an IMF, one finds too feclipsing binaries by an order of magnitude. In paper III we investigate a possible scenario for the origin of the stars observed close to the centre of our galaxy, called S stars. We propose that a cluster falls radially cowards the central black hole. The binaries within the cluster can then, if they have small impact parameters, be broken up by the black hole's tidal held and one of the components of the binary will be captured by the black hole. Paper IV investigates how the onset of mass transfer in eccentric binaries depends on the eccentricity. To do this we have developed a new two-phase SPH scheme where very light particles are at tire outer edge of our simulated star. This enables us to get a much better resolution of the very small mass that is transferred in close binaries. Our simulations show that the minimum required distance between the stars to have mass transfer decreases with the eccentricity.

  6. Computational and theoretical studies of globular proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagan, Daniel L.

    Protein crystallization is often achieved in experiment through a trial and error approach. To date, there exists a dearth of theoretical understanding of the initial conditions necessary to promote crystallization. While a better understanding of crystallization will help to create good crystals suitable for structure analysis, it will also allow us to prevent the onset of certain diseases. The core of this thesis is to model and, ultimately, understand the phase behavior of protein particles in solution. Toward this goal, we calculate the fluid-fluid coexistence curve in the vicinity of the metastable critical point of the modified Lennard-Jones potential, where it has been shown that nucleation is increased by many orders of magnitude. We use finite-size scaling techniques and grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation methods. This has allowed us to pinpoint the critical point and subcritical region with high accuracy in spite of the critical fluctuations that hinder sampling using other Monte Carlo techniques. We also attempt to model the phase behavior of the gamma-crystallins, mutations of which have been linked to genetic cataracts. The complete phase behavior of the square well potential at the ranges of attraction lambda = 1.15 and lambda = 1.25 is calculated and compared with that of the gammaII-crystallin. The role of solvent is also important in the crystallization process and affects the phase behavior of proteins in solution. We study a model that accounts for the contribution of the solvent free-energy to the free-energy of globular proteins. This model allows us to model phase behavior that includes solvent.

  7. Theoretical Studies of Nanoclusters (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-23

    nanoclusters. However, scanning transmission electron microscopy ( STEM ) measures show cluster inversion occurred to produce MgyCux(!) a) copper atoms b...methane (née CLL -1) as a potential explosive ingredient: a theoretical study”, Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics 38, 9-13 (2013). Jesus Paulo L

  8. Theoretical Studies in Elementary Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, John C.; Roiban, Radu S

    2013-04-01

    This final report summarizes work at Penn State University from June 1, 1990 to April 30, 2012. The work was in theoretical elementary particle physics. Many new results in perturbative QCD, in string theory, and in related areas were obtained, with a substantial impact on the experimental program.

  9. Theoretical spectroscopic study of the conjugate microcystin-LR-europium cryptate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Julio G.; Dutra, Jose Diogo L.; Costa Junior, Nivan B. da; Freire, Ricardo O., E-mail: rfreire@ufs.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Alves Junior, Severino; Sa, Gilberto F. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Fundamental

    2013-02-15

    In this work, theoretical tools were used to study spectroscopic properties of the conjugate microcystin-LR-europium cryptate. The Sparkle/AM1 model was applied to predict the geometry of the system and the INDO/S-CIS model was used to calculate the excited state energies. Based on the Judd-Ofelt theory, the intensity parameters were predicted and a theoretical model based on the theory of the 4f-4f transitions was applied to calculate energy transfer and backtransfer rates, radiative and non-radiative decay rates, quantum efficiency and quantum yield. A detailed study of the luminescent properties of the conjugate Microcystin-LR-europium cryptate was carried out. The results show that the theoretical quantum yield of luminescence of 23% is in good agreement with the experimental value published. This fact suggests that this theoretical protocol can be used to design new systems in order to improve their luminescence properties. The results suggest that this luminescent system may be a good conjugate for using in assay ELISA for detection by luminescence of the Microcystin-LR in water. (author)

  10. Theoretical Studies of Elementary Hydrocarbon Species and Their Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Wesley D. [University of Georgia, Department of Chemistry and Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry; Schaefer, Henry F. [University of Georgia, Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry

    2018-04-08

    The research program supported by this DOE grant carried out both methodological development and computational applications of first-principles theoretical chemistry based on quantum mechanical wavefunctions, as directed toward understanding and harnessing the fundamental chemical physics of combustion. To build and refine the world’s database of thermochemistry, spectroscopy, and chemical kinetics, predictive and definitive computational methods are needed that push the envelope of modern electronic structure theory. The application of such methods has been made to gain comprehensive knowledge of the paradigmatic reaction networks by which the n- and i-propyl, t-butyl, and n-butyl radicals are oxidized by O2. Numerous ROO and QOOH intermediates in these R + O2 reaction systems have been characterized along with the interconnecting isomerization transition states and the barriers leading to fragmentation. Other combustion-related intermediates have also been studied, including methylsulfinyl radical, cyclobutylidene, and radicals derived from acetaldehyde and vinyl alcohol. Theoretical advances have been achieved and made available to the scientific community by implementation into PSI4, an open-source electronic structure computer package emphasizing automation, advanced libraries, and interoperability. We have pursued the development of universal explicitly correlated methods applicable to general electronic wavefunctions, as well as a framework that allows multideterminant reference functions to be expressed as a single determinant from quasiparticle operators. Finally, a rigorous analytical tool for correlated wavefunctions has been created to elucidate dispersion interactions, which play essential roles in many areas of chemistry, but whose effects are often masked and enigmatic. Our research decomposes and analyzes the coupled-cluster electron correlation energy in molecular systems as a function of interelectronic distance. Concepts

  11. Mathematica for Theoretical Physics: Electrodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity and Fractals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusler, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The main focus of the second, enlarged edition of the book Mathematica for Theoretical Physics is on computational examples using the computer program Mathematica in various areas in physics. It is a notebook rather than a textbook. Indeed, the book is just a printout of the Mathematica notebooks included on the CD. The second edition is divided into two volumes, the first covering classical mechanics and nonlinear dynamics, the second dealing with examples in electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, general relativity and fractal geometry. The second volume is not suited for newcomers because basic and simple physical ideas which lead to complex formulas are not explained in detail. Instead, the computer technology makes it possible to write down and manipulate formulas of practically any length. For researchers with experience in computing, the book contains a lot of interesting and non-trivial examples. Most of the examples discussed are standard textbook problems, but the power of Mathematica opens the path to more sophisticated solutions. For example, the exact solution for the perihelion shift of Mercury within general relativity is worked out in detail using elliptic functions. The virial equation of state for molecules' interaction with Lennard-Jones-like potentials is discussed, including both classical and quantum corrections to the second virial coefficient. Interestingly, closed solutions become available using sophisticated computing methods within Mathematica. In my opinion, the textbook should not show formulas in detail which cover three or more pages-these technical data should just be contained on the CD. Instead, the textbook should focus on more detailed explanation of the physical concepts behind the technicalities. The discussion of the virial equation would benefit much from replacing 15 pages of Mathematica output with 15 pages of further explanation and motivation. In this combination, the power of computing merged with physical intuition would

  12. Some double resonance and multiple quantum NMR studies in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemmer, D.E.

    1978-08-01

    The first section of this work presents the theory and experimental applications to analysis of molecular motion of chemical shielding lineshapes obtained with high resolution double resonance NMR techniques. Analysis of /sup 13/C powder lineshapes in hexamethylbenzene (HMB) and decamethylferrocene (DMFe) show that these molecules reorient in a jumping manner about the symmetry axis. Analysis of proton chemical shielding lineshapes of residual protons in heavy ice (D/sub 2/O) show that protons are exchanged among the tetrahedral positions of neighboring oxygen atoms, consistent with motion expected from defect migration. The second section describes the application of Fourier Transform Double Quantum NMR to measurement of chemical shielding of deuterium in powder samples. Studies of partially deuterated benzene and ferrocene give equal shielding anisotropies, ..delta..sigma = -6.5 ppM. Theoretical predictions and experimental measurements of dipolar couplings between deuterons using FTDQ NMR are presented. Crystals of BaClO/sub 3/.D/sub 2/O, ..cap alpha..,..beta.. d-2 HMB and ..cap alpha..,..beta..,..gamma.. d-3 HMB were studied, as were powders of d-2 HMB and anisic acid. The third section discusses general multiple quantum spectroscopy in dipolar coupled spin systems. Theoretical description is made for creation and detection of coherences between states without quantum number selection rules ..delta..m = +-1. Descriptions of techniques for partial selectivity of order in preparation and detection of multiple quantum coherences are made. The effects on selectivity and resolution of echo pulses during multiple quantum experiments are discussed. Experimental observation of coherences up to order 6 have been made in a sample of benzene dissolved in a liquid crystal. Experimental verifications of order selection and echo generation have been made.

  13. Some double resonance and multiple quantum NMR studies in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wemmer, D.E.

    1978-08-01

    The first section of this work presents the theory and experimental applications to analysis of molecular motion of chemical shielding lineshapes obtained with high resolution double resonance NMR techniques. Analysis of 13 C powder lineshapes in hexamethylbenzene (HMB) and decamethylferrocene (DMFe) show that these molecules reorient in a jumping manner about the symmetry axis. Analysis of proton chemical shielding lineshapes of residual protons in heavy ice (D 2 O) show that protons are exchanged among the tetrahedral positions of neighboring oxygen atoms, consistent with motion expected from defect migration. The second section describes the application of Fourier Transform Double Quantum NMR to measurement of chemical shielding of deuterium in powder samples. Studies of partially deuterated benzene and ferrocene give equal shielding anisotropies, Δsigma = -6.5 ppM. Theoretical predictions and experimental measurements of dipolar couplings between deuterons using FTDQ NMR are presented. Crystals of BaClO 3 .D 2 O, α,β d-2 HMB and α,β,γ d-3 HMB were studied, as were powders of d-2 HMB and anisic acid. The third section discusses general multiple quantum spectroscopy in dipolar coupled spin systems. Theoretical description is made for creation and detection of coherences between states without quantum number selection rules Δm = +-1. Descriptions of techniques for partial selectivity of order in preparation and detection of multiple quantum coherences are made. The effects on selectivity and resolution of echo pulses during multiple quantum experiments are discussed. Experimental observation of coherences up to order 6 have been made in a sample of benzene dissolved in a liquid crystal. Experimental verifications of order selection and echo generation have been made

  14. Theoretical issues in quantum computing: Graph isomorphism, PageRank, and Hamiltonian determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudinger, Kenneth Michael

    This thesis explores several theoretical questions pertaining to quantum computing. First we examine several questions regarding multi-particle quantum random walk-based algorithms for the graph isomorphism problem. We find that there exists a non-trivial difference between continuous-time walks of one and two non-interacting particles as compared to non-interacting walks of three or more particles, in that the latter are able to distinguish many strongly regular graphs (SRGs), a class of graphs with many graph pairs that are difficult to distinguish. We demonstrate analytically where this distinguishing power comes from, and we show numerically that three-particle and four-particle non-interacting continuous-time walks can distinguish many pairs of strongly regular graphs. We additionally show that this distinguishing power, while it grows with particle number, is bounded, so that no continuous-time non-interacting walk of fixed particle number can distinguish all strongly regular graphs. We then investigate the relationship between continuous-time and discrete-time walks, in the context of the graph isomorphism problem. While it has been previously demonstrated numerically that discrete-time walks of non-interacting particles can distinguish some SRGs, we demonstrate where this distinguishing power comes from. We also show that while no continuous-time non-interacting walk of fixed particle number can distinguish SRGs, it remains a possibility that such a discrete-time walk could, leaving open the possibility of a non-trivial difference between discrete-time and continuous-time walks. The last piece of our work on graph isomorphism examines limitations on certain kinds of continuous-time walk-based algorithms for distinguishing graphs. We show that a very general class of continuous-time walk algorithms, with a broad class of allowable interactions, cannot distinguish all graphs. We next consider a previously-proposed quantum adiabatic algorithm for computing the

  15. Theoretical studies in elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.

    1994-01-01

    This is a report on research conducted at Penn State University under grant number DE-FG02-90ER-40577, from November 1992 to present. The author is a member of the CTEQ collaboration (Coordinated Theoretical and Experimental Project on Quantitative QCD). Some of the work in CTEQ is described in this report. Topics which the authors work has touched include: polarized hard scattering; hard diffraction; small x and perturbative pomeron physics; gauge-invariant operators; fundamental QCD; heavy quarks; instantons and deep inelastic scattering; non-perturbative corrections to τ decay

  16. Quantum cryptography: Theoretical protocols for quantum key distribution and tests of selected commercial QKD systems in commercial fiber networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacak, Monika; Jacak, Janusz; Jóźwiak, Piotr; Jóźwiak, Ireneusz

    2016-06-01

    The overview of the current status of quantum cryptography is given in regard to quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, implemented both on nonentangled and entangled flying qubits. Two commercial R&D platforms of QKD systems are described (the Clavis II platform by idQuantique implemented on nonentangled photons and the EPR S405 Quelle platform by AIT based on entangled photons) and tested for feasibility of their usage in commercial TELECOM fiber metropolitan networks. The comparison of systems efficiency, stability and resistivity against noise and hacker attacks is given with some suggestion toward system improvement, along with assessment of two models of QKD.

  17. Solar pond conception - experimental and theoretical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt, Huseyin [Zonguldak Karaelmas Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Karabuk (Turkey); Halici, Fethi [Sakarya Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Adapazari (Turkey); Binark, A. Korhan [Marmara Univ., Technical Education Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2000-07-01

    A one dimensional transient mathematical model for predicting the thermal performance of the salt gradient solar pond is developed and presented. In this paper, the natural solar ponds and different artificial solar pond systems found in the literature are introduced. Necessary modifications are made on the experimental stand located in Istanbul Technical University, the experimental stand is introduced and natural phenomena produced in the pond by the different solar pond variations under natural conditions are observed. In the theoretical work based on a one dimensional unsteady state heat conduction model with internal heat generation, the energy and mass balance equations for the upper convective zone, the non-convective zone and the lower convective zone, all of which form the solar pond, are written in terms of differential equations. These equations are solved analytically and numerically. The results obtained from the analysis are compared with the experimental results. The temperature and the concentration profiles are separately presented in the figures. (Author)

  18. Studies in Theoretical and Applied Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Pratesi, Monica; Ruiz-Gazen, Anne

    2018-01-01

    This book includes a wide selection of the papers presented at the 48th Scientific Meeting of the Italian Statistical Society (SIS2016), held in Salerno on 8-10 June 2016. Covering a wide variety of topics ranging from modern data sources and survey design issues to measuring sustainable development, it provides a comprehensive overview of the current Italian scientific research in the fields of open data and big data in public administration and official statistics, survey sampling, ordinal and symbolic data, statistical models and methods for network data, time series forecasting, spatial analysis, environmental statistics, economic and financial data analysis, statistics in the education system, and sustainable development. Intended for researchers interested in theoretical and empirical issues, this volume provides interesting starting points for further research.

  19. Study of quantum spin correlations of relativistic electron pairs - Testing nonlocality of relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodek, K.; Rozpędzik, D.; Zejma, J.; Caban, P.; Rembieliński, J.; Włodarczyk, M.; Ciborowski, J.; Enders, J.; Köhler, A.; Kozela, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Polish-German project QUEST aims at studying relativistic quantum spin correlations of the Einstein-Rosen-Podolsky-Bohm type, through measurement of the correlation function and the corresponding probabilities for relativistic electron pairs. The results will be compared to theoretical predictions obtained by us within the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics, based on assumptions regarding the form of the relativistic spin operator. Agreement or divergence will be interpreted in the context of non-uniqueness of the relativistic spin operator in quantum mechanics as well as dependence of the correlation function on the choice of observables representing the spin. Pairs of correlated electrons will originate from the Mo/ller scattering of polarized 15 MeV electrons provided by the superconducting Darmstadt electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC, TU Darmstadt, incident on a Be target. Spin projections will be determined using the Mott polarimetry technique. Measurements (starting 2013) are planned for longitudinal and transverse beam polarizations and different orientations of the beam polarization vector w.r.t. the Mo/ller scattering plane. This is the first project to study relativistic spin correlations for particles with mass

  20. Pseudopotential-based electron quantum transport: Theoretical formulation and application to nanometer-scale silicon nanowire transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Jingtian, E-mail: jingtian.fang@utdallas.edu; Vandenberghe, William G.; Fu, Bo; Fischetti, Massimo V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2016-01-21

    We present a formalism to treat quantum electronic transport at the nanometer scale based on empirical pseudopotentials. This formalism offers explicit atomistic wavefunctions and an accurate band structure, enabling a detailed study of the characteristics of devices with a nanometer-scale channel and body. Assuming externally applied potentials that change slowly along the electron-transport direction, we invoke the envelope-wavefunction approximation to apply the open boundary conditions and to develop the transport equations. We construct the full-band open boundary conditions (self-energies of device contacts) from the complex band structure of the contacts. We solve the transport equations and present the expressions required to calculate the device characteristics, such as device current and charge density. We apply this formalism to study ballistic transport in a gate-all-around (GAA) silicon nanowire field-effect transistor with a body-size of 0.39 nm, a gate length of 6.52 nm, and an effective oxide thickness of 0.43 nm. Simulation results show that this device exhibits a subthreshold slope (SS) of ∼66 mV/decade and a drain-induced barrier-lowering of ∼2.5 mV/V. Our theoretical calculations predict that low-dimensionality channels in a 3D GAA architecture are able to meet the performance requirements of future devices in terms of SS swing and electrostatic control.

  1. A theoretical quantum study on the distribution of electrophilic and nucleophilic active sites on Cu(100) surfaces modeled as finite clusters; Un estudio teorico cuantico sobre la distribucion de sitios activos electrofilicos y nucleofilicos sobre superficies de Cu(100) modeladas como cumulos finitos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios R, C.H.; Romero R, M. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Departamento de Materiales, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa Tamaulipas, 02200 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ponce R, A.; Mendoza H, L.H. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Carretera Pachuca-Tulancingo km. 4.5, 42181 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)]. e-mail: clara_hrr@yahoo.es

    2008-07-01

    In this work, it is shown a theoretical quantum study of the active sites distribution on a monocrystalline surface of Cu(100). The copper surface was modeled as finite clusters of 14, 23, 38 and 53 atoms. We performed Hartree-Fock and Density Functional Theory (B3LYP) ab initio calculations employing the pseudopotentials of Hay and Wadt (LANLlMB y LANL2DZ). From calculations, we found a work function value of 4.1 eV. The mapping of the HOMO and LUMO in the frozen core approximation, allowed us finding the electrophilic and nucleophilic active sites distribution, respectively. The results indicated that electrophilic sites on the Cu(100) surface were located on hollow position and its numerical density was 8.6 x 10{sup 16} sites cm{sup -2}. From the nucleophilic local softness study, it was found that the nucleophilic sites were formed by a group of atoms and it had a numerical density of 2.4x 10{sup 16} sitescm{sup -2} . Last results indicated that adsorptions with 2 x 2 and 3 x 3 distributions can be favored onto a Cu(100) surface for the electrophilic and nucleophilic cases, respectively. (Author)

  2. Theoretical Semi-Empirical AM1 studies of Schiff Bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, K.; Burman, K.

    2005-01-01

    The present communication reports the theoretical semi-empirical studies of schiff bases of 2-amino pyridine along with their comparison with their parent compounds. Theoretical studies reveal that it is the azomethine group, in the schiff bases under study, that acts as site for coordination to metals as it is reported by many coordination chemists. (author)

  3. Quantum Mechanical Studies of DNA and LNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Troels; Shim, Irene; Lindow, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Quantum mechanical (QM) methodology has been employed to study the structure activity relations of DNA and locked nucleic acid (LNA). The QM calculations provide the basis for construction of molecular structure and electrostatic surface potentials from molecular orbitals. The topologies of the e......Quantum mechanical (QM) methodology has been employed to study the structure activity relations of DNA and locked nucleic acid (LNA). The QM calculations provide the basis for construction of molecular structure and electrostatic surface potentials from molecular orbitals. The topologies...

  4. Theoretical analysis of multiple quantum-well, slow-light devices under applied external fields using a fully analytical model in fractional dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohandani, R; Kaatuzian, H [Photonics Research Laboratory, Electrical Engineering Department, AmirKabir University of Technology, Hafez Ave., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-31

    We report a theoretical study of optical properties of AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum-well (MQW), slow-light devices based on excitonic population oscillations under applied external magnetic and electric fields using an analytical model for complex dielectric constant of Wannier excitons in fractional dimension. The results are shown for quantum wells (QWs) of different width. The significant characteristics of the exciton in QWs such as exciton energy and exciton oscillator strength (EOS) can be varied by application of external magnetic and electric fields. It is found that a higher bandwidth and an appropriate slow-down factor (SDF) can be achieved by changing the QW width during the fabrication process and by applying magnetic and electric fields during device functioning, respectively. It is shown that a SDF of 10{sup 5} is obtained at best. (slowing of light)

  5. Field theoretical construction of an infinite set of quantum commuting operators related with soliton equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Ryu; Yamanaka, Itaru

    1987-01-01

    The quantum version of an infinite set of polynomial conserved quantities of a class of soliton equations is discussed from the point of view of naive continuum field theory. By using techniques of two dimensional field theories, we show that an infinite set of quantum commuting operators can be constructed explicitly from the knowledge of its classical counterparts. The quantum operators are so constructed as to coincide with the classical ones in the ℎ → 0 limit (ℎ; Planck's constant divided by 2π). It is expected that the explicit forms of these operators would shed some light on the structure of the infinite dimensional Lie algebras which underlie a certain class of quantum integrable systems. (orig.)

  6. Field theoretical construction of an infinite set of quantum commuting operators related with soliton equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Ryu; Yamanaka, Itaru.

    1986-08-01

    The quantum version of an infinite set of polynomial conserved quantities of a class of soliton equations is discussed from the point of view of naive continuum field theory. By using techniques of two dimensional field theories, we show that an infinite set of quantum commuting operators can be constructed explicitly from the knowledge of its classical counterparts. The quantum operators are so constructed as to coincide with the classical ones in the ℎ → 0 limit (ℎ; Planck's constant divided by 2π). It is expected that the explicit forms of these operators would shed some light on the structure of the infinite dimensional Lie algebras which underlie certain class of quantum integrable systems. (author)

  7. Theoretical & Experimental Studies of Elementary Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, Kevin [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2012-10-04

    Abstract High energy physics has been one of the signature research programs at the University of Rochester for over 60 years. The group has made leading contributions to experimental discoveries at accelerators and in cosmic rays and has played major roles in developing the theoretical framework that gives us our ``standard model'' of fundamental interactions today. This award from the Department of Energy funded a major portion of that research for more than 20 years. During this time, highlights of the supported work included the discovery of the top quark at the Fermilab Tevatron, the completion of a broad program of physics measurements that verified the electroweak unified theory, the measurement of three generations of neutrino flavor oscillations, and the first observation of a ``Higgs like'' boson at the Large Hadron Collider. The work has resulted in more than 2000 publications over the period of the grant. The principal investigators supported on this grant have been recognized as leaders in the field of elementary particle physics by their peers through numerous awards and leadership positions. Most notable among them is the APS W.K.H. Panofsky Prize awarded to Arie Bodek in 2004, the J.J. Sakurai Prizes awarded to Susumu Okubo and C. Richard Hagen in 2005 and 2010, respectively, the Wigner medal awarded to Susumu Okubo in 2006, and five principal investigators (Das, Demina, McFarland, Orr, Tipton) who received Department of Energy Outstanding Junior Investigator awards during the period of this grant. The University of Rochester Department of Physics and Astronomy, which houses the research group, provides primary salary support for the faculty and has waived most tuition costs for graduate students during the period of this grant. The group also benefits significantly from technical support and infrastructure available at the University which supports the work. The research work of the group has provided educational opportunities

  8. Theoretical Studies of Hydrogen Storage Alloys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Hannes

    2012-03-22

    Theoretical calculations were carried out to search for lightweight alloys that can be used to reversibly store hydrogen in mobile applications, such as automobiles. Our primary focus was on magnesium based alloys. While MgH{sub 2} is in many respects a promising hydrogen storage material, there are two serious problems which need to be solved in order to make it useful: (i) the binding energy of the hydrogen atoms in the hydride is too large, causing the release temperature to be too high, and (ii) the diffusion of hydrogen through the hydride is so slow that loading of hydrogen into the metal takes much too long. In the first year of the project, we found that the addition of ca. 15% of aluminum decreases the binding energy to the hydrogen to the target value of 0.25 eV which corresponds to release of 1 bar hydrogen gas at 100 degrees C. Also, the addition of ca. 15% of transition metal atoms, such as Ti or V, reduces the formation energy of interstitial H-atoms making the diffusion of H-atoms through the hydride more than ten orders of magnitude faster at room temperature. In the second year of the project, several calculations of alloys of magnesium with various other transition metals were carried out and systematic trends in stability, hydrogen binding energy and diffusivity established. Some calculations of ternary alloys and their hydrides were also carried out, for example of Mg{sub 6}AlTiH{sub 16}. It was found that the binding energy reduction due to the addition of aluminum and increased diffusivity due to the addition of a transition metal are both effective at the same time. This material would in principle work well for hydrogen storage but it is, unfortunately, unstable with respect to phase separation. A search was made for a ternary alloy of this type where both the alloy and the corresponding hydride are stable. Promising results were obtained by including Zn in the alloy.

  9. Theoretical analysis of four wave mixing in quantum dot optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    The four wave mixing properties of semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers have been investigated. The combination of strong non-equilibrium depletion of dot levels and a small linewidth enhancement factor results in efficient and symmetric four wave mixing.......The four wave mixing properties of semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers have been investigated. The combination of strong non-equilibrium depletion of dot levels and a small linewidth enhancement factor results in efficient and symmetric four wave mixing....

  10. Experimental and theoretical investigations of photocurrents in non-centrosymmetric semiconductor quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duc, Huynh Thanh; Foerstner, Jens; Meier, Torsten [Department of Physics and CeOPP, University Paderborn (Germany); Priyadarshi, Shekar; Racu, Ana Maria; Pierz, Klaus; Siegner, Uwe; Bieler, Mark [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    We compute photocurrents generated by femtosecond single-color laser pulses in non-centrosymmetric semiconductor quantum wells by combining a 14 x 14 k.p band structure theory with multi-band semiconductor Bloch equations. The transient photocurrents are investigated experimentally by measuring the associated Terahertz emission. The dependencies of the photocurrent and the Terahertz emission on the excitation conditions are discussed for (110)-oriented GaAs quantum wells. The comparison between theory and experiment shows a good agreement.

  11. Theoretical analysis of quantum dot amplifiers with high saturation power and low noise figure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers are predicted to exhibit superior characteristics such as high gain, and output power and low noise. The analysis provides criteria and design guidelines for the realization of high quality amplifiers.......Semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers are predicted to exhibit superior characteristics such as high gain, and output power and low noise. The analysis provides criteria and design guidelines for the realization of high quality amplifiers....

  12. Group theoretical approach to quantum fields in de Sitter space II. The complementary and discrete series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joung, Euihun; Mourad, Jihad; Parentani, Renaud

    2007-01-01

    We use an algebraic approach based on representations of de Sitter group to construct covariant quantum fields in arbitrary dimensions. We study the complementary and the discrete series which correspond to light and massless fields and which lead new feature with respect to the massive principal series we previously studied (hep-th/0606119). When considering the complementary series, we make use of a non-trivial scalar product in order to get local expressions in the position representation. Based on these, we construct a family of covariant canonical fields parametrized by SU(1, 1)/U(1). Each of these correspond to the dS invariant alpha-vacua. The behavior of the modes at asymptotic times brings another difficulty as it is incompatible with the usual definition of the in and out vacua. We propose a generalized notion of these vacua which reduces to the usual conformal vacuum in the conformally massless limit. When considering the massless discrete series we find that no covariant field obeys the canonical commutation relations. To further analyze this singular case, we consider the massless limit of the complementary scalar fields we previously found. We obtain canonical fields with a deformed representation by zero modes. The zero modes have a dS invariant vacuum with singular norm. We propose a regularization by a compactification of the scalar field and a dS invariant definition of the vertex operators. The resulting two-point functions are dS invariant and have a universal logarithmic infrared divergence

  13. Theoretical studies of controlled fusion. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krall, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    Transport in FRC was studied analytically and numerically. The physics considered included lower-hybrid-drift turbulence, rapid convection along closed magnetic field lines, nonadiabaticity, and large particle orbits. The study also extended conventional modeling procedures by developing nonlocal models of stability and transport and determined the relation between such models and the more widely used local models

  14. Massless quantum electrodynamics: a variational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piquini, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    The variational method was used to study the probable existence of a compound vacuum in quantum electrodynamics. An Ansatz containing a condensate of electron-positron pairs was investigated and an optimization equation for the condensate wave function found. (L.C.J.A.)

  15. Theoretical studies of controlled fusion: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krall, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study of low frequency stability in the Field Reversed Configuration (FRC), with emphasis on the transport resulting from this stability behavior. 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Theoretical Studies of Small-System Thermodynamics in Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-06

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This is a comprehensive theoretical research program to investigate the fundamental principles of small-system thermodynamics ...a.k.a. nanothermodynamics). The proposed work is motivated by our desire to better understand the fundamental dynamics and thermodynamics of...for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Theoretical Studies of Small-System Thermodynamics in Energetic Materials The views, opinions

  17. A theoretical and spectroscopic study of co-amorphous naproxen and indomethacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löbmann, Korbinian; Laitinen, Riikka; Grohganz, Holger

    2013-01-01

    . In this study, the co-amorphous drug mixture containing naproxen (NAP) and indomethacin (IND) was investigated using infrared spectroscopy (IR) and quantum mechanical calculations. The structures of both drugs were optimized as monomer, homodimer and heterodimer using density functional theory and used...... for the calculation of IR spectra. Conformational analysis confirmed that the optimized structures were suitable for the theoretical prediction of the spectra. Vibrational modes from the calculation could be matched with experimentally observed spectra for crystalline and amorphous NAP and IND, and it could be shown...... that both drugs exist as homodimers in their respective individual amorphous form. With the results from the experimental single amorphous drugs and theoretical homodimers, a detailed analysis of the experimental co-amorphous and theoretical heterodimer spectra was performed and evaluated. It is suggested...

  18. Global Leadership Study: A Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Anne W.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional leadership theory and research courses do not adequately prepare students for cross-cultural leadership. This article notes six premises of Western theories and demonstrates the limitations of these premises in non-Western settings. A framework for the study of cross-cultural leadership, The Global Leadership-Learning Pyramid, is…

  19. Theoretical and experimental studies of elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodek, A.; Ferbel, T.; Melissinos, A.C.; Olsen, S.L.; Slattery, P.; Tipton, P.; Das, A.; Hagen, C.R.; Rajeev, S.G.; Okubo, S.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses: Fixed target experimentation at Fermilab; the D-zero collider experiment at Fermilab; deep inelastic lepton nucleon scattering; non-accelerator experiments and non-linear QED; the AMY experiment at TRISTAN and other activities at KEK; the collider detector at Fermilab; laser switched linac; preparations for experiments at the SSC; search for massive stable particles; and the Advanced Study Institute on techniques and concepts of high energy physics

  20. Experimental and theoretical studies of levitated quantum fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.; Halley, J.W.; Giese, C.F.

    1998-01-01

    We describe the opportunities for improved scientific understanding and technical manipulation of cryogenic fields, particularly molecular hydrogen, by the use of carefully designed magnetic field configurations produced with assemblies of permanent magnets. We discuss the levitation of hydrogen in order to perfect technical means for handling this and other cryogenic fluids. The development of the techniques to be explored here provide extraordinary opportunities for improved methods for handling rocket fuels and cryogenic fluids in low gravity environments

  1. Surface Traps in Colloidal Quantum Dots: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giansante, Carlo; Infante, Ivan

    2017-10-19

    Surface traps are ubiquitous to nanoscopic semiconductor materials. Understanding their atomistic origin and manipulating them chemically have capital importance to design defect-free colloidal quantum dots and make a leap forward in the development of efficient optoelectronic devices. Recent advances in computing power established computational chemistry as a powerful tool to describe accurately complex chemical species and nowadays it became conceivable to model colloidal quantum dots with realistic sizes and shapes. In this Perspective, we combine the knowledge gathered in recent experimental findings with the computation of quantum dot electronic structures. We analyze three different systems: namely, CdSe, PbS, and CsPbI 3 as benchmark semiconductor nanocrystals showing how different types of trap states can form at their surface. In addition, we suggest experimental healing of such traps according to their chemical origin and nanocrystal composition.

  2. Theoretical Studies in Chemical Kinetics - Annual Report, 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karplus, Martin

    1970-10-01

    The research performed includes (a) Alkali-Halide, Alkali-Halide (MX, M?X?) Exchange Reactions; (b) Inversion Problem; (c) Quantum Mechanics of Scattering Processes, (d) Transition State Analysis of Classical Trajectories, (e) Differential Cross Sections from Classical Trajectories; and (f) Other Studies.

  3. Symbols, pictures, and quantum reality on the theoretical foundations of the physical universe

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    1995-01-01

    Information about the reality outside flow via our sense organs into the body, and the brain forms a picture of reality. It is argued that the symbols in the picture have in general no similarity with the objects in the outside world, and many facts support such a view. This conception is discussed in connection with quantum reality. In particular, the role of space and time within quantum theory is also investigated from the historical point of view, highlighting the original ideas. New aspects are covered in connection with the particle concept, particle-wave dualism, locality, the time oper

  4. Quantum Darwinism Requires an Extra-Theoretical Assumption of Encoding Redundancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Chris

    2010-10-01

    Observers restricted to the observation of pointer states of apparatus cannot conclusively demonstrate that the pointer of an apparatus mathcal{A} registers the state of a system of interest S without perturbing S. Observers cannot, therefore, conclusively demonstrate that the states of a system S are redundantly encoded by pointer states of multiple independent apparatus without destroying the redundancy of encoding. The redundancy of encoding required by quantum Darwinism must, therefore, be assumed from outside the quantum-mechanical formalism and without the possibility of experimental demonstration.

  5. Fragmentation of atomic clusters: A theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, M.J.; Jellinek, J.

    1994-01-01

    Collisionless fragmentation of nonrotating model n-atom metal clusters (n=12, 13, and 14) is studied using isoergic molecular-dynamics simulations. Minimum-energy paths for fragmentation are mapped out as functions of the distance between the centers of mass of the fragments. These paths provide information on the fragmentation energies for the different fragmentation channels. Fragmentation patterns (distributions of the fragmentation channel probabilities) and global and channel-specific fragmentation rate constants are computed and analyzed as functions of the internal energy and of the size of the clusters. The trends derived from the dynamics are compared with those obtained using the RRK and TST statistical approaches. The dynamics of the fragmentation process is analyzed in terms of characteristic quantities such as the distance between the centers of mass of the fragments, their relative translational energy, and their interaction energy, all considered as functions of time

  6. A theoretical study of hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrojo, S; Benito, Y

    2008-03-01

    The optimization of hydrodynamic cavitation as an AOP requires identifying the key parameters and studying their effects on the process. Specific simulations of hydrodynamic bubbles reveal that time scales play a major role on the process. Rarefaction/compression periods generate a number of opposing effects which have demonstrated to be quantitatively different from those found in ultrasonic cavitation. Hydrodynamic cavitation can be upscaled and offers an energy efficient way of generating cavitation. On the other hand, the large characteristic time scales hinder bubble collapse and generate a low number of cavitation cycles per unit time. By controlling the pressure pulse through a flexible cavitation chamber design these limitations can be partially compensated. The chemical processes promoted by this technique are also different from those found in ultrasonic cavitation. Properties such as volatility or hydrophobicity determine the potential applicability of HC and therefore have to be taken into account.

  7. Prompt radiation activation analysis, (1) Theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL Barouni, A. M.; Araddad, S. Y.; Mosbah, D. S.; Elfakhri, S. M.; Rateb, J. M.; Benghzail, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    The measurement of the prompt γ following neutron capture in the reaction has been extensively developed. In this method the gamma-ray intensity is depended only upon the radiative capture cross-section and not upon the half-life of the product nucleus. The prompt gamma-ray activation analysis method stems from the radiative capture process which results in the decay of the compound nucleus by the emission of characteristic gamma radiation, either as a single photon with kinetic energy equal to the excitation energy less the recoil energy or, more likely, by a cascade of two or more photons with the same energy. The equations and the computer program required to calculate the yield, the intensity and the K χ emission probability per disintegration, are given in this study.(author)

  8. Theoretical studies of controlled fusion: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krall, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study of low frequency stability in the Field Reversed Configuration (FRC), with emphasis on the transport resulting from this stability behavior. Anomalous transport plays an obvious role in the confinement physics of the Field Reversed Configuration. Other anomalies are also observed, including an apparent absence of MHD instability and, in some cases, of lower-hybrid-drift instability. In current FRC experiments at LANL and Spectra Technology, particle, energy, and magnetic flux loss are observed to differ from classical prediction, both in size and in scaling. Early models proposed to explain that transport properties were based on anomalous radial loss of plasma particles in the vicinity of the separatrix between closed and open field lines produced by lower-hybrid instabilities. Our present work has shown that low frequency drift waves were also unstable in FRC, and produce energy and flux loss consistent with observation. 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Theoretical study of fission dynamics with muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberacker, V.E.; Umar, A.S.; Bottcher, C.; Strayer, M.R.; Maruhn, J.A.; Frankfurt Univ.

    1992-01-01

    Following muon capture by actinide atoms, some of the inner shell muonic transitions proceed by inverse internal conversion, i.e. the excitation energy of the muonic atom is transferred to the nucleus. In particular, the muonic E2:(3d→1s) transition energy is close to the peak of the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance in actinide nuclei which exhibits a large fission width. Prompt fission in the presence of a bound muon allows us to study the dynamics of large-amplitude collective motion. We solve the time-dependent Dirac equation for the muonic spinor wave function in the Coulomb field of the fissioning nucleus on a 3-dimensional lattice and demonstrate that the muon attachment probability to the light fission fragment is a measure of the nuclear energy dissipation between the outer fission barrier and the scission point

  10. Experimental and theoretical study of reflux condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakke, Knut

    1997-12-31

    This thesis studies the separation of gas mixtures in a reflux condenser. also called a dephlegmator. Reflux condensation is separation of a gas mixture, in reflux flow with condensing liquid, under continuous heat removal. A numerical model of a dephlegmator for binary mixtures was developed. The model may readily be extended to multi-component mixtures, as the solution method is based on a matrix solver. Separation of a binary mixture in a reflux condenser test rig is demonstrated. The test facility contains a single-tube test section that was designed and built as part of the project. Test mixtures of propane and n-butane were used, and a total of 15 experiments are reported. Limited degree of separation was achieved due to limited heat transfer area and narrow boiling point range of the test mixture. The numerical model reproduces the experimental data within reasonable accuracy. Deviation between calculated and measured properties is less than 6% of the measured temperature and less than 5% of the measured flow rate. The model is based on mechanistic models of physical processes and is not calibrated or tuned to fit the experimental data. The numerical model is applied to a number of separation processes. These case studies show that the required heat transfer area increases rapidly with increments in top product composition (light component). Flooding limits the amount of reflux liquid. The dephlegmator is suitable for separation of feed mixtures that are rich in light components. The gliding temperature in the dephlegmation process enables utilization of top product as refrigerant, with subsequent energy saving as a result. 61 refs., 50 figs., 34 tabs.

  11. Theoretical studies of homogeneous catalysts mimicking nitrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgrignani, Jacopo; Franco, Duvan; Magistrato, Alessandra

    2011-01-10

    The conversion of molecular nitrogen to ammonia is a key biological and chemical process and represents one of the most challenging topics in chemistry and biology. In Nature the Mo-containing nitrogenase enzymes perform nitrogen 'fixation' via an iron molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) under ambient conditions. In contrast, industrially, the Haber-Bosch process reduces molecular nitrogen and hydrogen to ammonia with a heterogeneous iron catalyst under drastic conditions of temperature and pressure. This process accounts for the production of millions of tons of nitrogen compounds used for agricultural and industrial purposes, but the high temperature and pressure required result in a large energy loss, leading to several economic and environmental issues. During the last 40 years many attempts have been made to synthesize simple homogeneous catalysts that can activate dinitrogen under the same mild conditions of the nitrogenase enzymes. Several compounds, almost all containing transition metals, have been shown to bind and activate N₂ to various degrees. However, to date Mo(N₂)(HIPTN)₃N with (HIPTN)₃N= hexaisopropyl-terphenyl-triamidoamine is the only compound performing this process catalytically. In this review we describe how Density Functional Theory calculations have been of help in elucidating the reaction mechanisms of the inorganic compounds that activate or fix N₂. These studies provided important insights that rationalize and complement the experimental findings about the reaction mechanisms of known catalysts, predicting the reactivity of new potential catalysts and helping in tailoring new efficient catalytic compounds.

  12. Theoretical Studies of Homogeneous Catalysts Mimicking Nitrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Magistrato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of molecular nitrogen to ammonia is a key biological and chemical process and represents one of the most challenging topics in chemistry and biology. In Nature the Mo-containing nitrogenase enzymes perform nitrogen ‘fixation’ via an iron molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co under ambient conditions. In contrast, industrially, the Haber-Bosch process reduces molecular nitrogen and hydrogen to ammonia with a heterogeneous iron catalyst under drastic conditions of temperature and pressure. This process accounts for the production of millions of tons of nitrogen compounds used for agricultural and industrial purposes, but the high temperature and pressure required result in a large energy loss, leading to several economic and environmental issues. During the last 40 years many attempts have been made to synthesize simple homogeneous catalysts that can activate dinitrogen under the same mild conditions of the nitrogenase enzymes. Several compounds, almost all containing transition metals, have been shown to bind and activate N2 to various degrees. However, to date Mo(N2(HIPTN3N with (HIPTN3N= hexaisopropyl-terphenyl-triamidoamine is the only compound performing this process catalytically. In this review we describe how Density Functional Theory calculations have been of help in elucidating the reaction mechanisms of the inorganic compounds that activate or fix N2. These studies provided important insights that rationalize and complement the experimental findings about the reaction mechanisms of known catalysts, predicting the reactivity of new potential catalysts and helping in tailoring new efficient catalytic compounds.

  13. Theoretical study of cisplatin adsorption on silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonetti, S., E-mail: ssimonet@uns.edu.ar [Departamento de Fisica and IFISUR, Universidad Nacional del Sur-CONICET, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Departamentos de Ciencias Basicas e Ingenieria Mecanica, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, 11 de Abril 461, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Company, A. Diaz; Brizuela, G.; Juan, A. [Departamento de Fisica and IFISUR, Universidad Nacional del Sur-CONICET, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2011-11-15

    The adsorption of cisplatin and its complexes, cis-[PtCl(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +} and cis-[Pt(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup 2+}, on a SiO{sub 2}(1 1 1) hydrated surface has been studied by the Atom Superposition and Electron Delocalization method. The adiabatic energy curves for the adsorption of the drug and its products on the delivery system were considered. The electronic structure and bonding analysis were also performed. The molecule-surface interactions are formed at expenses of the OH surface bonds. The more important interactions are the Cl-H bond for cis-[PtCl{sub 2}(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}] and cis-[PtCl(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +} adsorptions, and the Pt-O interaction for cis-[Pt(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup 2+} adsorption. The Cl p orbitals and Pt s, p y d orbitals of the molecule and its complexes, and the s H orbital and, the s and p orbitals of the O atoms of the hydrated surface are the main contribution to the surface bonds.

  14. GLOBAL SOURCING: A THEORETICAL STUDY ON TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytac GOKMEN

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Global sourcing is to source from the global market for goods and services across national boundaries in order to take advantage of the global efficiencies in the delivery of a product or service. Such efficiencies are consists of low cost skilled labor, low cost raw materials and other economic factors like tax breaks and deductions as well as low trade tariffs. When we assess the case regarding to Turkey, global sourcing is an effective device for some firms. The domestic firms in Turkey at various industries are inclined to global source finished or intermediate goods from the world markets, finish the production process in Turkey and export. Eventually, on the one hand the export volume of Turkey increases, but on the other hand the import of a considerable volume of finished or intermediate goods bring about a negative trade balance and loss of jobs in Turkey. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess the concept of global sourcing transactions on Turkey resting on comprehensive publications.

  15. [Studies in quantum field theory: Progress report, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Professors Bender, Bernard, and Shrauner, Assistant Professors Ogilvie and Goltermann, Research Assistant Professors Visser and Petcher, and Research Associate Rivas are currently conducting research in many areas of high energy theoretical and mathematical physics. These areas include: lattice gauge calculations of masses and weak matrix elements; strong-coupling approximation; low-energy effective field theories; classical solutions of non-Abelian gauge theories; mean-field approximation in quantum field theory; path integral and coherent state representations in quantum field theory; the nature of perturbation theory in large order; quark condensation in QCD; chiral fermion theories on the lattice; the 1/N expansion in quantum field theory; effective potential and action in quantum field theories, including QCD; studies of the early universe and inflation; quantum gravity. This work is described in detail in the body of this proposal

  16. Theoretical studies of solar pumped lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Wynford L.

    1990-01-01

    One concept for collecting solar energy is to use large solar collectors and then use lasers as energy converters whose output beams act as transmission lines to deliver the energy to a destination. The efficiency of the process would be improved if the conversion could be done directly using solar pumped lasers, and the possibility of making such lasers is studied. There are many applications for such lasers, and these are examined. By including the applications first, the requirements for the lasers will be more evident. They are especially applicable to the Space program, and include cases where no other methods of delivering power seem possible. Using the lasers for conveying information and surveillance is also discussed. Many difficulties confront the designer of an efficient system for power conversion. These involve the nature of the solar spectrum, the method of absorbing the energy, the transfer of power into laser beams, and finally, the far field patterns of the beams. The requirements of the lasers are discussed. Specific laser configurations are discussed. The thrust is into gas laser systems, because for space applications, the laser could be large, and also the medium would be uniform and not subject to thermal stresses. Dye and solid lasers are treated briefly. For gas lasers, a chart of the various possibilities is shown, and the various families of gas lasers divided according to the mechanisms of absorbing solar radiation and of lasing. Several specific models are analyzed and evaluated. Overall conclusions for the program are summarized, and the performances of the lasers related to the requirements of various applications.

  17. Theoretical and Experimental Studies in Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenzweig, James [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2017-03-08

    . We note also that PBPL graduates remain as close elaborators for the program after leaving UCLA. The UCLA PBPL program is a foremost developer of on-campus facilities, such as the Neptune and Pegasus Laboratories, providing a uniquely strong environment for student-based research. In addition, the PBPL is a strong user of off-campus national lab facilities, such as SLAC FACET and NLCTA, and the BNL ATF. UCLA has also vigorously participated in the development of these facilities. The dual emphases on off- and on-campus opportunities permit the PBPL to address in an agile way a wide selection of cutting-edge research topics. The topics embraced by this proposal illustrate this program aspect well. These include: GV/m dielectric wakefield acceleration/coherent Cerenkov radiation experiments at FACET (E-201) and the ATF; synergistic laser-excited dielectric accelerator and light source development; plasma wakefield (PWFA) experiments on “Trojan horse” ionization injection (FACET E-210), quasi-nonlinear PWFA at BNL and the production at Neptune high transformer ratio plasma wakes; the inauguration of a new type of RF photoinjector termed “hybrid” at UCLA, and application to PWFA; space-charge dominated beam and cathode/near cathode physics; the study of advanced IFEL systems, for very high energy gain and utilization of novel OAM modes; the physcis of inverse Compton scattering (ICS), with applications to e+ production and γγ colliders; electron diffraction; and advanced beam diagnostics using coherent imaging techniques. These subjects are addressed under the leadership of PBPL director Prof. James Rosenzweig in Task A, and Prof. Pietro Musumeci in Task J, which was initiated following his OHEP Outstanding Junior Investigator award.

  18. A new class of ensemble conserving algorithms for approximate quantum dynamics: Theoretical formulation and model problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Kyle K. G.; Poulsen, Jens Aage; Nyman, Gunnar; Rossky, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    We develop two classes of quasi-classical dynamics that are shown to conserve the initial quantum ensemble when used in combination with the Feynman-Kleinert approximation of the density operator. These dynamics are used to improve the Feynman-Kleinert implementation of the classical Wigner approximation for the evaluation of quantum time correlation functions known as Feynman-Kleinert linearized path-integral. As shown, both classes of dynamics are able to recover the exact classical and high temperature limits of the quantum time correlation function, while a subset is able to recover the exact harmonic limit. A comparison of the approximate quantum time correlation functions obtained from both classes of dynamics is made with the exact results for the challenging model problems of the quartic and double-well potentials. It is found that these dynamics provide a great improvement over the classical Wigner approximation, in which purely classical dynamics are used. In a special case, our first method becomes identical to centroid molecular dynamics

  19. Experimental and theoretical studies of bombardment induced surface morphology changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Williams, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    In this review results of experimental and theoretical studies of solid surface morphology changes due to ion bombardment are discussed. An attempt is undertaken to classify the observed specific features of a structure, generated by ion bombardment [ru

  20. Theoretical Studies of Elementary Hydrocarbon Species and Their Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Wesley D. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry. Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry; Schaefer, III, Henry F. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry. Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry

    2015-11-14

    This is the final report of the theoretical studies of elementary hydrocarbon species and their reactions. Part A has a bibliography of publications supported by DOE from 2010 to 2016 and Part B goes into recent research highlights.

  1. Theoretical Advanced Study Institute in Elementary Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The program will consist of a pedagogical series of lectures and seminars. Lectures will be given over a four-week period, three or four lectures per day, Monday through Friday. The audience will be composed primarily of advanced theoretical graduate students. Experimentalists with a strong background in theory are also encouraged to apply. Some post-doctoral fellows will be admitted, but preference will be given to applicants who will not have received their Ph.D. before 2017. The minimum background needed to get full benefit of TASI is a knowledge of quantum field theory (including RGEs) and familiarity with the Standard Model. Some familiarity with SUSY would be helpful. We hope to provide some subsidy, but students will need partial support from other sources. Rooms, meals, and access to all facilities will be provided at reasonable rates in beautifully located dormitories at the University of Colorado.

  2. Study of silicon microstrips detector quantum efficiency using mathematical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva Pernia, Diana; Cabal Rodriguez, Ana Ester; Pinnera Hernandez, Ibrahin; Fabelo, Antonio Leyva; Abreu Alfonso, Yamiel; Cruz Inclan, Carlos M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper shows the results from the application of mathematical simulation to study the quantum efficiency of a microstrips crystalline silicon detector, intended for medical imaging and the development of other applications such as authentication and dating of cultural heritage. The effects on the quantum efficiency of some parameters of the system, such as the detector-source geometry, X rays energy and detector dead zone thickness, were evaluated. The simulation results were compared with the theoretical prediction and experimental available data, resulting in a proper correspondence. It was concluded that the use of frontal configuration for incident energies lower than 17 keV is more efficient, however the use of the edge-on configuration for applications requiring the detection of energy above this value is recommended. It was also found that the reduction of the detector dead zone led to a considerable increase in quantum efficiency for any energy value in the interval from 5 to 100 keV.(author)

  3. Semiempirical Theoretical Studies of 1,3-Benzodioxole Derivatives as Corrosion Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omnia A. A. El-Shamy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of 1,3-benzodioxole derivatives as corrosion inhibitors is theoretically studied using quantum chemical calculation and Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR. Different semiempirical methods (AM1, PM3, MNDO, MINDO/3, and INDO are applied in order to determine the relationship between molecular structure and their corrosion protection efficiencies. Different quantum parameters are obtained as the energy of highest occupied molecular orbital EHOMO, the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital ELUMO, energy gap ΔEg, dipole moment μ, and Mulliken charge on the atom. QSAR approach is applied to elucidate some important parameters as the hydrophobicity (Log P, surface area (S.A, polarization (P, and hydration energy (EHyd.

  4. Quantum field-theoretical description of neutrino and neutral kaon oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volobuev, Igor P.

    2018-05-01

    It is shown that the neutrino and neutral kaon oscillation processes can be consistently described in quantum field theory using only plane waves of the mass eigenstates of neutrinos and neutral kaons. To this end, the standard perturbative S-matrix formalism is modified so that it can be used for calculating the amplitudes of the processes passing at finite distances and finite time intervals. The distance-dependent and time-dependent parts of the amplitudes of the neutrino and neutral kaon oscillation processes are calculated and the results turn out to be in accordance with those of the standard quantum mechanical description of these processes based on the notion of neutrino flavor states and neutral kaon states with definite strangeness. However, the physical picture of the phenomena changes radically: now, there are no oscillations of flavor or definite strangeness states, but, instead of it, there is interference of amplitudes due to different virtual mass eigenstates.

  5. Theoretical observation of two state lasing from InAs/InP quantum-dash lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2011-09-01

    The effect of cavity length on the lasing wavelength of InAs/InP quantum dash (Qdash) laser is examined using the carrier-photon rate equation model including the carrier relaxation process from the Qdash ground state and excited state. Both, homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening has been incorporated in the model. We show that ground state lasing occurs with longer cavity lasers and excited state lasing occurs from relatively short cavity lasers. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. Theoretical study of nuclear physics with strangeness at Nankai University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Pingzhi

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical study of nuclear physics with strangeness from the nuclear physics group at Nankai university is briefly introduced. Theoretical calculations on hyperon mean free paths in nuclear medium have been done. The other 4 topics in the area of strangeness nuclear physics are the effect of different baryon impurities in nucleus, the heavy flavored baryon hypernuclei, the eta-mesons in nuclear matter and the properties of kaonic nuclei. (authors)

  7. Quantum measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Paul; Pellonpää, Juha-Pekka; Ylinen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    This is a book about the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics and its measurement theory. It contains a synopsis of what became of the Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics since von Neumann’s classic treatise with this title. Fundamental non-classical features of quantum mechanics—indeterminacy and incompatibility of observables, unavoidable measurement disturbance, entanglement, nonlocality—are explicated and analysed using the tools of operational quantum theory. The book is divided into four parts: 1. Mathematics provides a systematic exposition of the Hilbert space and operator theoretic tools and relevant measure and integration theory leading to the Naimark and Stinespring dilation theorems; 2. Elements develops the basic concepts of quantum mechanics and measurement theory with a focus on the notion of approximate joint measurability; 3. Realisations offers in-depth studies of the fundamental observables of quantum mechanics and some of their measurement implementations; and 4....

  8. Quantum chimera states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viennot, David, E-mail: david.viennot@utinam.cnrs.fr; Aubourg, Lucile

    2016-02-15

    We study a theoretical model of closed quasi-hermitian chain of spins which exhibits quantum analogues of chimera states, i.e. long life classical states for which a part of an oscillator chain presents an ordered dynamics whereas another part presents a disordered dynamics. For the quantum analogue, the chimera behaviour deals with the entanglement between the spins of the chain. We discuss the entanglement properties, quantum chaos, quantum disorder and semi-classical similarity of our quantum chimera system. The quantum chimera concept is novel and induces new perspectives concerning the entanglement of multipartite systems. - Highlights: • We propose a spin chain model with long range couplings having purely quantum states similar to the classical chimera states. • The quantum chimera states are characterized by the coexistence of strongly entangled and non-entangled spins in the same chain. • The quantum chimera states present some characteristics of quantum chaos.

  9. Quantum chimera states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viennot, David; Aubourg, Lucile

    2016-01-01

    We study a theoretical model of closed quasi-hermitian chain of spins which exhibits quantum analogues of chimera states, i.e. long life classical states for which a part of an oscillator chain presents an ordered dynamics whereas another part presents a disordered dynamics. For the quantum analogue, the chimera behaviour deals with the entanglement between the spins of the chain. We discuss the entanglement properties, quantum chaos, quantum disorder and semi-classical similarity of our quantum chimera system. The quantum chimera concept is novel and induces new perspectives concerning the entanglement of multipartite systems. - Highlights: • We propose a spin chain model with long range couplings having purely quantum states similar to the classical chimera states. • The quantum chimera states are characterized by the coexistence of strongly entangled and non-entangled spins in the same chain. • The quantum chimera states present some characteristics of quantum chaos.

  10. Theoretical study of adsorption of lithium atom on carbon nanotube

    OpenAIRE

    Senami, Masato; Ikeda, Yuji; Fukushima, Akinori; Tachibana, Akitomo

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the adsorption of lithium atoms on the surface of the (12, 0) single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) by using ab initio quantum chemical calculations. The adsorption of one lithium atom on the inside of this SWCNT is favored compared to the outside. We check this feature by charge transfer and regional chemical potential density. The adsorption of multiple lithium atoms on the interior of the SWCNT is studied in terms of adsorption energy and charge transfer. We show that repulsiv...

  11. Physics. Pt. 2. Atomic, molecular, and quantum physics - experimental and theoretical foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, R.

    2007-01-01

    The experimental and theoretical foundations of physics are mediated in this course in integrated representation. Many exercise problems deepen the understanding and help directedly in the preparation of clausures and examinations. The pictures are always in two colours. The present volume contains all themes of modern physics

  12. Simple theoretical analysis of the photoemission from quantum confined effective mass superlattices of optoelectronic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis De

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The photoemission from quantum wires and dots of effective mass superlattices of optoelectronic materials was investigated on the basis of newly formulated electron energy spectra, in the presence of external light waves, which controls the transport properties of ultra-small electronic devices under intense radiation. The effect of magnetic quantization on the photoemission from the aforementioned superlattices, together with quantum well superlattices under magnetic quantization, has also been investigated in this regard. It appears, taking HgTe/Hg1−xCdxTe and InxGa1−xAs/InP effective mass superlattices, that the photoemission from these quantized structures is enhanced with increasing photon energy in quantized steps and shows oscillatory dependences with the increasing carrier concentration. In addition, the photoemission decreases with increasing light intensity and wavelength as well as with increasing thickness exhibiting oscillatory spikes. The strong dependence of the photoemission on the light intensity reflects the direct signature of light waves on the carrier energy spectra. The content of this paper finds six different applications in the fields of low dimensional systems in general.

  13. An experimental and theoretical study of reaction steps relevant to the methanol-to-hydrocarbons reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svelle, Stian

    2004-07-01

    The primary objective of the present work is to obtain new insight into the reaction mechanism of the zeolite catalyzed methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) reaction. It was decided to use both experimental and computational techniques to reach this goal. An investigation of the n-butene + methanol system was therefore initiated. Over time, it became apparent that it was possible to determine the rate for the methylation of n-butene by methanol. The ethene and propene systems were therefore reexamined in order to collect kinetic information also for those cases. With the development of user-friendly quantum chemistry programs such as the Gaussian suite of programs, the possibility of applying quantum chemical methods to many types of problems has become readily available even for non-experts. When performing mechanistic studies, there is quite often a considerable synergy effect when combining experimental and computational approaches. The methylation reactions mentioned above turned out to be an issue well suited for quantum chemical investigations. The incentive for examining the halomethane reactivity was the clear analogy to the MTH reaction system. Alkene dimerization was also a reaction readily examined with quantum chemistry. As discussed in the introduction of this thesis, polymethylbenzenes, or their cationic counterparts, are suspected to be key intermediates in the MTH reaction. It was therefore decided to investigate the intrinsic reactivity of these species in the gas-phase by employing sophisticated mass spectrometric (MS) techniques in collaboration with the MS group at the Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo The data thus obtained will also be compared with results from an ongoing computational study on gas phase polymethylbenzenium reactivity. 6 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) A Theoretical Investigation of the Methylation of Alkenes with Methanol over Acidic Zeolites. 2) A Theoretical Investigation of the

  14. An experimental and theoretical study of reaction steps relevant to the methanol-to-hydrocarbons reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svelle, Stian

    2004-07-01

    The primary objective of the present work is to obtain new insight into the reaction mechanism of the zeolite catalyzed methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) reaction. It was decided to use both experimental and computational techniques to reach this goal. An investigation of the n-butene + methanol system was therefore initiated. Over time, it became apparent that it was possible to determine the rate for the methylation of n-butene by methanol. The ethene and propene systems were therefore reexamined in order to collect kinetic information also for those cases. With the development of user-friendly quantum chemistry programs such as the Gaussian suite of programs, the possibility of applying quantum chemical methods to many types of problems has become readily available even for non-experts. When performing mechanistic studies, there is quite often a considerable synergy effect when combining experimental and computational approaches. The methylation reactions mentioned above turned out to be an issue well suited for quantum chemical investigations. The incentive for examining the halomethane reactivity was the clear analogy to the MTH reaction system. Alkene dimerization was also a reaction readily examined with quantum chemistry. As discussed in the introduction of this thesis, polymethylbenzenes, or their cationic counterparts, are suspected to be key intermediates in the MTH reaction. It was therefore decided to investigate the intrinsic reactivity of these species in the gas-phase by employing sophisticated mass spectrometric (MS) techniques in collaboration with the MS group at the Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo The data thus obtained will also be compared with results from an ongoing computational study on gas phase polymethylbenzenium reactivity. 6 papers presenting various studies are included. The titles are: 1) A Theoretical Investigation of the Methylation of Alkenes with Methanol over Acidic Zeolites. 2) A Theoretical Investigation of the

  15. 3. Theoretical Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the period September 1980 - Aug 1981, the studies in theoretical physics divisions have been compiled under the following headings: in nuclear physics, nuclear structure, nuclear reactions and intermediate energies; in particle physics, NN and NantiN interactions, dual topological unitarization, quark model and quantum chromodynamics, classical and quantum field theories, non linear integrable equations and topological preons and Grand unified theories. A list of publications, lectures and meetings is included [fr

  16. An Activity Theoretical Approach to Social Interaction during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Rachel L.

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines how one study abroad student oriented to social interaction during a semester in Spain. Using an activity theoretical approach, the findings indicate that the student not only viewed social interaction with his Spanish host family and an expert-Spanish-speaking age peer as an opportunity for second language (L2) learning,…

  17. Diffusion in liquids a theoretical and experimental study

    CERN Document Server

    Tyrrell, H J V

    1984-01-01

    Diffusion in Liquids: A Theoretical and Experimental Study aims to discuss the principles, applications, and advances in the field of diffusion, thermal diffusion, and thermal conduction in liquid systems. The book covers topics such as the principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics; diffusion in binary and multicompetent systems; and experimental methods of studying diffusion processes in liquids. Also covered in the book are topics such as the theoretical interpretations of diffusion coefficients; hydrodynamic and kinetic theories; and diffusion in electrolyte systems. The text is recommen

  18. Theoretical treatment of photodissociation of water by time-dependent quantum mechanical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weide, K.

    1993-01-01

    An algorithm for wavepacket propagation, based on Kosloff's method of expansion of the time evolution operator in terms of Chebychev polynomials, and some details of its implementation are described. With the programs developed, quantum-mechanical calculations for up to three independent molecular coordinates are possible and feasible and therefore photodissociation of non-rotating triatomic molecules can be treated exactly. The angular degree of freedom here is handled by expansion in terms of free diatomic rotor states. The time-dependent wave packet picture is compared with the more traditional view of stationary wave functions, and both are used to interpret computational results where appropriate. Two-dimensional calculations have been performed to explain several experimental observations about water photodissociation. All calculations are based on ab initio potential energy surfaces, and it is explained in each case why it is reasonable to neglect the third degree of freedom. Many experimental results are reproduced quantitatively. (orig.) [de

  19. Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives on Designing Video Studies of Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lena Rostvall

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors discuss the theoretical basis for the methodological decisions made during the course of a Swedish research project on interaction and learning. The purpose is to discuss how different theories are applied at separate levels of the study. The study is structured on three levels, with separate sets of research questions and theoretical concepts. The levels reflect a close-up description, a systematic analysis, and an interpretation of how teachers and students act and interact. The data consist of 12 hours of video-recorded and transcribed music lessons from high school and college. Through a multidisciplinary theoretical framework, the general understanding of teaching and learning in terms of interaction can be widened. The authors also present a software tool developed to facilitate the processes of transcription and analysis of the video data.

  20. Photoluminescence studies of single InGaAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are considered a promising material system for future optical devices and quantum computers. We have studied the low-temperature photoluminescence properties of single InGaAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs. The high spatial resolution required for resolving single dots...... to resolve luminescence lines from individual quantum dots, revealing an atomic-like spectrum of sharp transition lines. A parameter of fundamental importance is the intrinsic linewidth of these transitions. Using high-resolution spectroscopy we have determined the linewidth and investigated its dependence...... on temperature, which gives information about how the exciton confined to the quantum dot interacts with the surrounding lattice....

  1. Physics. Experimental and theoretical foundations. Pt. 3. Atomic, molecular, and quantum physics. 2. ed.; Physik. Experimentelle und theoretische Grundlagen. T. 3. Atom-, Molekuel- und Quantenphysik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Reinhart [Konstanz Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    2012-07-01

    This textbook mediates in three volumes the matter of the first four semester of the bachelor respectively master course. The otherwise generally usual separate presentation of experimental and theoretical physics is canceled in favor of an integrated treatment. The advances are obvious: The studying is enabled to learn to understand knowledge gotten by means of experiments also immediately in a quantitative formulation. The can equally be used as textbook to an integrated course and to separated courses. Because the relevant theoretical concepts are developed without gap a special book of theoretical physics is unnecessary. Numerous exercise problems deepen the understanding and help directly in the preparation for examinations. The illustrations are mostly presented in two colours. Volume III treats atomic and molecular physics. After a semiclassical presentation the quantum-mechanical foundations are developed and in the following chapters applied to atomic systems and processes. An introduction in the foundations and application of the laser. The closure is formed by a chapter about entangled systems.

  2. Theoretical studies of three triazole derivatives as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in acidic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Lei; Zhu, Shanhong; Zhang, Shengtao; He, Qiao; Li, Weihua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three triazole derivatives as corrosion inhibitors were theoretically investigated. • Quantum chemical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations were performed. • Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) approach has been used. • Theoretical conclusions are validated by the consistency with experimental findings. - Abstract: Corrosion inhibitive performance of 4-chloro-acetophenone-O-1′-(1′.3′.4′-triazolyl)-metheneoxime (CATM), 4-fluoro-acetophenone-O-1′-(1′.3′.4′-triazolyl)-metheneoxime (FATM), and 3,4-dichloro-acetophenone-O-1′-(1′.3′.4′-triazolyl)-metheneoxime (DATM) during the acidic corrosion of mild steel surface was investigated using density functional theory (DFT). Quantum chemical parameters such as the highest occupied molecular orbital energy (E HOMO ), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy (E LUMO ), energy gap (ΔE), Mulliken charges, hardness (ξ), dipole moment (μ), and the fraction of electrons transferred (ΔN), were calculated. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) approach has been used, and a composite index of above-mentioned descriptors was performed to characterize the inhibition performance of the studied molecules. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulation studies were applied to search for the best configurational space of iron/triazole derivative system

  3. Quantum Mechanical Study of Atoms and Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, R. C.

    1961-01-01

    This paper, following a brief introduction, is divided into five parts. Part I outlines the theory of the molecular orbital method for the ground, ionized and excited states of molecules. Part II gives a brief summary of the interaction integrals and their tabulation. Part III outlines an automatic program designed for the computation of various states of molecules. Part IV gives examples of the study of ground, ionized and excited states of CO, BH and N2 where the program of automatic computation and molecular integrals have been utilized. Part V enlists some special problems of Molecular Quantum Mechanics are being tackled at New York University.

  4. [Establishment of the mathematic model of total quantum statistical moment standard similarity for application to medical theoretical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fu-yuan; Deng, Kai-wen; Huang, Sheng; Liu, Wen-long; Shi, Ji-lian

    2013-09-01

    The paper aims to elucidate and establish a new mathematic model: the total quantum statistical moment standard similarity (TQSMSS) on the base of the original total quantum statistical moment model and to illustrate the application of the model to medical theoretical research. The model was established combined with the statistical moment principle and the normal distribution probability density function properties, then validated and illustrated by the pharmacokinetics of three ingredients in Buyanghuanwu decoction and of three data analytical method for them, and by analysis of chromatographic fingerprint for various extracts with different solubility parameter solvents dissolving the Buyanghanwu-decoction extract. The established model consists of four mainly parameters: (1) total quantum statistical moment similarity as ST, an overlapped area by two normal distribution probability density curves in conversion of the two TQSM parameters; (2) total variability as DT, a confidence limit of standard normal accumulation probability which is equal to the absolute difference value between the two normal accumulation probabilities within integration of their curve nodical; (3) total variable probability as 1-Ss, standard normal distribution probability within interval of D(T); (4) total variable probability (1-beta)alpha and (5) stable confident probability beta(1-alpha): the correct probability to make positive and negative conclusions under confident coefficient alpha. With the model, we had analyzed the TQSMS similarities of pharmacokinetics of three ingredients in Buyanghuanwu decoction and of three data analytical methods for them were at range of 0.3852-0.9875 that illuminated different pharmacokinetic behaviors of each other; and the TQSMS similarities (ST) of chromatographic fingerprint for various extracts with different solubility parameter solvents dissolving Buyanghuanwu-decoction-extract were at range of 0.6842-0.999 2 that showed different constituents

  5. Theoretical nuclear reaction and structure studies using hyperons and photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotanch, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    This report details research progress and results obtained during the 12 month period from January 1991 through 31 December 1991. The research project, entitled ''Theoretical Nuclear Reaction and Structure Studies Using Hyperons and Photons,'' is supported by grant DE-FG05-88ER40461 between North Carolina State University and the United States Department of Energy. In compliance with grant requirements the Principal Investigator, Professor Stephen R. Cotanch, has conducted a research program addressing theoretical investigations of reactions involving hyperons and photons. The new, significant research results are briefly summarized in the following sections

  6. Nanophotonic quantum computer based on atomic quantum transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, S N; Moiseev, S A

    2015-01-01

    We propose a scheme of a quantum computer based on nanophotonic elements: two buses in the form of nanowaveguide resonators, two nanosized units of multiatom multiqubit quantum memory and a set of nanoprocessors in the form of photonic quantum transistors, each containing a pair of nanowaveguide ring resonators coupled via a quantum dot. The operation modes of nanoprocessor photonic quantum transistors are theoretically studied and the execution of main logical operations by means of them is demonstrated. We also discuss the prospects of the proposed nanophotonic quantum computer for operating in high-speed optical fibre networks. (quantum computations)

  7. Nanophotonic quantum computer based on atomic quantum transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrianov, S N [Institute of Advanced Research, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, Kazan (Russian Federation); Moiseev, S A [Kazan E. K. Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute, Kazan Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-31

    We propose a scheme of a quantum computer based on nanophotonic elements: two buses in the form of nanowaveguide resonators, two nanosized units of multiatom multiqubit quantum memory and a set of nanoprocessors in the form of photonic quantum transistors, each containing a pair of nanowaveguide ring resonators coupled via a quantum dot. The operation modes of nanoprocessor photonic quantum transistors are theoretically studied and the execution of main logical operations by means of them is demonstrated. We also discuss the prospects of the proposed nanophotonic quantum computer for operating in high-speed optical fibre networks. (quantum computations)

  8. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, S.J.

    1991-05-01

    This report discusses topics in the following areas: Hadronic structure; hadrons in nuclei; hot hadronic matter; relativistic nuclear physics and NN interaction; leptonic emissions from high-Z heavy ion collisions; theoretical studies of heavy ion dynamics; nuclear pre-equilibrium reactions; classical chaotic dynamics and nuclear structure; and, theory of nuclear fission

  9. A theoretical study of absorption equilibria in silicon CVD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Giling, L.J.; de Jong, F.; van der Eerden, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    As part of a theoretical study of adsorption processes in the chemical vapour deposition of silicon, thermochemical data are derived for the adsorption of Si-H species on the Si(111) and the dimer-reconstructed Si(001)-(2 x 1) surfaces. Essential contributions to the heats of adsorption appear to be

  10. Theoretical studies of transition metal complexes with nitriles and isocyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Maksim L

    2002-01-01

    Theoretical studies of transition metal complexes with nitriles and isocyanides are reviewed. The electronic structures and the nature of coordination bonds in these complexes are discussed. The correlation between the electronic structures of transition metal complexes with nitriles and isocyanides and their structural properties, spectroscopic characteristics, and reactivities are considered. The bibliography includes 121 references.

  11. A theoretical study on interaction of proline with gold cluster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with Au3 (Pakiari and Jamshidi 2007) and interaction of. ∗. Author for correspondence (harjinder.singh@iiit.ac.in) small gold clusters with xDNA base pairs (Sharma et al. 2009) have motivated us to carry out a theoretical study on interaction of proline with gold nanoparticles. Proline is unique among the natural amino acids ...

  12. Theoretical study of catalytic hydrogenation of oxirane and its methyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C3H6O) is its methyl derivative. Theoretical studies on catalytic hydrogenation of both compounds, in presence of aluminium chloride (AlCl3) catalyst, are carried out. The products of reactions are ethanol and propan-1-ol from oxirane and ...

  13. Theoretical study of n-alkane adsorption on metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morikawa, Yoshitada; Ishii, Hisao; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2004-01-01

    The interaction between n-alkane and metal surfaces has been studied by means of density-functional theoretical calculations within a generalized gradient approximation (GGA). We demonstrate that although the GGA cannot reproduce the physisorption energy well, our calculations can reproduce the e...

  14. Studies on quantum field theory and statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation is a summary of research in various areas of theoretical physics and is divided into three parts. In the first part, quantum fluctuations of the recently proposed superconducting cosmic strings are studied. It is found that vortices on the string world sheet represent an important class of fluctuation modes which tend to disorder the system. Both heuristic arguments and detailed renormalization group analysis reveal that these vortices do not appear in bound pairs but rather from a gas of free vortices. Based on this observation we argue that this fluctuation mode violates the topological conservation law on which superconductivity is based. Anomalies and topological aspects of supersymmetric quantum field theories are studied in the second part of this dissertation. Using the superspace formulation of the N = 1 spinning string, we obtain a path integral measure which is free from the world-sheet general coordinate as well as the supersymmetry anomalies and therefore determine the conformal anomaly and critical dimension of the spinning string. We also apply Fujikawa's formalism to computer the chiral anomaly in conformal as well as ordinary supergravity. Finally, we given a Noether-method construction of the supersymmetrized Chern-Simons term in five dimensional supergravity. In the last part of this dissertation, the soliton excitations in the quarter-filled Peierls-Hubbard model are investigated in both the large and the small U limit. For a strictly one dimensional system at zero temperature, we find that solitons in both limits are in one-to-one correspondence, while in the presence of weak three dimensional couplings or at finite temperature, the large U systems differ qualitatively from the small U systems in that the spin associated with the solitons ceases to be a sharp quantum observable

  15. Dissociation of the Phenylarsane Molecular Ion: A Theoretical Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Young; Choe, Joong Chul [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    The potential energy surfaces (PESs) for the primary and secondary dissociations of the phenylarsane molecular ion (1a) were determined from the quantum chemical calculations using the G3(MP2)//B3LYP method. Several pathways for the loss of H· were determined and occurred though rearrangements as well as through direct bond cleavages. The kinetic analysis based on the PES for the primary dissociation showed that the loss of H{sub 2} was more favored than the loss of H·, but the H· loss competed with the H{sub 2} loss at high energies. The bicyclic isomer, 7-arsa-norcaradiene radical cation, was formed through the 1,2 shift of an α-H of 1a and played an important role as an intermediate for the further rearrangements in the loss of H· and the losses of As· and AsH. The reaction pathways for the formation of the major products in the secondary dissociations of [M-H]{sup +} and [M-H{sub 2}]{sup +·} were examined. The theoretical prediction explained the previous experimental results for the dissociation at high energies but not the dissociation at low energies.

  16. Optical gain coefficients of silicon: a theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chin-Yi

    2018-05-01

    A theoretical model is presented and an explicit formula is derived for calculating the optical gain coefficients of indirect band-gap semiconductors. This model is based on the second-order time-dependent perturbation theory of quantum mechanics by incorporating all the eight processes of photon/phonon emission and absorption between the band edges of the conduction and valence bands. Numerical calculation results are given for Si. The calculated absorption coefficients agree well with the existing fitting formula of experiment data with two modes of phonons: optical phonons with energy of 57.73 meV and acoustic phonons with energy of 18.27 meV near (but not exactly at) the zone edge of the X-point in the dispersion relation of phonons. These closely match with existing data of 57.5 meV transverse optical (TO) phonons at the X4-point and 18.6 meV transverse acoustic (TA) phonons at the X3-point of the zone edge. The calculated results show that the material optical gain of Si will overcome free-carrier absorption if the energy separation of quasi-Fermi levels between electrons and holes exceeds 1.15 eV.

  17. Theoretical study of adsorption of lithium atom on carbon nanotube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Senami

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the adsorption of lithium atoms on the surface of the (12,0 single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT by using ab initio quantum chemical calculations. The adsorption of one lithium atom on the inside of this SWCNT is favored compared to the outside. We check this feature by charge transfer and regional chemical potential density. The adsorption of multiple lithium atoms on the interior of the SWCNT is studied in terms of adsorption energy and charge transfer. We show that repulsive force between lithium atoms destabilizes a system for the large number of lithium atoms.

  18. On the relation of the theoretical foundations of quantum theory and general relativity theory; Ueber die Beziehung der begrifflichen Grundlagen der Quantentheorie und der Allgemeinen Relativitaetstheorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kober, Martin

    2010-07-01

    The specific content of the present thesis is presented in the following way. First the most important contents of quantum theory and general relativity theory are presented. In connection with the general relativity theory the mathematical property of the diffeomorphism invariance plays the deciding role, while concerning the quantum theory starting from the Copenhagen interpretation first the measurement problem is treated, before basing on the analysis of concrete phenomena and the mathematical apparatus of quantum theory the nonlocality is brought into focus as an important property. This means that both theories suggest a relationalistic view of the nature of the space. This analysis of the theoretical foundations of quantum theory and general relativity theory in relation to the nature of the space obtains only under inclusion of Kant's philosophy and his analysis of the terms space and time as fundamental forms of perception its full persuasive power. Then von Weizsaeckers quantum theory of the ur-alternatives is presented. Finally attempts are made to apply the obtained knowledge to the question of the quantum-theoretical formulation of general relativity theory.

  19. Quantum oscillations and key theoretical issues in high temperature superconductors from the perspective of density waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, Sudip

    2011-01-01

    High temperature superconductivity in cuprate superconductors remains an unsolved problem in theoretical physics. The same statement can also be made about a number of other superconductors that have been dubbed novel. What makes these superconductors so elusive is an interesting question in itself. This paper focuses on the recent magnetic oscillation experiments and how they fit into the broader picture. Many aspects of these experiments can be explained by Fermi liquid theory; the key issue is the extent to which this is true. If true, the entire paradigm developed over the past three decades must be reexamined. A critical analysis of this issue has necessitated a broader analysis of questions about distinct ground states of matter, which may be useful in understanding other novel superconductors.

  20. Quantum physics, mini black holes, and the multiverse debunking common misconceptions in theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nomura, Yasunori; Terning, John; Nekoogar, Farzad

    2018-01-01

    "Modern physics is rife with provocative and fascinating ideas, from quantum mechanics to the multiverse. But as interesting as these concepts are, they are also easy to understand. This book, written with deft hands by true experts in the field, helps to illuminate some of the most important and game-changing ideas in physics today."                                                                                                  Sean M. Carroll   "The Multiversal book series is equally unique, providing book-length extensions of the lectures with enough additional depth for those who truly want to explore these fields, while also providing the kind of clarity that is appropriate for interested lay people to grasp the general principles involved. "                                                                                                   Lawrence M. Krauss Th...

  1. Theoretical Studies of Spectroscopic Line Mixing in Remote Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The phenomenon of collisional transfer of intensity due to line mixing has an increasing importance for atmospheric monitoring. From a theoretical point of view, all relevant information about the collisional processes is contained in the relaxation matrix where the diagonal elements give half-widths and shifts, and the off-diagonal elements correspond to line interferences. For simple systems such as those consisting of diatom-atom or diatom-diatom, accurate fully quantum calculations based on interaction potentials are feasible. However, fully quantum calculations become unrealistic for more complex systems. On the other hand, the semi-classical Robert-Bonamy (RB) formalism, which has been widely used to calculate half-widths and shifts for decades, fails in calculating the off-diagonal matrix elements. As a result, in order to simulate atmospheric spectra where the effects from line mixing are important, semi-empirical fitting or scaling laws such as the ECS and IOS models are commonly used. Recently, while scrutinizing the development of the RB formalism, we have found that these authors applied the isolated line approximation in their evaluating matrix elements of the Liouville scattering operator given in exponential form. Since the criterion of this assumption is so stringent, it is not valid for many systems of interest in atmospheric applications. Furthermore, it is this assumption that blocks the possibility to calculate the whole relaxation matrix at all. By eliminating this unjustified application, and accurately evaluating matrix elements of the exponential operators, we have developed a more capable formalism. With this new formalism, we are now able not only to reduce uncertainties for calculated half-widths and shifts, but also to remove a once insurmountable obstacle to calculate the whole relaxation matrix. This implies that we can address the line mixing with the semi-classical theory based on interaction potentials between molecular absorber and

  2. Correlated nuclear and electronic dynamics in photoionized systems studied by quantum and mixed quantum-classical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zheng

    2014-09-01

    The advent of free electron lasers and high harmonic sources enables the investigation of electronic and nuclear dynamics of molecules and solids with atomic spatial resolution and femtosecond/attosecond time resolution, using bright and ultrashort laser pulses of frequency from terahertz to hard x-ray range. With the help of ultrashort laser pulses, the nuclear and electronic dynamics can be initiated, monitored and actively controlled at the typical time scale in the femtosecond to attosecond realm. Meanwhile, theoretical tools are required to describe the underlying mechanism. This doctoral thesis focuses on the development of theoretical tools based on full quantum mechanical multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) and mixed quantum classical approaches, which can be applied to describe the dynamical behavior of gas phase molecules and strongly correlated solids in the presence of ultrashort laser pulses. In the first part of this thesis, the focus is on the motion of electron holes in gas phase molecular ions created by extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photoionization and watched by spectroscopic approaches. The XUV photons create electron-hole in the valence orbitals of molecules by photoionization, the electron hole, as a positively charged quasi-particle, can then interact with the nuclei and the rest of electrons, leading to coupled non-Born-Oppenheimer dynamics. I present our study on electron-hole relaxation dynamics in valence ionized molecular ions of moderate size, using quantum wave packet and mixed quantum-classical approaches, using photoionized [H + (H 2 O) n ] + molecular ion as example. We have shown that the coupled motion of the electron-hole and the nuclei can be mapped out with femtosecond resolution by core-level x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy. Furthermore, in specific cases, the XUV photon can create a coherent electron hole, that can maintain its coherence to time scales of ∝ 1 picosecond. Employing XUV pump - IR probe

  3. Computational security of quantum encryption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alagic, G.; Broadbent, A.; Fefferman, B.; Gagliardoni, T.; Schaffner, C.; St. Jules, M.; Nascimento, A.C.A.; Barreto, P.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum-mechanical devices have the potential to transform cryptography. Most research in this area has focused either on the information-theoretic advantages of quantum protocols or on the security of classical cryptographic schemes against quantum attacks. In this work, we initiate the study of

  4. Exchange coupling and magnetic anisotropy of exchanged-biased quantum tunnelling single-molecule magnet Ni3Mn2 complexes using theoretical methods based on Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Coca, Silvia; Ruiz, Eliseo

    2012-03-07

    The magnetic properties of a new family of single-molecule magnet Ni(3)Mn(2) complexes were studied using theoretical methods based on Density Functional Theory (DFT). The first part of this study is devoted to analysing the exchange coupling constants, focusing on the intramolecular as well as the intermolecular interactions. The calculated intramolecular J values were in excellent agreement with the experimental data, which show that all the couplings are ferromagnetic, leading to an S = 7 ground state. The intermolecular interactions were investigated because the two complexes studied do not show tunnelling at zero magnetic field. Usually, this exchange-biased quantum tunnelling is attributed to the presence of intermolecular interactions calculated with the help of theoretical methods. The results indicate the presence of weak intermolecular antiferromagnetic couplings that cannot explain the ferromagnetic value found experimentally for one of the systems. In the second part, the goal is to analyse magnetic anisotropy through the calculation of the zero-field splitting parameters (D and E), using DFT methods including the spin-orbit effect.

  5. Theoretical Studies on Photoionization Cross Sections of Solid Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiaoguang; Sun Weiguo; Cheng Yansong

    2005-01-01

    Accurate expression for photoabsorption (photoionization) cross sections of high density system proposed recently is used to study the photoionization of solid gold. The results show that the present theoretical photoionization cross sections have good agreement both in structure and in magnitude with the experimental results of gold crystal. The studies also indicate that both the real part ε' and the imaginary part ε'' of the complex dielectric constant ε, and the dielectric influence function of a nonideal system have rich structures in low energy side with a range about 50 eV, and suggest that the influence of particle interactions of surrounding particles with the photoionized particle on the photoionization cross sections can be easily investigated using the dielectric influence function. The electron overlap effects are suggested to be implemented in the future studies to improve the accuracy of theoretical photoionization cross sections of a solid system.

  6. Quantum chromodynamic quark model study of hadron and few hadron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Chueng-Ryong.

    1990-10-01

    This report details research progress and results obtained during the five month period July 1, 1990 to November 30, 1990. The research project, entitled ''Quantum Chromodynamic Quark Model Study of Hadron and Few Hadron Systems,'' is supported by grant FG05-90ER40589 between North Carolina State University and the United States Department of Energy. This is a research program addressing theoretical investigations of hadron structure and reactions using quantum chromodynamic quark models. The new, significant research results are briefly summarized in the following sections

  7. Benchmark thermodynamic properties of methylanisoles: Experimental and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel’yanenko, Vladimir N.; Zaitseva, Ksenia V.; Agapito, Filipe; Martinho Simões, José A.; Verevkin, Sergey P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermochemistry of 2-, 3-, and 4-methylanisoles was studied. • Liquid state enthalpies of formation were measured by calorimetry. • Vaporisation enthalpies were derived from by transpiration method. • Ab initio enthalpies of formation are in excellent agreement with experiment. • A new paradigm for obtaining thermochemistry of liquid compounds was suggested. - Abstract: Accurate standard molar enthalpy of formation values in the liquid phase can be obtained by combining high-level quantum chemistry values of gas-phase enthalpies of formation with experimentally determined enthalpies of vaporisation. The procedure is illustrated for 2-, 3-, and 4-methyl-anisoles. Using the W1-F12 and G4 quantum-chemical methods, the gas-phase enthalpies of formation of these compounds at T = 298.15 K were computed. Molar enthalpies of vaporisation for these isomers were measured by the transpiration method. Combining the experimental and the high-level ab initio values, the standard molar enthalpies of formation in the liquid phase for all three isomers were derived and compared with those determined for 2- and 4-methyl-anisoles by using combustion calorimetry

  8. Charging/discharging processes in nanocrystaline MOS structures - Theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanous, D; Mazurak, A; Majkusiak, B

    2016-01-01

    We present the study of impact of some parameters of the metal-insulator-semiconductor structure with nanocrystals embedded in the insulator layer on the current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics with the bias voltage ramp rate as a parameter. The developed model is used as a tool for theoretical understanding the physics behind charging and discharging processes in the considered structures. (paper)

  9. Theoretical studies of fusion physics. Volume I. Summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical studies were performed on each of the following topics: (1) absorption of waves near the cyclotron frequency by relativistic electrons in EBT, (2) power balance in a stable, adiabatic hot electron annulus, (3) whistler instability in a relativistic electron annulus, (4) adiabatic limits on electron temperature in the EBT annulus, and (5) summary of a model of the EBT ring heating/loss process

  10. A theoretical and experimental study of microshield circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Nihad I.; Drayton, Rhonda F.; Katehi, Linda P. B.

    1993-05-01

    The novel type of monolithic planar transmission line presently studied theoretically and experimentally operates without via-holes or ground-equalizing air bridges; it also radiates less than conventional coplanar waveguides and furnishes a wide range of impedances in virtue of its many design parameters. The space-domain integral equation method is used to analyze several discontinuities of the proposed line. It is shown that the proposed line discontinuities radiate less than the corresponding coplanar waveguide cases.

  11. Theoretical study on the first kind of density wave instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuying, Gao; Jincai, Li; Baocheng, Xu; Zuoyi, Zhang; Cheng, Gao [Institute of Nuclear Energy and Technology, Tsingua Univ., Beijing (China)

    1997-09-01

    The present paper summarizes the theoretical studies carried out by INET (Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology) of Tsinghua University on the first kind of density wave instabilities (DWIs) of natural circulation systems. The analysis methods of DWI and mathematical models of drift flux are presented. Based on the general excess entropy production criterion of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, an energy principle of DWI is established. (author). 10 refs, 16 figs.

  12. Theoretical study of diaquamalonatozinc(II) single crystal for applications in non-linear optical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Mitesh; Rai, Vineet Kumar

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present paper is to employ theoretical methods to investigate the zero field splitting (ZFS) parameter and to investigate the position of the dopant in the host. These theoretical calculations have been compared with the empirical results. The superposition model (SPM) with the microscopic spin-Hamiltonian (MSH) theory and the coefficient of fractional parentage have been employed to investigate the dopant manganese(II) ion substitution in the diaquamalonatozinc(II) (DAMZ) single crystal. The magnetic parameters, viz. g-tensor and D-tensor, has been determined by using the ORCA program package developed by F Neese et al. The unrestricted Kohn-Sham orbitals-based Pederson-Khanna (PK) as the unperturbed wave function is observed to be the most suitable for the computational calculation of spin-orbit tensor (D^{SO}) of the axial ZFS parameter D. The effects of spin-spin dipolar couplings are taken into account. The unrestricted natural orbital (UNO) is used for the calculation of spin-spin dipolar contributions to the ZFS tensor. A comparative study of the quantum mechanical treatment of Pederson-Khanna (PK) with coupled perturbation (CP) is reported in the present study. The unrestricted Kohn-Sham-based natural orbital with Pederson-Khanna-type of perturbation approach validates the experimental results in the evaluation of ZFS parameters. The theoretical results are appropriate with the experimental ones and indicate the interstitial occupancy of Mn^{2+} ion in the host matrix.

  13. Theoretical study of the structure and reactivity of lanthanide and actinide based organometallic complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, N.

    2007-06-01

    In this PhD thesis, lanthanide and actinide based organometallic complexes are studied using quantum chemistry methods. In a first part, the catalytic properties of organo-lanthanide compounds are evaluated by studying two types of reactions: the catalytic hydro-functionalization of olefins and the polymerisation of polar monomers. The reaction mechanisms are theoretically determined and validated, and the influence of possible secondary non productive reactions is envisaged. A second part focuses on uranium-based complexes. Firstly, the electronic structure of uranium metallocenes is analysed. An analogy with the uranyl compounds is proposed. In a second chapter, two isoelectronic complexes of uranium IV are studied. After validating the use of DFT methods for describing the electronic structure and the reactivity of these compounds, it is shown that their reactivity difference can be related to a different nature of chemical bonding in these complexes. (author)

  14. In vitro drug interaction of levocetirizine and diclofenac: Theoretical and spectroscopic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo Dena, Ahmed S.; Abdel Gaber, Sara A.

    2017-06-01

    Levocetirizine dihydrochloride is known to interact with some anti-inflammatory drugs. We report here a comprehensive integrated theoretical and experimental study for the in vitro drug interaction between levocetirizine dihydrochloride (LEV) and diclofenac sodium (DIC). The interaction of the two drugs was confirmed by the molecular ion peak obtained from the mass spectrum of the product. Moreover, FTIR and 1HNMR spectra of the individual drugs and their interaction product were inspected to allocate the possible sites of interaction. In addition, quantum mechanical DFT calculations were performed to search for the interaction sites and to verify the types of interactions deduced from the spectroscopic studies such as charge-transfer and non-bonding π-π interactions. It was found that the studied drugs interact with each other in aqueous solution via four types of interactions, namely, ion-pair formation, three weak hydrogen bonds, non-bonding π-π interactions and charge-transfer from DIC to LEV.

  15. Quasiparticle Interference Studies of Quantum Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, Nurit; Reiner, Jonathan; Kumar-Nayak, Abhay; Morali, Noam; Batabyal, Rajib; Yan, Binghai; Beidenkopf, Haim

    2018-06-03

    Exotic electronic states are realized in novel quantum materials. This field is revolutionized by the topological classification of materials. Such compounds necessarily host unique states on their boundaries. Scanning tunneling microscopy studies of these surface states have provided a wealth of spectroscopic characterization, with the successful cooperation of ab initio calculations. The method of quasiparticle interference imaging proves to be particularly useful for probing the dispersion relation of the surface bands. Herein, how a variety of additional fundamental electronic properties can be probed via this method is reviewed. It is demonstrated how quasiparticle interference measurements entail mesoscopic size quantization and the electronic phase coherence in semiconducting nanowires; helical spin protection and energy-momentum fluctuations in a topological insulator; and the structure of the Bloch wave function and the relative insusceptibility of topological electronic states to surface potential in a topological Weyl semimetal. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Study on Scattering Theory and Perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics: case of quark-antiquark Top pair production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randriamisy, H.D.E.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the study of scattering and production of particles occupies an important place in subatomic physics research. The main ongoing experiments concern high-energy scattering in the colliders, the scattering theory based on quantum field theory is used for the theoretical study. The work presented in this thesis is located in this framework, in fact it concerns a study on the scattering theory and Perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics. We used the path integral formalism of quantum field theory and perturbation theory. As we considered the higher order corrections in perturbative developments, the renormalization theory with the method of dimensional regularization was also used. As an application, the case of the Top quark production was considered. As main results, we can quote the obtention of the cross section of quark-antiquark top pair production up to second order. [fr

  17. The pressure distribution for biharmonic transmitting array: theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska, A.

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the paper is theoretical analysis of the finite amplitude waves interaction problem for the biharmonic transmitting array. We assume that the array consists of 16 circular pistons of the same dimensions that regrouped in two sections. Two different arrangements of radiating elements were considered. In this situation the radiating surface is non-continuous without axial symmetry. The mathematical model was built on the basis of the Khokhlov - Zabolotskaya - Kuznetsov (KZK) equation. To solve the problem the finite-difference method was applied. On-axis pressure amplitude for different frequency waves as a function of distance from the source, transverse pressure distribution of these waves at fixed distances from the source and pressure amplitude distribution for them at fixed planes were examined. Especially changes of normalized pressure amplitude for difference frequency were studied. The paper presents mathematical model and some results of theoretical investigations obtained for different values of source parameters.

  18. A Comparative Study of Quantum and Classical Deletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yao; Hao Liang; Long Guilu

    2010-01-01

    Here in this letter, we study the difference between quantum and classical deletion. We point out that the linear mapping deletion operation used in the impossibility proof for quantum systems applies also to classical system. The general classical deletion operation is a combined operation of measurement and transformation, i.e., first read the state and then transfer the state to the standard blank state. Though both quantum information and classical information can be deleted in an open system, quantum information cannot be recovered while classical information can be recovered. (general)

  19. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF STRUCTURES SUBJECTED TO EARTHQUAKES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soubirou, A.

    1967-12-31

    The object of the study was the investigation of the behaviour of structures subject to earthquakes. After .describing and analysing seismic movements, useful concepts for earthquake-proofing structures are lintroduced. Then, the dynamic behaviour of systems with n degrees of freedom was studied in order to evolve the theoretical computation of seismic behaviour, a typical application being reticulated structures. The next stage was showing the computational procedure for seismic spectra and the natural frequencies of buildings, an attempt being made to define earthquake-proofing criteria for a special type of reinforced-concrete construction. . The last matter dealt with is elastoplastic behaviour of structures, a study of increasingly growing importance.

  20. Theoretical nuclear reaction and structure studies using hyperons and photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotanch, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    Research in three principal areas is summarized: (1) Work in elementary hadron structure seeks to further the understanding of hadron structure within the framework of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and QCD-based models. A comparative study of meson properties employed three relativistic models: an extended Dziembowski model, a generalized light-front approach, and a completely covariant null plane approach. (2) Work on the electromagnetic production of strangeness addressed systems involving the strange quark (hyperons) and hyperon electromagnetic production and radiative capture processes. (3) In the work on medium-energy photonuclear reactions, a large-scale continuum shell-model calculation was performed for (γ,N) and (N,γ) reactions at low and medium energies spanning the Δ isobar region

  1. Theoretical studies on core-level spectra of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotani, Akio

    1995-01-01

    I present a review on theoretical studies of core-level spectra (CLS) in solids. In CLS, the dynamical response of outer electrons to a core hole is reflected through the screening of core hole potential. Impurity Anderson model (IAM) or cluster model is successfully applied to the analysis of X-ray photoemission spectra (XPS) and X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) in f and d electron systems, where the f and d electron states are hybridized with the other valence or conduction electron states. The effect of the core-hole potential in the final state of XPS and XAS plays an important role, as well as the solid state hybridization and intra-atomic multiplet coupling effects. As typical examples, the calculated results for XPS of rare-earth compounds and transition metal compounds are shown, and some discussions are given. As a subject of remarkable progress with high brightness synchrotron radiation sources, I discuss some theoretical aspects of X-ray emission spectra (XES) and their resonant enhancement at the X-ray absorption threshold. Some experimental data and their theoretical analysis are also given. (author)

  2. Theoretical study for solar air pretreatment collector/regenerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Donggen; Zhang Xiaosong; Yin Yonggao [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast Univ., Nanjing (China)

    2008-07-01

    A new liquid regeneration equipment - solar air pretreatment collector/regenerator for liquid desiccant cooling system is put forward in this paper, which is preferable to solution regeneration in hot and moist climate in South China. The equipment can achieve liquid regeneration in lower temperature. When the solution and the air are in ''match'' state in collector/ regenerator, a match air to salt mass ratio ASMR* is found by theoretical study in which there is the largest theoretical storage capacity SC{sub max}. After two new concepts of the effective solution proportion (EPS) and the effective storage capacity (ESC) are defined, it is found by theoretical calculation that when ESP drops from 100% to 67%, ESC raises lowly, not drops and liquid outlet concentration C{sub str} {sub sol} increases from 40% to 49% in which its increment totals to 90%. All these data explain fully that air pretreatment liquid regeneration equipment enables to improve the performance of liquid desiccant cooling system. (orig.)

  3. Micro sociological study of family relationships: heuristic potential theoretical principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Zolotnyik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to demonstrate the heuristic potential of theoretical principles by microsoсiological analysis of one of the indicators of family – family relations. Theoretical analysis of the interaction experience is quite large, but there is the question about it’s possibility to describe the specifics of that relationship that arise in family interaction. The study of family relationships requires an integrated approach to the comprehension of many related components: system of spouses value orientations, family life cycle, socio­economic living conditions of couple. However, the accentuation exactly on action­behavioral aspect allows to make assumptions about correlations between: success of family interaction and microclimate in the family; satisfaction level of interpersonal interaction and overall satisfaction with marriage, familiarity of family interaction and density of childbearing, and so on. The presentation of microsoсiological theoretical achievements will be carried out of sociological schools, orientations and their members that are the most popular references in this area. this paper will presents the theory of exchange, supporters of symbolic interactionism, dramatic and etnometodological approach and family systems theory.

  4. Studies in the Theory of Quantum Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Azhar

    2005-03-01

    Theory of quantum games is a new area of investigation that has gone through rapid development during the last few years. Initial motivation for playing games, in the quantum world, comes from the possibility of re-formulating quantum communication protocols, and algorithms, in terms of games between quantum and classical players. The possibility led to the view that quantum games have a potential to provide helpful insight into working of quantum algorithms, and even in finding new ones. This thesis analyzes and compares some interesting games when played classically and quantum mechanically. A large part of the thesis concerns investigations into a refinement notion of the Nash equilibrium concept. The refinement, called an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS), was originally introduced in 1970s by mathematical biologists to model an evolving population using techniques borrowed from game theory. Analysis is developed around a situation when quantization changes ESSs without affecting corresponding Nash equilibria. Effects of quantization on solution-concepts other than Nash equilibrium are presented and discussed. For this purpose the notions of value of coalition, backwards-induction outcome, and subgame-perfect outcome are selected. Repeated games are known to have different information structure than one-shot games. Investigation is presented into a possible way where quantization changes the outcome of a repeated game. Lastly, two new suggestions are put forward to play quantum versions of classical matrix games. The first one uses the association of De Broglie's waves, with travelling material objects, as a resource for playing a quantum game. The second suggestion concerns an EPR type setting exploiting directly the correlations in Bell's inequalities to play a bi-matrix game.

  5. Experimental studies of caesium iodide aerosol condensation: theoretical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, A.M.; Benson, C.G.; Horton, K.D.; Buckle, E.R.

    1990-07-01

    Caesium iodide is predicted to be a significant source of fission product aerosols during the course of a severe accident in a pressurised water reactor (PWR). The nucleation and growth of caesium iodide aerosols have been studied using a plume chamber and the results compared with theoretical values calculated using the approach developed by Buckle for aerosol nucleation. The morphology of the particles was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission optical microscopy (TOM), whilst the particle size distributions were determined from differential mobility (DMPS) and aerodynamic (APS) measurements. (author)

  6. Theoretical study of fractal growth and stability on surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick, Veronika V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2009-01-01

    We perform a theoretical study of the fractal growing process on surface by using the deposition, diffusion, aggregation method. We present a detailed analysis of the post-growth processes occurring in a nanofractal on surface. For this study we developed a method which describes the internal...... dynamics of particles in a fractal and accounts for their diffusion and detachment. We demonstrate that these kinetic processes are responsible for the formation of the final shape of the islands on surface after the post-growth relaxation....

  7. Quantum quincunx in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Barry C.; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Tregenna, Ben; Knight, Peter L.

    2003-01-01

    We introduce the quantum quincunx, which physically demonstrates the quantum walk and is analogous to Galton's quincunx for demonstrating the random walk by employing gravity to draw pellets through pegs on a board, thereby yielding a binomial distribution of final peg locations. In contradistinction to the theoretical studies of quantum walks over orthogonal lattice states, we introduce quantum walks over nonorthogonal lattice states (specifically, coherent states on a circle) to demonstrate that the key features of a quantum walk are observable albeit for strict parameter ranges. A quantum quincunx may be realized with current cavity quantum electrodynamics capabilities, and precise control over decoherence in such experiments allows a remarkable decrease in the position noise, or spread, with increasing decoherence

  8. Studies of Novel Quantum Phenomena in Ruthenates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Zhiqiang

    2011-04-08

    Strongly correlated oxides have been the subject of intense study in contemporary condensed matter physics, and perovskite ruthenates (Sr,Ca)n+1RunO3n+1 have become a new focus in this field. One of important characteristics of ruthenates is that both lattice and orbital degrees of freedom are active and are strongly coupled to charge and spin degrees of freedom. Such a complex interplay of multiple degrees of freedom causes the properties of ruthenates to exhibit a gigantic response to external stimuli under certain circumstances. Magnetic field, pressure, and chemical composition all have been demonstrated to be effective in inducing electronic/magnetic phase transitions in ruthenates. Therefore, ruthenates are ideal candidates for searching for novel quantum phenomena through controlling external parameters. The objective of this project is to search for novel quantum phenomena in ruthenate materials using high-quality single crystals grown by the floating-zone technique, and investigate the underlying physics. The following summarizes our accomplishments. We have focused on trilayered Sr4Ru3O10 and bilayered (Ca1-xSrx)3Ru2O7. We have succeeded in growing high-quality single crystals of these materials using the floating-zone technique and performed systematic studies on their electronic and magnetic properties through a variety of measurements, including resistivity, Hall coefficient, angle-resolved magnetoresistivity, Hall probe microscopy, and specific heat. We have also studied microscopic magnetic properties for some of these materials using neutron scattering in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory. We have observed a number of unusual exotic quantum phenomena through these studies, such as an orbital selective metamagnetic transition, bulk spin valve effect, and a heavy-mass nearly ferromagnetic state with a surprisingly large Wilson ratio. Our work has also revealed underlying physics of these exotic phenomena. Exotic phenomena of correlated

  9. High energy physics studies. Progress report. Part I. Experimental program. Part II. Theoretical program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanowski, T.A.; Tanaka, K.; Wada, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental Program: assembly of an experiment as Fermilab E-531 to measure decay lifetimes, with tagged emulsion of charmed particles produced by high energy neutrinos was finished, and data taking now is in progress. An experiment to measure prompt neutrino production at Fermilab, E-613, was approved and detailed design of it is continuing. Search for parity violation in scattering of polarized protons, an experiment E-446-ZGS at ANL, was performed with the sensitivity of 10 -6 for detection of that process and yielded null results. Another run with improved sensitivity of 10 -7 is in preparation. Data analysis of the neutrino experiment E-310 at Fermilab will continue. Trimuon events, a new discovery, were identified in those data. Analysis of data on meson production from experiments performed at the ZGS--ANL, E-397, E-420 and E-428, with charged and neutral spectrometer will continue. A new relatively broad resonance (T approx. 70 MeV) with quantum numbers IJ/sup P/ = 00 -1 was discovered in the data from E-397. Analysis of beta decay of polarized Σ - hyperons is in progress. Participation in the design of the experimental areas for the Isabelle colliding proton beam accelerator will continue. Theoretical Program: topics of current interest in particle theory which will be investigated in the coming year are: the instanton-anti-instanton QCD gauge fields, discrete symmetries which may determine quark masses in the SU(2) x U(1) model, calculation of charmed meson production in e + e - collisions and formation of gluon jets, Higgs boson production in pp collisions, calculation of Higgs boson mass in terms of vector boson mass, study of Lagrangians with gauge and Higgs scalar fields, investigation of Faddeev--Popov determinants as related to quantum chromodynamics, a study of quantum flavor dynamics and anomalies in the axial vector Ward identity and a study of super symmetry as a part of a realistic model of leptonic interactions

  10. Quantum

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2003-01-01

    In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.

  11. Laser spectroscopic and theoretical studies of the structures and encapsulation motifs of functional molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebata, Takayuki; Kusaka, Ryoji [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-3-1, Higashi-Hiroshima, 739-8526 (Japan); Xantheas, Sotiris S. [Chemical and Materials Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, MS K1-83, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2015-01-22

    Extensive laser spectroscopic and theoretical studies have been recently carried out with the aim to reveal the structure and dynamics of encapsulation complexes in the gas phase. The characteristics of the encapsulation complexes are governed by the fact that (i) most of the host molecules are flexible and (ii) the complexes form high dimensional structures by using weak non-covalent interactions. These characteristics result in the possibility of the coexistence of many conformers in close energetic proximity. The combination of supersonic jet/laser spectroscopy and high level quantum chemical calculations is essential in tackling these challenging problems. In this report we describe our recent studies on the structures and dynamics of the encapsulation complexes formed by calix[4]arene (C4A), dibenzo-18-crown-6-ether (DB18C6), and benzo-18-crown-6-ether (B18C6) 'hosts' interacting with N{sub 2}, acetylene, water, and ammonia 'guest' molecules. The gaseous host-guest complexes are generated under jet-cooled conditions. We apply various laser spectroscopic methods to obtain the conformer- and isomer-specified electronic and IR spectra. The experimental results are complemented with quantum chemical calculations ranging from density functional theory to high level first principles calculations at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory. We discuss the possible conformations of the bare host molecules, the structural changes they undergo upon complexation, and the key interactions that are responsible in stabilizing the specific complexes.

  12. Optical Studies of Single Quantum Dots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gammon, Daniel; Steel, Duncan G

    2002-01-01

    ...: the atomlike entities known as quantum dots (QDs). Measuring 1-100 nm across, QDs are semiconductor structures in which the electron wavefunction is confined in all three dimensions by the potential energy barriers that form the QD's boundaries...

  13. Fragmentation dynamics of ionized neon trimer inside helium nanodroplets: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhommeau, David; Viel, Alexandra; Halberstadt, Nadine

    2004-06-22

    We report a theoretical study of the fragmentation dynamics of Ne(3) (+) inside helium nanodroplets, following vertical ionization of the neutral neon trimer. The motion of the neon atoms is treated classically, while transitions between the electronic states of the ionic cluster are treated quantum mechanically. A diatomics-in-molecules description of the potential energy surfaces is used, in a minimal basis set consisting of three effective p orbitals on each neon atom for the missing electron. The helium environment is modeled by a friction force acting on the neon atoms when their speed exceeds the Landau velocity. A reasonable range of values for the corresponding friction coefficient is obtained by comparison with existing experimental measurements. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics.

  14. Theoretical study of molecular vibration and Application to linear triatomic molecules: case of OCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianavalomahefa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Our aim is to give a theoretical approach to the calculation of vibrational energy levels of polyatomic molecules. By using matrix calculation, we have to solve an eigenvalue equation that gives normal vibration frequencies of the system. A basis change introduces normal coordinates of vibration, which diagonalize the Hamiltonian. The harmonic approximation gives a rough evaluation of parameters which describe the system. Then, we introduce nonlinear terms to take into account the anharmonicity of interatomic bounds. Morse oscillator gives good approximation for diatomic molecules. We consider cubic and quartic potential terms for polyatomic molecules. We treat the problem both in classical and quantum approach. The results thus obtained are applied to study longitudinal vibration of carbonyl sulfide. [fr

  15. Theoretical and experimental study of fenofibrate and simvastatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolás Vázquez, Inés; Rodríguez-Núñez, Jesús Rubén; Peña-Caballero, Vicente; Ruvalcaba, Rene Miranda; Aceves-Hernandez, Juan Manuel

    2017-12-01

    Fenofibrate, an oral fibrate lipid lowering agent, and simvastatin, which reduces plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, are active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), currently in the market. We characterized these APIs by thermal analysis and conducted X-ray powder diffraction techniques. Studies should be carried out in the formulation stage before the final composition of a polypill may be established. Thus, it was found in thermochemical studies that both compounds present no chemical interactions in an equimolar mixture of solid samples at room temperature. Theoretical studies were employed to determine possible interactions between fenofibrate and simvastatin. A very weak intramolecular hydrogen bond is formed between the hydroxyl group (O5H5) of the simvastatin with chlorine and carbonyl group (C11O4, C1O2) of the fenofibrate molecule. These weak energy hydrogen bonds have no effect on the chemical stability of the compounds studied. The results were obtained using Density Functional Theory methods; particularly the BPE1BPE and B3LYP functional and 6-31++G** basis set. The values of energy show good approximation when are compared with similar calculations previously reported. Infrared spectra of monomers and dimers were obtained via theoretical calculations.

  16. Theoretical studies of ionic conductivity of crosslinked chitosan membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Ernesto Lopez [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular y Nuevos Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, Fray Servando Teresa de Mier 92, 1er. Piso, Col Centro, Mexico D.F. CP 06080 (Mexico); Oviedo-Roa, R.; Contreras-Perez, Gustavo; Martinez-Magadan, Jose Manuel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, CP 07730 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Castillo-Alvarado, F.L. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edificio 9 de la UPALM, Colonia Lindavista, Mexico D.F. CP 07738 (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    Ionic conductivity of crosslinked chitosan membranes was studied using techniques of molecular modeling and simulation. The COMPASS force field was used. The simulation allows the description of the mechanism of ionic conductivity along the polymer matrix. The theoretical results obtained are compared with experimental results for chitosan membranes. The analysis suggests that the conduction mechanism is portrayed by the overlapping large Polaron tunneling model. In addition, when the chitosan membrane was crosslinked with an appropriate degree of crosslinking its ionic conductivity, at room temperature, was increased by about one order of magnitude. The chitosan membranes can be used as electrolytes in solid state batteries, electric double layer capacitors and fuel cells. (author)

  17. Theoretical Study of the Diastereofacial Isomers of Aldrin and Dieldrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Zdravkovski

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The Diels-Alder reaction of hexachlorocyclopentadiene with norbornadiene givesaldrin but theoretically three other diastereofacial isomers are possible. On oxidation theseisomers can generate eight adducts one of which is known as dieldrin. All these, as well asthe corresponding reactions with hexafluorocyclopenadiene were studied by semiempirical(AM1 and PM3 and hybrid density functional (B3LYP methods. Besides the energy levels,the transition states were calculated for the reactions leading to the diastereofacial isomers ofaldrin, which indicate that aldrin is the favored product of the reaction both fromthermodynamic and kinetic point of view.

  18. Theoretical study on perylene derivatives as fluorescent sensors for amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathiotakis, Nektarios N.; Kerkines, Ioannis S. K.; Theodorakopoulos, Giannoula; Petsalakis, Ioannis D.

    2018-01-01

    A theoretical study is presented on perylene diimide (PDI) and perylene monoimide (PMI) and their action as sensors of amines in solution. Density functional theory (DFT) and Time dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations are carried out on complexes of PDI and PMI with aniline in THF solution. The optimized geometries for the complexes have aniline lying parallel above the perylene at 3.15 Å and with binding energy of 0.53 eV in the ground state. The results on the excited states are consistent with a photoinduced electron transfer (PET) mechanism. The effective aniline-perylene distance resulting from a Mulliken's approach is 3.61 Å.

  19. Study of GeSn Alloy for Low Cost Monolithic Mid Infrared Quantum Well Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash PAREEK

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on theoretical study of Tin incorporated group IV alloys particularly GeSn and design of quantum well sensor for mid infrared sensing applications. Initially, the physics behind the selection of material for midinfrared sensor is explained. The importance of controlling strain in GeSn alloy is also explained. The physical background and motivation for incorporation of Tin(Sn in Germanium is briefly narrated. Eigen energy states for different Sn concentrations are obtained for strain compensated quantum well in G valley conduction band (GCB, heavy hole (HH band and light hole (LH band by solving coupled Schrödinger and Poisson equations simultaneously. Sn concentration dependent absorption spectra for HH- GCB transition reveals that significant absorption observed in mid infrared range (3-5 µm. So, Ge1-x Snx quantum well can be used for mid infrared sensing applications.

  20. Pair production in semiclassical and quantum-field theoretical description; Paarerzeugung in semiklassischer und quantenfeldtheoretischer Beschreibung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woellert, Anton

    2016-07-27

    Pair production of electron-positron pairs in ultra-intense laser fields is considered in this work. Two regimes are investigated separately. The first regime is the so-called tunnel regime of pair production. The existing tunneling picture which is applicable in this regime will be enhanced by the effects of a magnetic field and an additional, perturbatively treated photon. Both effects are incorporated by the semi-classical approximation. In contrast, no straightforward approach exists so far for the second regime of pair production. Therefore, numerical calculations will be carried out by applying the framework of the in/out-formalism in external fields. These simulations show non-trivial effects that are be expected in this regime. Specifically, the influence of the electromagnetic fields' polarization upon the produced pair spectra is investigated. Furthermore, multi-pair states are studied.

  1. Experimental and theoretical studies of manganite and magnetite compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinitiwarawong, Chatchai

    2002-01-01

    In the recent years interest in the transition oxide compounds has renewed among researchers in the field of condensed matter physics. This thesis presents the studies of the two families of the transition oxides, the manganite and magnetite compounds. Manganite has regained the interest since the discovery of the large magnetoresistance around its Curie temperature in 1990s. Magnetite on the other hand is the oldest magnetic material known to man however some of its physical properties are still controversial. The experimental works address some basic properties of these compounds when fabricated in the form of thin films. These include the resistivity measurements and magnetic measurements as well as the Hall effect. The various models of transport mechanism have been compared. The magnetic field and the temperature dependence of magnetoresistance have also been studied. Simple devices such as an artificial grain boundary and bilayers thin film have been investigated. The second part of this thesis concentrates on the theoretical aspects of the fundamental physics behind these two compounds. The problem of electrons tunnelling between the magnetite electrodes has been addressed taking into account the surface effect with distortion. The last chapter presents a theoretical study of the spinless-Hubbard model which is the simplest approximation of the conduction electrons in magnetite and manganite. The results are obtained from the Hartree-Fock and the Hubbard-I approximations as well as the exact diagonalisation method. (author)

  2. Theoretical study of near-threshold electron-molecule scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    We have been engaged in carrying out a foundation study on problems pertaining to near-threshold nuclear excitations in e-H 2 scattering. The primary goals of this study are: to investigate the severity and nature of the anticipated breakdown of the adiabatic-nuclei (AN) approximation, first for rotation only (in the rigid-rotator approximation), and then for vibration; to determine a data base of accurate ab initio cross sections for this important system; to implement and test accurate, computationally-tractable model potentials for exchange and polarization effects; and to begin the exploration of alternative scattering theories for near-threshold collisions. This study has provided a well-defined theoretical context for our future investigations. Second, it has enabled us to identify and quantify several serious problems in the theory of near-threshold electron-molecule scattering that demand attention. And finally, it has led to the development of some of the theoretical and computational apparatus that will form the foundation of future work. In this report, we shall review our progress to date, emphasizing work completed during the current contract year. 17 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  3. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.J.

    1988-09-01

    This report discusses topics in nuclear theory. These general topics are: Quark physics, Quantum field theory, Relativistic nuclear physics, Nuclear dynamics, and Few-body problems and nonrelativistic methods

  4. Quantum dots for quantum information technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the most recent developments in quantum dot spin physics and the generation of deterministic superior non-classical light states with quantum dots. In particular, it addresses single quantum dot spin manipulation, spin-photon entanglement and the generation of single-photon and entangled photon pair states with nearly ideal properties. The role of semiconductor microcavities, nanophotonic interfaces as well as quantum photonic integrated circuits is emphasized. The latest theoretical and experimental studies of phonon-dressed light matter interaction, single-dot lasing and resonance fluorescence in QD cavity systems are also provided. The book is written by the leading experts in the field.

  5. Theoretical study about L-arginine complexes formation with thiotriazolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Kucherenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Brain vascular diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity, mortality and disability of population in the industrialized countries of the world. An important element of this problem’s solution is the creation of new highly effective and safe drugs, which would lead to mortality reduction, to increase in life expectancy and quality of life. Therefore it is interesting to create a new combined drug based on L-arginine and thiotriazolin. Purpose of the study: to consider the possible structure and energy characteristics of complexes formed by L-arginine, 3-methyl-1,2,4-triazolyl-5-thioacetate (MTTA and morpholine. Calculation method. The initial approximation to the complex geometry was obtained using molecular docking with the help of AutoDock Vina program. The obtained ternary complexes were pre-optimized by semi-empirical PM7 method with modeling the impact of the environment by COSMO method. The calculations were carried out using MOPAC2012 program. Then they were optimized by B97-D3/SVP + COSMO (Water dispersion-corrected DFT-D with geometrical spreading correction on insufficiency of gCP basis set. A more accurate calculation of the solvation energy was conducted by SMD. The calculations by density functional method were carried out using the ORCA 3.0.3 software. Energy complex formation in solution was calculated as the difference of the Gibbs free energy of the solvated complex and its individual components. Results. Quantum chemical calculations show, that thiotriazolin and L-arginine are able to form ternary complexes, where molecules are linked by multiple hydrogen bonds. The calculation data suggest, that studied complexes are thermodynamically unstable in solution. The energies of them are positive, but rather low despite charge gain of a number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Finding. Based on the results of the conducted quantum-chemical study of a three components system (MTTA, morpholine, and L-arginine it is possible

  6. Theoretical study of reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halley, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Electron transfer rates are predicted by numerical methods, in collaboration with ANL. Emphasis is on electron transfer involving ions known to be important in enhancing stress corrosion cracking in light water reactors and on electron transfer at oxide surfaces. We have completed studies of the ferrous-ferric electron transfer rate in which effects of electric field, entropic effects in the free energy and quantum effects are included for the first time in the calculation of the rate of an electrochemical (heterogeneous) reaction rate. These new results confirm assumptions made in earlier calculations. The ferric ion has been modelled in a dissociable polarizable model showing the six-fold coordination of this ion in aqueous solution is stabilized by the three body interactions arising from the polarizability of water. In our studies of oxides, we have completed a Hartree self consistent calculation of the electronic structure of fayalite. The calculation utilizes a new method which takes phenomenological account of local electron correlations which have plagued electronic structure calculations of oxides for a long time. No electronic structure calculation of fayalite has been previously reported to our knowledge. Similar methods have been used to calculate the electronic structure of a vacancy in rutile (TiO 2 ). Results show that the screening donor electrons are anisotropically distributed around the vacancy

  7. Designing field-controllable graphene-dot-graphene single molecule switches: A quantum-theoretical proof-of-concept under realistic operating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejov, Ljupčo; Petreska, Irina; Kocarev, Ljupčo

    2015-12-28

    A theoretical proof of the concept that a particularly designed graphene-based moletronics device, constituted by two semi-infinite graphene subunits, acting as source and drain electrodes, and a central benzenoid ring rotator (a "quantum dot"), could act as a field-controllable molecular switch is outlined and analyzed with the density functional theory approach. Besides the ideal (0 K) case, we also consider the operation of such a device under realistic operating (i.e., finite-temperature) conditions. An in-depth insight into the physics behind device controllability by an external field was gained by thorough analyses of the torsional potential of the dot under various conditions (absence or presence of an external gating field with varying strength), computing the torsional correlation time and transition probabilities within the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound formalism. Both classical and quantum mechanical tunneling contributions to the intramolecular rotation were considered in the model. The main idea that we put forward in the present study is that intramolecular rotors can be controlled by the gating field even in cases when these groups do not possess a permanent dipole moment (as in cases considered previously by us [I. Petreska et al., J. Chem. Phys. 134, 014708-1-014708-12 (2011)] and also by other groups [P. E. Kornilovitch et al., Phys. Rev. B 66, 245413-1-245413-7 (2002)]). Consequently, one can control the molecular switching properties by an external electrostatic field utilizing even nonpolar intramolecular rotors (i.e., in a more general case than those considered so far). Molecular admittance of the currently considered graphene-based molecular switch under various conditions is analyzed employing non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, as well as by analysis of frontier molecular orbitals' behavior.

  8. Theoretical study of the ionization of B2H5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtiss, L.A.; Pople, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Ab initio molecular orbital calculations at the G1 level of theory have been carried out on neutral B 2 H 5 radical, doubly bridged B 2 H + 5 cation, and the first triplet excited state of B 2 H + 5 . Singly bridged B 2 H 5 is 4.0 kcal/mol (without zero-point energies) more stable than doubly bridged B 2 H 5 . Based on this work and previous theoretical work on triply bridged B 2 H + 5 , ionization potentials (vertical and adiabatic) are determined for B 2 H 5 . The adiabatic ionization potentials of the two B 2 H 5 structures are 6.94 eV (singly bridged) and 7.53 eV (doubly bridged). A very large difference is found between the vertical and adiabatic ionization potentials (3.37 eV) of the singly bridged B 2 H 5 structure. The first triplet state of B 2 H + 5 is found to be 4.55 eV higher in energy than the lowest energy B 2 H + 5 cation (triply bridged). The results of this theoretical study support the interpretation of Ruscic, Schwarz, and Berkowitz of their recent photoionization measurements on B 2 H 5

  9. Theoretical Studies of Strongly Interacting Fine Particle Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Michael

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. A theoretical analysis of the time dependent behaviour of a system of fine magnetic particles as a function of applied field and temperature was carried out. The model used was based on a theory assuming Neel relaxation with a distribution of particle sizes. This theory predicted a linear variation of S_{max} with temperature and a finite intercept, which is not reflected by experimental observations. The remanence curves of strongly interacting fine-particle systems were also investigated theoretically. It was shown that the Henkel plot of the dc demagnetisation remanence vs the isothermal remanence is a useful representation of interactions. The form of the plot was found to be a reflection of the magnetic and physical microstructure of the material, which is consistent with experimental data. The relationship between the Henkel plot and the noise of a particulate recording medium, another property dependent on the microstructure, is also considered. The Interaction Field Factor (IFF), a single parameter characterising the non-linearity of the Henkel plot, is investigated. These results are consistent with a previous experimental study. Finally the results of the noise power spectral density for erased and saturated recording media are presented, so that characterisation of interparticle interactions may be carried out with greater accuracy.

  10. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS STUDY OF FORMATION OF FUTURE LEGAL LAWYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Stepanovich Shevlakov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topical issues of formation of legal consciousness of future lawyers in high school. Obtained kinds of legal consciousness of future lawyers, determined its structure. Dedicated components of justice are mutually reinforcing, and provide an opportunity for further development of the personality of the future specialist, their personal growth.The purpose: to carry out theoretical analysis of the problem of formation of legal consciousness of future lawyers.The novelty is based. On the analysis of theoretical appro-aches of pedagogy, psychology, law, the notion of «lawfulness of the future of the law student», which is regarded as a form of social consciousness, which is a set of legal views and feelings, expressing the attitude to the law and legal phenomena that have regulatory in character and which includes know-ledge of legal phenomena and their evaluation from the point of view of fairness and justice, formed in the process of studying in the University.Results: this article analyzes different approaches to understanding the content and essence of the concept of legal consciousness of the legal profession. Define the types and structure of legal consciousness of future lawyers.

  11. Mixing Categories and Modal Logics in the Quantum Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cinà, G.; Aerts, D.; de Ronde, C.; Freytes, H.; Giuntini, R.

    2016-01-01

    The study of the foundations of Quantum Mechanics, especially after the advent of Quantum Computation and Information, has benefited from the application of category-theoretic tools and modal logics to the analysis of Quantum processes: we witness a wealth of theoretical frameworks casted in either

  12. The theoretical study of the optical klystron free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhenhua

    2001-01-01

    The work of the theoretical study and numerical simulation of optical klystron free electron laser is supported by National 863 Research Development Program and National Science Foundation of China. The object of studying UV band free electron laser (FEL) is to understand the physical law of optical klystron FEL and to gain experience for design. A three-dimensional code OPFEL are made and it is approved that the code is correct completely. The magnetic field of the optical klystron, the energy modulation of the electron beam, the density modulation of the electron beam, spontaneous emission of the electron beam in optical klystron, the harmonic super-radiation of the electron beam, and the effects of the undulator magnetic field error on modulation of the electron beam energy are simulated. These results are useful for the future experiments

  13. Theoretical study of liquid droplet dispersion in a venturi scrubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathikalajahi, J; Talaie, M R; Taheri, M

    1995-03-01

    The droplet concentration distribution in an atomizing scrubber was calculated based on droplet eddy diffusion by a three-dimensional dispersion model. This model is also capable of predicting the liquid flowing on the wall. The theoretical distribution of droplet concentration agrees well with experimental data given by Viswanathan et al. for droplet concentration distribution in a venturi-type scrubber. The results obtained by the model show a non-uniform distribution of drops over the cross section of the scrubber, as noted by the experimental data. While the maximum of droplet concentration distribution may depend on many operating parameters of the scrubber, the results of this study show that the highest uniformity of drop distribution will be reached when penetration length is approximately equal to one-fourth of the depth of the scrubber. The results of this study can be applied to evaluate the removal efficiency of a venturi scrubber.

  14. Optical and theoretical studies of giant clouds in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, B.G.; Elmegreen, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    An optical study of four spiral galaxies, combined with radiative transfer models for transmitted and scattered light, has led to a determination of the opacities and masses of numerous dark patches and dust lanes that outline spiral structure. The observed compression factors for the spiral-like dust lanes are in accord with expectations from the theory of gas flow in spiral density waves. Several low density (10 2 cm -3 ) clouds containing 10 6 to 10 7 solar masses were also studied. These results are discussed in terms of recent theoretical models of cloud and star formation in spiral galaxies. The long-term evolution of giant molecular clouds is shown to have important consequences for the positions and ages of star formation sites in spiral arms. (Auth.)

  15. Theoretical study of some aspects of the nucleo-bases reactivity: definition of new theoretical tools for the study of chemical reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labet, V.

    2009-09-01

    In this work, three kinds of nucleo-base damages were studied from a theoretical point of view with quantum chemistry methods based on the density-functional theory: the spontaneous deamination of cytosine and its derivatives, the formation of tandem lesion induced by hydroxyl radicals in anaerobic medium and the formation of pyrimidic dimers under exposition to an UV radiation. The complementary use of quantitative static methods allowing the exploration of the potential energy surface of a chemical reaction, and of 'conceptual DFT' principles, leads to information concerning the mechanisms involved and to the rationalization of the differences in the nucleo-bases reactivity towards the formation of a same kind of damage. At the same time, a reflexion was undertaken on the asynchronous concerted mechanism concept, in terms of physical meaning of the transition state, respect of the Maximum Hardness Principle, and determination of the number of primitive processes involved. Finally, a new local reactivity index was developed, relevant to understand the reactivity of a molecular system in an excited state. (author)

  16. Study of a Quantum Dot in an Excited State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, Marlina; Sahni, Viraht

    We have studied the first excited singlet state of a quantum dot via quantal density functional theory (QDFT). The quantum dot is represented by a 2D Hooke's atom in an external magnetostatic field. The QDFT mapping is from an excited singlet state of this interacting system to one of noninteracting fermions in a singlet ground state. The results of the study will be compared to (a) the corresponding mapping from a ground state of the quantum dot and (b) to the similar mapping from an excited singlet state of the 3D Hooke's atom.

  17. Theoretical Studies of the Electronic Structure of the Compounds of the Actinide Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Hay, P.J.; Li, Jun; Blaudeau, Jean-Philippe; Bursten, Bruce E.

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter, we will present an overview of the theoretical and computational developments that have increased our understanding of the electronic structure of actinide-containing molecules and ions. The application of modern electronic structure methodologies to actinide systems remains one of the great challenges in quantum chemistry; indeed, as will be discussed below, there is no other portion of the periodic table that leads to the confluence of complexity with respect to the calculation of ground- and excited-state energies, bonding descriptions, and molecular properties. But there is also no place in the periodic table in which effective computational modeling of electronic structure can be more useful. The difficulties in creating, isolating, and handling many of the actinide elements provide an opportunity for computational chemistry to be an unusually important partner in developing the chemistry of these elements. The importance of actinide electronic structure begins with the earliest studies of uranium chemistry and predates the discovery of quantum mechanics. The fluorescence of uranyl compounds was observed as early as 1833, a presage of the development of actinometry as a tool for measuring photochemical quantum yields. Interest in nuclear fuels has stimulated tremendous interest in understanding the properties, including electronic properties, of small actinide-containing molecules and ions, especially the oxides and halides of uranium and plutonium. The synthesis of uranocene in 1968 led to the flurry of activity in the organometallic chemistry of the actinides that continues today. Actinide organometallics (or organoactinides) are nearly always molecular systems and are often volatile, which makes them amenable to an arsenal of experimental probes of molecular and electronic structure (Marks and Fischer, 1979). Theoretical and computational studies of the electronic structure of actinide systems have developed in concert with the experimental

  18. Theoretical investigation of the electronic structure and quantum transport in the graphene–C(111) diamond surface system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selli, Daniele; Baburin, Igor; Leoni, Stefano; Seifert, Gotthard; Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the interaction of a graphene monolayer with the C(111) diamond surface using ab initio density functional theory. To accommodate the lattice mismatch between graphene and diamond, the overlayer deforms into a wavy structure that binds strongly to the diamond substrate. The detached ridges of the wavy graphene overlayer behave electronically as free-standing polyacetylene chains with delocalized π electrons, separated by regions containing only sp 3 carbon atoms covalently bonded to the (111) diamond surface. We performed quantum transport calculations for different geometries of the system to study how the buckling of the graphene layer and the associated bonding to the diamond substrate affect the transport properties. The system displays high carrier mobility along the ridges and a wide transport gap in the direction normal to the ridges. These intriguing, strongly anisotropic transport properties qualify the hybrid graphene–diamond system as a viable candidate for electronic nanodevices. (paper)

  19. A Theoretical Study of Microwave Beam Absorption by a Rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, J. H.; Rice, J. S.; Thorn, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    The theoretical operational parameters for the workable satellite power system were examined. The system requirements for efficient transmission and reception of an environmentally benign microwave beam were determined.

  20. Mechanical properties of jennite: A theoretical and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Juhyuk, E-mail: juhyuk.moon@stonybrook.edu [Civil Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stony Brook University, NY 11794 (United States); Yoon, Seyoon [School of Engineering, Kings College, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Monteiro, Paulo J.M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    The objective of this study is to determine the mechanical properties of jennite. To date, several hypotheses have been proposed to predict the structural properties of jennite. For the first time as reported herein, the isothermal bulk modulus of jennite was measured experimentally. Synchrotron-based high-pressure x-ray diffraction experiments were performed to observe the variation of lattice parameters under pressure. First-principles calculations were applied to compare with the experimental results and predict additional structural properties. Accurately measured isothermal bulk modulus herein (K{sub 0} = 64(2) GPa) and the statistical assessment on experimental and theoretical results suggest reliable mechanical properties of shear and Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and elastic tensor coefficients. Determination of these fundamental structural properties is the first step toward greater understanding of calcium–silicate–hydrate, as well as provides a sound foundation for forthcoming atomic level simulations.

  1. A theoretical-experimental study of backup bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe Linhares da Fonseca, Cesar Augusto

    of two types of backup bearings, which are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The first type is a conventional ball bearing commonly used in industrial applications. The second is an unconventional bearing that, which contains pins inside the clearance for the rotor to impact on. The main...... both types of bearings for further investigation. Also, a full failure of the control and a rotor drop on the ball bearing as backup bearing is investigated by removing the magnetic forces. The nonlinear features of the dynamics of the rotor are assessed for different levels of unbalance. It has been...... radial forces. Remaining in this condition, it may lead to permanent damage or total failure of the machine. This is why the backup bearing design has to be carefully planned and investigated as to whether it helps to protect the integrity of the machine. This PhD thesis provides a comprehensive study...

  2. Theoretical Study of Irradiation Effects in Close Binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao, M.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of irradiation is studied in a close binary systemassuming that the secondary component is a point source, moving in a circularorbit. The irradiation effects are calculatedon the atmosphere of the primary component in a 3-dimensional Cartesiancoordinate geometry. In treating the reflection effect theoretically, the totalradiation $(S_mathrm{T}$ is obtained as the sum of the radiation of 1 the effect ofirradiation on the primary component which is calculated by using onedimensional rod model $(S_mathrm{r}$ and 2 the self radiation of the primarycomponent which is calculated by using the solution of radiative transferequation in spherical symmetry $(S_mathrm{s}$. The radiation field is estimated alongthe line of sight of the observer at infinity. It is shown how the radiationfield changes depending on the position of the secondary component.

  3. Theoretical study of asymmetric super-rotors: Alignment and orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiste, Juan J.

    2018-02-01

    We report a theoretical study of the optical centrifuge acceleration of an asymmetric top molecule interacting with an electric static field by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in the rigid rotor approximation. A detailed analysis of the mixing of the angular momentum in both the molecular and the laboratory fixed frames allows us to deepen the understanding of the main features of the acceleration process, for instance, the effective angular frequency of the molecule at the end of the pulse. For the case of the SO2 molecular super-rotor, we show numerically that it rotates around one internal axis and that its dynamics is confined to the plane defined by the polarization axis of the laser, in agreement with experimental findings. Furthermore, we consider the orientation patterns induced by the dc field, showing the characteristics of their structure as a function of the strength of the static field and the initial configuration of the fields.

  4. Experimental and theoretical studies of buoyant-thermo capillary flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre, E.; Blumenfeld, L.; Soubbaramayer

    1996-01-01

    In the AVLIS process, uranium metal is evaporated using a high power electron gun. We have prior discussed the power balance equation in the electron beam evaporation process and pointed out, among the loss terms, the importance of the power loss due to the convective flow in the molten pool driven by buoyancy and thermo capillarity. An empirical formula has been derived from model experiments with cerium, to estimate the latter power loss and that formula can be used practically in engineering calculations. In order to complete the empirical approach, a more fundamental research program of theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out in Cea-France, with the objective of understanding the basic phenomena (heat transport, flow instabilities, turbulence, etc.) occurring in a convective flow in a liquid layer locally heated on its free surface

  5. Theoretical and experimental study of a thruster discharging a weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Dan; Gany, Alon

    2014-06-01

    An innovative concept for a rocket type thruster that can be beneficial for spacecraft trajectory corrections and station keeping was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. It may also be useful for divert and attitude control systems (DACS). The thruster is based on a combustion chamber discharging a weight through an exhaust tube. Calculations with granular double-base propellant and a solid ejected weight reveal that a specific impulse based on the propellant mass of well above 400 s can be obtained. An experimental thruster was built in order to demonstrate the new idea and validate the model. The thruster impulse was measured both directly with a load cell and indirectly by using a pressure transducer and high speed photography of the weight as it exits the tube, with both ways producing very similar total impulse measurement. The good correspondence between the computations and the measured data validates the model as a useful tool for studying and designing such a thruster.

  6. Quantum chemical studies of estrogenic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantum chemical methods are potent tools to provide information on the chemical structure and electronic properties of organic molecules. Modern computational chemistry methods have provided a great deal of insight into the binding of estrogenic compounds to estrogenic receptors (ER), an important ...

  7. Phosphonic drugs: Experimental and theoretical spectroscopic studies of fosfomycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chruszcz-Lipska, Katarzyna; Zborowski, Krzysztof K.; Podstawka-Proniewicz, Edyta; Liu, Shaoxuan; Xu, Yizhuang; Proniewicz, Leonard M.

    2011-02-01

    pH and time-dependant changes of fosfomycin molecular structure in an aqueous solution are studied by Raman, NMR, and generalized 2D correlation spectroscopies. Interpretation of the experimental spectra is based on the assumption of formation of different species running on applied physicochemical conditions. Geometries of all possible structures were entirely optimized with the 6-311++G(2df,p) basis set at the B3LYP theoretical level using procedures implemented in the Gaussian '03 set of programs. Harmonic frequency calculations verified the nature of the studied structures and allowed to simulate obtained Raman spectra. The theoretical NMR shielding was calculated using the GIAO method at the same computational level. In addition, in some cases PCM model was used to monitor the influence of water molecules on the NMR spectra. It is shown that in the pH range of 1-2 of fosfomycin aqueous solution oxirane ring is open sequent to nucleophilic attack and forms 1,2-dihydroxyphosphonic acid with small content of its monodeprotonated species. On the other hand, in pH 7 and higher it appears either as 1,2-epoxypropylphosphonic or 1,2-dihydroxyphosphonic dianion depending upon whether hydrolysis took place or not. It is also discussed that Raman marker bands originating from the individual species of fosfomycin can be used to detect and/or to monitor this antibiotic in an aqueous medium (for example urine samples). Hence, depending upon the structure found in urine one can tell about metabolic processes of this antibiotic in the body.

  8. Theoretical study on the photoionization of metanal and fluoromethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Helder Kenji; Silveira, Tiago Rodrigues; Nascimento, Edmar Moraes do

    2011-01-01

    Full text. The photoionization study of biological interest molecules has increased last few years due to the basic interest in the fundamental nature of electronic structures and scattering molecular processes. It was considered to this study hypothesis in that simple molecules would give birth to more complex molecules through photochemical reactions induced by interstellar radiation. This paper shows a theoretical study over photoionization of the valence shells of some biological interest molecules. Cross sections and parameters of asymmetry are set due to ab initio, using the continued fractions method to determine the scattering matrix and wave functions of the continuum. Results will be presented to the valence shell photoionization of formaldehyde (CH 2 O) and fluoromethane (CH 3 F). This work is part of a larger project to study of biological interest molecules, motivated by the hypothesis that based on these simple molecules, physicochemical processes may have given origin to more complex molecules responsible for the production of terrestrial life. The formamide, for example, has been subject of interest between researchers as a possible material from which can be created RNA bases. In this case has been studied the production of guanine from the formamide heated while irradiated by ultraviolet radiation

  9. Action of Molecular Switches in GPCRs - Theoretical and Experimental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzaskowski, B; Latek, D; Yuan, S; Ghoshdastider, U; Debinski, A; Filipek, S

    2012-01-01

    G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), also called 7TM receptors, form a huge superfamily of membrane proteins that, upon activation by extracellular agonists, pass the signal to the cell interior. Ligands can bind either to extracellular N-terminus and loops (e.g. glutamate receptors) or to the binding site within transmembrane helices (Rhodopsin-like family). They are all activated by agonists although a spontaneous auto-activation of an empty receptor can also be observed. Biochemical and crystallographic methods together with molecular dynamics simulations and other theoretical techniques provided models of the receptor activation based on the action of so-called “molecular switches” buried in the receptor structure. They are changed by agonists but also by inverse agonists evoking an ensemble of activation states leading toward different activation pathways. Switches discovered so far include the ionic lock switch, the 3-7 lock switch, the tyrosine toggle switch linked with the nPxxy motif in TM7, and the transmission switch. The latter one was proposed instead of the tryptophan rotamer toggle switch because no change of the rotamer was observed in structures of activated receptors. The global toggle switch suggested earlier consisting of a vertical rigid motion of TM6, seems also to be implausible based on the recent crystal structures of GPCRs with agonists. Theoretical and experimental methods (crystallography, NMR, specific spectroscopic methods like FRET/BRET but also single-molecule-force-spectroscopy) are currently used to study the effect of ligands on the receptor structure, location of stable structural segments/domains of GPCRs, and to answer the still open question on how ligands are binding: either via ensemble of conformational receptor states or rather via induced fit mechanisms. On the other hand the structural investigations of homo- and heterodimers and higher oligomers revealed the mechanism of allosteric signal transmission and receptor

  10. Theoretical and experimental high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasiorowicz, S.; Ruddick, K.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses experimental and theoretical work in High Energy Physics. Some topics discussed are: quantum field theory; supersymmetry; cosmology; superstring model; relic photinos; inflationary universe; dark matter; standard model; supernovae; semileptonic decay; quantum Langevin equation; underground neutrino detection at Soudan; strange quark systems; cosmic ray detection; superconducting super collider detectors; and studies of direct photon production

  11. Quantum chemical studies on the some inorganic corrosion inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayin, Koray; Karakaş, Duran

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Some quantum chemical parameters are important to determine inhibition efficiency. •Quantum chemical calculations were performed on six inorganic inhibitors. •Five experimental reports were used to explain the theoretical results. •Atomic charges and %contributions were used to determine the atom at protonation process. •For inorganic inhibitors, the best method and basis set were investigated. -- Abstract: Some quantum chemical parameters were calculated by using Hartree–Fock (HF) approximation, Density Functional Theory (DFT/B3LYP) and Møller Plesset perturbation theory (MP3) methods at LANL2DZ, LANL2MB and SDD levels in gas phase and water for dichromate (Cr 2 O 7 2- ), chromate (CrO 4 2- ), tungstate (WO 4 2- ), molybdate (MoO 4 2- ), nitrite (NO 2 - ) and nitrate (NO 3 - ) which are used as inorganic corrosion inhibitors. All theoretical results and experimental inhibition efficiencies of inhibitors were subjected to correlation analyses. In a summary, MP3/SDD level in water was found as the best level. In this level, the inhibition efficiency ranking was found as CrO 4 2- >WO 4 2- >MoO 4 2- >Cr 2 O 7 2- >NO 2 - ≈NO 3 -

  12. Experimental and theoretical study of two-proton and proton-deuteron correlations at very small relative momenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Lilian

    1993-01-01

    In this research thesis, the author first reports the analysis of light particle correlations by two theoretical approaches. The first one is the classical approximation of correlations: formulation, characteristics of the emitter nucleus and initial conditions, construction of the correlation function with notably the comparison with experimental proton-proton and proton-deuteron correlation functions measured in the 40 Ar + 108 Ag at 44 MeV/nucleon. The second one is the quantum approach of correlations: formulations, predictions of the quantum model with the same comparison as above. The second part addresses the measurement and analysis of the proton-proton correlation function at very small relative momenta: presentation of the studied reaction, description of the experiment (sensors, magnetic spectrometer, event recording), analysis of protons detected within the spectrometer) [fr

  13. [Theoretical studies in high energy physics]: Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braaten, E.

    1988-01-01

    The research activities that were supported by this grant were focused primarily on low energy quantum chromodynamics. Significant progress was made in the Skyrme model for baryons, string models for color flux tubes, hadronic decays of the /tau/ lepton, technicolor models of the electroweak interactions, and meson form factors in perturbative QCD

  14. Experimental and theoretical studies of d-dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Takekazu; Fujii, Masaki; Abe, Taiji; Yamamoto, Masuo; Miki, Shigehito; Kawamata, Shuichi; Satoh, Kazuo; Yotsuya, Tsutomu; Kato, Masaru; Machida, Masahiko; Koyama, Tomio; Terashima, Takahito; Tsukui, Shigeki; Adachi, Motoaki

    2006-01-01

    We propose the idea of d-dot, where a d-wave superconducting dot is embedded in s-wave matrix. Spontaneous half vortices should appear in the four corners of the d-dot [M. Kato, M. Ako, M. Machida, T. Koyama, T. Ishida, Physica C 412-414 (2004) 352; M. Ako, M. Kato, M. Machida, T. Koyama, T. Ishida, Physica C 412-414 (2004) 544; M. Fujii, T. Abe, H. Yoshikawa, S. Miki, S. Kawamata, K. Satoh, T. Yotsuya, M. Kato, M. Machida, T. Koyama, T. Terashima, S. Tsukui, M. Adachi, T. Ishida, Physica C 426-431 (2005) 104]. Symmetric geometry and the fourfold symmetry of the d-dot would be suitable as a building block for constructing the novel physical systems. The phase dynamics of a closed 0-π junction, which can be realized in a small d x 2 -y 2 -dot, is mapped on a quantum two-level system when the system size is small enough. Using two-component Ginzburg-Landau equation, we study the physical properties of d-dots systematically. We prepare epitaxial YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) films of thickness 100nm on SrTiO 3 substrates using a laser ablation apparatus. The d-dot is fabricated by a photolithography, electron beam lithography EB and an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) etching, a focused ion beam microscope, and a lift-off technique. Local vortex profile is investigated using a SQUID microscope when d-dot is cooled in zero field

  15. Quantum Distinction: Quantum Distinctiones!

    OpenAIRE

    Zeps, Dainis

    2009-01-01

    10 pages; How many distinctions, in Latin, quantum distinctiones. We suggest approach of anthropic principle based on anthropic reference system which should be applied equally both in theoretical physics and in mathematics. We come to principle that within reference system of life subject of mathematics (that of thinking) should be equated with subject of physics (that of nature). For this reason we enter notions of series of distinctions, quantum distinction, and argue that quantum distinct...

  16. Theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kompaneyets, A S

    1962-01-01

    Rigorous, systematic study by renowned physicist offers advanced students a thorough background in mechanics, electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, and statistical mechanics. Numerous exercises, many with complete solutions. 1961 edition.

  17. Status of the theoretical study of microwave heating in EBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, D.B.

    1978-09-01

    The basic strategy of the theoretical study of microwave heating in the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) is outlined and the current status of the various aspects of the study is described. There are four broad areas which are being investigated: (1) heating and wave damping mechanisms, (2) the geometrical optics of microwave propagation in EBT, (3) reflection and mode conversion effects at regions such as cutoff and resonances where the geometrical optics approximation breaks down, and (4) nonlinear effects such as ponderamotive effects and parametric decay. Details are given of the geometrical optics code which has been developed to do ray tracing in arbitrary three dimensional (3-D) plasma equilibria. Examples are given for plasma parameters characteristic of EBT-I and EBT-II. Details are also given of the stochastic heating model currently in use with the 1-D transport code and of the linear wave damping model used in the ray tracing code. The most pressing problems of physics yet to be addressed and the directions for future work are indicated

  18. Thermochemistry of sarcosine and sarcosine anhydride: Theoretical and experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Luísa M.P.F.; Santos, Ana Filipa L.O.M.; Ribeiro da Silva, Maria das Dores M.C.; Notario, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Study on the Energetics of the sarcosine and sarcosine anhydride. ► Experimental and computational thermochemistry of sarcosine and its anhydride. ► Ab initio calculations for two amino acid derivatives by G3(MP2)//B3LYP method. -- Abstract: The standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, of sarcosine, −(388.0 ± 1.0) kJ · mol −1 , and sarcosine anhydride, −(334.5 ± 1.6) kJ · mol −1 , were calculated by combining, for each compound, the standard molar enthalpy of formation, in the crystalline phase, and the standard molar enthalpy of sublimation, derived from measurements of the standard massic energies of combustion by static bomb combustion calorimetry, and from measurements of vapour pressures by the Knudsen mass-loss effusion method, respectively. The standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs functions of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, were also calculated. A theoretical study at the G3 and G4 levels has been carried out, and the calculated enthalpies of formation have been compared with the experimental ones

  19. Theoretical and experimental study of non-monotonous effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delforge, J.

    1977-01-01

    In recent years, the study of the effects of low dose rates has expanded considerably, especially in connection with current problems concerning the environment and health physics. After having made a precise definition of the different types of non-monotonous effect which may be encountered, for each the main experimental results known are indicated, as well as the principal consequences which may be expected. One example is the case of radiotherapy, where there is a chance of finding irradiation conditions such that the ratio of destructive action on malignant cells to healthy cells is significantly improved. In the second part of the report, the appearance of these phenomena, especially at low dose rates are explained. For this purpose, the theory of transformation systems of P. Delattre is used as a theoretical framework. With the help of a specific example, it is shown that non-monotonous effects are frequently encountered, especially when the overall effect observed is actually the sum of several different elementary effects (e.g. in survival curves, where death may be due to several different causes), or when the objects studied possess inherent kinetics not limited to restoration phenomena alone (e.g. cellular cycle) [fr

  20. Experimental and theoretical studies on a novel helical architecture ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aKey Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory ... bInstitute for Computation in Molecular and Material Science, School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing ... mental and theoretical points of view is still largely.

  1. Theoretical Study of the Compound Parabolic Trough Solar Collector

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Subhi S. Mahammed; Dr. Hameed J. Khalaf; Tadahmun A. Yassen

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical design of compound parabolic trough solar collector (CPC) without tracking is presented in this work. The thermal efficiency is obtained by using FORTRAN 90 program. The thermal efficiency is between (60-67)% at mass flow rate between (0.02-0.03) kg/s at concentration ratio of (3.8) without need to tracking system.The total and diffused radiation is calculated for Tikrit city by using theoretical equations. Good agreement between present work and the previous work.

  2. Study of CdTe quantum dots grown using a two-step annealing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kriti; Pandey, Praveen K.; Nagpal, Swati; Bhatnagar, P. K.; Mathur, P. C.

    2006-02-01

    High size dispersion, large average radius of quantum dot and low-volume ratio has been a major hurdle in the development of quantum dot based devices. In the present paper, we have grown CdTe quantum dots in a borosilicate glass matrix using a two-step annealing method. Results of optical characterization and the theoretical model of absorption spectra have shown that quantum dots grown using two-step annealing have lower average radius, lesser size dispersion, higher volume ratio and higher decrease in bulk free energy as compared to quantum dots grown conventionally.

  3. A theoretical study for thorium monocarbide (ThC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, S.; Tatar, A.; Ciftci, Y.O.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We focused on high pressure behavior of ThC. ► ThC is metallic, and mechanically stable. ► The obtained results agree with the other available values. ► ThC is hard material, and hardness increases properly with pressure. - Abstract: The structural, mechanical, electronic and thermodynamic properties of thorium monocarbide (ThC) with NaCl-type structure have been investigated by using first-principles plane wave density functional calculations with GGA, LDA and LDA + U functionals. It is shown that calculated equilibrium structural parameters of ThC are in agreement with the experimental results. It is seen from calculated single-crystal elastic constants that ThC with NaCl-type structure is mechanically stable. And from calculated density of states and band structure, it is observed that ThC is metallic. After the properties at 0 GPa are clarified, pressure dependency of the structural parameters, the elastic properties and related mechanical properties, density of states (DOS) and hardness are studied. Furthermore, the thermodynamic properties of ThC are obtained from the quasi-harmonic Debye model (QHM) over high pressure and temperature ranges for three functionals. The results are compared to each other, and the available experimental and theoretical data.

  4. A theoretical study for thorium monocarbide (ThC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, S.; Tatar, A. [Gazi University, Department of Physics, Teknikokullar 06500, Ankara (Turkey); Ciftci, Y.O., E-mail: yasemin@gazi.edu.tr [Gazi University, Department of Physics, Teknikokullar 06500, Ankara (Turkey)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We focused on high pressure behavior of ThC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ThC is metallic, and mechanically stable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained results agree with the other available values. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ThC is hard material, and hardness increases properly with pressure. - Abstract: The structural, mechanical, electronic and thermodynamic properties of thorium monocarbide (ThC) with NaCl-type structure have been investigated by using first-principles plane wave density functional calculations with GGA, LDA and LDA + U functionals. It is shown that calculated equilibrium structural parameters of ThC are in agreement with the experimental results. It is seen from calculated single-crystal elastic constants that ThC with NaCl-type structure is mechanically stable. And from calculated density of states and band structure, it is observed that ThC is metallic. After the properties at 0 GPa are clarified, pressure dependency of the structural parameters, the elastic properties and related mechanical properties, density of states (DOS) and hardness are studied. Furthermore, the thermodynamic properties of ThC are obtained from the quasi-harmonic Debye model (QHM) over high pressure and temperature ranges for three functionals. The results are compared to each other, and the available experimental and theoretical data.

  5. Theoretical Study of Triatomic Systems Involving Helium Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suno, H.; Hiyama, E.; Kamimura, M.

    2013-01-01

    The triatomic 4 He system and its isotopic species 4 He 2 3 He are theoretically investigated. By adopting the best empirical helium interaction potentials, we calculate the bound state energy levels as well as the rates for the three-body recombination processes: 4 He + 4 He + 4 He → 4 He 2 + 4 He and 4 He + 4 He + 3 He → 4 He 2 + 3 He. We consider not only zero total angular momentum J = 0 states, but also J > 0 states. We also extend our study to mixed helium-alkali triatomic systems, that is 4 He 2 X with X = 7 Li, 23 Na, 39 K, 85 Rb, and 133 Cs. The energy levels of all the J ≥ 0 bound states for these species are calculated as well as the rates for three-body recombination processes such as 4 He + 4 He + 7 Li → 4 He 2 + 7 Li and 4 He + 4 He + 7 Li → 4 He 7 Li + 4 He. In our calculations, the adiabatic hyperspherical representation is employed but we also obtain preliminary results using the Gaussian expansion method. (author)

  6. A theoretical and spectroscopic study of conformational structures of piroxicam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Kely Ferreira de; Martins, José A.; Pessine, Francisco B. T.; Custodio, Rogério

    2010-02-01

    Piroxicam (PRX) has been widely studied in an attempt to elucidate the causes and mechanisms of its side effects, mainly the photo-toxicity. In this paper fluorescence spectra in non-protic solvents and different polarities were carried out along with theoretical calculations. Preliminary potential surfaces of the keto and enol forms were obtained at AM1 level of theory providing the most stable conformers, which had their structure re-optimized through the B3LYP/CEP-31G(d,p) method. From the optimized structures, the electronic spectra were calculated using the TD-DFT method in vacuum and including the solvent effect through the PCM method and a single water molecule near PRX. A new potential surface was constructed to the enol tautomer at DFT level and the most stable conformers were submitted to the QST2 calculations. The experimental data showed that in apolar media, the solution fluorescence is raised. Based on conformational analysis for the two tautomers, keto and enol, the results indicated that the PRX-enol is the main tautomer related to the drug fluorescence, which is reinforced by the spectra results, as well as the interconvertion barrier obtained from the QST2 calculations. The results suggest that the PRX one of the enol conformers presents great possibility of involvement in the photo-toxicity mechanisms.

  7. Experimental and theoretical study of Co sorption in clay montmorillonites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Rebaza, A. V.; Montes, M. L.; Taylor, M. A.; Errico, L. A.; Alonso, R. E.

    2018-03-01

    Montmorillonite (MMT) clays are 2:1 layered structures which in natural state may allocate different hydrated cations such as M-nH2O (M = Na, Ca, Fe, etc) in its interlayer space. Depending on the capability for ion sorption, these materials are interesting for environmental remediation. In this work we experimentally study the Co sorption in a natural Na-MMT using UV-visible spectrometry and XRD on semi-oriented samples, and then analyze the sorption ability of this clay by means of ab initio calculation performed on pristine MMT. The structural properties of Na-MMT and Co-adsorbed MMT, and the hyperfine parameters at different atomic sites were analyzed and compared with the experimental ones for the first, and for the case of the hyperfine parameters, presented for the first time for the last. The theoretical predictions based on total energy considerations confirm that Co incorporation replacing Na is energetically favorable. Also, the basal spacing d001 experimentally obtained is well reproduced.

  8. Strategic Step for Environmental Rescue: A Theoretical Legal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sutrisno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is among the developing countries that are struggling to develop in the field of industrial development. The logical consequence of any development process, especially industrial development is the emergence of associated impacts that greatly affect the durability and sustainability of the environment. Developing the equitable industry in order to create public welfare is important. However, maintaining the security and preservation of the environment is also very important, because it is only with the availability of a good environment and healthy living that human beings can perform daily living. The availability of good and healthy environment is the constitutional responsibility of the government, as well as part of the human rights of all citizens which must be given by the State. Efforts to create a good environment and healthy living will be effective if controlled by State government and institutions who understand the objective conditions on the ground. In this regard, the granting of the authority on environmental control to regional government autonomously is the right, very smart policy choice. How To Cite: Sutrisno, B. (2016. Strategic Step for Environmental Rescue: A Theoretical Legal Studies. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 27-58. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i1.98

  9. Theoretical studies of potential energy surfaces and computational methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, R. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project involves the development, implementation, and application of theoretical methods for the calculation and characterization of potential energy surfaces involving molecular species that occur in hydrocarbon combustion. These potential energy surfaces require an accurate and balanced treatment of reactants, intermediates, and products. This difficult challenge is met with general multiconfiguration self-consistent-field (MCSCF) and multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction (MRSDCI) methods. In contrast to the more common single-reference electronic structure methods, this approach is capable of describing accurately molecular systems that are highly distorted away from their equilibrium geometries, including reactant, fragment, and transition-state geometries, and of describing regions of the potential surface that are associated with electronic wave functions of widely varying nature. The MCSCF reference wave functions are designed to be sufficiently flexible to describe qualitatively the changes in the electronic structure over the broad range of geometries of interest. The necessary mixing of ionic, covalent, and Rydberg contributions, along with the appropriate treatment of the different electron-spin components (e.g. closed shell, high-spin open-shell, low-spin open shell, radical, diradical, etc.) of the wave functions, are treated correctly at this level. Further treatment of electron correlation effects is included using large scale multireference CI wave functions, particularly including the single and double excitations relative to the MCSCF reference space. This leads to the most flexible and accurate large-scale MRSDCI wave functions that have been used to date in global PES studies.

  10. Optical activity in planar chiral metamaterials: Theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Benfeng; Svirko, Yuri; Turunen, Jari; Vallius, Tuomas

    2007-01-01

    A thorough theoretical study of the optical activity in planar chiral metamaterial (PCM) structures, made of both dielectric and metallic media, is conducted by the analysis of gammadion-shaped nanoparticle arrays. The general polarization properties are first analyzed from an effective-medium perspective, by analogy with natural optical activity, and then verified by rigorous numerical simulation, some of which are corroborated by previous experimental results. The numerical analysis suggests that giant polarization rotation (tens of degrees) may be achieved in the PCM structures with a thickness of only hundreds of nanometers. The artificial optical activity arises from circular birefringence induced by the structural chirality and is enhanced by the guided-mode or surface-plasmon resonances taking place in the structures. There are two polarization conversion types in the dielectric PCMs, whereas only one type in the metallic ones. Many intriguing features of the polarization property of PCMs are also revealed and explained: the polarization effect is reciprocal and vanishes in the symmetrically layered structures; the effect occurs only in the transmitted field, but not in the reflected field; and the polarization spectra of two enantiomeric PCM structures are mirror symmetric to each other. These remarkable properties pave the way for the PCMs to be used as polarization elements in new-generation integrated optical systems

  11. Theoretical studies of the reactions of HCN with atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, R.A.; Dunning, T.H. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A comprehensive theoretical study has been made of the energetics of the important pathways involved in the reaction of hydrogen atoms with hydrogen cyanide. For each reaction ab initio GVB-CI calculations were carried out to determine the structures and vibrational frequencies of the reactants, transition states, and products; then POL-CI calculations were carried out to more accurately estimate the electronic contribution to the energetics of the reactions. The hydrogen abstraction reaction is calculated to be endoergic by 24 kcal/mol [expt. ΔH (0 K) = 16--19 kcal/mol] with a barrier of 31 kcal/mol in the forward direction and 6 kcal/mol in the reverse direction. For the hydrogen addition reactions, addition to the carbon atom is calculated to be exoergic by 19 kcal/mol with a barrier of 11 kcal/mol, while addition to the nitrogen center is essentially thermoneutral with a barrier of 17 kcal/mol. Calculations were also carried out on the isomerization reactions of the addition products. The cis→trans isomerization of HCNH has a barrier of only 10 kcal/mol with the trans isomer being more stable by 5 kcal/mol. The (1,2)-hydrogen migration reaction, converting H 2 CN to trans-HCNH, is endoergic by only 14 kcal/mol, but the calculated barrier for the transfer is 52 kcal/mol. The energy of the migration pathway thus lies above that of the dissociation--recombination pathway

  12. Experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies of small scale combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo

    Recently, the demand increased for the development of microdevices such as microsatellites, microaerial vehicles, micro reactors, and micro power generators. To meet those demands the biggest challenge is obtaining stable and complete combustion at relatively small scale. To gain a fundamental understanding of small scale combustion in this thesis, thermal and kinetic coupling between the gas phase and the structure at meso and micro scales were theoretically, experimentally, and numerically studied; new stabilization and instability phenomena were identified; and new theories for the dynamic mechanisms of small scale combustion were developed. The reduction of thermal inertia at small scale significantly reduces the response time of the wall and leads to a strong flame-wall coupling and extension of burning limits. Mesoscale flame propagation and extinction in small quartz tubes were theoretically, experimentally and numerically studied. It was found that wall-flame interaction in mesoscale combustion led to two different flame regimes, a heat-loss dominant fast flame regime and a wall-flame coupling slow flame regime. The nonlinear transition between the two flame regimes was strongly dependent on the channel width and flow velocity. It is concluded that the existence of multiple flame regimes is an inherent phenomenon in mesoscale combustion. In addition, all practical combustors have variable channel width in the direction of flame propagation. Quasi-steady and unsteady propagations of methane and propane-air premixed flames in a mesoscale divergent channel were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The emphasis was the impact of variable cross-section area and the flame-wall coupling on the flame transition between different regimes and the onset of flame instability. For the first time, spinning flames were experimentally observed for both lean and rich methane and propane-air mixtures in a broad range of equivalence ratios. An effective Lewis number

  13. Quantum Random Networks for Type 2 Quantum Computers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allara, David L; Hasslacher, Brosl

    2006-01-01

    Random boolean networks (RBNs) have been studied theoretically and computationally in order to be able to use their remarkable self-healing and large basins of altercation properties as quantum computing architectures, especially...

  14. Proceedings of quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, and quantum optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonov, V.V.; Man; ko, V.I.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at the XVIII International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics held in Moscow on June 4-9, 1990. Topics covered include; applications of algebraic methods in quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, quantum optics, spectrum generating groups, quantum algebras, symmetries of equations, quantum physics, coherent states, group representations and space groups

  15. First principles study of edge carboxylated graphene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Hazem; Elhaes, Hanan; Ibrahim, Medhat A.

    2018-05-01

    The structure stability and electronic properties of edge carboxylated hexagonal and triangular graphene quantum dots are investigated using density functional theory. The calculated binding energies show that the hexagonal clusters with armchair edges have the highest stability among all the quantum dots. The binding energy of carboxylated graphene quantum dots increases by increasing the number of carboxyl groups. Our study shows that the total dipole moment significantly increases by adding COOH with the highest value observed in triangular clusters. The edge states in triangular graphene quantum dots with zigzag edges produce completely different energy spectrum from other dots: (a) the energy gap in triangular zigzag is very small as compared to other clusters and (b) the highest occupied molecular orbital is localized at the edges which is in contrast to other clusters where it is distributed over the cluster surface. The enhanced reactivity and the controllable energy gap by shape and edge termination make graphene quantum dots ideal for various nanodevice applications such as sensors. The infrared spectra are presented to confirm the stability of the quantum dots.

  16. Experimental quantum annealing: case study involving the graph isomorphism problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Kenneth M; Shehab, Omar; French, Matthew

    2015-06-08

    Quantum annealing is a proposed combinatorial optimization technique meant to exploit quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling and entanglement. Real-world quantum annealing-based solvers require a combination of annealing and classical pre- and post-processing; at this early stage, little is known about how to partition and optimize the processing. This article presents an experimental case study of quantum annealing and some of the factors involved in real-world solvers, using a 504-qubit D-Wave Two machine and the graph isomorphism problem. To illustrate the role of classical pre-processing, a compact Hamiltonian is presented that enables a reduced Ising model for each problem instance. On random N-vertex graphs, the median number of variables is reduced from N(2) to fewer than N log2 N and solvable graph sizes increase from N = 5 to N = 13. Additionally, error correction via classical post-processing majority voting is evaluated. While the solution times are not competitive with classical approaches to graph isomorphism, the enhanced solver ultimately classified correctly every problem that was mapped to the processor and demonstrated clear advantages over the baseline approach. The results shed some light on the nature of real-world quantum annealing and the associated hybrid classical-quantum solvers.

  17. Transport studies in p-type double quantum well samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyndman, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    The motivation for the study of double quantum well samples is that the extra spatial degree of freedom can modify the ground state energies of the system, leading to new and interesting many body effects. Electron bi-layers have been widely studied but the work presented here is the first systematic study of transport properties of a p-type, double quantum well system. The samples, grown on the 311 plane, consisted of two 100A GaAs wells separated by a 30A AlAs barrier. The thin barrier in our structures, gives rise to very strong inter-layer Coulombic interactions but in contrast to electron double quantum well samples, tunnelling between the two wells is very weak. This is due to the large effective mass of holes compared with electrons. It is possible to accurately control the total density of a sample and the relative occupancy of each well using front and back gates. A systematic study of the magnetoresistance properties of the p-type bi-layers, was carried out at low temperatures and in high magnetic fields, for samples covering a range of densities. Considerable care was required to obtain reliable results as the samples were extremely susceptible to electrical shock and were prone to drift in density slowly over time. With balanced wells, the very low tunnelling in the p-type bi-layer leads to a complete absence of all odd integers in both resistance and thermopower except for the v=1 state, ( v 1/2 in each layer) where v is the total Landau level filling factor. Unlike other FQHE features the v=1 state strengthens with increased density as inter-layer interactions increase in strength over intra-layer interactions. The state is also destroyed at a critical temperature, which is much lower than the measured activation temperature. This is taken as evidence for a finite temperature phase transition predicted for the bi-layer v=1. From the experimental observations, we construct a phase diagram for the state, which agree closely with theoretical predictions

  18. Theoretical study of incoherent φ photoproduction on a deuteron target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekihara, T.; Martinez Torres, A.; Jido, D.; Oset, E.

    2012-01-01

    We study the photoproduction of φ mesons in deuteron, paying attention to the modification of the cross-section from bound protons to the free ones. For this purpose we take into account Fermi motion in single scattering and rescattering of φ to account for φ absorption on a second nucleon as well as the rescattering of the proton on the neutron. We find that the contribution of the double scattering for φ is much smaller than the typical cross-section of γp→φp in free space, which implies a very small screening of the φ production in deuteron. The contribution from the proton rescattering, on the other hand, is found to be not negligible compared to the cross-section of γp→φp in free space, and leads to a moderate reduction of the φ photoproduction cross-section on a deuteron at forward angles if the LEPS set-up is taken into account. The Fermi motion allows contribution of the single scattering in regions forbidden by phase-space in the free case. In particular, we find that for momentum transfer squared close to the maximum value, the Fermi motion changes drastically the shape of dσ/dt, to the point that the ratio of this cross-section to the free one becomes very sensitive to the precise value of t chosen, or the size of the bin used in an experimental analysis. Hence, this particular region of t does not seem to be the most indicated to find effects of a possible φ absorption in the deuteron. This reaction is studied theoretically as a function of t and the results are contrasted with recent experiments at LEPS and Jefferson Lab. The effect of the experimental angular cuts at LEPS is also discussed, providing guidelines for future experimental analyses of the reaction. (orig.)

  19. Theoretical Studies Of Nucleation Kinetics And Nanodroplet Microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilemski, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    The goals of this project were to (1) explore ways of bridging the gap between fundamental molecular nucleation theories and phenomenological approaches based on thermodynamic reasoning, (2) test and improve binary nucleation theory, and (3) provide the theoretical underpinning for a powerful new experimental technique, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) from nanodroplet aerosols, that can probe the compositional structure of nanodroplets. This report summarizes the accomplishments of this project in realizing these goals. Publications supported by this project fall into three general categories: (1) theoretical work on nucleation theory (2) experiments and modeling of nucleation and condensation in supersonic nozzles, and (3) experimental and theoretical work on nanodroplet structure and neutron scattering. These publications are listed and briefly summarized in this report.

  20. Quantum Mechanical Study of Nanoscale MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, Bryan

    2001-01-01

    The steady state characteristics of MOSFETS that are of practical Interest are the drive current, off-current, dope of drain current versus drain voltage, and threshold voltage. In this section, we show that quantum mechanical simulations yield significantly different results from drift-diffusion based methods. These differences arise because of the following quantum mechanical features: (I) polysilicon gate depletion in a manner opposite to the classical case (II) dependence of the resonant levels in the channel on the gate voltage, (III) tunneling of charge across the gate oxide and from source to drain, (IV) quasi-ballistic flow of electrons. Conclusions dI/dV versus V does not increase in a manner commensurate with the increase in number of subbands. - The increase in dI/dV with bias is much smaller then the increase in the number of subbands - a consequence of bragg reflection. Our calculations show an increase in transmission with length of contact, as seen in experiments. It is desirable for molecular electronics applications to have a small contact area, yet large coupling. In this case, the circumferential dependence of the nanotube wave function dictates: - Transmission in armchair tubes saturates around unity - Transmission in zigzag tubes saturates at two.

  1. Theoretical Study of H/D Isotope Effects on Nuclear Magnetic Shieldings Using an ab initio Multi-Component Molecular Orbital Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Tachikawa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We have theoretically analyzed the nuclear quantum effect on the nuclear magnetic shieldings for the intramolecular hydrogen-bonded systems of σ-hydroxy acyl aromatic species using the gauge-including atomic orbital technique combined with our multi-component density functional theory. The effect of H/D quantum nature for geometry and nuclear magnetic shielding changes are analyzed. Our study clearly demonstrated that the geometrical changes of hydrogen-bonds induced by H/D isotope effect (called geometrical isotope effect: GIE is the dominant factor of deuterium isotope effect on 13C chemical shift.

  2. Theoretical Study of the Compound Parabolic Trough Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Subhi S. Mahammed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical design of compound parabolic trough solar collector (CPC without tracking is presented in this work. The thermal efficiency is obtained by using FORTRAN 90 program. The thermal efficiency is between (60-67% at mass flow rate between (0.02-0.03 kg/s at concentration ratio of (3.8 without need to tracking system.The total and diffused radiation is calculated for Tikrit city by using theoretical equations. Good agreement between present work and the previous work.

  3. Theoretical study on device efficiency of pulsed liquid jet pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Chuanchang; Lu Hongqi; Wang Shicheng; Cheng Mingchuan

    2001-01-01

    The influence of the main factors on device efficiency of pulsed liquid jet pump with gas-liquid piston is analysed, the theoretical equation and its time-averaged solution of pulsed liquid jet pump device efficiency are derived. The theoretical and experimental results show that the efficiency of transmission of energy and mass to use pulsed jet is greatly raised, compared with steady jet, in the same device of liquid jet pump. The calculating results of time-averaged efficiency of pulsed liquid jet pump are approximately in agreement with the experimental results in our and foreign countries

  4. In vitro drug interaction of levocetirizine and diclofenac: Theoretical and spectroscopic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo Dena, Ahmed S; Abdel Gaber, Sara A

    2017-06-15

    Levocetirizine dihydrochloride is known to interact with some anti-inflammatory drugs. We report here a comprehensive integrated theoretical and experimental study for the in vitro drug interaction between levocetirizine dihydrochloride (LEV) and diclofenac sodium (DIC). The interaction of the two drugs was confirmed by the molecular ion peak obtained from the mass spectrum of the product. Moreover, FTIR and 1 HNMR spectra of the individual drugs and their interaction product were inspected to allocate the possible sites of interaction. In addition, quantum mechanical DFT calculations were performed to search for the interaction sites and to verify the types of interactions deduced from the spectroscopic studies such as charge-transfer and non-bonding π-π interactions. It was found that the studied drugs interact with each other in aqueous solution via four types of interactions, namely, ion-pair formation, three weak hydrogen bonds, non-bonding π-π interactions and charge-transfer from DIC to LEV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental and theoretical studies of cylindrical Hall thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Artem; Raitses, Yegeny; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2007-01-01

    The Hall thruster is a mature electric propulsion device that holds considerable promise in terms of the propellant saving potential. The annular design of the conventional Hall thruster, however, does not naturally scale to low power. The efficiency tends to be lower and the lifetime issues are more aggravated. Cylindrical geometry Hall thrusters have lower surface-to-volume ratio than conventional thrusters and, thus, seem to be more promising for scaling down. The cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) is fundamentally different from the conventional design in the way the electrons are confined and the ion space charge is neutralized. The performances of both the large (9-cm channel diameter, 600-1000 W) and miniaturized (2.6-cm channel diameter, 50-300 W) CHTs are comparable with those of the state-of-the-art conventional (annular) design Hall thrusters of similar sizes. A comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the CHT physics has been conducted, addressing the questions of electron cross-field transport, propellant ionization, plasma-wall interaction, and formation of the electron distribution function. Probe measurements in the harsh plasma environment of the microthruster were performed. Several interesting effects, such as the unusually high ionization efficiency and enhanced electron transport, were observed. Kinetic simulations suggest the existence of the strong fluctuation-enhanced electron diffusion and predict the non-Maxwellian shape of the electron distribution function. Through the acquired understanding of the new physics, ways for further optimization of this means for low-power space propulsion are suggested. Substantial flexibility in the magnetic field configuration of the CHT is the key tool in achieving the high-efficiency operation

  6. a Theoretical Study of Coherent Structures in Nonneutral Plasma Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Steven M.

    A ubiquitous feature of experimental and computer simulation studies of magnetically confined pure electron plasmas in cylindrical confinement devices is the formation of nonaxisymmetric (partial/partial theta ne 0) rotating equilibria. In this dissertation, nonaxisymmetric rotating equilibria are investigated theoretically for strongly magnetized, low-density (omega_sp{pe} {2}/omega_sp{ce}{2 } guiding-center model in the cold-fluid limit (the continuity and Poisson equations) that treats the electrons as a massless fluid (m_{e} to 0) with E times B flow velocity V _{e} = -(c/B_0)nablaphi times {bf e}_{z}. Within this model, general rotating equilibria with electron density (n_{e} equiv n_{R}(r,theta-omega _{r}t) and electrostatic potential phi equiv phi_{R }(r,theta-omega_{r}t) have the property that the electron density is functionally related to the streamfunction psi _{R} = -ephi_{R} + omega_{r}(eB_0/2c)r^2 by n_{R} = n_{R }(psi_{R}). The streamfunction psi_{R} satisfies the nonlinear equilibrium equation nabla ^2psi_{R} = -4pi e^2n _{R}(psi_{R}) + 2omega_{r}eB_0/c with psi_{R} = omega _{r}(eB_0/2c)r_sp{w }{2} equiv psi_{w } = const. on the cylindrical wall at r = r_{w}. A general methodology for the solution of this equilibrium system is presented and several properties of rotating equilibria are analyzed. Following this analysis, two classes of nonaxisymmetric equilibria are investigated. These two classes of equilibria can have large amplitude (strongly nonaxisymmetric). First, a class of vortex-like rotating equilibria is analyzed that is characterized by a structured density profile that fills a confinement geometry with an inner conducting cylinder at radius r = r_{I} Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253 -1690.).

  7. Theoretical and spectroscopic studies of a tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine hydrochloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagdinc, S. G.; Azkeskin, Caner; Eşme, A.

    2018-06-01

    Imipramine hydrochloride ([H-IMI]Cl), C19H24N2.HCl, is the prototypic tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) inhibitor of norepinephrine and serotonin neuronal reuptake. The molecular structure, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, linear and non-linear optical (NLO) properties of [H-IMI]Cl have been investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) calculations with the B3LYP level at the 6‒311++G(d,p) basis set. The UV-Vis spectra for [H-IMI]Cl were experimentally studied in water and methanol. TD‒DFT calculations in water and methanol were employed to investigate the absorption wavelengths (λ), excitation energies (E), and oscillator strengths (f) for the UV-Vis analysis and the major contributions to the electronic transitions. From NBO analysis, the orbitals with the stabilization energy E(2) of 192.15 kcal/mol are π*(C5sbnd C18) as donor NBO and π*(C19sbnd C20) as acceptor NBO. The FT‒IR (4000‒400 cm-1) and FT‒Raman (3500-50 cm-1) spectra have been measured and analyzed. The assignment of bands observed vibrational spectra have been made by comparison of its calculated theoretical vibrational frequencies obtained using the DFT/B3LYP/6‒311++G(d,p) method. The detailed vibrational assignments were performed with the DFT calculation, and the potential energy distribution (PED) of [H-IMI]Cl was obtained by the Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis 4 (VEDA4) program. The scaled frequencies resulted in good agreement with the observed spectral patterns.

  8. [Theoretical elementary particle studies.] Final report, September 1983-July 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The work done during the period September 1983 to July 1985 covers several areas of the theory of the strong interactions of elementary particles, mostly in the area characterized as 'perturbative QCD'. The specific topics are: the proof of factorization for hard processes, such as the Drell-Yan process; calculation of transverse-mementum distributions for these processes; investigation of the small-x region; demonstration of the applicability of perturbative QCD (quantum chromodynamics) to the production of heavy quarks; and improved methods of calculation of the effects of heavy quarks in hard processes, and in particular of their distribution functions in hadrons ('structure functions'). 31 refs

  9. A theoretical study of carbohydrates as corrosion inhibitors of iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Salim M.; Ali, Nozha M. [Libyan Academy for Graduate Studies, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya). Chemistry Dept.; Ali-Shattle, Elbashir E. [Tripoli Univ. (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya). Chemistry Dept.

    2013-08-15

    The inhibitive effect of fructose, glucose, lactose, maltose, and sucrose against the iron corrosion is investigated using density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31 G level (d) to search the relation between the molecular structure and corrosion inhibition. The electronic properties such as the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), the energy of lowest unoccupied orbital (LUMO), the energy gap (LUMO-HOMO), quantum chemical parameters such as hardness, softness, the fraction of the electron transferred, and the electrophilicity index are reported. The inhibition efficiency of the investigated carbohydrates follows the trend: maltose < sucrose < lactose < fructose < glucose. (orig.)

  10. Theoretical and experimental studies of N and SF2 reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shuqin; Zhou Xiaoguo

    2000-02-01

    In this paper, free radical reaction of N+SF 2 induced by dc discharge in N 2 and SF 6 system was examined. Although the NS + (m/z = 46) ion signals were detected, NS + is not the spectral carrier from obtained REMPI spectra analysis. Ab initio quantum calculation shows that NSF is the main product of N + SF 2 . It is confirmed from this calculation that NS + obtained in experiment was produced by multiphoton ionization and dissociation of NSF which is real product of N + SF 2 reaction. (author)

  11. A Theoretical Framework for Studying Adolescent Contraceptive Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urberg, Kathryn A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a theoretical framework for viewing adolescent contraceptive usage. The problem-solving process is used for developmentally examining the competencies that must be present for effective contraceptive use, including: problem recognition, motivation, generation of alternatives, decision making and implementation. Each aspect is discussed…

  12. Experimental and theoretical study of magnetohydrodynamic ship models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cébron

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD ships represent a clear demonstration of the Lorentz force in fluids, which explains the number of students practicals or exercises described on the web. However, the related literature is rather specific and no complete comparison between theory and typical small scale experiments is currently available. This work provides, in a self-consistent framework, a detailed presentation of the relevant theoretical equations for small MHD ships and experimental measurements for future benchmarks. Theoretical results of the literature are adapted to these simple battery/magnets powered ships moving on salt water. Comparison between theory and experiments are performed to validate each theoretical step such as the Tafel and the Kohlrausch laws, or the predicted ship speed. A successful agreement is obtained without any adjustable parameter. Finally, based on these results, an optimal design is then deduced from the theory. Therefore this work provides a solid theoretical and experimental ground for small scale MHD ships, by presenting in detail several approximations and how they affect the boat efficiency. Moreover, the theory is general enough to be adapted to other contexts, such as large scale ships or industrial flow measurement techniques.

  13. Experimental and theoretical study of magnetohydrodynamic ship models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cébron, David; Viroulet, Sylvain; Vidal, Jérémie; Masson, Jean-Paul; Viroulet, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ships represent a clear demonstration of the Lorentz force in fluids, which explains the number of students practicals or exercises described on the web. However, the related literature is rather specific and no complete comparison between theory and typical small scale experiments is currently available. This work provides, in a self-consistent framework, a detailed presentation of the relevant theoretical equations for small MHD ships and experimental measurements for future benchmarks. Theoretical results of the literature are adapted to these simple battery/magnets powered ships moving on salt water. Comparison between theory and experiments are performed to validate each theoretical step such as the Tafel and the Kohlrausch laws, or the predicted ship speed. A successful agreement is obtained without any adjustable parameter. Finally, based on these results, an optimal design is then deduced from the theory. Therefore this work provides a solid theoretical and experimental ground for small scale MHD ships, by presenting in detail several approximations and how they affect the boat efficiency. Moreover, the theory is general enough to be adapted to other contexts, such as large scale ships or industrial flow measurement techniques.

  14. Coordination to transition metal surfaces : a theoretical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santen, van R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical framework is developed that describes the chemisorption of CO to transition metal surfaces analogous to the HOMO-LUMO concept of MO theory. An explanation is given for the exptl. observation that CO adsorbs on top at the (111), face of Pt, but bridge at the (111) face of Ni. One is due

  15. Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using an exciplex forming co-host with the external quantum efficiency of theoretical limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun; Lee, Sunghun; Kim, Kwon-Hyeon; Moon, Chang-Ki; Yoo, Seung-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2014-07-16

    A high-efficiency blue-emitting organic light-emitting diode (OLED) approaching theoretical efficiency using an exciplex-forming co-host composed of N,N'-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene (mCP) and bis-4,6-(3,5-di-3-pyridylphenyl)- 2-methylpyrimidine (B3PYMPM) is fabricated. Iridium(III)bis[(4,6-difluorophenyl)- pyridinato-N,C2']picolinate (FIrpic) is used as the emitter, which turns out to have a preferred horizontal dipole orientation in the emitting layer. The OLED shows a maximum external quantum efficiency of 29.5% (a maximum current efficiency of 62.2 cd A(-1) ), which is in perfect agreement with the theoretical prediction. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Preparation of theoretical scanning tunneling microscope images of adsorbed molecules: a theoretical study of benzene on the Cu(110) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapter, J.G.; Rogers, B.L.; Ford, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Since its development in 1982, the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) has developed into a powerful tool for the study of surfaces and adsorbates. However, the utility of the technique can be further enhanced through the development of techniques for generating theoretical STM images. This is particularly true when studying molecules adsorbed on a substrate, as the results are often interpreted superficially due to an inadequate understanding of the orbital overlap probed in the experiment. A method of preparing theoretical scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images using comparatively inexpensive desktop computers and the commercially available CRYSTAL98 package is presented through a study of benzene adsorbed on the Cu(110) surface. Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock (HF) methods are used to model clean Cu(110) slabs of various thicknesses and to simulate the adsorption of benzene onto these slabs. Eight possible orientations of benzene on the Cu(110) surface are proposed, and the optimum orientation according to the calculations is presented. Theoretical STM images of the Cu(110) surface and benzene adsorbed on the Cu(110) surface are compared with experimental STM images of the system from a published study. Significant differences are observed and are examined in detail

  17. Molecular design, synthesis and physical properties of novel Cytisine-derivatives - Experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Bojidarka; Spiteller, Michael

    2013-02-01

    The paper presented a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study on the molecular drugs-design, synthesis, isolation, physical spectroscopic and mass spectrometric elucidation of novel functionalization derivatives of Cytisine (Cyt), using nucleosidic residues. Since these alkaloids have established biochemical profile, related the binding affinity of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), particularly α7 sub-type, the presented correlation between the molecular structure and properties allowed to evaluated the highlights of the biochemical hypothesises related the Schizophrenia. The anticancer activity of α7 subtype agonists and the crucial role of the nucleoside-based medications in the cancer therapy provided opportunity for further study on the biochemical relationship between Schizophrenia and few kinds of cancers, which has been hypothesized recently. The physical electronic absorptions (EAs), circular dichroic (CD) and Raman spectroscopic (RS) properties as well as mass spectrometric (MS) data, obtained using electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization (APCI) methods under the positive single (MS) and tandem (MS/MS) modes of operation are discussed. Taking into account reports on a fatal intoxication of Cyt, the presented data would be of interest in the field of forensic chemistry, through development of highly selective and sensitive analytical protocols. Quantum chemical method is used to predict the physical properties of the isolated alkaloids, their affinity to the receptor loop and gas-phase stabilized species, observed mass spectrometrically.

  18. Fundamental studies of aluminum corrosion in acidic and basic environments: Theoretical predictions and experimental observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashgari, Mohsen; Malek, Ali M.

    2010-01-01

    Using quantum electrochemical approaches based on density functional theory and cluster/polarized continuum model, we investigated the corrosion behavior of aluminum in HCl and NaOH media containing phenol inhibitor. In this regard, we determined the geometry and electronic structure of the species at metal/solution interface. The investigations revealed that the interaction energies of hydroxide corrosive agents with aluminum surface should be more negative than those of chloride ones. The inhibitor adsorption in acid is more likely to have a physical nature while it appears as though to be chemical in basic media. To verify these predictions, using Tafel plots, we studied the phenomena from experimental viewpoint. The studies confirmed that the rate of corrosion in alkaline solution is substantially greater than in HCl media. Moreover, phenol is a potential-molecule having mixed-type inhibition mechanism. The relationship between inhibitory action and molecular parameters was discussed and the activity in alkaline media was also theoretically anticipated. This prediction was in accord with experiment.

  19. Theoretical study on the molecular tautomerism of the 3-hydroxy-pyridin-4-one system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zborowski, Krzysztof K.; Mohammadpour, Mehrdad; Sadeghi, Amir; Proniewicz, Leonard M.

    2013-04-01

    3-hydroxy-pyridin-4-one is a parent molecule for the family of hydroxypyridinones that are known in coordination chemistry as efficient metal ions chelators. In this work, relative stabilities of some possible tautomers were investigated using several quantum chemical methods: CBS (complete basis set methods), Gn, DFT (density functional theory), Hartree-Fock and MP2. Performed calculations show that the system under consideration exists as a mixture of two tautomers with comparable energies. Among them, the hydroxypyridinone structure of the studied molecular system seems to be a bit more stable than the o-dihydroxypyridine one, by a few kJ/mol only. Aromaticity and intra-molecular hydrogen bonding are the main effects influencing the stability of the studied tautomeric structures. Consequently, aromatic effects were calculated using several indices of aromaticity: HOMA (harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity), NICS (nucleus independent chemical shift), H, PDI (para delocalisation index), MCI (multi-centre index) and ASE (aromatic stabilisation energy). The strength of possible intra-molecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) was determined by means of the AIM (atoms-in-molecules) method and by calculating enthalpies for theoretical reactions that do or do not involve H-bonds. The AIM method was employed to understand how variations in atomic energies influence the stability of different tautomeric structures.

  20. Synthesis, crystal growth, characterization and theoretical studies of 4-aminobenzophenonium picrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya Prasad, A.; Muthu, K.; Rajasekar, M.; Meenatchi, V.; Meenakshisundaram, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of 4-aminobenzophenonium picrate (4ABPP) were grown by slow evaporation of a mixed solvent system methanol-acetone (1:1,v/v) containing equimolar quantities of picric acid and 4-aminobenzophenone. The proton and carbon signals are confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The various functional groups present in the molecule are identified by FT-IR analysis. Optimized geometry, first-order molecular hyperpolarizability (β), polarizability (α), bond length, bond angles and excited state energy from theoretical UV were derived by Hartree-Fock calculations. The complete assignment of the vibrational modes for 4-aminobenzophenonium picrate was performed by the scaled quantum mechanics force field (SQMFF) methodology using potential energy distribution. Natural bond orbital (NBO) calculations were employed to study the stabilities arising from charge delocalization and intermolecular interactions of 4ABPP. The atomic charge distributions of the various atoms present in 4ABPP are obtained by Mulliken charge population analysis. The as-grown crystal is further characterized by thermal and optical absorbance studies.

  1. Study of incommensurable phases in quantum chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollmer, J.

    1990-12-01

    The phases of quantum chains with spin-1/2 and spin-1-respresentations of the SU(2) algebra and the phases of a mixed spin-1/2 / spin-1 chain are reported and investigated. These chains are models with an XX-interaction in a magnetic field. In a certain range of the magnetic field the groundstate magnetisation depends continuously on the magnetic field and the energy gaps vanish, this is a so called 'floating phase'. Within this phase the energy spectrum is a conformal spectrum, comparable to the spectrum of the Gauss-model, but the momenta have a macroscopic part. These macroscopic momenta are connected to oscillating correlation functions, whose periods are determined by the magnetic field. The transition from the floating phase to an existing phase with constant groundstate magnetisation is a Pokrovsky-Talapov-transition, it is a universal transition in all three models. (orig.) [de

  2. Photophysical properties of chirality: Experimental and theoretical studies of (R)- and (S)-binaphthol derivatives as a prototype case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboi, Taiju; An, Zhong-fu; Nakai, Yosuke; Yin, Jun; Chen, Run-feng; Shi, Hui-fang; Huang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The effect of chirality on photophysical properties was investigated. ► The same photophysics of enantiomers was observed in solutions. ► But different photoluminescent efficiency and lifetime were found in neat film. ► The different symmetry and formation probability of dimmers may be the main reason. ► The joint experimental and theoretical study explains these differences well. - Abstract: The key monomers of binaphthol-based chiral materials, (R)- and (S)- 6,6′-dibromo-2,2′-bis(octyloxy)- 1,1′-binaphthyl (R–M and S–M, respectively), were synthesized and characterized by UV–vis absorption spectra, circular dichroism (CD) spectra, photoluminescence (PL) lifetime, PL quantum efficiency at room temperature, together with PL spectra at various temperatures between 12 K and 296 K in both film and solution. The photophysical properties of R–M and S–M were investigated in detail with a joint experimental and theoretical study, in order to reveal the effects of chirality on the π-conjugated chiral systems. Higher photoluminescent quantum efficiency and better PL spectra purity in solid film of R–M were observed and discussed

  3. Quantum Effects of Electric Fields and Potentials on Electron Motion: An Introduction to Theoretical and Practical Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteucci, G.

    2007-01-01

    In the so-called electric Aharonov-Bohm effect, a quantum interference pattern shift is produced when electrons move in an electric field free region but, at the same time, in the presence of a time-dependent electric potential. Analogous fringe shifts are observed in interference experiments where electrons, travelling through an electrostatic…

  4. 2D Quantum Mechanical Study of Nanoscale MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, B.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    With the onset of quantum confinement in the inversion layer in nanoscale MOSFETs, behavior of the resonant level inevitably determines all device characteristics. While most classical device simulators take quantization into account in some simplified manner, the important details of electrostatics are missing. Our work addresses this shortcoming and provides: (a) a framework to quantitatively explore device physics issues such as the source-drain and gate leakage currents, DIBL, and threshold voltage shift due to quantization, and b) a means of benchmarking quantum corrections to semiclassical models (such as density-gradient and quantum-corrected MEDICI). We have developed physical approximations and computer code capable of realistically simulating 2-D nanoscale transistors, using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. This is the most accurate full quantum model yet applied to 2-D device simulation. Open boundary conditions and oxide tunneling are treated on an equal footing. Electrons in the ellipsoids of the conduction band are treated within the anisotropic effective mass approximation. We present the results of our simulations of MIT 25, 50 and 90 nm "well-tempered" MOSFETs and compare them to those of classical and quantum corrected models. The important feature of quantum model is smaller slope of Id-Vg curve and consequently higher threshold voltage. Surprisingly, the self-consistent potential profile shows lower injection barrier in the channel in quantum case. These results are qualitatively consistent with ID Schroedinger-Poisson calculations. The effect of gate length on gate-oxide leakage and subthreshold current has been studied. The shorter gate length device has an order of magnitude smaller current at zero gate bias than the longer gate length device without a significant trade-off in on-current. This should be a device design consideration.

  5. Spectroscopic Analysis of Neurotransmitters: A Theoretical and Experimental Raman Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Matthew

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was applied to investigate the feasibility in the detection and monitoring of the dopamine (DA) neurotransmitter adsorbed onto silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) at 10-11 molar, a concentration far below physiological levels. In addition, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were obtained with the Gaussian-09 analytical suite software to generate the theoretical molecular configuration of DA in its neutral, cationic, anionic, and dopaminequinone states for the conversion of computer-simulated Raman spectra. Comparison of theoretical and experimental results show good agreement and imply the presence of dopamine in all of its molecular forms in the experimental setting. The dominant dopamine Raman bands at 750 cm-1 and 795 cm-1 suggest the adsorption of dopaminequinone onto the silver nanoparticle surface. The results of this experiment give good insight into the applicability of using Raman spectroscopy for the biodetection of neurotransmitters.

  6. Theoretical study of reaction dynamics in radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachiya, Masanori

    2008-01-01

    The period from late 1950's to early 1970's was golden age of radiation chemistry. During this period the hydrated electron was discovered, various new phenomena were found in ionic processes in liquid hydrocarbons, and the trapped electron and electron tunneling were discovered in organic glasses. In those days radiation chemistry was a vast treasure-house of theoretical problems. We could find not only problems special to radiation chemistry but also many problems interesting as general physical chemistry. In this review I explain how some theoretical problems discovered in the field of radiation chemistry have evolved into those of general physical chemistry, with special emphasis on my own work. (author)

  7. An Experimental and Theoretical Study on Cavitating Propellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    34 And Identfyp eV &to" nMeeJ cascade flow theoretical supercavitating flow performance prediction method partially cavitating flow supercavitating ...the present work was to develop an analytical tool for predicting the off-design performance of supercavitating propellers over a wide range of...operating conditions. Due to the complex nature of the flow phenomena, a lifting line theory sirply combined with the two-dimensional supercavitating

  8. Adsorption of uranium composites onto saltrock oxides - experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Bojidarka; Spiteller, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The study encompassed experimental mass spectrometric and theoretical quantum chemical studies on adsorption of uranium species in different oxidation states of the metal ion, and oxides of UxOy(n+) type, where x = 1 or 3, y = 2 or 8, and n = 0, 1 or 2 onto nanosize-particles of saltrock oxides MO (M = Mg(II), Ca(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Sr(II) or Ba(II)), M2Oy (M = Au(III) or Ag(I), y = 3 or 1) silicates 3Al2O3.2SiO2, natural kaolinite (Al2O2·2SiO2·2H2O), illite (K0.78Ca0.02Na0.02(Mg0.34Al1.69Fe(III)0.02)[Si3.35Al0.65]O10(OH)2·nH2O), CaSiO3, 3MgO·4SiO2,H2O, and M(1)M(2)(SiO4)X2 (M(1) = M(2) = Al or M(1) = K, M(2) = Al, X = F or Cl), respectively. The UV-MALDI-Orbitrap mass spectrometry was utilized in solid-state and semi-liquid colloidal state, involving the laser ablation at λex = 337.2 nm. The theoretical modeling and experimental design was based on chemical-, physico-chemical, physical and biological processes involving uranium species under environmental conditions. Therefore, the results reported are crucial for quality control and monitoring programs for assessment of radionuclide migration. They impact significantly the methodology for evaluation of human health risk from radioactive contamination. The study has importance for understanding the coordination and red-ox chemistry of uranium compounds as well. Due to the double nature of uranium between rare element and superconductivity like materials as well as variety of oxidation states ∈ (+1)-(+6), the there remain challenging areas for theoretical and experimental research, which are of significant importance for management of nuclear fuel cycles and waste storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Design and theoretical calculation of novel GeSn fully-depleted n-tunneling FET with quantum confinement model for suppression on GIDL effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyu; Hu, Huiyong; Wang, Meng; Miao, Yuanhao; Han, Genquan; Wang, Bin

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, a novel fully-depleted Ge1-xSnx n-Tunneling FET (FD Ge1-xSnx nTFET) with field plate is investigated theoretically based on the experiment previously published. The energy band structures of Ge1-xSnx are calculated by EMP and the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) parameters of Ge1-xSnx are calculated by Kane's model. The electrical characteristics of FD Ge1-xSnx nTFET and FD Ge1-xSnx nTFET with field plate (FD-FP Ge1-xSnx nTFET) having various Sn compositions are investigated and simulated with quantum confinement model. The results indicated that the GIDL effect is serious in FD Ge1-xSnx nTFET. By employing the field plate structure, the GIDL effect of FD-FP Ge1-xSnx nTFET is suppressed and the off-state current Ioff is decreased more than 2 orders of magnitude having Sn compositions from 0 to 0.06 compared with FD Ge1-xSnx nTFET. The impact of the difference of work function between field plate metal and channel Φfps is also studied. With the optimized Φfps = 0.0 eV, the on-state current Ion = 4.6 × 10-5 A/μm, the off-state current Ioff = 1.6 × 10-13 A/μm and the maximum on/off ration Ion/Ioff = 2.9 × 108 are achieved.

  10. Theoretical studies on sRNA-mediated regulation in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiao-Xue; Xu, Liu-Fang; Shi, Hua-Lin

    2015-12-01

    Small RNA(sRNA)-mediated post-transcriptional regulation differs from protein-mediated regulation. Through base-pairing, sRNA can regulate the target mRNA in a catalytic or stoichiometric manner. Some theoretical models were built for comparison of the protein-mediated and sRNA-mediated modes in the steady-state behaviors and noise properties. Many experiments demonstrated that a single sRNA can regulate several mRNAs, which causes crosstalk between the targets. Here, we focus on some models in which two target mRNAs are silenced by the same sRNA to discuss their crosstalk features. Additionally, the sequence-function relationship of sRNA and its role in the kinetic process of base-pairing have been highlighted in model building. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB834100), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11121403 and 11274320), the Open Project Program of State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China (Grant No. Y4KF171CJ1), the National Natural Science Foundation for Young Scholar of China (Grant No. 11304115), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2013M541282).

  11. Thermodynamic properties of cyclohexanamines: Experimental and theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verevkin, Sergey P.; Emeĺyanenko, Vladimir N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Vapor pressures of four cyclohexanamine derivatives were measured. • Vaporization enthalpies were derived and compared with the literature. • Thermochemical data tested for consistency using additivity rules and computations. • Contradiction between available liquid phase enthalpies of formation was resolved. • Strength of intra-molecular hydrogen bonding in cyclohexyl-1,2-diamines assessed. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of cyclohexanamine, N-methyl-cyclohexanamine, N,N-dimethyl-cyclohexanamine, and N-cyclohexyl-cyclohexanamine were measured using the transpiration method. Molar enthalpies of vaporization of cyclohexanamine derivatives were derived from vapor pressure temperature dependences. Thermodynamic data on cyclohexanamine derivatives available in the literature were collected and treated uniformly. Consistency of the experimental data was proved with a group- contribution method and quantum-chemical calculations. Evaluated vaporization and formation enthalpies of cyclohexanamine derivatives were recommended for practical thermochemical calculations

  12. Theoretical study of phosphorene tunneling field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jiwon; Hobbs, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In this work, device performances of tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs) based on phosphorene are explored via self-consistent atomistic quantum transport simulations. Phosphorene is an ultra-thin two-dimensional (2-D) material with a direct band gap suitable for TFETs applications. Our simulation shows that phosphorene TFETs exhibit subthreshold slope below 60 mV/dec and a wide range of on-current depending on the transport direction due to highly anisotropic band structures of phosphorene. By benchmarking with monolayer MoTe 2 TFETs, we predict that phosphorene TFETs oriented in the small effective mass direction can yield much larger on-current at the same on-current/off-current ratio than monolayer MoTe 2 TFETs. It is also observed that a gate underlap structure is required for scaling down phosphorene TFETs in the small effective mass direction to suppress the source-to-drain direct tunneling leakage current

  13. Theoretical study of phosphorene tunneling field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jiwon; Hobbs, Chris [SEMATECH, 257 Fuller Rd #2200, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2015-02-23

    In this work, device performances of tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs) based on phosphorene are explored via self-consistent atomistic quantum transport simulations. Phosphorene is an ultra-thin two-dimensional (2-D) material with a direct band gap suitable for TFETs applications. Our simulation shows that phosphorene TFETs exhibit subthreshold slope below 60 mV/dec and a wide range of on-current depending on the transport direction due to highly anisotropic band structures of phosphorene. By benchmarking with monolayer MoTe{sub 2} TFETs, we predict that phosphorene TFETs oriented in the small effective mass direction can yield much larger on-current at the same on-current/off-current ratio than monolayer MoTe{sub 2} TFETs. It is also observed that a gate underlap structure is required for scaling down phosphorene TFETs in the small effective mass direction to suppress the source-to-drain direct tunneling leakage current.

  14. Protonation effects on the UV/Vis absorption spectra of imatinib: a theoretical and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grante, Ilze; Actins, Andris; Orola, Liana

    2014-08-14

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of protonation effects on the UV/Vis absorption spectra of imatinib showed systematic changes of absorption depending on the pH, and a new absorption band appeared below pH 2. These changes in the UV/Vis absorption spectra were interpreted using quantum chemical calculations. The geometry of various imatinib cations in the gas phase and in ethanol solution was optimized with the DFT/B3LYP method. The resultant geometries were compared to the experimentally determined crystal structures of imatinib salts. The semi-empirical ZINDO-CI method was employed to calculate the absorption lines and electronic transitions. Our study suggests that the formation of the extra near-UV absorption band resulted from an increase of imatinib trication concentration in the solution, while the rapid increase of the first absorption maximum could be attributed to both the formation of imatinib trication and tetracation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Theoretical Approaches to Lignin Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Shevchenko, Sergey M.

    1994-01-01

    A critical review is presented of the applications of theoretical methods to the studies of the structure and chemical reactivity of lignin, including simulation of macromolecular properties, conformational calculations, quantum chemical analyses of electronic structure, spectra and chemical reactivity. Modern concepts of spatial organization and chemical reactivity of lignins are discussed.

  16. On Quantum Statistical Inference, II

    OpenAIRE

    Barndorff-Nielsen, O. E.; Gill, R. D.; Jupp, P. E.

    2003-01-01

    Interest in problems of statistical inference connected to measurements of quantum systems has recently increased substantially, in step with dramatic new developments in experimental techniques for studying small quantum systems. Furthermore, theoretical developments in the theory of quantum measurements have brought the basic mathematical framework for the probability calculations much closer to that of classical probability theory. The present paper reviews this field and proposes and inte...

  17. Study on a phase space representation of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaivoson, R.T.R; Raoelina Andriambololona; Hanitriarivo, R.; Raboanary, R.

    2013-01-01

    A study on a method for the establishment of a phase space representation of quantum theory is presented. The approach utilizes the properties of Gaussian distribution, the properties of Hermite polynomials, Fourier analysis and the current formulation of quantum mechanics which is based on the use of Hilbert space and linear operators theory. Phase space representation of quantum states and wave functions in phase space are introduced using properties of a set of functions called harmonic Gaussian functions. Then, new operators called dispersion operators are defined and identified as the operators which admit as eigenstates the basis states of the phase space representation. Generalization of the approach for multidimensional cases is shown. Examples of applications are given.

  18. Study of quantum confinement effects in ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movlarooy, Tayebeh

    2018-03-01

    Motivation to fact that zinc oxide nanowires and nanotubes with successful synthesis and the mechanism of formation, stability and electronic properties have been investigated; in this study the structural, electronic properties and quantum confinement effects of zinc oxide nanotubes and nanowires with different diameters are discussed. The calculations within density functional theory and the pseudo potential approximation are done. The electronic structure and energy gap for Armchair and zigzag ZnO nanotubes with a diameter of about 4 to 55 Angstrom and ZnO nanowires with a diameter range of 4 to 23 Å is calculated. The results revealed that due to the quantum confinement effects, by reducing the diameter of nanowires and nanotubes, the energy gap increases. Zinc oxide semiconductor nanostructures since having direct band gap with size-dependent and quantum confinement effect are recommended as an appropriate candidate for making nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  19. Open problems and results in the group theoretic approach to quantum gravity via the BMS group and its generalizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melas, Evangelos

    2011-01-01

    The Bondi-Metzner-Sachs group B is the common asymptotic group of all asymptotically flat (lorentzian) space-times, and is the best candidate for the universal symmetry group of General Relativity. However, in quantum gravity, complexified or euclidean versions of General Relativity are frequently considered. McCarthy has shown that there are forty-two generalizations of B for these versions of the theory and a variety of further ones, either real in any signature, or complex. A firm foundation for quantum gravity can be laid by following through the analogue of Wigner's programme for special relativity with B replacing the Poincare group P. Here the main results which have been obtained so far in this research programme are reported and the more important open problems are stated.

  20. Theoretical study of a melting curve for tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xi; Ling-Cang, Cai

    2009-01-01

    The melting curve of Sn has been calculated using the dislocation-mediated melting model with the 'zone-linking method'. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data. According to our calculation, the melting temperature of γ-Sn at zero pressure is about 436 K obtained by the extrapolation of the method from the triple point of Sn. The results show that this calculation method is better than other theoretical methods for predicting the melting curve of polymorphic material Sn. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  1. Theoretical study of ferroelectric nanoparticles using phase reconstructed electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, C.; Petford-Long, A. K.; Beleggia, M.; De Graef, M.

    2014-06-01

    Ferroelectric nanostructures are important for a variety of applications in electronic and electro-optical devices, including nonvolatile memories and thin-film capacitors. These applications involve stability and switching of polarization using external stimuli, such as electric fields. We present a theoretical model describing how the shape of a nanoparticle affects its polarization in the absence of screening charges, and quantify the electron-optical phase shift for detecting ferroelectric signals with phase-sensitive techniques in a transmission electron microscope. We provide an example phase shift computation for a uniformly polarized prolate ellipsoid with varying aspect ratio in the absence of screening charges.

  2. Theoretical and experimental study on broadband terahertz atmospheric transmission characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Shi-Bei; Zhong Kai; Wang Mao-Rong; Liu Chu; Xu De-Gang; Yao Jian-Quan; Xiao Yong; Wang Wen-Peng

    2017-01-01

    Broadband terahertz (THz) atmospheric transmission characteristics from 0 to 8 THz are theoretically simulated based on a standard Van Vleck–Weisskopf line shape, considering 1696 water absorption lines and 298 oxygen absorption lines. The influences of humidity, temperature, and pressure on the THz atmospheric absorption are analyzed and experimentally verified with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) system, showing good consistency. The investigation and evaluation on high-frequency atmospheric windows are good supplements to existing data in the low-frequency range and lay the foundation for aircraft-based high-altitude applications of THz communication and radar. (paper)

  3. Theoretical study of Cherenkov radiation emission in anisotropic uniaxial crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbart, A; Derre, J

    1996-04-01

    A theoretical review of the Cherenkov radiation emission in uniaxial crystals is presented. The formalism of C. Muzicar in terms of energetic properties of the emitted waves are corrected. This formalism is used to simulate the Cherenkov radiation emission in a strongly birefringent sodium nitrate crystal (NaNO{sub 3}) and to investigate the consequences of the slight anisotropy of sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) on the design of the Optical Trigger. (author). 12 refs. Submitted to Physical Review, D (US).

  4. An experimental and theoretical kinetic study of the reaction of OH radicals with tetrahydrofuran

    KAUST Repository

    Giri, Binod

    2016-06-24

    Tetrahydrofuran (CHO, THF) and its alkylated derivatives of the cyclic ether family are considered to be promising future biofuels. They appear as important intermediates during the low-temperature oxidation of conventional hydrocarbon fuels and of heavy biofuels such as long-chain fatty acid methyl esters. The reaction of tetrahydrofuran with OH radicals was investigated in a shock tube, over a temperature range of 800-1340 K and at pressures near 1.5 bar. Hydroxyl radicals were generated by the rapid thermal decomposition of tert-butyl hydroperoxide, and a UV laser absorption technique was used to monitor the mole fraction of OH radicals. High-level CCSD(T)/cc-pV(D,T)Z//MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ quantum chemical calculations were performed to explore the chemistry of the THF+OH reaction system. Our calculations reveal that the THF+OH (R1) reaction proceeds via either direct or indirect H-abstraction from various sites, leading to the formation of tetrahydrofuran-2-yl (THF-R2) or tetrahydrofuran-3-yl (THF-R3) radicals and water. Theoretical kinetic analysis revealed that both channels are important under conditions relevant to combustion. To our knowledge, this is the first direct experimental and theoretical kinetic study of the reaction of tetrahydrofuran with OH radicals at high temperatures. The following theoretical rate expressions (in units of cmmols) are recommended for combustion modeling in the temperature range 800-1350 K: . k1(T)=4.11×1040.16em0ex(TK)2.69exp(1316.80.16em0exKT)2.em0ex0.16em0ex(THF+OH→Products) . k2(T)=6.930.16em0ex×10110.16em0ex(TK)0.41exp(-106.80.16em0exKT)2.em0ex0.16em0ex(THF+OH→THF-R20.16em0ex+H2O) . k3(T)=4.120.16em0ex×1030.16em0ex(TK)3.02exp(456.90.16em0exKT)2.em0ex0.16em0ex(THF+OH→THF-R30.16em0ex+H2O) . .

  5. Quantum Computing in Condensed Matter Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Privman, V

    1997-01-01

    Specific theoretical calculations of Hamiltonians corresponding to several quantum logic gates, including the NOT gate, quantum signal splitting, and quantum copying, were obtained and prepared for publication...

  6. Protonation of caffeine: A theoretical and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahrami, Hamed [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabrizchi, Mahmoud, E-mail: m-tabriz@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farrokhpour, Hossein [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► Protonation of caffeine was examined by ion mobility spectrometry equipped with two ionization sources. ► Experimental and theoretical evidence was collected to assign the observed peaks to caffeine related ionic species. ► A new concept of “internal proton affinity”, the protonation tendency for each atom in a molecule, was defined. - Abstract: Protonation of caffeine was examined by ion mobility spectrometry equipped with two ionization sources, corona discharge (CD) and UV photoionization. Three peaks were observed in ion mobility spectrum by simultaneously running the two ionization sources. Experimental and theoretical evidence was collected to link the observed peaks to caffeine related ionic species. One peak was attributed to the M{sup +} ion while the other two were assigned to different protonated isomers of caffeine. In the case of CD ionization source, it was observed that different sites of caffeine compete for protonation and their relative intensities, depends on the sample concentration as well as the nature of the reactant ions. The new concept of “internal proton affinity” (IPA) was defined to express the tendency of holding the added proton for each atom in a molecule.

  7. Protonation of caffeine: A theoretical and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahrami, Hamed; Tabrizchi, Mahmoud; Farrokhpour, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Protonation of caffeine was examined by ion mobility spectrometry equipped with two ionization sources. ► Experimental and theoretical evidence was collected to assign the observed peaks to caffeine related ionic species. ► A new concept of “internal proton affinity”, the protonation tendency for each atom in a molecule, was defined. - Abstract: Protonation of caffeine was examined by ion mobility spectrometry equipped with two ionization sources, corona discharge (CD) and UV photoionization. Three peaks were observed in ion mobility spectrum by simultaneously running the two ionization sources. Experimental and theoretical evidence was collected to link the observed peaks to caffeine related ionic species. One peak was attributed to the M + ion while the other two were assigned to different protonated isomers of caffeine. In the case of CD ionization source, it was observed that different sites of caffeine compete for protonation and their relative intensities, depends on the sample concentration as well as the nature of the reactant ions. The new concept of “internal proton affinity” (IPA) was defined to express the tendency of holding the added proton for each atom in a molecule

  8. Crystal growth, characterization and theoretical studies of 4-aminopyridinium picrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya Prasad, A.; Muthu, K.; Rajasekar, M.; Meenatchi, V.; Meenakshisundaram, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of 4-aminopyridinium picrate (APP) were grown by slow evaporation of a mixed solvent system methanol-acetone (1:1, v/v) containing equimolar quantities of 4-aminopyridine and picric acid. Structure is elucidated by single crystal XRD analysis and the crystal belongs to monoclinic system with four molecules in the unit cell (space group P21/c) and the cell parameter values are, a = 8.513 Å (±0.015), b = 11.33 Å (±0.02), c = 14.33 Å (±0.03) and β = 104.15° (±0.019), V = 1340 A3 (±6) with refined R factors R1 = 0.0053 and wR2 = 0.0126. The electron density mapping is interpreted to find coordinates for each atom in the crystallized molecules. The various functional groups present in the molecule are confirmed by FT-IR analysis. UV-visible spectral analysis was used to determine the band gap energy of 4-aminopyridinium picrate. Powder X-ray diffraction pattern reveals the crystallinity of the as-grown crystal and it closely resembles the simulated XRD from the single crystal XRD analysis. Scanning electron microscopy reveals the surface morphology of the grown crystal. Optimized geometry is derived by Hartree-Fock theory calculations and the first-order molecular hyperpolarizability (β), theoretically calculated bond length, bond angles and excited state energy from theoretical UV-vis spectrum were estimated.

  9. Solvation of fluoroform and fluoroform-dimethylether dimer in liquid krypton: a theoretical cryospectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohls, Emilija; Mishev, Anastas; Pejov, Ljupčo

    2013-08-07

    A hybrid, sequential statistical physics-quantum mechanical electronic-quantum mechanical nuclei approach has been applied to study the C-H stretching frequencies of bare fluoroform dissolved in liquid krypton under cryogenic conditions (at ~130 K), as well as upon blue shifting hydrogen bonding interactions with dimethylether in the same solvent. The structure of the liquid at 130 K was generated by Monte Carlo simulations of cryogenic Kr solutions containing either fluoroform or fluoroform and dimethylether molecules. Statistically uncorrelated configurations were appropriately chosen from the equilibrated MC runs and supermolecular clusters containing solute and solvent molecules (either standalone or embedded in the "bulk" part of the solvent treated as a polarizable continuum) were subjected to quantum mechanical electronic (QMel) and subsequent quantum mechanical nuclei (QMnuc) calculations. QMel calculations were implemented to generate the in-liquid 1D intramolecular C-H stretching vibrational potential of the fluoroform moiety and subsequently in the QMnuc phase the corresponding anharmonic C-H stretching frequency was computed by diagonalization techniques. Finally, the constructed vibrational density of states histograms were compared to the experimental Raman bands. The calculated anharmonic vibrational frequency shifts of the fluoroform C-H stretching mode upon interaction with dimethylether in liquid Kr are in very good agreement with the experimental data (20.3 at MP2 level vs. 16.6 cm(-1) experimentally). Most of this relatively large frequency blue shift is governed by configurations characterized by a direct C-H···O contact between monomers. The second population detected during MC simulations, characterized by reversed orientation of the monomers, has a minor contribution to the spectral appearance. The experimentally observed trend in the corresponding bandwidths is also correctly reproduced by our theoretical approach. Solvation of the

  10. Quantum robots and quantum computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benioff, P.

    1998-07-01

    Validation of a presumably universal theory, such as quantum mechanics, requires a quantum mechanical description of systems that carry out theoretical calculations and systems that carry out experiments. The description of quantum computers is under active development. No description of systems to carry out experiments has been given. A small step in this direction is taken here by giving a description of quantum robots as mobile systems with on board quantum computers that interact with different environments. Some properties of these systems are discussed. A specific model based on the literature descriptions of quantum Turing machines is presented.

  11. Spectroscopic and theoretical studies of dalbergin and Methyldalbergin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweta; Khan, Eram; Tandon, Poonam; Bharti, Purnima; Kumar, Padam; Maurya, Rakesh

    2018-03-01

    Molecular structure and vibrational analysis of methyldalbergin (MDLBG) and dalbergin (DLBG) are presented using vibrational spectroscopy (infrared and Raman) and quantum chemical calculations. Difference in the Osbnd H stretching vibration wavenumber of two conformers of DLBG was observed as in one conformer this bond is making an intramolecular H-bond while in other it is free. The spectral calculations, ground state geometry and electronic structure calculations were performed based on the density functional theory (DFT) using the standard B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) methodology. FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra were recorded in the solid phase, and interpreted in terms of potential energy distribution analysis. The UV-visible absorption spectrum was examined in DMSO solvent and compared with one calculated in gas phase as well as in solvent environment using TD-DFT/6-311G++(d,p) basis set. HOMO-LUMO energy gap results show chemical reactivity of conformers of DLBG and MDLBG.

  12. A theoretical study of blue phosphorene nanoribbons based on first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Jiafeng; Si, M. S., E-mail: sims@lzu.edu.cn; Yang, D. Z.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Xue, D. S. [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-08-21

    Based on first-principles calculations, we present a quantum confinement mechanism for the band gaps of blue phosphorene nanoribbons (BPNRs) as a function of their widths. The BPNRs considered have either armchair or zigzag shaped edges on both sides with hydrogen saturation. Both the two types of nanoribbons are shown to be indirect semiconductors. An enhanced energy gap of around 1 eV can be realized when the ribbon's width decreases to ∼10 Å. The underlying physics is ascribed to the quantum confinement effect. More importantly, the parameters to describe quantum confinement are obtained by fitting the calculated band gaps with respect to their widths. The results show that the quantum confinement in armchair nanoribbons is stronger than that in zigzag ones. This study provides an efficient approach to tune the band gap in BPNRs.

  13. Studies of quantum levels in GaInNAs single quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakata, Sho; Kondow, Masahiko; Kitatani, Takeshi

    2006-01-01

    Spectroscopic studies have been carried out on the quantum levels in GaInNAs/GaAs single quantum wells (SQWs). Photoluminescence (PL), PL excitation (PLE), photoreflectance (PR), and high-density-excited PL (HDE-PL) were measured on high quality GaInNAs SQWs, Ga 0.65 In 0.35 N 0.01 As 0.99 /GaAs (well thickness: l z =10 nm) and Ga 0.65 In 0.35 N 0.005 As 0.995 /GaAs (l z =3∝10 nm), grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. For Ga 0.65 In 0.35 N 0.01 As 0.99 /GaAs (l z =10 nm), PL at 8 K exhibited a peak at 1.07 eV due to the exciton-related transition between quantum levels of ground states (e1-hh1). Both PR and PLE exhibited three transitions (1.17, 1.20 and 1.32 eV), and the former two transitions were assigned to as either of e1-lh1 and e2-hh2 transitions, while the transition at 1.32 eV was assigned to as the e2-lh2 transition. For HDE-PL, a new PL peak was observed at about 1.2 eV, and it was assigned to the unresolved e1-lh1 and e2-hh2 transitions. Similar optical measurements have been done on the Ga 0.65 In 0.35 N 0.005 As 0.995 /GaAs with various l z (3∝10 nm). Dependence of optical spectra and energies of quantum levels on l z have been studied. It has been found that HDE-PL in combination with PLE is a good tool for the study of the quantum level of GaInNAs SQW. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Supplement to final report for ''Theoretical studies in tokamaks''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, J.B.

    1992-07-01

    In a previous report we summarized the results obtained for Task I of Contract Number AC03-88ER53270 for the two-year period of performance of the work supported by the contract. That report constituted the final report for Task 1. Since then, the contract was extended and the funding for Task I was incremented with $35K of new funds. The purpose for incrementing the contract was to begin a collaboration with the PBX-M group at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in the area of ion Bernstein wave (IBW) effects in the PBX-M experiment. This report summarizes the initial results of that collaboration obtained under the incremental continuation funding. In the intervening period, experimental and theoretical program directions changed so that no further funds were committed to Task 1

  15. Excitons in van der Waals Heterostructures: A theoretical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, Simone

    )electronics devices, e.g. light emitting diodes, solar cells, ultra-fast photodetectors, transistors etc., have been successfully fabricated. It is well established that for isolated 2D semiconductors and vdWHs the optical response is governed by excitonic effects. While it is understood that the reduced amount...... of electronic screening in freestanding 2D materials is the main origin of extraordinarily strongly bound excitons, a theoretical understanding of excitonic effects and of how the electronic screening is affected for the more complex case of multi-layer structures is still lacking due to the computational...... in a generalized hydrogenic model to compute exciton binding energies in isolated, supported, or encapsulated 2D semiconductors. The non-locality of the dielectric screening is inherently included in our method and we can successfully describe the non-hydrogenic Rydberg series of low-dimensional systems...

  16. A theoretical study on a convergence problem of nodal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaohong, Z.; Ziyong, L. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., 1954 Hua Shan Road, Shanghai, 200030 (China); Chao, Y. A. [Westinghouse Electric Company, P. O. Box 355, Pittsburgh, PA 15230-0355 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The effectiveness of modern nodal methods is largely due to its use of the information from the analytical flux solution inside a homogeneous node. As a result, the nodal coupling coefficients depend explicitly or implicitly on the evolving Eigen-value of a problem during its solution iteration process. This poses an inherently non-linear matrix Eigen-value iteration problem. This paper points out analytically that, whenever the half wave length of an evolving node interior analytic solution becomes smaller than the size of that node, this non-linear iteration problem can become inherently unstable and theoretically can always be non-convergent or converge to higher order harmonics. This phenomenon is confirmed, demonstrated and analyzed via the simplest 1-D problem solved by the simplest analytic nodal method, the Analytic Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (ACMFD, [1]) method. (authors)

  17. Road Surfaces And Earthquake Engineering: A Theoretical And Experimental Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratico, Filippo Giammaria

    2008-01-01

    As is well known, road surfaces greatly affect vehicle-road interaction. As a consequence, road surfaces have a paramount influence on road safety and pavement management systems. On the other hand, earthquakes produce deformations able to modify road surface structure, properties and performance. In the light of these facts, the main goal of this paper has been confined into the modelling of road surface before, during and after the seismic event. The fundamentals of road surface texture theory have been stated in a general formulation. Models in the field of road profile generation and theoretical properties, before, during and after the earthquake, have been formulated and discussed. Practical applications can be hypothesised in the field of vehicle-road interaction as a result of road surface texture derived from deformations and accelerations caused by seismic or similar events

  18. SYSTEMATIC THEORETICAL STUDY ON THE INTERSTELLAR CARBON CHAIN MOLECULES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etim, Emmanuel E.; Arunan, Elangannan [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Department, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, 560012 (India); Gorai, Prasanta; Das, Ankan [Indian Centre for Space Physics, 43 Chalantika, Garia Station Road, Kolkata 700 084 (India); Chakrabarti, Sandip K., E-mail: ankan.das@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Sciences, Federal University Wukari,  Katsina-Ala Road, P.M.B. 1020 Wukari, Taraba State (Nigeria)

    2016-12-01

    In an effort to further our interest in understanding the basic chemistry of interstellar molecules, here we carry out an extensive investigation of the stabilities of interstellar carbon chains; C{sub n}, H{sub 2}C{sub n}, HC{sub n}N and C{sub n}X (X = N, O, Si, S, H, P, H{sup −}, N{sup −}). These sets of molecules account for about 20% of all the known interstellar and circumstellar molecules. Their high abundances, therefore, demand serious attention. High-level ab initio quantum chemical calculations are employed to accurately estimate the enthalpy of formation, chemical reactivity indices, global hardness and softness, and other chemical parameters of these molecules. Chemical modeling of the abundances of these molecular species has also been performed. Of the 89 molecules considered from these groups, 47 have been astronomically observed, and these observed molecules are found to be more stable with respect to other members of the group. Of the 47 observed molecules, 60% are odd-numbered carbon chains. Interstellar chemistry is not actually driven by thermodynamics, but it is primarily dependent on various kinetic parameters. However, we found that the detectability of the odd-numbered carbon chains could be correlated due to the fact that they are more stable than the corresponding even-numbered carbon chains. Based on this aspect, the next possible carbon chain molecule for astronomical observation in each group is proposed. The effect of kinetics in the formation of some of these carbon chain molecules is also discussed.

  19. Theoretical study of isomerization and decomposition of propenal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Chih-Hao; Lee, Shih-Huang

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the dynamics of isomerization and multi-channel dissociation of propenal (CH 2 CHCHO), methyl ketene (CH 3 CHCO), hydroxyl propadiene (CH 2 CH 2 CHOH), and hydroxyl cyclopropene (cyclic-C 3 H 3 -OH) in the ground potential-energy surface using quantum-chemical calculations. Optimized structures and vibrational frequencies of molecular species were computed with method B3LYP/6-311G(d,p). Total energies of molecules at optimized structures were computed at the CCSD(T)/6-311+G(3df,2p) level of theory. We established the potential-energy surface for decomposition to CH 2 CHCO + H, CH 2 CH + HCO, CH 2 CH 2 /CH 3 CH + CO, CHCH/CH 2 C + H 2 CO, CHCCHO/CH 2 CCO + H 2 , CHCH + CO + H 2 , CH 3 + HCCO, CH 2 CCH + OH, and CH 2 CC/cyclic-C 3 H 2 + H 2 O. Microcanonical rate coefficients of various reactions of trans-propenal with internal energies 148 and 182 kcal mol -1 were calculated using Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus and Variational transition state theories. Product branching ratios were derivable using numerical integration of kinetic master equations and the steady-state approximation. The concerted three-body dissociation of trans-propenal to fragments C 2 H 2 + CO + H 2 is the prevailing channel in present calculations. In contrast, C 3 H 3 O + H, C 2 H 3 + HCO and C 2 H 4 + CO were identified as major channels in the photolysis of trans-propenal. The discrepancy between calculations and experiments in product branching ratios indicates that the three major photodissociation channels occur mainly on an excited potential-energy surface whereas the other channels occur mainly on the ground potential-energy surface. This work provides profound insight in the mechanisms of isomerization and multichannel dissociation of the system C 3 H 4 O.

  20. Quantum equivalence of a driven triple-well Van der Pol oscillator: A QTM study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Debdutta; Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Quantum–classical correspondence is manifested at strong external coupling regime. • Suppression of classical chaos takes place in quantum domain. • Quantum chaos promotes quantum diffusion. • Quantum localisation is realised when interference effects are dominant. - Abstract: A quantum mechanical analogue of the classically chaotic triple-well oscillator under the influence of an external field and parametric excitation has been studied by using the quantum theory of motion. The on the fly calculations show the correspondence between some dynamical aspects of the classical and quantum oscillators along with a strictly quantum mechanical behaviour in case of diffusion and tunneling. Suitable external conditions have been obtained which can either assist or suppress the movement of quantum particles from one well to another. Quantum interference effects play a critical role in determining the nature of the quantum dynamics and in the presence of strong coupling to the external forces, quantum interference effects reduce drastically leading to decoherence of the quantum wave packet. In such situations, quantum dynamical features qualitatively resemble the corresponding classical dynamical behaviour and a correspondence between classical and quantum dynamics is obtained

  1. Correction: Experimental and theoretical studies of nanofluid thermal conductivity enhancement: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinstreuer Clement

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Correction to Kleinstreuer C, Feng Y: Experimental and theoretical studies of nanofluid thermal conductivity enhancement: a review. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011, 6:229.

  2. Cavity quantum electrodynamics studies with site-controlled InGaAs quantum dots integrated into high quality microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzenstein, S.; Schneider, C.; Albert, F.

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are fascinating nanoscopic structures for photonics and future quantum information technology. However, the random position of self-organized QDs inhibits a deterministic coupling in devices relying on cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) effects which complicates......, e.g., the large scale fabrication of quantum light sources. As a result, large efforts focus on the growth and the device integration of site-controlled QDs. We present the growth of low density arrays of site-controlled In(Ga)As QDs where shallow etched nanoholes act as nucleation sites...... linewidth, the oscillator strength and the quantum efficiency. A stacked growth of strain coupled SCQDs forming on wet chemically etched nanoholes provide the smallest linewidth with an average value of 210 μeV. Using time resolved photoluminescence studies on samples with a varying thickness of the capping...

  3. Theoretical investigations in nonlinear quantum optics, theory of measurement, and pulsations of general relativistic models of neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumaker, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis is a collection of six papers. The first four constitute the heart of the thesis; they are concerned with quantum-mechanical properties of certain harmonic-oscillator states. The first paper is a discourse on single-mode and two-mode Gaussian pure states (GPS), states produced when harmonic oscillators in their ground states are exposed to potentials that are linear or quadratic in oscillator position and momentum variables (creation and annihilation operators). The second and third papers develop a formalism for analyzing two photon devices (e.g., parametric amplifiers and phase-conjugate mirrors), in which photons in the output modes arise from two-proton transitions, i.e., are created or destroyed two at a time. The fourth paper is an analysis of the noise in homodyne detection, a phase-sensitive detection scheme in which the special properties of (single-mode) squeezed states are revealed. The fifth paper considers the validity of the standard quantum limit (SQL) for measurements that monitor the position of a free mass. The sixth paper develops the mathematical theory of torsional (toroidal) oscillations in fully general relativistic, nonrotating, spherical stellar models and of the gravitational waves they emit

  4. Quantum theoretical calculations of activation energies for the mass transfer at phase boundaries of ionic crystals. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winzer, A.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that a direct proportionality exists between the activation energy for the mass transfer at the respective crystal faces of ionic crystals and the frequency of the phonones (longitudinal-optical), Planck's constant being found once more as a proportionality constant. Thus it could be demonstrated that the different activation energies measured at different time intervals for the mass transfer processes at phase boundaries of ionic crystals can be attributed to the specific growth of the crystal faces. Thus, NaCl crystal fractions which were mechanically stressed (pulverized and sifted) and consequently contained a great amount of [111]- and [110]-faces, respectively, experimentally yielded an activation energy which agrees with the values determined by quantum theory when the frequency of propagation of the phonons is inserted into a derived equation. This relation was also confirmed by NaCl crystal fractions predominantly containing cubic faces. This also indicates that in mass transfer processes on phase boundaries of ionic crystals quantum mechanical laws are of importance. (author)

  5. A study of deterministic models for quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, R.

    1980-01-01

    A theoretical investigation is made into the difficulties encountered in constructing a deterministic model for quantum mechanics and into the restrictions that can be placed on the form of such a model. The various implications of the known impossibility proofs are examined. A possible explanation for the non-locality required by Bell's proof is suggested in terms of backward-in-time causality. The efficacy of the Kochen and Specker proof is brought into doubt by showing that there is a possible way of avoiding its implications in the only known physically realizable situation to which it applies. A new thought experiment is put forward to show that a particle's predetermined momentum and energy values cannot satisfy the laws of momentum and energy conservation without conflicting with the predictions of quantum mechanics. Attention is paid to a class of deterministic models for which the individual outcomes of measurements are not dependent on hidden variables associated with the measuring apparatus and for which the hidden variables of a particle do not need to be randomized after each measurement

  6. Numerical and algebraic studies for the control of finite-dimensional quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, two aspects of control theory, namely controllability and optimal control, are applied to quantum systems. The presented results are based on group theoretical techniques and numerical studies. By Lie-algebraic analysis, the controllability properties of systems with an arbitrary topology are described and related to the symmetries existing in these systems. We find that symmetry precludes full controllability. Our work investigates well-known control systems and gives rules for the design of new systems. Furthermore, theoretical and numerical concepts are instrumental to studying quantum channels: Their capacities are optimised using gradient flows on the unitary group in order to find counterexamples to a long-established additivity conjecture. The last part of this thesis presents and benchmarks a modular optimal control algorithm known as GRAPE. Numerical tests show how the interplay of its modules can be optimised for higher performance, and how the algorithm performs in comparison to a Krotov-type optimal control algorithm. It is found that GRAPE performs particularly well when aiming for high qualities. (orig.)

  7. Numerical and algebraic studies for the control of finite-dimensional quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander, Uwe

    2010-11-18

    In this thesis, two aspects of control theory, namely controllability and optimal control, are applied to quantum systems. The presented results are based on group theoretical techniques and numerical studies. By Lie-algebraic analysis, the controllability properties of systems with an arbitrary topology are described and related to the symmetries existing in these systems. We find that symmetry precludes full controllability. Our work investigates well-known control systems and gives rules for the design of new systems. Furthermore, theoretical and numerical concepts are instrumental to studying quantum channels: Their capacities are optimised using gradient flows on the unitary group in order to find counterexamples to a long-established additivity conjecture. The last part of this thesis presents and benchmarks a modular optimal control algorithm known as GRAPE. Numerical tests show how the interplay of its modules can be optimised for higher performance, and how the algorithm performs in comparison to a Krotov-type optimal control algorithm. It is found that GRAPE performs particularly well when aiming for high qualities. (orig.)

  8. We need theoretical physics approaches to study living systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagoev, Krastan B.; Shukla, Kamal; affil="3" >Herbert Levine,

    2013-08-01

    Living systems, as created initially by the transition from assemblies of large molecules to self-reproducing information-rich cells, have for centuries been studied via the empirical toolkit of biology. This has been a highly successful enterprise, bringing us from the vague non-scientific notions of vitalism to the modern appreciation of the biophysical and biochemical bases of life. Yet, the truly mind-boggling complexity of even the simplest self-sufficient cells, let alone the emergence of multicellular organisms, of brain and consciousness, and to ecological communities and human civilizations, calls out for a complementary approach. In this editorial, we propose that theoretical physics can play an essential role in making sense of living matter. When faced with a highly complex system, a physicist builds simplified models. Quoting Philip W Anderson's Nobel prize address, 'the art of model-building is the exclusion of real but irrelevant parts of the problem and entails hazards for the builder and the reader. The builder may leave out something genuinely relevant and the reader, armed with too sophisticated an experimental probe, may take literally a schematized model. Very often such a simplified model throws more light on the real working of nature....' In his formulation, the job of a theorist is to get at the crux of the system by ignoring details and yet to find a testable consequence of the resulting simple picture. This is rather different than the predilection of the applied mathematician who wants to include all the known details in the hope of a quantitative simulacrum of reality. These efforts may be practically useful, but do not usually lead to increased understanding. To illustrate how this works, we can look at a non-living example of complex behavior that was afforded by spatiotemporal patterning in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction [1]. Physicists who worked on this system did not attempt to determine all the relevant chemical intermediates

  9. Theoretical Characterization of the Spectral Density of the Water-Soluble Chlorophyll-Binding Protein from Combined Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnik, Andreana M; Curutchet, Carles

    2015-12-08

    Over the past decade, both experimentalists and theorists have worked to develop methods to describe pigment-protein coupling in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes in order to understand the molecular basis of quantum coherence effects observed in photosynthesis. Here we present an improved strategy based on the combination of quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and excited-state calculations to predict the spectral density of electronic-vibrational coupling. We study the water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein (WSCP) reconstituted with Chl a or Chl b pigments as the system of interest and compare our work with data obtained by Pieper and co-workers from differential fluorescence line-narrowing spectra (Pieper et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2011, 115 (14), 4042-4052). Our results demonstrate that the use of QM/MM MD simulations where the nuclear positions are still propagated at the classical level leads to a striking improvement of the predicted spectral densities in the middle- and high-frequency regions, where they nearly reach quantitative accuracy. This demonstrates that the so-called "geometry mismatch" problem related to the use of low-quality structures in QM calculations, not the quantum features of pigments high-frequency motions, causes the failure of previous studies relying on similar protocols. Thus, this work paves the way toward quantitative predictions of pigment-protein coupling and the comprehension of quantum coherence effects in photosynthesis.

  10. Some studies on arithmetical chaos in classical and quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolte, J.

    1993-04-01

    Several aspects of classical and quantum mechanics applied to a class of strongly chaotic systems are studied. The latter consists of single particles moving without external forces on surfaces of constant negative Gaussian curvature whose corresponding fundamental groups are supplied with an arithmetic structure. It is shown that the arithmetical features of the considered systems lead to exceptional properties of the corresponding spectra of lengths of closed geodesics (periodic orbits). The most significant one is an exponential growth of degeneracies in these geodesic length spectra. Furthermore, the arithmetical systems are distinguished by a structure that appears as a generalization of geometric symmetries. These pseudosymmetries occur in the quantization of the classical arithmetic systems as Hecke operators, which form an infinite algebra of self-adjoint operators commuting with the Hamiltonian. The statistical properties of quantum energies in the arithmetical systems have previously been identified as exceptional. They do not fit into the general scheme of random matrix theory. It is shown with the help of a simplified model for the spectral form factor how the spectral statistics in arithmetical quantum chaos can be understood by the properties of the corresponding classical geodesic length spectra. A decisive role is played by the exponentially increasing multiplicities of lengths. The model developed for the level spacings distribution and for the number variance is compared to the corresponding quantities obtained from quantum energies for a specific arithmetical system. Finally, the convergence properties of a representation for the Selberg zeta function as a Dirichlet series are studied. It turns out that the exceptional classical and quantum mechanical properties shared by the arithmetical systems prohibit a convergence of this important function in the physically interesting domain. (orig.)

  11. A unified theoretical and experimental study of anisotropic hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehler, J.P.; Raclin, J.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a consistent formulation of the constitutive relations regarding anisotropic hardening materials. Attention is focused on the appearance and the evolution of mechanical anisotropies during irreversible processes, such as plastic forming and inelastic deformation of structures. The representation theorems for anisotropic tensor functions constitute a theoretical basis, allowing to reduce arbitrariness and to obtain a unified formulation of anisotropic hardening. In this approach, a general three-dimensional constitutive law is developed for prestrained initially orthotropic materials. Introduction of the plastic behavior results in the general forms of both the flow-law and the yield criterion. The developed theory is then specialized for the case of plane stress and different modes of anisotropic hardening are analyzed. A new generalization of the Von Mises criterion is proposed, in considering a homogeneous form of order two in stress and employing the simplest combinations of the basic invariants entering the general form of the yield condition. The proposed criterion involves specific terms accounting for the initial anisotropy, the deformation induced anisotropy and correlative terms between initial and induced anisotropy. The effects of prestrainings result in both isotropic and anisotropic hardening. An adequate experimental program, consisting of uniaxial tensile tests on oriented specimens of prestrained sheet-metal, was performed, in order to determine the specific form and the evolution of the anisotropic failure criterion for soft-steel subjected to different irreversible prestrainings. (orig.)

  12. Theoretical studies in medium-energy nuclear and hadronic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, C.J.; Macfarlane, M.H.; Matsui, T.; Serot, B.D.

    1993-01-01

    A proposal for theoretical nuclear physics research is made for the period April 1, 1993 through March 31, 1996. Research is proposed in the following areas: relativistic many-body theory of nuclei and nuclear matter, quasifree electroweak scattering and strange quarks in nuclei, dynamical effects in (e,e'p) scattering at large momentum transfer, investigating the nucleon's parton sea with polarized leptoproduction, physics of ultrarelativistic nucleus endash nucleus collisions, QCD sum rules and hadronic properties, non-relativistic models of nuclear reactions, and spin and color correlations in a quark-exchange model of nuclear matter. Highlights of recent research, vitae of principal investigators, and lists of publications and invited talks are also given. Recent research dealt primarily with medium-energy nuclear physics, relativistic theories of nuclei and the nuclear response, the nuclear equation of state under extreme conditions, the dynamics of the quark endash gluon plasma in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, and theories of the nucleon endash nucleon force

  13. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Elementary Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Harold G [Indiana University; Kostelecky, V Alan [Indiana University; Musser, James A [Indiana University

    2013-07-29

    The elementary particle physics research program at Indiana University spans a broad range of the most interesting topics in this fundamental field, including important contributions to each of the frontiers identified in the recent report of HEPAP's Particle Physics Prioritization Panel: the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier, and the Cosmic Frontier. Experimentally, we contribute to knowledge at the Energy Frontier through our work on the D0 and ATLAS collaborations. We work at the Intensity Frontier on the MINOS and NOvA experiments and participate in R&D for LBNE. We are also very active on the theoretical side of each of these areas with internationally recognized efforts in phenomenology both in and beyond the Standard Model and in lattice QCD. Finally, although not part of this grant, members of the Indiana University particle physics group have strong involvement in several astrophysics projects at the Cosmic Frontier. Our research efforts are divided into three task areas. The Task A group works on D0 and ATLAS; Task B is our theory group; and Task C contains our MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE (LArTPC) research. Each task includes contributions from faculty, senior scientists, postdocs, graduate and undergraduate students, engineers, technicians, and administrative personnel. This work was supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-91ER40661. In the following, we describe progress made in the research of each task during the final period of the grant, from November 1, 2009 to April 30, 2013.

  14. Experimental and theoretical studies of 3-benzyloxy-2-nitropyridine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenting; Cui, Yu; Liu, Huimin; Zhao, Haitao; Zhang, Wenqin

    2012-10-01

    The structure of 3-benzyloxy-2-nitropyridine has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The X-ray crystallography results show that the nitro group is tilted out of the pyridine ring plane by 66.4(4)°, which is mainly attributed to the electron-electron repulsions of the lone pairs in O atom of the 3-benzyloxy moiety with O atom in nitro group. An interesting centrosymmetric π-stacking molecular pair has been found in the crystalline state, which results in the approximate coplanarity of the pyridine ring with the benzene ring. The calculated results show that the dihedral angle between the nitro group and pyridine ring from the X3LYP method is much closer to the experimental data than that from the M06-2X one. The existing two conformational isomers of 3-benzyloxy-2-nitropyridine with equal energy explain well the disorder of the nitro group at room temperature. In addition, the vibrational frequencies are also calculated by the X3LYP and M06-2X methods and compared with the experimental results. The prediction from the X3LYP method coincides with the locations of the experimental frequencies well.

  15. Heat conduction in graphene: experimental study and theoretical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S; Nika, D L; Pokatilov, E P; Balandin, A A

    2009-01-01

    We review the results of our experimental investigation of heat conduction in suspended graphene and offer a theoretical interpretation of its extremely high thermal conductivity. The direct measurements of the thermal conductivity of graphene were performed using a non-contact optical technique and special calibration procedure with bulk graphite. The measured values were in the range of ∼3000-5300 W mK -1 near room temperature and depended on the lateral dimensions of graphene flakes. We explain the enhanced thermal conductivity of graphene as compared to that of bulk graphite basal planes by the two-dimensional nature of heat conduction in graphene over the whole range of phonon frequencies. Our calculations show that the intrinsic Umklapp-limited thermal conductivity of graphene grows with the increasing dimensions of graphene flakes and can exceed that of bulk graphite when the flake size is on the order of a few micrometers. The detailed theory, which includes the phonon-mode-dependent Gruneisen parameter and takes into account phonon scattering on graphene edges and point defects, gives numerical results that are in excellent agreement with the measurements for suspended graphene. Superior thermal properties of graphene are beneficial for all proposed graphene device applications.

  16. Further Study of Λ-Related Quantum Interference of Π-State Diatomic on Collision-Induced Rotational Energy Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongqing; Song Peng; Chen Yuehui; Wang Weili; Ma Fengcai

    2005-01-01

    In our previous theoretical studies [Meng-Tao Sun, Yong-Qing Lee, and Feng-Cai Ma, Chem. Phys. Lett. 371 (2003) 342], we have reported the quantum interference on collision-induced rotational energy transfer on CO (A 1 Π, v = 3) with inert gases, which originates from the difference between the two Λ-related collision potential energy surfaces. The interference angle, which measures the degree of coherence, is presented in this paper. Based on the time-dependent first order Born approximation, taking into account the anisotropic Lennard-Jones interaction potentials, the relation of the interference angle with the factors, including experimental temperature, partner, and rotational quantum number, are obtained. The changing tendencies with them are discussed. This theoretical model is important to understanding and performing this kind of experiment.

  17. A physically interpretable quantum-theoretic QSAR for some carbonic anhydrase inhibitors with diverse aromatic rings, obtained by a new QSAR procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Brian W; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2005-03-15

    A QSAR based almost entirely on quantum theoretically calculated descriptors has been developed for a large and heterogeneous group of aromatic and heteroaromatic carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, using orbital energies, nodal angles, atomic charges, and some other intuitively appealing descriptors. Most calculations have been done at the B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory. For the first time we have treated five-membered rings by the same means that we have used for benzene rings in the past. Our flip regression technique has been expanded to encompass automatic variable selection. The statistical quality of the results, while not equal to those we have had with benzene derivatives, is very good considering the noncongeneric nature of the compounds. The most significant correlation was with charge on the atoms of the sulfonamide group, followed by the nodal orientation and the solvation energy calculated by COSMO and the charge polarization of the molecule calculated as the mean absolute Mulliken charge over all atoms.

  18. Quantum effects of electric fields and potentials on electron motion: an introduction to theoretical and practical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteucci, G

    2007-01-01

    In the so-called electric Aharonov-Bohm effect, a quantum interference pattern shift is produced when electrons move in an electric field free region but, at the same time, in the presence of a time-dependent electric potential. Analogous fringe shifts are observed in interference experiments where electrons, travelling through an electrostatic field, suffer a classical lag effect produced by electric forces. Since these experiments are reported mainly in specialized journals, it could be rather difficult and time consuming for a student to attain a comprehensive overview of the subject. Therefore, particular attention has been addressed to reviewing the theory, to describing a couple of experiments and to the interpretation of the results. We believe that students can be suitably introduced to exploring the 'paradoxical' aspects of the interaction of electrons with electric potentials and fields

  19. A Field-Theoretical Approach to the P vs. NP Problem via the Phase Sign of Quantum Monte Carlo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei T. Patrascu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available I present here a new method that allows the introduction of a discrete auxiliary symmetry in a theory in such a way that the eigenvalue spectrum of the fermion functional determinant is made up of complex conjugated pairs. The method implies a particular way of introducing and integrating over auxiliary fields related to a set of artificial shift symmetries. Gauge fixing the artificial continuous shift symmetries in the direct and dual sectors leads to the appearance of direct and dual Becchi–Rouet–Stora–Tyutin (BRST-type global symmetries and of a symplectic structure over the field space. Such a method may allow the extension of the applicability of quantum Monte Carlo methods to some problems plagued by the fermionic sign problem.

  20. Quantum effects of electric fields and potentials on electron motion: an introduction to theoretical and practical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteucci, G [Department of Physics, University of Bologna and CNISM, V/le B. Pichat, 6/2, I 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2007-07-15

    In the so-called electric Aharonov-Bohm effect, a quantum interference pattern shift is produced when electrons move in an electric field free region but, at the same time, in the presence of a time-dependent electric potential. Analogous fringe shifts are observed in interference experiments where electrons, travelling through an electrostatic field, suffer a classical lag effect produced by electric forces. Since these experiments are reported mainly in specialized journals, it could be rather difficult and time consuming for a student to attain a comprehensive overview of the subject. Therefore, particular attention has been addressed to reviewing the theory, to describing a couple of experiments and to the interpretation of the results. We believe that students can be suitably introduced to exploring the 'paradoxical' aspects of the interaction of electrons with electric potentials and fields.

  1. Quantum dot solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    The third generation of solar cells includes those based on semiconductor quantum dots. This sophisticated technology applies nanotechnology and quantum mechanics theory to enhance the performance of ordinary solar cells. Although a practical application of quantum dot solar cells has yet to be achieved, a large number of theoretical calculations and experimental studies have confirmed the potential for meeting the requirement for ultra-high conversion efficiency. In this book, high-profile scientists have contributed tutorial chapters that outline the methods used in and the results of variou

  2. Infrared studies of impurity states and ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor quantum structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehr, D.

    2007-12-28

    This thesis deals with infrared studies of impurity states, ultrafast carrier dynamics as well as coherent intersubband polarizations in semiconductor quantum structures such as quantum wells and superlattices, based on the GaAs/AlGaAs material system. In the first part it is shown that the 2p{sub z} confined impurity state of a semiconductor quantum well develops into an excited impurity band in the case of a superlattice. This is studied by following theoretically the transition from a single to a multiple quantum well or superlattice by exactly diagonalizing the three-dimensional Hamiltonian for a quantum well system with random impurities. These results also require reinterpretation of previous experimental data. The relaxation dynamics of interminiband transitions in doped GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices in the mid-IR are studied. This involves single-color pump-probe measurements to explore the dynamics at different wavelengths, which is performed with the Rossendorf freeelectron laser (FEL), providing picosecond pulses in a range from 3-200 {mu}m and are used for the first time within this thesis. In these experiments, a fast bleaching of the interminiband transition is observed followed by thermalization and subsequent relaxation, whose time constants are determined to be 1-2 picoseconds. This is followed by an additional component due to carrier cooling in the lower miniband. In the second part, two-color pump-probe measurements are performed, involving the FEL as the pump source and a table-top broad-band tunable THz source for probing the transmission changes. In addition, the dynamics of excited electrons within the minibands is explored and their contribution quantitatively extracted from the measurements. Intersubband absorption experiments of photoexcited carriers in single quantum well structures, measured directly in the time-domain, i.e. probing coherently the polarization between the first and the second subband, are presented. By varying the carrier

  3. TG-FTIR, DSC and quantum chemical studies of the thermal decomposition of quaternary methylammonium halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, Marlena; Storoniak, Piotr; Skurski, Piotr; Blazejowski, Jerzy; Rak, Janusz

    2006-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of quaternary methylammonium halides was studied using thermogravimetry coupled to FTIR (TG-FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as well as the DFT, MP2 and G2 quantum chemical methods. There is almost perfect agreement between the experimental IR spectra and those predicted at the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level: this has demonstrated for the first time that an equimolar mixture of trimethylamine and a methyl halide is produced as a result of decomposition. The experimental enthalpies of dissociation are 153.4, 171.2, and 186.7 kJ/mol for chloride, bromide and iodide, respectively, values that correlate well with the calculated enthalpies of dissociation based on crystal lattice energies and quantum chemical thermodynamic barriers. The experimental activation barriers estimated from the least-squares fit of the F1 kinetic model (first-order process) to thermogravimetric traces - 283, 244 and 204 kJ/mol for chloride, bromide and iodide, respectively - agree very well with theoretically calculated values. The theoretical approach assumed in this work has been shown capable of predicting the relevant characteristics of the thermal decomposition of solids with experimental accuracy

  4. Theoretical and computational studies of excitons in conjugated polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barford, William; Bursill, Robert J.; Smith, Richard W.

    2002-09-01

    We present a theoretical and computational analysis of excitons in conjugated polymers. We use a tight-binding model of π-conjugated electrons, with 1/r interactions for large r. In both the weak-coupling limit (defined by W>>U) and the strong-coupling limit (defined by Wparticle models. We compare these to density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations, and find good agreement in the extreme limits. We use these analytical results to interpret the DMRG calculations in the intermediate-coupling regime (defined by W~U), most applicable to conjugated polymers. We make the following conclusions. (1) In the weak-coupling limit the bound states are Mott-Wannier excitons, i.e., conduction-band electrons bound to valence-band holes. Singlet and triplet excitons whose relative wave functions are odd under a reflection of the relative coordinate are degenerate. Thus, the 2 1A+g and 1 3A-g states are degenerate in this limit. (2) In the strong-coupling limit the bound states are Mott-Hubbard excitons, i.e., particles in the upper Hubbard band bound to holes in the lower Hubbard band. These bound states occur in doublets of even and odd parity excitons. Triplet excitons are magnons bound to the singlet excitons, and hence are degenerate with their singlet counterparts. (3) In the intermediate-coupling regime Mott-Wannier excitons are the more appropriate description for large dimerization, while for the undimerized chain Mott-Hubbard excitons are the correct description. For dimerizations relevant to polyacetylene and polydiacetylene both Mott-Hubbard and Mott-Wannier excitons are present. (4) For all coupling strengths an infinite number of bound states exist for 1/r interactions for an infinite polymer. As a result of the discreteness of the lattice and the restrictions on the exciton wave functions in one dimension, the progression of states does not follow the Rydberg series. In practice, excitons whose particle-hole separation exceeds the length of the polymer

  5. Theoretical study of electronic transfer current rate at dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Agealy, Hadi J. M.; AlMaadhede, Taif Saad; Hassooni, Mohsin A.; Sadoon, Abbas K.; Ashweik, Ahmed M.; Mahdi, Hind Abdlmajeed; Ghadhban, Rawnaq Qays

    2018-05-01

    In this research, we present a theoretical study of electronic transfer kinetics rate in N719/TiO2 and N719/ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) systems using a simple model depending on the postulate of quantum mechanics theory. The evaluation of the electronic transition current rate in DSSC systems are function of many parameters such that; the reorientation transition energies ΛSe m D y e , the transition coupling parameter ℂT(0), potential exponential effect e-(E/C-EF ) kBT , unit cell volume VSem, and temperature T. Furthermore, the analysis of electronic transfer current rate in N719/TiO2 and N719/ZnO systems show that the rate upon dye-sensitization solar cell increases with increases of transition coupling parameter, decreasing potential that building at interface a results of different material in this devices and increasing with reorientation transition energy. On the other hand, we can find the electronic transfer behavior is dependent of the dye absorption spectrum and mainly depending on the reorientation of transition energy. The replacement of the solvents in both DSSC system caused increasing of current rates dramatically depending on polarity of solvent in subset devices. This change in current rate of electron transfer were attributed to much more available of recombination sites introduced by the solvents medium. The electronic transfer current dynamics are shown to occurs in N719/TiO2 system faster many time compare to ocuures at N719/ZnO system, this indicate that TiO2 a is a good and active material compare with ZnO to using in dye sensitized solar cell devices. In contrast, the large current rate in N719/TiO2 comparing to ZnO of N719/ZnO systems indicate that using TiO2 with N719 dye lead to increasing the efficiency of DSSC.

  6. Quantum Computing: a Quantum Group Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhenghan

    2013-01-01

    There is compelling theoretical evidence that quantum physics will change the face of information science. Exciting progress has been made during the last two decades towards the building of a large scale quantum computer. A quantum group approach stands out as a promising route to this holy grail, and provides hope that we may have quantum computers in our future.

  7. Experimental studies of the quantum chromodynamics phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-06

    BES) ... Experimental studies of the QCD phase diagram at the STAR experiment .... However, the observed difference between v2 of particles and antiparticles could .... The grey band at the right corresponds to systematic.

  8. A Correlational Study of Students' Theoretical and Practical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Galadanci & Mukhtar

    Science World Journal Vol 12(No 2) 2017 ... Scores in Computer Applications Courses in Bayero University Kano. A CORRELATIONAL STUDY OF STUDENTS ... Physics, Chemistry and Biology, where the course of study has a substantial ...

  9. Lifetime statistics of quantum chaos studied by a multiscale analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Di Falco, A.

    2012-04-30

    In a series of pump and probe experiments, we study the lifetime statistics of a quantum chaotic resonator when the number of open channels is greater than one. Our design embeds a stadium billiard into a two dimensional photonic crystal realized on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. We calculate resonances through a multiscale procedure that combines energy landscape analysis and wavelet transforms. Experimental data is found to follow the universal predictions arising from random matrix theory with an excellent level of agreement.

  10. Quantum chromodynamics studies at LEP2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    swaban swaban

    Studies of the annihilation process at LEP2 have given rise to results on jet rate, event ..... The electroweak theory explain the data at all these energies. .... like (a) smooth suppression of hadron-like and point-like 7 interaction, (b) dual parton.

  11. Electrochemical, surface analytical and quantum chemical studies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    subject of numerous studies due to their high technological value and wide range .... Mulliken population analysis of atoms in triazole derivatives, depending on the ... 2102–0003) with an accelerating voltage of 20 kV, at a scan speed=slow 5 and ... the corrosion rate can also be determined by Tafel extra- polation of either ...

  12. Comparative study of quantum anharmonic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, Paolo; Aranda, Alfredo; De Pace, Arturo; Lopez, Jorge A.

    2004-01-01

    We perform a study of various anharmonic potentials using a recently developed method. We calculate both the wave functions and the energy eigenvalues for the ground and first excited states of the quartic, sextic and octic potentials with high precision, comparing the results with other techniques available in the literature

  13. Heavy leptons: theoretical study of the implications of their existence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragiadakos, C.

    1978-01-01

    The following points are studied: the possibility of an internal structure of heavy leptons and its manifestation; a study of the production of neutral heavy leptons in e + -e - collisions; consequences of the lumaton (heavy lepton having strong interactions) hypothesis; the introduction of a muon number violating mechanism in gauge theories. A gauge model characterized by the symmetries: left-right and quarks-leptons is also studied. A general review of the heavy leptons is given [fr

  14. Magneto-transport study of quantum phases in wide GaAs quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang

    In this thesis we study several quantum phases in very high quality two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) confined to GaAs single wide quantum wells (QWs). In these systems typically two electric subbands are occupied. By controlling the electron density as well as the QW symmetry, we can fine tune the cyclotron and subband separation energies, so that Landau levels (LLs) belonging to different subbands cross at the Fermi energy EF. The additional subband degree of freedom enables us to study different quantum phases. Magneto-transport measurements at fixed electron density n and various QW symmetries reveal a remarkable pattern for the appearance and disappearance of fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states at LL filling factors nu = 10/3, 11/3, 13/3, 14/3, 16/3, and 17/3. These q/3 states are stable and strong as long as EF lies in a ground-state (N = 0) LL, regardless of whether that level belongs to the symmetric or the anti-symmetric subband. We also observe subtle and distinct evolutions near filling factors nu = 5/2 and 7/2, as we change the density n, or the symmetry of the charge distribution. The even-denominator FQH states are observed at nu = 5/2, 7/2, 9/2 and 11/2 when EF lies in the N= 1 LLs of the symmetric subband (the S1 levels). As we increase n, the nu = 5/2 FQH state suddenly disappears and turns into a compressible state once EF moves to the spin-up, N = 0, anti-symmetric LL (the A0 ↑ level). The sharpness of this disappearance suggests a first-order transition from a FQH to a compressible state. Moreover, thanks to the renormalization of the susbband energy separation in a well with asymmetric change distribution, two LLs can get pinned to each other when they are crossing at E F. We observe a remarkable consequence of such pinning: There is a developing FQH state when the LL filling factor of the symmetric subband nuS equals 5/2 while the antisymmetric subband has filling 1 < nuA <2. Next, we study the evolution of the nu=5/2 and 7/2 FQH

  15. Efficient universal quantum channel simulation in IBM's cloud quantum computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shi-Jie; Xin, Tao; Long, Gui-Lu

    2018-07-01

    The study of quantum channels is an important field and promises a wide range of applications, because any physical process can be represented as a quantum channel that transforms an initial state into a final state. Inspired by the method of performing non-unitary operators by the linear combination of unitary operations, we proposed a quantum algorithm for the simulation of the universal single-qubit channel, described by a convex combination of "quasi-extreme" channels corresponding to four Kraus operators, and is scalable to arbitrary higher dimension. We demonstrated the whole algorithm experimentally using the universal IBM cloud-based quantum computer and studied the properties of different qubit quantum channels. We illustrated the quantum capacity of the general qubit quantum channels, which quantifies the amount of quantum information that can be protected. The behavior of quantum capacity in different channels revealed which types of noise processes can support information transmission, and which types are too destructive to protect information. There was a general agreement between the theoretical predictions and the experiments, which strongly supports our method. By realizing the arbitrary qubit channel, this work provides a universally- accepted way to explore various properties of quantum channels and novel prospect for quantum communication.

  16. Theoretical Investigation by Quantum Mechanics on the Tunnel Diode Effect of Electric Conductive Characteristics and Haptic Sensing in MCF Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Shimada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By applying our developed intelligent fluid, magnetic compound fluid (MCF, to silicon oil rubber, we have made the MCF rubber highly sensitive to temperature and electric conduction. MCF is useful as the element material in haptic robot sensors and other related devices. In the present paper, we clarified the relationship between the electric current and the voltage under a tensile strain by utilizing the quantum mechanics theory on the multibarrier potential problem. The experimental results could be qualitatively explained by our proposed theory. The electrons can be moved between the solid materials by the tunnel effect. The relation between voltage and electric current is affected by the formation of the clusters, and it is changed by the application of heat. We also clarified experimentally the present MCF rubber useful in haptic sensors. Because the motions of humans and robots are different, the sensing of the rubber is different, depending on the placement. However, as for both motions of human and robot, there is no quantitative difference in the electric resistance among kinetic energy, momentum, and force. The sensing is also different based on the stiffness of the surface to which the sensor is adhered.

  17. Theoretical Determination of Optimal Material Parameters for ZnCdTe/ZnCdSe Quantum Dot Intermediate Band Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperato, C. M.; Ranepura, G. A.; Deych, L. I.; Kuskovsky, I. L.

    2018-03-01

    Intermediate band solar cells (IBSCs) are designed to enhance the photovoltaic efficiency significantly over that of a single-junction solar cell as determined by the Shockley-Queisser limit. In this work we present calculations to determine parameters of type-II Zn1-xCdxTe/Zn1-yCdySe quantum dots (QDs) grown on the InP substrate suitable for IBSCs. The calculations are done via the self-consistent variational method, accounting for the disk form of the QDs, presence of the strained ZnSe interfacial layer, and under conditions of a strain-free device structure. We show that to achieve the required parameters relatively thick QDs are required. Barriers must contain Cd concentration in the range of 35-44%, while Cd concentration in QD can vary widely from 0% to 70%, depending on their thickness to achieve the intermediate band energies in the range of 0.50-0.73 eV. It is also shown that the results are weakly dependent on the barrier thickness.

  18. Theoretical studies of Elmo Bumpy Torus. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The work was divided into four basic areas. Studies of the effect of waves on stability and transport considered the possibility of using radio frequency waves to stabilize interchange modes, as well as the general problem of influencing plasma transport by wave absorption. Studies related to wave heating of plasmas considered nonlinear effects such as mode conversion and parametric absorption, along with studies of the structure of ion cyclotron waves in a strongly bumpy geometry. Ring physics studies added nonadiabaticity and whistler instabilities to the model, producing a fairly realistic picture of energy balance, power requirements, and scaling for hot electron rings. Finally, studies analyzing EBT transport data were performed, with emphasis on testing various hypotheses for apparent anomalies in the EBT

  19. Quantum wave packet study of D+OF reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurban, M.; Karabulut, E.; Tutuk, R.; Goektas, F.

    2010-01-01

    The quantum dynamics of the D+OF reaction on the adiabatic potential energy surface of the ground 1 3 A ' state has been studied by using a time-dependent quantum real wave packet method. The state-to-state and state-to-all reaction probabilities for total angular momentum J = 0 have been calculated. The probabilities for J > 0 have been calculated by J-shifting the J = 0 results by means of capture model. Then, the integral cross sections and initial state selected rate constants have been calculated. The initial state-selected reaction probabilities and reaction cross section show threshold but not manifest any resonances and the initial state selected rate constants are sensitive to the temperature.

  20. Freezing of bentonite. Experimental studies and theoretical considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgersson, Martin; Karnland, Ola; Nilsson, Ulf (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    During its lifetime, a KBS-3 repository will be subject to various ambient temperatures. Backfilled tunnels, shafts and investigation bore holes closest to ground level will experience periods of temperature below 0 deg C. From a safety assessment perspective, it is therefore essential to understand the behavior of compacted bentonite below 0 deg C. A theoretical framework for predicting the pressure response in compacted water saturated bentonite due to temperature changes has been developed based on thermodynamics and a single pore-type. This model predicts an approximately linear temperature dependence of swelling pressure P{sub s}(w,DELTAT) = P{sub s}(w,0 deg C) + DELTAs(w)DELTAT/nu{sub clay}(w) where DELTAT denotes a temperature difference from 0 deg C, DELTAs(w) is the difference in partial molar entropy between clay water and bulk water, nu{sub clay} (w) is the partial molar volume of the clay water and w denotes the water/solid mass ratio of the clay. As bulk water changes phase at 0 deg C, DELTAs(w) has a different value dependent on whether DELTAT is negative or positive. Above 0 deg C DELTAs(w) is a small value for all relevant densities which means that the pressure response due to temperature changes is small. A further consequence of this fact is that DELTAs(w) is a large positive number below 0 deg C when the external water phase is transformed to ice. Consequently, the model predicts a large drop of swelling pressure with temperature below 0 deg C, in the order of 1.2 MPa/deg C. Specifically, the swelling pressure is zero at a certain (negative) temperature T{sub C}. T{sub C} also quantifies the freezing point of the bentonite sample under consideration, as ice formation in the bentonite does not occur until swelling pressure is lost. A large set of laboratory tests have been performed where fully water saturated samples of bentonites have been exposed to temperatures in the range -10 deg C to +25 deg C. The swelling pressure response has been

  1. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Yue Ying; Gilgenbach, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRT) is important to magnetized target fusion, wire-array z-pinches, and equation-of-state studies using flyer plates or isentropic compression. It is also important to the study of the crab nebula. The investigators performed MRT experiments on thin foils, driven by the mega-ampere linear transformer driver (LTD) facility completed in their laboratory. This is the first 1-MA LTD in the USA. Initial experiments on the seeding of MRT were performed. Also completed was an analytic study of MRT for a finite plasma slab with arbitrary magnetic fields tangential to the interfaces. The effects of magnetic shear and feedthrough were analyzed

  2. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Yue Ying [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Gilgenbach, Ronald [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2013-07-07

    Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRT) is important to magnetized target fusion, wire-array z-pinches, and equation-of-state studies using flyer plates or isentropic compression. It is also important to the study of the crab nebula. The investigators performed MRT experiments on thin foils, driven by the mega-ampere linear transformer driver (LTD) facility completed in their laboratory. This is the first 1-MA LTD in the USA. Initial experiments on the seeding of MRT were performed. Also completed was an analytic study of MRT for a finite plasma slab with arbitrary magnetic fields tangential to the interfaces. The effects of magnetic shear and feedthrough were analyzed.

  3. Monte Carlo study of quantum number retention in hadron jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, S.K.; Weiss, N.

    1992-01-01

    We present a Monte Carlo study in which we used weighted quantum numbers of hadron jets in an attempt to identify the parent parton of these jets. Two-jet events produced by e + e- annihilation were studied using the Lund Monte Carlo program. It was found that the sign of the charge of the leading parton could be determined in a majority of events and that the quark jet could be distinguished from the antiquark jet in a majority of events containing baryons. A careful selection of a subset of the events by making cuts on the value of these weighted quantum numbers increased significantly the accuracy with which both the charge and the baryon number of the leading parton could be determined. Some success was also made in differentiating light-quark from heavy-quark events and in determining the leading quark flavor in the light-quark events. Unfortunately quantum number retention does not differentiate gluon jets from quark jets. The consequences of this for three-jet events and for jet identification in other reactions is discussed

  4. Theoretical and numerical study of highly anisotropic turbulent flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biferale, L.; Daumont, I.; Lanotte, A.; Toschi, F.

    2004-01-01

    We present a detailed numerical study of anisotropic statistical fluctuations in stationary, homogeneous turbulent flows. We address both problems of intermittency in anisotropic sectors, and the relative importance of isotropic and anisotropic fluctuations at different scales on a direct numerical

  5. Theoretical study of the mechanism of proton transfer in tautomeric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Semiempirical SCF-MO studies of tautomerism in alloxan preclude the ... However, in aqueous solution, the activation barrier reduces appreciably, not ... which stabilize the transition state to a greater extent due to its higher dipole moment.

  6. A combined electrochemical and theoretical study of pyridine-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PARUL DOHARE

    2018-02-01

    Feb 1, 2018 ... diamine (DAP-3) were synthesized, characterized, and their corrosion inhibition performance was studied on ... inhibition efficiencies of various organic compounds on ...... 5 alkyl 1,3,4 thiadiazole compounds on the corrosion ...

  7. Joint Experimental and Theoretical Study on Vibrational Excitation Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Diacetylene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čurík, Roman; Paidarová, Ivana; Allan, M.; Čársky, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 41 (2014), s. 9734-9744 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/0452; GA MŠk LD14088 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : diacetylenes * electron collision * theoretical study Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.693, year: 2014

  8. Experimental and theoretical study of heterogeneous iron precipitation in silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Haarahiltunen, Antti; Väinölä, Hele; Anttila, O.; Yli-Koski, Marko

    2007-01-01

    Heterogeneous iron precipitation in silicon was studied experimentally by measuring the gettering efficiency of oxide precipitate density of 1×10exp10cm−3. The wafers were contaminated with varying iron concentrations, and the gettering efficiency was studied using isothermal annealing in the temperature range from 300 to 780°C. It was found that iron precipitation obeys the so called s-curve behavior: if iron precipitation occurs, nearly all iron is gettered. For example, after 30 min anneal...

  9. Quantum information theory and quantum statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petz, D.

    2008-01-01

    Based on lectures given by the author, this book focuses on providing reliable introductory explanations of key concepts of quantum information theory and quantum statistics - rather than on results. The mathematically rigorous presentation is supported by numerous examples and exercises and by an appendix summarizing the relevant aspects of linear analysis. Assuming that the reader is familiar with the content of standard undergraduate courses in quantum mechanics, probability theory, linear algebra and functional analysis, the book addresses graduate students of mathematics and physics as well as theoretical and mathematical physicists. Conceived as a primer to bridge the gap between statistical physics and quantum information, a field to which the author has contributed significantly himself, it emphasizes concepts and thorough discussions of the fundamental notions to prepare the reader for deeper studies, not least through the selection of well chosen exercises. (orig.)

  10. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: Theoretical Studies In Spectroscopy and Chemical Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu H. G.; Muckerman, J.T.

    2012-05-29

    The main goal of this program is the development and application of computational methods for studying chemical reaction dynamics and molecular spectroscopy in the gas phase. We are interested in developing rigorous quantum dynamics algorithms for small polyatomic systems and in implementing approximate approaches for complex ones. Particular focus is on the dynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions and on the rovibrational spectra of species involved in combustion processes. This research also explores the potential energy surfaces of these systems of interest using state-of-the-art quantum chemistry methods, and extends them to understand some important properties of materials in condensed phases and interstellar medium as well as in combustion environments.

  11. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: Theoretical Studies in Spectroscopy and Chemical Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, H.G.; Muckerman, J.T.

    2010-06-01

    The goal of this program is the development and application of computational methods for studying chemical reaction dynamics and molecular spectroscopy in the gas phase. We are interested in developing rigorous quantum dynamics algorithms for small polyatomic systems and in implementing approximate approaches for complex ones. Particular focus is on the dynamics and kinetics of chemical reactions and on the rovibrational spectra of species involved in combustion processes. This research also explores the potential energy surfaces of these systems of interest using state-of-the-art quantum chemistry methods.

  12. Experimental and Theoretical Studies in Hydrogen-Bonding Organocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Žabka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chiral thioureas and squaramides are among the most prominent hydrogen-bond bifunctional organocatalysts now extensively used for various transformations, including aldol, Michael, Mannich and Diels-Alder reactions. More importantly, the experimental and computational study of the mode of activation has begun to attract considerable attention. Various experimental, spectroscopic and calculation methods are now frequently used, often as an integrated approach, to establish the reaction mechanism, the mode of activation or explain the stereochemical outcome of the reaction. This article comprises several case studies, sorted according to the method used in their study. The aim of this review is to give the investigators an overview of the methods currently utilized for mechanistic investigations in hydrogen-bonding organocatalysis.

  13. Theoretical provisions for the discharge at TJ-1 (Preliminary study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.

    1981-01-01

    Using the transport code PLASMATOR a numerical study about the TJ-1 discharge (a Tokamak close to be installed at JEN) has been made, observing the behaviour under huge variations on the transport coefficients as well as on density and current. Noteworthy a scaling law of the kind τ E ∼n θ has been contested at not too high density, The model insensibility upon the initial values has been confirmed and the effects of variations on the recycling coefficient and the rate rise of current studied too. Finally comparisons with alternative models have been accomplished. (Author) 29 refs

  14. Theoretical and experimental study of mixed solvent electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, P.T.; O'Connell, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    In the original proposal to study mixed solvent electrolyte solutions, four major goals were formulated: fundamental modeling of mixed solvent electrolytes using numerically solved integral equation approximation theories; evaluation of intermolecular pair potential models by computer simulation of selected systems for comparison with experiment and the numerical integral equation studies; development of fundamentally based correlations for the thermodynamic properties of mixed solvent electrolyte solutions using analytically solvable statistical mechanical models; and extension of experimental database on mixed solvent electrolytes by performing vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements on selected systems. This paper discusses the progress on these goals

  15. Theoretical study (ab initio and DFT methods on acidic dissociation constant of xylenol orange in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kiani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Analytical measurement of materials requires exact knowledge of their acid dissociation constant (pKa values. In recent years, quantum mechanical calculations have been extensively used to study of acidities in the aqueous solutions and the results were compared with the experimental values. In this study, a theoretical study was carried out on xylenol orange (in water solution by ab initio method. We calculated the pKa values of xylenol orange in water, using high-level ab initio (PM3, DFT (HF, B3LYP/6-31+G(d and SCRF methods. The experimental determination of these values (pKa,s is a challenge because xylenol orange has a low solubility in water. We considered several ionization reactions and equilibriums in water that constitute the indispensable theoretical basis to calculate the pKa values of xylenol orange. The results show that the calculated pKa values have a comparable agreement with the experimentally determined pKa values. Therefore, this method can be used to predict such properties for indicators, drugs and other important molecules.

  16. Quantum copying and simplification of the quantum Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chi-Sheng

    Theoretical studies of quantum computation and quantum information theory are presented in this thesis. Three topics are considered: simplification of the quantum Fourier transform in Shor's algorithm, optimal eavesdropping in the BB84 quantum cryptographic protocol, and quantum copying of one qubit. The quantum Fourier transform preceding the final measurement in Shor's algorithm is simplified by replacing a network of quantum gates with one that has fewer and simpler gates controlled by classical signals. This simplification results from an analysis of the network using the consistent history approach to quantum mechanics. The optimal amount of information which an eavesdropper can gain, for a given level of noise in the communication channel, is worked out for the BB84 quantum cryptographic protocol. The optimal eavesdropping strategy is expressed in terms of various quantum networks. A consistent history analysis of these networks using two conjugate quantum bases shows how the information gain in one basis influences the noise level in the conjugate basis. The no-cloning property of quantum systems, which is the physics behind quantum cryptography, is studied by considering copying machines that generate two imperfect copies of one qubit. The best qualities these copies can have are worked out with the help of the Bloch sphere representation for one qubit, and a quantum network is worked out for an optimal copying machine. If the copying machine does not have additional ancillary qubits, the copying process can be viewed using a 2-dimensional subspace in a product space of two qubits. A special representation of such a two-dimensional subspace makes possible a complete characterization of this type of copying. This characterization in turn leads to simplified eavesdropping strategies in the BB84 and the B92 quantum cryptographic protocols.

  17. A Theoretical Study of Subsurface Drainage Model Simulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow model, the SEAWAT model, was used to assess the influence of subsurface drain spacing, evapotranspiration and irrigation water quality on salt concentration at the base of the root zone, leaching and drainage in salt affected irrigated land. The study was carried out ...

  18. Platinum and palladium on carbon nanotubes : Experimental and theoretical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adjizian, J. J.; De Marco, P.; Suarez-Martinez, I.; El Mel, A. A.; Snyders, R.; Gengler, R. Y. N.; Rudolf, P.; Ke, X.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Bittencourt, C.; Ewels, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    Pristine and oxygen plasma functionalised carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were studied after the evaporation of Pt and Pd atoms. High resolution transmission electron microscopy shows the formation of metal nanoparticles at the CNT surface. Oxygen functional groups grafted by the plasma functionalization

  19. Connecting theoretical and empirical studies of trait-mediated interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bolker, B.; Holyoak, M.; Křivan, Vlastimil; Rowe, L.; Schmitz, O.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 5 (2003), s. 1101-1114 ISSN 0012-9658 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : community models * competition * empirical study Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.701, year: 2003

  20. Theoretical study of bone sialoprotein in bone biomineralization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yang, Y

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available , highly conserved across several vertebrates, are the proposed active sites. We selected one of these sites, i.e. (Sp) 2 E 8 , where Sp represents a phosphoserine as a model peptide to study the role of BSP. We used molecular dynamics simulations...

  1. Theoretical Study of Spin Crossover in 30 Iron Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2016-01-01

    Spin crossover was studied in 30 iron complexes using density functional theory to quantify the direction and magnitude of dispersion, relativistic effects, zero-point energies, and vibrational entropy. Remarkably consistent entropy−enthalpy compensation was identified. Zero-point energies favor...

  2. A theoretical parametric study of Water Flooding | Ohirhian | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multidimensional mathematical model derived by combining equation of continuity and Darcy's law and solved using the strongly implicit procedure (SIP) has been used to study the effects of permeability distribution, shape of the relative permeability and capillary pressure curves, ratio of water to oil viscosity, and amount ...

  3. THEORETICAL STUDY (AB INITIO AND DFT METHODS) ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ng reaction mechanisms that involve hydrogen atom transfer/proton-coupled. 5]. For these ... f theory have been extensively employed to the study of acidities and the compared with the .... evidence for the second deprotonation of XO. Also, as ...

  4. Testing quantum dynamics in genetic information processing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Centre for Theoretical Studies, and Supercomputer Education and Research Centre,. Indian Institute .... values of a and comparing their replication rates, we can experimentally ... This is a substantial tolerance margin for the quantum algorithm ...

  5. Quantum cloning machines and the applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Heng, E-mail: hfan@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Yi-Nan; Jing, Li [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yue, Jie-Dong [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Shi, Han-Duo; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Mu, Liang-Zhu [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-11-20

    No-cloning theorem is fundamental for quantum mechanics and for quantum information science that states an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned perfectly. However, we can try to clone a quantum state approximately with the optimal fidelity, or instead, we can try to clone it perfectly with the largest probability. Thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed for different quantum information protocols. Specifically, quantum cloning machines can be designed to analyze the security of quantum key distribution protocols such as BB84 protocol, six-state protocol, B92 protocol and their generalizations. Some well-known quantum cloning machines include universal quantum cloning machine, phase-covariant cloning machine, the asymmetric quantum cloning machine and the probabilistic quantum cloning machine. In the past years, much progress has been made in studying quantum cloning machines and their applications and implementations, both theoretically and experimentally. In this review, we will give a complete description of those important developments about quantum cloning and some related topics. On the other hand, this review is self-consistent, and in particular, we try to present some detailed formulations so that further study can be taken based on those results.

  6. Quantum cloning machines and the applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Heng; Wang, Yi-Nan; Jing, Li; Yue, Jie-Dong; Shi, Han-Duo; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Mu, Liang-Zhu

    2014-01-01

    No-cloning theorem is fundamental for quantum mechanics and for quantum information science that states an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned perfectly. However, we can try to clone a quantum state approximately with the optimal fidelity, or instead, we can try to clone it perfectly with the largest probability. Thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed for different quantum information protocols. Specifically, quantum cloning machines can be designed to analyze the security of quantum key distribution protocols such as BB84 protocol, six-state protocol, B92 protocol and their generalizations. Some well-known quantum cloning machines include universal quantum cloning machine, phase-covariant cloning machine, the asymmetric quantum cloning machine and the probabilistic quantum cloning machine. In the past years, much progress has been made in studying quantum cloning machines and their applications and implementations, both theoretically and experimentally. In this review, we will give a complete description of those important developments about quantum cloning and some related topics. On the other hand, this review is self-consistent, and in particular, we try to present some detailed formulations so that further study can be taken based on those results

  7. Theoretical studies on rapid fluctuations in solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, L.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid fluctuations in the emission of solar bursts may have many different origins, e.g., the acceleration process can have a pulsating structure, the propagation of energetic electrons and ions can be interrupted from plasma instabilities and finally the electromagnetic radiation produced by the interaction of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves may have a pulsating behavior in time. In two separate studies the conditions for rapid fluctuations in solar flare driven emission were analyzed

  8. Theoretical studies on rapid fluctuations in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Loukas

    1986-01-01

    Rapid fluctuations in the emission of solar bursts may have many different origins e.g., the acceleration process can have a pulsating structure, the propagation of energetic electrons and ions can be interrupted from plasma instabilities and finally the electromagnetic radiation produced by the interaction of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves may have a pulsating behavior in time. In two separate studies the conditions for rapid fluctuations in solar flare driven emission were analyzed.

  9. Biological and Theoretical Studies of Adaptive Networks: The Conditioned Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-30

    suggest experimental tests and provide direction for physiological studies. 14 SU~la TIPO ~IS- NIJUMS Of PAGIS 17. @1d-ftA ITY CLASSIPtCATICON...mancte suditioned inhibition of the rabbit’s nictitating membrane response, CI tasks require the active suppression of CRs in the Bull . Psychon. Soc., 20... Bull ., 84 (1977) encephalon and mesencephalon26. 690-711. Several lines of evidence suggest that the septal and 8 Evans,J.A.C. and Thornton, E.W

  10. Dynamic behavior of hybrid sodium bearings. Theoretical and experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidez, J.; Juignet, N.; Queval, M.

    1981-08-01

    The primary sodium pump shaft lower section of a fast breeder reactor is guided by a hydrostatic sodium bearing. This recess type bearing is supplied via orifices restrictors. Sodium is sampled at hight pressure at the diffuser outlet and is then centrifuged towards the orifices restrictors. Bearing stiffness and damping data is essential for the study of rotor dynamic behavior. Two points in particular may then be studied: - calculation of rotor instability ranges and critical speeds, - dynamic behavior of the rotor in the event of an earthquake. As regards the bearing design, the problem is to obtain the pressure fields in the liquid film. The integration of these pressure fields will then give the stiffness coefficients. The damping coefficients can then be obtained by the same calculation after slight displacement. The Reynolds equation can be used to study the liquid film (under any conditions for the turbulent and inertia effects). Then the computer code DELPAL is explained that solves the modified Reynolds equation using a finite element method. The presentation of tests conducted in 1981 on the Super-Phenix 1 full scall bearing (diameter 850 mm) in water is made. In conclusion this paper describes a method for calculating the stiffness and damping matrices of a hydrostatic bearing using the DELPAL calculation code and shows the loop of behavior tests on a bearing with sinusoidal excitation. The results, obtained by calculation and by testing, are indispensable when calculating the dynamic behavior of the shaft line

  11. Optical properties of the semiconductor quantum structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haratizadeh, H.; Holtz, P.O.; Monemar, B.; Karlsoon, K.F.; Moskalenko, E.S.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.; Schoenfeld, W.V.; Garcia, J.M.; Petroff, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Optical properties of the quantum structures have been discussed with emphasize of the AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells and InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures. We report on a detailed study of low temperature photoluminescence in Al 0 .07Ga 0 .93 N/GaN multiple quantum wells. The structures were nominally undoped multiple quantum well grown on sapphire substrate. The structure from discrete well width variations is here resolved in photoluminescence spectra. The results demonstrate that the theoretically estimated fields in this work are consistent with the experimental spectra

  12. Theoretical Studies of Optical Properties of Silver Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye-Wan, Ma; Zhao-Wang, Wu; Li-Hua, Zhang; Jie, Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Optical properties of silver nanoparticles such as extinction, absorption and scattering efficiencies are studied based on Green's function theory. The numerical simulation results show that optical properties of silver nanoparticles are mainly dependent on their sizes and geometries; the localized plasmon resonance peak is red shifted when the dielectric constant of the particle's surrounding medium increases or when a substrate is presented. The influences of wave polarizations, the incident angles of light, the composite silver and multiply-layers on the plasmon resonance are also reported. The numerical simulation of optical spectra is a very useful tool for nanoparticle growth and characterization. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  13. A theoretical study on free monopolar spacial change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, P.C. de.

    1975-01-01

    Assuming planar symmetry and an arbitrary charge distribution that spreads through the sample, the one-carrier free-space-charge motion is studied in insulators solids. Using the method of characteristics we can reduce the problem to the resolution of a system of two ordinary first order differential equations. Results are applied to linear, exponential and S.C.L. current charge distributions, under short-circuit conditions. The charge distribution for several times and the discharge currents are presented. The results are compared with those from an approximated method, based on variational principles. (author) [pt

  14. Role of hot electron transport in scintillators: A theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Huihui [SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science and Technology, Key Lab. of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen Univ. (China); Li, Qi [Physical Sciences Division, IBM TJ Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States); Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Lu, Xinfu; Williams, R.T. [Department of Physics, Wake Forest University, Winston Salem, NC (United States); Qian, Yiyang [College of Engineering and Applied Science, Nanjing University (China); Wu, Yuntao [Scintillation Materials Research Center, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Despite recent intensive study on scintillators, several fundamental questions on scintillator properties are still unknown. In this work, we use ab-initio calculations to determine the energy dependent group velocity of the hot electrons from the electronic structures of several typical scintillators. Based on the calculated group velocities and optical phonon frequencies, a Monte-Carlo simulation of hot electron transport in scintillators is carried out to calculate the thermalization time and diffusion range in selected scintillators. Our simulations provide physical insights on a recent trend of improved proportionality and light yield from mixed halide scintillators. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Experimental and theoretical study of cascade solar stills in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabrizi, F.F.; Sharak, A.Z.

    2009-01-01

    Due to low annual rainfall, most of Iran is dominated by arid and semi-arid areas. The solar radiation intensity is extremely high in most of the country. The need to produce fresh water from brackish water is considerably high, especially in dry regions. Desalination of brackish water may become a competitive potential water resource to meet potable water demand, and as the price of oil goes higher, using solar energy for water desalinisation becomes more economical. This paper presented a study that involved mathematical modeling of the first solar still in Iran. The cumulative fresh water production and water temperature were calculated as a function of time. The obtained results were verified by one month daily-based experimental data. The paper also provided background information on the Koshk village, situated in the south part of Iran near Badar Abbas city. Various investigations regarding meteorological conditions, economical considerations, and technical and operational appropriateness demonstrated that the cascade solar still is suitable for desalination of brackish water. 100 solar stills were installed at the site to provide potable water for a nearby village. It was concluded that the model could be used to simulate and optimize the effective design parameters in future studies. 6 refs., 7 figs

  16. Hydroxyl radical induced transformation of phenylurea herbicides: A theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mile, Viktória; Harsányi, Ildikó; Kovács, Krisztina; Földes, Tamás; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic ring hydroxylation reactions occurring during radiolysis of aqueous solutions are studied on the example of phenylurea herbicides by Density Functional Theory calculations. The effect of the aqueous media is taken into account by using the Solvation Model Based on Density model. Hydroxyl radical adds to the ring because the activation free energies (0.4–47.2 kJ mol −1 ) are low and also the Gibbs free energies have high negative values ((−27.4) to (−5.9) kJ mol −1 ). According to the calculations in most of cases the ortho- and para-addition is preferred in agreement with the experimental results. In these reactions hydroxycyclohexadienyl type radicals form. In a second type reaction, when loss of chlorine atom takes place, OH/Cl substitution occurs without cyclohexadienyl type intermediate. - Highlights: • Attack of • OH to aniline, phenol, fenuron, monuron, diuron was studied by DFT. • Ortho-para directing is suggested with –NH 2 , –OH and –NHCON(CH 3 ) 2 groups. • • OH addition to the ring gives hydroxycyclohexadienyl radical. • Attack at C-Cl leads to • OH/Cl substitution without cyclohexadienyl intermediate.

  17. Singlet oxygen reactions with flavonoids. A theoretical-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Javier; Günther, Germán; Zanocco, Antonio L; Lemp, Else

    2012-01-01

    Detection of singlet oxygen emission, λ(max) = 1270 nm, following laser excitation and steady-state methods were employed to measure the total reaction rate constant, k(T), and the reactive reaction rate constant, k(r), for the reaction between singlet oxygen and several flavonoids. Values of k(T) determined in deuterated water, ranging from 2.4×10(7) M(-1) s(-1) to 13.4×10(7) M(-1) s(-1), for rutin and morin, respectively, and the values measured for k(r), ranging from 2.8×10(5) M(-1) s(-1) to 65.7×10(5) M(-1) s(-1) for kaempferol and morin, respectively, being epicatechin and catechin chemically unreactive. These results indicate that all the studied flavonoids are good quenchers of singlet oxygen and could be valuable antioxidants in systems under oxidative stress, in particular if a flavonoid-rich diet was previously consumed. Analysis of the dependence of rate constant values with molecular structure in terms of global descriptors and condensed Fukui functions, resulting from electronic structure calculations, supports the formation of a charge transfer exciplex in all studied reactions. The fraction of exciplex giving reaction products evolves through a hydroperoxide and/or an endoperoxide intermediate produced by singlet oxygen attack on the double bond of the ring C of the flavonoid.

  18. Singlet Oxygen Reactions with Flavonoids. A Theoretical – Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Javier; Günther, Germán; Zanocco, Antonio L.; Lemp, Else

    2012-01-01

    Detection of singlet oxygen emission, λmax = 1270 nm, following laser excitation and steady-state methods were employed to measure the total reaction rate constant, kT, and the reactive reaction rate constant, kr, for the reaction between singlet oxygen and several flavonoids. Values of kT determined in deuterated water, ranging from 2.4×107 M−1s−1 to 13.4×107 M−1s−1, for rutin and morin, respectively, and the values measured for kr, ranging from 2.8×105 M−1s−1 to 65.7×105 M−1s−1 for kaempferol and morin, respectively, being epicatechin and catechin chemically unreactive. These results indicate that all the studied flavonoids are good quenchers of singlet oxygen and could be valuable antioxidants in systems under oxidative stress, in particular if a flavonoid-rich diet was previously consumed. Analysis of the dependence of rate constant values with molecular structure in terms of global descriptors and condensed Fukui functions, resulting from electronic structure calculations, supports the formation of a charge transfer exciplex in all studied reactions. The fraction of exciplex giving reaction products evolves through a hydroperoxide and/or an endoperoxide intermediate produced by singlet oxygen attack on the double bond of the ring C of the flavonoid. PMID:22802966

  19. Singlet oxygen reactions with flavonoids. A theoretical-experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Morales

    Full Text Available Detection of singlet oxygen emission, λ(max = 1270 nm, following laser excitation and steady-state methods were employed to measure the total reaction rate constant, k(T, and the reactive reaction rate constant, k(r, for the reaction between singlet oxygen and several flavonoids. Values of k(T determined in deuterated water, ranging from 2.4×10(7 M(-1 s(-1 to 13.4×10(7 M(-1 s(-1, for rutin and morin, respectively, and the values measured for k(r, ranging from 2.8×10(5 M(-1 s(-1 to 65.7×10(5 M(-1 s(-1 for kaempferol and morin, respectively, being epicatechin and catechin chemically unreactive. These results indicate that all the studied flavonoids are good quenchers of singlet oxygen and could be valuable antioxidants in systems under oxidative stress, in particular if a flavonoid-rich diet was previously consumed. Analysis of the dependence of rate constant values with molecular structure in terms of global descriptors and condensed Fukui functions, resulting from electronic structure calculations, supports the formation of a charge transfer exciplex in all studied reactions. The fraction of exciplex giving reaction products evolves through a hydroperoxide and/or an endoperoxide intermediate produced by singlet oxygen attack on the double bond of the ring C of the flavonoid.

  20. Quantumness beyond quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, Ángel S

    2012-01-01

    Bohmian mechanics allows us to understand quantum systems in the light of other quantum traits than the well-known ones (coherence, diffraction, interference, tunnelling, discreteness, entanglement, etc.). Here the discussion focusses precisely on two of these interesting aspects, which arise when quantum mechanics is thought within this theoretical framework: the non-crossing property, which allows for distinguishability without erasing interference patterns, and the possibility to define quantum probability tubes, along which the probability remains constant all the way. Furthermore, taking into account this hydrodynamic-like description as a link, it is also shown how this knowledge (concepts and ideas) can be straightforwardly transferred to other fields of physics (for example, the transmission of light along waveguides).