Theoretical Studies in Elementary Particle Physics
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Collins, John C.; Roiban, Radu S
2013-04-01
This final report summarizes work at Penn State University from June 1, 1990 to April 30, 2012. The work was in theoretical elementary particle physics. Many new results in perturbative QCD, in string theory, and in related areas were obtained, with a substantial impact on the experimental program.
Studies In Theoretical High Energy Particle Physics
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Keung, Wai Yee [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)
2017-07-01
This is a final technical report for grant no. DE-SC0007948 describing research activities in theoretical high energy physics at University of Illinois at Chicago for the whole grant period from July 1, 2012 to March 31, 2017.
Research in theoretical and elementary particle physics
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Mitselmakher, G. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
1996-12-01
In 1995 the University of Florida started a major expansion of the High Energy Experimental Physics group (HEE) with the goal of adding four new faculty level positions to the group in two years. This proposal covers the second year of operation of the new group and gives a projection of the planned research program for the next five years, when the group expects their activities to be broader and well defined. The expansion of the HEE group started in the Fall of 1995 when Guenakh Mitselmakher was hired from Fermilab as a Full Professor. A search was then performed for two junior faculty positions. The first being a Research Scientist/Scholar position which is supported for 9 months by the University on a faculty line at the same level as Assistant Professor but without the teaching duties. The second position is that of an Assistant Professor. The search has been successfully completed and Jacobo Konigsberg from Harvard University has accepted the position of Research Scientist and Andrey Korytov from MIT has accepted the position of Assistant Professor. They will join the group in August 1996. The physics program for the new group is focused on hadron collider physics. G. Mitselmakher has been leading the CMS endcap muon project since 1994. A Korytov is the coordinator of the endcap muon chamber effort for CMS and a member of the CDF collaboration and J. Konigsberg is a member of CDF where he has participated in various physics analyses and has been coordinator of the gas calorimetry group. The group at the U. of Florida has recently been accepted as an official collaborating institution on CDF. They have been assigned the responsibility of determining the collider beam luminosity at CDF and they will also be an active participant in the design and operation of the muon detectors for the intermediate rapidity region. In addition they expect to continue their strong participation in the present and future physics analysis of the CDF data.
Theoretical Advanced Study Institute in Elementary Particle Physics
2006-01-01
This book contains write-ups of lectures from a summer school for advanced graduate students in elementary particle physics. In the first lecture, Scott Willenbrock gives an overview of the standard model of particle physics. This is followed by reviews of specific areas of standard model physics: precision electroweak analysis by James Wells, quantum chromodynamics and jets by George Sterman, and heavy quark effective field by Matthias Neubert. Developments in neutrino physics are discussed by André de Gouvea and the theory behind the Higgs boson is addressed by Laura Reina. Collider phenomenology from both experimental and theoretical perspectives are highlighted by Heidi Schellman and Tao Han. A brief survey of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking is provided by R Sekhar Chivukula and Elizabeth H Simmons. Martin Schmaltz covers the recent proposals for “little” Higgs theories. Markus Luty describes what is needed to make supersymmetric theories realistic by breaking supersymmetry. There is an entir...
Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Elementary Particle Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evans, Harold G [Indiana University; Kostelecky, V Alan [Indiana University; Musser, James A [Indiana University
2013-07-29
The elementary particle physics research program at Indiana University spans a broad range of the most interesting topics in this fundamental field, including important contributions to each of the frontiers identified in the recent report of HEPAP's Particle Physics Prioritization Panel: the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier, and the Cosmic Frontier. Experimentally, we contribute to knowledge at the Energy Frontier through our work on the D0 and ATLAS collaborations. We work at the Intensity Frontier on the MINOS and NOvA experiments and participate in R&D for LBNE. We are also very active on the theoretical side of each of these areas with internationally recognized efforts in phenomenology both in and beyond the Standard Model and in lattice QCD. Finally, although not part of this grant, members of the Indiana University particle physics group have strong involvement in several astrophysics projects at the Cosmic Frontier. Our research efforts are divided into three task areas. The Task A group works on D0 and ATLAS; Task B is our theory group; and Task C contains our MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE (LArTPC) research. Each task includes contributions from faculty, senior scientists, postdocs, graduate and undergraduate students, engineers, technicians, and administrative personnel. This work was supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-91ER40661. In the following, we describe progress made in the research of each task during the final period of the grant, from November 1, 2009 to April 30, 2013.
Modeling theoretical uncertainties in phenomenological analyses for particle physics
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Charles, Jerome [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Universite de Toulon, CPT UMR 7332, Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Descotes-Genon, Sebastien [CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Universite Paris-Saclay, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (UMR 8627), Orsay Cedex (France); Niess, Valentin [CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 6533, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Aubiere Cedex (France); Silva, Luiz Vale [CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Universite Paris-Saclay, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (UMR 8627), Orsay Cedex (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Groupe de Physique Theorique, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay Cedex (France); J. Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P. O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia)
2017-04-15
The determination of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Model (and its extensions) is often limited by the presence of statistical and theoretical uncertainties. We present several models for the latter uncertainties (random, nuisance, external) in the frequentist framework, and we derive the corresponding p values. In the case of the nuisance approach where theoretical uncertainties are modeled as biases, we highlight the important, but arbitrary, issue of the range of variation chosen for the bias parameters. We introduce the concept of adaptive p value, which is obtained by adjusting the range of variation for the bias according to the significance considered, and which allows us to tackle metrology and exclusion tests with a single and well-defined unified tool, which exhibits interesting frequentist properties. We discuss how the determination of fundamental parameters is impacted by the model chosen for theoretical uncertainties, illustrating several issues with examples from quark flavor physics. (orig.)
Altarelli, Guido
2012-03-01
The LHC results released so far have very much restricted the possible range for the Standard Model Higgs boson mass. Moreover some indications for a signal at a mass around 125 GeV have been found. At the same time, no clear evidence for new physics has emerged from the LHC data. We discuss the impact of these results on our understanding of particle physics. The presently allowed window for the Higgs mass and the negative results for exotic particles are compatible with both the Standard model and its Supersymmetric extensions but imply considerable restrictions and need a substantial amount of fine tuning in all cases. We discuss the options that remain open and the perspectives for the near future.
Theoretical Advanced Study Institute in Elementary Particle Physics
2017-01-01
The program will consist of a pedagogical series of lectures and seminars. Lectures will be given over a four-week period, three or four lectures per day, Monday through Friday. The audience will be composed primarily of advanced theoretical graduate students. Experimentalists with a strong background in theory are also encouraged to apply. Some post-doctoral fellows will be admitted, but preference will be given to applicants who will not have received their Ph.D. before 2017. The minimum background needed to get full benefit of TASI is a knowledge of quantum field theory (including RGEs) and familiarity with the Standard Model. Some familiarity with SUSY would be helpful. We hope to provide some subsidy, but students will need partial support from other sources. Rooms, meals, and access to all facilities will be provided at reasonable rates in beautifully located dormitories at the University of Colorado.
Theoretical Studies of Drift-Alfven and Energetic Particle Physics
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CHEN, L.
2014-05-14
The research program supported by this DOE grant has been rather successful and productive in terms of both scientific investigations as well as human resources development; as demonstrated by the large number (60) of journal articles, 6 doctoral degrees, and 3 postdocs. This PI is particularly grateful to the generous support and flexible management of the DOE–SC-OFES Program. He has received three award/prize (APS Excellence in Plasma Physics Research Award, 2004; EPS Alfven Prize, 2008; APS Maxwell Prize, 2012) as the results of research accomplishments supported by this grant.
J.J. Sakurai Prize for Theoretical Particle Physics: 40 Years of Lattice QCD
Lepage, Peter
2016-03-01
Lattice QCD was invented in 1973-74 by Ken Wilson, who passed away in 2013. This talk will describe the evolution of lattice QCD through the past 40 years with particular emphasis on its first years, and on the past decade, when lattice QCD simulations finally came of age. Thanks to theoretical breakthroughs in the late 1990s and early 2000s, lattice QCD simulations now produce the most accurate theoretical calculations in the history of strong-interaction physics. They play an essential role in high-precision experimental studies of physics within and beyond the Standard Model of Particle Physics. The talk will include a non-technical review of the conceptual ideas behind this revolutionary development in (highly) nonlinear quantum physics, together with a survey of its current impact on theoretical and experimental particle physics, and prospects for the future. Work supported by the National Science Foundation.
Theoretical Studies of Alfven Waves and Energetic Particle Physics in Fusion Plasmas
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Chen, Liu [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)
2017-12-20
This report summarizes major theoretical findings in the linear as well as nonlinear physics of Alfvén waves and energetic particles in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. On the linear physics, a variational formulation, based on the separation of singular and regular spatial scales, for drift-Alfvén instabilities excited by energetic particles is established. This variational formulation is then applied to derive the general fishbone-like dispersion relations corresponding to the various Alfvén eigenmodes and energetic-particle modes. It is further employed to explore in depth the low-frequency Alfvén eigenmodes and demonstrate the non-perturbative nature of the energetic particles. On the nonlinear physics, new novel findings are obtained on both the nonlinear wave-wave interactions and nonlinear wave-energetic particle interactions. It is demonstrated that both the energetic particles and the fine radial mode structures could qualitatively affect the nonlinear evolution of Alfvén eigenmodes. Meanwhile, a theoretical approach based on the Dyson equation is developed to treat self-consistently the nonlinear interactions between Alfvén waves and energetic particles, and is then applied to explain simulation results of energetic-particle modes. Relevant list of journal publications on the above findings is also included.
Final Report May 1, 2012 to May 31, 2015: "Theoretical Studies in Elementary Particle Physics"
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Collins, John C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Roiban, Radu [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)
2015-08-19
This final report summarizes work at Penn State University from May 1, 2012 to May 31, 2015. The work was in theoretical elementary particle physics. Many new results in perturbative QCD, in string theory, and in related areas were obtained, with a substantial impact on the experimental program.
From Special Relativity to Feynman Diagrams A Course of Theoretical Particle Physics for Beginners
D'Auria, Riccardo
2012-01-01
This books aims at filling a gap between the basics courses of classical and quantum mechanics and advanced courses of (relativistic) quantum mechanics and field theory. Particular emphasis is given to the role of symmetry in modern theoretical physics. For this reason this book is particularly suited to those students who are interested in a deeper knowledge of modern developments in elementary particle physics and relativity, even if they choose not to specialize in this branch of research. This target of readers includes, besides experimental and applied physicists, also those engineers who need advanced notions of theoretical high energy physics, in view of future research activity in the field theory approach to condensed matter, in accelerator physics and in all those modern technology sectors which require a more advanced and sophisticated theoretical physics background. Courses motivated by these objectives are present in several polytechnic institutes around the world. The last chapters of this book,...
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Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P.; Thorn, C.B.
1994-12-01
This is the Annual Progress Report of the theoretical particle theory group at the University of Florida under DOE Grant DE-FG05-86ER40272. At present our group consists of four Full Professors (Field, Ramond, Thorn, Sikivie), one Associate Professor (Woodard), and two Assistant Professors (Qiu, Kennedy). In addition, we have four postdoctoral research associates and seven graduate students. The research of our group covers a broad range of topics in theoretical high energy physics including both theory and phenomenology. Included in this report is a summary of the last several years, an outline of our current research program.
Joos, Georg
1986-01-01
Among the finest, most comprehensive treatments of theoretical physics ever written, this classic volume comprises a superb introduction to the main branches of the discipline and offers solid grounding for further research in a variety of fields. Students will find no better one-volume coverage of so many essential topics; moreover, since its first publication, the book has been substantially revised and updated with additional material on Bessel functions, spherical harmonics, superconductivity, elastomers, and other subjects.The first four chapters review mathematical topics needed by theo
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Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P.; Thorn, C.B.
1993-11-01
This is the Annual Progress Report of the theoretical particle theory group at the University of Florida under DoE Grant DE-FG05-86ER40272. At present our group consists of four Full Professors (Field, Ramond, Thorn, Sikivie) and three Assistant Professors (Qiu, Woodard, Kennedy). Dallas Kennedy recently joined our group increasing the Particle Theory faculty to seven. In addition, we have three postdoctoral research associates, an SSC fellow, and eight graduate students. The research of our group covers a broad range of topics in theoretical high energy physics with balance between theory and phenomenology. Included in this report is a summary of the last several years of operation of the group and an outline of our current research program.
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Szczerbinska, Barbara [Dakota State Univ., Madison, SD (United States)
2016-02-22
For last five years Center for Theoretical Underground Physics and Related Areas (CETUP*) serves as a collaboration point for scientists from around the world interested in theoretical and experimental aspects of underground science. The mission of CETUP* is to promote an organized research in physics, astrophysics, geoscience, geomicrobiology and other fields related to the underground science and provide a stimulating environment for creative thinking and open communication between researches of varying ages and nationalities in dynamic atmosphere of intense scientific interactions. Scientists invited to participate in the program will not only provide theoretical support to the underground science, but they will also examine core questions of the 21st century including: What is dark matter? How well do we know the neutrino parameters?, How have neutrinos shaped the evolution of the universe?, How were the heavy elements made?, What are the fundamental underlying symmetries of the Universe? Is there a Grand Unified Theory of the Universe? How do supernovae explode? Studies of Neutrino Physics and Dark Matter are of high interest to particle and nuclear physicists, astrophysicists and cosmologists. Ongoing and proposed Neutrino and Dark Matter experiments are expected to unveil the answers to fundamental questions about the Universe. This year summer program was focused exactly on these subjects bringing together experts in dark matter, neutrino physics, particle physics, nuclear physics and astrophysics and cosmology. CETUP*2015 consisted of 5 week long program (June 14 – July 18, 2015) covering various theoretical and experimental aspects in these research areas. The two week long session on Dark Matter physics (June 14 – June 26) was followed by two week long program on Neutrino physics (July 6 – July 18). The international conference entitled IXth International Conference on Interconnection Between Particle Physics and Cosmology (PPC) was hosted at CETUP
Quigg, Chris
2011-04-01
The Large Hadron Collider at CERN is moving the experimental frontier of particle physics to the domain of electroweak symmetry breaking, reaching energies around one trillion electron volts for collisions among the basic constituents of matter. We do not know what the new wave of exploration will find, but the discoveries we make and the new puzzles we encounter are certain to change the face of particle physics and echo through neighboring sciences. In this new world, we confidently expect to learn what sets electromagnetism apart from the weak interactions, with profound implications for deceptively simple questions: Why are there atoms? Why chemistry? What makes stable structures possible? A pivotal step will be finding the Higgs boson-or whatever takes its place -and exploring its properties. But we hope for much more. More predictive extensions of the electroweak theory, including dynamical symmetry breaking and supersymmetry, imply new kinds of matter that would be within reach of LHC experiments. We suspect that candidates for the dark matter of the Universe could also await discovery on the TeV scale. The strong interactions may hold their own surprises. As we unravel the riddle of electroweak symmetry breaking, prospects arise for other new insights: into the different forms of matter, the unity of quarks and leptons, and the nature of spacetime. The questions in play all seem linked to one another-and to the kinship of the weak and electromagnetic interactions. I will speak of the evolving dialogue between theory and experiment, highlighting the work before us. Fermilab is operated by the Fermi Research Alliance under contract no. DE-AC02-07CH11359 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
Department of Theoretical Physics
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Kwiecinski, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)
1994-12-31
The research done at the Department of Theoretical Physics of the Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics in 1993 is presented. The research program includes: - the role of Galilean relativity principle in quantum mechanics, dense and/or hot hadronic matter and the structure of hadrons studied in particle and nuclear interactions.
Department of Theoretical Physics
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Kwiecinski, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)
1992-12-31
The research done at the Department of Theoretical Physics of the Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics in 1991 are presented. The research program includes: the role of Galilean relativity principle in quantum mechanics, dense and/or hot hadronic matter and the structure of hadrons studied in particle and nuclear interactions.
Kennedy, Eugene
2012-01-01
Stimulated by the Large Hadron Collider and the search for the elusive Higgs Boson, interest in particle physics continues at a high level among scientists and the general public. This book includes theoretical aspects, with chapters outlining the generation model and a charged Higgs boson model as alternative scenarios to the Standard Model. An introduction is provided to postulated axion photon interactions and associated photon dispersion in magnetized media. The complexity of particle physics research requiring the synergistic combination of theory, hardware and computation is described in terms of the e-science paradigm. The book concludes with a chapter tackling potential radiation hazards associated with extremely weakly interacting neutrinos if produced in copious amounts with future high-energy muon-collider facilities.
From special relativity to Feynman diagrams a course of theoretical particle physics for beginners
D'Auria, Riccardo
2016-01-01
This book, now in its second edition, provides an introductory course on theoretical particle physics with the aim of filling the gap that exists between basic courses of classical and quantum mechanics and advanced courses of (relativistic) quantum mechanics and field theory. After a concise but comprehensive introduction to special relativity, key aspects of relativistic dynamics are covered and some elementary concepts of general relativity introduced. Basics of the theory of groups and Lie algebras are explained, with discussion of the group of rotations and the Lorentz and Poincaré groups. In addition, a concise account of representation theory and of tensor calculus is provided. Quantization of the electromagnetic field in the radiation range is fully discussed. The essentials of the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms are reviewed, proceeding from systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom and extending the discussion to fields. The final four chapters are devoted to development of the quant...
Martin, B R
2008-01-01
An essential introduction to particle physics, with coverage ranging from the basics through to the very latest developments, in an accessible and carefully structured text. Particle Physics: Third Edition is a revision of a highly regarded introduction to particle physics. In its two previous editions this book has proved to be an accessible and balanced introduction to modern particle physics, suitable for those students needed a more comprehensive introduction to the subject than provided by the 'compendium' style physics books. In the Third Edition the standard mod
Carlsmith, Duncan
2012-01-01
Particle Physics is the first book to connect theory and experiment in particle physics. Duncan Carlsmith provides the first accessible exposition of the standard model with sufficient mathematical depth to demystify the language of gauge theory and Feynman diagrams used by researchers in the field. Carlsmith also connects theories to past, present, and future experiments.
Martin, Brian R
2017-01-01
An accessible and carefully structured introduction to Particle Physics, including important coverage of the Higgs Boson and recent progress in neutrino physics. Fourth edition of this successful title in the Manchester Physics series. Includes information on recent key discoveries including : An account of the discovery of exotic hadrons, beyond the simple quark model; Expanded treatments of neutrino physics and CP violation in B-decays; An updated account of ‘physics beyond the standard model’, including the interaction of particle physics with cosmology; Additional problems in all chapters, with solutions to selected problems available on the book’s website; Advanced material appears in optional starred sections.
Theoretical Particle Astrophysics
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Kamionkowski, Marc [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)
2013-08-07
Abstract: Theoretical Particle Astrophysics. The research carried out under this grant encompassed work on the early Universe, dark matter, and dark energy. We developed CMB probes for primordial baryon inhomogeneities, primordial non-Gaussianity, cosmic birefringence, gravitational lensing by density perturbations and gravitational waves, and departures from statistical isotropy. We studied the detectability of wiggles in the inflation potential in string-inspired inflation models. We studied novel dark-matter candidates and their phenomenology. This work helped advance the DoE's Cosmic Frontier (and also Energy and Intensity Frontiers) by finding synergies between a variety of different experimental efforts, by developing new searches, science targets, and analyses for existing/forthcoming experiments, and by generating ideas for new next-generation experiments.
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Cohen, Andrew [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Schmaltz, Martin [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Katz, Emmanuel [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Rebbi, Claudio [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Glashow, Sheldon [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Brower, Richard [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Pi, So-Young [Boston Univ., MA (United States)
2016-09-30
This award supported a broadly based research effort in theoretical particle physics, including research aimed at uncovering the laws of nature at short (subatomic) and long (cosmological) distances. These theoretical developments apply to experiments in laboratories such as CERN, the facility that operates the Large Hadron Collider outside Geneva, as well as to cosmological investigations done using telescopes and satellites. The results reported here apply to physics beyond the so-called Standard Model of particle physics; physics of high energy collisions such as those observed at the Large Hadron Collider; theoretical and mathematical tools and frameworks for describing the laws of nature at short distances; cosmology and astrophysics; and analytic and computational methods to solve theories of short distance physics. Some specific research accomplishments include + Theories of the electroweak interactions, the forces that give rise to many forms of radioactive decay; + Physics of the recently discovered Higgs boson. + Models and phenomenology of dark matter, the mysterious component of the universe, that has so far been detected only by its gravitational effects. + High energy particles in astrophysics and cosmology. + Algorithmic research and Computational methods for physics of and beyond the Standard Model. + Theory and applications of relativity and its possible limitations. + Topological effects in field theory and cosmology. + Conformally invariant systems and AdS/CFT. This award also supported significant training of students and postdoctoral fellows to lead the research effort in particle theory for the coming decades. These students and fellows worked closely with other members of the group as well as theoretical and experimental colleagues throughout the physics community. Many of the research projects funded by this grant arose in response to recently obtained experimental results in the areas of particle physics and cosmology. We describe a few of
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Kearns, Edward [Boston Universiy
2013-07-12
This is the final report for the Department of Energy Grant to Principal Investigators in Experimental and Theoretical Particle Physics at Boston University. The research performed was in the Energy Frontier at the LHC, the Intensity Frontier at Super-Kamiokande and T2K, the Cosmic Frontier and detector R&D in dark matter detector development, and in particle theory.
Theoretical Physics 1. Theoretical Mechanics
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Dreizler, Reiner M.; Luedde, Cora S. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2010-07-01
After an introduction to basic concepts of mechanics more advanced topics build the major part of this book. Interspersed is a discussion of selected problems of motion. This is followed by a concise treatment of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics, as well as a brief excursion on chaotic motion. The last chapter deals with applications of the Lagrangian formulation to specific systems (coupled oscillators, rotating coordinate systems, rigid bodies). The level of this textbook is advanced undergraduate. The authors combine teaching experience of more than 40 years in all fields of Theoretical Physics and related mathematical disciplines and thorough knowledge in creating advanced eLearning content. The text is accompanied by an extensive collection of online material, in which the possibilities of the electronic medium are fully exploited, e.g. in the form of applets, 2D- and 3D-animations. (orig.)
Theoretical Mechanics Theoretical Physics 1
Dreizler, Reiner M
2011-01-01
After an introduction to basic concepts of mechanics more advanced topics build the major part of this book. Interspersed is a discussion of selected problems of motion. This is followed by a concise treatment of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics, as well as a brief excursion on chaotic motion. The last chapter deals with applications of the Lagrangian formulation to specific systems (coupled oscillators, rotating coordinate systems, rigid bodies). The level of this textbook is advanced undergraduate. The authors combine teaching experience of more than 40 years in all fields of Theoretical Physics and related mathematical disciplines and thorough knowledge in creating advanced eLearning content. The text is accompanied by an extensive collection of online material, in which the possibilities of the electronic medium are fully exploited, e.g. in the form of applets, 2D- and 3D-animations. - A collection of 74 problems with detailed step-by-step guidance towards the solutions. - A col...
Faessler, Amand
1971-01-01
Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, Volume 26 covers the significant advances in understanding the fundamentals of particle and nuclear physics. This volume is divided into four chapters, and begins with a brief overview of the various possible ideas beyond the standard model, the problem they address and their experimental tests. The next chapter deals with the basic physics of neutrino mass based on from a gauge theoretic point of view. This chapter considers the various extensions of the standard electroweak theory, along with their implications for neutrino physics. The discussio
Mechanics lectures on theoretical physics
Sommerfeld, Arnold Johannes Wilhelm
1952-01-01
Mechanics: Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Volume I covers a general course on theoretical physics. The book discusses the mechanics of a particle; the mechanics of systems; the principle of virtual work; and d'alembert's principle. The text also describes oscillation problems; the kinematics, statics, and dynamics of a rigid body; the theory of relative motion; and the integral variational principles of mechanics. Lagrange's equations for generalized coordinates and the theory of Hamilton are also considered. Physicists, mathematicians, and students taking Physics courses will find the book
Theoretical physics and astrophysics
Ginzburg, Vitalii Lazarevich
1979-01-01
The aim of this book is to present, on the one hand various topics in theoretical physics in depth - especially topics related to electrodynamics - and on the other hand to show how these topics find applications in various aspects of astrophysics. The first text on theoretical physics and astrophysical applications, it covers many recent advances including those in X-ray, &ggr;-ray and radio-astronomy, with comprehensive coverage of the literature
Blatt, John M
1979-01-01
A classic work by two leading physicists and scientific educators endures as an uncommonly clear and cogent investigation and correlation of key aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. It is probably the most widely adopted book on the subject. The authors approach the subject as ""the theoretical concepts, methods, and considerations which have been devised in order to interpret the experimental material and to advance our ability to predict and control nuclear phenomena.""The present volume does not pretend to cover all aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. Its coverage is restricted to
Vieira, Pedro; DeWolfe, Oliver
2017-01-01
The program will consist of a pedagogical series of lectures and seminars. Lectures will be given over a four-week period, three or four lectures per day, Monday through Friday. The audience will be composed primarily of advanced theoretical graduate students. Experimentalists with a strong background in theory are also encouraged to apply. Some post-doctoral fellows will be admitted, but preference will be given to applicants who will not have received their Ph.D. before 2015. The minimum background needed to get full benefit of TASI is a knowledge of quantum field theory (including RGEs) and familiarity with the Standard Model. Some familiarity with SUSY and string theory would be helpful. We hope to provide some subsidy, but students will need partial support from other sources. Rooms, meals, and access to all facilities will be provided at reasonable rates in beautifully located dormitories at the University of Colorado.
New particles, theoretical. [Review
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Jackson, J.D.; Quigg, C.; Rosner, J.L.
1978-09-01
This report is the written summary of papers presented in Parallel Session B8 at the XIXth International Conference on High Energy Physics, August 24 to 30, 1978, Tokyo, Japan. The work of the minirapporteur was divided three ways: Q anti Q interaction and charmonium (Jackson), implications of the upsilon states (Rosner), and weak decays of heavy quarks (Quigg). 162 references.
Riemann and Theoretical Physics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 11. Riemann and Theoretical Physics. Joseph Samuel. General Article Volume 11 Issue 11 November 2006 pp 56-60. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/11/0056-0060. Keywords.
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Gottlieb, S.A.; Hendry, A.W.; Kostelecky, V.A.; Lichtenberg, D.B.
1992-04-01
We have carried out research in lattice gauge theory, superstring theory, supersymmetry, the solar neutrino puzzle, QCD perturbation theory, and phenomenological models of hadrons. In this report, we summarize our work in each of these areas.
Theoretical solid state physics
Haug, Albert
2013-01-01
Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i
2005-01-01
While biomedicine and geoscience use grids to bring together many different sub-disciplines, particle physicists use grid computing to increase computing power and storage resources, and to access and analyze vast amounts of data collected from detectors at the world's most powerful accelerators (1 page)
Sjostrand, Torbjorn
2012-03-01
The nature of observable events at the LHC is mainly determined by QCD physics, i.e. strong interactions. The search for new physics obviously implies a desire to go beyond QCD. Nevertheless, also in cases where non-QCD processes are studied, new aspects of QCD physics may enter the back door. We here give three examples: decays with R-parity violation in SUSY, the formation of long-lived R-hadrons in SUSY, and parton showers and hadronization in Hidden Valley scenarios. These three possibilities have been implemented in the general-purpose PYTHIA event generator, so that detailed studies of consequences can be performed.
Theoretical Aspects of Particle Production
Webber, B.R.
1999-01-01
These lectures describe some of the latest data on particle production in high-energy collisions and compare them with theoretical calculations and models based on QCD. The main topics covered are: fragmentation functions and factorization, small-x fragmentation, hadronization models, differences between quark and gluon fragmentation, current and target fragmentation in deep inelastic scattering, and heavy quark fragmentation.
Friedrich, Harald
2017-01-01
This expanded and updated well-established textbook contains an advanced presentation of quantum mechanics adapted to the requirements of modern atomic physics. It includes topics of current interest such as semiclassical theory, chaos, atom optics and Bose-Einstein condensation in atomic gases. In order to facilitate the consolidation of the material covered, various problems are included, together with complete solutions. The emphasis on theory enables the reader to appreciate the fundamental assumptions underlying standard theoretical constructs and to embark on independent research projects. The fourth edition of Theoretical Atomic Physics contains an updated treatment of the sections involving scattering theory and near-threshold phenomena manifest in the behaviour of cold atoms (and molecules). Special attention is given to the quantization of weakly bound states just below the continuum threshold and to low-energy scattering and quantum reflection just above. Particular emphasis is laid on the fundamen...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1993-08-01
This proposal presents the research accomplishments and ongoing activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics. Some changes have been made in the structure of the program from the previous arrangement of tasks. Task B, Accelerator Design Physics, is being submitted as a separate proposal for an independent grant; this will be consistent with the nature of the research and the source of funding. We are active in seven principal areas which will be discussed in this report: Colliding Beams - physics of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {bar p}p collisions; MACRO Experiment - search for magnetic monopoles and study of cosmic rays; Proton Decay - search for nucleon instability and study of neutrino interactions; Particle Theory - theoretical high energy particle physics, including two Outstanding Junior Investigator awards; Muon G-2 - measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; SSCintcal - calorimetry for the GEM Experiment; and Muon detectors for the GEM Experiment.
Institute for Theoretical Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giddings, S.B.; Ooguri, H.; Peet, A.W.; Schwarz, J.H.
1998-06-01
String theory is the only serious candidate for a unified description of all known fundamental particles and interactions, including gravity, in a single theoretical framework. Over the past two years, activity in this subject has grown rapidly, thanks to dramatic advances in understanding the dynamics of supersymmetric field theories and string theories. The cornerstone of these new developments is the discovery of duality which relates apparently different string theories and transforms difficult strongly coupled problems of one theory into weakly coupled problems of another theory.
Particle Physics and the Universe
Wess, Julius; 9th Adriatic Meeting
2005-01-01
The focus of the contributions contained in this proceedings is the interplay between cosmology, astroparticle physics and particle physics, both from the theoretical and experimental point of view. The Adriatic Meetings have traditionally been one of the very few physics conferences devoted to the most advanced status of science while aiming at a very broad participation of both young and experienced researchers with diverse backgrounds in particle physics.
Theoretical physics 3 electrodynamics
Nolting, Wolfgang
2016-01-01
This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to electrodynamics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series. The first part of the book describes the interaction of electric charges and magnetic moments by introducing electro- and magnetostatics. The second part of the book establishes deeper understanding of electrodynamics with the Maxwell equations, quasistationary fields and electromagnetic fields. All sections are accompanied by a detailed introduction to the math needed. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical and analytical mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful Germa...
Theoretical physics 5 thermodynamics
Nolting, Wolfgang
2017-01-01
This concise textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to thermodynamics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, defining macroscopic variables, such as internal energy, entropy and pressure,together with thermodynamic principles. The first part of the book introduces the laws of thermodynamics and thermodynamic potentials. More complex themes are covered in the second part of the book, which describes phases and phase transitions in depth. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this series cove...
Final Report: Particle Physics Research Program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karchin, Paul E. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Department of Physics and Astronomy; Harr, Robert F. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Department of Physics and Astronomy; Mattson, Mark. E. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Department of Physics and Astronomy
2011-09-01
We describe recent progress in accelerator-based experiments in high-energy particle physics and progress in theoretical investigations in particle physics. We also describe future plans in these areas.
Theoretical physics 1 classical mechanics
Nolting, Wolfgang
2016-01-01
This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to classical mechanics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. The book starts with a thorough introduction to the mathematical tools needed, to make this textbook self-contained for learning. The second part of the book introduces the mechanics of the free mass point and details conservation principles. The third part expands the previous to mechanics of many particle systems. Finally the mechanics of the rigid body is illustrated with rotational forces, inertia and gyroscope movement. Ideally suited to undergraduate students in their first year, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this series...
Particle physics -- Future directions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chris Quigg
2001-11-29
Wonderful opportunities await particle physics over the next decade, with the coming of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN to explore the 1-TeV scale (extending efforts at LEP and the Tevatron to unravel the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking) and many initiatives to develop our understanding of the problem of identity: what makes a neutrino a neutrino and a top quark a top quark. Here I have in mind the work of the B factories and the Tevatron collider on CP violation and the weak interactions of the b quark; the wonderfully sensitive experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, Fermilab, and Frascati on CP violation and rare decays of kaons; the prospect of definitive accelerator experiments on neutrino oscillations and the nature of the neutrinos; and a host of new experiments on the sensitivity frontier. We might even learn to read experiment for clues about the dimensionality of spacetime. If we are inventive enough, we may be able to follow this rich menu with the physics opportunities offered by a linear collider and a (muon storage ring) neutrino factory. I expect a remarkable flowering of experimental particle physics, and of theoretical physics that engages with experiment. I describe some of the great questions before us and the challenges of providing the instruments that will be needed to define them more fully and eventually to answer them.
Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1991-12-01
This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP).
Introduction to Particle Physics course
CERN. Geneva HR-RFA
2006-01-01
These lectures are an introduction to the ideas of particle physics, aimed at students and teachers with little or on knowledge of the subject. They form a broad basis that will be developed in more detail by the subsequent lecturers in the school. These four lectures are meant to present an overview of particle physics based on its historical evolution over the past century. It will be shown how concepts have evolved following progress in instrumentation and in theoretical ideas, from atoms to the elementary particles and their interactions, as they are known today.
Group theoretical methods in Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olmo, M.A. del; Santander, M.; Mateos Guilarte, J.M. (eds.) (Universidad de Valladolid. Facultad de Ciencias. Valladolid (Spain))
1993-01-01
The meeting had 102 papers. These was distributed in following areas: -Quantum groups,-Integrable systems,-Physical Applications of Group Theory,-Mathematical Results,-Geometry, Topology and Quantum Field Theory,-Super physics,-Super mathematics,-Atomic, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics. Nuclear and Particle Physics,-Symmetry and Foundations of classical and Quantum mechanics.
Particle Physics & Astrophysics (PPA)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Scientists at SLAC's Particle Physics and Astrophysics develop and utilize unique instruments from underground to outer space to explore the ultimate laws of nature...
Theoretical and Experimental Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nelson, Ann E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ellis, Stephen D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Karch, Andreas [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Leslie [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Sharpe, Stephene R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wilkes, R. Jeffrey [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Yaffe, Laurence G. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
2015-04-07
We report on progress towards finding axion dark matter, neutrino oscillation parameters, Use of the gravity/gauge correspondence to to calculations in strongly coupled systems, use of jet substructure to search for new physics, use of lattice QCD to compute weak matrix elements, constraints on dark matter interactions from neutron stars, exotic Higgs searches, and new dark matter models.
Hanley, P
2000-01-01
Particle physics attracts many students who hear of news from CERN or elsewhere in the media. This article examines which current A-level syllabuses include which bits of particle physics and surveys the many different types of resource available to teachers and students. (0 refs).
Department of Theoretical Physics annual report 1993
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1994-02-01
The research program of the Department of Theoretical Physics is presented. The program is formally grouped into four main subjects: (1) the role of Galilean relativity principle in classical and quantum mechanics; (2) dense and/or hot hadronic matter; (3) structure of hadrons studied in particle and nuclear interactions, and (4) analysis of inelastic lepton scattering on nucleons and atomic nuclei. (author).
[Experimental and theoretical high energy physics program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Finley, J.; Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.
1993-04-01
Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics research at Purdue is summarized in a number of reports. Subjects treated include the following: the CLEO experiment for the study of heavy flavor physics; gas microstrip detectors; particle astrophysics; affine Kac{endash}Moody algebra; nonperturbative mass bounds on scalar and fermion systems due to triviality and vacuum stability constraints; resonance neutrino oscillations; e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions at CERN; {bar p}{endash}p collisions at FNAL; accelerator physics at Fermilab; development work for the SDC detector at SSC; TOPAZ; D-zero physics; physics beyond the standard model; and the Collider Detector at Fermilab. (RWR)
Theoretical High Energy Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christ, Norman H.; Weinberg, Erick J.
2014-07-14
we provide reports from each of the six faculty supported by the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Theory grant at Columbia University. Each is followed by a bibliography of the references cited. A complete list of all of the publications in the 12/1/2010-04/30/2014 period resulting from research supported by this grant is provided in the following section. The final section lists the Ph.D. dissertations based on research supported by the grant that were submitted during this period.
Overview. Department of Theoretical Physics. Section 4
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwiecinski, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)
1995-12-31
Research activity of the Department of the Theoretical Physics spans a wide variety of problems in theoretical high-energy and elementary particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of the nuclear matter, quark gluon plasma and relativistic heavy-ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics, as well as general physics. Theoretical research in high energy and elementary particle physics is concentrated on the theory of deep inelastic lepton scattering in the region of low x and its phenomenological implication for the ep collider HERA at DESY, on the theory of nonleptonic decays of hadrons, and on low energy {pi}{pi} and K-anti-K interactions and scalar meson spectroscopy. The activity in the theory of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is focused on the study of quark condensate fluctuations, on the analysis of critical scattering near the chiral phase transition, and on Bose-Einstein correlation in heavy-ion collisions. Theoretical studies in nuclear physics and in theory of nuclear matter concern analysis of models, with dynamical symmetry based on group S{sub p}(6,R) for the description of collective modes of atomic nuclei, analysis of the Goldstone bosons in nuclear matter and analysis of saturation properties of nuclear matter. Research in theoretical astrophysics is mainly devoted to the analysis of magnetic properties of hadronic matter in neutron stars with proton admixture. Studies in general physics concern problem related to the Galilean covariance of classical and quantum mechanics. The detailed results obtained in various fields are summarised in presented abstracts as well as information about employed personnel, publications, contribution to conferences, reports, workshops and seminars.
Experimental techniques in nuclear and particle physics
Tavernier, Stefaan
2009-01-01
The book is based on a course in nuclear and particle physics that the author has taught over many years to physics students, students in nuclear engineering and students in biomedical engineering. It provides the basic understanding that any student or researcher using such instruments and techniques should have about the subject. After an introduction to the structure of matter at the subatomic scale, it covers the experimental aspects of nuclear and particle physics. Ideally complementing a theoretically-oriented textbook on nuclear physics and/or particle physics, it introduces the reader to the different techniques used in nuclear and particle physics to accelerate particles and to measurement techniques (detectors) in nuclear and particle physics. The main subjects treated are: interactions of subatomic particles in matter; particle accelerators; basics of different types of detectors; and nuclear electronics. The book will be of interest to undergraduates, graduates and researchers in both particle and...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vahala, George M. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)
2013-12-31
Lattice Boltzmann algorithms are a mesoscopic method to solve problems in nonlinear physics which are highly parallelized – unlike the direction solution of the original problem. These methods are applied to both fluid and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. By introducing entropic constraints one can enforce the positive definiteness of the distribution functions and so be able to simulate fluids at high Reynolds numbers without numerical instabilities. By introducing a vector distribution function for the magnetic field one can enforce the divergence free condition on the magnetic field automatically, without the need of divergence cleaning as needed in most direct numerical solutions of the resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations. The principal reason for the high parallelization of lattice Boltzmann codes is that they consist of a kinetic collisional relaxation step (which is purely local) followed by a simple shift of the relaxed data to neighboring lattice sites. In large eddy simulations, the closure schemes are highly nonlocal – the most famous of these schemes is that due to Smagorinsky. Under a lattice Boltzmann representation the Smagorinsky closure is purely local – being simply a particular moment on the perturbed distribution fucntions. After nonlocal fluid moment models were discovered to represent Landau damping, it was found possible to model these fluid models using an appropriate lattice Boltzmann algorithm. The close to ideal parallelization of the lattice Boltzmann codes permitted us to be Gordon Bell finalists on using the Earth Simulation in Japan. We have also been involved in the radio frequency propagation of waves into a tokamak and into a spherical overdense tokamak plasma. Initially we investigated the use of a quasi-optical grill for the launching of lower hybrid waves into a tokamak. It was found that the conducting walls do not prevent the rods from being properly irradiated, the overloading of the quasi-optical grill is not severe
Perkins, D. H.
1986-01-01
Elementary particle physics is discussed. Status of the Standard Model of electroweak and strong interactions; phenomena beyond the Standard Model; new accelerator projects; and possible contributions from non-accelerator experiments are examined.
Particle physics builds potential
Camporesi, Tiziano
2004-01-01
Surveys of the career prospects of particle physicists in Europe, such as that one carried out in 2000 at DELPHI, reveal that particle phycisists are much in demand. The findings are fairly independent of a student's nationality, despite the big differences in the education systems of different countries across the continent. According to the DELPHI survey, half of all physics students remain in an academic environment after graduation. For those particle physicists who leave academia, the DELPHI survey showed that about half find jobs in hi- tech industry. The bottom line is that a degree in physics offers very good job prospects and career opportunities. (Edited abstract).
A course in theoretical physics
Shepherd, P J
2013-01-01
This book is a comprehensive account of five extended modules covering the key branches of twentieth-century theoretical physics, taught by the author over a period of three decades to students on bachelor and master university degree courses in both physics and theoretical physics. The modules cover nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, thermal and statistical physics, many-body theory, classical field theory (including special relativity and electromagnetism), and, finally, relativistic quantum mechanics and gauge theories of quark and lepton interactions, all presented in a single, self-contained volume. In a number of universities, much of the material covered (for example, on Einstein’s general theory of relativity, on the BCS theory of superconductivity, and on the Standard Model, including the theory underlying the prediction of the Higgs boson) is taught in postgraduate courses to beginning PhD students. A distinctive feature of the book is that full, step-by-step mathematical proofs of all essentia...
Wiedemann, Helmut
2007-01-01
Particle Accelerator Physics is an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the field of high-energy particle acceleration and beam dynamics. Part I gathers the basic tools, recalling the essentials of electrostatics and electrodynamics as well as of particle dynamics in electromagnetic fields. Part II is an extensive primer in beam dynamics, followed in Part III by the introduction and description of the main beam parameters. Part IV is devoted to the treatment of perturbations in beam dynamics. Part V discusses the details of charged particle accleration. Part VI and Part VII introduce the more advanced topics of coupled beam dynamics and the description of very intense beams. Part VIII is an exhaustive treatment of radiation from accelerated charges and introduces important sources of coherent radiation such as synchrotrons and free-electron lasers. Part IX collects the appendices gathering useful mathematical and physical formulae, parameters and units. Solutions to many end-of-chapter problems are give...
Theoretical and Experimental Beam Plasma Physics (TEBPP)
Roberts, B.
1986-01-01
The theoretical and experimental beam plasma physics (TEBPP) consists of a package of five instruments to measure electric and magnetic fields, plasma density and temperature, neutral density, photometric emissions, and energetic particle spectra during firings of the particle injector (SEPAC) electron beam. The package is developed on a maneuverable boom (or RMS) and is used to measure beam characteristics and induced perturbations field ( 10 m) and mid field ( 10 m to 100 m) along the electron beam. The TEBPP package will be designed to investigate induced oscillations and induced electromagnetic mode waves, neutral and ion density and temperature effects, and beam characteristics as a function of axial distance.
A unified grand tour of theoretical physics
Lawrie, Ian D
2013-01-01
A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics invites its readers to a guided exploration of the theoretical ideas that shape our contemporary understanding of the physical world at the fundamental level. Its central themes, comprising space-time geometry and the general relativistic account of gravity, quantum field theory and the gauge theories of fundamental forces, and statistical mechanics and the theory of phase transitions, are developed in explicit mathematical detail, with an emphasis on conceptual understanding. Straightforward treatments of the standard models of particle physics and cosmology are supplemented with introductory accounts of more speculative theories, including supersymmetry and string theory. This third edition of the Tour includes a new chapter on quantum gravity, focusing on the approach known as Loop Quantum Gravity, while new sections provide extended discussions of topics that have become prominent in recent years, such as the Higgs boson, massive neutrinos, cosmological perturba...
Theoretical particle physics, Task A
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1991-07-01
This report briefly discusses the following topics: The Spin Structure of the Nucleon; Solitons and Discrete Symmetries; Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory; Constituent Quarks as Collective Excitations; Kaon Condensation; Limits on Neutrino Masses; The 17 KeV Neutrino and Majoron Models; The Strong CP Problem; Renormalization of the CP Violating {Theta} Parameter; Weak Scale Baryogenesis; Chiral Charge in Finite Temperature QED; The Heavy Higgs Mass Bound; The Heavy Top Quark Bound; The Heavy Top Quark Condensate; The Heavy Top Quark Vacuum Instability; Phase Diagram of the Lattice Higgs-Yukawa Model; Anomalies and the Standard Model on the Lattice; Constraint Effective Potential in a Finite Box; Resonance Picture in a Finite Box; Fractal Dimension of Critical Clusters; Goldstone Bosons at Finite Temperature; Cluster Algorithms and Scaling in CP(N) Models; Rare Decay Modes of the Z{degrees} Vector Boson; Parity-Odd Spin-Dependent Structure Functions; Radiative Corrections, Top Mass and LEP Data; Supersymmetric Model with the Higgs as a Lepton; Chiral Change Oscillation in the Schwinger Model; Electric Dipole Moment of the Neutron; DOE Grand Challenge Program; and Lattice Quantum Electrodynamics.
Theoretical nuclear and subnuclear physics
Walecka, John Dirk
1995-01-01
This comprehensive text expertly details the numerous theoretical techniques central to the discipline of nuclear physics. It is based on lecture notes from a three-lecture series given at CEBAF (the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility), where John Dirk Walecka at the time was Scientific Director: "Graduate Quantum Mechanics", "Advanced Quantum Mechanics and Field Theory" and "Special Topics in Nuclear Physics". The primary goal of this text is pedagogical; providing a clear, logical, in-depth, and unifying treatment of many diverse aspects of modern nuclear theory ranging from the non-relativistic many-body problem to the standard model of the strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions. Four key topics are emphasised in this text: basic nuclear structure, the relativistic nuclear many-body problem, strong-coupling QCD, and electroweak interactions with nuclei. The text is designed to provide graduate students with a basic level of understanding of modern nuclear physics so that they in turn can...
Theoretical & Experimental Studies of Elementary Particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McFarland, Kevin [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)
2012-10-04
Abstract High energy physics has been one of the signature research programs at the University of Rochester for over 60 years. The group has made leading contributions to experimental discoveries at accelerators and in cosmic rays and has played major roles in developing the theoretical framework that gives us our ``standard model'' of fundamental interactions today. This award from the Department of Energy funded a major portion of that research for more than 20 years. During this time, highlights of the supported work included the discovery of the top quark at the Fermilab Tevatron, the completion of a broad program of physics measurements that verified the electroweak unified theory, the measurement of three generations of neutrino flavor oscillations, and the first observation of a ``Higgs like'' boson at the Large Hadron Collider. The work has resulted in more than 2000 publications over the period of the grant. The principal investigators supported on this grant have been recognized as leaders in the field of elementary particle physics by their peers through numerous awards and leadership positions. Most notable among them is the APS W.K.H. Panofsky Prize awarded to Arie Bodek in 2004, the J.J. Sakurai Prizes awarded to Susumu Okubo and C. Richard Hagen in 2005 and 2010, respectively, the Wigner medal awarded to Susumu Okubo in 2006, and five principal investigators (Das, Demina, McFarland, Orr, Tipton) who received Department of Energy Outstanding Junior Investigator awards during the period of this grant. The University of Rochester Department of Physics and Astronomy, which houses the research group, provides primary salary support for the faculty and has waived most tuition costs for graduate students during the period of this grant. The group also benefits significantly from technical support and infrastructure available at the University which supports the work. The research work of the group has provided educational opportunities
Theoretical mechanics an introduction to mathematical physics
Sweetman Ames, Joseph
1958-01-01
In this book Professors Ames and Murnaghan undertake a mathematically rigorous development of theoretical mechanics from the point of view of modern physics. It gives an intensive survey of this basis field with extensive and extremely thorough discussions of vector and tensor methods, the displacement and motion of a rigid body, dynamics of inertial and non-inertial reference frames, dynamics of a particle, harmonic vibrations, nonrectilinear motion of a particle, central forces and universal gravitation, dynamics of a systems of material particle,impulsive forces, motion of a rigid body about a fixed point, gyroscopic and barygyroscopic theory, general dynamical theorems, vibrations about a point of equilibrium, the principle of least action, holonomic and nonholonomic systems, the principle of least constraint, general methods of integration and the three body problem, the potential function (including simple-layer and double-layer potentials), wave motion, the Lorentz-Einstein transformation and an illumi...
Theoretical perspectives on strange physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ellis, J.
1983-04-01
Kaons are heavy enough to have an interesting range of decay modes available to them, and light enough to be produced in sufficient numbers to explore rare modes with satisfying statistics. Kaons and their decays have provided at least two major breakthroughs in our knowledge of fundamental physics. They have revealed to us CP violation, and their lack of flavor-changing neutral interactions warned us to expect charm. In addition, K/sup 0/-anti K/sup 0/ mixing has provided us with one of our most elegant and sensitive laboratories for testing quantum mechanics. There is every reason to expect that future generations of kaon experiments with intense sources would add further to our knowledge of fundamental physics. This talk attempts to set future kaon experiments in a general theoretical context, and indicate how they may bear upon fundamental theoretical issues. A survey of different experiments which would be done with an Intense Medium Energy Source of Strangeness, including rare K decays, probes of the nature of CP isolation, ..mu.. decays, hyperon decays and neutrino physics is given. (WHK)
Green, Dan
1994-01-01
The aim of this book on particle physics is to present the theory in a simple way. The style and organization of the material is unique in that intuition is employed, not formal theory or the Monte Carlo method. This volume attempts to be more physical and less abstract than other texts without degenerating into a presentation of data without interpretation.This book is based on four courses of lectures conducted at Fermilab. It should prove very useful to advanced undergraduates and graduate students.
Theoretical mechanics of particles and continua
Fetter, Alexander L
2003-01-01
This two-part text fills what has often been a void in the first-year graduate physics curriculum. Through its examination of particles and continua, it supplies a lucid and self-contained account of classical mechanics - which in turn provides a natural framework for introducing many of the advanced mathematical concepts in physics.The text opens with Newton's laws of motion and systematically develops the dynamics of classical particles, with chapters on basic principles, rotating coordinate systems, lagrangian formalism, small oscillations, dynamics of rigid bodies, and hamiltonian formalis
Cosmology and particle physics
Turner, Michael S.
1988-01-01
The interplay between cosmology and elementary particle physics is discussed. The standard cosmology is reviewed, concentrating on primordial nucleosynthesis and discussing how the standard cosmology has been used to place constraints on the properties of various particles. Baryogenesis is discussed, showing how a scenario in which the B-, C-, and CP-violating interactions in GUTs provide a dynamical explanation for the predominance of matter over antimatter and for the present baryon-to-photon ratio. It is shown how the very early dynamical evolution of a very weakly coupled scalar field which is initially displaced from the minimum of its potential may explain a handful of very fundamental cosmological facts which are not explained by the standard cosmology.
Fundamental physics in particle traps
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quint, Wolfgang; Vogel, Manuel (eds.) [GSI Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)
2014-03-01
The individual topics are covered by leading experts in the respective fields of research. Provides readers with present theory and experiments in this field. A useful reference for researchers. This volume provides detailed insight into the field of precision spectroscopy and fundamental physics with particles confined in traps. It comprises experiments with electrons and positrons, protons and antiprotons, antimatter and highly charged ions, together with corresponding theoretical background. Such investigations represent stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics and the Standard model, antiparticle and antimatter research, test of fundamental symmetries, constants, and their possible variations with time and space. They are key to various aspects within metrology such as mass measurements and time standards, as well as promising to further developments in quantum information processing. The reader obtains a valuable source of information suited for beginners and experts with an interest in fundamental studies using particle traps.
Fundamental physics in particle traps
Vogel, Manuel
2014-01-01
This volume provides detailed insight into the field of precision spectroscopy and fundamental physics with particles confined in traps. It comprises experiments with electrons and positrons, protons and antiprotons, antimatter and highly charged ions, together with corresponding theoretical background. Such investigations represent stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics and the Standard model, antiparticle and antimatter research, test of fundamental symmetries, constants, and their possible variations with time and space. They are key to various aspects within metrology such as mass measurements and time standards, as well as promising to further developments in quantum information processing. The reader obtains a valuable source of information suited for beginners and experts with an interest in fundamental studies using particle traps.
Particle physics in your pocket!
Anaïs Schaeffer
2012-01-01
CERN physicists, take out your smartphones! Two new particle physics applications for Android phones have been developed by a physicist from the University of Bern: “Particle Properties” and “Particle Physics Booklet 2010”. “When I'm on shift, I enjoy looking at the online event displays,” says Igor Kreslo from the Laboratory for High Energy Physics at the University of Bern, the physicist who has developed the two particle physics applications for Android. “Sometimes very beautiful events appear, with many different particles. I like to discuss these displays with my students, just to develop their ability to identify particles. We try to find out which particle is which and how it might decay… I think that's the best way to teach students the phenomenology of particle physics.” When scientists study particle physics, they require some vital information, such as the decay branching ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosenfeld, Carl [Univ of South Carolina; Mishra, Sanjib R. [Univ of South Carolina; Petti, Roberto [Univ of South Carolina; Purohit, Milind V. [Univ of South Carolina
2014-08-31
The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (co-PI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors -- in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare -- they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded -- and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the Ba
Physics of windblown particles
Greeley, Ronald; Leach, Rodman; Marshall, John R.; White, Bruce; Iversen, James D.; Nickling, William G.; Gillette, Dale; Sorensen, Michael
1987-01-01
A laboratory facility proposed for the Space Station to investigate fundamental aspects of windblown particles is described. The experiments would take advantage of the environment afforded in earth orbit and would be an extension of research currently being conducted on the geology and physics of windblown sediments on earth, Mars, and Venus. Aeolian (wind) processes are reviewed in the planetary context, the scientific rational is given for specific experiments to be conducted, the experiment apparatus (the Carousel Wind Tunnel, or CWT) is described, and a plan presented for implementing the proposed research program.
Online Particle Physics Information
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kreitz, Patricia A
2003-04-24
This list describes a broad set of online resources that are of value to the particle physics community. It is prescreened and highly selective. It describes the scope, size, and organization of the resources so that efficient choices can be made amongst many sites which may appear similar. A resource is excluded if it provides information primarily of interest to only one institution. Because this list must be fixed in print, it is important to consult the updated version of this compilation which includes newly added resources and hypertext links to more complete information at: http://www.slac.stanford.edu/library/pdg/.
Theoretical and observational planetary physics
Caldwell, J.
1986-01-01
This program supports NASA's deep space exploration missions, particularly those to the outer Solar System, and also NASA's Earth-orbital astronomy missions, using ground-based observations, primarily with the NASA IRTF at Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and also with such instruments as the Kitt Peak 4 meter Mayall telescope and the NRAO VLA facility in Socorro, New Mexico. An important component of the program is the physical interpretation of the observations. There were two major scientific discoveries resulting from 8 micrometer observations of Jupiter. The first is that at that wavelength there are two spots, one near each magnetic pole, which are typically the brightest and therefore warmest places on the planet. The effect is clearly due to precipitating high energy magnetospheric particles. A second ground-based discovery is that in 1985, Jupiter exhibited low latitude (+ or - 18 deg.) stratospheric wave structure.
Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual progress report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1991-12-01
This report discusses research in the following areas: theoretical elementary particle physics; experimental elementary particle physics; axion project; SSC detector development; and computer acquisition. (LSP).
Fundamentals of Cosmological Particle Physics
Khlopov, Maxim Yu
2012-01-01
This current updated and expanded (this is an up-dated English translation of Prof. Khlopov's book "Osnovy kosmomikrofiziki", URSS, 2004) text reflects the large number of scientific advances, both theoretical and experimental, within the discipline of cosmic particle physics in the last 10 years. Some of the topics that have been added or updated include but are not limited to: HND or CMD+HND scenarios being implemented into sterile neutrino scenarios, the ramifications of extending the forms of dark matter with respect to our view of neutrinos, the origin of baryon matter and the need for nonbaryonic matter in current theories, problems the existence of dark matter raises with respect to cosmic particle physics and the relationship with (meta) stable (super) weakly interacting particles predicted by the extension of the standard model, restrictions on baryon and lepton photons, as well as problems associated with expansion, just to name a few. These and many other topics are readdressed in light of recent b...
Jenkins, James T.; Meiburg, Eckart; Valance, Alexandre
2015-09-01
The Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics (KITP) program held at UC Santa Barbara in the fall of 2013 addressed the dynamics of dispersed particulate flows in the environment. By focusing on the prototypes of aeolian transport and turbidity currents, it aimed to establish the current state of our understanding of such two-phase flows, to identify key open questions, and to develop collaborative research strategies for addressing these questions. Here, we provide a brief summary of the program outcome.
Light scattering by particles in water theoretical and experimental foundations
Jonasz, Miroslaw
2007-01-01
Light scattering-based methods are used to characterize small particles suspended in water in a wide range of disciplines ranging from oceanography, through medicine, to industry. The scope and accuracy of these methods steadily increases with the progress in light scattering research. This book focuses on the theoretical and experimental foundations of the study and modeling of light scattering by particles in water and critically evaluates the key constraints of light scattering models. It begins with a brief review of the relevant theoretical fundamentals of the interaction of light with condensed matter, followed by an extended discussion of the basic optical properties of pure water and seawater and the physical principles that explain them. The book continues with a discussion of key optical features of the pure water/seawater and the most common components of natural waters. In order to clarify and put in focus some of the basic physical principles and most important features of the experimental data o...
Current status of elementary particle physics
Okun, Lev Borisovich
1998-01-01
A brief review is given of the state-of-the-art in elementary particle physics based on the talk of the same title given on January 22, 1998, at the seminar marking the 90th anniversary of the birth of L.D. Landau. (The seminar was hosted by the P.L. Kapitza institute for physical problems in cooperation with the L.D. Landau institute of theoretical physics). (0 refs).
Theoretical elementary particle research at the University of Florida
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P.; Thorn, C.B. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
1996-12-01
This is the annual progress report of the theoretical particle theory group at the University of Florida under DoE Grant DE-FG05-86ER40272. At present the group consists of four Full Professors (Field, Ramond, Thorn, Sikivie), two Associate Professors (Qiu, Woodard), and one Assistant Professor (Kennedy). In addition, the group has four postdoctoral research associates and three graduate students. The research of the group covers a broad range of topics in theoretical high energy physics including both theory and phenomenology. Included in this report is a summary of the last several years and an outline of the current research program.
Theoretical physics: Quarks fuse to release energy
Miller, Gerald A.
2017-11-01
In nuclear fusion, energy is produced by the rearrangement of protons and neutrons. The discovery of an analogue of this process involving particles called quarks has implications for both nuclear and particle physics. See Letter p.89
Foundations of nuclear and particle physics
Donnelly, T William; Holstein, Barry R; Milner, Richard G; Surrow, Bernd
2017-01-01
This textbook brings together nuclear and particle physics, presenting a balanced overview of both fields as well as the interplay between the two. The theoretical as well as the experimental foundations are covered, providing students with a deep understanding of the subject. In-chapter exercises ranging from basic experimental to sophisticated theoretical questions provide an important tool for students to solidify their knowledge. Suitable for upper undergraduate courses in nuclear and particle physics as well as more advanced courses, the book includes road maps guiding instructors on tailoring the content to their course. Online resources including color figures, tables, and a solutions manual complete the teaching package. This textbook will be essential for students preparing for further study or a career in the field who require a solid grasp of both nuclear and particle physics.
Inflation, large scale structure and particle physics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We review experimental and theoretical developments in inflation and its application to structure formation, including the curvation idea. We then discuss a particle physics model of supersymmetric hybrid inflation at the intermediate scale in which the Higgs scalar field is responsible for large scale structure, show how such ...
Elementary particle physics in early physics education
Wiener, Gerfried
2017-01-01
Current physics education research is faced with the important question of how best to introduce elementary particle physics in the classroom early on. Therefore, a learning unit on the subatomic structure of matter was developed, which aims to introduce 12-year-olds to elementary particles and fundamental interactions. This unit was iteratively evaluated and developed by means of a design-based research project with grade-6 students. In addition, dedicated professional development programmes were set up to instruct high school teachers about the learning unit and enable them to investigate its didactical feasibility. Overall, the doctoral research project led to successful results and showed the topic of elementary particle physics to be a viable candidate for introducing modern physics in the classroom. Furthermore, thanks to the design-based research methodology, the respective findings have implications for both physics education and physics education research, which will be presented during the PhD defen...
International Conference on Particle Physics and Astrophysics
2015-01-01
The International Conference on Particle Physics and Astrophysics (ICPPA-2015) will be held in Moscow, Russia, from October 5 to 10, 2015. The conference is organized by Center of Basic Research and Particle Physics of National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”. The aim of the Conference is to promote contacts between scientists and development of new ideas in fundamental research. Therefore we will bring together experts and young scientists working on experimental and theoretical aspects of nuclear, particle, astroparticle physics and cosmology. ICPPA-2015, aims to present the most recent results in astrophysics and collider physics and reports from the main experiments currently taking data. The working languages of the conference are English and Russian.
Notes on elementary particle physics
Muirhead, William Hugh
1972-01-01
Notes of Elementary Particle Physics is a seven-chapter text that conveys the ideas on the state of elementary particle physics. This book emerged from an introductory course of 30 lectures on the subject given to first-year graduate students at the University of Liverpool. The opening chapter deals with pertinent terminologies in elementary particle physics. The succeeding three chapters cover the concepts of transition amplitudes, probabilities, relativistic wave equations and fields, and the interaction amplitude. The discussion then shifts to tests of electromagnetic interactions, particul
Review of Particle Physics, 2008-2009
Amsler, Claude; Antonelli, M; Asner, D M; Babu, K S; Baer, H; Band, H R; Barnett, R M; Bergren, E; Beringer, J; Bernardi, G; Bertl, W; Bichsel, H; Biebel, O; Bloch, P; Blucher, E; Blusk, S; Cahn, R N; Carena, M S; Caso, C; Ceccucci, A; Chakraborty, D; Chen, M C; Chivukula, R S; Cowan, G; Dahl, O; D'Ambrosio, G; Damour, T; De Gouvêa, A; DeGrand, T A; Dobrescu, B; Drees, M; Edwards, D A; Eidelman, S; Elvira, V D; Erler, J; Ezhela, V V; Feng, J L; Fetscher, W; Fields, B D; Foster, B; Gaisser, T K; Garren, L; Gerber, H J; Gerbier, G; Gherghetta, T; Giudice, G F; Goodman, M; Grab, C; Gritsan, A V; Grivaz, J F; Groom, D E; Grünewald, M; Gurtu, A; Gutsche, T; Haber, H E; Hagiwara, K; Hagmann, C; Hayes, K G; Hernández-Rey, J J; Hikasa, K; Hinchliffe, I; Höcker, A; Huston, J; Igo-Kemenes, Peter; Jackson, J D; Johnson, K F; Junk, T; Karlen, D; Kayser, B; Kirkby, D; Klein, S R; Knowles, I G; Kolda, C; Kowalewski, R V; Kreitz, P; Krusche, B; Kuyanov, Yu V; Kwon, Y; Lahav, O; Langacker, P; Liddle, A; Ligeti, Z; Lin, C J; Liss, T M; Littenberg, L; Liu, J C; Lugovsky, K S; Lugovsky, S B; Mahlke, H; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Mannel, T; Manohar, A V; Marciano, W J; Martin, A D; Masoni, A; Milstead, D; Miquel, R; Mönig, K; Murayama, H; Nakamura, K; Narain, M; Nason, P; Navas, S; Nevski, P; Nir, Y; Olive, K A; Pape, L; Patrignani, C; Peacock, J A; Piepke, A; Punzi, G; Quadt, A; Raby, S; Raffelt, G; Ratcliff, B N; Renk, B; Richardson, P; Roesler, S; Rolli, S; Romaniouk, A; Rosenberg, L J; Rosner, J L; Sachrajda, C T; Sakai, Y; Sarkar, S; Sauli, Fabio; Schneider, O; Scott, D; Seligman, W G; Shaevitz, M H; Sjöstrand, T; Smith, J G; Smoot, G F; Spanier, S; Spieler, H; Stahl, A; Stanev, T; Stone, S L; Sumiyoshi, T; Tanabashi, M; Terning, J; Titov, M; Tkachenko, N P; Törnqvist, N A; Tovey, D; Trilling, G H; Trippe, T G; Valencia, G; Van Bibber, K; Vincter, M G; Vogel, P; Ward, D R; Watari, T; Webber, B R; Weiglein, G; Wells, J D; Whalley, M; Wheeler, A; Wohl, C G; Wolfenstein, L; Womersley, J; Woody, C L; Workman, R L; Yamamoto, A; Yao, W M; Zenin, O V; Zhang, J; Zhu, R Y; Zyla, P A; Harper, G; Lugovsky, V S; Schaffner, P; Particle Data Group. Berkeley
2008-01-01
This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. The Review of Particle Physics and the abbreviated version, the Particle Physics Booklet, are reviews of the field of Particle Physics. This complete Review includes a compilation/evaluation of data on particle properties, called the "Particle Listings".
International Conference on Theoretical and Computational Physics
2016-01-01
Int'l Conference on Theoretical and Computational Physics (TCP 2016) will be held from August 24 to 26, 2016 in Xi'an, China. This Conference will cover issues on Theoretical and Computational Physics. It dedicates to creating a stage for exchanging the latest research results and sharing the advanced research methods. TCP 2016 will be an important platform for inspiring international and interdisciplinary exchange at the forefront of Theoretical and Computational Physics. The Conference will bring together researchers, engineers, technicians and academicians from all over the world, and we cordially invite you to take this opportunity to join us for academic exchange and visit the ancient city of Xi’an.
Wiedemann, Helmut
2015-01-01
This book by Helmut Wiedemann is a well-established, classic text, providing an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the field of high-energy particle acceleration and beam dynamics. The present 4th edition has been significantly revised, updated and expanded. The newly conceived Part I is an elementary introduction to the subject matter for undergraduate students. Part II gathers the basic tools in preparation of a more advanced treatment, summarizing the essentials of electrostatics and electrodynamics as well as of particle dynamics in electromagnetic fields. Part III is an extensive primer in beam dynamics, followed, in Part IV, by an introduction and description of the main beam parameters and including a new chapter on beam emittance and lattice design. Part V is devoted to the treatment of perturbations in beam dynamics. Part VI then discusses the details of charged particle acceleration. Parts VII and VIII introduce the more advanced topics of coupled beam dynamics and describe very intense bea...
Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Whitaker, J.S.
1990-01-05
This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in eight projects in high energy physics research: Colliding Beams Physics; Accelerator Design Physics; MACRO Project; Proton Decay Project; Theoretical Particle Physics; Muon G-2 Project; and Hadron Collider Physics. The scope of each of these projects is presented in detail in this paper.
Research in theoretical physics. Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Domokos, G.; Kovesi-Domokos, S.
1998-06-01
This report summarizes the research carried out under Grant DE-FG02-85ER40211. The main topics covered are: astroparticle physics at very high and ultrahigh energies; search for new physics by means of detectors of ultrahigh energy particles of extraterrestrial origin. Methods for searching in heavy quark decays for signatures of physics beyond the standard model are developed.
Basics of particle therapy I: physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
ParK, Seo Hyun; Kang, Jin Oh [Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2011-09-15
With the advance of modern radiation therapy technique, radiation dose conformation and dose distribution have improved dramatically. However, the progress does not completely fulfil the goal of cancer treatment such as improved local control or survival. The discordances with the clinical results are from the biophysical nature of photon, which is the main source of radiation therapy in current field, with the lower linear energy transfer to the target. As part of a natural progression, there recently has been a resurgence of interest in particle therapy, specifically using heavy charged particles, because these kinds of radiations serve theoretical advantages in both biological and physical aspects. The Korean government is to set up a heavy charged particle facility in Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. This review introduces some of the elementary physics of the various particles for the sake of Korean radiation oncologists' interest.
Basics of particle therapy I: physics.
Park, Seo Hyun; Kang, Jin Oh
2011-09-01
With the advance of modern radiation therapy technique, radiation dose conformation and dose distribution have improved dramatically. However, the progress does not completely fulfill the goal of cancer treatment such as improved local control or survival. The discordances with the clinical results are from the biophysical nature of photon, which is the main source of radiation therapy in current field, with the lower linear energy transfer to the target. As part of a natural progression, there recently has been a resurgence of interest in particle therapy, specifically using heavy charged particles, because these kinds of radiations serve theoretical advantages in both biological and physical aspects. The Korean government is to set up a heavy charged particle facility in Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences. This review introduces some of the elementary physics of the various particles for the sake of Korean radiation oncologists' interest.
Biron, Lauren
2016-01-01
For lovers of rhymes and anthropomorphic Higgs bosons, Symmetry presents its first published board book, The ABCs of Particle Physics. Use it as an illustrated guide to basic particle- and astrophysics terms, or read it to your infant at bedtime, if you don’t mind their first word being “quark.”
A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics
Lawrie, Ian D
2002-01-01
A unified account of the principles of theoretical physics, A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics, Second Edition stresses the inter-relationships between areas that are usually treated as independent. The profound unifying influence of geometrical ideas, the powerful formal similarities between statistical mechanics and quantum field theory, and the ubiquitous role of symmetries in determining the essential structure of physical theories are emphasized throughout.This second edition conducts a grand tour of the fundamental theories that shape our modern understanding of the physical wor
Eight lectures on theoretical physics
Planck, Max
1997-01-01
In 1909 the great German physicist and Nobel Prize winner Max Planck (1858-1947) delivered a series of eight lectures at Columbia University giving a fascinating overview of the new state of physics, which he had played a crucial role in bringing about. The first, third, fifth, and sixth lectures present his account of the revolutionary developments occasioned when he first applied the quantum hypothesis to blackbody radiation. The reader is given an invaluable opportunity to witness Planck's thought processes both on the level of philosophical principles as well as their application to physi
Theoretical nuclear physics. Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1997-05-01
As the three-year period FY93-FY96 ended, there were six senior investigators on the grant full-time: Bulgac, Henley, Miller, Savage, van Kolck and Wilets. This represents an increase of two members from the previous three-year period, achieved with only a two percent increase over the budget for FY90-FY93. In addition, the permanent staff of the Institute for Nuclear Theory (George Bertsch, Wick Haxton, and David Kaplan) continued to be intimately associated with our physics research efforts. Aurel Bulgac joined the Group in September, 1993 as an assistant professor, with promotion requested by the Department and College of Arts and Sciences by September, 1997. Martin Savage, who was at Carnegie-Mellon University, jointed the Physics Department in September, 1996. U. van Kolck continued as research assistant professor, and we were supporting one postdoctoral research associate, Vesteinn Thorssen, who joined us in September, 1995. Seven graduate students were being supported by the Grant (Chuan-Tsung Chan, Michael Fosmire, William Hazelton, Jon Karakowski, Jeffrey Thompson, James Walden and Mitchell Watrous).
Theoretical physics 2 analytical mechanics
Nolting, Wolfgang
2016-01-01
This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to analytical mechanics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses.It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, thus expanding the knowledge in classical mechanics. The book starts with a thorough introduction into Lagrangian mechanics, detailing the d’Alembert principle, Hamilton’s principle and conservation laws. It continues with an in-depth explanation of Hamiltonian mechanics, illustrated by canonical and Legendre transformation, the generalization to quantum mechanics through Poisson brackets and all relevant variational principles. Finally, the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and the transition to wave mechanics are presented in detail. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by ...
Basic theoretical physics a concise overview
Krey, Uwe
2007-01-01
This concise treatment embraces, in four parts, all the main aspects of theoretical physics (I . Mechanics and Basic Relativity, II. Electrodynamics and Aspects of Optics, III. Non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics, IV. Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics). It summarizes the material that every graduate student, physicist working in industry, or physics teacher should master during his or her degree course. It thus serves both as an excellent revision and preparation tool, and as a convenient reference source, covering the whole of theoretical physics. It may also be successfully employed to deepen its readers' insight and add new dimensions to their understanding of these fundamental concepts. Recent topics such as holography and quantum cryptography are included, thus making this a unique contribution to the learning material for theoretical physics.
Current experiments in elementary particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E., Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.; Olin, A.; Lehar, F.; Moskalev, A.N.; Barkov, B.P.
1987-03-01
This report contains summaries of 720 recent and current experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.
Particle physics a beginner's guide
Martin, Brian R
2011-01-01
Gaining a following since the launch of the infamous Large Hadron Collider, particle physics explores our most fundamental and mind-blowing questions: How did the Universe start? What are we made of? How small is the smallest thing? Without presuming any prior scientific knowledge, Brian R. Martin takes readers on a wide-ranging tour of the field, from its beginnings in nuclear physics to the discovery of quarks and cutting-edge research into string theory, the mystery of antimatter, and the current search for the elusive God particle." Brian R. Martin is emeritus professor of physics at Un
Nuclear physics and particle therapy
Battistoni, G.
2016-05-01
The use of charged particles and nuclei in cancer therapy is one of the most successful cases of application of nuclear physics to medicine. The physical advantages in terms of precision and selectivity, combined with the biological properties of densely ionizing radiation, make charged particle approach an elective choice in a number of cases. Hadron therapy is in continuous development and nuclear physicists can give important contributions to this discipline. In this work some of the relevant aspects in nuclear physics will be reviewed, summarizing the most important directions of research and development.
Selected exercises in particle and nuclear physics
Bianchini, Lorenzo
2018-01-01
This book presents more than 300 exercises, with guided solutions, on topics that span both the experimental and the theoretical aspects of particle physics. The exercises are organized by subject, covering kinematics, interactions of particles with matter, particle detectors, hadrons and resonances, electroweak interactions and flavor physics, statistics and data analysis, and accelerators and beam dynamics. Some 200 of the exercises, including 50 in multiple-choice format, derive from exams set by the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Research (INFN) over the past decade to select its scientific staff of experimental researchers. The remainder comprise problems taken from the undergraduate classes at ETH Zurich or inspired by classic textbooks. Whenever appropriate, in-depth information is provided on the source of the problem, and readers will also benefit from the inclusion of bibliographic details and short dissertations on particular topics. This book is an ideal complement to textbooks on experime...
From Newton to Mandelbrot a primer in theoretical physics
Stauffer, Dietrich; Lesne, Annick
2017-01-01
This textbook takes the reader on a tour of the most important landmarks of theoretical physics: classical, quantum, and statistical mechanics, relativity, electrodynamics, as well as the most modern and exciting of all: elementary particles and the physics of fractals. The second edition has been supplemented with a new chapter devoted to concise though complete presentation of dynamical systems, bifurcations and chaos theory. The treatment is confined to the essentials of each area, presenting all the central concepts and equations at an accessible level. Chapters 1 to 4 contain the standard material of courses in theoretical physics and are supposed to accompany lectures at the university; thus they are rather condensed. They are supposed to fill one year of teaching. Chapters 5 and 6, in contrast, are written less condensed since this material may not be part of standard lectures and thus could be studied without the help of a university teacher. An appendix on elementary particles lies somewhere in betwe...
Particle physics in the LHC era
Barr, Giles; Walczak, Roman; Weidberg, Tony
2016-01-01
This text gives an introduction to particle physics at a level accessible to advanced undergraduate students. It is based on lectures given to 4th year physics students over a number of years, and reflects the feedback from the students. The aim is to explain the theoretical and experimental basis of the Standard Model (SM) of Particle Physics with the simplest mathematical treatment possible. All the experimental discoveries that led to the understanding of the SM relied on particle detectors and most of them required advanced particle accelerators. A unique feature of this book is that it gives a serious introduction to the fundamental accelerator and detector physics, which is currently only available in advanced graduate textbooks. The mathematical tools that are required such as group theory are covered in one chapter. A modern treatment of the Dirac equation is given in which the free particle Dirac equation is seen as being equivalent to the Lorentz transformation. The idea of generating the SM interac...
Theoretical solid state physics, v.2
Haug, Albert
2013-01-01
Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 2 deals with the electron-lattice interaction and the effect of lattice imperfections. Conductivity, semiconductors, and luminescence are discussed, with emphasis on the basic physical problems and the various phenomena derived from them. The theoretical basis of interaction between electrons and lattices is considered, along with basic concepts of conduction theory, scattering of electrons by imperfections, and radiationless transitions. This volume is comprised of 19 chapters and begins with an overview of the coupling of electrons and the crystal latt
Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revised
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galic, H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Dodder, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Serpukhov (Russian Federation); Illarionova, N.S. [Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lehar, F. [CEN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Oyanagi, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Sciences; Olin, A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Frosch, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)
1992-06-01
This report contains summaries of 584 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1986 are excluded. Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, SSCL, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.
Current experiments in elementary particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Oyanagi, Y. (Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan)); Dodder, D.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Ryabov, Yu.G.; Slabospitsky, S.R. (Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Serpukhov (USSR). Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij); Frosch, R. (Swiss Inst. for Nuclear Research, Villigen (Switzerla
1989-09-01
This report contains summaries of 736 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1982 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PSI/SIN, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground experiments. Also given are instructions for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.
Elementary particle physics in a nutshell
Tully, Christopher C
2011-01-01
The new experiments underway at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Switzerland may significantly change our understanding of elementary particle physics and, indeed, the universe. This textbook provides a cutting-edge introduction to the field, preparing first-year graduate students and advanced undergraduates to understand and work in LHC physics at the dawn of what promises to be an era of experimental and theoretical breakthroughs. Christopher Tully, an active participant in the work at the LHC, explains some of the most recent experiments in the field. But this book, which emerged fr
Ultraviolet extensions of particle physics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berthier, Laure Gaëlle
The discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 at the Large Hadron Collider completed the Standard Model field content. Many questions though remain unanswered by the Standard Model triggering a search for new physics. New physics could manifest itself at the Large Hadron Collider by the discovery of new...... particles. However, the lack of new resonances might suggest that these new particles are still out of reach which leaves us with few options. Two possibilities are explored in this thesis. The first is to study precision measurements which might indicate new physics as small deviations from the Standard...... are expressed as power series with missing higher order terms. We also show how to connect ultraviolet models of new physics to the Standard Model effective field theory and calculate bounds on them using the Standard Model effective field theory fit results. Finally, we study a nonrelativistic ultraviolet...
The Future of Particle Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bjorken, James
2000-06-15
After a very brief review of twentieth century elementary particle physics, prospects for the next century are discussed. First and most important are technological limits of opportunities; next, the future experimental program, and finally the status of the theory, in particular its limitations as well as its opportunities.
Science Academies' Refresher Course in Theoretical Physics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 9. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Theoretical Physics. Information and Announcements Volume 19 Issue 9 September 2014 pp 875-875. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Alpha Particle Physics Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Zweben, S.J.; et al.
1998-12-14
Alpha particle physics experiments were done on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during its deuterium-tritium (DT) run from 1993-1997. These experiments utilized several new alpha particle diagnostics and hundreds of DT discharges to characterize the alpha particle confinement and wave-particle interactions. In general, the results from the alpha particle diagnostics agreed with the classical single-particle confinement model in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) quiescent discharges. Also, the observed alpha particle interactions with sawteeth, toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE), and ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) waves were roughly consistent with theoretical modeling. This paper reviews what was learned and identifies what remains to be understood.
A research Program in Elementary Particle Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sobel, Henry; Molzon, William; Lankford, Andrew; Taffard, Anyes; Whiteson, Daniel; Kirkby, David
2013-07-25
Work is reported in: Neutrino Physics, Cosmic Rays and Elementary Particles; Particle Physics and Charged Lepton Flavor Violation; Research in Collider Physics; Dark Energy Studies with BOSS and LSST.
Physics Without Physics. The Power of Information-theoretical Principles
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro
2017-01-01
David Finkelstein was very fond of the new information-theoretic paradigm of physics advocated by John Archibald Wheeler and Richard Feynman. Only recently, however, the paradigm has concretely shown its full power, with the derivation of quantum theory (Chiribella et al., Phys. Rev. A 84:012311, 2011; D'Ariano et al., 2017) and of free quantum field theory (D'Ariano and Perinotti, Phys. Rev. A 90:062106, 2014; Bisio et al., Phys. Rev. A 88:032301, 2013; Bisio et al., Ann. Phys. 354:244, 2015; Bisio et al., Ann. Phys. 368:177, 2016) from informational principles. The paradigm has opened for the first time the possibility of avoiding physical primitives in the axioms of the physical theory, allowing a re-foundation of the whole physics over logically solid grounds. In addition to such methodological value, the new information-theoretic derivation of quantum field theory is particularly interesting for establishing a theoretical framework for quantum gravity, with the idea of obtaining gravity itself as emergent from the quantum information processing, as also suggested by the role played by information in the holographic principle (Susskind, J. Math. Phys. 36:6377, 1995; Bousso, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74:825, 2002). In this paper I review how free quantum field theory is derived without using mechanical primitives, including space-time, special relativity, Hamiltonians, and quantization rules. The theory is simply provided by the simplest quantum algorithm encompassing a countable set of quantum systems whose network of interactions satisfies the three following simple principles: homogeneity, locality, and isotropy. The inherent discrete nature of the informational derivation leads to an extension of quantum field theory in terms of a quantum cellular automata and quantum walks. A simple heuristic argument sets the scale to the Planck one, and the currently observed regime where discreteness is not visible is the so-called "relativistic regime" of small wavevectors, which
Biology is more theoretical than physics.
Gunawardena, Jeremy
2013-06-01
The word "theory" is used in at least two senses--to denote a body of widely accepted laws or principles, as in "Darwinian theory" or "quantum theory," and to suggest a speculative hypothesis, often relying on mathematical analysis, that has not been experimentally confirmed. It is often said that there is no place for the second kind of theory in biology and that biology is not theoretical but based on interpretation of data. Here, ideas from a previous essay are expanded upon to suggest, to the contrary, that the second kind of theory has always played a critical role and that biology, therefore, is a good deal more theoretical than physics.
Pavšič, Matej
2002-01-01
This a book is for those who would like to learn something about special and general relativity beyond the usual textbooks, about quantum field theory, the elegant Fock-Schwinger-Stueckelberg proper time formalism, the elegant description of geometry by means of Clifford algebra, about the fascinating possibilities the latter algebra offers in reformulating the existing physical theories, and quantizing them in a natural way. It is shown how Clifford algebra provides much more: it provides room for new physics, with the prospects of resolving certain long standing puzzles. The theory of branes and the idea of how a 3-brane might represent our world is discussed in detail. Much attention is paid to the elegant geometric theory of branes which employs the infinite dimensional space of functions describing branes. Clifford algebra is generalized to the infinite dimensional spaces. In short, this is a book for anybody who would like to explore how the ``theory of everything'' might possibly be formulated. The the...
Nuclear physics with polarized particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paetz gen. Schieck, Hans [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik
2012-07-01
The measurement of spin-polarization observables in reactions of nuclei and particles is of great utility and advantage when the effects of single-spin sub-states are to be investigated. Indeed, the unpolarized differential cross-section encompasses the averaging over the spin states of the particles, and thus loses details of the interaction process. This introductory text combines, in a single volume, course-based lecture notes on spin physics and on polarized-ion sources with the aim of providing a concise yet self-contained starting point for newcomers to the field, as well as for lecturers in search of suitable material for their courses and seminars. A significant part of the book is devoted to introducing the formal theory - a description of polarization and of nuclear reactions with polarized particles. The remainder of the text describes the physical basis of methods and devices necessary to perform experiments with polarized particles and to measure polarization and polarization effects in nuclear reactions. The book concludes with a brief review of modern applications in medicine and fusion energy research. For reasons of conciseness and of the pedagogical aims of this volume, examples are mainly taken from low-energy installations such as tandem Van de Graaff laboratories, although the emphasis of present research is shifting to medium- and high-energy nuclear physics. Consequently, this volume is restricted to describing non-relativistic processes and focuses on the energy range from astrophysical energies (a few keV) to tens of MeV. It is further restricted to polarimetry of hadronic particles. (orig.)
Nuclear physics with polarized particles
Paetz gen Schieck, Hans
2012-01-01
The measurement of spin-polarization observables in reactions of nuclei and particles is of great utility and advantage when the effects of single-spin sub-states are to be investigated. Indeed, the unpolarized differential cross-section encompasses the averaging over the spin states of the particles, and thus loses details of the interaction process. This introductory text combines, in a single volume, course-based lecture notes on spin physics and on polarized-ion sources with the aim of providing a concise yet self-contained starting point for newcomers to the field, as well as for lecturers in search of suitable material for their courses and seminars. A significant part of the book is devoted to introducing the formal theory-a description of polarization and of nuclear reactions with polarized particles. The remainder of the text describes the physical basis of methods and devices necessary to perform experiments with polarized particles and to measure polarization and polarization effects in nuclear rea...
Supersymmetry in Elementary Particle Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC
2008-02-05
These lectures give a general introduction to supersymmetry, emphasizing its application to models of elementary particle physics at the 100 GeV energy scale. I discuss the following topics: the construction of supersymmetric Lagrangians with scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons, the structure and mass spectrum of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the measurement of the parameters of the MSSM at high-energy colliders, and the solutions that the MSSM gives to the problems of electroweak symmetry breaking and dark matter.
Geneva University - Particle Physics Seminars
Université de Genève
2010-01-01
GENEVA UNIVERSITY École de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél. (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 13 October 2010 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17.00 hrs – Stückelberg Auditorium Exotic hadrons, Light Higgs and Dark Forces at BABAR Dr. Bertrand Echenard / California Institute of Technology From spectroscopy to search new physics, B-factories have explored many exciting topics besides establishing CP-violation in B decays. We will review recent results on spectroscopy, exotic hadrons and search for light Higgs. Current searches for dark forces and GeV-scale dark matter particles will also be discussed. Information : http://dpnc.unige.ch/seminaire/annonce.html Organizer : G. Pasztor Wednesday 20 October 2010 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17.00 hrs – Stückelberg Auditorium The MINOS Experiment, Results and Future Plans Pro...
Research in particle physics. [Dept. of Physics, Boston Univ
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Whitaker, Scott J.
1992-09-01
Research accomplishments and current activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics are presented. Principal areas of activity include the following: detectors for studies of electron[endash]positron annihilation in colliding beams; advanced accelerator component design, including the superconducting beam inflector, electrostatic quadrupoles, and the electrostatic muon kicker''; the detector for the MACRO (Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment; neutrino astrophysics and the search for proton decay; theoretical particle physics (electroweak and flavor symmetry breaking, hadron collider phenomenology, cosmology and astrophysics, new field-theoretic models, nonperturbative investigations of quantum field theories, electroweak interactions); measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; calorimetry for the GEM experiment; and muon detectors for the GEM experiment at the Superconducting Super Collider.
Molecular Physics: Theoretical Principles and Experimental Methods
Demtröder, Wolfgang
2005-11-01
The richly illustrated book comprehensively explains the important principles of diatomic and polyatomic molecules and their spectra in two separate, distinct parts. The first part concentrates on the theoretical aspects of molecular physics, such as the vibration, rotation, electronic states, potential curves, and spectra of molecules. The different methods of approximation for the calculation of electronic wave functions and their energy are also covered. The introduction of basics terms used in group theory and their meaning in molecular physics enables an elegant description of polyatomic molecules and their symmetries. Molecular spectra and the dynamic processes involved in their excited states are given its own chapter. The theoretical part then concludes with a discussion of the field of Van der Waals molecules and clusters. The second part is devoted entirely to experimental techniques, such as laser, Fourier, NMR, and ESR spectroscopies, used in the fields of physics, chemistry, biology, and material science. Time-resolved measurements and the influence of chemical reactions by coherent controls are also treated. A list of general textbooks and specialized literature is provided for further reading. With specific examples, definitions, and notes integrated within the text to aid understanding, this is suitable for undergraduates and graduates in physics and chemistry with a knowledge of atomic physics and familiar with the basics of quantum mechanics.
A bird's eye view of particle physics
De Groot, E H
1977-01-01
Reviews recent discoveries in the field of particle physics and places them in a theoretical framework. Then shows what is to be expected from the CERN SPS, and from the Fermi laboratory in America where a machine analogous to the SPS is already in service. Better secondary beams should improve our knowledge of lepton-hadron scattering processes, thus providing information about hadron structure and also, with v-scattering, on weak interactions. More should also be learned about proton-proton scattering. (0 refs).
An Experimental and Theoretical High Energy Physics Program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shipsey, Ian
2012-07-31
The Purdue High Energy Physics Group conducts research in experimental and theoretical elementary particle physics and experimental high energy astrophysics. Our goals, which we share with high energy physics colleagues around the world, are to understand at the most fundamental level the nature of matter, energy, space and time, and in order to explain the birth, evolution and fate of the Universe. The experiments in which we are currently involved are: CDF, CLEO-c, CMS, LSST, and VERITAS. We have been instrumental in establishing two major in-house facilities: The Purdue Particle Physics Microstructure Detector Facility (P3MD) in 1995 and the CMS Tier-2 center in 2005. The research efforts of the theory group span phenomenological and theoretical aspects of the Standard Model as well as many of its possible extensions. Recent work includes phenomenological consequences of supersymmetric models, string theory and applications of gauge/gravity duality, the cosmological implications of massive gravitons, and the physics of extra dimensions.
Theoretical physics 6 quantum mechanics : basics
Nolting, Wolfgang
2017-01-01
This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to the basics of quantum mechanics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, thus developing the physical understanding further on to quantized states. The first part of the book introduces wave equations while exploring the Schrödinger equation and the hydrogen atom. More complex themes are covered in the second part of the book, which describes the Dirac formulism of quantum mechanics. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical mechanics and electrodynamics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this...
Geneva University - Particle Physics seminar
Université de Genève
2011-01-01
UNIVERSITE DE GENEVE Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Geneva 4 Tel. (022) 379 62 73 Fax (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 8 June 2011 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17.00 hrs – Stückelberg Auditorium A Novel Experiment for the Search muon -> eee Prof. Andre Schoening, University of Heidelberg The absence of lepton-flavor changing processes, like the non-observation of the radiative decay mu -> e gamma, has been a miracle since the dawn of the Standard Model of Particle Physics and lead to the introduction of the concept of lepton family numbers. Several experiments in the last decade have shown clear evidence for neutrino oscillations. The neutrino mixing angles measured are known to be large. However, the discovery of lepton flavor violating (LFV) effects in the charged lepton sector is yet owing. After motivating the search for LFV in general I will discuss the physics potential of a search m...
Physics through the 1990s: Elementary-particle physics
1986-01-01
The volume begins with a non-mathematical discussion of the motivation behind, and basic ideas of, elementary-particle physics theory and experiment. The progress over the past two decades with the quark model and unification of the electromagnetic and weak interactions is reviewed. Existing theoretical problems in the field, such as the origin of mass and the unification of the fundamental forces, are detailed, along with experimental programs to test the new theories. Accelerators, instrumentation, and detectors are described for both current and future facilities. Interactions with other areas of both theoretical and applied physics are presented. The sociology of the field is examined regarding the education of graduate students, the organization necessary in large-scale experiments, and the decision-making process involved in high-cost experiments. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for maintaining US excellence in theory and experiment are given. Appendices list both current and planned accelerators, and present statistical data on the US elementary-particle physics program. A glossary is included.
Research in Elementary Particle Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
White, Andrew Paul [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); De, Kaushik [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Brandt, Andrew [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Yu, Jaehoon [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Farbin, Amir [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States)
2015-02-02
This report details the accomplishments and research results for the High Energy Physics Group at the University of Texas at Arlington at the Energy and Intensity Frontiers. For the Energy Frontier we have made fundamental contributions in the search for supersymmetric particles, proposed to explain the stabilization of the mass of the Higgs Boson – the agent giving mass to all known particles. We have also made major contributions to the search for additional Higgs Bosons and to the planning for future searches. This work has been carried out in the context of the ATLAS Experiment at CERN (European Nuclear Research Laboratory) and for which we have made major contributions to computing and data distribution and processing, and have worked to calibrate the detector and prepare upgraded electronics for the future. Our other contribution to the Energy Frontier has been to the International Linear Collider (ILC) project, potentially hosted by Japan, and to the Silicon Detector Concept (SiD) in particular. We have lead the development of the SiD Concept and have worked on a new form of precise energy measurement for particles from the high energy collisions of electrons and positrons at the ILC. For the Intensity Frontier, we have worked to develop the concept of Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment(s) (LBNE) at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Our contributions to detector development, neutrino beam studies, particle identification, software development will facilitate future studies of the oscillation of one type of neutrino into other type(s), establish the order of the neutrino masses, and, through an innovative new idea, allow us to create a beam of dark matter particles.
Experimental And Theoretical High Energy Physics Research At UCLA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cousins, Robert D. [University of California Los Angeles
2013-07-22
This is the final report of the UCLA High Energy Physics DOE Grant No. DE-FG02- 91ER40662. This report covers the last grant project period, namely the three years beginning January 15, 2010, plus extensions through April 30, 2013. The report describes the broad range of our experimental research spanning direct dark matter detection searches using both liquid xenon (XENON) and liquid argon (DARKSIDE); present (ICARUS) and R&D for future (LBNE) neutrino physics; ultra-high-energy neutrino and cosmic ray detection (ANITA); and the highest-energy accelerator-based physics with the CMS experiment and CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. For our theory group, the report describes frontier activities including particle astrophysics and cosmology; neutrino physics; LHC interaction cross section calculations now feasible due to breakthroughs in theoretical techniques; and advances in the formal theory of supergravity.
XXI and XXII SERC Main School in Theoretical High Energy Physics
Sivakumar, M; Surveys in theoretical high energy physics 2 : lecture notes from SERC Schools
2016-01-01
The book presents pedagogical reviews of important topics on high energy physics to the students and researchers in particle physics. The book also discusses topics on the Quark–Gluon plasma, thermal field theory, perturbative quantum chromodynamics, anomalies and cosmology. Students of particle physics need to be well-equipped with basic understanding of many concepts underlying the standard models of particle physics and cosmology. This is particularly true today when experimental results from colliders, such as large hadron collider (LHC) and relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC), as well as inferences from cosmological observations, are expected to further expand our understanding of particle physics at high energies. This volume is the second in the Surveys in Theoretical High Energy Physics Series (SThEP). Topics covered in this book are based on lectures delivered at the SERC Schools in Theoretical High Energy Physics at the Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, and the University of Hyderabad.
Experimental and theoretical particle physics. Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-07-09
A brief sketch of the accomplishments made in the past year is given for the following: {epsilon} expansion analysis of weak first-order transitions in the cubic anisotropy model; the non-Abelian Debye screening length beyond leading order; electric-magnetic duality and the heavy quark potential; ice water vapor interface; groups in cold dark matter simulations; Compton scattering on black body photons; nuclear reaction rates in a plasma; comparison of jets from electron-positron interactions and hadronic collisions; the energy-energy correlation in perturbation theory; CPT violation search in the kaon system; regularization of chiral gauge theories; dynamical supersymmetry breaking; electroweak baryogenesis; quenched chiral perturbation theory for heavy-light mesons; testing the chiral behavior of the hadron spectrum; hadron spectrum with Wilson fermions; quenched chiral perturbation theory for baryons; matrix elements of 4-fermion operators with quenched Wilson fermions; classical preheating and decoherence; reheating and thermalization in a simple scalar model; and from quantum field theory to hydrodynamics: transport coefficients and effective kinetic theory.
Two decades of Mexican particle physics at Fermilab
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roy Rubinstein
2002-12-03
This report is a view from Fermilab of Mexican particle physics at the Laboratory since about 1980; it is not intended to be a history of Mexican particle physics: that topic is outside the expertise of the writer. The period 1980 to the present coincides with the growth of Mexican experimental particle physics from essentially no activity to its current state where Mexican groups take part in experiments at several of the world's major laboratories. Soon after becoming Fermilab director in 1979, Leon Lederman initiated a program to encourage experimental physics, especially experimental particle physics, in Latin America. At the time, Mexico had significant theoretical particle physics activity, but none in experiment. Following a visit by Lederman to UNAM in 1981, a conference ''Panamerican Symposium on Particle Physics and Technology'' was held in January 1982 at Cocoyoc, Mexico, with about 50 attendees from Europe, North America, and Latin America; these included Lederman, M. Moshinsky, J. Flores, S. Glashow, J. Bjorken, and G. Charpak. Among the conference outcomes were four subsequent similar symposia over the next decade, and a formal Fermilab program to aid Latin American physics (particularly particle physics); it also influenced a decision by Mexican physicist Clicerio Avilez to switch from theoretical to experimental particle physics. The first physics collaboration between Fermilab and Mexico was in particle theory. Post-docs Rodrigo Huerta and Jose Luis Lucio spent 1-2 years at Fermilab starting in 1981, and other theorists (including Augusto Garcia, Arnulfo Zepeda, Matias Moreno and Miguel Angel Perez) also spent time at the Laboratory in the 1980s.
Verkhoglyadova, Olga P.; Zank, Gary P.; Li, Gang
2015-02-01
Understanding the physics of Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events is of importance to the general question of particle energization throughout the cosmos as well as playing a role in the technologically critical impact of space weather on society. The largest, and often most damaging, events are the so-called gradual SEP events, generally associated with shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We review the current state of knowledge about particle acceleration at evolving interplanetary shocks with application to SEP events that occur in the inner heliosphere. Starting with a brief outline of recent theoretical progress in the field, we focus on current observational evidence that challenges conventional models of SEP events, including complex particle energy spectra, the blurring of the distinction between gradual and impulsive events, and the difference inherent in particle acceleration at quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular shocks. We also review the important problem of the seed particle population and its injection into particle acceleration at a shock. We begin by discussing the properties and characteristics of non-relativistic interplanetary shocks, from their formation close to the Sun to subsequent evolution through the inner heliosphere. The association of gradual SEP events with shocks is discussed. Several approaches to the energization of particles have been proposed, including shock drift acceleration, diffusive shock acceleration (DSA), acceleration by large-scale compression regions, acceleration by random velocity fluctuations (sometimes known as the "pump mechanism"), and others. We review these various mechanisms briefly and focus on the DSA mechanism. Much of our emphasis will be on our current understanding of the parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients for energetic particles and models of plasma turbulence in the vicinity of the shock. Because of its importance both to the DSA mechanism itself and to the particle
The dialogue between particle physics and cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadoulet, B.
1988-04-01
In the last decade, a very close relationship has developed between particle physics and cosmology. The purpose of these lectures is to introduce particle physicists to the many scientific connections between the two fields. Before entering into the discussion of specific topics, it will first be shown that particle physics and cosmology are completely interdependent. 173 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs.
XXIII SERC School in Theoretical High Energy Physics (SERC THEP)
2013-01-01
The recent discovery at the Large Hadron Collider, of what is very likely the Higgs particle, has given a fillip to research in High Energy physics. These experiments hold the promise of a glimpse of physics beyond the Standard Model, which while having been verified to great accuracy, cannot be the final theory. Uncomfortable gaps -both theoretical and experimental- remain in our understanding. Lecture notes from the SERC School in Theoretical High Energy Physics held at IIT Bombay in February 2008 are contained in this volume. Topics that were covered then are of continuing importance, more so in the light of the ongoing LHC experiment. The various chapters in the book include an extensive survey of LHC physics that together with formal aspects and models of supersymmetry, review the state of the art in our understanding of the Standard Model and beyond. The article on B Physics and CP violations add to this, while the chapter on thermal field theory reviews the formalism necessary to understand the early u...
Current experiments in elementary particle physics, 1989
Lawrence Berkeley Nat. Laboratory. Berkeley; Armstrong, F E; Trippe, T G; Yost, G P; Oyanagi, Y; Dodder, D C; Ryabov, Yu G; Slabospitsky, S R; Frosch, R; Olin, A; Lehar, F; Klumov, I A; Ivanov, I I
1989-01-01
Contains more than 1,800 experiments in elementary particle physics from the Experience database. Search and browse by author; title; experiment number or prefix; institution; date approved, started or completed; accelerator or detector; polarization, reaction, final state or particle; or by papers produced. Maintained at SLAC for the Particle Data Group. Supplies the information for Current Experiments in Particle Physics (LBL-91). Print version updated every second year.
A unified grand tour of theoretical physics
Griffiths, J
2002-01-01
Anyone offering a grand tour is faced with several options. Should they concentrate on what may be considered to be essential features, or should they attempt to present a brief glimpse of almost everything? The present offering is a compromise between these two extremes. The area considered - theoretical physics - is now such a vast subject that some kind of compromise is essential. Indeed, the field is now so wide that few could even attempt to review it in a single-authored work. My task here is to assess how well this book has succeeded in its main aim of providing a unified (though introductory) tour of this subject. Constrained within a single volume, this is clearly not an updated Landau-Lifschitz. It cannot be expected to take any particular topic to the level of recent research. Nevertheless, it does seem to cover the broad range of essential topics which now constitute the subject. It starts (most appropriately in my opinion) with geometry. It then covers classical physics, general relativity and qu...
The 2nd International Conference on Particle Physics and Astrophysics
Soldatov, Evgeny; ICPPA 2016
2016-01-01
The 2nd International Conference on Particle Physics and Astrophysics (ICPPA-2016) will be held in Moscow, Russia, (from the 10th to 14th of October). The conference is organized by the National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”. The aim of the Conference is to promote contacts between scientists and to develop new ideas in fundamental research. Therefore we will bring together experts and young scientists working in experimental and theoretical aspects of nuclear physics, particle physics (including astroparticle physics), and cosmology. ICPPA-2016 aims to present the most recent results in astrophysics and collider physics from the main experiments actively taking data as well as any upgrades for the methods of experimental particle physics. Furthermore, one special workshop will be held within the framework of this conference: «SiPM development and application». The working language of the conference is English
Space charge physics for particle accelerators
Hofmann, Ingo
2017-01-01
Understanding and controlling the physics of space charge effects in linear and circular proton and ion accelerators are essential to their operation, and to future high-intensity facilities. This book presents the status quo of this field from a theoretical perspective, compares analytical approaches with multi-particle computer simulations and – where available – with experiments. It discusses fundamental concepts of phase space motion, matched beams and modes of perturbation, along with mathematical models of analysis – from envelope to Vlasov-Poisson equations. The main emphasis is on providing a systematic description of incoherent and coherent resonance phenomena; parametric instabilities and sum modes; mismatch and halo; error driven resonances; and emittance exchange due to anisotropy, as well as the role of Landau damping. Their distinctive features are elaborated in the context of numerous sample simulations, and their potential impacts on beam quality degradation and beam loss are discussed....
Cosmology, physics of particles and nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2003-07-01
A recent trend, already noted in the previous activity report, is the cross-fertilization between cosmology and high-energy physics, with some twenty research articles at this interface in the last 2 years. Results are presented along 3 main directions. 1) Cosmology and astro-particle physics. One may quote among others: the idea that dark matter may not be as weakly interacting as previously thought; a general study of the growth of small perturbations in the context of higher-dimensional theories; a possible explanation of the smallness of the cosmological constant through violation of Lorentz invariance in the gravity sector. In the field of observational cosmology, a 3-point correlation has been detected for the first time using gravitational lensing experiments. 2) Particle physics beyond the standard model. New developments in this field are triggered by progress on both experimental and theoretical sides. The first unambiguous observation of neutrino oscillations implies that neutrinos have non-zero masses. The constraints imposed by existing data on models based on the seesaw mechanism have been studied. The 'de-construction' of supersymmetric theories, inspired by recent advances in higher-dimensional theories, leads to a parameter-free prediction for the mass of the Higgs boson. 3) Strong interactions. Experiments at Hera have triggered new studies of hadronic interactions in the regime of high parton densities, which is also the high-energy limit for QCD: the phenomenon of 'parton saturation' is expected to occur. QCD calculations have been applied to various observables: jet physics, diffractive processes at Hera and in collider experiments, and multiplicity correlations in phase space. (A.C.)
Theoretical physics 7 quantum mechanics : methods and applications
Nolting, Wolfgang
2017-01-01
This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to methods and applications in quantum mechanics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, thus developing the understanding of quantized states further on. The first part of the book introduces the quantum theory of angular momentum and approximation methods. More complex themes are covered in the second part of the book, which describes multiple particle systems and scattering theory. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in the basics of quantum mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this seri...
CERN Bulletin
2010-01-01
You may remember noticing a pop-up Big Bang on your way to Restaurant No. 1 last November, as part of the Library’s book fair. This was just one page from a rather original project to make a pop-up book about particle physics. The book – Voyage to the Heart of Matter, the ATLAS experiment at CERN - will be launched in the USA and Canada, in a new silver edition. The book proved a popular Christmas gift in the UK when it was released last November - copies on sale there sold out in under two months. The new print run will go on sale in Australia and the UK, in addition to Canada and the US. It will be launched to the press during the week of the New York book fair and will befollowed by a public event at the New York Academy of Sciences on 25 May. You can purchase a copy at the ATLAS secretariat, the Library or the Building 33 shop for 30CHF. For more information about the launch event, see http://www.nyas.org/ATLAS.
Particle physics and inflationary cosmology
Linde, Andrei D
1990-01-01
This is the LaTeX version of my book "Particle Physics and Inflationary Cosmology'' (Harwood, Chur, Switzerland, 1990). I decided to put it to hep-th, to make it easily available. Many things happened during the 15 years since the time when it was written. In particular, we have learned a lot about the high temperature behavior in the electroweak theory and about baryogenesis. A discovery of the acceleration of the universe has changed the way we are thinking about the problem of the vacuum energy: Instead of trying to explain why it is zero, we are trying to understand why it is anomalously small. Recent cosmological observations have shown that the universe is flat, or almost exactly flat, and confirmed many other predictions of inflationary theory. Many new versions of this theory have been developed, including hybrid inflation and inflationary models based on string theory. There was a substantial progress in the theory of reheating of the universe after inflation, and in the theory of eternal inflation. ...
The Birth of Elementary-Particle Physics.
Brown, Laurie M.; Hoddeson, Lillian
1982-01-01
Traces the origin and development of particle physics, concentrating on the roles of cosmic rays and theory. Includes charts highlighting significant events in the development of cosmic-ray physics and quantum field theory. (SK)
Research in elementary particle physics. [Ohio State Univ. , Columbus
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1992-01-01
Experimental and theoretical work on high energy physics is reviewed. Included are preparations to study high-energy electron-proton interactions at HERA, light-cone QCD, decays of charm and beauty particles, neutrino oscillation, electron-positron interactions at CLEO II, detector development, and astrophysics and cosmology.
Asymmetry in Nature-Discrete Symmetries in Particle Physics and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 3. Asymmetry in Nature - Discrete Symmetries in Particle Physics and their Violation - Background and ... Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India. Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai. Aligarh Muslim University.
My 50 years of research in particle physics.
Sugawara, Hirotaka
2010-01-01
Some of my work of the last 50 years in the field of theoretical particle physics is described with particular emphasis on the motivation, the process of investigation, relationship to the work of others, and its impact. My judgment is unavoidably subjective, although I do present the comments of other researchers as much as possible.
Theoretical study of free electron laser physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoo, Jae Gwon; Cho, Sung Oh; Jeong, Young Uk; Kim, Sun Kook; Lee, Byung Cheol; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Jong Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)
2000-04-01
A theoretical study of free electron laser physics is presented in this report. In particular, an analysis is given of the free electron laser with a linearly polarized magnetic wiggler. We describe the basic electron dynamics and gain mechanism in a free electron laser by solving the one-body classical Lorentz force equations in the presence of a periodic magnetic field and a plane electromagnetic wave. Phase space paths for electrons analogously related to those of a simple pendulum are used to describe the laser gain and saturation, and the evolution of the electron beam energy and position distributions. We present an analysis of the single-mode problem and a self-consistent nonlinear treatment of the finite transverse dimensional effects associated with the free electron laser in a steady state. Results computed by applying an external D.C. electric field to the system are discussed for investigating efficiency enhancement of the free electron lasers. Finally optical guiding effect in small signal regime is described to investigate the possibility of amplifying radiation fields in very long wigglers for large gain and high extraction efficiency. 14 refs., 45 figs. (Author)
Frontiers in Theoretical and Applied Physics
2017-01-01
The aim of the conference is to provide a forum for physicists, astronomers, and space and material scientists from around the world to present the latest developments in the various dynamic fields of physics. Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Condensed Matter Physics, Material Science and Nanophysics, Nuclear and High Energy Physics, Mathematical Physics, Astrophysics, Space and Planetary Physics
CO2 cooling for particle physics detectors
Colijn, A.P.; Verlaat, B.
2010-01-01
A good cooling system is of crucial importance for particle and radiation detector systems that are used in elementary particle physics. In addition to the "normal" design considerations for a cooling system, the systems used in particle detectors are subject to additional unusual constraints. At
Theoretical and Experimental Studies in Accelerator Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosenzweig, James [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
2017-03-08
This report describes research supported by the US Dept. of Energy Office of High Energy Physics (OHEP), performed by the UCLA Particle Beam Physics Laboratory (PBPL). The UCLA PBPL has, over the last two decades-plus, played a critical role in the development of advanced accelerators, fundamental beam physics, and new applications enabled by these thrusts, such as new types of accelerator-based light sources. As the PBPL mission is broad it is natural that it has been grown within the context of the accelerator science and technology stewardship of the OHEP. Indeed, steady OHEP support for the program has always been central to the success of the PBPL; it has provided stability, and above all has set the over-arching themes for our research directions, which have producing over 500 publications (>120 in high level journals). While other agency support has grown notably in recent years, permitting more vigorous pursuit of the program, it is transient by comparison. Beyond permitting program growth in a time of flat OHEP budgets, the influence of other agency missions is found in push to adapt advanced accelerator methods to applications, in light of the success the field has had in proof-of-principle experiments supported first by the DoE OHEP. This three-pronged PBPL program — advanced accelerators, fundamental beam physics and technology, and revolutionary applications — has produced a generation of students that have had a profound affect on the US accelerator physics community. PBPL graduates, numbering 28 in total, form a significant population group in the accelerator community, playing key roles as university faculty, scientific leaders in national labs (two have been named Panofsky Fellows at SLAC), and vigorous proponents of industrial application of accelerators. Indeed, the development of advanced RF, optical and magnet technology at the PBPL has led directly to the spin-off company, RadiaBeam Technologies, now a leading industrial accelerator firm
Teaching Elementary Particle Physics: Part I
Hobson, Art
2011-01-01
I'll outline suggestions for teaching elementary particle physics, often called "high energy physics," in high school or introductory college courses for non-scientists or scientists. Some presentations of this topic simply list the various particles along with their properties, with little overarching structure. Such a laundry list approach is a…
Particle Physics: From School to University.
Barlow, Roger
1992-01-01
Discusses the teaching of particle physics as part of the A-level physics course in British secondary schools. Utilizes the quark model of hadrons and the conceptual kinematics of particle collisions, as examples, to demonstrate practical instructional possibilities in relation to student expectations. (JJK)
Quarked!--Adventures in Particle Physics Education
MacDonald, Teresa; Bean, Alice
2009-01-01
Particle physics is a subject that can send shivers down the spines of students and educators alike--with visions of long mathematical equations and inscrutable ideas. This perception, along with a full curriculum, often leaves this topic the road less traveled until the latter years of school. Particle physics, including quarks, is typically not…
From particle physics to medical applications
Dosanjh, Manjit
2017-01-01
CERN is the world's largest particle physics research laboratory. Since it was established in 1954, it has made an outstanding contribution to our understanding of the fundamental particles and their interactions, and also to the technologies needed to analyse their properties and behaviour. The experimental challenges have pushed the performance of particle accelerators and detectors to the limits of our technical capabilities, and these groundbreaking technologies can also have a significant impact in applications beyond particle physics. In particular, the detectors developed for particle physics have led to improved techniques for medical imaging, while accelerator technologies lie at the heart of the irradiation methods that are widely used for treating cancer. Indeed, many important diagnostic and therapeutic techniques used by healthcare professionals are based either on basic physics principles or the technologies developed to carry out physics research. Ever since the discovery of x-rays by Roentgen...
Energy and Entropy as the Fundaments of Theoretical Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pharis E. Williams
2002-05-01
Full Text Available Einstein's article titled, "The Fundaments of Theoretical Physics", from Science, Washington, D.C., May 24, 1940, is presented in its entirety as it is an outstanding presentation of the history and status of the foundations of theoretical physics as it stood in 1940. Further, it provides the background for discussing the new view of the fundaments of theoretical physics provided by the energy and entropy foundation of the Dynamic Theory.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jenkins, James T. [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Meiburg, Eckart [Department of Mechanical Engineering, UC Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Valance, Alexandre [Institut de Physique de Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes 35042 (France)
2015-09-15
The Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics (KITP) program held at UC Santa Barbara in the fall of 2013 addressed the dynamics of dispersed particulate flows in the environment. By focusing on the prototypes of aeolian transport and turbidity currents, it aimed to establish the current state of our understanding of such two-phase flows, to identify key open questions, and to develop collaborative research strategies for addressing these questions. Here, we provide a brief summary of the program outcome.
Charged particle therapy: the physics of interaction.
Lomax, Antony J
2009-01-01
Particle therapy has a long and distinguished history with more than 50,000 patients having been treated, mainly with high-energy proton therapy. Particularly, for proton therapy, there is an increasing interest in exploiting the physical characteristics of charged particles for further improving the potential of radiation therapy. In this article, we review the most important interactions of charged particles with matter and describe the basic physical principles that underlie why particle beams behave the way they do and why such a behavior could bring many benefits in radiation therapy.
Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual progress report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-12-01
This report discusses the following topics: Task A: theoretical elementary particle physics; Task B: experimental elementary particle physics; Task C: axion project; Task G: experimental research in collider physics; and Task S: computer acquisition. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.
A Theoretical Study of Remobilizing Surfactant Retarded Fluid Particle Interfaces
Wang, Yanping; Papageorgiou, Dimitri; Maldarelli, Charles
1996-01-01
Microgravity processes must rely on mechanisms other than bouyancy to move bubbles or droplets from one region to another in a continuous liquid phase. One suggested method is thermocapillary migration in which a temperature gradient is applied to the continuous phase. When a fluid particle contacts this gradient, one pole of the particle becomes warmer than the opposing pole. The interfacial tension between the drop or bubble phase and the continuous phase usually decreases with temperature. Thus the cooler pole is of higher interfacial tension than the warmer pole, and the interface is tugged in the direction of the cooler end. This thermocapillary or thermally induced Marangoni surface stress causes a fluid streaming in the continuous phase from which develops a viscous shear traction and pressure gradient which together propel the particle in the direction of the warmer fluid. In this paper, we provide a theoretical basis for remobilizing surfactant retarded fluid particle interfaces in an effort to make viable the use of thermocapillary migrations for the management of bubbles and drops in microgravity,
Essay: the tau lepton and thirty years of changes in elementary particle physics research.
Perl, M L
2008-02-22
Starting with the 1975 discovery of the tau lepton, I look back on the last three decades of change in the substance and style of experimental and theoretical research in elementary particle physics. I recount the major accomplishments of those decades and predict a bright future for particle physics in the next two decades. Turning to three problems, I lament the change in theoretical style and taste, I discuss the growth in the complexity, size, and cost of particle physics experiments, and I conclude with a pessimistic comment on the size of particle physics collaborations.
Quantum Humor: The Playful Side of Physics at Bohr's Institute for Theoretical Physics
Halpern, Paul
2012-09-01
From the 1930s to the 1950s, a period of pivotal developments in quantum, nuclear, and particle physics, physicists at Niels Bohr's Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen took time off from their research to write humorous articles, letters, and other works. Best known is the Blegdamsvej Faust, performed in April 1932 at the close of one of the Institute's annual conferences. I also focus on the Journal of Jocular Physics, a humorous tribute to Bohr published on the occasions of his 50th, 60th, and 70th birthdays in 1935, 1945, and 1955. Contributors included Léon Rosenfeld, Victor Weisskopf, George Gamow, Oskar Klein, and Hendrik Casimir. I examine their contributions along with letters and other writings to show that they offer a window into some issues in physics at the time, such as the interpretation of complementarity and the nature of the neutrino, as well as the politics of the period.
Particle transport and deposition: basic physics of particle kinetics.
Tsuda, Akira; Henry, Frank S; Butler, James P
2013-10-01
The human body interacts with the environment in many different ways. The lungs interact with the external environment through breathing. The enormously large surface area of the lung with its extremely thin air-blood barrier is exposed to particles suspended in the inhaled air. The particle-lung interaction may cause deleterious effects on health if the inhaled pollutant aerosols are toxic. Conversely, this interaction can be beneficial for disease treatment if the inhaled particles are therapeutic aerosolized drugs. In either case, an accurate estimation of dose and sites of deposition in the respiratory tract is fundamental to understanding subsequent biological response, and the basic physics of particle motion and engineering knowledge needed to understand these subjects is the topic of this article. A large portion of this article deals with three fundamental areas necessary to the understanding of particle transport and deposition in the respiratory tract. These are: (i) the physical characteristics of particles, (ii) particle behavior in gas flow, and (iii) gas-flow patterns in the respiratory tract. Other areas, such as particle transport in the developing lung and in the diseased lung are also considered. The article concludes with a summary and a brief discussion of areas of future research. © 2013 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 3:1437-1471, 2013.
Particle Physics in a Season of Change
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quigg, Chris
2012-02-01
A digest of the authors opening remarks at the 2011 Hadron Collider Physics Symposium. I have chosen my title to reflect the transitions we are living through, in particle physics overall and in hadron collider physics in particular. Data-taking has ended at the Tevatron, with {approx} 12 fb{sup -1} of {bar p}p interactions delivered to CDF and D0 at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The Large Hadron Collider has registered a spectacular first full-year run, with ATLAS and CMS seeing > 5 fb{sup -1}, LHCb recording {approx} 1 fb{sup -1}, and ALICE logging nearly 5 pb{sup -1} of pp data at {radical}s = 7 TeV, plus a healthy dose of Pb-Pb collisions. The transition to a new energy regime and new realms of instantaneous luminosity exceeding 3.5 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} has brought the advantage of enhanced physics reach and the challenge of pile-up reaching {approx} 15 interactions per beam crossing. I am happy to record that what the experiments have (not) found so far has roused some of my theoretical colleagues from years of complacency and stimulated them to think anew about what the TeV scale might hold. We theorists have had plenty of time to explore many proposals for electroweak symmetry breaking and for new physics that might lie beyond established knowledge. With so many different theoretical inventions in circulation, it is in the nature of things that most will be wrong. Keep in mind that we learn from what experiment tells us is not there, even if it is uncommon to throw a party for ruling something out. Some non-observations may be especially telling: the persistent absence of flavor-changing neutral currents, for example, seems to me more and more an important clue that we have not yet deciphered. It is natural that the search for the avatar of electroweak symmetry breaking preoccupies participants and spectators alike. But it is essential to conceive the physics opportunities before us in their full richness. I would advocate a three-fold approach
Review of Particle Physics, 2014-2015
Olive, K A; Amsler, C; Antonelli, M; Arguin, J-F; Asner, D M; Baer, H; Band, H R; Barnett, R M; Basaglia, T; Bauer, C W; Beatty, J J; Belousov, V I; Beringer, J; Bernardi, G; Bethke, S; Bichsel, H; Biebel, O; Blucher, E; Blusk, S; Brooijmans, G; Buchmueller, O; Burkert, V; Bychkov, M A; Cahn, R N; Carena, M; Ceccucci, A; Cerri, A; Chakraborty, D; Chen, M-C; Chivukula, R S; Copic, K; Cowan, G; Dahl, O; D'Ambrosio, G; Damour, T; de Florian, D; de Gouvea, A; DeGrand, T; de Jong, P; Dissertori, G; Dobrescu, B A; Doser, M; Drees, M; Dreiner, H K; Edwards, D A; Eidelman, S; Erler, J; Ezhela, V V; Fetscher, W; Fields, B D; Foster, B; Freitas, A; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, H; Garren, L; Gerber, H-J; Gerbier, G; Gershon, T; Gherghetta, T; Golwala, S; Goodman, M; Grab, C; Gritsan, A V; Grojen, C; Groom, D E; Grunewald, M; Gurtu, A; Gutsche, T; Haber, H E; Hagiwara, K; Hanhart, C; Hashimoto, S; Hayato, Y; Hayes, K G; Heffner, M; Heltsley, B; Hernandez-Rey, J J; Hikasa, K; Hocker, A; Holder, J; Holtkamp, A; Huston, J; Jackson, J D; Johnson, K F; Junk, T; Kado, M; Karlen, D; Katz, U F; Klein, S R; Klempt, E; Kowalewski, R V; Krauss, F; Kreps, M; Krusche, B; Kuyanov, Yu V; Kwon, Y; Lahav, O; Laiho, J; Langacker, P; Liddle, A; Ligeti, Z; Lin, C-J; Liss, T M; Littenberg, L; Lugovsky, K S; Lugovsky, S B; Maltoni, F; Mannel, T; Manohar, A V; Marciano, W J; Martin, A D; Masoni, A; Matthews, J; Milstead, D; Molaro, P; Munig, K; Moortgat, F; Mortonson, M J; Murayama, H; Nakamura, K; Narain, M; Nason, P; Navas, S; Neubert, M; Nevski, P; Nir, Y; Pape, L; Parsons, J; Patrignani, C; Peacock, J A; Pennington, M; Petcov, S T; Piepke, A; Pomarol, A; Quadt, A; Raby, S; Rademacker, J; Raffelt, G; Ratcliff, B N; Richardson, P; Ringwald, A; Roesler, S; Rolli, S; Romaniouk, A; Rosenberg, L J; Rosner, J L; Rybka, G; Sachrajda, C T; Sakai, Y; Salam, G P; Sarkar, S; Sauli, F; Schneider, O; Scholberg, K; Scott, D; Sharma, V; Sharpe, S R; Silari, M; Sjostrand, T; Skands, P; Smith, J G; Smoot, G F; Spanier, S; Spieler, H; Spiering, C; Stahl, A; Stanev, T; Stone, S L; Sumiyoshi, T; Syphers, M J; Takahashi, F; Tanabashi, M; Terning, J; Tiator, L; Titov, M; Tkachenko, N P; Tornqvist, N A; Tovey, D; Valencia, G; Venanzoni, G; Vincter, M G; Vogel, P; Vogt, A; Wakely, S P; Walkowiak, W; Walter, C W; Ward, D R; Weiglein, G; Weinberg, D H; Weinberg, E J; White, M; Wiencke, L R; Wohl, C G; Wolfenstein, L; Womersley, J; Woody, C L; Workman, R L; Yamamoto, A; Yao, W-M; Zeller, G P; Zenin, O V; Zhang, J; Zhu, R-Y; Zimmermann, F; Zyla, P A; Harper, G; Lugovsky, V.S; Schaffner, P
2014-01-01
The Review summarizes much of particle physics and cosmology. Using data from previous editions, plus 3,283 new measurements from 899 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons and the recently discovered Higgs boson, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as heavy neutrinos, supersymmetric and technicolor particles, axions, dark photons, etc. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as Supersymmetry, Extra Dimensions, Particle Detectors, Probability, and Statistics. Among the 112 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on: Dark Energy, Higgs Boson Physics, Electroweak Model, Neutrino Cross Section Measurements, Monte Carlo Neutrino Generators, Top Quark, Dark Matter, Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking, Accelerator Physics of Colliders, High-Energy Collider Parameters, Big Bang Nucleosyn...
Reminiscences a journey through particle physics
Melissinos, Adrian
2013-01-01
A personal recount in areas of particle physics and related fields as a research physicist for over 50 years, Adrian Melissinos' insights into the ways that general research was carried out, as well as the evolution of particle physics from 1958 to 2008 will prove valuable to science history enthusiasts, as well as particle physicists. Be it conventional accelerator experiments, the use of microwave techniques in search of cosmic axions, or taking advantage of high power lasers to observe light-by-light scattering, the excitement of searching for something new in the face of failures and then successes is enriching, and the collaboration with gifted and outstanding colleagues and students proves insightful. A hybrid of personal reminiscences and a professional journey, readers get to relive the joy and excitement of researching and teaching in small groups during those early years while gaining a partial historical perspective of particle physics since 1958 - all in "Reminiscences: A Journey through Particle ...
An introductory course of particle physics
Pal, Palash B
2014-01-01
For graduate students unfamiliar with particle physics, this text teaches the basic techniques and fundamental theories related to the subject. It gives them the competence to work out various properties of fundamental particles, such as scattering cross-section and lifetime. The book also gives a lucid summary of the main ideas involved. Figure slides are available upon qualifying course adoption.
Laser irradiation of ferrous particles for hyperthermia as cancer therapy, a theoretical study.
Patel, Jigar M; Evrensel, Cahit A; Fuchs, Alan; Sutrisno, Joko
2015-01-01
Our recent in vivo animal studies showed the feasibility of using micron sized iron particles to induce physical damage to breast cancer tumors and thereby triggering a localized immune response to help fight the cancer. Combining a hyperthermic treatment with this ongoing study may enhance the immune response. As a result, a novel treatment of inducing hyperthermia using iron particles excited by a continuous wave near-infrared laser was analyzed. In this theoretical study, Mie scattering calculations were first conducted to determine the absorption and scattering efficiencies of the suspended drug coated particles. The resulting heat transfer between the particles and the surrounding tumor and the healthy tissue was modeled using Pennes' Bioheat equation. Predicted temperature changes were satisfactory for inducing hyperthermia (42(∘)C), thermally triggering drug release, and even thermal ablation (55(∘)C).
Theoretical calculation of solid particles deposition from the air
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bobro Milan
2002-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the calculation of harmful substance deposition (air pollution from the point source (Slanèo, et al., 2001 using equation (1. The point source shall be understood as e.g. chimneys of factory, heat plant, incinerator, boiler plant, local heating plant, etc.The theoretical calculation of concentration (1, or deposition (8 is based on the study of transfer and dispersion of pollution in air (Slanèo, et al., 2000a. The movement of pollution in air consists of a movement of the air itself and a relative movement of pollution particles and air, while the movement of harmful substance in the smoke trail is under the influence of turbulent diffusion, convection and gravitation. Molecular diffusion is not important in this process. When calculating concentrations (1 and deposition (8 of air pollution on a particular place near the source, it is assumed that the air speed is constant, the direction of wind does not change with the height and the source of air pollution is time-constant. The change in the wind speed with the height depends on the stability class of atmosphere (temperature gradient (Slanèo, et al., 2000a and it is calculated using equation (10.The theoretical calculation of concentration and or deposition of harmful substance from the point source (1 and (8 shall be applied if the harmful substance particles, which leave the source, have the same density (composition, shape (spherical and size.The experimental observations of dust deposition showed the significance of 0.1-20 µm particles. The application of equation (1 to calculate the concentration is conditioned, in addition to the recognition of source parameters and meteorological conditions, by the recognition of the particle sedimentation speed, which changes with the size of particle radius (2.For a practical calculation of deposition it is therefore necessary to know the differential distribution function f(r of particle radii, which can be made on the basis
Standard Model of Particle Physics--a health physics perspective.
Bevelacqua, J J
2010-11-01
The Standard Model of Particle Physics is reviewed with an emphasis on its relationship to the physics supporting the health physics profession. Concepts important to health physics are emphasized and specific applications are presented. The capability of the Standard Model to provide health physics relevant information is illustrated with application of conservation laws to neutron and muon decay and in the calculation of the neutron mean lifetime.
Research in elementary particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirsch, L.E.; Schnitzer, H.J.; Bensinger, J.R.; Blocker, C.A.
1992-01-01
This report discusses research in the following areas of high energy physics: B meson mixing; CDF response to low energy jets; jet scaling behavior; search for pair produced leptoquarks at CDF; SSC program; quantum field theory; and neural networks. (LSP).
"Strong interaction" for particle physics laboratories
2003-01-01
A new Web site pooling the communications resources of particle physics centres all over the world has just been launched. The official launching of the new particle physics website Interactions.org during the Lepton-Proton 2003 Conference at the American laboratory Fermilab was accompanied by music and a flurry of balloons. On the initiative of Fermilab, the site was created by a collaboration of communication teams from over fifteen of the world's particle physics laboratories, including KEK, SLAC, INFN, JINR and, of course, CERN, who pooled their efforts to develop the new tool. The spectacular launching of the new particle physics website Interactions.org at Fermilab on 12 August 2003. A real gateway to particle physics, the site not only contains all the latest news from the laboratories but also offers images, graphics and a video/animation link. In addition, it provides information about scientific policies, links to the universities, a very useful detailed glossary of particle physics and astrophysic...
Some theoretical issues in heavy flavour physics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Some of the recent developments in heavy flavour physics will be reviewed. This will include an update on some of the Standard Model predictions, and a summary of recent measurements that may indicate the presence of new physics (NP). The focus will be on selected models of NP that are indicated by the anomalies in ...
Some theoretical issues in heavy flavour physics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Some of the recent developments in heavy flavour physics will be reviewed. This will include an update on some of the Standard Model predictions, and a summary of recent measure- ments that may indicate the presence of new physics (NP). The focus will be on selected models of. NP that are indicated by the ...
Introducing particle physics a graphic guide
AUTHOR|(CDS)2071677
2013-01-01
What really happens at the most fundamental levels of nature? Introducing Particle Physics explores the very frontiers of our knowledge, even showing how particle physicists are now using theory and experiment to probe our very concept of what is real. From the earliest history of the atomic theory through to supersymmetry, micro-black holes, dark matter, the Higgs boson, and the possibly mythical graviton, practising physicist and CERN contributor Tom Whyntie gives us a mind-expanding tour of cutting-edge science. Featuring brilliant illustrations from Oliver Pugh, Introducing Particle Physics is a unique tour through the most astonishing and challenging science being undertaken today.
Research in elementary particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chan, Lai-Him; Haymaker, R.; Imlay, R.; McNeil, R.; Metcalf, W.; Svoboda, R.
1992-01-01
We describe theoretical work on effective action expansion on an effective low energy theory of hadrons and lattice gauge theories. The high energy experimental group at Louisiana State University has analyzed data on a neutrino oscillation experiment at LAMPF. The LSND neutrino experiment is preparing to take data in 1993. IMB data has been analyzed. Preparations for a beam test at KEK for IMB are in progress. Dumand is preparing to test one string of the detector early next summer. The ZEUS electron proton colliding beam experiment has started to take data. Early results have been reported.
Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision 1-85
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Grudtsin, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.
1985-01-01
This report contains summaries of 551 approved experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1 January 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.
Summer Workshop on Particle Physics
Chamseddine, A H; Nath, Pran
1984-01-01
These lectures give an elementary introduction to the important recent developments of the applications of N=1 supergravity to the construction of unified models of elementary particle interactions. Topics covered include couplings of supergravity with matter, spontaneous symmetry breaking and the super-higgs effect, construction of supergravity unified models, and the phenomenon of SU(2) x U(1) electroweak-symmetry breaking by supergravity. Experimental consequences of N-1 supergravity unified theory, in particular, the possible supersymmetric decays of the W ± and Z 0 bosons, are also discus
9th Symposium on Theoretical Physics
The standard model and beyond
1991-01-01
The most recent LEP data is included in the lectures. The subjects include Higgs physics, KM angles, weak CP violation, neutron electric dipole moment, SUSY phenomenology, radiative corrections, and e+e- experiments.
Particle Physics in High School: A Diagnose Study
Paula Tuzón; Jordi Solbes
2016-01-01
Abstract The science learning process improves when the contents are connected to students' lives. Particle physics has had a great impact in our society in the last years and has changed the theoretical picture about matter fundamental dynamics. Thus, we think that academic contents about matter components and interactions should be updated. With this study we aim to characterize the level of knowledge of high school students about this topic. We built a test with questions about classical a...
Research on elementary particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holloway, L.E.; O' Halloran, T.A.
1992-05-01
This report describes the activities of the University of Illinois Experimental High Energy Physics Group. The physicists in the University of Illinois High Energy Physics Group are engaged in a wide variety of experiments at current and future accelerator laboratories. These include: (1) The CDF experiment at the Fermilab Tevetron p{bar p} collider. (2) Design and developmental work for the SDC group at SSCL. (3) Experiments at the wide band photon beam at Fermilab. (4) The SLD experiment at SLAC and design studies for a {tau}-charm factor. (5) CP violation experiments at Fermilab. (6) The HiRes cosmic ray experiment at Dugway Proving Grounds, Utah. (7) Computational facilities. (8) Electronics systems development.
Topics in statistical and theoretical physics
Dobrushin, R L; Shubin, M A
1996-01-01
This is the second of two volumes dedicated to the scientific heritage of F. A. Berezin (1931-1980). Before his untimely death, Berezin had an important influence on physics and mathematics, discovering new ideas in mathematical physics, representation theory, analysis, geometry, and other areas of mathematics. His crowning achievements were the introduction of a new notion of deformation quantization and Grassmannian analysis ("supermathematics"). Collected here are papers by many of his colleagues and others who worked in related areas, representing a wide spectrum of topics in statistical a
Plato's TIMAIOσ (TIMAEUS) and Modern Particle Physics
Machleidt, Ruprecht
2005-04-01
It is generally known that the question, ``What are the smallest particles (elementary particles) that all matter is made from?'', was posed already in the antiquity. The Greek natural philosophers Leucippus and Democritus were the first to suggest that all matter was made from atoms. Therefore, most people perceive them as the ancient fathers of elementary particle physics. It will be the purpose of my contribution to point out that this perception is wrong. Modern particle physics is not just a primitive atomism. More important than the materialistic particles are the underlying symmetries (e. g., SU(3) and SU(6)). A similar idea was first advanced by Plato in his dialog TIMAIOσ (Latin translation: TIMAEUS): Geometric symmetries generate the materialistic particles from a few even more elementary items. Plato's vision is amazingly close to the ideas of modern particle physics. This fact, which is unfortunately little known, has been pointed out repeatedly by Heisenberg (see, e. g., Werner Heisenberg, Across the Frontiers, Harper & Row, New York, 1974).
Gender and Physics: a Theoretical Analysis
Rolin, Kristina
This article argues that the objections raised by Koertge (1998), Gross and Levitt (1994), and Weinberg (1996) against feminist scholarship on gender and physics are unwarranted. The objections are that feminist science studies perpetuate gender stereotypes, are irrelevant to the content of physics, or promote epistemic relativism. In the first part of this article I argue that the concept of gender, as it has been developed in feminist theory, is a key to understanding why the first objection is misguided. Instead of reinforcing gender stereotypes, feminist science studies scholars can formulate empirically testable hypotheses regarding local and contested beliefs about gender. In the second part of this article I argue that a social analysis of scientific knowledge is a key to understanding why the second and the third objections are misguided. The concept of gender is relevant for understanding the social practice of physics, and the social practice of physics can be of epistemic importance. Instead of advancing epistemic relativism, feminist science studies scholars can make important contributions to a subfield of philosophy called social epistemology.
Science Academies' Refresher Course in Theoretical Physics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
emphasis on examples from topics of current interest, which can be used in teaching as examples to motivate students. Applications are invited for the Course from teachers who are teaching undergraduate and/or postgradu- ate courses in physics or, if relevant, in chemistry or in mathematics. Research Scholars who are.
Theoretical-research summer: For a new generation of experts on high energy physics
Ramos-Sánchez, Saúl
2016-10-01
Motivated by the need to strengthen the comprehensive training of young Mexican physicists interested in theoretical high energy physics, the Theoretical-research summer on high energy physics program was conceived. This program, that celebrates its sixth anniversary, consists in a yearly, nationwide challenging contest in which a board of experts identify the best undergraduate contestants to support them during short research stays in high-energy- theory groups of prestigious international institutions. Out of 80 contestants, the eight awarded students have demonstrated their skills, producing highly advanced (and publicly available) reviews on particle physics, field theory, cosmology and string theory, and a published paper.
Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1990-11-30
This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics research. We have a broad program of participation in both non-accelerator and accelerator-based efforts. High energy research at Boston University has a special focus on the physics program of the Superconducting Supercollider. We are active in research and development for detector subsystems, in the design of experiments, and in study of the phenomenology of the very high energy interactions to be observed at the SSC. The particular areas discussed in this paper are: colliding beams physics; accelerator design physics; MACRO project; proton decay project; theoretical particle physics; muon G-2 project; fast liquid scintillators; SSCINTCAL project; TRD project; massively parallel processing for the SSC; and physics analysis and vertex detector upgrade at L3.
5th International Heidelberg Conference on Dark Matter in Astro- and Particle Physics
Arnowitt, Richard; DARK 2004; Dark Matter in Astro- and Particle Physics
2006-01-01
The search for dark matter in the universe has established itself as one of the most exciting and central fields of astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. The lectures and talks in this book emphasize the experimental and theoretical status and future perspectives, stressing in particular the interplay between astro- and particle physics.
Working Group Report on the "TeV Particle Astrophysics and Physics Beyond the Standard Model"
Albuquerque, Ivone F. M.; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Weiler, Tom
2006-01-01
This working group focused mainly on the complementarity among particle physics and astrophysics. The analysis of data from both fields will better constrain theoretical models. Much of the discussion focused on detecting dark matter and susy particles, and on the potential of neutrino and gamma-ray astrophysics for seeking or constraining new physics.
From Newton to Mandelbrot a primer in theoretical physics with fractals for the Macintosh
Stauffer, Dietrich
1996-01-01
From Newton to Mandelbrot A Primer in Theoretical Physics with Fractals for the Macintosh ( ) takes the student on a tour of the most important landmarks of theoretical physics classical, quantum, and statistical mechanics, relativity, electrodynamics, and, the most modern and exciting of all, the physics of fractals The treatment is confined to the essentials of each area, and short computer programs, numerous problems, and beautiful color illustrations round off this unusual textbook Ideally suited for a one-year course in theoretical physics it will also prove useful in preparing and revising for exams This edition is corrected and includes a new appendix on elementary particle physics, answers to all short questions, and a Macintosh diskette where a selection of executable programs exploring the fractal concept can be found The Diskette The program FRACTAL DIMENSION can be used on any 68030-, 68040,- or PowerPC-based Macintosh with 4 Mb RAM and 256 color display running System 67 - 75 - Sierpinski gasket ...
Sleeping beauties in theoretical physics 26 surprising insights
Padmanabhan, Thanu
2015-01-01
This book addresses a fascinating set of questions in theoretical physics which will both entertain and enlighten all students, teachers and researchers and other physics aficionados. These range from Newtonian mechanics to quantum field theory and cover several puzzling issues that do not appear in standard textbooks. Some topics cover conceptual conundrums, the solutions to which lead to surprising insights; some correct popular misconceptions in the textbook discussion of certain topics; others illustrate deep connections between apparently unconnected domains of theoretical physics; and a few provide remarkably simple derivations of results which are not often appreciated. The connoisseur of theoretical physics will enjoy a feast of pleasant surprises skilfully prepared by an internationally acclaimed theoretical physicist. Each topic is introduced with proper background discussion and special effort is taken to make the discussion self-contained, clear and comprehensible to anyone with an undergraduate e...
Final Report. Research in Theoretical High Energy Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Greensite, Jeffrey P. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States); Golterman, Maarten F.L. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States)
2015-04-30
Grant-supported research in theoretical high-energy physics, conducted in the period 1992-2015 is briefly described, and a full listing of published articles result from those research activities is supplied.
The Britannica guide to particle physics
Gregersen, Erik
2011-01-01
While the atom is universally acknowledged as the basis for most branches of physics, the study of its constituent particles has illuminated significant new areas of research. The behavior of subatomic particles provides crucial information on the structure and nature of atomic nuclei, which in turn reveal much about energy, matter, and often the origins of the universe. Complete with color diagrams and photographs, this volume elucidates the intricacies of this rapidly developing and always compelling field.
Quarked! - Adventures in Particle Physics Education
MacDonald, Teresa; Bean, Alice
2009-01-01
Particle physics is a subject that can send shivers down the spines of students and educators alike-with visions of long mathematical equations and inscrutable ideas. This perception, along with a full curriculum, often leaves this topic the road less traveled until the latter years of school. Particle physics, including quarks, is typically not introduced until high school or university.1,2 Many of these concepts can be made accessible to younger students when presented in a fun and engaging way. Informal science institutions are in an ideal position to communicate new and challenging science topics in engaging and innovative ways and offer a variety of educational enrichment experiences for students that support and enhance science learning.3 Quarked!™ Adventures in the Subatomic Universe, a National Science Foundation EPSCoR-funded particle physics education program, provides classroom programs and online educational resources.
Review of Particle Physics, 2012-2013
Beringer, J; Barnett, R M; Copic, K; Dahl, O; Groom, D E; Lin, C J; Lys, J; Murayama, H; Wohl, C G; Yao, W M; Zyla, P A; Amsler, C; Antonelli, M; Asner, D M; Baer, H; Band, H R; Basaglia, T; Bauer, C W; Beatty, J J; Belousov, V I; Bergren, E; Bernardi, G; Bertl, W; Bethke, S; Bichsel, H; Biebel, O; Blucher, E; Blusk, S; Brooijmans, G; Buchmueller, O; Cahn, R N; Carena, M; Ceccucci, A; Chakraborty, D; Chen, M C; Chivukula, R S; Cowan, G; D'Ambrosio, G; Damour, T; de Florian, D; de Gouvea, A; DeGrand, T; de Jong, P; Dissertori, G; Dobrescu, B; Doser, M; Drees, M; Edwards, D A; Eidelman, S; Erler, J; Ezhela, V V; Fetscher, W; Fields, B D; Foster, B; Gaisser, T K; Garren, L; Gerber, H J; Gerbier, G; Gherghetta, T; Golwala, S; Goodman, M; Grab, C; Gritsan, A V; Grivaz, J F; Grunewald, M; Gurtu, A; Gutsche, T; Haber, H E; Hagiwara, K; Hagmann, C; Hanhart, C; Hashimoto, S; Hayes, K G; Heffner, M; Heltsley, B; Hernandez-Rey, J J; Hikasa, K; Hocker, A; Holder, J; Holtkamp, A; Huston, J; Jackson, J D; Johnson, K F; Junk, T; Karlen, D; Kirkby, D; Klein, S R; Klempt, E; Kowalewski, R V; Krauss, F; Kreps, M; Krusche, B; Kuyanov, Yu.V; Kwon, Y; Lahav, O; Laiho, J; Langacker, P; Liddle, A; Ligeti, Z; Liss, T M; Littenberg, L; Lugovsky, K S; Lugovsky, S B; Mannel, T; Manohar, A V; Marciano, W J; Martin, A D; Masoni, A; Matthews, J; Milstead, D; Miquel, R; Monig, K; Moortgat, F; Nakamura, K; Narain, M; Nason, P; Navas, S; Neubert, M; Nevski, P; Nir, Y; Olive, K A; Pape, L; Parsons, J; Patrignani, C; Peacock, J A; Petcov, S T; Piepke, A; Pomarol, A; Punzi, G; Quadt, A; Raby, S; Raffelt, G; Ratcliff, B N; Richardson, P; Roesler, S; Rolli, S; Romaniouk, A; Rosenberg, L J; Rosner, J L; Sachrajda, C T; Sakai, Y; Salam, G P; Sarkar, S; Sauli, F; Schneider, O; Scholberg, K; Scott, D; Seligman, W G; Shaevitz, M H; Sharpe, S R; Silari, M; Sjostrand, T; Skands, P; Smith, J G; Smoot, G F; Spanier, S; Spieler, H; Stahl, A; Stanev, T; Stone, S L; Sumiyoshi, T; Syphers, M J; Takahashi, F; Tanabashi, M; Terning, J; Titov, M; Tkachenko, N P; Tornqvist, N A; Tovey, D; Valencia, G; van Bibber, K; Venanzoni, G; Vincter, M G; Vogel, P; Vogt, A; Walkowiak, W; Walter, C W; Ward, D R; Watari, T; Weiglein, G; Weinberg, E J; Wiencke, L R; Wolfenstein, L; Womersley, J; Woody, C L; Workman, R L; Yamamoto, A; Zeller, G P; Zenin, O V; Zhang, J; Zhu, R Y; Harper, G; Lugovsky, V S; Schaffner, P
2012-01-01
This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2658 new measurements from 644 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. Among the 112 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on Heavy-Quark and Soft-Collinear Effective Theory, Neutrino Cross Section Measurements, Monte Carlo Event Generators, Lattice QCD, Heavy Quarkonium Spectroscopy, Top Quark, Dark Matter, Vcb & Vub, Quantum Chromodynamics, High-Energy Collider Parameters, Astrophysical Constants, Cosmological Parameters, and Dark Matter.
The uses of isospin in early nuclear and particle physics
Borrelli, Arianna
2017-11-01
This paper reconstructs the early history of isospin up to and including its employment in 1951sbnd 52 to conceptualize high-energy pion-proton scattering. Studying the history of isospin serves as an entry point for investigating the interplay of theoretical and experimental practices in early nuclear and particle physics, showing the complexity of processes of knowledge construction which have often been presented as straightforward both in physicists' recollections and in the historiography of science. The story of isospin has often been told in terms of the discovery of the first ;intrinsic property; of elementary particles, but I will argue that the isospin formalism emerged and was further developed because it proved to be a useful tool to match theory and experiment within the steadily broadening field of high-energy (nuclear) physics. Isospin was variously appropriated and adapted in the course of two decades, before eventually the physical-mathematical implications of its uses started being spelled out. The case study also highlights some interesting features of high-energy physics around 1950: the contribution to post-war research of theoretical methods developed before and during the war, the role of young theoretical post-docs in mediating between theorists and experimenters, and the importance of traditional formalisms such as those of spin and angular momentum as a template both for formalizing and conceptualizing experimental results.
The CMS Masterclass and Particle Physics Outreach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cecire, Kenneth [Notre Dame U.; Bardeen, Marjorie [Fermilab; McCauley, Thomas [Notre Dame U.
2014-01-01
The CMS Masterclass enables high school students to analyse authentic CMS data. Students can draw conclusions on key ratios and particle masses by combining their analyses. In particular, they can use the ratio of W^+ to W^- candidates to probe the structure of the proton, they can find the mass of the Z boson, and they can identify additional particles including, tentatively, the Higgs boson. In the United States, masterclasses are part of QuarkNet, a long-term program that enables students and teachers to use cosmic ray and particle physics data for learning with an emphasis on data from CMS.
Gauge concepts in theoretical applied physics
Tan, Seng Ghee; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.
2016-01-01
Gauge concept evolves in the course of nearly one century from Faraday’s rather obscure electrotonic state of matter to the physically significant Yang-Mills that underpin today’s standard model. As gauge theories improve, links are established with modern observations, e.g. in the Aharonov-Bohm effect, the Pancharatnam-Berry’s phase, superconductivity, and quantum Hall effects. In this century, emergent gauge theory is formulated in numerous fields of applied physics like topological insulators, spintronics, and graphene. We will show in this paper the application of gauge theory in two particularly useful spin-based phenomena, namely the spin orbit spin torque and the spin Hall effect. These are important fields of study in the engineering community due to great commercial interest in the technology of magnetic memory (MRAM), and magnetic field sensors. Both spin orbit torque and spin Hall perform magnetic switching at low power and high speed. Furthermore, spin Hall is also a promising source of pure spin current, as well as a reliable form of detection mechanism for the magnetic state of a material.
Particle Physics in High School: A Diagnose Study.
Tuzón, Paula; Solbes, Jordi
2016-01-01
The science learning process improves when the contents are connected to students' lives. Particle physics has had a great impact in our society in the last years and has changed the theoretical picture about matter fundamental dynamics. Thus, we think that academic contents about matter components and interactions should be updated. With this study we aim to characterize the level of knowledge of high school students about this topic. We built a test with questions about classical atomic models, particle physics, recent discoveries, social implications and students opinions about it. Contrary to our first suspicion, students' answers show a high variability. They have new physics ideas and show a great interest towards modern concepts. We suggest including an updated view of this topic as part of the curriculum.
Particle Physics in High School: A Diagnose Study.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paula Tuzón
Full Text Available The science learning process improves when the contents are connected to students' lives. Particle physics has had a great impact in our society in the last years and has changed the theoretical picture about matter fundamental dynamics. Thus, we think that academic contents about matter components and interactions should be updated. With this study we aim to characterize the level of knowledge of high school students about this topic. We built a test with questions about classical atomic models, particle physics, recent discoveries, social implications and students opinions about it. Contrary to our first suspicion, students' answers show a high variability. They have new physics ideas and show a great interest towards modern concepts. We suggest including an updated view of this topic as part of the curriculum.
Theoretical physics 4 special theory of relativity
Nolting, Wolfgang
2017-01-01
This concise textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to special relativity, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, thus developing the relativistic expansion of classical mechanics and electrodynamics. The first part of the book introduces Lorentz transformations, time dilation, length contraction and Minkowski diagrams. More complex themes are covered in the second part of the book, which describes the four-dimensional covariant formulation for classical mechanics and electrodynamics, including discussion of Maxwell’s equations, the Lorentz force and the covariant Lagrangian formulation. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical mechanics and electrodynamics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples ...
Nuclear physics in particle therapy: a review
Durante, Marco; Paganetti, Harald
2016-09-01
Charged particle therapy has been largely driven and influenced by nuclear physics. The increase in energy deposition density along the ion path in the body allows reducing the dose to normal tissues during radiotherapy compared to photons. Clinical results of particle therapy support the physical rationale for this treatment, but the method remains controversial because of the high cost and of the lack of comparative clinical trials proving the benefit compared to x-rays. Research in applied nuclear physics, including nuclear interactions, dosimetry, image guidance, range verification, novel accelerators and beam delivery technologies, can significantly improve the clinical outcome in particle therapy. Measurements of fragmentation cross-sections, including those for the production of positron-emitting fragments, and attenuation curves are needed for tuning Monte Carlo codes, whose use in clinical environments is rapidly increasing thanks to fast calculation methods. Existing cross sections and codes are indeed not very accurate in the energy and target regions of interest for particle therapy. These measurements are especially urgent for new ions to be used in therapy, such as helium. Furthermore, nuclear physics hardware developments are frequently finding applications in ion therapy due to similar requirements concerning sensors and real-time data processing. In this review we will briefly describe the physics bases, and concentrate on the open issues.
Nuclear physics in particle therapy: a review.
Durante, Marco; Paganetti, Harald
2016-09-01
Charged particle therapy has been largely driven and influenced by nuclear physics. The increase in energy deposition density along the ion path in the body allows reducing the dose to normal tissues during radiotherapy compared to photons. Clinical results of particle therapy support the physical rationale for this treatment, but the method remains controversial because of the high cost and of the lack of comparative clinical trials proving the benefit compared to x-rays. Research in applied nuclear physics, including nuclear interactions, dosimetry, image guidance, range verification, novel accelerators and beam delivery technologies, can significantly improve the clinical outcome in particle therapy. Measurements of fragmentation cross-sections, including those for the production of positron-emitting fragments, and attenuation curves are needed for tuning Monte Carlo codes, whose use in clinical environments is rapidly increasing thanks to fast calculation methods. Existing cross sections and codes are indeed not very accurate in the energy and target regions of interest for particle therapy. These measurements are especially urgent for new ions to be used in therapy, such as helium. Furthermore, nuclear physics hardware developments are frequently finding applications in ion therapy due to similar requirements concerning sensors and real-time data processing. In this review we will briefly describe the physics bases, and concentrate on the open issues.
[Experimental and theoretical high energy physics program]. [Purdue Univ. , West Lafayette, Indiana
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Finley, J.; Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.
1993-04-01
Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics research at Purdue is summarized in a number of reports. Subjects treated include the following: the CLEO experiment for the study of heavy flavor physics; gas microstrip detectors; particle astrophysics; affine Kac[endash]Moody algebra; nonperturbative mass bounds on scalar and fermion systems due to triviality and vacuum stability constraints; resonance neutrino oscillations; e[sup +]e[sup [minus
Particle Physics Outreach to Secondary Education
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bardeen, Marjorie G.; /Fermilab; Johansson, K.Erik; /Stockholm U.; Young, M.Jean
2011-11-21
This review summarizes exemplary secondary education and outreach programs of the particle physics community. We examine programs from the following areas: research experiences, high-energy physics data for students, informal learning for students, instructional resources, and professional development. We report findings about these programs' impact on students and teachers and provide suggestions for practices that create effective programs from those findings. We also include some methods for assessing programs.
Neutrinos in particle physics, astronomy, and cosmology
Xing, Zhi-Zhong
2011-01-01
""Neutrinos in Particle Physics, Astronomy and Cosmology"" provides a comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to neutrino physics, neutrino astronomy and neutrino cosmology. The intrinsic properties and fundamental interactions of neutrinos are described, as is the phenomenology of lepton flavor mixing, seesaw mechanisms and neutrino oscillations. The cosmic neutrino background, stellar neutrinos, supernova neutrinos and ultrahigh-energy cosmic neutrinos, together with the cosmological matter-antimatter asymmetry and other roles of massive neutrinos in cosmology, are discussed in detail. Thi
Facts and mysteries in elementary particle physics
Veltman, Martinus J G
2018-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive overview of modern particle physics accessible to anyone with a true passion for wanting to know how the universe works. We are introduced to the known particles of the world we live in. An elegant explanation of quantum mechanics and relativity paves the way for an understanding of the laws that govern particle physics. These laws are put into action in the world of accelerators, colliders and detectors found at institutions such as CERN and Fermilab that are in the forefront of technical innovation. Real world and theory meet using Feynman diagrams to solve the problems of infinities and deduce the need for the Higgs boson. Facts and Mysteries in Elementary Particle Physics offers an incredible insight from an eyewitness and participant in some of the greatest discoveries in 20th century science. From Einstein's theory of relativity to the spectacular discovery of the Higgs particle, this book will fascinate and educate anyone interested in the world of quarks, leptons an...
Particle Physics in the LHC Era
Bunk, Don
During the past 100 years experimental particle physicists have collected an impressive amount of data. Theorists have also come to understand this data extremely well. It was in the first half of the 20th century the efforts of the early pioneers of quantum mechanics laid the ground work for this understanding: quantum field theory. Through the tireless efforts of researchers during the later half of the 20th century many ideas came together to form what we now call the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. Finally, it was through the ideas of the renormalization group and effective field theory that the understanding of how the SM fits into a larger framework of particle physics was crystallized. In the past four years the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has made more precise measurements than ever before. Currently the SM of particle physics is known to have excellent agreement with these measurements. As a result of this agreement with data, the SM continues to play such a central role in modern particle p...
Applied Mathematical Methods in Theoretical Physics
Masujima, Michio
2005-04-01
All there is to know about functional analysis, integral equations and calculus of variations in a single volume. This advanced textbook is divided into two parts: The first on integral equations and the second on the calculus of variations. It begins with a short introduction to functional analysis, including a short review of complex analysis, before continuing a systematic discussion of different types of equations, such as Volterra integral equations, singular integral equations of Cauchy type, integral equations of the Fredholm type, with a special emphasis on Wiener-Hopf integral equations and Wiener-Hopf sum equations. After a few remarks on the historical development, the second part starts with an introduction to the calculus of variations and the relationship between integral equations and applications of the calculus of variations. It further covers applications of the calculus of variations developed in the second half of the 20th century in the fields of quantum mechanics, quantum statistical mechanics and quantum field theory. Throughout the book, the author presents over 150 problems and exercises -- many from such branches of physics as quantum mechanics, quantum statistical mechanics, and quantum field theory -- together with outlines of the solutions in each case. Detailed solutions are given, supplementing the materials discussed in the main text, allowing problems to be solved making direct use of the method illustrated. The original references are given for difficult problems. The result is complete coverage of the mathematical tools and techniques used by physicists and applied mathematicians Intended for senior undergraduates and first-year graduates in science and engineering, this is equally useful as a reference and self-study guide.
Current Experiments in Particle Physics (September 1996)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galic, H.; Lehar, F.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Bilak, S.V.; Illarionova, N.S.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Strokovsky, E.A.; Hoffman, C.M.; Kettle, P.-R.; Olin, A.; Armstrong, F.E.
1996-09-01
This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. This report contains full summaries of 180 approved current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. The focus of the report is on selected experiments which directly contribute to our better understanding of elementary particles and their properties such as masses, widths or lifetimes, and branching fractions.
Medical physics aspects of particle therapy.
Jäkel, Oliver
2009-11-01
Charged particle beams offer an improved dose conformation to the target volume when compared with photon radiotherapy, with better sparing of normal tissue structures close to the target. In addition, beams of heavier ions exhibit a strong increase of the linear energy transfer in the Bragg peak when compared with the entrance region. These physical and biological properties make ion beams more favourable for radiation therapy of cancer than photon beams. As a consequence, particle therapy with protons and heavy ions has gained increasing interest worldwide. This contribution summarises the physical and biological principles of charged particle therapy with ion beams and highlights some of the developments in the field of beam delivery, the principles of treatment planning and the determination of absorbed dose in ion beams. The clinical experience gathered so far with carbon ion therapy is briefly reviewed.
Beyond the standard model of particle physics.
Virdee, T S
2016-08-28
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and its experiments were conceived to tackle open questions in particle physics. The mechanism of the generation of mass of fundamental particles has been elucidated with the discovery of the Higgs boson. It is clear that the standard model is not the final theory. The open questions still awaiting clues or answers, from the LHC and other experiments, include: What is the composition of dark matter and of dark energy? Why is there more matter than anti-matter? Are there more space dimensions than the familiar three? What is the path to the unification of all the fundamental forces? This talk will discuss the status of, and prospects for, the search for new particles, symmetries and forces in order to address the open questions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Unifying physics and technology in light of Maxwell's equations'. © 2016 The Author(s).
Particle physics implications of Wilkinson microwave anisotropy ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We present an overview of the implications of the WMAP data for particle physics. The standard parameter set ϵ, η and ξ characterising the inflaton potential can be related to the power-law indices characterising deviation of the CMB spectrum from the scale invariant form. Different classes of inflation potentials are ...
Particle physics implications of Wilkinson microwave anisotropy ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We present an overview of the implications of the WMAP data for particle physics. The standard parameter set and characterising the inflaton potential can be related to the power-law indices characterising deviation of the CMB spectrum from the scale invariant form. Different classes of inflation potentials are ...
A Vision of Nuclear and Particle Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Montgomery, Hugh E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2016-08-01
This paper will consist of a selected, personal view of some of the issues associated with the intersections of nuclear and particle physics. As well as touching on the recent developments we will attempt to look at how those aspects of the subject might evolve over the next few years.
A Vision of Nuclear and Particle Physics
Montgomery, Hugh E
2015-01-01
This paper will consist of a selected, personal view of some of the issues associated with the intersections of nuclear and particle physics. As well as touching on the recent developments we will attempt to look at how those aspects of the subject might evolve over the next few years.
Phenomenal result for Durham in particle physics
2000-01-01
The University of Durham has beaten ten rivals to house a new 12 million pound institute for particle physics phenomenology. The institute will be supported for a minimum of ten years by PPARC and the university. Its first director will be Professor James Stirling (2 paragraphs).
Elementary Particle Physics-Then and Now
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 7. Elementary Particle Physics-Then and Now. Avinash Khare. Reflections Volume 3 Issue 7 July 1998 pp 80-80. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/07/0080-0080. Author Affiliations.
LHCb in the International Particle Physics Masterclasses
Couturier, Ben
2016-01-01
The Large Hadron Collider Beauty (LHCb) Experiment joined the International Particle Physics Masterclass programme in 2013. The experiment proposed the measurement of the D0 meson lifetime, using real data gathered at the Large Hadron Collider in 2012. We describe the exercise as well as the lessons learned during this first participation in the International Masterclass programme.
Visions: The coming revolutions in particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chris Quigg
2002-04-11
Wonderful opportunities await particle physics over the next decade, with the coming of the Large Hadron Collider to explore the 1-TeV scale (extending efforts at LEP and the Tevatron to unravel the nature of electroweak symmetry breaking) and many initiatives to develop the understanding of the problem of identity and the dimensionality of spacetime.
Particle physics 2009: licence to smile
2009-01-01
Julie Peasley is the keeper of a very unusual zoo, a colourful set of hand-made plushies that represent the particles of the Standard Model and beyond. Her passion for physics and her art degree combine to give particles their personalities. She visited CERN on 25 May and met the CERNois in the library. Scientists consider that they have ‘seen’ a particle when their detectors send an electronic signal and a spot appears on their computer screen. The American artist Julie Peasley has gone much further than that and has started sewing toys so that we can not just ‘see’ what particles look like but even play with them! "When I started," says Julie, "my plushies weren’t smiling, they were just a face. Later on, I realised that I wanted them to all be happy and to appear like they are having fun. Except for the neutron, which insists on remaining ne...
The Future of Theoretical Physics and Cosmology
Gibbons, G. W.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Rankin, S. J.
2009-08-01
Preface; List of contributors; 1. Introduction; Part I. Popular Symposium: 2. Our complex cosmos and its future Martin J. Rees; 3. Theories of everything and Hawking's wave function of the Universe James B. Hartle; 4. The problem of space-time singularities: implications for quantum gravity? Roger Penrose; 5. Warping spacetime Kip Thorne; 6. 60 years in a nutshell Stephen W. Hawking; Part II. Spacetime Singularities: 7. Cosmological perturbations and singularities George F. R. Ellis; 8. The quantum physics of chronology protection Matt Visser; 9. Energy dominance and the Hawking-Ellis vacuum conservation theorem Brandon Carter; 10. On the instability of extra space dimensions Roger Penrose; Part III. Black Holes: 11. Black hole uniqueness and the inner horizon stability problem Werner Israel; 12. Black holes in the real universe and their prospects as probes of relativistic gravity Martin J. Rees; 13. Primordial black holes Bernard Carr; 14. Black hole pair creation Simon F. Ross; 15. Black holes as accelerators Steven Giddings; Part IV. Hawking Radiation: 16. Black holes and string theory Malcolm Perry; 17. M theory and black hole quantum mechanics Joe Polchinski; 18. Playing with black strings Gary Horowitz; 19. Twenty years of debate with Stephen Leonard Susskind; Part V. Quantum Gravity: 20. Euclidean quantum gravity: the view from 2002 Gary Gibbons; 21. Zeta functions, anomalies and stable branes Ian Moss; 22. Some reflections on the status of conventional quantum theory when applied to quantum gravity Chris Isham; 23. Quantum geometry and its ramifications Abhay Ashtekar; 24. Topology change in quantum gravity Fay Dowker; Part VI. M Theory and Beyond: 25. The past and future of string theory Edward Witten; 26. String theory David Gross; 27. A brief description of string theory Michael Green; 28. The story of M Paul Townsend; 29. Gauged supergravity and holographic field theory Nick Warner; 30. 57 varieties in a NUTshell Chris Pope; Part VII. de Sitter Space
Semiconductor detectors in nuclear and particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rehak, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Gatti, E. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Elletronica e Informazione, Piazza Leondardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)
1995-07-10
Semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and nuclear physics in the energy range above 1 GeV are briefly reviewed. In these two fields semiconductor detectors are used mainly for the precise position sensing. In a typical experiment, the position of a fast charged particle crossing a relatively thin semiconductor detector is measured. The position resolution achievable by semiconductor detectors is compared with the resolution achievable by gas filled position sensing detectors. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups; (i) classical semiconductor diode detectors and (ii) semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of the signal formation and the signal read-out for both groups of detectors are described. New developments of silicon detectors of both groups are reported. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.
Particle identification methods in High Energy Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Va' Vra, J.
2000-01-27
This paper deals with two major particle identification methods: dE/dx and Cherenkov detection. In the first method, the authors systematically compare existing dE/dx data with various predictions available in the literature, such as the Particle Data group recommendation, and judge the overall consistency. To my knowledge, such comparison was not done yet in a published form for the gaseous detectors used in High-Energy physics. As far as the second method, there are two major Cherenkov light detection techniques: the threshold and the Ring imaging methods. The authors discuss the recent trend in these techniques.
The Standard Model of Particle Physics
Kibble, Tom W B
2014-01-01
This is a historical account from my personal perspective of the development over the last few decades of the standard model of particle physics. The model is based on gauge theories, of which the first was quantum electrodynamics, describing the interactions of electrons with light. This was later incorporated into the electroweak theory, describing electromagnetic and weak nuclear interactions. The standard model also includes quantum chromodynamics, the theory of the strong nuclear interactions. The final capstone of the model was the Higgs particle discovered in 2012 at CERN. But the model is very far from being the last word; there are still many gaps in our understanding.
Matvei Petrovich Bronstein and Soviet theoretical physics in the thirties
Gorelik, Gennady E
1994-01-01
Gennady E. Gorelik and Victor Ya. Frenkel Matvei Petrovich Bronstein and Soviet Theoretical Physics in the Thirties Translated by Valentina M. Levina The short life and tragic death of Matvei Petrovich Bronstein (1906-1938) may be seen as a symbol of the man's time and his country. One of the most remarkable features of Soviet history was the impressive advance of its physical sciences against the brutal and violent background of totalitarianism. Soviet advances in nuclear and space technology form an important part of world history. These achievements had their roots in the 1930s, when Bronstein's generation entered science. Among his friends were the famous physicists Lev Landau and George Gamow. Bronstein worked in the vast field of theoretical physics, ranging from nuclear physics to astrophysics and from relativistic quantum theory to cosmology. His pioneering work on quantizing gravitation goes beyond the history of physics, because today the quantum theory of gravitation occupies a special place in fun...
The beautiful invisible creativity, imagination, and theoretical physics
Vignale, Giovanni
2011-01-01
Challenging the image of theoretical physics as a dry discipline, The Beautiful Invisible shows that this highly abstract science is in fact teeming with beautiful concepts, and the task of imagining them demands profound creativity, just as creative as the work of poets or magical realist novelists such as Borges and Musil. "A good scientific theory is like a symbolic tale, an allegory of reality," writes Giovanni Vignale, as he uncovers the unexpected links between theoretical physics and artistic creativity. In engaging and at times poetic prose, and with ample quotations from many of the writers he admires, Vignale presents his own unorthodox accounts of fundamental theoretical concepts such as Newtonian mechanics, superconductivity, and Einstein's theory of relativity, illuminating their profound implications. Throughout, the author treats readers to glimpses of physics as "exercised in the still night, when only the moon rages." Indeed, as we delve behind now-familiar concepts such as "electron spin" an...
Mathematica for Theoretical Physics Classical Mechanics and Nonlinear Dynamics
Baumann, Gerd
2005-01-01
Mathematica for Theoretical Physics: Classical Mechanics and Nonlinear Dynamics This second edition of Baumann's Mathematica® in Theoretical Physics shows readers how to solve physical problems and deal with their underlying theoretical concepts while using Mathematica® to derive numeric and symbolic solutions. Each example and calculation can be evaluated by the reader, and the reader can change the example calculations and adopt the given code to related or similar problems. The second edition has been completely revised and expanded into two volumes: The first volume covers classical mechanics and nonlinear dynamics. Both topics are the basis of a regular mechanics course. The second volume covers electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, relativity, and fractals and fractional calculus. New examples have been added and the representation has been reworked to provide a more interactive problem-solving presentation. This book can be used as a textbook or as a reference work, by students and researchers alike. A...
Current experiments in particle physics - particle data group
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galic, H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Lehar, F. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Kettle, P.R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)] [and others
1996-09-01
This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.
Fundamental concepts in Particle Physics course
CERN. Geneva HR-RFA
2006-01-01
The course will provide an introduction to some of the basic theoretical techniques used to describe the fundamental particles and their interactions. Of central importance to our understanding of these forces are the underlying symmetries of nature and I will review the nature of these symmetries and how they are used to build a predictive theory. I discuss how the combination of quantum mechanics and relativity leads to the quantum field theory (QFT) description of the states of matter and their interactions. The Feynman rules used to determine the QFT predictions for experimentally measurable processes are derived and applied to the calculation of decay widths and cross sections.
EDITORIAL: Focus on Dark Matter and Particle Physics
Aprile, Elena; Profumo, Stefano
2009-10-01
The quest for the nature of dark matter has reached a historical point in time, with several different and complementary experiments on the verge of conclusively exploring large portions of the parameter space of the most theoretically compelling particle dark matter models. This focus issue on dark matter and particle physics brings together a broad selection of invited articles from the leading experimental and theoretical groups in the field. The leitmotif of the collection is the need for a multi-faceted search strategy that includes complementary experimental and theoretical techniques with the common goal of a sound understanding of the fundamental particle physical nature of dark matter. These include theoretical modelling, high-energy colliders and direct and indirect searches. We are confident that the works collected here present the state of the art of this rapidly changing field and will be of interest to both experts in the topic of dark matter as well as to those new to this exciting field. Focus on Dark Matter and Particle Physics Contents DARK MATTER AND ASTROPHYSICS Scintillator-based detectors for dark matter searches I S K Kim, H J Kim and Y D Kim Cosmology: small-scale issues Joel R Primack Big Bang nucleosynthesis and particle dark matter Karsten Jedamzik and Maxim Pospelov Particle models and the small-scale structure of dark matter Torsten Bringmann DARK MATTER AND COLLIDERS Dark matter in the MSSM R C Cotta, J S Gainer, J L Hewett and T G Rizzo The role of an e+e- linear collider in the study of cosmic dark matter M Battaglia Collider, direct and indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter Howard Baer, Eun-Kyung Park and Xerxes Tata INDIRECT PARTICLE DARK MATTER SEARCHES:EXPERIMENTS PAMELA and indirect dark matter searches M Boezio et al An indirect search for dark matter using antideuterons: the GAPS experiment C J Hailey Perspectives for indirect dark matter search with AMS-2 using cosmic-ray electrons and positrons B Beischer, P von
Applications of Particle Accelerators in Medical Physics
Cuttone, G
2008-01-01
Particle accelerators are often associated to high energy or nuclear physics. As well pointed out in literature [1] if we kindly analyse the number of installation worldwide we can easily note that about 50% is mainly devoted to medical applications (radiotherapy, medical radioisotopes production, biomedical research). Particle accelerators are also playing an important indirect role considering the improvement of the technical features of medical diagnostic. In fact the use of radionuclide for advanced medical imaging is strongly increasing either in conventional radiography (CT and MRI) and also in nuclear medicine for Spect an PET imaging. In this paper role of particle accelerators for medical applications will be presented together with the main solutions applied.
Calorimetry energy measurement in particle physics
Wigmans, Richard
2017-01-01
Particle physics is the science that pursues the age-old quest for the innermost structure of matter and the fundamental interactions between its constituents. Modern experiments in this field rely increasingly on calorimetry, a detection technique in which the particles of interest are absorbed in the detector. Calorimeters are very intricate instruments. Their performance characteristics depend on subtle, sometimes counter-intuitive design details. This book, written by one of the world's foremost experts, is the first comprehensive text on this topic. It provides a fundamental and systematic introduction to calorimetry. It describes the state of the art in terms of both the fundamental understanding of calorimetric particle detection, and the actual detectors that have been or are being built and operated in experiments. The last chapter discusses landmark scientific discoveries in which calorimetry has played an important role. This book summarizes and puts into perspective the work described in some 900...
Advanced analysis methods in particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; /Fermilab
2010-10-01
Each generation of high energy physics experiments is grander in scale than the previous - more powerful, more complex and more demanding in terms of data handling and analysis. The spectacular performance of the Tevatron and the beginning of operations of the Large Hadron Collider, have placed us at the threshold of a new era in particle physics. The discovery of the Higgs boson or another agent of electroweak symmetry breaking and evidence of new physics may be just around the corner. The greatest challenge in these pursuits is to extract the extremely rare signals, if any, from huge backgrounds arising from known physics processes. The use of advanced analysis techniques is crucial in achieving this goal. In this review, I discuss the concepts of optimal analysis, some important advanced analysis methods and a few examples. The judicious use of these advanced methods should enable new discoveries and produce results with better precision, robustness and clarity.
Particle physics today, tomorrow and beyond
Ellis, John
2018-01-01
The most important discovery in particle physics in recent years was that of the Higgs boson, and much effort is continuing to measure its properties, which agree obstinately with the Standard Model, so far. However, there are many reasons to expect physics beyond the Standard Model, motivated by the stability of the electroweak vacuum, the existence of dark matter and the origin of the visible matter in the Universe, neutrino physics, the hierarchy of mass scales in physics, cosmological inflation and the need for a quantum theory for gravity. Most of these issues are being addressed by the experiments during Run 2 of the LHC, and supersymmetry could help resolve many of them. In addition to the prospects for the LHC, I also review briefly those for direct searches for dark matter and possible future colliders.
Semiconductor detectors in nuclear and particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rehak, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Gatti, E. [Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, Milano (Italy)
1992-12-31
Semiconductor detectors for elementary particle physics and nuclear physics in the energy range above 1 GeV are briefly reviewed. In these two fields semiconductor detectors are used mainly for the precise position sensing. In a typical experiment, the position of a fast charged particle crossing a relatively thin semiconductor detector is measured. The position resolution achievable by semiconductor detectors is compared with the resolution achievable by gas filled position sensing detectors. Semiconductor detectors are divided into two groups: Classical semiconductor diode detectors and semiconductor memory detectors. Principles of the signal formation and the signal read-out for both groups of detectors are described. New developments of silicon detectors of both groups are reported.
Particle physics software aids space and medicine
Pia, M G
2002-01-01
Geant4 is a showcase example of technology transfer from particle physics to other fields such as space and medical science. Geant4 was first used for space applications by ESA in 1999, when ESA and NASA each launched an X-ray telescope. Geant4's extended set of physics models, which handle both electromagnetic and hadronic interactions, can be used to address a range of medical applications from conventional photon-beam radiotherapy to brachytherapy (using radioactive sources), hadron therapy and boron neutron capture therapy. The tools for describing geometries, materials and electromagnetic fields can precisely model diverse real-life configurations.
When worlds collide (particle physics experiments)
Cunningham, J
2005-01-01
Preparations are underway at CERN for new particle smashing experiments. The author describes the construction challenge for the engineers involved. The engineering challenge is to construct the largest and most elaborate physics experiment ever proposed, with tolerances of microns. The design and manufacture of components has been subcontracted to more than 500 companies and institutions worldwide, including ones in India, Russia, Japan, France and the UK.
Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galic, H. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Armstrong, F.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); von Przewoski, B. [Indiana Univ. Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN (United States)] [and others
1994-08-01
This report contains summaries of 568 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1988 are excluded. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, INS (Tokyo), ITEP (Moscow), IUCF (Bloomington), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.
Scale Hierarchies in Particle Physics and Cosmology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antoniadis I.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss possible connections between several scales in particle physics andcosmology, such the the electroweak, inflation, dark energy and Planck scales. We thendescribe the phenomenology of a model of supersymmetry breaking in the presence ofa tiny (tunable positive cosmological constant. The model is coupled to the MSSM, leading to calculable soft supersymmetry breaking masses and a distinct low energy phenomenologythat allows to differentiate it from other models of supersymmetry breakingand mediation mechanisms.
Refined holonomic summation algorithms in particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bluemlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Round, Mark; Schneider, Carsten [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC)
2017-06-15
An improved multi-summation approach is introduced and discussed that enables one to simultaneously handle indefinite nested sums and products in the setting of difference rings and holonomic sequences. Relevant mathematics is reviewed and the underlying advanced difference ring machinery is elaborated upon. The flexibility of this new toolbox contributed substantially to evaluating complicated multi-sums coming from particle physics. Illustrative examples of the functionality of the new software package RhoSum are given.
Charting the Course for Elementary Particle Physics
Richter, B.
2007-02-16
"It was the best of times; it was the worst of times" is the way Dickens begins the Tale of Two Cities. The line is appropriate to our time in particle physics. It is the best of times because we are in the midst of a revolution in understanding, the third to occur during my career. It is the worst of times because accelerator facilities are shutting down before new ones are opening, restricting the opportunity for experiments, and because of great uncertainty about future funding. My task today is to give you a view of the most important opportunities for our field under a scenario that is constrained by a tight budget. It is a time when we cannot afford the merely good, but must give first priority to the really important. The defining theme of particle physics is to learn what the universe is made of and how it all works. This definition spans the full range of size from the largest things to the smallest things. This particle physics revolution has its origins in experiments that look at both.
Cosmology and Particle Physics beyond Standard Models Ten Years of the SEENET-MTP Network
Álvarez-Gaumé, Luis; Stojkovic, Dejan
2014-01-01
This publication - "Cosmology and Particle Physics beyond Standard Models" - is dedicated to the celebration of the tenth anniversary of the Southeastern European Network in Mathematical and Theoretical Physics (SEENET-MTP). As a Theme Collection, rather than a Monograph or Proceedings, this volume presents a number of reports and overviews, a few research papers and a short note. However, some of them are excellent examples of a nowadays increasingly deep interplay between particle physics and cosmology. Contributions span a wide range of topics in cosmology, particle physics, but also gravity, including the interface of these fields. The presented work is of both theoretical and experimental/ observational nature. The contributions represent recent progress in their respective fields: inflation, dark matter, neutrino physics, supersymmetry, collider physics, string theory, quantum gravity, black hole physics and massive gravity.
PHYSICS OF OUR DAYS: Old and new exotic phenomena in the world of elementary particles
Mukhin, Konstantin N.; Tikhonov, Viktor N.
2001-11-01
This paper traces the history of elementary particle discoveries, beginning with the muon and ending with the t-quark and the τ-neutrino. Experimental work and basic theoretical concepts are reviewed. Recent neutrino oscillation research and attempts at finding exotic particles and creating artificial quark-gluon plasma are described. The physical beauty of experiments is emphasized and the elegance of both theoretical predictions and of the interpretation of discoveries is revealed. Possible research directions for the near future are discussed.
Recasting particle physics by entangling physics, history and philosophy
Bertozzi, Eugenio; Levrini, Olivia
2016-05-01
-1The paper presents the design process we followed to recast particle physics so as to make it conceptually relevant for secondary school students. In this design process, the concept of symmetry was assumed as core-idea because of its structural and foundational role in particle physics, its crosscutting character and its epistemological and philosophical value. The first draft of the materials was tested in a pilot-study which involved 19 students of a regular class (grade 13) of an Italian school. The data analysis showed that the students were in their "regime of competence" for grasping subtle nuances of the materials and for providing important hints for revising them. In particular, students' reactions brought into light the need of clarifying the "foundational" character that symmetry attained in twentieth-century physics. The delicate step of re-thinking the materials required the researchers to articulate the complex relationship between researches on physics teaching, history and philosophy of physics. This analytic phase resulted in a version of the materials which implies the students to be guided to grasp the meaning of symmetry as normative principle in twentieth-century physics, throughout the exploration of the different meanings assumed by symmetry over time. The whole process led also to the production of an essential, on-line version, of the materials targeted to a wider audience.
Some applications of mathematics in theoretical physics - A review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bora, Kalpana [Physics Department, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam (India)
2016-06-21
Mathematics is a very beautiful subject−very much an indispensible tool for Physics, more so for Theoretical Physics (by which we mean here mainly Field Theory and High Energy Physics). These branches of Physics are based on Quantum Mechanics and Special Theory of Relativity, and many mathematical concepts are used in them. In this work, we shall elucidate upon only some of them, like−differential geometry, infinite series, Mellin transforms, Fourier and integral transforms, special functions, calculus, complex algebra, topology, group theory, Riemannian geometry, functional analysis, linear algebra, operator algebra, etc. We shall also present, some physics issues, where these mathematical tools are used. It is not wrong to say that Mathematics is such a powerful tool, without which, there can not be any Physics theory!! A brief review on our research work is also presented.
Electrodynamic metaphors: communicating particle physics with Feynman diagrams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pietroni Massimo
2002-03-01
Full Text Available The aim of this project is to communicate the basic laws of particle physics with Feynman diagrams - visual tools which represent elementary particle processes. They were originally developed as a code to be used by physicists and are still used today for calculations and elaborations of theoretical nature. The technical and mathematical rules of Feynman diagrams are obviously the exclusive concern of physicists, but on a pictorial level they can help to popularize many concepts, ranging from matter and the antimatter; the creation, destruction and transformation of particles; the role of ‘virtual’ particles in interactions; the conservation laws, symmetries, etc. Unlike the metaphors often used to describe the microcosm, these graphic representations provide an unequivocal translation of the physical content of the underlying quantum theory. As such they are perfect metaphors, not misleading constructions. A brief introduction on Feynman diagrams will be followed by the practical realization of this project, which will be carried out with the help of an experiment based on three-dimensional manipulable objects. The Feynman rules are expressed in terms of mechanical constraints on the possible conjuctions among the various elements of the experiment. The final part of the project will present the results of this experiment, which has been conducted among high-school students.
World's particle physics laboratories join to create new communication resource
2003-01-01
"The worldwide particle physics community today (August 12) launched Interactions.org, a new global, Web-based resource developed to provide news, high-quality imagery, video and other tools for communicating the science of particle physics" (1 page).
Summary of the particle physics and technology working group
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stephan Lammel et al.
2002-12-10
Progress in particle physics has been tightly related to technological advances during the past half century. Progress in technologies has been driven in many cases by the needs of particle physics. Often, these advances have benefited fields beyond particle physics: other scientific fields, medicine, industrial development, and even found commercial applications. The particle physics and technology working group of Snowmass 2001 reviewed leading-edge technologies recently developed or in the need of development for particle physics. The group has identified key areas where technological advances are vital for progress in the field, areas of opportunities where particle physics may play a principle role in fostering progress, and areas where advances in other fields may directly benefit particle physics. The group has also surveyed the technologies specifically developed or enhanced by research in particle physics that benefit other fields and/or society at large.
Higgs physics at future colliders: Recent theoretical developments
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
I review the physics of the Higgs sector in the standard model and its minimal supersymmetric extension, the MSSM. I will discuss the prospects for discovering the Higgs particles at the ungraded Tevatron, at the large hadron collider, and at a future high-energy e + e − linear collider with centre-of-mass energy in the ...
Extended physics as a theoretical framework for systems biology?
Miquel, Paul-Antoine
2011-08-01
In this essay we examine whether a theoretical and conceptual framework for systems biology could be built from the Bailly and Longo (2008, 2009) proposal. These authors aim to understand life as a coherent critical structure, and propose to develop an extended physical approach of evolution, as a diffusion of biomass in a space of complexity. Their attempt leads to a simple mathematical reconstruction of Gould's assumption (1989) concerning the bacterial world as a "left wall of least complexity" that we will examine. Extended physical systems are characterized by their constructive properties. Time is acting and new properties emerge by their history that can open the list of their initial properties. This conceptual and theoretical framework is nothing more than a philosophical assumption, but as such it provides a new and exciting approach concerning the evolution of life, and the transition between physics and biology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Particle Physics And Cosmology In Supersymmetric Models
Morrissey, D E
2005-01-01
The Standard Model (SM) of particle physics provides an excellent description of the elementary particle interactions observed in particle collider experiments, but the model does less well when it is applied to cosmology. Recent measurements of the Universe over very large distances indicate the existence of non-luminous dark matter and an excess of baryons over anti-baryons. The SM is unable to account for either of these results, implying that an extension of the SM description is needed. One such extension is supersymmetry. Within the minimal supersymmetric version of the SM, the MSSM, the lightest superpartner particle can make up the dark matter, and the baryon asymmetry can be generated by the mechanism of electroweak baryogenesis (EWBG). In this work, we examine these issues together in order to find out whether the MSSM can account for both of them simultaneously. We find that the MSSM can explain both the baryon asymmetry and the dark matter, but only over a very constrained region of the model para...
Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics
2007-01-01
Particle Physics, often referred to as High Energy Physics (HEP), spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-Web era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peerreview system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs...
Black Holes from Particle Physics Perspective (2/2)
CERN. Geneva
2014-01-01
We review physics of black holes, both large and small, from a particle physicist's perspective, using particle physics tools for describing concepts such as entropy, temperature and quantum information processing. We also discuss microscopic picture of black hole formation in high energy particle scattering, potentially relevant for high energy accelerator experiments, and some differences and similarities with the signatures of other BSM physics.
Black Holes from Particle Physics Perspective (1/2)
CERN. Geneva
2014-01-01
We review physics of black holes, both large and small, from a particle physicist's perspective, using particle physics tools for describing concepts such as entropy, temperature and quantum information processing. We also discuss microscopic picture of black hole formation in high energy particle scattering, potentially relevant for high energy accelerator experiments, and some differences and similarities with the signatures of other BSM physics.
Particle Physics: A New Course for Schools and Colleges.
Swinbank, Elizabeth
1992-01-01
Considers questions relating to the introduction of particle physics into post-GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) courses. Describes a project that is producing teacher and student materials to support the teaching of particle physics at this level. Presents a proposed syllabus for a particle physics module. (KR)
Experimental and theoretical study of particle transport in the TCV Tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fable, E.
2009-06-15
The main scope of this thesis work is to compare theoretical models with experimental observations on particle transport in particular regimes of plasma operation from the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV) located at CRPP–EPFL in Lausanne. We introduce the main topics in Tokamak fusion research and the challenging problems in the first Chapter. A particular attention is devoted to the modelling of heat and particle transport. In the second Chapter the experimental part is presented, including an overview of TCV capabilities, a brief review of the relevant diagnostic systems, and a discussion of the numerical tools used to analyze the experimental data. In addition, the numerical codes that are used to interpret the experimental data and to compare them with theoretical predictions are introduced. The third Chapter deals with the problem of understanding the mechanisms that regulate the transport of energy in TCV plasmas, in particular in the electron Internal Transport Barrier (eITB) scenario. A radial transport code, integrated with an external module for the calculation of the turbulence-induced transport coefficients, is employed to reproduce the experimental scenario and to understand the physics at play. It is shown how the sustainment of an improved confinement regime is linked to the presence of a reversed safety factor profile. The improvement of confinement in the eITB regime is visible in the energy channel and in the particle channel as well. The density profile shows strong correlation with the temperature profile and has a large local logarithmic gradient. This is an important result obtained from the TCV eITB scenario analysis and is presented in the fourth Chapter. In the same chapter we present the estimate of the particle diffusion and convection coefficients obtained from density transient experiments performed in the eITB scenario. The theoretical understanding of the strong correlation between density and temperature observed in the e
Strange Particles and Heavy Ion Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bassalleck, Bernd [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Fields, Douglas [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
2016-04-28
This very long-running grant has supported many experiments in nuclear and particle physics by a group from the University of New Mexico. The gamut of these experiments runs from many aspects of Strangeness Nuclear Physics, to rare Kaon decays, to searches for exotic Hadrons such as Pentaquark or H-Dibaryon, and finally to Spin Physics within the PHENIX collaboration at RHIC. These experiments were performed at a number of laboratories worldwide: first and foremost at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL), but also at CERN, KEK, and most recently at J-PARC. In this Final Technical Report we summarize progress and achievements for this award since our last Progress Report, i.e. for the period of fall 2013 until the award’s termination on November 30, 2015. The report consists of two parts, representing our two most recent experimental efforts, participation in the Nucleon Spin Physics program of the PHENIX experiment at RHIC, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL – Task 1, led by Douglas Fields; and participation in several Strangeness Nuclear Physics experiments at J-PARC, the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Center in Tokai-mura, Japan – Task 2, led by Bernd Bassalleck.
FINAL REPORT: GEOMETRY AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singer, Isadore M.
2008-03-04
The effect on mathematics of collaborations between high-energy theoretical physics and modern mathematics has been remarkable. Mirror symmetry has revolutionized enumerative geometry, and Seiberg-Witten invariants have greatly simplified the study of four manifolds. And because of their application to string theory, physicists now need to know cohomology theory, characteristic classes, index theory, K-theory, algebraic geometry, differential geometry, and non-commutative geometry. Much more is coming. We are experiencing a deeper contact between the two sciences, which will stimulate new mathematics essential to the physicists’ quest for the unification of quantum mechanics and relativity. Our grant, supported by the Department of Energy for twelve years, has been instrumental in promoting an effective interaction between geometry and string theory, by supporting the Mathematical Physics seminar, postdoc research, collaborations, graduate students and several research papers.
Particle Physics Probes of Extra Spacetime Dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hewett, JoAnne L
2002-05-13
The possibility that spacetime is extended beyond the familiar 3+1-dimensions has intrigued physicists for a century. Indeed, the consequences of a dimensionally richer spacetime would be profound. Recently, new theories with higher dimensional spacetimes have been developed to resolve the hierarchy problem in particle physics. These scenarios make distinct predictions which allow for experiment to probe the existence of extra dimensions in new ways. We review the conceptual framework of these scenarios, their implications in collider and short-range gravity experiments, their astrophysical and cosmological effects, as well as the constraints placed on these models from present data.
Current Experiments in Particle Physics. 1996 Edition.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galic, Hrvoje
2003-06-27
This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.
Nuclear, particle and many body physics
Morse, Philip M; Feshbach, Herman
2013-01-01
Nuclear, Particle and Many Body Physics, Volume II, is the second of two volumes dedicated to the memory of physicist Amos de-Shalit. The contributions in this volume are a testament to the respect he earned as a physicist and of the warm and rich affection he commanded as a personal friend. The book contains 41 chapters and begins with a study on the renormalization of rational Lagrangians. Separate chapters cover the scattering of high energy protons by light nuclei; approximation of the dynamics of proton-neutron systems; the scattering amplitude for the Gaussian potential; Coulomb excitati
Chemical, physical, and theoretical kinetics of an ultrafast folding protein.
Kubelka, Jan; Henry, Eric R; Cellmer, Troy; Hofrichter, James; Eaton, William A
2008-12-02
An extensive set of equilibrium and kinetic data is presented and analyzed for an ultrafast folding protein--the villin subdomain. The equilibrium data consist of the excess heat capacity, tryptophan fluorescence quantum yield, and natural circular-dichroism spectrum as a function of temperature, and the kinetic data consist of time courses of the quantum yield from nanosecond-laser temperature-jump experiments. The data are well fit with three kinds of models--a three-state chemical-kinetics model, a physical-kinetics model, and an Ising-like theoretical model that considers 10(5) possible conformations (microstates). In both the physical-kinetics and theoretical models, folding is described as diffusion on a one-dimensional free-energy surface. In the physical-kinetics model the reaction coordinate is unspecified, whereas in the theoretical model, order parameters, either the fraction of native contacts or the number of native residues, are used as reaction coordinates. The validity of these two reaction coordinates is demonstrated from calculation of the splitting probability from the rate matrix of the master equation for all 10(5) microstates. The analysis of the data on site-directed mutants using the chemical-kinetics model provides information on the structure of the transition-state ensemble; the physical-kinetics model allows an estimate of the height of the free-energy barrier separating the folded and unfolded states; and the theoretical model provides a detailed picture of the free-energy surface and a residue-by-residue description of the evolution of the folded structure, yet contains many fewer adjustable parameters than either the chemical- or physical-kinetics models.
Theoretical assessment of particle generation from sodium pool fires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia, M., E-mail: monica.gmartin@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Unit of Nuclear Safety Research, Av. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Herranz, L.E., E-mail: luisen.herranz@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Unit of Nuclear Safety Research, Av. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kissane, M.P., E-mail: Martin.KISSANE@oecd.org [Nuclear Safety Technology and Regulation Division, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), 46 quai Alphonse Le Gallo, 92100 Boulogne-Billancourt (France)
2016-12-15
Highlights: • Development of particle generation model for sodium-oxides aerosol formation. • Development of partially validated numerical simulations to build up maps of saturation ratio. • Nucleation of supersaturated vapours as relevant source of aerosols over sodium pools. • Prediction of high concentrations of primary particles in the combustion zone. - Abstract: Potential sodium discharge in the containment during postulated Beyond Design Basis Accidents (BDBAs) in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) would have major consequences for accident development in terms of energetics and source term. In the containment, sodium vaporization and subsequent oxidation would result in supersaturated oxide vapours that would undergo rapid nucleation creating toxic aerosols. Therefore, modelling this vapour nucleation is essential to proper source term assessment in SFRs. In the frame of the EU-JASMIN project, a particle generation model to calculate the particle generation rate and their primary size during an in-containment sodium pool fire has been developed. Based on a suite of individual models for sodium vaporization, oxygen natural circulation (3D modelling), sodium-oxygen chemical reactions, sodium-oxides-vapour nucleation and condensation, its consistency has been partially validated by comparing with available experimental data. As an outcome, large temperature and vapour concentration gradients set over the sodium pool have been found which result in large particle concentrations in the close vicinity of the pool.
Particle physics in the very early universe
Schramm, D. N.
1981-01-01
Events in the very early big bang universe in which elementary particle physics effects may have been dominant are discussed, with attention to the generation of a net baryon number by way of grand unification theory, and emphasis on the possible role of massive neutrinos in increasing current understanding of various cosmological properties and of the constraints placed on neutrino properties by cosmology. It is noted that when grand unification theories are used to describe very early universe interactions, an initially baryon-symmetrical universe can evolve a net baryon excess of 10 to the -9th to 10 to the -11th per photon, given reasonable parameters. If neutrinos have mass, the bulk of the mass of the universe may be in the form of leptons, implying that the form of matter most familiar to physical science may not be the dominant form of matter in the universe.
(Medium energy particle physics): Annual progress report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nefkens, B.M.K.
1985-10-01
Investigations currently carried out by the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group can be arranged into four programs: Pion-Nucleon Scattering; Tests of Charge Symmetry and Isospin Invariance; Light Nuclei (Strong Form Factors of /sup 3/H, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He; Detailed Balance in pd /r reversible/ /gamma//sup 3/H; Interaction Dynamics); and Search for the Rare Decay /Mu//sup +/ /yields/ e/sup +/ + /gamma/ (MEGA). The general considerations which led to the choice of physics problems investigated by our group are given in the next section. We also outline the scope of the research being done which includes over a dozen experiments. The main body of this report details the research carried out in the past year, the status of various experiments, and new projects.
Center for Theoretical Underground Physics and Related Areas - CETUP*2013 Summer Program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Szczerbinska, Barbara [Dakota State Univ., Madison, SD (United States)
2014-06-01
In response to an increasing interest in experiments conducted at deep underground facilities around the world, in 2010 the theory community has proposed a new initiative - a Center for Theoretical Underground Physics and Related Areas (CETUP*). The main goal of CETUP* is to bring together people with different talents and skills to address the most exciting questions in particle and nuclear physics, astrophysics, geosciences, and geomicrobiology. Scientists invited to participate in the program do not only provide theoretical support to the underground science, they also examine underlying universal questions of the 21^{st} century including: What is dark matter?, What are the masses of neutrinos?, How have neutrinos shaped the evolution of the universe?, How were the elements from iron to uranium made?, What is the origin and thermal history of the Earth? The mission of the CETUP* is to promote an organized research in physics, astrophysics, geoscience, geomicrobiology and other fields related to the underground science via individual and collaborative research in dynamic atmosphere of intense scientific interactions. Our main goal is to bring together scientists scattered around the world, promote the deep underground science and provide a stimulating environment for creative thinking and open communication between researches of varying ages and nationalities. CETUP*2014 included 5 week long program (June 24 – July 26, 2013) covering various theoretical and experimental aspects of Dark Matter, Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics. Two week long session focused on Dark Matter (June 24-July 6) was followed by two week long program on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (July 15-26). The VII^{th} International Conference on Interconnections between Particle Physics and Cosmology (PPC) was sandwiched between these sessions (July 8-13) covering the subjects of dark matter, neutrino physics, gravitational waves, collider physics and other from both
Nuclear and particle physics in the early universe
Schramm, D. N.
1981-01-01
Basic principles and implications of Big Bang cosmology are reviewed, noting the physical evidence of a previous universe temperature of 10,000 K and theoretical arguments such as grand unification decoupling indicating a primal temperature of 10 to the 15th eV. The Planck time of 10 to the -43rd sec after the Big Bang is set as the limit before which gravity was quantized and nothing is known. Gauge theories of elementary particle physics are reviewed for successful predictions of similarity in weak and electromagnetic interactions and quantum chromodynamic predictions for strong interactions. The large number of photons in the universe relative to the baryons is considered and the grand unified theories are cited as showing the existence of baryon nonconservation as an explanation. Further attention is given to quark-hadron phase transition, the decoupling for the weak interaction and relic neutrinos, and Big Bang nucleosynthesis.
Geneva University - Next Particle Physics Seminars
Université de Genève
2010-01-01
GENEVA UNIVERSITY École de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVA 4 Tel. (022) 379 62 73 Fax (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 17 November 2010 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17-00 hrs – Stückelberg Auditorium Results on CP-Violation in The B_s and B_d systems at the Tevatron Dr. Iain Bertram, Lancaster Results will be presented from the investigation of CP-violation in B mesons at the Tevatron. The evidence for an anomalous likes-sign dimuon charge asymmetry will be presented, along with the latest results on CP violation in the Bs -> J/Psi Phi system. The implications of these results and the possibility of confirming them in the future will also be discussed. Information : http://dpnc.unige.ch/seminaire/annonce.html Organizer : G. Pasztor Wednesday 1st December 2010 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17-00 hrs – Stückelberg Auditorium PAMELA - A COSMIC RAY OBSERVATO...
Particle accelerators from Big Bang physics to hadron therapy
Amaldi, Ugo
2015-01-01
The theoretical physicist Victor “Viki” Weisskopf, Director-General of CERN from 1961 to 1965, once “There are three kinds of physicists, namely the machine builders, the experimental physicists, and the theoretical physicists. […] The machine builders are the most important ones, because if they were not there, we would not get into this small-scale region of space. If we compare this with the discovery of America, the machine builders correspond to captains and ship builders who really developed the techniques at that time. The experimentalists were those fellows on the ships who sailed to the other side of the world and then landed on the new islands and wrote down what they saw. The theoretical physicists are those who stayed behind in Madrid and told Columbus that he was going to land in India.” Rather than focusing on the theoretical physicists, as most popular science books on particle physics do, this beautifully written and also entertaining book is different in that, firstly, the main foc...
Essays in theoretical physics in honour of Dirk Ter Haar
Parry, W E
2013-01-01
Essays in Theoretical Physics: In Honour of Dirk ter Haar is devoted to Dirk ter Haar, detailing the breadth of Dirk's interest in physics. The book contains 15 chapters, with some chapters elucidating stellar dynamics with non-classical integrals; a mean-field treatment of charge density waves in a strong magnetic field; electrodynamics of two-dimensional (surface) superconductors; and the Bethe Ansatz and exact solutions of the Kondo and related magnetic impurity models. Other chapters focus on probing the interiors of neutron stars; macroscopic quantum tunneling; unitary transformation meth
Theoretical Physics: A Primer for Philosophers of Science
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francisco Antonio Doria
2009-08-01
Full Text Available We give a overview of the main areas in theoretical physics, with emphasis on their relation to Lagrangian formalism in classical mechanics. This review covers classical mechanics; the road from classical mechanics to Schrödinger’s quantum mechanics; electromagnetism, special and general relativity, and (very briefly gauge field theory and the Higgs mechanism. We shun mathematical rigor in favor of a straightforward presentation.
Investigations in Experimental and Theoretical High Energy Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krennrich, Frank [Iowa State University
2013-07-29
We report on the work done under DOE grant DE-FG02-01ER41155. The experimental tasks have ongoing efforts at CERN (ATLAS), the Whipple observatory (VERITAS) and R&D work on dual readout calorimetry and neutrino-less double beta decay. The theoretical task emphasizes the weak interaction and in particular CP violation and neutrino physics. The detailed descriptions of the final report on each project are given under the appropriate task section of this report.
Mechanics of deformable bodies lectures on theoretical physics
Sommerfeld, Arnold
1950-01-01
Mechanics of Deformable Bodies: Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Volume II covers topics on the mechanics of deformable bodies. The book discusses the kinematics, statics, and dynamics of deformable bodies; the vortex theory; as well as the theory of waves. The text also describes the flow with given boundaries. Supplementary notes on selected hydrodynamic problems and supplements to the theory of elasticity are provided. Physicists, mathematicians, and students taking related courses will find the book useful.
Effects of the quantum vacuum in particle physics and cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smirnov, Juri
2014-11-26
In this work we investigate numerous effects of virtual particles on processes relevant for particle physics and cosmology. A central question is, whether radiative spontaneous electroweak symmetry breaking can be combined with neutrino mass generation, we find that the answer is affirmative. We discuss the implication of the RSSB on the neutrino mass phenomenology and low-energy observables. Furthermore, by comparing the models to experimental data we find that several anomalies in the present observations favour particular scenarios over the pure Standard Model hypothesis. We are able to show, that the presence of sterile neutrinos with active-sterile mixing of order 10{sup -3} and masses in the TeV range leads to a reduced invisible decay width of the Z-boson and can bring the NuTeV observations in agreement with theoretical expectations. The models we discuss naturally incorporate long lived particles which can serve as dark matter candidates and we investigate this phenomenologically. We find that the combination of the requirements leads to interesting constraints on the model and parameter space. We find that loop induced electromagnetic moments for the neutral dark matter candidates, lead to interactions with charged particles. We use this and derive new constraints from existing XENON100 and LUX data. In addition we study how vacuum effects can backreact on a given geometry in electromagnetism and semiclassical gravity. We find that in the case of gravity the conformal set up plays a special role and indicate several ideas for further investigation of this topic.
Theoretical investigations of single particle spectroscopies of novel materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Randeria, Mohit [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)
2017-02-24
The project focused on three areas in the theoretical investigation of quantum materials. The first was novel magnetism in low dimensional systems, especially chiral magnetism and topological spin textures that can arise in thin films and at interfaces. The second related to high temperature superconductivity, and particularly on understanding puzzling features of quantum oscillations. The third related to collaborations with experimentalists on angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy of high Tc superconductors and charge density wave materials.
Physics of mind: Experimental confirmations of theoretical predictions.
Schoeller, Félix; Perlovsky, Leonid; Arseniev, Dmitry
2018-02-02
What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, thermodynamics, quantum physics, the theory of relativity, astrophysics and the theory of superstrings? All these areas of physics have in common a methodology, which is discussed in the first few lines of the review. Is a physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe how a mind adapts in real time to changes in the physical world through a theory based on a few basic laws? From perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas allowing high-level cognition and executive functioning, at nearly all levels of study, the mind shows variability and uncertainties. Is it possible to turn psychology and neuroscience into so-called "hard" sciences? This review discusses several established first principles for the description of mind and their mathematical formulations. A mathematical model of mind is derived from these principles. This model includes mechanisms of instincts, emotions, behavior, cognition, concepts, language, intuitions, and imagination. We clarify fundamental notions such as the opposition between the conscious and the unconscious, the knowledge instinct and aesthetic emotions, as well as humans' universal abilities for symbols and meaning. In particular, the review discusses in length evolutionary and cognitive functions of aesthetic emotions and musical emotions. Several theoretical predictions are derived from the model, some of which have been experimentally confirmed. These empirical results are summarized and we introduce new theoretical developments. Several unsolved theoretical problems are proposed, as well as new experimental challenges for future research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Particle astronomy and particle physics from the moon - The particle observatory
Wilson, Thomas L.
1990-01-01
Promising experiments from the moon using particle detectors are discussed, noting the advantage of the large flux collecting power Pc offered by the remote, stable environment of a lunar base. An observatory class of particle experiments is presented, based upon proposals at NASA's recent Stanford workshop. They vary from neutrino astronomy, particle astrophysics, and cosmic ray experiments to space physics and fundamental physics experiments such as proton decay and 'table-top' arrays. This research is background-limited on earth, and it is awkward and unrealistic in earth orbit, but is particularly suited for the moon where Pc can be quite large and the instrumentation is not subject to atmospheric erosion as it is (for large t) in low earth orbit.
Matter and Interactions: A Particle Physics Perspective
Organtini, Giovanni
2011-01-01
In classical mechanics, matter and fields are completely separated; matter interacts with fields. For particle physicists this is not the case; both matter and fields are represented by particles. Fundamental interactions are mediated by particles exchanged between matter particles. In this article we explain why particle physicists believe in…
Elementary particle physics at the University of Florida. Annual report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Field, R.D.; Ramond, P.M.; Sikivie, P. [and others
1995-12-01
This is the annual progress report of the University of Florida`s elementary particle physics group. The theoretical high energy physics group`s research covers a broad range of topics, including both theory and phenomenology. Present work of the experimental high energy physics group is directed toward the CLEO detector, with some effort going to B physics at Fermilab. The Axion Search project is participating in the operation of a large-scale axion detector at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with the University of Florida taking responsibility for this experiment`s high-resolution spectrometer`s assembly, programming, and installation, and planning to take shifts during operation of the detector in FY96. The report also includes a continuation of the University`s three-year proposal to the United States Department of Energy to upgrade the University`s high-energy physics computing equipment and to continue student support, system manager/programmer support, and maintenance. Report includes lists of presentations and publications by members of the group.
Probability and statistics for particle physics
Mana, Carlos
2017-01-01
This book comprehensively presents the basic concepts of probability and Bayesian inference with sufficient generality to make them applicable to current problems in scientific research. The first chapter provides the fundamentals of probability theory that are essential for the analysis of random phenomena. The second chapter includes a full and pragmatic review of the Bayesian methods that constitute a natural and coherent framework with enough freedom to analyze all the information available from experimental data in a conceptually simple manner. The third chapter presents the basic Monte Carlo techniques used in scientific research, allowing a large variety of problems to be handled difficult to tackle by other procedures. The author also introduces a basic algorithm, which enables readers to simulate samples from simple distribution, and describes useful cases for researchers in particle physics.The final chapter is devoted to the basic ideas of Information Theory, which are important in the Bayesian me...
New developments on photosensors for particle physics
Renker, D.
2009-01-01
The needs of experiments in high-energy physics have been for many decades the stimulus for detector developments. For calorimetry, particle identification with ring image Cherenkov detectors, time-of-flight measurements, etc., sophisticated photosensors have been realized. Although photomultiplier tubes are a commercial product since 70 years, an impressive progress has been made recently. The bulky shape turned in a slim design and the quantum efficiency has been increased by almost a factor of 2. During the last 3 decades photodetectors made from semiconductor materials, photodiodes and avalanche photodiodes, have replaced in an increasing number the traditional photomultiplier tubes. The recently developed Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes with high sensitivity to single photons will accelerate this trend.
The methodological problems of particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Unzicker, Alexander [Pestalozzi-Gymnasium Muenchen (Germany)
2013-07-01
While the so-called standard model has been the dominating paradigm in particle physics for almost half a century, most researchers working with it would admit that it is an incomplete theory at best. Despite some ordering schemes, the overall number of its free parameters has greatly increased over the years, often accompanied by ad-hoc hypotheses such as 'confinement'. Experimentally, the interpretation of today's collider experiments requires sophisticated modeling of huge backgrounds. Specific problems are here how to remove correctly radiation damping (given that no consistent theory of electrodynamics exists), and postulating lifetimes (top quark) during which the particle cannot even leave the collision region. The standard model is about to develop new concepts, such as additional neutrino flavors and oscillations, while disregarding elementary questions such as to the nature of mass. From a historical perspective, the growing complications are likely to be symptoms of a scientific crisis, a phenomenon which has been described by the philosopher Thomas Kuhn. According to Kuhn however, there is no smooth transition from one paradigm to another. The only reasonable way to go beyond the standard model would be to abandon it completely.
Integrated circuits for particle physics experiments
Snoeys, W; Campbell, M; Cantatore, E; Faccio, F; Heijne, Erik H M; Jarron, Pierre; Kloukinas, Kostas C; Marchioro, A; Moreira, P; Toifl, Thomas H; Wyllie, Ken H
2000-01-01
High energy particle physics experiments investigate the nature of matter through the identification of subatomic particles produced in collisions of protons, electrons, or heavy ions which have been accelerated to very high energies. Future experiments will have hundreds of millions of detector channels to observe the interaction region where collisions take place at a 40 MHz rate. This paper gives an overview of the electronics requirements for such experiments and explains how data reduction, timing distribution, and radiation tolerance in commercial CMOS circuits are achieved for these big systems. As a detailed example, the electronics for the innermost layers of the future tracking detector, the pixel vertex detector, is discussed with special attention to system aspects. A small-scale prototype (130 channels) implemented in standard 0.25 mu m CMOS remains fully functional after a 30 Mrad(SiO/sub 2/) irradiation. A full-scale pixel readout chip containing 8000 readout channels in a 14 by 16 mm/sup 2/ ar...
Experimental and theoretical high energy physics research. [UCLA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buchanan, Charles D.; Cline, David B.; Byers, N.; Ferrara, S.; Peccei, R.; Hauser, Jay; Muller, Thomas; Atac, Muzaffer; Slater, William; Cousins, Robert; Arisaka, Katsushi
1992-01-01
Progress in the various components of the UCLA High-Energy Physics Research program is summarized, including some representative figures and lists of resulting presentations and published papers. Principal efforts were directed at the following: (I) UCLA hadronization model, PEP4/9 e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} analysis, {bar P} decay; (II) ICARUS and astroparticle physics (physics goals, technical progress on electronics, data acquisition, and detector performance, long baseline neutrino beam from CERN to the Gran Sasso and ICARUS, future ICARUS program, and WIMP experiment with xenon), B physics with hadron beams and colliders, high-energy collider physics, and the {phi} factory project; (III) theoretical high-energy physics; (IV) H dibaryon search, search for K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} and {pi}{sup 0}{nu}{bar {nu}}, and detector design and construction for the FNAL-KTeV project; (V) UCLA participation in the experiment CDF at Fermilab; and (VI) VLPC/scintillating fiber R D.
Masculinities in School Physical education: theoretical issues and political horizons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leandro Teofilo de Brito
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Based on the recognition of the urgency of the theme of gender and sexuality within the approach of the difference inclusion in School Physical education by academic research, in this article, we focus the notion of masculinity. We present and problematize the Raewyn Connell‟s theory of hegemonic masculinity, as well as the queer perspective, theoretical references identified in the literature review, which is also exposed. Based on the proposal of Jacques Derrida‟s deconstruction and the notion of performative gender, as developed by Judith Butler, we conclude this reflection with the proposition of normalizing masculinity and queer masculinity as search operators, in the theoretical and political will to favor openness to a more radical inclusion in research and lessons of SPE.
DIRAC in Large Particle Physics Experiments
Stagni, F.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Arrabito, L.; Sailer, A.; Hara, T.; Zhang, X.; consortium, DIRAC
2017-10-01
The DIRAC project is developing interware to build and operate distributed computing systems. It provides a development framework and a rich set of services for both Workload and Data Management tasks of large scientific communities. A number of High Energy Physics and Astrophysics collaborations have adopted DIRAC as the base for their computing models. DIRAC was initially developed for the LHCb experiment at LHC, CERN. Later, the Belle II, BES III and CTA experiments as well as the linear collider detector collaborations started using DIRAC for their computing systems. Some of the experiments built their DIRAC-based systems from scratch, others migrated from previous solutions, ad-hoc or based on different middlewares. Adaptation of DIRAC for a particular experiment was enabled through the creation of extensions to meet their specific requirements. Each experiment has a heterogeneous set of computing and storage resources at their disposal that were aggregated through DIRAC into a coherent pool. Users from different experiments can interact with the system in different ways depending on their specific tasks, expertise level and previous experience using command line tools, python APIs or Web Portals. In this contribution we will summarize the experience of using DIRAC in particle physics collaborations. The problems of migration to DIRAC from previous systems and their solutions will be presented. An overview of specific DIRAC extensions will be given. We hope that this review will be useful for experiments considering an update, or for those designing their computing models.
New HEPAP report outlines revolution in particle physics
2004-01-01
"The most compelling questions facing contemporary particle physics research and a program to address them have been distilled into a new report “Quantum Universe: The Revolution in 21st-Century Particle Physics,” adopted today by the Department of Energy/National Science Foundation High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP)" (1 page)
Theoretical Problems in High Resolution Solar Physics, 2
Athay, G. (Editor); Spicer, D. S. (Editor)
1987-01-01
The Science Working Group for the High Resolution Solar Observatory (HRSO) laid plans beginning in 1984 for a series of workshops designed to stimulate a broadbased input from the scientific community to the HRSO mission. These workshops have the dual objectives of encouraging an early start on the difficult theoretical problems in radiative transfer, magnetohydrodynamics, and plasma physics that will be posed by the HRSO data, and maintaining current discussions of results in high resolution solar studies. This workshop was the second in the series. The workshop format presented invited review papers during the formal sessions and contributed poster papers for discussions during open periods. Both are presented.
Current experiments in elementary particle physics, 1976-87
Lawrence Berkeley Nat. Laboratory. Berkeley
Contains more than 1,800 experiments in elementary particle physics from the Experience database. Search and browse by author; title; experiment number or prefix; institution; date approved, started or completed; accelerator or detector; polarization, reaction, final state or particle; or by papers produced. Maintained at SLAC for the Particle Data Group. Supplies the information for Current Experiments in Particle Physics (LBL-91). Print version updated every second year.
A map of the invisible journeys into particle physics
Butterworth, Jon
2017-01-01
What is the universe really made of? How do we know? Follow the map of the invisible to find out... Over the last sixty years, scientists around the world have worked together to explore the fundamental constituents of matter, and the forces that govern their behaviour. The result, so far, is the ‘Standard Model’ of elementary particles: a theoretical map of the basic building blocks of the universe. With the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012, the map as we know it was completed, but also extended into strange new territory. A Map of the Invisible is an explorer’s guide to the Standard Model and the extraordinary realms of particle physics. After shrinking us down to the size of a sub-atomic particle, pioneering physicist Jon Butterworth takes us on board his research vessel for a journey in search of atoms and quarks, electrons and neutrinos, and the forces that shape the universe. Step by step, discovery by discovery, we journey into the world of the unseen, from the atom to black holes and dark ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brueckner, Thomas Christian
2015-07-01
After a description of the standard model of elementary-particle physics the author describes structuralistic reconstructions. Then the problem of the theoretical terms is discussed. Therafter the reconstruction of the standard-model elementary particles is described. Finally the ontology of leptons, quarks and both free and in atoms bound protons is considered.
Center for Theoretical Underground Physics and Related Areas – CETUP*2016 Summer Program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Szczerbinska, Barbara [Texas A& M University Corpus Christi, Madison, SD (United States)
2017-02-15
For last six years Center for Theoretical Underground Physics and Related Areas (CETUP*) successfully provided a stimulating environment for creative thinking and open communication between researches of varying ages and nationalities in dynamic atmosphere of intense scientific interactions. Ongoing and proposed Neutrino and Dark Matter experiments are expected to unveil the answers to fundamental questions about the Universe. CETUP*2016 was focused exactly on these subjects bringing together experts in dark matter, neutrino physics, particle and nuclear physics, astrophysics and cosmology from around the world. Scientists invited to participate in the program not only provided theoretical support to the underground science, but they also examined core questions including: What is the nature of dark matter?, What is the origin of the neutrino masses?, How well do we know the neutrino parameters?, How have neutrinos shaped the evolution of the universe?, , What are the fundamental underlying symmetries of the Universe? Is there a Grand Unified Theory of the Universe? and many others. The 2016 CETUP* summer program consisted of three sessions (June 6 – July 16, 2016) covering various aspects of theoretical and experimental neutrino physics, unification and dark matter. The two week long session on Physics and Instrumentation of the Near Detector for the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiments (June 6 – June 16) was followed by the two week long Neutrino Physics/Unification session: “From Grand Unification to String Theory and Back” (June 20 – July 2). The program ended with two week long session on Dark Matter Physics (July 4 – July 16). This six-week long program allowed for thorough discussions and an effective and comprehensive analysis of topics related to Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Neutrino Physics including astrophysical neutrinos, near and far detector physics, neutrino interactions, Higgs Boson, Inflation, Leptogenesis and many others that will advance
Physical characterization of diesel soot particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Virtanen, A.
2004-07-01
This study concentrates on characterizing diesel exhaust soot particles. In addition to particle size and number distributions, the particle structure was studied. To describe the structure of agglomerated particles, the concept of fractal dimension has been utilized. The experimental work was based on distribution measurements done with Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI). The work also included the development of ELPI to be more suitable for diesel particle studies. Diesel particles are small soot particles, number weighed size < 500 nm. Thus the fme particle deposition affects measurement. To solve this problem, the fme particle losses in the impactor were determined The losses are an essential part of impactor kernel functions, which describe the particle collection in the impactor. To find information on particle size distribution and particle morphology, the new method to determine the particle effective density and from that the fractal dimension was developed. The method is based on distribution measurement made with SMPS and ELPI. The basic feature of the method is the connection of particle effective density and aerodynamic and mobility equivalent sizes. The fractal like nature of agglomerated particles was also utilized in the method: the basic assumption was that degrease of effective density as a function of particle size is characterized by fractal behavior. The new method was used to study diesel particles. The found fractal dimension values varied from 2.5 to 3 depending on engine and dilution parameters. The effect of engine load on soot particles were studied with three different sized engines. According to the measurements the engine parameters affected the measured structure of agglomerates. The fractal dimension decreased with increasing engine load. In addition, the width of the number distribution of soot particles increased with engine load. The effect of volatile materials on particle
Theoretical studies of the physics of the solar atmosphere
Hollweg, Joseph V.
1992-01-01
Significant advances in our theoretical basis for understanding several physical processes related to dynamical phenomena on the sun were achieved. We have advanced a new model for spicules and fibrils. We have provided a simple physical view of resonance absorption of MHD surface waves; this allowed an approximate mathematical procedure for obtaining a wealth of new analytical results which we applied to coronal heating and p-mode absorption at magnetic regions. We provided the first comprehensive models for the heating and acceleration of the transition region, corona, and solar wind. We provided a new view of viscosity under coronal conditions. We provided new insights into Alfven wave propagation in the solar atmosphere. And recently we have begun work in a new direction: parametric instabilities of Alfven waves.
Larcher, Michele; Fraccarollo, Luigi; Prati, Anna
2017-04-01
flow evolving in time, but without any variability in longitudinal direction, apart from some disturbances localized at the extremities of the flume. Using a high speed camera and particle tracking algorithms, we measured the time evolution of the flow depth, of the normal-to-bed velocity profile and of the granular concentration and compared them with the predictions of a simple theory. We solved for the time evolution of the momentum balance in the flow direction, assuming the self-similarity of the velocity profile, having the same shape than in a fully developed flow. This was obtained from the algebraic integration of an extended kinetic theory for a dense collisional flow of dissipative spheres. The concentration was assumed in first approximation to be constant throughout the flow depth. Despite the very simple theoretical approach, we found a good agreement between the predictions for the time evolution of the velocity profile and of the flow depth and the experimental measures. The proposed model relies only on measured physical properties of the particles, without any ad hoc calibrated parameter.
Mark Thomson presents the book "Modern Particle Physics"
2013-01-01
Tuesday 5 November 2013 at 4 p.m. in the Library, Bldg. 52 1-052 This new textbook covers all the main aspects of modern particle physics, providing a clear connection between the theory and recent experimental results, including the recent discovery of a Higgs boson and the most recent developments in neutrino physics. It provides a comprehensive and self-contained description of the Standard Model of particle physics suitable for upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students studying experimental particle physics. Physical theory is introduced in a relatively straightforward manner with step-by-step mathematical derivations. In each chapter, fully worked examples link the theory to central experimental results in contemporary particle physics. Modern Particle Physics, by Mark Thomson, Cambridge University Press, 2013, ISBN 9781107034266. *Coffee will be served from 3.30 p.m.*
A history of the ideas of theoretical physics essays on the nineteenth and twentieth century physics
D’Agostino, Salvo
2000-01-01
This book presents a perspective on the history of theoretical physics over the past two hundreds years. It comprises essays on the history of pre-Maxwellian electrodynamics, of Maxwell's and Hertz's field theories, and of the present century's relativity and quantum physics. A common thread across the essays is the search for and the exploration of themes that influenced significant con ceptual changes in the great movement of ideas and experiments which heralded the emergence of theoretical physics (hereafter: TP). The fun. damental change involved the recognition of the scien tific validity of theoretical physics. In the second half of the nine teenth century, it was not easy for many physicists to understand the nature and scope of theoretical physics and of its adept, the theoreti cal physicist. A physicist like Ludwig Boltzmann, one of the eminent contributors to the new discipline, confessed in 1895 that, "even the formulation of this concept [of a theoretical physicist] is not entirely without...
6th International Conference on Trapped Charged Particles and Fundamental Physics
Schury, Peter; Ichikawa, Yuichi
2017-01-01
This volume presents the proceedings of the International Conference on Trapped Charged Particles and Fundamental Physics (TCP 14). It presents recent developments in the theoretical and experimental research on trapped charged particles and related fundamental physics and applications. The content has been divided topic-wise covering basic questions of Fundamental Physics, Quantum and QED Effects, Plasmas and Collective Behavior and Anti-Hydrogen. More technical issues include Storage Ring Physics, Precision Spectroscopy and Frequency Standards, Highly Charged Ions in Traps, Traps for Radioactive Isotopes and New Techniques and Facilities. An applied aspect of ion trapping is discussed in section devoted to Applications of Particle Trapping including Quantum Information and Processing. Each topic has a more general introduction, but also more detailed contributions are included. A selection of contributions exemplifies the interdisciplinary nature of the research on trapped charged particles worldwide. Repri...
PREFACE: XIV Conference on Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy
Bombaci, I.; Covello, A.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.
2014-07-01
This volume contains the invited and contributed papers presented at the 14th Conference on Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy held in Cortona, Italy, from 29-31 October, 2013. The meeting was held at the Palazzone, an elegant Renaissance Villa, commissioned by the Cardinal Silvio Passerini (1469-1529), Bishop of Cortona, and presently owned by the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. The aim of this biennial Conference is to bring together Italian theorists working in various fields of nuclear physics to discuss their latest results and confront their points of view in a lively and informal way. This offers the opportunity to stimulate new ideas and promote collaborations between different research groups. The Conference was attended by 46 participants, coming from 13 Italian Universities and 11 Laboratories and Sezioni of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - INFN. The program of the conference, prepared by the Organizing Committee (Ignazio Bombaci, Aldo Covello, Laura Elisa Marcucci and Sergio Rosati) focused on the following main topics: Few-Nucleon Systems Nuclear Structure Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Dynamics Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions and Quark-Gluon Plasma Nuclear Astrophysics Nuclear Physics with Electroweak Probes Structure of Hadrons and Hadronic Matter. In the last session of the Conference there were two invited review talks related to experimental activities of great current interest. Giacomo De Angelis from the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro spoke about the INFN SPES radioactive ion beam project. Sara Pirrone, INFN Sezione di Catania, gave a talk on the symmetry energy and isospin physics with the CHIMERA detector. Finally, Mauro Taiuti (Università di Genova), National Coordinator of the INFN-CSN3 (Nuclear Physics Experiments), reported on the present status and future challenges of experimental nuclear physics in Italy. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of INFN who helped make the conference possible. I Bombaci, A Covello
Teaching Elementary Particle Physics, Part II
Hobson, Art
2011-01-01
In order to explain certain features of radioactive beta decay, Wolfgang Pauli suggested in 1930 that the nucleus emitted, in addition to a beta particle, another particle of an entirely new type. The hypothesized particle, dubbed the neutrino, would not be discovered experimentally for another 25 years. It's not easy to detect neutrinos, because…
Geneva University: seminar of particle physics
Geneva University
2012-01-01
GENEVA UNIVERSITY École de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 9 May 2012 SEMINAR OF PARTICLE PHYSICS 11h15 - Science III, Auditoire 1S081 30 The Search for the Magnetic Monopole Dr Philippe Mermod - University of Geneva, DPNC It has long been realised that the existence of a magnetic monopole would be sufficient to explain the quantisation of electric charge, and to symmetrise Maxwell's equations. Furthermore, the monopole is an essential ingredient in Grand Unification theories. Primordial monopoles would have been produced in the Early Universe and still be present today, either in cosmic rays or trapped in matter. Monopoles of accessible masses would also be pair-produced at high-energy accelerators. Their remarkable properties can be exploited to devise various means of direct detection. After reviewin...
External Meeting: Geneva University - Particle physics seminar
Université de Genève
2011-01-01
UNIVERSITE DE GENEVE Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 22 June 2011 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17.00 hrs – Stückelberg Auditorium Indication of νμ→νe appearance in the T2K experiment Indication de la transition νμ→νe dans l’expérience T2K Par Prof. Alain Blondel - DPNC, Université de Genève The T2K neutrino experiment in Japan has searched for νμ → νe appearance in data taken since the start-up in 2010 till11 March 2011. Six events pass all selection criteria at the far detector situated at 295 km while 1.5±0.3(syst.) would be expected if θ13=0 . This is equivalent to an indication of a non zero value of θ13 at a significance of 2.5σ. This process is particu...
Informing Physics: Jacob Bekenstein and the Informational Turn in Theoretical Physics
Belfer, Israel
2014-03-01
In his PhD dissertation in the early 1970s, the Mexican-Israeli theoretical physicist Jacob Bekenstein developed the thermodynamics of black holes using a generalized version of the second law of thermodynamics. This work made it possible for physicists to describe and analyze black holes using information-theoretical concepts. It also helped to transform information theory into a fundamental and foundational concept in theoretical physics. The story of Bekenstein's work—which was initially opposed by many scientists, including Stephen Hawking—highlights the transformation within physics towards an information-oriented scientific mode of theorizing. This "informational turn" amounted to a mild-mannered revolution within physics, revolutionary without being rebellious.
Research in elementary particle physics. Annual report, January 1--October 31, 1992
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1992-11-01
Experimental and theoretical work on high energy physics is reviewed. Included are preparations to study high-energy electron-proton interactions at HERA, light-cone QCD, decays of charm and beauty particles, neutrino oscillation, electron-positron interactions at CLEO II, detector development, and astrophysics and cosmology.
Theoretical dissolution model of poly-disperse drug particles in biorelevant media.
Okazaki, Arimichi; Mano, Takashi; Sugano, Kiyohiko
2008-05-01
The purpose of the present study was to construct the theoretical dissolution model of poly-disperse drug particles in biorelevant media containing bile salt/ lecithin aggregates (micelles or vesicles). The effective diffusion coefficient in the biorelevant medium and the particle size distribution of drug particles were simultaneously factored into the Nernst-Brunner equation. The effective diffusion coefficient of a drug in the biorelevant medium was calculated to be smaller than that in the blank buffer, since the diffusion coefficient of a drug bound to the aggregates became similar to that of the aggregates. The particle size distribution of a drug powder was simulated as the sum of mono-disperse fractions covering the particle size range. To verify the modified equation, the dissolution profile of griseofulvin and danazol in a taurocholic acid/egg lecithin (4:1 mixture, taurocholic acid = 0-30 mM) system was investigated. It was clearly demonstrated that both modifications on the Nernst-Brunner equation improved the prediction accuracy. When the effect of the particle size distribution was neglected, the theoretical curve underestimated the observed value at the early phase of dissolution process. When the diffusion coefficient of a free drug was used instead of the effective diffusion coefficient, the theoretical curve overestimated the observed value. The results of the present study suggested that the effect of the particle size distribution and the effective diffusion coefficient should be taken into consideration.
31st International Colloquium in Group Theoretical Methods in Physics
Gazeau, Jean-Pierre; Faci, Sofiane; Micklitz, Tobias; Scherer, Ricardo; Toppan, Francesco
2017-01-01
This proceedings records the 31st International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics (“Group 31”). Plenary-invited articles propose new approaches to the moduli spaces in gauge theories (V. Pestun, 2016 Weyl Prize Awardee), the phenomenology of neutrinos in non-commutative space-time, the use of Hardy spaces in quantum physics, contradictions in the use of statistical methods on complex systems, and alternative models of supersymmetry. This volume’s survey articles broaden the colloquia’s scope out into Majorana neutrino behavior, the dynamics of radiating charges, statistical pattern recognition of amino acids, and a variety of applications of gauge theory, among others. This year’s proceedings further honors Bertram Kostant (2016 Wigner Medalist), as well as S.T. Ali and L. Boyle, for their life-long contributions to the math and physics communities. The aim of the ICGTMP is to provide a forum for physicists, mathematicians, and scientists of related disciplines who develop or apply ...
Theoretical femtosecond physics atoms and molecules in strong laser fields
Grossmann, Frank
2013-01-01
Theoretical investigations of atoms and molecules interacting with pulsed or continuous wave lasers up to atomic field strengths on the order of 10^16 W/cm² are leading to an understanding of many challenging experimental discoveries. This book deals with the basics of femtosecond physics and goes up to the latest applications of new phenomena. The book presents an introduction to laser physics with mode-locking and pulsed laser operation. The solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation is discussed both analytically and numerically. The basis for the non-perturbative treatment of laser-matter interaction in the book is the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The light field is treated classically, and different possible gauges are discussed. Physical phenonema, ranging from Rabi-oscillations in two-level systems to the ionization of atoms, the generation of high harmonics, the ionization and dissociation of molecules as well as the control of chemical reactions are pre...
The highest energy cosmic rays and new particle physics
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Burdman, G; Halzen, F; Gandhi, R
1998-01-01
... reasonable to speculate that cosmic particles, accelerated to such energy, may exhibit new particle physics. In one scenario they are assumed to be neutrinos which become strongly interacting [2, 3] at these extremely high energies. The physics behind such interactions, being at scales of several tens or even hundreds of TeV, might be in...
Theoretical and experimental physical methods of neutron-capture therapy
Borisov, G. I.
2011-09-01
This review is based to a substantial degree on our priority developments and research at the IR-8 reactor of the Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute. New theoretical and experimental methods of neutron-capture therapy are developed and applied in practice; these are: A general analytical and semi-empiric theory of neutron-capture therapy (NCT) based on classical neutron physics and its main sections (elementary theories of moderation, diffuse, reflection, and absorption of neutrons) rather than on methods of mathematical simulation. The theory is, first of all, intended for practical application by physicists, engineers, biologists, and physicians. This theory can be mastered by anyone with a higher education of almost any kind and minimal experience in operating a personal computer.
Modeling Organizational Design - Applying A Formalism Model From Theoretical Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Fabac
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Modern organizations are exposed to diverse external environment influences. Currently accepted concepts of organizational design take into account structure, its interaction with strategy, processes, people, etc. Organization design and planning aims to align this key organizational design variables. At the higher conceptual level, however, completely satisfactory formulation for this alignment doesn’t exist. We develop an approach originating from the application of concepts of theoretical physics to social systems. Under this approach, the allocation of organizational resources is analyzed in terms of social entropy, social free energy and social temperature. This allows us to formalize the dynamic relationship between organizational design variables. In this paper we relate this model to Galbraith's Star Model and we also suggest improvements in the procedure of the complex analytical method in organizational design.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Levinsen, Simon; Svendsen, Winnie Edith
2009-01-01
In this article we present a generalized theoretical model for the continuous separation of particles using the pinched flow fractionation method. So far the theoretical models have not been able to predict the separation of particles without the use of correction factors. In this article we...... present a model which is capable of predicting the separation from first principles. Furthermore we comment on the importance of the incorporation of the finite height of the micro fluidic channels in the models describing the system behavior. We compare our model with the experiment obtained by Seki et...
Theoretical particle physics, Task A. Progress report, 1990--1991
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1991-07-01
This report briefly discusses the following topics: The Spin Structure of the Nucleon; Solitons and Discrete Symmetries; Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory; Constituent Quarks as Collective Excitations; Kaon Condensation; Limits on Neutrino Masses; The 17 KeV Neutrino and Majoron Models; The Strong CP Problem; Renormalization of the CP Violating {Theta} Parameter; Weak Scale Baryogenesis; Chiral Charge in Finite Temperature QED; The Heavy Higgs Mass Bound; The Heavy Top Quark Bound; The Heavy Top Quark Condensate; The Heavy Top Quark Vacuum Instability; Phase Diagram of the Lattice Higgs-Yukawa Model; Anomalies and the Standard Model on the Lattice; Constraint Effective Potential in a Finite Box; Resonance Picture in a Finite Box; Fractal Dimension of Critical Clusters; Goldstone Bosons at Finite Temperature; Cluster Algorithms and Scaling in CP(N) Models; Rare Decay Modes of the Z{degrees} Vector Boson; Parity-Odd Spin-Dependent Structure Functions; Radiative Corrections, Top Mass and LEP Data; Supersymmetric Model with the Higgs as a Lepton; Chiral Change Oscillation in the Schwinger Model; Electric Dipole Moment of the Neutron; DOE Grand Challenge Program; and Lattice Quantum Electrodynamics.
Measurement of the physical properties of secondary organic aerosol particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kannosto, J.
2012-07-01
The work of this thesis concentrates on applying the Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI, Dekati Ltd.) and scanning/differential mobility particle sizer (SMPS/DMPS) to estimate the particle density and particle solidity of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) d{sub me} < 200 nm. The density estimation method has been extended to smaller particle sizes and the data treatment of the method has been modified to be suitable for large data series and multimodal size distributions. The limitations of the method have been studied using both laboratory tests and simulations. The lowest mode particle diameter for the density method was found to be 10 nm. For multimodal size distributions, the density results varied approximately by 15 %. The density measurements were performed at the SMEAR II station and the density of boreal forest particles was measured. The ELPI was used to study the physical phase of the fresh SOA particles formed by ozonolysis of pure {alpha}-pinene and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of a living Scots pine in a chamber. The phase of SOA particles formed in the boreal forest was analyzed as well. The particles were found to bounce from smooth impaction plates of ELPI towards lower impactor stages. The behavior was interpreted as an indication of a solid physical phase of the particles. The interpretation was corroborated by SEM (Scanning electron microscope) images. In the TEM (Tunneling electron microscope) analysis, the particles were non-crystalline. Based on these results, the particles were inferred to have adopted an amorphous (glassy) physical state. The {alpha}-pinene particles had similar bouncing ability as the Scots pine derived particles indicating similar physical phase behavior. The measured bounce factor did not significantly change during the particle growth for particles larger than 40 nm, indicating no changes in particle solidity. For the smallest particles (below 40 nm), the calculated bounce factor increased as the particles grew
Theoretical physics implications of gravitational wave observation with future detectors
Chamberlain, Katie; Yunes, Nicolás
2017-10-01
Gravitational waves encode invaluable information about the nature of the relatively unexplored extreme gravity regime, where the gravitational interaction is strong, nonlinear and highly dynamical. Recent gravitational wave observations by advanced LIGO have provided the first glimpses into this regime, allowing for the extraction of new inferences on different aspects of theoretical physics. For example, these detections provide constraints on the mass of the graviton, Lorentz violation in the gravitational sector, the existence of large extra dimensions, the temporal variability of Newton's gravitational constant, and modified dispersion relations of gravitational waves. Many of these constraints, however, are not yet competitive with constraints obtained, for example, through Solar System observations or binary pulsar observations. In this paper, we study the degree to which theoretical physics inferences drawn from gravitational wave observations will strengthen with detections from future detectors. We consider future ground-based detectors, such as the LIGO-class expansions A + , Voyager, Cosmic Explorer and the Einstein Telescope, as well as space-based detectors, such as various configurations of eLISA and the recently proposed LISA mission. We find that space-based detectors will place constraints on general relativity up to 12 orders of magnitude more stringently than current aLIGO bounds, but these space-based constraints are comparable to those obtained with the ground-based Cosmic Explorer or the Einstein Telescope (A + and Voyager only lead to modest improvements in constraints). We also generically find that improvements in the instrument sensitivity band at low frequencies lead to large improvements in certain classes of constraints, while sensitivity improvements at high frequencies lead to more modest gains. These results strengthen the case for the development of future detectors, while providing additional information that could be useful in
China pursues major role in particle physics
Overbye, Dennis
2006-01-01
Chinese physicists invented a sort of onion-layer theory of particles called the straton model, in which both protons and electrons have a common constituent. Sheldon Glashow, the physicist and Nobelist now at Boston University, once suggested that such a particle, if found. should be named the Maon. (4,5 pages)
Bonch-Osmolovsky, A G
1994-01-01
This volume discusses the theory of new methods of charged particle acceleration and its physical and mathematical descriptions. It examines some collective effects in dense charged particle ensembles, and traces the history of the development of the field of accelerator physics.
Wanted: Moderators for International Masterclasses in Particle Physics
2015-01-01
The International Masterclasses in Particle Physics give high school students from around the world the opportunity to become particle physicists for a day. CERN physicists are invited to participate in next year’s Masterclass programme, to be held from 11 February to 23 March 2016. The International Masterclasses in Particle Physics conclude with a video conference, where students from different countries connect with moderators at CERN to discuss their results. During a Masterclass, high-school students work with recent data from the LHC experiments under the supervision of physicists. For example, students can rediscover the Z boson or the structure of the proton, reconstruct strange particles or measure the lifetime of the D0 particle. “Students get a taste of how modern physics research works by working directly with particle physicists and using real LHC data,” says Uta Bilow from TU Dresden, coordinator of the International Mas...
Roederer, Juan G
2014-01-01
This book is a new edition of Roederer’s classic Dynamics of Geomagnetically Trapped Radiation, updated and considerably expanded. The main objective is to describe the dynamic properties of magnetically trapped particles in planetary radiation belts and plasmas and explain the physical processes involved from the theoretical point of view. The approach is to examine in detail the orbital and adiabatic motion of individual particles in typical configurations of magnetic and electric fields in the magnetosphere and, from there, derive basic features of the particles’ collective “macroscopic” behavior in general planetary environments. Emphasis is not on the “what” but on the “why” of particle phenomena in near-earth space, providing a solid and clear understanding of the principal basic physical mechanisms and dynamic processes involved. The book will also serve as an introduction to general space plasma physics, with abundant basic examples to illustrate and explain the physical origin of diff...
Annihilation physics of exotic galactic dark matter particles
Stecker, F. W.
1990-01-01
Various theoretical arguments make exotic heavy neutral weakly interacting fermions, particularly those predicted by supersymmetry theory, attractive candidates for making up the large amount of unseen gravitating mass in galactic halos. Such particles can annihilate with each other, producing secondary particles of cosmic-ray energies, among which are antiprotons, positrons, neutrinos, and gamma-rays. Spectra and fluxes of these annihilation products can be calculated, partly by making use of positron electron collider data and quantum chromodynamic models of particle production derived therefrom. These spectra may provide detectable signatures of exotic particle remnants of the big bang.
Theoretical photon origin, a didactic introduction to the wave particle duality
L., Paco H Talero
2016-01-01
In modern physics courses the idea of photon has been teaching through from the einsteinian formulation based on the photoelectric effect. Einstein's photon concept allow the quantization of the electromagnetic field, but does not dwell on the idea of photon as particle. The objective of this paper was to demonstrate that the photon has its origin essentially in the special relativity, the electromagnetic theory and in the symmetry between the Lorentz's transformations associated flat monochromatic electromagnetic waves and particles with zero rest mass. This approach allows to understand the wave-particle duality of photon and allows to propose an alternative teaching focused on this duality to develop the course of modern physics.
The standard theory of particle physics essays to celebrate CERN's 60th anniversary
Rolandi, Luigi
2016-01-01
The book gives a quite complete and up-to-date picture of the Standard Theory with an historical perspective, with a collection of articles written by some of the protagonists of present particle physics. The theoretical developments are described together with the most up-to-date experimental tests, including the discovery of the Higgs Boson and the measurement of its mass as well as the most precise measurements of the top mass, giving the reader a complete description of our present understanding of particle physics.
The standard theory of particle physics Essays to celebrate CERN’s 60th anniversary
Maiani, Luciano
2016-01-01
The book gives a quite complete and up-to-date picture of the Standard Theory with an historical perspective, with a collection of articles written by some of the protagonists of present particle physics. The theoretical developments are described together with the most up-to-date experimental tests, including the discovery of the Higgs Boson and the measurement of its mass as well as the most precise measurements of the top mass, giving the reader a complete description of our present understanding of particle physics.
Experiment and theory in particle physics: Reflections on the discovery of the tau lepton
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perl, M.L.
1996-08-01
This article is thoughts from the author on particle physics work from his perspective. It is not a summary of his work on the tau lepton, but rather a look at what makes good science, experimental and theoretical, from his experiences in the field. The section titles give a good summary on the topics the author chooses to touch upon. They are: the state of elementary particle physics; getting good ideas in experimental science; a difficult field; experiments and experimenting; 10% of the money and 30% of the time; the dictatorship of theory; technological dreams; last words.
Particle Physics Meets Cosmology -- The Search for Decaying Neutrinos.
Henry, Richard C.
1982-01-01
Detection of neutrino decay may have profound consequences for both particle physics and cosmology, providing a deep connection between physics of the very large and physics of the very small. Describes this link and discusses the nature and status of the search for decaying neutrinos. (Author/JN)
Physical Violence between Siblings: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis
Hoffman, Kristi L.; Kiecolt, K. Jill; Edwards, John N.
2005-01-01
This study develops and tests a theoretical model to explain sibling violence based on the feminist, conflict, and social learning theoretical perspectives and research in psychology and sociology. A multivariate analysis of data from 651 young adults generally supports hypotheses from all three theoretical perspectives. Males with brothers have…
CERN Library
2012-01-01
Are you looking for some specific information in particle physics? For example, the main literature databases, data repositories or laboratories... Just go to the Libary's Online Particle Physics Information page. There you'll find a wide selection of relevant information, as well as resources in particle physics and related areas. The collection covers all aspects of the discipline - in addition to traditional scientific information resources you can find, for example, a selection of relevant blogs and art websites. This webpage is an extended and regularly updated version of the chapter on Online Particle Physics Information in the Review of Particle Properties. It is maintained by the CERN Library team which welcomes suggestions for additions and updates: library.desk@cern.ch.
PHYSICS, SCIENCE POLICY CERN's seven-point strategy for future particle physics
2004-01-01
Better coordinated particle accelerator research, with more powerful technology, are major priorities on the seven-point "to do list" revealed last week by CERN, the world's largest particle physics laboratory
Challenging particle physics as path to truth
Johnson, G
2001-01-01
Particle physicist's ultimate goal is 'grand unification' - describing the four forces observed today - electromagnetism, weak and strong nuclear forces and gravity with just a single law, expressable as a few concise equations. But some solid state physicists are now contesting the validity of this approach, arguing that many forms of matter cannot be described solely in terms of fundamental particle interactions - when systems are very complex, new and independent laws emerge. They propose that there is no one theory of everything, just a lot of theories of things.
Elementary Particle Physics in Belgium Exhibition
2000-01-01
The experimental activities of the Belgian Universities and Institutes are performed within the framework of large international collaborations. Moreover, the universities whose name is colored in light blue with * on the map of Belgium also take part into theoretical work. (All these activities are mainly supported by the FNRS-FWO research foundations.)
Particle Physics: The mass of a top
Skands, Peter
2014-01-01
A measurement of the mass of the heftiest-known elementary particle, the top quark, which exists for less than a trillionth of a trillionth of a second, sheds light on the ultimate fate of our Universe, although ambiguities cloud its interpretation.
The role of supersymmetry phenomenology in particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wells, James D.
2000-12-14
Supersymmetry phenomenology is an important component of particle physics today. I provide a definition of supersymmetry phenomenology, outline the scope of its activity, and argue its legitimacy. This essay derives from a presentation given at the 2000 SLAC Summer Institute.
Obituaries: Oreste Piccioni, 86, a leader in particle physics field
2002-01-01
Oreste Piccioni, a leading scientist in the field of elementary particle physics and emeritus professor at the University of California, San Diego, USA, has died of complications from diabetes and lung cancer. He was 86 (1 page).
Symmetry and the Standard Model mathematics and particle physics
Robinson, Matthew
2011-01-01
While elementary particle physics is an extraordinarily fascinating field, the huge amount of knowledge necessary to perform cutting-edge research poses a formidable challenge for students. The leap from the material contained in the standard graduate course sequence to the frontiers of M-theory, for example, is tremendous. To make substantial contributions to the field, students must first confront a long reading list of texts on quantum field theory, general relativity, gauge theory, particle interactions, conformal field theory, and string theory. Moreover, waves of new mathematics are required at each stage, spanning a broad set of topics including algebra, geometry, topology, and analysis. Symmetry and the Standard Model: Mathematics and Particle Physics, by Matthew Robinson, is the first volume of a series intended to teach math in a way that is catered to physicists. Following a brief review of classical physics at the undergraduate level and a preview of particle physics from an experimentalist's per...
FOREWORD: Corfu Summer Institute on Elementary Particle Physics (CORFU2005)
Anagnostopoulos, Konstantinos; Antoniadis, Ignatios; Fanourakis, George; Kehagias, Alexandros; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Wess, Julius; Zoupanos, George
2006-12-01
These are the Proceedings of the Corfu Summer Institute on Elementary Particle Physics (CORFU2005) (http://corfu2005.physics.uoi.gr), which took place in Corfu, Greece from 4 - 26 September 2005. The Corfu Summer Institute has a very long, interesting and successful history, some elements of which can be found in http://www.corfu-summer-institute.gr. In short, the Corfu Meeting started as a Summer School on Elementary Particle Physics (EPP) mostly for Greek graduate students in 1982 and has developed into a leading international Summer Institute in the field of EPP, both experimental and theoretical, providing in addition a very rich outreach programme to teachers and school students. The CORFU2005 Summer Institute on EPP, although based on the general format that has been developed and established in the Corfu Meetings during previous years, is characterized by the fact that it was a full realization of a new idea, which started experimentally in the previous two Corfu Meetings. The successful new ingredient was that three European Marie Curie Research Training Networks decided to hold their Workshops in Corfu during September 2005 and they managed to coordinate the educational part of their meetings to a huge Summer School called `The 8th Hellenic School on Elementary Particle Physics' (4 - 11 September). The European Networks which joined forces to materialize this project and the corresponding dates of their own Workshops are: The Third Generation as a Probe for New Physics: Experimental and Technological Approach (4 - 11 September) The Quest for Unification Theory Confronts Experiment (11 - 18 September) Constituents Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe (20 - 26 September) To these Workshops has been added a Satellite one called `Noncommutative Geometry in Field and String Theory', and some extra speakers have been invited to complement the full programme of CORFU2005, some of whom have integrated into the Workshop's programme. The result was
Quarks, Leptons, and Bosons: A Particle Physics Primer.
Wagoner, Robert; Goldsmith, Donald
1983-01-01
Presented is a non-technical introduction to particle physics. The material is adapted from chapter 3 of "Cosmic Horizons," (by Robert Wagoner and Don Goldsmith), a lay-person's introduction to cosmology. Among the topics considered are elementary particles, forces and motion, and higher level structures. (JN)
Teaching Particle Physics in the Open University's Science Foundation Course.
Farmelo, Graham
1992-01-01
Discusses four topics presented in the science foundation course of the Open University that exemplify current developments in particle physics, in particular, and that describe important issues about the nature of science, in general. Topics include the omega minus particle, the diversity of quarks, the heavy lepton, and the discovery of the W…
Experiences in automatic keywording of particle physics literature
Montejo Ráez, Arturo
2001-01-01
Attributing keywords can assist in the classification and retrieval of documents in the particle physics literature. As information services face a future with less available manpower and more and more documents being written, the possibility of keyword attribution being assisted by automatic classification software is explored. A project being carried out at CERN (the European Laboratory for Particle Physics) for the development and integration of automatic keywording is described.
Atomic, molecular, and optical physics charged particles
Dunning, F B
1995-01-01
With this volume, Methods of Experimental Physics becomes Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences, a name change which reflects the evolution of todays science. This volume is the first of three which will provide a comprehensive treatment of the key experimental methods of atomic, molecular, and optical physics; the three volumes as a set will form an excellent experimental handbook for the field. The wide availability of tunable lasers in the pastseveral years has revolutionized the field and lead to the introduction of many new experimental methods that are covered in these volumes. Traditional methods are also included to ensure that the volumes will be a complete reference source for the field.
Femtophysics a short course on particle physics
Bowler, Michael George
1990-01-01
Provides an account of what is now known about physics at scales of 1013 to 1016 cm. The existence of spin half quarks interacting through colour fields is established fact, as is the structure unifying electromagnetic and weak interaction. In Femtophysics, the author explains the evidence and communicates the essential physics underlying these recent and remarkable developments. The approach throughout is to obtain results by applying trivial algebra to the content of simple and clear physical pictures. Thus, abstract and difficult concepts can be mastered pai
Particle physics: Matter and antimatter scrutinized
Jungmann, Klaus Peter
2015-01-01
A search for differences in the charge-to-mass ratio of protons and antiprotons, conducted at unprecedented levels of precision, results in stringent limits to the validity of fundamental physical symmetries.
Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.
1992-06-01
This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixed-target k-decay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electron-positron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP).
The engineering needed for particle physics.
Myers, Steve
2012-08-28
Today's particle accelerators and detectors are among the most complicated and expensive scientific instruments ever built, and they exploit almost every aspect of today's cutting-edge engineering technologies. In many cases, accelerator needs have been the driving force behind these new technologies, necessity being the mother of invention. This paper gives an overview of some engineering requirements for the construction and operation of present-day accelerators and detectors.
Majee, Partha Sarathi; Bhattacharyya, Somnath; Gopmandal, Partha Pratim; Ohshima, Hiroyuki
2017-09-21
A theoretical study on the gel electrophoresis of a charged particle incorporating the effects of dielectric polarization and surface hydrophobicity at the particle-liquid interface is made. A simplified model based on the weak applied field and low charge density assumption is also presented and compared with the full numerical model for a nonpolarizable particle to elucidate the nonlinear effects such as double layer polarization and relaxation as well as surface conduction. The main motivation of this study is to analyze the electrophoresis of the surface functionalized nanoparticle with tunable hydrophobicity or charged fluid drop in gel medium by considering the electrokinetic effects and hydrodynamic interactions between the particle and the gel medium. An effective medium approach, in which the transport in the electrolyte-saturated hydrogel medium is governed by the Brinkman equation, is adopted in the present analysis. The governing electrokinetic equations based on the conservation principles are solved numerically. The Navier-slip boundary condition along with the continuity condition of dielectric displacement are imposed on the surface of the hydrophobic polarizable particle. The impact of the slip length on the electrophoresis is profound for a thinner Debye layer, however, surface conduction effect also becomes significant for a hydrophobic particle. Impact of hydrophobicity and relaxation effects are higher for a larger particle. Dielectric polarization creates a reduction in its electrophoretic propulsion and has negligible impact at the thinner Debye length as well as lower gel screening length. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Quantum entanglement of identical particles by standard information-theoretic notions.
Lo Franco, Rosario; Compagno, Giuseppe
2016-02-09
Quantum entanglement of identical particles is essential in quantum information theory. Yet, its correct determination remains an open issue hindering the general understanding and exploitation of many-particle systems. Operator-based methods have been developed that attempt to overcome the issue. Here we introduce a state-based method which, as second quantization, does not label identical particles and presents conceptual and technical advances compared to the previous ones. It establishes the quantitative role played by arbitrary wave function overlaps, local measurements and particle nature (bosons or fermions) in assessing entanglement by notions commonly used in quantum information theory for distinguishable particles, like partial trace. Our approach furthermore shows that bringing identical particles into the same spatial location functions as an entangling gate, providing fundamental theoretical support to recent experimental observations with ultracold atoms. These results pave the way to set and interpret experiments for utilizing quantum correlations in realistic scenarios where overlap of particles can count, as in Bose-Einstein condensates, quantum dots and biological molecular aggregates.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nolting, Wolfgang [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany)
2015-07-01
The basic course theoretical physics, quantum mechanics covers the following issues: quantum theory of angular momentum: orbital angular momentum, spin, relativistic theory of the electron, addition of momentum; central potential: fundamentals, coulomb potential, spherical symmetric potential well, the free particle; approximation procedures: variational method, time independent perturbation theory, time dependent (Dirac) perturbation theory, quasi-classical approximation (WKB method); many-particle systems: identical particles, second quantization, applications; scattering theory: fundamentals, partial waves method, integral equations for scattering problems, formal scattering theory.
The cosmic microwave background - A probe of particle physics
Silk, Joseph
1990-01-01
The current status of spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background is reviewed, with emphasis on the role played by weakly interacting particle dark matter. Theoretical predictions and recent observational results are described, and prospects for future progress are summarized.
PREFACE: High Energy Particle Physics Workshop (HEPPW2015)
Cornell, Alan S.; Mellado, B.
2015-10-01
The motivation for this workshop began with the discovery of the Higgs boson three years ago, and the realisation that many problems remain in particle physics, such as why there is more matter than anti-matter, better determining the still poorly measured parameters of the strong force, explaining possible sources for dark matter, naturalness etc. While the newly discovered Higgs boson seems to be compatible with the Standard Model, current experimental accuracy is far from providing a definitive statement with regards to the nature of this new particle. There is a lot of room for physics beyond the Standard Model to emerge in the exploration of the Higgs boson. Recent measurements in high-energy heavy ion collisions at the LHC have shed light on the complex dynamics that govern high-density quark-gluon interactions. An array of results from the ALICE collaboration have been highlighted in a recent issue of CERN courier. The physics program of high-energy heavy ion collisions promises to further unveil the intricacies of high-density quark-gluon plasma physics. The great topicality of high energy physics research has also seen a rapid increase in the number of researchers in South Africa pursuing such studies, both experimentally through the ATLAS and ALICE colliders at CERN, and theoretically. Young researchers and graduate students largely populate these research groups, with little experience in presenting their work, and few support structures (to their knowledge) to share experiences with. Whilst many schools and workshops have sought to educate these students on the theories and tools they will need to pursue their research, few have provided them with a platform to present their work. As such, this workshop discussed the various projects being pursued by graduate students and young researchers in South Africa, enabling them to develop networks for future collaboration and discussion. The workshop took place at the iThemba Laboratories - North facility, in
2005-01-01
Current research in High Energy Physics focuses on a number of enigmatic issues that go beyond the very successful Standard Model of particle physics. Among these are the problem of neutrino mass, the (as yet) unobserved Higgs particle, the quark-gluon plasma, quantum aspects of gravity, and the so--called hierarchy problem. Satisfactory resolution of these important questions will take much research effort in both theory and experiment. The Science & Engineering Research Council, Department of Science & Technology has sponsored a series of SERC Schools in Theoretical High Energy Physics over the past several years, to provide instruction and training to graduate students working for research degrees. This book is an outcome of the schools held at the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata in 2000, and at the Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad in 2001. Based on lectures by active researchers in the field---Rajiv Gavai, Debashis Ghoshal, Dileep Jatkar, Anjan Joshipura, Biswarup Mukhopadhy...
Beacons of discovery the worldwide science of particle physics
International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA)
2011-01-01
To discover what our world is made of and how it works at the most fundamental level is the challenge of particle physics. The tools of particle physics—experiments at particle accelerators and underground laboratories, together with observations of space—bring opportunities for discovery never before within reach. Thousands of scientists from universities and laboratories around the world collaborate to design, build and use unique detectors and accelerators to explore the fundamental physics of matter, energy, space and time. Together, in a common world-wide program of discovery, they provide a deep understanding of the world around us and countless benefits to society. Beacons of Discovery presents a vision of the global science of particle physics at the dawn of a new light on the mystery and beauty of the universe.
Elementary Particle Physics at Syracuse. Final Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Catterall, Simon [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hubisz, Jay [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Balachandran, Aiyalam [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Schechter, Joe [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics
2013-01-05
This final report describes the activities of the high energy theory group at Syracuse University for the period 1 January 2010 through April 30 2013. The research conducted by the group includes lattice gauge theory, non-commutative geometry, phenomenology and mathematical physics.
Elementary Particle Physics at Baylor (Final Report)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dittmann, J.R.
2012-08-25
This report summarizes the activities of the Baylor University Experimental High Energy Physics (HEP) group on the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment from August 15, 2005 to May 31, 2012. Led by the Principal Investigator (Dr. Jay R. Dittmann), the Baylor HEP group has actively pursued a variety of cutting-edge measurements from proton-antiproton collisions at the energy frontier.
Quantum Optics, Diffraction Theory, and Elementary Particle Physics
CERN. Geneva
2009-01-01
Physical optics has expanded greatly in recent years. Though it remains part of the ancestry of elementary particle physics, there are once again lessons to be learned from it. I shall discuss several of these, including some that have emerged at CERN and Brookhaven.
Symmetries of Particle Physics: Space-time and Local Gauge ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
GENERAL I ARTICLE. Symmetries of Particle Physics: Space-time and. Local Gauge Symmetries. Sourendu Gupta works on the physics of matter under extreme conditions. He works at the Tata. Institute of Fundamental. Research, Mumbai. Figure 1. Experiment and theory feed on each other. Sourendu Gupta. Introduction.
Review of lattice results concerning low energy particle physics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aoki, Sinya; Aoki, Yasumichi; Bernard, Claude
2014-01-01
We review lattice results related to pion, kaon, D- and B-meson physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle physics community. More specifically, we report on the determination of the light-quark masses, the form factor f+(0), arising in semileptonic K -> pi transition...
Particle and nuclear physics instrumentation and its broad connections
Demarteau, M.; Lipton, R.; Nicholson, H.; Shipsey, I.
2016-10-01
Subatomic physics shares with other basic sciences the need to innovate, invent, and develop tools, techniques, and technologies to carry out its mission to explore the nature of matter, energy, space, and time. In some cases, entire detectors or technologies developed specifically for particle physics research have been adopted by other fields of research or in commercial applications. In most cases, however, the development of new devices and technologies by particle physics for its own research has added value to other fields of research or to applications beneficial to society by integrating them in the existing technologies. Thus, detector research and development has not only advanced the current state of technology for particle physics, but has often advanced research in other fields of science and has underpinned progress in numerous applications in medicine and national security. At the same time particle physics has profited immensely from developments in industry and applied them to great benefit for the use of particle physics detectors. This symbiotic relationship has seen strong mutual benefits with sometimes unexpected far reach.
We need theoretical physics approaches to study living systems
Blagoev, Krastan B.; Shukla, Kamal; affil="3" >Herbert Levine,
2013-08-01
Living systems, as created initially by the transition from assemblies of large molecules to self-reproducing information-rich cells, have for centuries been studied via the empirical toolkit of biology. This has been a highly successful enterprise, bringing us from the vague non-scientific notions of vitalism to the modern appreciation of the biophysical and biochemical bases of life. Yet, the truly mind-boggling complexity of even the simplest self-sufficient cells, let alone the emergence of multicellular organisms, of brain and consciousness, and to ecological communities and human civilizations, calls out for a complementary approach. In this editorial, we propose that theoretical physics can play an essential role in making sense of living matter. When faced with a highly complex system, a physicist builds simplified models. Quoting Philip W Anderson's Nobel prize address, 'the art of model-building is the exclusion of real but irrelevant parts of the problem and entails hazards for the builder and the reader. The builder may leave out something genuinely relevant and the reader, armed with too sophisticated an experimental probe, may take literally a schematized model. Very often such a simplified model throws more light on the real working of nature....' In his formulation, the job of a theorist is to get at the crux of the system by ignoring details and yet to find a testable consequence of the resulting simple picture. This is rather different than the predilection of the applied mathematician who wants to include all the known details in the hope of a quantitative simulacrum of reality. These efforts may be practically useful, but do not usually lead to increased understanding. To illustrate how this works, we can look at a non-living example of complex behavior that was afforded by spatiotemporal patterning in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction [1]. Physicists who worked on this system did not attempt to determine all the relevant chemical intermediates
First, Leili K.
This dissertation investigates the intersections and interactions of factors which enhance and inhibit creativity in theoretical physics research, using a situational analysis of the fifth Solvay Council on Physics of 1927 (Solvay 1927), a pivotal point in the history of quantum physics. Situational analysis is a postmodern variant of the grounded theory method which views a situation as the unit of analysis and adds situational mapping as an analytic tool. This method specifically works against normalizing or simplifying the points of view, instead drawing out diversity, complexity, and contradiction. It results in "theorizing" rather than theory. This research differs from other analyses of the development of quantum mechanics in looking at technical issues as well as individual, collective, and societal factors. Data examined in this historical analysis includes theoretical papers, conference proceedings, personal letters, and commentary and analysis, both contemporaneous and modern. Literature related to scientific creativity was also consulted. Mapping the situation as a master discourse of Niels Bohr overlapping and interacting with co-existent major discourses on matrix mechanics/Copenhagen interpretation, wave mechanics, and the pilot-wave theory resulted in the most descriptive illustration of the factors influencing scientific creativity before and after Solvay 1927. The master discourse strongly influenced the major discourses and generated the "Copenhagen spirit" which effectively marginalized discourses other than matrix mechanics/Copenhagen interpretation after Solvay 1927.
Particle physics after the Higgs discovery: Philosophical perspectives
Friederich, Simon; Lehmkuhl, Dennis
2015-08-01
The recent discovery at the LHC of a particle with properties matching those expected of the Higgs boson is a decisive event in the history of particle physics. The present special section combines three contributions that approach conceptual and methodological challenges related to this event and the current situation in particle physics from different angles. One contribution studies the experimental practices of contemporary particle physics by investigating the role of computer simulations in these practices; in particular, it focuses on the status of simulations as compared to experiments that in some circumstances have analogous functions. One contribution investigates the status of the controversial naturalness problem that many physicists see as the most severe shortcoming of the Standard Model of elementary particle physics. Finally, a third contribution critically assesses the impact of suggested no-go theorems concerning the interpretability of rigorous algebraic quantum field theory in terms of particles at the phenomenological level. In what follows we present a short overview of these contributions, highlighting some of their central ideas and arguments and putting them into context.
Simulation of fast ignitor physics using GaPH (a fluid element particle in cell) method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shon, J.W.; Bateson, W.B.; Hewett, D.W.; Tabak, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
1998-12-31
A new plasma/fluid transport algorithm, called GaPH, is developed, which retains the strengths of the particle and hydrodynamic methods. By including internal velocity characteristics of real particles within each finite size macroparticle, a redundancy is introduced in the representation of the real particle distribution. The internal velocity distribution within each particles evolves hydrodynamically. The result of this evolution is then fit to three new particles. The hydrodynamic evolution establishes the partitioning of moments into central and expansion particles. Such aggressive increases in the number of individual particles probe for emerging features in the distribution. If features fail to materialize, the redundancy that results from the internal velocity distribution is exploited to allow aggressive merging to reduce the number of particles needed to represent the distribution. Therefore, GaPH gives particle simulation results without the computational expense. Using GaPH, the authors are planning to simulate the propagation of suprathermal electrons from critical density to the high density core and their interactions with background plasma in order to provide a basis for theoretical description of fast ignitor physics. In order to model this process with GaPH, work is now underway to add essential new capabilities, including a radiation model, equation of state, and atomic collisions.
Wigner particle theory and local quantum physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fassarella, Lucio; Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: fassarel@cbpf.br; schroer@cbpf.br
2002-01-01
Wigner's irreducible positive energy representations of the Poincare group are often used to give additional justifications for the Lagrangian quantization formalism of standard QFT. Here we study another more recent aspect. We explain in this paper modular concepts by which we are able to construct the local operator algebras for all standard positive energy representations directly without going through field coordinations. In this way the artificial emphasis on Lagrangian field coordinates is avoided from the very beginning. These new concepts allow to treat also those cases of 'exceptional' Wigner representations associated with anyons and the famous Wigner spin tower which have remained inaccessible to Lagrangian quantization. Together with the d=1+1 factorizing models (whose modular construction has been studied previously), they form an interesting family of theories with a rich vacuum-polarization structure (but no on shell real particle creation) to which the modular methods can be applied for their explicit construction. We explain and illustrate the algebraic strategy of this construction. We also comment on possibilities of formulating the Wigner theory in a setting of a noncommutativity. (author)
Geneva University: seminar of particle physics
Geneva University
2012-01-01
Université de Genève École de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Mercredi 20 juin 2012 SÉMINAIRE DE PHYSIQUE CORPUSCULAIRE 11h15 - Auditoire Stückelberg, École de physique Searches for SUSY at the LHC : status and prospects Dr Monica D’Onofrio - University of Liverpool Supersymmetry is a theory that provides an extension of the Standard Model and naturally solves the hierarchy problem by introducing supersymmetric partners of the known bosons and fermions. The ATLAS and CMS collaborations are searching for SUSY particles in several final states, exploiting at best the excellent quality of the data delivered by the LHC and recorded by the experiments. I shall review the most recent results, with prospects for near and far future. INFORMATION : http://dpnc.unige.ch/seminaire/annon...
9th International Conference on Interconnections between Particle Physics and Cosmology
2015-01-01
Recent advances in observational astronomy and the discovery of 125-GeV Higgs boson have brought paradigm shifts on the potential connections between new fundamental particles and our understanding of their impact on the early universe and its evolution. With the content of the universe well known from astrophysical observations, a key aspect is that 27% of the universe appears to consist of dark matter. If current theories are correct, the particle physics candidate for this matter may well be observed in ongoing direct and/or indirect dark matter detection experiments or at the LHC. In addition, about 69% of the universe, the dark energy, still remains a significant mystery that major theoretical attempts are trying to understand. The objectives of PPC 2015 are to analyze the connection between dark matter and particle physics models, discuss the connections among dark matter, grand unification models and recent neutrino results, explore predictions for ongoing and forthcoming experiments, develop a theore...
NEUTRINOS: Mysterious Particles with Fascinating Features, which led to the Physics Nobel Prize 2015
Aguilar-Arevalo, Alexis
2016-01-01
The most abundant particles in the Universe are photons and neutrinos. Both types of particles are whirling around everywhere, since the early Universe. Hence the neutrinos are all around us, and permanently pass through our planet and our bodies, but we do not notice: they are extremely elusive. They were suggested as a theoretical hypothesis in 1930, and discovered experimentally in 1956. Ever since their properties keep on surprising us; for instance, they are key players in the violation of parity symmetry. In the Standard Model of particle physics they appear in three types, known as "flavors", and since 1998/9 we know that they keep on transmuting among these flavors. This "neutrino oscillation" implies that they are massive, contrary to the previous picture, with far-reaching consequences. This discovery was awarded the Physics Nobel Prize 2015.
Einstein's and Cassirer's different adoption of the Helmholtzian Tradition of Theoretical Physics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brock, Steen
2006-01-01
An analysis of Einstein and Ernst Cassirer's different views of the possibility of a general development of theoretical physics, based on a comparison with the view of Niels Bohr.......An analysis of Einstein and Ernst Cassirer's different views of the possibility of a general development of theoretical physics, based on a comparison with the view of Niels Bohr....
Particle physics for primary schools—enthusing future physicists
Pavlidou, M.; Lazzeroni, C.
2016-09-01
In recent years, the realisation that children make decisions and choices about subjects they like in primary school, became widely understood. For this reason academic establishments focus some of their public engagement activities towards the younger ages. Taking advantage of Professor Lazzeroni’s long-standing experience in particle physics research, during the last academic year we designed and trialled a particle physics workshop for primary schools. The workshop allows young children (ages 8-11) to learn the world of fundamental particles, use creative design to make particle models. The workshop has already been trialled in many primary schools, receiving very positive evaluation. The initial resources were reviewed and improved, based on the feedback received from school teachers and communicators.
Finite-particle-number approach to physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noyes, H.P.
1982-10-01
Starting from a discrete, self-generating and self-organizing, recursive model and self-consistent interpretive rules we construct: the scale constants of physics (3,10,137,1.7x10/sup 38/); 3+1 Minkowski space with a discrete metric and the algebraic bound ..delta.. is an element of ..delta.. tau is greater than or equal to 1; the Einstein-deBroglie relation; algebraic double slit interference; a single-time momentum-space scattering theory connected to laboratory experience; an approximation to wave functions; local phase severance and hence both distant correlations and separability; baryon number, lepton number, charge and helicity; m/sub p//m/sub e/; a cosmology not in disagreement with current observations.
On the golden road : Open access publishing in particle physics
CERN. Geneva
2007-01-01
The particle physics community has over the last 15 years achieved so-called full green open access through the wide dissemination ofpreprints via arXiv, a central subject repository managed by Cornell University. However, green open access does not alleviate the economical difficulties of libraries as these still are expected to offer access to versions of record of the peer-reviewed literature. For this reason the particle physics community is now addressing the issue of gold open access by converting a set of the existing core journals to open access. A working party works now to bring together funding agencies, laboratories and libraries into a single consortium, called SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open access Publishing in Particle Physics). This consortium will engage with publishers towards building a sustainable model for open access publishing. In this model, subscription fees from multiple institutions are replaced with contracts with publishers of open access journals where the SCOAP3 consort...
On the golden road Open access publishing in particle physics
CERN. Geneva; Yeomans, Joanne
2007-01-01
The particle physics community has over the last 15 years achieved so-called full green open access through the wide dissemination ofpreprints via arXiv, a central subject repository managed by Cornell University. However, green open access does not alleviate the economical difficulties of libraries as these still are expected to offer access to versions of record of the peer-reviewed literature. For this reason the particle physics community is now addressing the issue of gold open access by converting a set of the existing core journals to open access. A working party works now to bring together funding agencies, laboratories and libraries into a single consortium, called SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open access Publishing in Particle Physics). This consortium will engage with publishers towards building a sustainable model for open access publishing. In this model, subscription fees from multiple institutions are replaced with contracts with publishers of open access journals where the SCOAP3 consorti...
Thirty Unsolved Problems in the Physics of Elementary Particles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christianto V.
2007-10-01
Full Text Available Unlike what some physicists and graduate students used to think, that physics science has come to the point that the only improvement needed is merely like adding more numbers in decimal place for the masses of elementary particles or gravitational constant, there is a number of unsolved problems in this field that may require that the whole theory shall be reassessed. In the present article we discuss thirty of those unsolved problems and their likely implications. In the first section we will discuss some well-known problems in cosmology and particle physics, and then other unsolved problems will be discussed in next section.
Solar, Stellar and Galactic Connections between Particle Physics and Astrophysics
Carraminana, Alberto
2007-01-01
This book collects extended and specialized reviews on topics linking astrophysics and particle physics at a level intermediate between a graduate student and a young researcher. The book includes also three reviews on observational techniques used in forefront astrophysics and short articles on research performed in Latin America. The reviews, updated and written by specialized researchers, describe the state of the art in the related research topics. This book is a valuable complement not only for research but also for lecturers in specialized course of high energy astrophysics, cosmic ray astrophysics and particle physics.
Beyond Standard Model Physics: At the Frontiers of Cosmology and Particle Physics
Lopez-Suarez, Alejandro O.
I begin to write this thesis at a time of great excitement in the field of cosmology and particle physics. The aim of this thesis is to study and search for beyond the standard model (BSM) physics in the cosmological and high energy particle fields. There are two main questions, which this thesis aims to address: 1) what can we learn about the inflationary epoch utilizing the pioneer gravitational wave detector Adv. LIGO?, and 2) what are the dark matter particle properties and interactions with the standard model particles?. This thesis will focus on advances in answering both questions.
Proceedings of Summer Institute of Particle Physics, July 27-August 7, 1981: the strong interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mosher, A. (ed.)
1982-01-01
The ninth SLAC Summer Institute on Particle Physics was held in the period July 27 to August 7, 1981. The central topic was the strong interactions with the first seven days spent in a pedagogic mode and the last three in a topical conference. In addition to the morning lectures on experimental and theoretical aspects of the strong interactions, three were lectures on machine physics; this year it was electron-positron colliding beam machines, both storage rings and linear colliders. Twenty-three individual items from the meeting were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. T. Ademiluyi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A mathematical model was developed for predicting the drying kinetics of spherical particles in a rotary dryer. Drying experiments were carried out by drying fermented ground cassava particles in a bench scale rotary dryer at inlet air temperatures of 115–230°C, air velocities of 0.83 m/s–1.55 m/s, feed mass of 50–500 g, drum drive speed of 8 rpm, and feed drive speed of 100 rpm to validate the model. The data obtained from the experiments were used to calculate the experimental moisture ratio which compared well with the theoretical moisture ratio calculated from the newly developed Abowei-Ademiluyi model. The comparisons and correlations of the results indicate that validation and performance of the established model are rather reasonable.
Nonlinear mechanics a supplement to theoretical mechanics of particles and continua
Fetter, Alexander L
2006-01-01
In their prior Dover book, Theoretical Mechanics of Particles and Continua, Alexander L. Fetter and John Dirk Walecka provided a lucid and self-contained account of classical mechanics, together with appropriate mathematical methods. This supplement-an update of that volume-offers a bridge to contemporary mechanics.The original book's focus on continuum mechanics-with chapters on sound waves in fluids, surface waves on fluids, heat conduction, and viscous fluids-forms the basis for this supplement's discussion of nonlinear continuous systems. Topics include linearized stability analysis; a det
Modeling Organizational Design - Applying A Formalism Model From Theoretical Physics
Robert Fabac; Josip Stepanić
2008-01-01
Modern organizations are exposed to diverse external environment influences. Currently accepted concepts of organizational design take into account structure, its interaction with strategy, processes, people, etc. Organization design and planning aims to align this key organizational design variables. At the higher conceptual level, however, completely satisfactory formulation for this alignment doesn’t exist. We develop an approach originating from the application of concepts of theoretical ...
Nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology (NPAC) capability review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-01-01
The present document represents a summary self-assessment of the status of the Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology (NPAC) capability across Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For the purpose of this review, we have divided the capability into four theme areas: Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology, and Applied Physics. For each theme area we have given a general but brief description of the activities under the area, a list of the Laboratory divisions involved in the work, connections to the goals and mission of the Laboratory, a brief description of progress over the last three years, our opinion of the overall status of the theme area, and challenges and issues.
Shifting standards experiments in particle physics in the twentieth century
Franklin, Allan
2013-01-01
In Shifting Standards, Allan Franklin provides an overview of notable experiments in particle physics. Using papers published in Physical Review, the journal of the American Physical Society, as his basis, Franklin details the experiments themselves, their data collection, the events witnessed, and the interpretation of results. From these papers, he distills the dramatic changes to particle physics experimentation from 1894 through 2009.Franklin develops a framework for his analysis, viewing each example according to exclusion and selection of data; possible experimenter bias; details of the experimental apparatus; size of the data set, apparatus, and number of authors; rates of data taking along with analysis and reduction; distinction between ideal and actual experiments; historical accounts of previous experiments; and personal comments and style.From Millikan’s tabletop oil-drop experiment to the Compact Muon Solenoid apparatus measuring approximately 4,000 cubic meters (not including accelerators) and...
Future of Heavy-Flavour Physics Theoretical Perspective
Ellis, Jonathan Richard
1999-01-01
The prospects for the coming Golden Age of heavy-flavour physics are discussed from the perspective of one who hopes it may provide a window onto physics beyond the Standard Model. Precise QCD calculations are necessary for accurate determinations of CKM parameters, and may be provided by the lattice and new perturbative techniques. The future of CKMology in the wake of the relatively small branching ratio for B_d -> pi pi are discussed, including alternative strategies for measuring alpha and gamma. The opportunities for measurements of rare B decays are reviewed briefly, as are possible K-decay windows on physics beyond the Standard Model, in the wake of the establishment of a relatively large value for epsilon'/epsilon. Finally, relations to other aspects of flavour physics are discussed, including the grand unification of quark and lepton masses in the context of neutrino-mass models motivated by the recent oscillation data from Super-Kamiokande and elsewhere.
Theoretical high energy physics research at the University of Chicago
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosner, J.L.; Martinec, E.J.; Sachs, R.G.
1990-09-01
This report discusses research being done at the University of Chicago in High Energy Physics. Some topic covered are: CP violation; intermediate vector bosons; string models; supersymmetry; and rare decay of kaons. (LSP)
Scientific realism in particle physics a causal approach
Egg, Matthias
2014-01-01
Does particle physics really describe the basic constituents of the material world or is it just a useful tool for deriving empirical predictions? This book proposes a novel answer to that question, emphasizing the importance of causal reasoning for the justification of scientific claims. It thereby responds to general worries about scientific realism as well as to more specific challenges stemming from the interpretation of quantum physics.
Theoretical and experimental studies in ultraviolet solar physics
Parkinson, W. H.; Reeves, E. M.
1975-01-01
The processes and parameters in atomic and molecular physics that are relevant to solar physics are investigated. The areas covered include: (1) measurement of atomic and molecular parameters that contribute to discrete and continous sources of opacity and abundance determinations in the sun; (2) line broadening and scattering phenomena; and (3) development of an ion beam spectroscopic source which is used for the measurement of electron excitation cross sections of transition region and coronal ions.
Impact of theoretical courses on physical health performance
Mohammed Zerf
2016-01-01
Background: Physical activity, health fitness, and academic results are very important goals in student life. However, success lies in academic subjects in educational establishments. Our background reveals the contradictions between two philosophers who approved the importance of physical education (PE) as a component of the curriculum and others who reiterated that PE and sports would never be a component of the curriculum as is the case in Algerian universities. Methods: The research s...
Theoretical approach of physical growth of children and adolescents
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rossana Gomez-Campos
2016-09-01
Full Text Available According to their genetic potential, biological characteristics and environmental factors, the study of physical growth allows us to understand the variability of this process in humans. Extrinsic and intrinsic factors could affect the normal process of physical growth, which are studied through different types of research, becoming an interesting subject for professionals in the health sciences. The aim of this study is to analyze the factors affecting physical growth and describe the types of research (transverse, longitudinal and ex post facto used in the study of physical growth. Intrinsic factors, environmental factors and the interaction between them should be studied in diverse population prioritizing the potential factors affecting physical growth of children and adolescents. This will diagnose, classify and monitor physical growth versus time (transverse and longitudinal and retrospectively (ex post facto. Consequently, the possibility for researchers and/or private and government institutions arises to promote validated anthropometric studies, helping to implement effective health policies for various purposes such as excess weight control in childhood and other disease entities related nutrition.
Particles and nuclei an introduction to the physical concepts
Povh, Bogdan; Scholz, Christoph; Zetsche, Frank; Rodejohann, Werner
2015-01-01
This well-known introductory textbook gives a uniform presentation of nuclear and particle physics from an experimental point of view. The first part, Analysis, is devoted to disentangling the substructure of matter. This part shows that experiments designed to uncover the substructures of nuclei and nucleons have a similar conceptual basis, and lead to the present picture of all matter being constructed from a small number of elementary building blocks and a small number of fundamental interactions. The second part, Synthesis, shows how the elementary particles may be combined to build hadrons and nuclei. The fundamental interactions, which are responsible for the forces in all systems, become less and less evident in increasingly complex systems. Such systems are in fact dominated by many-body phenomena. A section on neutrino oscillations and one on nuclear matter at high temperatures bridge the field of "nuclear and particle physics" and "modem astrophysics and cosmology. The seventh revised and e...
New chair for the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council
2001-01-01
Peter Warry has been appointed as Chair of PPARC for the next 4 years. Chairman of Victrex plc, whose business is in speciality chemicals, he has been an Industrial Professor at the University of Warwick since 1993. PPARC pursues a programme of high quality basic research in particle physics, astronomy, cosmology and space science and its budget for 2002 is approximately 220 million GBP.
Philosophical and methodological analyses in Japanese particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bardos, G. (Kossuth Lajos Tudomanyegyetem, Debrecen (Hungary). Elmeleti Fizikai Tanszek)
1984-01-01
The history and philosophy of the Japanese school of dialectical materialism and its influence on nuclear and particle physicists are discussed. The ideas of main characters of this philosophical school are summerized. Parallel physical and philosophical works of Sakata are analyzed.
Worlds largest particle physics laboratory selects Proxim Wireless Mesh
2007-01-01
"Proxim Wireless has announced that the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the world's largest particle physics laboratory and the birthplace of the World Wide Web, is using it's ORiNOCO AP-4000 mesh access points to extend the range of the laboratory's Wi-Fi network and to provide continuous monitoring of the lab's calorimeters" (1/2 page)
Large extra dimensions a new arena for particle physics
Arkani-Hamed, N; Savas-Divali, G
2002-01-01
"This article examines the information accumulated so far and the impact of forthcoming new advances in particle physics research on the current supersymmetric standard model. The new premise is that there is no desert at all and that the electroweak unification energy is the only fundamental energy scale in nature" (2 pages).
Application of nonextensive statistics to particle and nuclear physics
Wilk, G.; Wlodarczyk, Z
2001-01-01
We present an overview of possible imprints of non-extensitivity in particle and nucler physics. Special emphasis is put on the intrinsic fluctuations present in the system under consideration as the possible source of nonextensivity. The possible connection of nonextensivity and the self organized criticality apparently being observed in some cosmic rays and hadronic experiments will also be discussed.
Symmetries of Particle Physics: Space-time and Local Gauge ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Symmetries of Particle Physics: Space-time and Local Gauge Symmetries. Sourendu Gupta. General Article Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 29-38. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
USA lays out strategic vision for particle physics
2014-01-01
Yesterday saw the publication of the latest P5 report in the United States. Shorthand for Particle Physics Project Prioritisation Panel, the P5 report is the US equivalent of the European Strategy update that was published last year, and it’s good to see that the two reports present a common vision of the direction our field should take over the coming years. P5 was charged with developing a 10-year plan for US particle physics, identifying compelling scientific opportunities. Its approach was similar to the European one, based on a broad consultation among the particle physics community. For the energy frontier, the report is clear. The LHC will be the focus for the US particle physics community for the immediate and short-term future. The report goes on to lay out a bold vision for development of a unique world-class neutrino programme in the US, with the long-term focus being a reformulated Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) hosted at Fermilab. This is a very positive deve...
Space- and ground-based particle physics meet at CERN
CERN Bulletin
2012-01-01
The fourth international conference on Particle and Fundamental Physics in Space (SpacePart12) will take place at CERN from 5 to 7 November. The conference will bring together scientists working on particle and fundamental physics in space and on ground, as well as space policy makers from around the world. One hundred years after Victor Hess discovered cosmic rays using hot air balloons, the experimental study of particle and fundamental physics is still being pursued today with extremely sophisticated techniques: on the ground, with state-of-the-art accelerators like the LHC; and in space, with powerful observatories that probe, with amazing accuracy, the various forms of cosmic radiation, charged and neutral, which are messengers of the most extreme conditions of matter and energy. SpacePart12 will be the opportunity for participants to exchange views on the progress of space-related science and technology programmes in the field of particle and fundamental physics in space. SpacePar...
Impact of theoretical courses on physical health performance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammed Zerf
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Physical activity, health fitness, and academic results are very important goals in student life. However, success lies in academic subjects in educational establishments. Our background reveals the contradictions between two philosophers who approved the importance of physical education (PE as a component of the curriculum and others who reiterated that PE and sports would never be a component of the curriculum as is the case in Algerian universities. Methods: The research samples were selected by the intentional manner which included sixty students, aged around 18 years. Twenty girls who will pass the baccalaureate, twenty girls of the 1 st year department languages, and twenty girls of the 1 st year PE and sports for the academic year 2014-2015 were included in the study. They were tested based on the field tests developed by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. Results: Our results confirm that the absence of PE lessons and sport case department languages leads to loss of fitness in the opposite of high-school and students of the Institute of Sports, where the effects return to the absence of the session of physical education and sport. Conclusion: Physical activities are very important in the life of our scholar girls, where the sport practice is a physical as well as a mental effort which is the key to a healthier life.
Particle radiosurgery: a new frontier of physics in medicine.
Bert, Christoph; Durante, Marco
2014-07-01
Radiosurgery was introduced over half a century ago for treatment of intracranial lesions. In more recent years, stereotactic radiotherapy has rapidly advanced and is now commonly used for treatments of both cranial and extracranial lesions with high doses delivered in a few, down to a single fraction. The results of a workshop on Particle radiosurgery: A new frontier of physics in medicine held at Obergurgl, Austria during August 25-29 2013 are summarized in this issue with an overview presented in this paper. The focus was laid on particle radiosurgery but the content also includes current practice in x-ray radiosurgery and the overarching research in radiobiology and motion management for extracranial lesions. The results and discussions showed that especially research in radiobiology of high-dose charged-particles and motion management are necessary for the success of particle radiosurgery. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Theoretical Technology Research for the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program
Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Curtis, Steve (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
During the last four years the UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) IGPP (Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics) Space Plasma Simulation Group has continued its theoretical effort to develop a Mission Oriented Theory (MOT) for the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program. This effort has been based on a combination of approaches: analytical theory, large-scale kinetic (LSK) calculations, global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations and self-consistent plasma kinetic (SCK) simulations. These models have been used to formulate a global interpretation of local measurements made by the ISTP spacecraft. The regions of applications of the MOT cover most of the magnetosphere: solar wind, low- and high- latitude magnetospheric boundary, near-Earth and distant magnetotail, and auroral region. Most recent investigations include: plasma processes in the electron foreshock, response of the magnetospheric cusp, particle entry in the magnetosphere, sources of observed distribution functions in the magnetotail, transport of oxygen ions, self-consistent evolution of the magnetotail, substorm studies, effects of explosive reconnection, and auroral acceleration simulations. A complete list of the activities completed under the grant follow.
Perspectives in theoretical physics the collected papers of E. M. Lifshitz
Sykes, J B; Pitaevskii, L P
1992-01-01
Evgenii Mikhailovich Lifshitz is perhaps best known for his long association with his mentor Lev D Landau, with whom he co-wrote the classic Course of Theoretical Physics, but he was a noted and respected Soviet physicist in his own right. Born in the Ukraine to a scientific family, his long and distinguished career will be remembered for three things - his collaboration with Landau on the internationally acclaimed Course of Theoretical Physics, his work as editor of the Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, and his scientific papers. As well as his work with La
Theoretical and observational analysis of individual ionizing particle effects in biological tissue
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nelson, A.C.
1980-11-01
The microstructural damage to living tissue caused by heavy ion radiation was studied. Preliminary tests on rat corneal tissue, rat cerebellar tissue grown in culture, and rat retinal tissue indicated that the best assay for heavy ion damage is the rat cornea. The corneal tissue of the living rat was exposed to beams of carbon at 474 MeV/amu, neon at 8.5 MeV/amu, argon at 8.5 MeV/amu, silicon at 530 MeV/amu, iron at 500 MeV/amu, and iron at 600 MeV/amu. X-rays were also used on corneas to compare with the heavy ion irradiated corneas. Scanning electron microscopy revealed lesions with circular symmetry on the external plasma membranes of corneal epithelium which were irradiated with heavy ions, but similar lesions were not observed on the plasma membranes of x-ray irradiated or non-irradiated control samples. These data verify the special way in which heavy ions interact with matter: each ion interacts coulombically with electrons all along its trajectory to generate a track. The dose from heavy ion radiation is not distributed homogeneously on a tissue microstructural scale but is concentrated along the individual particle track. Even along a single particle track the dose is discontinuous except at the Bragg peak when the LET is maximum. Micrographs of heavy-ion-irradiated corneas demonstrated two significant correlations with the heavy ion beam: (1) the number of plasma membrane lesions per unit area was correlated with the particle fluence, and (2) the diameter of the lesions were linearly related to the energy loss or LET of the individual particle. These observations corroborate what has already been suggested theoretically about heavy ion tracks and what has been shown experimentally. But the new data indicate that particle tracks occur in biological tissues as well, and that a single heavy ion is responsible for each membrane lesion. (ERB)
Quantum jumps: from foundational research to particle physics
Licata, Ignazio; Chiatti, Leonardo
2017-08-01
Since 1986 a vast body of experimental evidence has been accumulated of direct observation of quantum jumps in many physical systems. We can therefore assume that quantum jumps are genuine physical phenomena. On the other hand, substantial identity of ”quantum jumps” and ”collapses” induced by measurements can be admitted, both being represented by self-conjugate projection operators related to specific non-Hamiltonian aspects of micro-interactions. On this basis a model of quantum jump involving a single particle is discussed, and some consequences concerning hadronic physics (Hagedorn temperature, Regge trajectories) and quantum gravity are briefly sketched.
An introduction to particle physics and the standard model
Mann, Robert
2010-01-01
… thoroughly recommended for a final-year specialist or first-year postgraduate study level especially for those engaged in experimental high energy physics research. The author has performed an excellent service in making accessible the language and results of field theory applied to elementary particle physics.-John J. Quenby, Contemporary Physics, 52, 2011The first chapter shows how clearly the author can write and even though the subject matter gets more complex through the book, the clarity continues. … giv[es] readers greater insights into how the maths and the reality match (or don't ma
Particle acceleration, transport and turbulence in cosmic and heliospheric physics
Matthaeus, W.
1992-01-01
In this progress report, the long term goals, recent scientific progress, and organizational activities are described. The scientific focus of this annual report is in three areas: first, the physics of particle acceleration and transport, including heliospheric modulation and transport, shock acceleration and galactic propagation and reacceleration of cosmic rays; second, the development of theories of the interaction of turbulence and large scale plasma and magnetic field structures, as in winds and shocks; third, the elucidation of the nature of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence processes and the role such turbulence processes might play in heliospheric, galactic, cosmic ray physics, and other space physics applications.
Review of lattice results concerning low-energy particle physics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aoki, Sinya; Aoki, Yasumichi; Bečirević, D.
2017-01-01
We review lattice results related to pion, kaon, D- and B-meson physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle-physics community. More specifically, we report on the determination of the light-quark masses, the form factor f+(0) , arising in the semileptonic K→ π transition...... review the determination of the BK parameter of neutral kaon mixing as well as the additional four B parameters that arise in theories of physics beyond the Standard Model. The latter quantities are an addition compared to the previous review. For the heavy-quark sector, we provide results for mc and mb...
Utilizing Educational Theoretical Models to Support Effective Physical Education Pedagogy
Usher, Wayne; Edwards, Allan; de Meyrick, Bianca
2015-01-01
Physical education (PE) pedagogy has traditionally been viewed as drillstyle teaching. Whilst this traditional pedagogical approach provides exposure to various skills, used within a school-based PE and sporting context, it does not demonstrate a student's competence associated with their ability to apply these skills in complex game situations.…
On the coupling of fields and particles in accelerator and plasma physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2016-10-15
In accelerator and plasma physics it is generally accepted that there is no need to solve the dynamical equations for particles motion in manifestly covariant form, that is by using the coordinate-independent proper time to parameterize particle world-lines in space-time. In other words, in order to describe the dynamical processes in the laboratory frame there is no need to use the laws of relativistic kinematics. It is sufficient to take into account the relativistic dependence of the particles momentum on the velocity in the second Newton's law. Therefore, the coupling of fields and particles is based, on the one hand, on the use of result from particle dynamics treated according to Newton's laws in terms of the relativistic three-momentum and, on the other hand, on the use of Maxwell's equations in standard form. In previous papers we argued that this is a misconception. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail how to calculate the coupling between fields and particles in a correct way and how to develop a new algorithm for a particle tracking code in agreement with the use of Maxwell's equations in their standard form. Advanced textbooks on classical electrodynamics correctly tell us that Maxwell's equations in standard form in the laboratory frame and charged particles are coupled by introducing particles trajectories as projections of particles world-lines onto coordinates of the laboratory frame and by subsequently using the laboratory time to parameterize the trajectory curves. For the first time we showed a difference between conventional and covariant particle tracking results in the laboratory frame. This essential point has never received attention in the physical community. Only the solution of the dynamical equations in covariant form gives the correct coupling between field equations in standard form and particles trajectories in the laboratory frame. We conclude that previous theoretical and simulation results in
Theoretical plasma physics. [College of William and Mary
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boozer, A.H.; Vahala, G.M.
1992-05-01
Work during the past year in the areas of classical and anomalous transport, three-dimensional equilibria, divertor physics, and diagnostic techniques using waves is reported. Although much work has been done on classical transport, the validity of the guiding-center drift equations, which are the basis of much of the theory, has received little attention. The limitations of the drift approximation are being studied. Work on three-dimensional equilibria, which shows that quasi-helical symmetry is broken in third order in the inverse aspect ratio, on the modification of the current profile due to tearing modes has been completed. This work is relevant to the maintenance of a steady-state tokamak by the bootstrap current. Divertor physics is a primary area that required development for ITER. One of the few methods by which the physics of the divertor can be modified or controlled is magnetic perturbations. The effect of magnetic perturbations on the divertor scrapeoff layer in collaboration with Hampton University. The evolution of magnetic field embedded in a moving plasma is a dynamics problem of potential importance. Renormalization techniques gave important insights first in the theory of phase transitions. The applications of these techniques has extended to many areas of physics, including turbulence in fluids and plasmas. Essentially no diagnostics for magnetic fluctuations inside a fusion-grade plasma exist. A collaborative program with Old Dominion University and the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to develop such a diagnostic based on the conversion of electromagnetic waves from the ordinary to the extraordinary mode is underway.
The physics of Ettore Majorana phenomenological, theoretical, and mathematical
Esposito, Salvatore
2015-01-01
Through just a handful of papers, Ettore Majorana left an indelible mark in the fields of physics, mathematics, computer science and even economics before his mysterious disappearance in 1938. It is only now that the importance of Majorana's work is being realised: Majorana fermions are intensely studied today, and his work on neutrino physics has provided possible explanations for the existence of dark matter. In this unique volume, Salvatore Esposito explores not only Majorana's known papers but, even more interestingly, unveils his unpublished works as well. These include powerful methods and results, ranging from the atomic two-centre problem, the Thomas-Fermi model and ferromagnetism to quasi-stationary states, n-component relativistic wave equations and quantum scalar electrodynamics. Featuring biographical notes and contributions from leading experts Evgeny Akhmedov and Frank Wilczek, this fascinating book will captivate graduate students and researchers interested in frontier science as well as in the...
2014-10-01
Theoretical physics is the first step for the development of science and technology. For more than 100 years it has delivered new and sophisticated discoveries which have changed human views of their surroundings and universe. Theoretical physics has also revealed that the governing law in our universe is not deterministic, and it is undoubtedly the foundation of our modern civilization. Contrary to its importance, research in theoretical physics is not well advanced in some developing countries such as Indonesia. This workshop provides the formal meeting in Indonesia devoted to the field of theoretical physics and is organized to cover all subjects of theoretical physics as well as nonlinear phenomena in order to create a gathering place for the theorists in Indonesia and surrounding countries, to motivate young physicists to keep doing active researches in the field and to encourage constructive communication among the community members. Following the success of the tenth previous meetings in this conference series, the eleventh conference was held in Sebelas Maret University (UNS), Surakarta, Indonesia on 15 February 2014. In addition, the conference was proceeded by School of Advance Physics at Gadjah Mada University (UGM), Yogyakarta, on 16-17 February 2014. The conference is expected to provide distinguished experts and students from various research fields of theoretical physics and nonlinear phenomena in Indonesia as well as from other continents the opportunities to present their works and to enhance contacts among them. The introduction to the conference is continued in the pdf.
Applications of electrodynamics in theoretical physics and astrophysics.
Ginzburg, V. L.
This book, revised from the third Russian edition of "Teoreticheskaya fizika i astrofizika", is translated by Oleg Glebov. The problems dealt with are associated with microscopic and macroscopic electrodynamics and material concerning the theory of transition radiation and transition scattering. Contents: 1. The Hamiltonian approach to electrodynamics. 2. Radiation reaction. 3. Uniformly accelerated charges. 4. Radiation emitted by relativistic and non-relativistic moving particles. 5. Synchrotron radiation. 6. Electrodynamics of a continuous medium. 7. The Čerenkov and Doppler effects. 8. Transition radiation and transition scattering. 9. Superluminal sources of radiation. 10. Reabsorption and transfer of radiation. 11. Electrodynamics of media with spatial dispersion. 12. Permittivity and wave propagation in plasmas. 13. The energy-momentum tensor and forces in macroscopic electrodynamics. Energy and heat liberated in a dispersive absorbing medium. 14. Fluctuations and van der Waals forces. 15. Wave scattering in a medium. 16. Astrophysics of cosmic rays. 17. X-ray astronomy. 18. Gamma-ray astronomy.
Variational Principles and Methods in Theoretical Physics and Chemistry
Nesbet, Robert K.
2005-07-01
Preface; Part I. Classical Mathematics and Physics: 1. History of variational theory; 2. Classical mechanics; 3. Applied mathematics; Part II. Bound States in Quantum Mechanics: 4. Time-independent quantum mechanics; 5. Independent-electron models; 6. Time-dependent theory and linear response; Part III. Continuum States and Scattering Theory: 7. Multiple scattering theory for molecules and solids; 8. Variational methods for continuum states; 9. Electron-impact rovibrational excitation of molecules; Part IV. Field Theories: 10. Relativistic Lagrangian theories.
Research in particle physics. Progress report, June 1, 1992--January 31, 1993
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1992-09-01
Research accomplishments and current activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics are presented. Principal areas of activity include the following: detectors for studies of electron{endash}positron annihilation in colliding beams; advanced accelerator component design, including the superconducting beam inflector, electrostatic quadrupoles, and the ``electrostatic muon kicker``; the detector for the MACRO (Monopole, Astrophysics, and Cosmic Ray Observatory) experiment; neutrino astrophysics and the search for proton decay; theoretical particle physics (electroweak and flavor symmetry breaking, hadron collider phenomenology, cosmology and astrophysics, new field-theoretic models, nonperturbative investigations of quantum field theories, electroweak interactions); measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; calorimetry for the GEM experiment; and muon detectors for the GEM experiment at the Superconducting Super Collider.
The low-energy frontier of particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaeckel, Joerg [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2010-02-15
Most embeddings of the Standard Model into a more unified theory, in particular the ones based on supergravity or superstrings, predict the existence of a hidden sector of particles which have only very weak interactions with the visible sector Standard Model particles. Some of these exotic particle candidates (such as e.g. ''axions'', ''axion-like particles'' and ''hidden U(1) gauge bosons'') may be very light, with masses in the sub-eV range, and have very weak interactions with photons. Correspondingly, these very weakly interacting sub-eV particles (WISPs) may lead to observable effects in experiments (as well as in astrophysical and cosmological observations) searching for light shining through a wall, for changes in laser polarisation, for non-linear processes in large electromagnetic fields and for deviations from Coulomb's law. We present the physics case and a status report of this emerging low-energy frontier of fundamental physics. (orig.)
Updating Europe’s strategy for particle physics
2012-01-01
These have been an important two weeks for particle physics in Europe and at CERN. From 10-12 September, some 500 physicists went to Krakow to discuss their wishes for the future of the field as input to the CERN Council’s strategy group. The strategy group is tasked with updating the European Strategy for Particle Physics adopted by Council in 2006, taking into account developments in the field over the last six years. Discussions were wide ranging, and included input from the Americas and Asia. These were particularly important, since it’s vital for the field that Europe’s strategy is in synch with what’s happening elsewhere in the world. I hardly need to tell you that the years since 2006 have seen monumental changes in particle physics, notably the discovery by ATLAS and CMS of a particle consistent with the Higgs boson. But it’s not only the high-energy frontier of the LHC that has provided new results. There have been important advanc...
Benakli, Karim; Douglas, Michael R; Mansoulie, Bruno; Rabinovici, Eliezer; Cugliandolo, Leticia F
2015-01-01
This book is based on lectures at the Les Houches Summer School held in August 2011 for an audience of advanced graduate students and postdoctoral fellows in particle physics, theoretical physics, and cosmology—areas where new experimental results were on the verge of being discovered at CERN. The school was held during a summer of great anticipation that at any moment contact might be made with the most recent theories of the nature of the fundamental forces and the structure of spacetime. In fact, during the session, the long anticipated discovery of the Higgs particle was announced. The book vividly describes the creative diversity and tension within the community of theoreticians who have split into several components—those doing phenomenology and those dealing with highly theoretical problems—with a few trying to bridge both domains. The theoreticians covered many directions in the theory of elementary particles, from classics such as the supersymmetric Standard Model to very recent ideas such as t...
Autiero, D; Badertscher, A; Bezrukov, L; Bouchez, J; Bueno, A; Busto, J; Campagne, J -E; Cavata, C; De Bellefon, A; Dumarchez, J; Ebert, J; Enqvist, T; Ereditato, A; Von Feilitzsch, F; Perez, P Fileviez; Goger-Neff, M; Gninenko, S; Gruber, W; Hagner, C; Hess, M; Hochmuth, K A; Kisiel, J; Knecht, L; Kreslo, I; Kudryavtsev, V A; Kuusiniemi, P; Lachenmaier, T; Laffranchi, M; Lefièvre, B; Lightfoot, P K; Lindner, M; Maalampi, J; Maltoni, M; Marchionni, A; Undagoitia, T Marrodan; Meregaglia, A; Messina, M; Mezzetto, M; Mirizzi, A; Mosca, L; Moser, U; Müller, A; Natterer, G; Oberauer, L; Otiougova, P; Patzak, T; Peltoniemi, J; Potzel, W; Pistillo, C; Raffelt, G G; Rondio, E; Roos, M; Rossi, B; Rubbia, André; Savvinov, N; Schwetz, T; Sobczyk, J; Spooner, N J C; Stefan, D; Tonazzo, A; Trzaska, W; Ulbricht, J; Volpe, C; Winter, J; Wurm, M; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zimmermann, R
2007-01-01
This document reports on a series of experimental and theoretical studies conducted to assess the astro-particle physics potential of three future large-scale particle detectors proposed in Europe as next generation underground observatories. The proposed apparatus employ three different and, to some extent, complementary detection techniques: GLACIER (liquid Argon TPC), LENA (liquid scintillator) and MEMPHYS (\\WC), based on the use of large mass of liquids as active detection media. The results of these studies are presented along with a critical discussion of the performance attainable by the three proposed approaches coupled to existing or planned underground laboratories, in relation to open and outstanding physics issues such as the search for matter instability, the detection of astrophysical- and geo-neutrinos and to the possible use of these detectors in future high-intensity neutrino beams.
A guide to experimental particle physics literature, 1991-1996
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ezhela, V.V.; Filimonov, B.B.; Lugovsky, S.B. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others
1996-10-01
We present an indexed guide to experimental particle physics literature for the years 1991 - 1996. Approximately 4200 papers are indexed by (1) Beam/Target/Momentum (2) Reaction/Momentum/Data-Descriptor (including the final state) (3) Particle/Decay (4) Accelerator/Experiment/Detector. All indices are cross-referenced to the paper`s title and references in the ID/Reference/Title index. The information presented in this guide is also publicly available on a regularly-updated DATAGUIDE database from the World Wide Web.
The second physicist on the history of theoretical physics in germany
Jungnickel, Christa
2017-01-01
This book explores the rise of theoretical physics in 19th century Germany. The authors show how the junior second physicist in German universities over time became the theoretical physicist, of equal standing to the experimental physicist. Gustav Kirchhoff, Hermann von Helmholtz, and Max Planck are among the great German theoretical physicists whose work and career are examined in this book. Physics was then the only natural science in which theoretical work developed into a major teaching and research specialty in its own right. Readers will discover how German physicists arrived at a well-defined field of theoretical physics with well understood and generally accepted goals and needs. The authors explain the nature of the work of theoretical physics with many examples, taking care always to locate the research within the workplace. The book is a revised and shortened version of Intellectual Mastery of Nature: Theoretical Physics from Ohm to Einstein, a two-volume work by the same authors. This new edition ...
Adventures in theoretical physics selected papers with commentaries
Adler, Stephen L
2006-01-01
Podcast of Frank Wilczek and Betsy Devine's interview with Steve Mirsky of Scientific American The fantastic reality that is modern physics is open for your exploration, guided by one of its primary architects and interpreters, Nobel Prize winner Frank Wilczek.Some jokes, some poems, and extracts from wife Betsy Devine's sparkling chronicle of what it's like to live through a Nobel Prize provide easy entertainment. There's also some history, some philosophy, some exposition of frontier science, and some frontier science, for your lasting edification.49 pieces, including many from Wilczek's awa
THEORETICAL APPROACH TO EDIXGAL. DIGITAL BOOK OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eduardo Rafael Rodríguez Machado
2014-12-01
Full Text Available One of the great dilemmas in which the educational community is is the bet on electronic textbooks (aka eTextbook at the expense of textbooks printed in Galicia has been chosen in some centers to gradually introducing the book electronic text in classrooms 5th Primary Education.This article describes the characteristics that define the electronic textbook and make you be attractive and useful to the educational community are realized. First, it defines the digital book and materialize their characteristics and problems and drawbacks that we can find to use. Secondly, it states what the E-Dixgal and how it affects the introduction of the project in the classroom. Finally, we see how being the introduction of digital books in relation to the area of Physical Education
Particle physics catalysis of thermal big bang nucleosynthesis.
Pospelov, Maxim
2007-06-08
We point out that the existence of metastable, tau>10(3) s, negatively charged electroweak-scale particles (X-) alters the predictions for lithium and other primordial elemental abundances for A>4 via the formation of bound states with nuclei during big bang nucleosynthesis. In particular, we show that the bound states of X- with helium, formed at temperatures of about T=10(8) K, lead to the catalytic enhancement of 6Li production, which is 8 orders of magnitude more efficient than the standard channel. In particle physics models where subsequent decay of X- does not lead to large nonthermal big bang nucleosynthesis effects, this directly translates to the level of sensitivity to the number density of long-lived X- particles (tau>10(5) s) relative to entropy of nX-/s less, approximately <3x10(-17), which is one of the most stringent probes of electroweak scale remnants known to date.
PREFACE: XXXth International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics (ICGTMP) (Group30)
Brackx, Fred; De Schepper, Hennie; Van der Jeugt, Joris
2015-04-01
The XXXth International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics (ICGTMP), also known as the Group30 conference, took place in Ghent (Belgium) from Monday 14 to Friday 18 July 2014. The conference was organised by Ghent University (Department of Applied Mathematics, Computer Science and Statistics, and Department of Mathematical Analysis). The website http://www.group30.ugent.be is still available. The ICGTMP is one of the traditional conference series covering the most important topics of symmetry which are relevant to the interplay of present-day mathematics and physics. More than 40 years ago a group of enthusiasts, headed by H. Bacry of Marseille and A. Janner of Nijmegen, initiated a series of annual meetings with the aim to provide a common forum for scientists interested in group theoretical methods. At that time most of the participants belonged to two important communities: on the one hand solid state specialists, elementary particle theorists and phenomenologists, and on the other mathematicians eager to apply newly-discovered group and algebraic structures. The conference series has become a meeting point for scientists working at modelling physical phenomena through mathematical and numerical methods based on geometry and symmetry. It is considered as the oldest one among the conference series devoted to geometry and physics. It has been further broadened and diversified due to the successful applications of geometric and algebraic methods in life sciences and other areas. The first four meetings took place alternatively in Marseille and Nijmegen. Soon after, the conference acquired an international standing, especially following the 1975 colloquium in Nijmegen and the 1976 colloquium in Montreal. Since then it has been organized in many places around the world. It has become a bi-annual colloquium since 1990, the year it was organized in Moscow. This was the first time the colloquium took place in Belgium. There were 246 registered
Impact of detector simulation in particle physics collider experiments
Daniel Elvira, V.
2017-06-01
Through the last three decades, accurate simulation of the interactions of particles with matter and modeling of detector geometries has proven to be of critical importance to the success of the international high-energy physics (HEP) experimental programs. For example, the detailed detector modeling and accurate physics of the Geant4-based simulation software of the CMS and ATLAS particle physics experiments at the European Center of Nuclear Research (CERN) Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was a determinant factor for these collaborations to deliver physics results of outstanding quality faster than any hadron collider experiment ever before. This review article highlights the impact of detector simulation on particle physics collider experiments. It presents numerous examples of the use of simulation, from detector design and optimization, through software and computing development and testing, to cases where the use of simulation samples made a difference in the precision of the physics results and publication turnaround, from data-taking to submission. It also presents estimates of the cost and economic impact of simulation in the CMS experiment. Future experiments will collect orders of magnitude more data with increasingly complex detectors, taxing heavily the performance of simulation and reconstruction software. Consequently, exploring solutions to speed up simulation and reconstruction software to satisfy the growing demand of computing resources in a time of flat budgets is a matter that deserves immediate attention. The article ends with a short discussion on the potential solutions that are being considered, based on leveraging core count growth in multicore machines, using new generation coprocessors, and re-engineering HEP code for concurrency and parallel computing.
Academic Training Lecture: Statistical Methods for Particle Physics
PH Department
2012-01-01
2, 3, 4 and 5 April 2012 Academic Training Lecture Regular Programme from 11:00 to 12:00 - Bldg. 222-R-001 - Filtration Plant Statistical Methods for Particle Physics by Glen Cowan (Royal Holloway) The series of four lectures will introduce some of the important statistical methods used in Particle Physics, and should be particularly relevant to those involved in the analysis of LHC data. The lectures will include an introduction to statistical tests, parameter estimation, and the application of these tools to searches for new phenomena. Both frequentist and Bayesian methods will be described, with particular emphasis on treatment of systematic uncertainties. The lectures will also cover unfolding, that is, estimation of a distribution in binned form where the variable in question is subject to measurement errors.
Physical sputtering of metallic systems by charged-particle impact
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lam, N.Q.
1989-12-01
The present paper provides a brief overview of our current understanding of physical sputtering by charged-particle impact, with the emphasis on sputtering of metals and alloys under bombardment with particles that produce knock-on collisions. Fundamental aspects of ion-solid interactions, and recent developments in the study of sputtering of elemental targets and preferential sputtering in multicomponent materials are reviewed. We concentrate only on a few specific topics of sputter emission, including the various properties of the sputtered flux and depth of origin, and on connections between sputtering and other radiation-induced and -enhanced phenomena that modify the near-surface composition of the target. The synergistic effects of these diverse processes in changing the composition of the integrated sputtered-atom flux is described in simple physical terms, using selected examples of recent important progress. 325 refs., 27 figs.
Bridging the Particle Physics and Big Data Worlds
Pivarski, James
2017-09-01
For decades, particle physicists have developed custom software because the scale and complexity of our problems were unique. In recent years, however, the ``big data'' industry has begun to tackle similar problems, and has developed some novel solutions. Incorporating scientific Python libraries, Spark, TensorFlow, and machine learning tools into the physics software stack can improve abstraction, reliability, and in some cases performance. Perhaps more importantly, it can free physicists to concentrate on domain-specific problems. Building bridges isn't always easy, however. Physics software and open-source software from industry differ in many incidental ways and a few fundamental ways. I will show work from the DIANA-HEP project to streamline data flow from ROOT to Numpy and Spark, to incorporate ideas of functional programming into histogram aggregation, and to develop real-time, query-style manipulations of particle data.
Aspects of string phenomenology in particle physics and cosmology
Antoniadis, I.
2017-12-01
I discuss possible connections between several scales in particle physics and cosmology, such the the electroweak, inflation, dark energy and Planck scales. In particular, I discuss the physics of extra dimensions and low scale gravity that are motivated from the problem of mass hierarchy, providing an alternative to low energy supersymmetry. I describe their realization in type I string theory with D-branes and I present the main experimental predictions in particle accelerators and their implications in cosmology. I also show that low-mass-scale string compactifications, with a generic D-brane configuration that realizes the Standard Model by open strings, can explain the relatively broad peak in the diphoton invariant mass spectrum at 750 GeV recently reported by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations.
UCLA Particle Physics Research Group annual progress report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nefkens, B.M.K.
1983-11-01
The objectives, basic research programs, recent results, and continuing activities of the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group are presented. The objectives of the research are to discover, to formulate, and to elucidate the physics laws that govern the elementary constituents of matter and to determine basic properties of particles. The research carried out by the Group last year may be divided into three separate programs: (1) baryon spectroscopy, (2) investigations of charge symmetry and isospin invariance, and (3) tests of time reversal invariance. The main body of this report is the account of the techniques used in our investigations, the results obtained, and the plans for continuing and new research. An update of the group bibliography is given at the end.
Presenting particle physics and quantum mechanics to the general public
Strauss, J
2015-01-01
The job of a physicist is to describe Nature. General features, hypotheses and theories help to describe physics phenomena at a more abstract, fundamental level, and are sometimes tacitly assigned some sort of real existence; doing so appears to be of little harm in most of classical physics. However, missing any tangible connection to everyday experience, one better always bears in mind the descriptive nature of any efforts to grasp the quantum. And elementary particles interact in the quantum world, of course. When communicating the world of elementary particles to the general public, the Bayesian approach of an ever ongoing updating of the depiction of reality turns out to be virtually indispensable. The human experience of providing a series of increasingly better descriptions generates plenty of personal pleasures, for researchers as well as for amateurs. A suggestive analogy for improving our understanding of the world, even the seemingly paradoxical quantum world, may be found in recent insight into ho...
Gauge theories in particle physics a practical introduction
Aitchison, Ian J R
2013-01-01
The fourth edition of this well-established, highly regarded two-volume set continues to provide a fundamental introduction to advanced particle physics while incorporating substantial new experimental results, especially in the areas of CP violation and neutrino oscillations. It offers an accessible and practical introduction to the three gauge theories included in the Standard Model of particle physics: quantum electrodynamics (QED), quantum chromodynamics (QCD), and the Glashow-Salam-Weinberg (GSW) electroweak theory. In the first volume, a new chapter on Lorentz transformations and discrete symmetries presents a simple treatment of Lorentz transformations of Dirac spinors. Along with updating experimental results, this edition also introduces Majorana fermions at an early stage, making the material suitable for a first course in relativistic quantum mechanics. Covering much of the experimental progress made in the last ten years, the second volume remains focused on the two non-Abelian quantum gauge field...
Aspects of string phenomenology in particle physics and cosmology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antoniadis I.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available I discuss possible connections between several scales in particle physics and cosmology, such the the electroweak, inflation, dark energy and Planck scales. In particular, I discuss the physics of extra dimensions and low scale gravity that are motivated from the problem of mass hierarchy, providing an alternative to low energy supersymmetry. I describe their realization in type I string theory with D-branes and I present the main experimental predictions in particle accelerators and their implications in cosmology. I also show that low-mass-scale string compactifications, with a generic D-brane configuration that realizes the Standard Model by open strings, can explain the relatively broad peak in the diphoton invariant mass spectrum at 750 GeV recently reported by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations.
Towards the European strategy for particle physics: The briefing book
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aakesson, T. [Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Aleksan, R. [CPPM/IN2P3-CNRS and DAPNIA/CEA, Marseille (France); Allanach, B.; Webber, B. [Cambridge University and DAMTP, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bertolucci, S. [INFN and Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Blondel, A. [University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Butterworth, J. [University College London, London (United Kingdom); Cavalli-Sforza, M. [IFAE, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Cervera, A. [University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Naurois, M. de [LPNHE-IN2P3-CNRS and University of Paris VI and VII, Paris (France); Desch, K. [Freiburg University, Freiburg (Germany); Egede, U. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Heuer, R. [University of Hamburg and DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Hoecker, A.; Lombardi, A.; Mangano, M. [CERN, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Huber, P. [University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States); Jungmann, K.; Onderwater, G. [KVI, Groningen (Netherlands); Linde, F. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mezzetto, M. [INFN and University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Palanque-Delabrouille, N. [DAPNIA, Saclay (France); Peach, K. [University of Oxford and Royal Holloway University of London, John Adams Institute, London (United Kingdom); Polosa, A. [University of Rome, La Sapienza (Italy); Rondio, E. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Weiglein, G. [Durham University, IPPP, Durham (United Kingdom)
2007-07-15
This document was prepared as part of the briefing material for the Workshop of the CERN Council Strategy Group, held in DESY Zeuthen from 2nd to 6th May 2006. It gives an overview of the physics issues and of the technological challenges that will shape the future of the field, and incorporates material presented and discussed during the Symposium on the European Strategy for Particle Physics, held in Orsay from 30th January to 2nd February 2006, reflecting the various opinions of the European community as recorded in written submissions to the Strategy Group and in the discussions at the Symposium. (orig.)
The strong interactions beyond the standard model of particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergner, Georg [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics
2016-11-01
SuperMUC is one of the most convenient high performance machines for our project since it offers a high performance and flexibility regarding different applications. This is of particular importance for investigations of new theories, where on the one hand the parameters and systematic uncertainties have to be estimated in smaller simulations and on the other hand a large computational performance is needed for the estimations of the scale at zero temperature. Our project is just the first investigation of the new physics beyond the standard model of particle physics and we hope to proceed with our studies towards more involved Technicolour candidates, supersymmetric QCD, and extended supersymmetry.
Particle physics with slow neutrons; a personal and biased outlook
Byrne, J
2000-01-01
This review is devoted to recent advances in the physics of cold and ultra-cold neutrons reported at this workshop, in so far as they bear on current problems in particle physics both within and beyond the Standard Model. Attention is directed primarily to developments in the experimental study of neutron decay and to searches for the breakdown of T-invariance, either through the detection of a finite neutron electric dipole moment, or through the observation of T-violating asymmetries in selected neutron scattering processes. The review concludes with a brief resume of some fundamental studies in the field of neutron interferometry.
Gauge bosons and heavy quarks: Proceedings of Summer Institute on Particle Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hawthorne, J.F. (ed.)
1991-01-01
This report contains papers on the following topics: Z decays and tests of the standard model; future possibilities for LEP; studies of the interactions of electroweak gauge bosons; top quark topics; the next linear collider; electroweak processes in hadron colliders; theoretical topics in B-physics; experimental aspects of B-physics; B-factory storage ring design; rare kaon decays; CP violation in K{sup 0} decays at CERN; recent K{sup 0} decay results from Fermilab E-731; results from LEP on heavy quark physics; review of recent results on heavy flavor production; weak matrix elements and the determination of the weak mixing angles; recent results from CLEO I and a glance at CLEO II data; recent results from ARGUS; neutrino lepton physics with the CHARM 2 detector; recent results from the three TRISTAN experiments; baryon number violation at high energy in the standard model: fact or fiction New particle searches at LEP; review of QCD at LEP; electroweak interactions at LEP; recent results on W physics from the UA2 experiment at the CERN {rho}{bar {rho}} collider; B physics at CDF; and review of particle astrophysics.
Quantum gravity: Cosmology and its relations to particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Birkholz, Claus
2013-07-01
In QG, elementary particles and our universe are subject to identical equations. Motion in bent space-time is uniquely determined by Casimir operators - geodesics and the variation principle are dispensable. Irreducibility is slicing our world into bent universes orthogonal to each other. Dark Energy reveals as a quantum effect on cosmic scale; it is the agent of physics to execute the ''background independence'' of mathematics. As one of its immediately related properties, the quark confinement of particle physics had been shown to result. The cosmological ''constant'' reveals to be an inverse particle propagator. ''Cosmic master equations'' (allowing to calculate the interior of black holes) show the ''big bang'' not to be the start of our universe; its radius is given by Dark Energy reproducing cosmic inflation. Tiny Dark Matter masses execute gravity, but, due to the non-compactness of space-time, they are not well localizable - in accord with experiment. Unsaturated ''valence'' quanta act as condensation germs binding saturated quantum pairs out of Dark Matter as their non-valence parts: massive elementary particles, then, are precipitating as droplets out of Dark Matter.
Current experiments in elementary-particle physics - March 1983
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.
1983-03-01
Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (BNL); CERN; CESR; DESY; Fermilab (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMF. Also, summaries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beam-target-momentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated. (WHK)
Liquid noble gas detectors for low energy particle physics
Chepel, Vitaly; Araújo, Henrique
2012-01-01
We review the current status of liquid noble gas radiation detectors with energy threshold in the keV range, wich are of interest for direct dark matter searches, measurement of coherent neutrino scattering and other low energy particle physics experiments. Emphasis is given to the operation principles and the most important instrumentation aspects of these detectors, principally of those operated in the double-phase mode. Recent technological advances and relevant developments in photon dete...
Theoretical investigation of chemical and physical properties of gaseous fuels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hermann, Fredrik
1999-12-01
This thesis is discussing the chemical and physical properties of different gaseous fuels. A mapping of about seventy gaseous fuels resulted in eleven type gases, these gases have mainly five components (inerts, H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4} and higher order of hydrocarbons) of different quantities. Calculations of heating value and Wobbe number have been done. Dew point temperatures have been estimated by using three different programs. Flammability limits, laminar flame speed and auto ignition temperatures have been calculated by using a kinetic and chemical program developed by Mauss. Flammability limits have been compared with Le Chatelier's law and measurements. Problems related to combustion such as flash back, lift off and instability are closely connected with flame speed and flow patterns. These problems are discussed in terms of laminar flame speed and Reynolds' number. The main results of this study were: Auto ignition temperature for gas mixtures behavior is very complex and unpredictable. In general small quantities of hydrogen decrease the temperature of auto ignition. The calculations of flammability limits by the kinetic and chemical software showed good agreement to measurements. Low Btu gases requires large flow area in order to avoid large pressure drop.
Physical theory for near-bed turbulent particle suspension capacity
Eggenhuisen, Joris T.; Cartigny, Matthieu J. B.; de Leeuw, Jan
2017-05-01
The inability to capture the physics of solid-particle suspension in turbulent fluids in simple formulas is holding back the application of multiphase fluid dynamics techniques to many practical problems in nature and society involving particle suspension. We present a force balance approach to particle suspension in the region near no-slip frictional boundaries of turbulent flows. The force balance parameter Γ contains gravity and buoyancy acting on the sediment and vertical turbulent fluid forces; it includes universal turbulent flow scales and material properties of the fluid and particles only. Comparison to measurements shows that Γ = 1 gives the upper limit of observed suspended particle concentrations in a broad range of flume experiments and field settings. The condition of Γ > 1 coincides with the complete suppression of coherent turbulent structures near the boundary in direct numerical simulations of sediment-laden turbulent flow. Γ thus captures the maximum amount of sediment that can be contained in suspension at the base of turbulent flow, and it can be regarded as a suspension capacity parameter. It can be applied as a simple concentration boundary condition in modelling studies of the dispersion of particulates in environmental and man-made flows.
Maximilien Brice
2006-01-01
Prof C. N. Yang (Physics Nobel Prize 1957) from Tsinghua University (Beijing) during his CERN Colloquium: "Thematic Melodies of Twentieth Century Theoretical Physics: Quantization, Symmetry and Phase Factor".
The first dozen years of the history of ITEP Theoretical Physics Laboratory
Ioffe, B. L.
2013-01-01
The theoretical investigations at ITEP in the years 1945 - 1958 are reviewed. There are exposed the most important theoretical results, obtained in the following branches of physics: (1) the theory of nuclear reactors on thermal neutrons; (2) the hydrogen bomb project ("Tube" in USSR and "Classical Super" in USA); (3) radiation theory; (4) low temperature physics; (5) quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theories; (6) parity violation in weak interactions, the theory of β-decay and other weak processes; (7) strong interaction and nuclear physics. To the review are added the English translations of a few papers, originally published in Russian, but unknown (or almost unknown) to Western readers.
Theoretical studies in spiral edge-flame propagation and particle hydrodynamics
Urzay, Javier
anchored. An asymptotic description of the edge tangential structure is obtained, spiral edge shapes are calculated, and an expression is found that relates the spiral rotational velocity with the rest of the parameters. A quasistatic stability analysis of the edge shows that the edge curvature at extinction in the tip region is responsible for the stable tip anchoring at the core radius. Finally, experimental results are analyzed, and theoretical predictions are tested. The second problem analyzes, in the limit of small Reynolds and ionic Peclet numbers and small clearances, the canonical problem of the forces exerted on a small solid spherical particle undergoing slow translation and rotation in an incompressible fluid moving parallel to an elastic substrate, subject to electric double-layer and van der Waals intermolecular forces, as a representative example of particle gliding and of the idealized swimming dynamics of more complex bodies near soft and sticky surfaces in a physiological solvent. The competition of the hydrodynamic, intermolecular and surface-deformation effects, induces a lift force, and drag-force and drift-force perturbations, which do not scale linearly with the velocities, and produces a non-additivity of the intermolecular effects by reducing the intensity of the repulsive forces and by increasing the intensity of the attractive forces. Reversible and irreversible elastohydrodynamic adhesion regimes are found, and elastohydrodynamic corrections are derived for the critical coagulation concentration of electrolyte predicted by the the Derjaguin-Landau Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) standard theory of colloid stabilization. The third problem addresses the dynamics of pollen shedding from wind-pollinated plants, and establishes a fluid-dynamical framework for future refinements. A simple scaling analysis, supported by experimental measurements on typical wind-pollinated plant species, is used to estimate the suitability of previous resolutions of this process
Majorana Fermions in Particle Physics, Solid State and Quantum Information
Borsten, L.; Duff, M. J.
This review is based on lectures given by M. J. Duff summarising the far reaching contributions of Ettore Majorana to fundamental physics, with special focus on Majorana fermions in all their guises. The theoretical discovery of the eponymous fcrmion in 1937 has since had profound implications for particlc physics, solid state and quantum computation. The breadth of these disciplines is testimony to Majorana's genius, which continues to permeate physics today. These lectures offer a whistle-stop tour through some limited subset of the key ideas. In addition to touching on these various applications, we will draw out some fascinating relations connecting the normed division algebras R, ℂ, H, O to spinors, trialities. K-theory and the classification of stable topological states of symmetry-protected gapped free-fermion systems.
Theoretical pattern of supporting continuity in physical education of students' personality.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vovk V.M.
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Methodological approaches and principles on which theoretical pattern of supporting of continuity in physical education of senior pupil and students' personality are considered. It is proved that effective process of continuity in physical education is impossible without construction of patterns. It is ascertained that continuity is a condition and mechanism of realization for others principles in teaching process that represent itself as major factors in realization of continuity in physical education.
Recipients of 2013 EPS High Energy & Particle Physics Prize
ATLAS, Experiment
2014-01-01
(From left) Joe Incandela, Peter Higgs, Francois Englert, Tejinder Virdee, Dave Charlton, and Peter Jenni. Higgs and Englert gave the prizes to the recipients of the 2013 European Physical Society's High Energy and Particle Physics Prize, for an outstanding contribution to high energy physics. "For the discovery of a Higgs boson, as predicted by the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism," the prize was awarded to the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. Spokesperson for CMS, Incandela, and Spokesperson for ATLAS, Charlton, accepted the awards on their collaborations' behalf. "For their pioneering and outstanding leadership roles in the making of the ATLAS and CMS experiments," the prize was awarded to Jenni, Virdee, and Michel Della Negra (not present). Image: ATLAS
Physics of the Blues: Music, Fourier and Wave - Particle Duality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gibson, J. Murray (ANL)
2003-10-15
Art and science are intimately connected. There is probably no art that reveals this more than music. Music can be used as a tool to teach physics and engineering to non-scientists, illustrating such diverse concepts as Fourier analysis and quantum mechanics. This colloquium is aimed in reverse, to explain some interesting aspects of music to physicists. Topics include: What determines the frequency of notes on a musical scale? What is harmony and why would Fourier care? Where did the blues come from? (We' re talking the 'physics of the blues', and not 'the blues of physics' - that's another colloquium). Is there a musical particle? The presentation will be accompanied by live keyboard demonstrations. The presenter will attempt to draw tenuous connections between the subject of his talk and his day job as Director of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory.
Future directions in particle and nuclear physics at multi-GeV hadron beam facilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geesaman, D.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [ed.
1993-11-01
This report contains papers on the following topics in particle and nuclear physics: hadron dynamics; lepton physics; spin physics; hadron and nuclear spectroscopy; hadronic weak interactions; and Eta physics. These papers have been indexed separately elsewhere.
A physics-motivated Centroidal Voronoi Particle domain decomposition method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fu, Lin, E-mail: lin.fu@tum.de; Hu, Xiangyu Y., E-mail: xiangyu.hu@tum.de; Adams, Nikolaus A., E-mail: nikolaus.adams@tum.de
2017-04-15
In this paper, we propose a novel domain decomposition method for large-scale simulations in continuum mechanics by merging the concepts of Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation (CVT) and Voronoi Particle dynamics (VP). The CVT is introduced to achieve a high-level compactness of the partitioning subdomains by the Lloyd algorithm which monotonically decreases the CVT energy. The number of computational elements between neighboring partitioning subdomains, which scales the communication effort for parallel simulations, is optimized implicitly as the generated partitioning subdomains are convex and simply connected with small aspect-ratios. Moreover, Voronoi Particle dynamics employing physical analogy with a tailored equation of state is developed, which relaxes the particle system towards the target partition with good load balance. Since the equilibrium is computed by an iterative approach, the partitioning subdomains exhibit locality and the incremental property. Numerical experiments reveal that the proposed Centroidal Voronoi Particle (CVP) based algorithm produces high-quality partitioning with high efficiency, independently of computational-element types. Thus it can be used for a wide range of applications in computational science and engineering.
A physics-motivated Centroidal Voronoi Particle domain decomposition method
Fu, Lin; Hu, Xiangyu Y.; Adams, Nikolaus A.
2017-04-01
In this paper, we propose a novel domain decomposition method for large-scale simulations in continuum mechanics by merging the concepts of Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation (CVT) and Voronoi Particle dynamics (VP). The CVT is introduced to achieve a high-level compactness of the partitioning subdomains by the Lloyd algorithm which monotonically decreases the CVT energy. The number of computational elements between neighboring partitioning subdomains, which scales the communication effort for parallel simulations, is optimized implicitly as the generated partitioning subdomains are convex and simply connected with small aspect-ratios. Moreover, Voronoi Particle dynamics employing physical analogy with a tailored equation of state is developed, which relaxes the particle system towards the target partition with good load balance. Since the equilibrium is computed by an iterative approach, the partitioning subdomains exhibit locality and the incremental property. Numerical experiments reveal that the proposed Centroidal Voronoi Particle (CVP) based algorithm produces high-quality partitioning with high efficiency, independently of computational-element types. Thus it can be used for a wide range of applications in computational science and engineering.
Byrne, M
2004-01-01
This thesis contains four research topics in the phenomenology of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM), specifically focusing on the mass spectra of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and extra dimensional TeV−1 scale compactification scenarios with gauge, matter and Higgs Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations of the SM fields. In the context of the MSSM, an overview of the muon anomalous magnetic moment, a μ, with the latest SM theoretical and experimental data is provided. A general analysis of the MSSM contributions to the muon anomalous magnetic moment is given and general upper bounds on the masses of the four lightest sparticles are derived as a function of the deviation from the expected SM theoretical value. Also in the context of the MSSM, regions in the parameter space predicting an electrically charged lightest supersymrnetric particle (LSP) are typically discarded based on thermal relic abundance estimates combined with direct searches for anomalously heavy water. Independ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Han, Yuge; Ma, Wei; Xuan, Yimin, E-mail: ymxuan@mail.njust.edu.cn
2013-10-01
The degradation of spectral properties of thermal control coatings on spacecrafts is investigated in this paper. By studying their physical components and geometry structure, the factors which determine the spectral properties of the coatings are founded. A theoretical model for calculating the spectral absorptance of coatings is proposed based on the Mie's theory and Stratified Media theory. Mathematical expressions are introduced for accounting for the effect of the complicated environment. Based on these work, a predicting model for the degradation of spectral absorptance properties of the coatings is established. To validate this model, the predicted degradation performance of spectral properties of zinc oxide based coatings under electrons and protons exposure are compared with the experimental data. A good agreement is found at the wavelength between 250 nm and 2500 nm. Finally, a useful approach for predicting the degradation behaviors of thermal control coatings on spacecrafts in orbit is established.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chan, J; DePorcel, L [eds.
1996-02-01
The seven-day school portion of the Institute revolved around the question of dark matter: where is it and what is it? Reviews were given of microlensing searches for baryonic dark matter, of dark matter candidates in the form of neutrinos and exotic particles, and of low-noise detection techniques used to search for the latter. The history of the universe, from the Big Bang to the role of dark matter in the formation of large-scale structure, was also covered. Other lecture series described the astrophysics that might be done with x-ray timing experiments and through the detection of gravitational radiation. As in past years, the lectures each morning were followed by stimulating afternoon discussion sessions, in which students could pursue with the lecturers the topics that most interested them. The Institute concluded with a three-day topical conference covering recent developments in theory and experiment. Highlights from the astrophysical and cosmological arenas included observations of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, and of the mysterious gamma-ray bursters. From terrestrial accelerators came tantalizing hints of the top quark and marked improvements in precision electroweak measurements, among many other results. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.
Eleven years that changed the face of particle physics
2000-01-01
Director General Luciano Maiani opens the proceedings at the LEP Celebration. Members of government from around the world gathered at CERN on Monday 9 October to celebrate the achievements of the Large Electron Positron collider (LEP), the Laboratorys flagship particle accelerator. Over the eleven years of its operational lifetime, LEP has not only added greatly to mankinds pool of knowledge about the Universe, but has also changed the way that particle physics research is done, and proved to be a valuable training ground for young professionals in many walks of life. The celebration took place in building 180 and the audience of politicians and scientists listened to speeches from: Prof. Luciano Maiani CERNs Director-General Prof. Martinus Veltman Nobel Prize Laureat 1999 M. Adolf Ogi President of the Swiss Confederation Switzerland M. Roger-Gérard Schwartzenberg Minister of Research France Mme Edelgard Bulmahn Minister of Education and R...
SU-8 as a Material for Microfabricated Particle Physics Detectors
Maoddi, Pietro; Jiguet, Sebastien; Renaud, Philippe
2014-01-01
Several recent detector te chnologies developed for particle physics applications are based on microfabricated structures. Dete ctors built with this approach generally exhibit the overall best performance in te rms of spatial and time resolution. Many properties of the SU-8 photoepoxy make it suitable for the manufacturing of microstructured particle detectors. This arti cle aims to review some emerging detector technologies making use of SU-8 microstructu ring, namely micropatte rn gaseous detectors and microfluidic scintillation detectors. Th e general working principle and main process steps for the fabrication of each device are reported, with a focus on the advantages brought to the device functionality by the us e of SU-8. A novel process based on multiple bonding steps for the fabrication of thin multila yer microfluidic scin tillation detectors developed by the authors is presented. Finally, a brief overview of the applications for the discussed devices is given.
Marietta Blau: Pioneer of Photographic Nuclear Emulsions and Particle Physics
Sime, Ruth Lewin
2013-03-01
During the 1920s and 1930s, Viennese physicist Marietta Blau (1894-1970) pioneered the use of photographic methods for imaging high-energy nuclear particles and events. In 1937 she and Hertha Wambacher discovered "disintegration stars" - the tracks of massive nuclear disintegrations - in emulsions exposed to cosmic radiation. This discovery launched the field of particle physics, but Blau's contributions were underrecognized and she herself was nearly forgotten. I trace Blau's career at the Institut für Radiumforschung in Vienna and the causes of this "forgetting," including her forced emigration from Austria in 1938, the behavior of her colleagues in Vienna during and after the National Socialist period, and the flawed Nobel decision process that excluded her from a Nobel Prize.
Research in Neutrino Physics and Particle Astrophysics: Final Technical Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kearns, Edward [Boston Univ., MA (United States)
2016-06-30
The Boston University Neutrino Physics and Particle Astrophysics Group investigates the fundamental laws of particle physics using natural and man-made neutrinos and rare processes such as proton decay. The primary instrument for this research is the massive Super-Kamiokande (SK) water Cherenkov detector, operating since 1996 at the Kamioka Neutrino Observatory, one kilometer underground in a mine in Japan. We study atmospheric neutrinos from cosmic rays, which were first used to discover that neutrinos have mass, as recognized by the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physics. Our latest measurements with atmospheric neutrinos are giving valuable information, complementary to longbaseline experiments, on the ordering of massive neutrino states and as to whether neutrinos violate CP symmetry. We have studied a variety of proton decay modes, including the most frequently predicted modes such as p → e^{+}π^{0} and p → ν K^{+}, as well as more exotic baryon number violating processes such as dinucleon decay and neutronantineutron oscillation. We search for neutrinos from dark matter annihilation or decay in the universe. Our group has made significant contributions to detector operation, particularly in the area of electronics. Most recently, we have contributed to planning for an upgrade to the SK detector by the addition of gadolinium to the water, which will enable efficient neutron capture detection.
Saucedo-Espinosa, Mario A; Lapizco-Encinas, Blanca H
2015-05-01
Insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) employs insulating structures embedded in a microchannel to produce electric field gradients. This contribution presents a detailed analysis of the regions within an iDEP system where particles are likely to be retained due to dielectrophoretic trapping in a microchannel with an array of cylindrical insulating structures. The effects of particle size and shape on dielectrophoretic trapping were analyzed by employing 1 and 2 μm polystyrene particles and Escherichia coli cells. This research aims to study the mechanism behind dielectrophoretic trapping and develop a deeper understanding of iDEP systems. Mathematical modeling with COMSOL Multiphysics was employed to assess electrokinetic and dielectrophoretic particle velocities. Experiments were carried out to determine the location of dielectrophoretic barriers that block particle motion within an iDEP microchannel; this supported the estimation of a correction factor to match experiments and simulations. Particle velocities were predicted with the model, demonstrating how the different forces acting on the particles are in equilibrium when particle trapping occurs. The results showed that particle size and shape have a significant effect on the magnitude, location, and shape of the regions of dielectrophoretic trapping of particles, which are defined by DEP isovelocity lines and EK isovelocity lines. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Kompaneyets, A S
1962-01-01
Rigorous, systematic study by renowned physicist offers advanced students a thorough background in mechanics, electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, and statistical mechanics. Numerous exercises, many with complete solutions. 1961 edition.
Baumann, Gerd
2005-01-01
Mathematica for Theoretical Physics: Electrodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity, and Fractals This second edition of Baumann's Mathematica® in Theoretical Physics shows readers how to solve physical problems and deal with their underlying theoretical concepts while using Mathematica® to derive numeric and symbolic solutions. Each example and calculation can be evaluated by the reader, and the reader can change the example calculations and adopt the given code to related or similar problems. The second edition has been completely revised and expanded into two volumes: The first volume covers classical mechanics and nonlinear dynamics. Both topics are the basis of a regular mechanics course. The second volume covers electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, relativity, and fractals and fractional calculus. New examples have been added and the representation has been reworked to provide a more interactive problem-solving presentation. This book can be used as a textbook or as a reference work, by student...
UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, 1993 progress report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nefkens, B.M.K.; Clajus, M.; Price, J.W.; Tippens, W.B.; White, D.B.
1993-09-01
The research programs of the UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, the research objectives, results of experiments, the continuing activities and new initiatives are presented. The primary goal of the research is to test the symmetries and invariances of particle/nuclear physics with special emphasis on investigating charge symmetry, isospin invariance, charge conjugation, and CP. Another important part of our work is baryon spectroscopy, which is the determination of the properties (mass, width, decay modes, etc.) of particles and resonances. We also measure some basic properties of light nuclei, for example the hadronic radii of {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He. Special attention is given to the eta meson, its production using photons, electrons, {pi}{sup {plus_minus}}, and protons, and its rare and not-so-rare decays. In Section 1, the physics motivation of our research is outlined. Section 2 provides a summary of the research projects. The status of each program is given in Section 3. We discuss the various experimental techniques used, the results obtained, and we outline the plans for the continuing and the new research. Details are presented of new research that is made possible by the use of the Crystal Ball Detector, a highly segmented NaI calorimeter and spectrometer with nearly 4{pi} acceptance (it was built and used at SLAC and is to be moved to BNL). The appendix contains an update of the bibliography, conference participation, and group memos; it also indicates our share in the organization of conferences, and gives a listing of the colloquia and seminars presented by us.
arXiv Where is Particle Physics Going?
Ellis, John
2017-12-08
The answer to the question in the title is: in search of new physics beyond the Standard Model, for which there are many motivations, including the likely instability of the electroweak vacuum, dark matter, the origin of matter, the masses of neutrinos, the naturalness of the hierarchy of mass scales, cosmological inflation and the search for quantum gravity. So far, however, there are no clear indications about the theoretical solutions to these problems, nor the experimental strategies to resolve them. It makes sense now to prepare various projects for possible future accelerators, so as to be ready for decisions when the physics outlook becomes clearer. Paraphrasing George Harrison, “If you don’t yet know where you’re going, any road may take you there.”
Statistical Methods for Particle Physics (4/4)
CERN. Geneva
2012-01-01
The series of four lectures will introduce some of the important statistical methods used in Particle Physics, and should be particularly relevant to those involved in the analysis of LHC data. The lectures will include an introduction to statistical tests, parameter estimation, and the application of these tools to searches for new phenomena. Both frequentist and Bayesian methods will be described, with particular emphasis on treatment of systematic uncertainties. The lectures will also cover unfolding, that is, estimation of a distribution in binned form where the variable in question is subject to measurement errors.
Statistical Methods for Particle Physics (3/4)
CERN. Geneva
2012-01-01
The series of four lectures will introduce some of the important statistical methods used in Particle Physics, and should be particularly relevant to those involved in the analysis of LHC data. The lectures will include an introduction to statistical tests, parameter estimation, and the application of these tools to searches for new phenomena. Both frequentist and Bayesian methods will be described, with particular emphasis on treatment of systematic uncertainties. The lectures will also cover unfolding, that is, estimation of a distribution in binned form where the variable in question is subject to measurement errors.
Statistical Methods for Particle Physics (2/4)
CERN. Geneva
2012-01-01
The series of four lectures will introduce some of the important statistical methods used in Particle Physics, and should be particularly relevant to those involved in the analysis of LHC data. The lectures will include an introduction to statistical tests, parameter estimation, and the application of these tools to searches for new phenomena. Both frequentist and Bayesian methods will be described, with particular emphasis on treatment of systematic uncertainties. The lectures will also cover unfolding, that is, estimation of a distribution in binned form where the variable in question is subject to measurement errors.
Statistical Methods for Particle Physics (1/4)
CERN. Geneva
2012-01-01
The series of four lectures will introduce some of the important statistical methods used in Particle Physics, and should be particularly relevant to those involved in the analysis of LHC data. The lectures will include an introduction to statistical tests, parameter estimation, and the application of these tools to searches for new phenomena. Both frequentist and Bayesian methods will be described, with particular emphasis on treatment of systematic uncertainties. The lectures will also cover unfolding, that is, estimation of a distribution in binned form where the variable in question is subject to measurement errors.
A Summer Research Experience in Particle Physics Using Skype
Johnston, Curran; Alexander, Steven; Mahmood, A. K.
2012-10-01
This last summer I did research in particle physics as part of a ``remote REU.'' This poster will describe that experience and the results of my project which was to experimentally verify the mass ranges of the Z' boson. Data from the LHC's Atlas detector was filtered by computers to select for likely Z boson decays; my work was in noting all instances of Z or Z' boson decays in one thousand events and their masses, separating the Z from Z' bosons, and generating histograms of the masses.
A Brief Note on "Un-Particle" Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Goldfain E.
2008-07-01
Full Text Available The possibility of a hidden sector of particle physics that lies beyond the energy range of the Standard Model has been recently advocated by many authors. A bizarre implication of this conjecture is the emergence of a continuous spectrum of massless fields with non-integral scaling dimensions called “un-particles”. The purpose of this Letter is to show that the idea of “un-particles” was considered in at least two previous independent publications, prior to its first claimed disclosure.
Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics. Final technical report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1994-06-01
This proposal presents the research accomplishments and ongoing activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics. Some changes have been made in the structure of the program from the previous arrangement of tasks. Task B, Accelerator Design Physics, is being submitted as a separate proposal for an independent grant; this will be consistent with the nature of the research and the source of funding. Boston University is active in seven principal areas: (1) Task A: Colliding Beams -- physics of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {anti p}p collisions; (2) Task C: MACRO Experiment -- search for magnetic monopoles and study of cosmic rays; (3) Task D: Proton Decay -- search for nucleon instability and study of neutrino interactions; (4) Tasks E, J, and N: Particle Theory -- theoretical high energy particle physics, including two Outstanding Junior Investigator awards; (5) Task F: Muon G-2 -- measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; (6) Task K: SSCintcal -- calorimetry for the GEM Experiment; (7) Task L: Muon Detectors for the GEM Experiment. The body of the proposal is devoted to detailed discussions of each of the tasks. The total budget request for the program appears in a summary chapter that includes a general budget discussion and individual budget requests and explanations for each of the tasks.
Johnson, Kennita A.; Vormohr, Hannah R.; Doinikov, Alexander A.; Bouakaz, Ayache; Shields, C. Wyatt; López, Gabriel P.; Dayton, Paul A.
2016-05-01
Acoustophoresis uses acoustic radiation force to remotely manipulate particles suspended in a host fluid for many scientific, technological, and medical applications, such as acoustic levitation, acoustic coagulation, contrast ultrasound imaging, ultrasound-assisted drug delivery, etc. To estimate the magnitude of acoustic radiation forces, equations derived for an inviscid host fluid are commonly used. However, there are theoretical predictions that, in the case of a traveling wave, viscous effects can dramatically change the magnitude of acoustic radiation forces, which make the equations obtained for an inviscid host fluid invalid for proper estimation of acoustic radiation forces. To date, experimental verification of these predictions has not been published. Experimental measurements of viscous effects on acoustic radiation forces in a traveling wave were conducted using a confocal optical and acoustic system and values were compared with available theories. Our results show that, even in a low-viscosity fluid such as water, the magnitude of acoustic radiation forces is increased manyfold by viscous effects in comparison with what follows from the equations derived for an inviscid fluid.
del Rio, B. G.; González, L. E.
2017-06-01
We perform ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of liquid Zn near the melting point in order to study the longitudinal and transverse dynamic properties of the system. We find two propagating excitations in both of them in a wide range of wave vectors. This is in agreement with some experimental observations of the dynamic structure factor in the region around half the position of the main peak. Moreover, the two-mode structure in the transverse and longitudinal current correlation functions had also been previously observed in high pressure liquid metallic systems. We perform a theoretical analysis in order to investigate the possible origin of such two components by resorting to mode-coupling theories. They are found to describe qualitatively the appearance of two modes in the dynamics, but their relative intensities are not quantitatively reproduced. We suggest some possible improvements of the theory through the analysis of the structure of the memory functions. We also analyze the single-particle dynamics embedded in the velocity autocorrelation function, and explain its characteristics through mode-coupling concepts.
Resummation and renormalization in effective theories of particle physics
Jakovac, Antal
2015-01-01
Effective models of strong and electroweak interactions are extensively applied in particle physics phenomenology, and in many instances can compete with large-scale numerical simulations of Standard Model physics. These contexts include but are not limited to providing indications for phase transitions and the nature of elementary excitations of strong and electroweak matter. A precondition for obtaining high-precision predictions is the application of some advanced functional techniques to the effective models, where the sensitivity of the results to the accurate choice of the input parameters is under control and the insensitivity to the actual choice of ultraviolet regulators is ensured. The credibility of such attempts ultimately requires a clean renormalization procedure and an error estimation due to a necessary truncation in the resummation procedure. In this concise primer we discuss systematically and in sufficient technical depth the features of a number of approximate methods, as applied to vario...
Modern elementary particle physics explaining and extending the standard model
Kane, Gordon
2017-01-01
This book is written for students and scientists wanting to learn about the Standard Model of particle physics. Only an introductory course knowledge about quantum theory is needed. The text provides a pedagogical description of the theory, and incorporates the recent Higgs boson and top quark discoveries. With its clear and engaging style, this new edition retains its essential simplicity. Long and detailed calculations are replaced by simple approximate ones. It includes introductions to accelerators, colliders, and detectors, and several main experimental tests of the Standard Model are explained. Descriptions of some well-motivated extensions of the Standard Model prepare the reader for new developments. It emphasizes the concepts of gauge theories and Higgs physics, electroweak unification and symmetry breaking, and how force strengths vary with energy, providing a solid foundation for those working in the field, and for those who simply want to learn about the Standard Model.
Eka Putri, Irana; Gita Redhyka, Grace
2017-07-01
Micro-air-bubble has a high potential contribution in waste water, farming, and fishery treatment. In this research, submicron scale of micro-air-bubble was observed to determine its stability in H2O solvent. By increasing its stability, it can be used for several applications, such as bio-preservative for medical and food transport. The micro-air-bubble was assumed in spherical shape that in incompressible gas boundary condition. So, the random motion of particle (Brownian motion) can be solved by using Stokes-Einstein approximation. But, Hadamard and Rybczynski equation is promoted to solve for larger bubble (micro scale). While, the effect of physical properties (e.g. diffusion coefficient, density, and flow rate) have taken important role in its characteristics in water. According to the theoretical investigation that have been done, decreasing of bubble velocity indicates that the bubble dissolves away or shrinking to the surface. To obtain longevity bubble in pure water medium, it is recomended to apply some surfactant molecules (e.g. NaCl) in micro-air-bubble medium.
High resolution micro-pattern gas detectors for particle physics
Shekhtman, L.; Aulchenko, V.; Bobrovnikov, V.; Bondar, A.; Fedotovich, G.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Maltsev, T.; Nikolenko, D.; Rachek, I.; Zhilich, V.; Zhulanov, V.
2017-07-01
Micro-pattern gaseous detectors (MPGDs) allow operation at very high background particle flux with high efficiency and spatial resolution. This combination of parameters determines the main application of these detectors in particle physics experiments: precise tracking in the areas close to the beam and in the end-cap regions of general-purpose detectors. MPGDs of different configurations have been developed and are under development for several experiments in the Budker INP. The system of eight two-coordinate detectors based on a cascade of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) is working in the KEDR experiment at the VEPP-4M collider in the tagging system that detects electrons and positrons that lost their energy in two-photon interactions and left the equilibrium orbit due to a dedicated magnetic system. Another set of cascaded GEM detectors is developed for the almost-real Photon Tagging System (PTS) of the DEUTRON facility at the VEPP-3 storage ring. The PTS contains three very light detectors with very high spatial resolution (below 50 μm). Dedicated detectors based on cascaded GEMs are developed for the extracted electron beam facility at the VEPP-4M collider. These devices will allow precise particle tracking with minimal multiple scattering due to very low material content. An upgrade of the coordinate system of the CMD-3 detector at the VEPP-2000 collider is proposed on the basis of the resistive micro-WELL (μ-rWELL). A research activity on this subject has just started.
THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF THEORETICAL PREPARATION ON “PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR HIGHSCHOOL STUDENTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
DANIEL DOCU AXELERAD
2009-12-01
Full Text Available According to the pre-universitary curriculum, one of the criteria to asses the level of the subject’s acquisition is the quality of the theoretical knowledge. In the basic organizing documents of school physical education, there were and still are stipulated the exact requests regarding the necessary theoretical knowledge ofstudents on various education levels. According to these documents, the theoretical knowledge was general knowledge. To the general knowledge, there are added those pertaining to the basic information of the given subject, information about the means and methods of physical education, information from the domain of prophylactic physical education, etc. Special knowledge is that representing the students’ knowledge form various sports tests provided by the school curriculum, such as the sporting games (volleyball, basketball,football, handball, athletics (running, jumping, throwing and gymnastics (apparatus and floor exercises. It is here that the means and methods applied in acquiring the compartments listed above are attributed. In the special knowledge category there is also the knowledge related to the means, the forms and the methods to develop the basic motor qualities (force, speed, flexibility, resistance, skills, as well as the procedures for evaluating them.Nevertheless, regardless of the fact that in the physical education organizing normative documents, highschool included, it is provided that theoretical knowledge should be acquired, still there is no actual presentation of the specific requirements and the assessment criteria for the level of acquisition. No document specifies the ways to evaluate the volume and quality of acquiring the theoretical knowledge, which is why we are going to present here a detailed analysis of the level of acquisition of theoretical knowledge for the “Physical Education” subject by highschool students after applying the teaching –learning -evaluation technique on the
The theoretical minimum what you need to know to start doing physics
Susskind, Leonard
2013-01-01
In this unconventional and stimulating primer, world-class physicist Leonard Susskind and citizen-scientist George Hrabovsky combine forces to provide a brilliant first course in modern physics. Unlike most popular physics books - which give readers a taste of what physicists know but not what they actually do - Susskind and Hrabovsky teach the skills you need to do physics yourself. Combining crystal-clear explanations of the laws of the universe with basic exercises, the authors cover the minimum - the theoretical minimum of the title - that readers need to master in order to study more advanced topics. In a lucid, engaging style, they introduce all the key concepts, from classical mechanics to general relativity to quantum theory. Instead of shying away from the equations and maths that are essential to any understanding of physics, The Theoretical Minimum provides a toolkit that you won't find in any other popular science book.
Rasmussen, Roy Martin
This study utilized the UCLA cloud physics wind tunnel and the IBM 3033 computer. The wind tunnel experiments were conducted using two separate procedures, depending on the size of the spherical particle. Particles less than 1 mm diameter, were melted in free fall while experiencing a time varying environmental temperature, similar to the variation of temperature it would encounter while freely falling in the atmosphere. Particles larger than 1 mm diameter have a tendency to wander towards the tunnel walls, requiring restraint by a thin nylon fiber frozen halfway through the particle. Using this fiber, the particle was suspended from above. Although attached to a thread, the particle's terminal velocity was constantly maintained during melting by keeping the fiber slack. Particles less than 1 mm diameter usually undergo "sailing" motions upon melting due to the melting of surface protuberances. Once the protuberances are melted, the particle falls with no horizontal drift. The melting ice core was observed to remain tangent with the downstream end of the particle, resulting in an eccentric melting location. The meltwater itself was also observed to circulate due to the external shear of the air on the meltwater surface. For these small particles, no meltwater was shed. Particles larger than 9 mm diameter were found to shed meltwater, with the fraction shed increasing with particle size. Particles between 9 mm and 5 mm diameter did not shed their meltwater, and did not develop an internal circulation. Particles between 1 mm and 5 mm, however, did develop a significant internal circulation, resulting in a conically shaped ice core. For each of the above size ranges, melting theories are developed which are able to quantitatively describe the melting rates of these particles.
Particle physics: a valuable driver of innovation in medicine… and physics
2012-01-01
This year marks the 10th anniversary of the European Network for Light Ion Therapy (ENLIGHT), which is a good occasion a look back over the important contributions particle physics has made to medicine over the years. It’s hard to know exactly where to start, but since this year also marks the 20th anniversary of Georges Charpak’s Nobel Prize, that seems as good a place as any. Charpak’s prize was a long time coming. It was awarded for “his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber” in 1968. Over the following years, these devices transformed particle physics, allowing particle collisions to be recorded electronically instead of optically, and they led to a wide range of electronic particle detection techniques in use today. All this was duly noted by the Nobel committee, which also pointed out Charpak’s energy in applying the technology to medicine. Today, Charpak-like detec...
Barker, Dean; Wallhead, Tristan; Brock, Sheri; Goodyear, Victoria; Amade-Escot, Chantal
2017-01-01
Student group work is a central feature of many contemporary pedagogical approaches to teaching physical education. Despite this proliferation, our understanding of the teaching-learning dynamics inherent in group work remains limited and has tended to be under-theorized. The purpose of this paper was to examine different theoretical approaches to…
Carson, Russell L.; Chase, Melissa A.
2009-01-01
Background: The motivation of physical education (PE) teachers has received precious little attention over the years. Self-determination theory (SDT) is a salient theoretical model for understanding motivation, and posits that self-determined motivation (i.e., intrinsic motivation) stems from the perceived fulfillment of three psychological needs:…
High Energy Theory Workshops and Visitors at the Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics FY16
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pierce, Aaron [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2016-09-08
This award provided partial support for the Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics to host the 5-day workshop "Emergent themes in String Theory" this winter, March 15 - 19, 2016. on the University of Michigan campus. In addition, this award provided limited support for the Young High Energy Theorist (YHET) visitor program at the University of Michigan.
High Energy Theory Workshops and Visitors at the Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics FY16
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pierce, Aaron [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2017-08-04
This award provided partial support for the Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics to host two workshops "Beyond the Standard Model 2016" in October 2016, and the "5th MCTP Symposium: Foundations of String Cosmology" in April 2017 on the University of Michigan campus.
Hansson, Lena; Hansson, Örjan; Juter, Kristina; Redfors, Andreas
2015-01-01
This article discusses the role of mathematics during physics lessons in upper-secondary school. Mathematics is an inherent part of theoretical models in physics and makes powerful predictions of natural phenomena possible. Ability to use both theoretical models and mathematics is central in physics. This paper takes as a starting point that the…
Carroll, Sean; Hauser, Marc D
2007-01-01
"On the theoretical side, particle phenomenologists will continue to develop physics beyond the Standard Model; string theorists are connecting ore strongly to cosmology and astrophysics/With the recent advent of whole-genome sequencing and increasingly complete surveys of genetic variation, we are now routinely studying 500 thousand variations at a time, enabling complete genome wide surveys in many human populations and in specific disease populations./The most exciting developments today sit at the intersection between science and philosophy.
Zala, Krista
2006-01-01
Physics Professor Savas Dimopoulos was awarded the 2006 J.J. Sakurai Award for his work in advancing theoretical particle physics. The citation lauds Dimopoulos for "his creative ideas on dynamical symmetry breaking, supersymmetry and extra spatial dimensions, which have shaped theoretical research, thereby inspiring a wide range of experiments."
Particle physics and cosmology, Task C. Progress report, January 1992--April 1993
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turner, M.S.
1993-05-01
The research has spanned many topics at the boundary of particle physics and cosmology. The major focus has been in the general areas of inflationary cosmology, cosmological phase transitions, astrophysical constraints to particle physics theories, and dark matter/structure formation as it relates to particle physics. Some attention is given to axion physics. Narrative summaries of the research of the individual group members are given, followed by a list of publications.
Particle physics of brane worlds and extra dimensions
Raychaudhuri, Sreerup
2016-01-01
The possibility that we live in a higher-dimensional world with spatial dimensions greater than three started with the early work of Kaluza and Klein. However, in addressing experimental constraints, early model-builders were forced to compactify these extra dimensions to very tiny scales. With the development of brane-world scenarios it became possible to consider novel compactifications which allow the extra dimensions to be large or to provide observable effects of these dimensions at experimentally accessible energy scales. This book provides a comprehensive account of these recent developments, keeping the high-energy physics implications in focus. After an historical survey of the idea of extra dimensions, the book deals in detail with models of large extra dimensions, warped extra dimensions and other models such as universal extra dimensions. The theoretical and phenomenological implications are discussed in a pedagogical manner for both researchers and graduate students.
Statistical methods for data analysis in particle physics
Lista, Luca
2017-01-01
This concise set of course-based notes provides the reader with the main concepts and tools needed to perform statistical analyses of experimental data, in particular in the field of high-energy physics (HEP). First, the book provides an introduction to probability theory and basic statistics, mainly intended as a refresher from readers’ advanced undergraduate studies, but also to help them clearly distinguish between the Frequentist and Bayesian approaches and interpretations in subsequent applications. More advanced concepts and applications are gradually introduced, culminating in the chapter on both discoveries and upper limits, as many applications in HEP concern hypothesis testing, where the main goal is often to provide better and better limits so as to eventually be able to distinguish between competing hypotheses, or to rule out some of them altogether. Many worked-out examples will help newcomers to the field and graduate students alike understand the pitfalls involved in applying theoretical conc...
Statistical methods for data analysis in particle physics
Lista, Luca
2017-01-01
This concise set of course-based notes provides the reader with the main concepts and tools needed to perform statistical analyses of experimental data, in particular in the field of high-energy physics (HEP). First, the book provides an introduction to probability theory and basic statistics, mainly intended as a refresher from readers’ advanced undergraduate studies, but also to help them clearly distinguish between the Frequentist and Bayesian approaches and interpretations in subsequent applications. More advanced concepts and applications are gradually introduced, culminating in the chapter on both discoveries and upper limits, as many applications in HEP concern hypothesis testing, where the main goal is often to provide better and better limits so as to eventually be able to distinguish between competing hypotheses, or to rule out some of them altogether. Many worked-out examples will help newcomers to the field and graduate students alike understand the pitfalls involved in applying theoretical co...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; De Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.
1992-06-01
Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics programs at the University of Colorado are reported. Areas of concentration include the following: study of the properties of the Z[sup 0] with the SLD detector; fixed-target K-decay experiments; the R D program for the muon system: the SDC detector; high-energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; electron--positron physics with the CLEO II detector at CESR; lattice QCD; and spin models and dynamically triangulated random surfaces. 24 figs., 2 tabs., 117 refs.