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Sample records for theobroma cacao var

  1. Theobroma cacao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although, several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, to date detailed information about the Sus genes is lacking for cacao. This study reports the identification of six novel Sus genes from economically important cacao tree. Analyses of the ...

  2. Evaluación sensorial de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. cultivado en la región del sur del departamento de Bolívar (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johana Andrea Guzmán Duque

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El departamento de Bolívar (Colombia presenta condiciones aptas tanto agrícolas como culturales para el desarrollo productivo de cacao de fino aroma. Esta actividad ofrece una oportunidad conveniente para su desarrollo sostenible, económico y de proyección social. La presente investigación evaluó las características sensoriales del cacao Theobroma cacao L. en seis municipios del sur de Bolívar para determinar atributos propios y diferencias significativas entre estas regiones; para esto se realizó un muestreo de granos secos y mazorcas de cacao, de los clones más representativos de cada municipio. El proceso se llevó a cabo con 18 jueces capacitados para detectar, describir y discriminar propiedades  sensoriales en el cacao, quienes evaluaron las muestras a través de cuatro pruebas sensoriales específicas diseñadas para realizar la caracterización organoléptica del cacao de Bolívar, seleccionando para este fin las pruebas descriptivas de perfil de sabor y análisis cuantitativo y las pruebas discriminativas de ordenamiento y escalar de control. El análisis físico y sensorial del grano reveló la correlación entre las condiciones agroecológicas y tecnológicas (especialmente aquellos que tienen que ver con las operaciones de fermentación y/o beneficio con las cualidades sensoriales que éste posee en sus atributos de sabor y aroma.

  3. Theobroma cacao L.:

    OpenAIRE

    Kalvatchev, Zlatko; Garzaro, Domingo; Guerra Cedezo, Franklin

    2003-01-01

    1.- Artículos Cartay, Rafael. "Los productos típicos y su reglamentación. Una tentativa de aplicación de la denominación de origen al cacao venezolano" Kalvatchev, Zlatko; Garzaro, Domingo; Guerra Cedezo, Franklin. "Theobroma Cacao L.: Un nuevo enfoque para nutrición y salud" Anido, Daniel; Gutiérrez, Alejandro. "La demanda de las calorías en Venezuela 1970-1995: Algunas evidencias empíricas" Molina, Luisa Elena. "Notas sobre la situación de la producción primaria de arroz en Ven...

  4. Genetic diversity and spatial structure in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) germplasm from Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important economic crop widely cultivated in the Bolivian Amazon. The germplasm group used by the Bolivian farmers was called “Cacao Nacional Boliviano” (CNB). Wild cacao populations are also found in the Beni River and in the valleys of Andes foot hills. Using DNA...

  5. Responses of seedlings of tropical woody plants to environmental stresses with emphasis on Theobroma cacao and Hevea brasiliensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena Gomes, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    Relative humidity, flooding, temperature, wind, and SO/sub 2/ variously influenced physiological processes and growth of tropical woody plants, with emphasis on three Theobroma cacao varieties and three Hevea brasiliensis families. Stomata were smaller and more numerous in Theobroma than in Hevea. In Theobroma, but not Heavea, stomatal frequency decreased from the leaf base to the apex and from the midrib outward. Stomata of Theobroma cacao var. Catongo opened in high relative humidity (RH) and closed in low RH. The more open stomata in high RH were associated with high rates of photosynthesis, low leaf water potential, high water use efficiency (WUE), and low transpiration rate (TR). Variations in TR and WUE were correlated with changes in vapor pressure deficit. Other responses included stomatal closure, decreased chlorophyll content, leaf epinasty, production of hypertrophied lenticels and adventitious roots, and acceleration of ethylene production. Responses to flooding varied with species, Theobroma varieties and Hevea families. Effects of temperature regimes on growth varied with species, varieties and families, plant parts, growth parameters, and time of harvesting. Optimal temperatures for dry weight increase of stems or roots of Theobroma cacao var. Comum were 22.2 C; and 33.3 C for dry weight increase or relative growth rates of leaves or seedlings. Optimal temperatures for growth varied for Hevea families. Wind injured leaves of Theobroma cacao, with more injury by wind of 6.0 than 3.0 m s/sup -1/. Stomata were more open on windy than on calm days, but tended to close at high wind speeds. Wind lowered transpiration rate but the reduction was not correlated with leaf dehydration. SO/sub 2/ at 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 ppm for 24 h did not injure Theobroma leaves but reduced dry weight increment of leaves of var. Catongo but not Catongo/Sial.

  6. Gene flow and genetic diversity in cultivated and wild cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumacero de Schawe, Claudia; Durka, Walter; Tscharntke, Teja; Hensen, Isabell; Kessler, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The role of pollen flow within and between cultivated and wild tropical crop species is little known. To study the pollen flow of cacao, we estimated the degree of self-pollination and pollen dispersal distances as well as gene flow between wild and cultivated cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). We studied pollen flow and genetic diversity of cultivated and wild cacao populations by genotyping 143 wild and 86 cultivated mature plants and 374 seedlings raised from 19 wild and 25 cultivated trees at nine microsatellite loci. A principal component analysis distinguished wild and cultivated cacao trees, supporting the notion that Bolivia harbors truly wild cacao populations. Cultivated cacao had a higher level of genetic diversity than wild cacao, presumably reflecting the varied origin of cultivated plants. Both cacao types had high outcrossing rates, but the paternity analysis revealed 7-14% self-pollination in wild and cultivated cacao. Despite the tiny size of the pollinators, pollen was transported distances up to 3 km; wild cacao showed longer distances (mean = 922 m) than cultivated cacao (826 m). Our data revealed that 16-20% of pollination events occurred between cultivated and wild populations. We found evidence of self-pollination in both wild and cultivated cacao. Pollination distances are larger than those typically reported in tropical understory tree species. The relatively high pollen exchange from cultivated to wild cacao compromises genetic identity of wild populations, calling for the protection of extensive natural forest tracts to protect wild cacao in Bolivia.

  7. In silico analysis of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) genes that involved in pathogen and disease responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agung, Muhammad Budi; Budiarsa, I. Made; Suwastika, I. Nengah

    2017-02-01

    Cocoa bean is one of the main commodities from Indonesia for the world, which still have problem regarding yield degradation due to pathogens and disease attack. Developing robust cacao plant that genetically resistant to pathogen and disease attack is an ideal solution in over taking on this problem. The aim of this study was to identify Theobroma cacao genes on database of cacao genome that homolog to response genes of pathogen and disease attack in other plant, through in silico analysis. Basic information survey and gene identification were performed in GenBank and The Arabidopsis Information Resource database. The In silico analysis contains protein BLAST, homology test of each gene's protein candidates, and identification of homologue gene in Cacao Genome Database using data source "Theobroma cacao cv. Matina 1-6 v1.1" genome. Identification found that Thecc1EG011959t1 (EDS1), Thecc1EG006803t1 (EDS5), Thecc1EG013842t1 (ICS1), and Thecc1EG015614t1 (BG_PPAP) gene of Cacao Genome Database were Theobroma cacao genes that homolog to plant's resistance genes which highly possible to have similar functions of each gene's homologue gene.

  8. Molecular characterization of an earliest cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) collection from Peruvian Amazon using microsatllite DNA markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is indigenous to the Amazon region of South America. The Peruvian Amazon harbors a large number of diverse cacao populations. Since the 1930s, several numbers of populations have been collected from the Peruvian Amazon and maintained as ex situ germplasm repositories in ...

  9. Presencia de metales pesados en cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) orgánico

    OpenAIRE

    Huamaní-Yupanqui, Hugo Alfredo; Huauya-Rojas, Miguel ángel; Mansilla-Minaya, Luis Germán; Florida-Rofner, Nelino; Neira-Trujillo, Gilmer Milton

    2012-01-01

    La presencia de metales pesados en el cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) es actualmente un grave problema para agricultores y cooperativas de las regiones Huánuco y Ucayali, Perú. En el presente trabajo se evaluaron los contenidos de cadmio y plomo en suelos y hojas del cacao en estas regiones. Para el efecto se recolectaron y analizaron en laboratorio muestras tomadas en 22 parcelas con cultivos orgánicos de esta especie, 17 en la región Huánuco y cinco en la región Ucayali. Se realizaron...

  10. Presence of heavy metals in organic cacao (theobroma cacao l.) crop

    OpenAIRE

    HuamanI-Yupanqui, Hugo Alfredo; Huauya-Rojas, Miguel Ángel; Mansilla-Minaya, Luis Germán; Florida-Rofner, Nelino; Neira-Trujillo, Gilmer Milton

    2013-01-01

    La presencia de metales pesados en el cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) es actualmente un grave problema para agricultores y cooperativas de las regiones Huánuco y Ucayali, Perú. En el presente trabajo se evaluaron los contenidos de cadmio y plomo en suelos y hojas del cacao en estas regiones. Para el efecto se recolectaron y analizaron en laboratorio muestras tomadas en 22 parcelas con cultivos orgánicos de esta especie, 17 en la región Huánuco y cinco en la región Ucayali. Se realizaron...

  11. Review of vegetative propagation of cacao ( Theobroma cacao L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parmi les facteurs physiologiques influençant la propagation de cacao par les boutures de cacao, les différences du clonage, la surface foliaire, l'âge physiologique, les traits anatomiques, les facteurs nutritionnels et biochimiques exercent la plus forte influence. Les clones d'Upper Amazon et de Trinitario prennent les ...

  12. Review of vegetative propagation of cacao ( Theobroma cacao L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cet article fait une révision de facteurs environnementaux favorables et les diffecultés techniques qui ont limité l'utilisation extensive de propagation végétative pour la multiplication de cacao. Inclus dans les facteurs extérieurs importante influençcant l'enracinement de boutures de cacao saont: la lumière, la température, ...

  13. Potencial de actividad antioxidante de extractos fenólicos de Theobroma cacao L. (cacao)

    OpenAIRE

    Quiñones Gálvez, Janet; Trujillo Sánchez, Reinaldo; Capdesuñer Ruiz, Yanelis; Quirós Molina, Yemeys; Hernández de la Torre, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Theobroma cacao L. (cacao), familia Sterculiaceae, es una planta rica en fenoles, los cuales en las plantas son de especial interés por su potente actividad antioxidante, dada esencialmente por sus propiedades redox, que pueden desempeñar un papel importante en la absorción y neutralización de los radicales libres. Objetivos: seleccionar un clon promisorio en la producción de compuestos fenólicos, determinar los órganos con mayor contenido de fenoles, establecer el cultivo in vi...

  14. Comparison of two cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) clones for the effect of pollination intensity on fruit set and seed content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falque, M.; Lesdalons, C.; Eskes, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    We compared the influence of pollination intensity (PI) on fruit set and seed number per pod in two cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) clones, IFC5 (Forastero Lower-Amazon Amelonado), which is self-compatible and known to produce a high number of seeds per pod under open pollination, and SCA6 (Forastero

  15. Repression of calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in trigeminal neurons by a Theobroma cacao extract☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Marcie J.; Patil, Vinit V.; Vause, Carrie V.; Durham, Paul L.

    2008-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Cocoa bean preparations were first used by the ancient Maya and Aztec civilizations of South America to treat a variety of medical ailments involving the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and nervous systems. Diets rich in foods containing abundant polyphenols, as found in cocoa, underlie the protective effects reported in chronic inflammatory diseases. Release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from trigeminal nerves promotes inflammation in peripheral tissues and nociception. Aim of the study To determine whether a methanol extract of Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae) beans enriched for polyphenols could inhibit CGRP expression, both an in vitro and an in vivo approach was taken. Results Treatment of rat trigeminal ganglia cultures with depolarizing stimuli caused a significant increase in CGRP release that was repressed by pretreatment with Theobroma cacao extract. Pretreatment with Theobroma cacao was also shown to block the KCl- and capsaicin-stimulated increases in intracellular calcium. Next, the effects of Theobroma cacao on CGRP levels were determined using an in vivo model of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation. Capsaicin injection into the TMJ capsule caused an ipsilateral decrease in CGRP levels. Theobroma cacao extract injected into the TMJ capsule 24 h prior to capsaicin treatment repressed the stimulatory effects of capsaicin. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that Theobroma cacao extract can repress stimulated CGRP release by a mechanism that likely involves blockage of calcium channel activity. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the beneficial effects of diets rich in cocoa may include suppression of sensory trigeminal nerve activation. PMID:17997062

  16. Repression of calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in trigeminal neurons by a Theobroma cacao extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Marcie J; Patil, Vinit V; Vause, Carrie V; Durham, Paul L

    2008-01-17

    Cocoa bean preparations were first used by the ancient Maya and Aztec civilizations of South America to treat a variety of medical ailments involving the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and nervous systems. Diets rich in foods containing abundant polyphenols, as found in cocoa, underlie the protective effects reported in chronic inflammatory diseases. Release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from trigeminal nerves promotes inflammation in peripheral tissues and nociception. To determine whether a methanol extract of Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae) beans enriched for polyphenols could inhibit CGRP expression, both an in vitro and an in vivo approach was taken. Treatment of rat trigeminal ganglia cultures with depolarizing stimuli caused a significant increase in CGRP release that was repressed by pretreatment with Theobroma cacao extract. Pretreatment with Theobroma cacao was also shown to block the KCl- and capsaicin-stimulated increases in intracellular calcium. Next, the effects of Theobroma cacao on CGRP levels were determined using an in vivo model of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation. Capsaicin injection into the TMJ capsule caused an ipsilateral decrease in CGRP levels. Theobroma cacao extract injected into the TMJ capsule 24h prior to capsaicin treatment repressed the stimulatory effects of capsaicin. Our results demonstrate that Theobroma cacao extract can repress stimulated CGRP release by a mechanism that likely involves blockage of calcium channel activity. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the beneficial effects of diets rich in cocoa may include suppression of sensory trigeminal nerve activation.

  17. Mutation breeding against black pod (Phytophthora pod rot) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opeke, L.K.

    1977-01-01

    Black pod rot disease, caused by Phytophthora palmivora, is an important disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in Nigeria and other cacao producing countries of West Africa and Latin America. A naturally occurring source of genetic resistance to the disease has not been found. This paper completes the report, the first part of which was published in Induced Mutations in Vegetatively Propagated Plants, IAEA, Vienna (1973). The survivors of the irradiated seedlings reported on in this publication were transplanted to the field along with their controls. When the Phytophthora pod disease season began in 1973, all experimental plants along with the controls were sprayed with active and freshly prepared dense sporangial suspension of P. palmivora. Observations on Phytophthora infection were recorded at two-weekly intervals for three months. Results were pooled for each set of experimental plants, after having confirmed that no marked difference appeared among individual plants of each group. Contrary to the observations recorded at the nursery stage, all experimental plants that showed no infection indicated disease infection levels normally characteristic of the F 3 Amazon cultivar of Cacao in Nigeria. Although the nursery and the field data are difficult to reconcile and interpret, it is suggested that probably temporary disease tolerance/resistance, which some irradiated plants showed at the nursery (seedling) stage, was lost as the plants matured, thus suggesting different resistance factor systems for juvenile and mature cacao trees. (author)

  18. Management of Chinese Rose Beetle (Adoretus sinicus) Adults Feeding on Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Using Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spafford, Helen; Ching, Alexander; Manley, Megan; Hardin, Chelsea; Bittenbender, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)) is an introduced, widely-established pest in Hawai’i. The adult beetles feed on the leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), which can lead to defoliation and even death of young trees. We evaluated the impact of five commercially available products with different active ingredients (imidacloprid, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., kaolin clay, and pyrethrin) and the presence or absence of weed mat cover in reducing adult beetle feeding on sapling cacao in the field. The use of weed mat cover reduced feeding damage compared to the untreated control, as did foliar application of imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and B. bassiana. In the laboratory, field-collected adult beetles were presented cacao leaf samples dipped in one of the five products and compared to a control. Beetles exposed to pyrethrin died rapidly. Among the other treatments, only exposure to imidacloprid significantly reduced survival relative to the control. Beetles fed very little on leaf samples with azadirachtin but their longevity was not significantly reduced. Imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and weed mat application had the most promise for reducing adult Chinese rose beetle feeding damage in young cacao and deserve further investigation for successful management of this significant pest. PMID:27348004

  19. Association mapping of fruit, seed and disease resistance traits in Theobroma cacao L

    Science.gov (United States)

    An association mapping approach was employed to find markers for color, size, girth and mass of fruits; seed number and butterfat content; and resistance to black pod and witches’ broom diseases in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Ninety-five microsatellites (SSRs) and 775 single nucleotide polymorphisms...

  20. Making a chocolate chip: development and evaluation of a 6K SNP array for Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobroma cacao, the key ingredient in chocolate production, is one of the world's most important tree fruit crops, with ~4,000,000 metric tons produced across 50 countries. To move towards gene discovery and marker-assisted breeding in cacao, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification pr...

  1. Factors controlling phenol content on Theobroma cacao callus culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiñones-Galvez, Janet; HernándezTorre, Martha de la; Quirós Molina, Yemeys; Capdesuñer Ruiz, Yanelis; Trujillo Sánchez, Reinaldo

    2016-01-01

    Theobroma cacao L. is known in folk medicine as an antiseptic, diuretic and antiparasitic. Foods derived from this plant are rich in natural products of high added value, including phenolic compounds. As in vitro cultivation handle is an alternative source for the production of these metabolites. The present study was conducted to obtain phenolic compounds from callus culture with embryogenic structures. Culture conditions (agitation, light and glucose) were established to increase the concentration of phenols in calluses and elicitors to achieve the increase in callus and excretion into the culture area. The accumulation of phenolic compounds was favored with the additional supplement of glucose, growth in agitation and darkness. The addition of random hydroxylated cyclodextrins allowed the increase in the specific yield of phenols and biomass. (author)

  2. Presencia de metales pesados en cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. orgánico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alfredo Huamaní-Yupanqui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de metales pesados en el cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. es actualmente un grave problema para agricultores y cooperativas de las regiones Huánuco y Ucayali, Perú. En el presente trabajo se evaluaron los contenidos de cadmio y plomo en suelos y hojas del cacao en estas regiones. Para el efecto se recolectaron y analizaron en laboratorio muestras tomadas en 22 parcelas con cultivos orgánicos de esta especie, 17 en la región Huánuco y cinco en la región Ucayali. Se realizaron análisis de correlación de Pearson entre los contenidos de plomo y cadmio disponibles en el suelo con variables foliares (P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Cd, Pb y del suelo (arena, arcilla y K. En los suelos, sólo en el caso de potasio se presentan deficiencias; mientras que en el tejido foliar se presentaron deficiencias de N, P, K, Mg y Zn. Los valores promedio de cadmio y plomo disponible en los suelos fueron 0.53 y 3.02 ppm y en las hojas de cacao de 0.21 y 0.58 ppm respectivamente.

  3. Actividad antibacteriana de la cáscara de cacao, Theobroma cacao L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Cuéllar G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad antibacteriana de diferentes fracciones de la cáscara de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la actividad antibacteriana mediante el método de difusión en agar de diferentes fracciones de la cáscara de cacao, empleando cepas autóctonas y de referencia ATCC. Posteriormente, se hizo un análisis de estas fracciones por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia y cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Resultados. La fracción clorofórmica presentó actividad antibacteriana frente a Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 y Streptococcus agalactiae (autóctona, con porcentajes de inhibición de 34.90% (100 μg/μl y 52.40% (100 μg/μl respectivamente. También se evidenció una concentración mínima inhibitoria de 512 μg/ml frente a Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 y de 128 μg/ml frente a Streptococcus agalactiae. Conclusiones. Este trabajo es el primer reporte a saber en Colombia sobre actividad antibacteriana in vitro de la cáscara de cacao, el cual resulta ser un avance importante para esta agroindustria. Esta investigación abre paso a otros estudios relacionados para establecer el espectro de inhibición frente a otros microorganismos.

  4. QTL mapping for resistance to frosty pod and black pod diseases in an f1 population of Theobroma cacao L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is a native crop of the Americas; however severe losses due to frosty pod (FP) [Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. and Par.)], and black pod (BP) [Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) Butl.] have reduced cacao in the Americas to only 13.0% of world production. Agronomic practices to co...

  5. Cryopreservation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) somatic embryos by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Raphael; Wetten, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Losses of cultivated cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) due to diseases and continued depletion of forests that harbour the wild progenitors of the crop make ex situ conservation of cocoa germplasm of paramount importance. In order to enhance security of in situ germplasm collections, 2-3 mm floral-derived secondary somatic embryos were cryopreserved by vitrification. This work demonstrates the most uncomplicated clonal cocoa cryopreservation. Optimal post-cryostorage survival (74.5 percent) was achieved by 5 d preculture of SSEs on 0.5 M sucrose medium followed by 60 min dehydration in cold PVS2. To minimise free radical related cryo-injury, cation sources were removed from the embryo development solution and/or the recovery medium, the former treatment resulting in a significant benefit. After optimisation with cocoa genotype AMAZ 15, the same protocol was effective across all five additional cocoa genotypes tested. For the multiplication of clones, embryos regenerated following cryopreservation were used as explant sources, and vitrification was found to maintain their embryogenic potential.

  6. COMPARATIVE GENOME ANALYSES OF MONILIOPHTHORA PERNICIOSA AND MONILIOPHTHORA RORERI: TWO CLOSELY RELATED PHYTOPATHOGENIC BASIDIOMYCETES THAT CAUSE DISTINCTLY DIFFERENT DISEASES OF THEOBROMA CACAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobroma cacao (cacao), the source of chocolate, is a tropical understory tree. Fungal diseases such as Witches’ Broom Disease (WBD) and Frosty Pod Rot Disease (FPRD) of cacao have devastated cacao production in much of the Western Hemisphere and are threats to the main cacao producing regions in A...

  7. Cocoa Bean (Theobroma cacao L.Drying Kinetics Cinética del Secado de Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndukwu MacManus Chinenye

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. is widely produced in West Africa and South America and is a great economic tree crop, with so many industrial uses. In this work, the experimental drying kinetics of foreign species was investigated, and the experiments were carried out under isothermal conditions, using heated batch drier at 55, 70 and 81 ºC. The moisture ratio data obtained from change of moisture content with the drying time was fit to two thin layer drying model with good results. A faster drying process was observed at a higher drying temperature resulting in higher drying rates which is advantageous when evaluating costs. Fick’s second law of diffusion was used to predict effective diffusivity using experimental data assuming that the variation of diffusivity with temperature can be expressed by an Arrhenius type function, and the values of diffusivity obtained ranged from 6.137 x 10-10 to 2.1855 x 10-9 m2 s-1 for the temperature used. The Arrhenius constant (D is predicted at 8.64 x 10-4 m2 s-1 while the activation energy was predicted at 39.94 kJ mol-1.El cacao (Theobroma cacao L. es ampliamente producido en el Oeste de África y Sudamérica y es un cultivo de gran importancia económica, con muchos usos industriales. En este trabajo se investigó la cinética del secado experimental de especies foráneas, y se realizaron experimentos bajo condiciones isotérmicas, usando un secador discontinuo en caliente a 55, 70 y 81 °C. Los datos de relación de humedad obtenidos desde el cambio de contenido de humedad con el tiempo de secado se ajustaron a un modelo de secado de dos capas delgadas con buenos resultados. Se observó un proceso de secado más rápido a una temperatura de secado mayor resultando en mayores tasas de secado, lo que es ventajoso al evaluar costos. La segunda ley de difusión de Fick se usó para predecir difusividad efectiva usando datos experimentales, asumiendo que la variación de difusividad con la temperatura puede ser

  8. Altered physiology, cell structure and gene expression of Theobroma cacao seedlings submitted to Cu toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobroma cacao seedlings from the genotype CCN 51 were grown under greenhouse conditions and exposed to increasing concentrations of Cu (0.005, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 mg Cu L-1) in nutrient solution. When doses were equal or higher than 8 mg Cu L-1, after 24 h of treatment application, leaf gas exch...

  9. Molecular genetic diversity in a core of cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to assess the genetic variability in groups of 11 clones of Theobroma cacao L., from different geographical regions, based on microsatellite markers, with the interest to characterize germplasm for breeding. The products of the amplification of these materials with 15 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers ...

  10. Study of Seed Germination by Soaking Methode of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of germination methods conduct to get information about seed viability based on germination rate, percentage of germination and vigority. Germination methods was studied to get the efficiency and effectivity of germination, easy to handle, low costs with high vigority. Sand and gunny sack methods  for germination, need extensive place  and 3-4 days germination period after planting. This research will study the alternative of germination method with soaking. This method can be accelerating  germination rate and effectively place usage without decreasing the quality of cacao seedling.The research was done at Kaliwining Experimental Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institue. This research consist of two experiment was arranged based on factorial completely random design. First experiment will observed to compared germination rate and the second experiment will observed seedling quality between soaking and wet gunny sack germination method.The results showed that length of radicel on soaking method longer than wet gunny sack method. Growth of radicel started from 2 hours after soaking, moreover length of radicel at 4 hours after soaking have significant different value with gunny sack method. On 24 hours after soaking have 3,69 mm and 0,681 mm on wet gunny sack treatment. Except lengt of hipocotyl, there is not different condition between seedling that out came  from soaking and wet gunny sack method. Length of hipocotyl on 36 hours after soaking have 9,15 cm and significant different between wet gunny sack germination method that have 5,40 cm. Keywords : seed germination, soaking method, Theobroma cacao L., cocoa seedlings

  11. Co-occurrence of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium decemcellulare and Lasiodiplodia theobromae isolates in cushion galls disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Daynet Sosa del

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Flowery cushion gall of cacao is a disease complex with six types. Fusarium decemcellulare have been isolated from both flowery and green point galls and recognized as the etiological agent of the disease. In the present work we: i identified by ITS-rDNA sequencing and/or taxonomy the cultivable fungal species or Operative Taxonomic Units (OTUs associated with the five symptoms of cushion galls in cacao from Venezuela, and ii determined the gall inducing capacity on cacao peeled seeds after 45 days of inoculation with suspensions of mycelia/ spores from distinct isolate types. The whole isolate collection rendered an abundance of 113 isolates with a richness of 39 OTUs (27 and eight identified at the species or genera levels, respectively, and in unidentified fungi. The dominant recovered species (≈36% were F. decemcellulare and Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Some isolates of F. decemcellulare, L. theobromae, F. equiseti, Fusarium spp., F. solani, F. incarnatum, Rhizocthonia solani and Penicillium sp. were pathogenic. Some other isolates of the first six mentioned taxa behave as non-pathogenic. Furthermore, pathogenic and non-pathogenic isolates can also co-occur within a single plant and gall type. Moreover, 2-5 species within a single gall symptom in a single tree were identified (not necessarily at the same point in the tree, indicating a broad diversity of co-occurring taxa.

  12. Fertilisation minérale du cacaoyer ( Theobroma cacao L.) en Côte d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En Côte d'Ivoire, le cacaoyer (Theobroma cacao L.) est traditionnellement cultivé selon un système extensif et itinérant, utilisant du matériel végétal peu performant. Les rendements en cacao sont donc faible (260 à 600 kg·ha-1·an-1). Pour améliorer la productivité des cacaoyères, les chercheurs ivoiriens ont mis au point ...

  13. Making a chocolate chip: development and evaluation of a 6K SNP array for Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Donald; Royaert, Stefan; Stack, Conrad; Mockaitis, Keithanne; May, Greg; Farmer, Andrew; Saski, Christopher; Schnell, Ray; Kuhn, David; Motamayor, Juan Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Theobroma cacao, the key ingredient in chocolate production, is one of the world's most important tree fruit crops, with ∼4,000,000 metric tons produced across 50 countries. To move towards gene discovery and marker-assisted breeding in cacao, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification project was undertaken using RNAseq data from 16 diverse cacao cultivars. RNA sequences were aligned to the assembled transcriptome of the cultivar Matina 1-6, and 330,000 SNPs within coding regions were identified. From these SNPs, a subset of 6,000 high-quality SNPs were selected for inclusion on an Illumina Infinium SNP array: the Cacao6kSNP array. Using Cacao6KSNP array data from over 1,000 cacao samples, we demonstrate that our custom array produces a saturated genetic map and can be used to distinguish among even closely related genotypes. Our study enhances and expands the genetic resources available to the cacao research community, and provides the genome-scale set of tools that are critical for advancing breeding with molecular markers in an agricultural species with high genetic diversity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  14. Comparison of Canopy Openness in Different Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Production Systems in Alto Beni, Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Niether, Wiebke; Maldonado, Carla; Silva, Erika; Schneider, Monika; Gerold, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) grows naturally as an understory tree in tropical forests and produces well under shaded and non-shaded conditions. It is cultivated by small scale farmers in South America under various conditions, ranging from monocultures to different kinds of agroforestry systems. While in monocultures it is exposed to direct sunlight, one or various tree species shade the cocoa in agroforestry systems. Also organic cocoa cultivation is becoming more and more popular due to prem...

  15. Transposon fingerprinting using low coverage whole genome shotgun sequencing in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsson, Saemundur; Gill, Navdeep; Kane, Nolan C; Cronk, Quentin

    2013-07-24

    Transposable elements (TEs) and other repetitive elements are a large and dynamically evolving part of eukaryotic genomes, especially in plants where they can account for a significant proportion of genome size. Their dynamic nature gives them the potential for use in identifying and characterizing crop germplasm. However, their repetitive nature makes them challenging to study using conventional methods of molecular biology. Next generation sequencing and new computational tools have greatly facilitated the investigation of TE variation within species and among closely related species. (i) We generated low-coverage Illumina whole genome shotgun sequencing reads for multiple individuals of cacao (Theobroma cacao) and related species. These reads were analysed using both an alignment/mapping approach and a de novo (graph based clustering) approach. (ii) A standard set of ultra-conserved orthologous sequences (UCOS) standardized TE data between samples and provided phylogenetic information on the relatedness of samples. (iii) The mapping approach proved highly effective within the reference species but underestimated TE abundance in interspecific comparisons relative to the de novo methods. (iv) Individual T. cacao accessions have unique patterns of TE abundance indicating that the TE composition of the genome is evolving actively within this species. (v) LTR/Gypsy elements are the most abundant, comprising c.10% of the genome. (vi) Within T. cacao the retroelement families show an order of magnitude greater sequence variability than the DNA transposon families. (vii) Theobroma grandiflorum has a similar TE composition to T. cacao, but the related genus Herrania is rather different, with LTRs making up a lower proportion of the genome, perhaps because of a massive presence (c. 20%) of distinctive low complexity satellite-like repeats in this genome. (i) Short read alignment/mapping to reference TE contigs provides a simple and effective method of investigating

  16. Fermentation of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) seeds with a hybrid Kluyveromyces marxianus strain improved product quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Gildemberg Amorim; Gomes, Luiz Humberto; Efraim, Priscilla; de Almeida Tavares, Flavio Cesar; Figueira, Antonio

    2008-08-01

    Fermentation of Theobroma cacao (cacao) seeds is an absolute requirement for the full development of chocolate flavor precursors. An adequate aeration of the fermenting cacao seed mass is a fundamental prerequisite for a satisfactory fermentation. Here, we evaluated whether a controlled inoculation of cacao seed fermentation using a Kluyveromyces marxianus hybrid yeast strain, with an increased pectinolytic activity, would improve an earlier liquid drainage ('sweatings') from the fermentation mass, developing a superior final product quality. Inoculation with K. marxianus increased by one third the volume of drained liquid and affected the microorganism population structure during fermentation, which was detectable up to the end of the process. Introduction of the hybrid yeast affected the profile of total seed protein degradation evaluated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, with improved seed protein degradation, and reduction of titrable acidity. Sensorial evaluation of the chocolate obtained from beans fermented with the K. marxianus inoculation was more accepted by analysts in comparison with the one from cocoa obtained through natural fermentation. The increase in mass aeration during the first 24 h seemed to be fundamental for the improvement of fermentation quality, demonstrating the potential application of this improved hybrid yeast strain with superior exogenous pectinolytic activity.

  17. Sulawesi cacao (Theobroma cacao, l.) performances under two different agricultural system in east coast of Central Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslimin; Wijayanti, W.; Anshary, A.; Basri, Z.; Cruz, A. F.; Suwastika, I. N.; Shiina, T.

    2018-04-01

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is one major agricultural commodity from central Sulawesi, which is significantly affected by a range of pest and diseases including Cacao Pod Borer (CPB), Pod Rod Diseases (PRD), and Vascular Streak Dieback (VSD). Intensive and extensive approaches, including introduction of various new superior cultivars/clones, and development of eco-friendly agricultural system were implemented in order to overtake that problem. Here, we observed the performance of three different clones (namely: Sulawesi 1, MCC01, and Tadulako-1) in two different locations (Parigi and Poso-which located along east coast of central Sulawesi province), and under two different Agricultural management system (echo-friendly-intensive and Non-Intensive). All clones tested showed their well-adapted and suitable to local conditions. The performance of each clone can be improved by intensive management system. Based on all observed parameters (number of wet bean per pot, bean count, fat and shell percentage, and percentage of infection) it convincingly showed that intensive management system was working well in improving the quality and quantity of cacao beans production, and it fit to commercial requirements. The highest rate of infection was by Phytophthora, and no significant differences on the overall performances. Clones of Sulawesi-1 and MCC01 most likely was better than Tadulako-1.

  18. Characterization of Pseudomonas chlororaphis from Theobroma cacao L. rhizosphere with antagonistic activity against Phytophthora palmivora (Butler).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acebo-Guerrero, Y; Hernández-Rodríguez, A; Vandeputte, O; Miguélez-Sierra, Y; Heydrich-Pérez, M; Ye, L; Cornelis, P; Bertin, P; El Jaziri, M

    2015-10-01

    To isolate and characterize rhizobacteria from Theobroma cacao with antagonistic activity against Phytophthora palmivora, the causal agent of the black pod rot, which is one of the most important diseases of T. cacao. Among 127 rhizobacteria isolated from cacao rhizosphere, three isolates (CP07, CP24 and CP30) identified as Pseudomonas chlororaphis, showed in vitro antagonistic activity against P. palmivora. Direct antagonism tested in cacao detached leaves revealed that the isolated rhizobacteria were able to reduce symptom severity upon infection with P. palmivora Mab1, with Ps. chlororaphis CP07 standing out as a potential biocontrol agent. Besides, reduced symptom severity on leaves was also observed in planta where cacao root system was pretreated with the isolated rhizobacteria followed by leaf infection with P. palmivora Mab1. The production of lytic enzymes, siderophores, biosurfactants and HCN, as well as the detection of genes encoding antibiotics, the formation of biofilm, and bacterial motility were also assessed for all three rhizobacterial strains. By using a mutant impaired in viscosin production, derived from CP07, it was found that this particular biosurfactant turned out to be crucial for both motility and biofilm formation, but not for the in vitro antagonism against Phytophthora, although it may contribute to the bioprotection of T. cacao. In the rhizosphere of T. cacao, there are rhizobacteria, such as Ps. chlororaphis, able to protect plants against P. palmivora. This study provides a theoretical basis for the potential use of Ps. chlororaphis CP07 as a biocontrol agent for the protection of cacao plants from P. palmivora infection. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. A genetically anchored physical framework for Theobroma cacao cv. Matina 1-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saski, Christopher A; Feltus, Frank A; Staton, Margaret E; Blackmon, Barbara P; Ficklin, Stephen P; Kuhn, David N; Schnell, Raymond J; Shapiro, Howard; Motamayor, Juan Carlos

    2011-08-16

    The fermented dried seeds of Theobroma cacao (cacao tree) are the main ingredient in chocolate. World cocoa production was estimated to be 3 million tons in 2010 with an annual estimated average growth rate of 2.2%. The cacao bean production industry is currently under threat from a rise in fungal diseases including black pod, frosty pod, and witches' broom. In order to address these issues, genome-sequencing efforts have been initiated recently to facilitate identification of genetic markers and genes that could be utilized to accelerate the release of robust T. cacao cultivars. However, problems inherent with assembly and resolution of distal regions of complex eukaryotic genomes, such as gaps, chimeric joins, and unresolvable repeat-induced compressions, have been unavoidably encountered with the sequencing strategies selected. Here, we describe the construction of a BAC-based integrated genetic-physical map of the T. cacao cultivar Matina 1-6 which is designed to augment and enhance these sequencing efforts. Three BAC libraries, each comprised of 10× coverage, were constructed and fingerprinted. 230 genetic markers from a high-resolution genetic recombination map and 96 Arabidopsis-derived conserved ortholog set (COS) II markers were anchored using pooled overgo hybridization. A dense tile path consisting of 29,383 BACs was selected and end-sequenced. The physical map consists of 154 contigs and 4,268 singletons. Forty-nine contigs are genetically anchored and ordered to chromosomes for a total span of 307.2 Mbp. The unanchored contigs (105) span 67.4 Mbp and therefore the estimated genome size of T. cacao is 374.6 Mbp. A comparative analysis with A. thaliana, V. vinifera, and P. trichocarpa suggests that comparisons of the genome assemblies of these distantly related species could provide insights into genome structure, evolutionary history, conservation of functional sites, and improvements in physical map assembly. A comparison between the two T. cacao

  20. A genetically anchored physical framework for Theobroma cacao cv. Matina 1-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhn David N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fermented dried seeds of Theobroma cacao (cacao tree are the main ingredient in chocolate. World cocoa production was estimated to be 3 million tons in 2010 with an annual estimated average growth rate of 2.2%. The cacao bean production industry is currently under threat from a rise in fungal diseases including black pod, frosty pod, and witches' broom. In order to address these issues, genome-sequencing efforts have been initiated recently to facilitate identification of genetic markers and genes that could be utilized to accelerate the release of robust T. cacao cultivars. However, problems inherent with assembly and resolution of distal regions of complex eukaryotic genomes, such as gaps, chimeric joins, and unresolvable repeat-induced compressions, have been unavoidably encountered with the sequencing strategies selected. Results Here, we describe the construction of a BAC-based integrated genetic-physical map of the T. cacao cultivar Matina 1-6 which is designed to augment and enhance these sequencing efforts. Three BAC libraries, each comprised of 10× coverage, were constructed and fingerprinted. 230 genetic markers from a high-resolution genetic recombination map and 96 Arabidopsis-derived conserved ortholog set (COS II markers were anchored using pooled overgo hybridization. A dense tile path consisting of 29,383 BACs was selected and end-sequenced. The physical map consists of 154 contigs and 4,268 singletons. Forty-nine contigs are genetically anchored and ordered to chromosomes for a total span of 307.2 Mbp. The unanchored contigs (105 span 67.4 Mbp and therefore the estimated genome size of T. cacao is 374.6 Mbp. A comparative analysis with A. thaliana, V. vinifera, and P. trichocarpa suggests that comparisons of the genome assemblies of these distantly related species could provide insights into genome structure, evolutionary history, conservation of functional sites, and improvements in physical map

  1. Dynamic changes in pod and fungal physiology associated with the shift from biotrophy to necrotrophy during the infection of Theobroma cacao by Moniliophthora roreri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Where it occurs in South and Central America, M. roreri (Mr) causes a destructive pod disease (frosty pod rot) on Theobroma cacao (cacao). Hand pollinated cacao pods were inoculated with Mr spores in the field and assessed for disease symptoms over a 90 day period. On average, pods showed symptoms o...

  2. Identificación de un gen codificante de polifenol oxidasa (PPO en Theobroma cacao L. (cacao de Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Morante-Carriel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available En Ecuador, las plantaciones de cacao presentan bajos promedios de producción debido a la diversidad de patógenos, especialmente a la infección por Moniliophthora roreri (monilia. Se cree que existe una relación entre el ataque del hongo y el aumento de los niveles de expresión de genes codificantes de polifenol oxidasas (PPOs como mecanismo de defensa ante patógenos y herbívoros en diferentes plantas. Para la identificación de genes que codifican para PPOs, se seleccionaron hojas de cacao Nacional, provenientes de plantas resistentes y susceptibles a monilia, ubicadas en la Finca Experimental La Represa, propiedad de la Universidad Técnica Estatal de Quevedo. Se afinó un protocolo de extracción de ARN total de alta calidad para hojas de cacao recalcitrantes. Después de su retrotranscripción a ADNc, se realizaron ensayos de amplificación por PCR con diferentes primers, diseñados a partir de secuencias conservadas de PPOs. Los productos de amplificación permitieron la identificación de un gen de 961 pb, similar a un gen que codifica para la PPO predictiva de Theobroma cacao depositada en NCBI (XP_017978715.1 La identificación de este gen, es fundamental para evaluar a futuro los niveles de expresión y cuantificación en diferentes estados de desarrollo del fruto. Dicha cuantificación permitirá proponer herramientas de control para monilia y construir las bases para el mejoramiento genético del cacao Nacional.

  3. Heavy metal accumulation in leaves and beans of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in major cacao growing regions in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique; Arévalo-Hernández, Cesar O; Baligar, Virupax C; He, Zhenli L

    2017-12-15

    Peru is one of the leading exporters of organic cacao beans in the world. However, the accumulation of heavy metals in cacao beans represents a problem for cocoa bean export and chocolate quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in cacao leaves and cocoa beans in three major cacao growing regions of Peru. The study was conducted in cacao plantations of 10 to 15years old in three regions of Peru: North (Regions of Tumbes, Piura, Cajamarca, and Amazonas); Center (Regions of Huánuco and San Martin) and South (Junin and Cuzco). Samples of leaf and cacao beans were collected from 70 cacao plantations, and the nature of cacao clone or genotype sampled was recorded. The concentrations of heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in leaves and beans were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Overall, concentrations of heavy metals were below the critical limits; however, the presence of high levels of Cd in cacao grown in Amazonas, Piura, and Tumbes regions is of primary concern. Plantations of cacao with different cacao clones show differences in Cd accumulation both in leaves and cocoa beans. Therefore, it is promising to screen low Cd accumulator cacao genotypes for safe production of cacao on lightly to moderately Cd contaminated soils. Also, synergism between Zn and Cd present both in plant and soil suggests that Zn has a direct effect on Cd accumulation in cacao. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. EFFISIENSI INHIBISI KOROSI BAJA LUNAK DALAM MEDIA ASAM DENGAN INHIBITOR EKSTRAK KULIT BUAH KAKAO (Theobroma cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Yetri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Efek inhibisi korosi dan sifat-sifat adsorpsi oleh ekstrak kulit buah kakao (Theobroma cacao  pada baja lunak (mild steel dalam larutan asam 1,5M HCl telah dipelajari menggunakan teknik konvensional metode berat hilang pada variasi waktu, konsentrasi dan suhu. Parameter-parameter termodinamika seperti energi aktivasi, entalpi, entropi dan perubahan energi bebas dihitung. Polarisasi elektrokimia telah dievaluasi untuk memastikan jenis inhibitor. Spektra infrared dan GCMS dilakukan untuk mengetahui senyawa ekstrak yang berperan  dalam proses inhibisi. Morfologi permukaan sampel diamati dengan menggunakan scanning electro microscopy dengan  energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX . Keseluruhan hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak polar kulit buah coklat  dapat digunakan sebagai inhibitor korosi yang efektif pada baja karbon di lingkungan 1,5M HCl dengan pencapaian efisiensi  inhibisi   terkorosi sebesar 96.26% (weight loss dan 92.08% (Tafel pada konsentrasi ekstrak 2,5% selama768 jam. Mekanisme inhibisi adalah  adsorpsi chemiadsorpsi berdasar tingginya nilai entalpi dan energi bebas.Effisiensi Inhibisi diketahui meningkat dengan peningkatan konsentrasi dari ekstrak serta menurun dengan peningkatan suhu. Kurva polarisasi menunjukkan inhibitor ini berperilaku sebagai inhibitor campuran dengan dominan pada inhibisi katodik. Ekstrak diadsorpsi oleh permukaan mild steel  mengikuti model adsorpsi isotherm Langmuir. Kondisi permukaan mild steel menunjukan terjadinya adsorpsi di permukaan membentuk lapisan tipis di permukaan logam. Penambahan ekstrak kulit buah kakao ke dalam larutan HCl sangat efektif untuk mengurangi serangan korosi di permukaan mild steel.  Kata kunci: Korosi, Inhibitor, Theobroma cacao, Mild steel, Potensiodinamik Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency Mild Steel in Acid Media with Inhibitor Peels Extract of Cacao (Theobroma cacaoABSTRACT Inhibition and adsorption properties of Theobroma cacao peel polar extract

  5. Analise da influencia das fontes de carbono na patogenicidade do Moniliophthora perniciosa pathogenicity em Theobroma cacao

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima Cerqueira Alvim

    2009-01-01

    Resumo: O fungo basidiomiceto hemibiotrófico Moniliophthora perniciosa, agente causal da doença vassoura-de-bruxa (VB) em Theobroma cacao, é o principal patógeno da lavoura cacaueira nas Américas e no Caribe. O presente trabalho apresentou como objetivo primordial identificar proteínas relacionadas com a patogenicidade deste fungo. No primeiro capítulo desta tese foi demonstrado o efeito de diferentes fontes de carbono sobre a morfologia e fisiologia do M, perniciosa. O fungo foi crescido em ...

  6. 1H NMR study of fermented cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiani, Augusta; Acquotti, Domenico; Cirlini, Martina; Palla, Gerardo

    2010-12-08

    This study reports for the first time the metabolic profile of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans using the (1)H NMR technique applied to polar extracts of fermented cocoa beans. The simultaneous detection and quantification of amino acids, polyalcohols, organic acids, sugars, methylxanthines, catechins, and phenols were obtained by assigning the major signals of the spectra for different varieties of cocoa beans (Forastero, Criollo, and Trinitario) from different countries (Ecuador, Ghana, Grenada, and Trinidad). The data set obtained, representative of all classes of soluble compounds of cocoa, was useful to characterize the fermented cocoa beans as a function of the variety and geographic origin.

  7. Prediction of Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Resistance to Moniliophthora spp. Diseases via Genome-Wide Association Analysis and Genomic Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Michel S; Navarro, Alberto J R; Mustiga, Guiliana; Stack, Conrad; Gezan, Salvador; Peña, Geover; Sarabia, Widem; Saquicela, Diego; Sotomayor, Ignacio; Douglas, Gavin M; Migicovsky, Zoë; Amores, Freddy; Tarqui, Omar; Myles, Sean; Motamayor, Juan C

    2018-01-01

    Cacao ( Theobroma cacao ) is a globally important crop, and its yield is severely restricted by disease. Two of the most damaging diseases, witches' broom disease (WBD) and frosty pod rot disease (FPRD), are caused by a pair of related fungi: Moniliophthora perniciosa and Moniliophthora roreri , respectively. Resistant cultivars are the most effective long-term strategy to address Moniliophthora diseases, but efficiently generating resistant and productive new cultivars will require robust methods for screening germplasm before field testing. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genomic selection (GS) provide two potential avenues for predicting the performance of new genotypes, potentially increasing the selection gain per unit time. To test the effectiveness of these two approaches, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and GS on three related populations of cacao in Ecuador genotyped with a 15K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray for three measures of WBD infection (vegetative broom, cushion broom, and chirimoya pod), one of FPRD (monilia pod) and two productivity traits (total fresh weight of pods and % healthy pods produced). GWAS yielded several SNPs associated with disease resistance in each population, but none were significantly correlated with the same trait in other populations. Genomic selection, using one population as a training set to estimate the phenotypes of the remaining two (composed of different families), varied among traits, from a mean prediction accuracy of 0.46 (vegetative broom) to 0.15 (monilia pod), and varied between training populations. Simulations demonstrated that selecting seedlings using GWAS markers alone generates no improvement over selecting at random, but that GS improves the selection process significantly. Our results suggest that the GWAS markers discovered here are not sufficiently predictive across diverse germplasm to be useful for MAS, but that using all markers in a GS framework holds

  8. Prediction of Cacao (Theobroma cacao Resistance to Moniliophthora spp. Diseases via Genome-Wide Association Analysis and Genomic Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel S. McElroy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cacao (Theobroma cacao is a globally important crop, and its yield is severely restricted by disease. Two of the most damaging diseases, witches’ broom disease (WBD and frosty pod rot disease (FPRD, are caused by a pair of related fungi: Moniliophthora perniciosa and Moniliophthora roreri, respectively. Resistant cultivars are the most effective long-term strategy to address Moniliophthora diseases, but efficiently generating resistant and productive new cultivars will require robust methods for screening germplasm before field testing. Marker-assisted selection (MAS and genomic selection (GS provide two potential avenues for predicting the performance of new genotypes, potentially increasing the selection gain per unit time. To test the effectiveness of these two approaches, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS and GS on three related populations of cacao in Ecuador genotyped with a 15K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP microarray for three measures of WBD infection (vegetative broom, cushion broom, and chirimoya pod, one of FPRD (monilia pod and two productivity traits (total fresh weight of pods and % healthy pods produced. GWAS yielded several SNPs associated with disease resistance in each population, but none were significantly correlated with the same trait in other populations. Genomic selection, using one population as a training set to estimate the phenotypes of the remaining two (composed of different families, varied among traits, from a mean prediction accuracy of 0.46 (vegetative broom to 0.15 (monilia pod, and varied between training populations. Simulations demonstrated that selecting seedlings using GWAS markers alone generates no improvement over selecting at random, but that GS improves the selection process significantly. Our results suggest that the GWAS markers discovered here are not sufficiently predictive across diverse germplasm to be useful for MAS, but that using all markers in a GS framework holds

  9. Theobroma cacao: Review of the Extraction, Isolation, and Bioassay of Its Potential Anti-cancer Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Hin, Taufiq Yap Yun; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2016-01-01

    Plants have been a good source of therapeutic agents for thousands of years; an impressive number of modern drugs used for treating human diseases are derived from natural sources. The Theobroma cacao tree, or cocoa, has recently garnered increasing attention and become the subject of research due to its antioxidant properties, which are related to potential anti-cancer effects. In the past few years, identifying and developing active compounds or extracts from the cocoa bean that might exert anti-cancer effects have become an important area of health- and biomedicine-related research. This review provides an updated overview of T. cacao in terms of its potential anti-cancer compounds and their extraction, in vitro bioassay, purification, and identification. This article also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques described and reviews the processes for future perspectives of analytical methods from the viewpoint of anti-cancer compound discovery. PMID:27019680

  10. Trichoderma martiale sp. nov., a new endophyte from sapwood of Theobroma cacao with a potential for biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Rogério E; de Jorge Souza, T; Pomella, Alan W V; Hebbar, K Prakash; Pereira, José O; Ismaiel, Adnan; Samuels, Gary J

    2008-11-01

    The new species Trichoderma martiale was isolated as an endophyte from sapwood in trunks of Theobroma cacao (cacao, Malvaceae) in Brazil. Based on sequences of translation-elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) and RNA polymerase II subunit (rpb2) T. martiale is a close relative of, and morphologically similar to, T. viride, but differs in the production of discrete pustules on corn meal-dextrose agar (CMD) and SNA, in having a faster rate of growth, and in being a tropical endophyte. This new species was shown, in small-scale, in situ field assays, to limit black pod rot of cacao caused by Phytophthora palmivora, the cause of black pod disease.

  11. Modified pectin from Theobroma cacao induces potent pro-inflammatory activity in murine peritoneal macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Juliana C; Vriesmann, Lucia Cristina; Petkowicz, Carmen L O; Martinez, Glaucia Regina; Noleto, Guilhermina R

    2016-11-01

    In vitro effects of acetylated pectin (OP) isolated from cacao pod husks (Theobroma cacao L.), its partially deacetylated and de-esterified form (MOP), and a commercial homogalacturonan (PG) were investigated on murine peritoneal macrophages. MOP stood out among the studied pectins. After 48h of incubation, compared with the control group, it was able to promote significant macrophage morphological differentiation from resident to activated stage and also stimulated nitric oxide production, which reached a level of 85% of that of LPS stimulus. In the presence of the highest tested concentration of MOP (200μg·mL -1 ), the levels of the cytokines TNF-α (6h) and IL-12 and IL-10 (48h) increased substantially in relation to untreated cells. Our results show that the partial deacetylation and de-esterification of pectin extracted from cacao pod husks (T. cacao L.) produced a polymer with greater ability than its native form to activate macrophages to a cytotoxic phenotype. Like this, they provide the possibility of a therapeutic application to MOP, which could lead to a decreased susceptibility to microbial infection besides antitumor activity. Additionally, the present results also corroborate with the proposition of that the chemical modifications of the biopolymers can result in an improved molecule with new possibilities of application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of formulation on Trichoderma biological activity and frosty pod rot disease management in Theobroma cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosty pod rot (FPR), caused by Moniliophthora roreri is responsible for significant losses in Theobroma cacao. Due to the limited options for FPR management, biological control methods using Trichoderma are being studied. Combinations of three formulations and two Trichoderma isolates were studied ...

  13. Estado legal mundial del cadmio en cacao (Theobroma cacao): fantasía o realidad

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Tobón, Claudia Stella

    2015-01-01

    Colombian cacao is well positioned in the international markets, given its taste and aroma. There is, however, a concern under contamination terms at a national level, because there is cadmium in the seeds. This metal, in case of being accumulated in the human body, is the cause of several and serious diseases that slowly deteriorate it. Even though the fact that in 2019 the European Community will start to demand a maximum level of the cadmium allowed in the cacao and its derivat...

  14. Proximate Composition, Extraction, and Purification of Theobromine from Cacao Pod Husk (Theobroma Cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tang Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the proximate composition of cacao pod husk as well as the optimal conditions for extraction and purification of theobromine from cacao pod husk. The results indicated that cacao pod husk had high contents of moisture and carbohydrate (87.06% and 11.03% by fresh weight, respectively, but low contents of crude protein, crude lipid, and ash (0.31%, 0.12%, and 1.48% by fresh weight, respectively. The optimal conditions for extraction of theobromine from cacao pod husk were of 70% ethanol, with an extraction time of 90 min, and 1 as the number of extractions. A concentration of 10% by volume of 10% lead acetate solution was the best selection for purification of the crude extracts containing theobromine from cacao pod husk. Under these optimal conditions, theobromine content obtained from cacao pod husk was 6.79 mg/100 g dry weight. The finding from this study is a valuable contribution for obtaining theobromine from an abundant, inexpensive, renewable, and sustainable source for potential application in the nutraceutical, medical, and pharmaceutical industries.

  15. Characterization of the legumains encoded by the genome of Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Juliano Oliveira; Freire, Laís; de Sousa, Aurizangela Oliveira; Fontes Soares, Virgínia Lúcia; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2016-01-01

    Legumains are cysteine proteases related to plant development, protein degradation, programmed cell death, and defense against pathogens. In this study, we have identified and characterized three legumains encoded by Theobroma cacao genome through in silico analyses, three-dimensional modeling, genetic expression pattern in different tissues and as a response to the inoculation of Moniliophthora perniciosa fungus. The three proteins were named TcLEG3, TcLEG6, and TcLEG9. Histidine and cysteine residue which are part of the catalytic site were conserved among the proteins, and they remained parallel in the loop region in the 3D modeling. Three-dimensional modeling showed that the propeptide, which is located in the terminal C region of legumains blocks the catalytic cleft. Comparing dendrogram data with the relative expression analysis, indicated that TcLEG3 is related to the seed legumain group, TcLEG6 is related with the group of embryogenesis activities, and protein TcLEG9, with processes regarding the vegetative group. Furthermore, the expression analyses proposes a significant role for the three legumains during the development of Theobroma cacao and in its interaction with M. perniciosa. Copyright © 2015 Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, CNPJ: 40738999/0001-95. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  16. TcNPR3 from Theobroma cacao functions as a repressor of the pathogen defense response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2013-12-06

    Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) NON-EXPRESSOR OF PR1 (NPR1) is a transcription coactivator that plays a central role in regulating the transcriptional response to plant pathogens. Developing flowers of homozygous npr3 mutants are dramatically more resistant to infection by the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, suggesting a role of NPR3 as a repressor of NPR1-mediated defense response with a novel role in flower development. We report here the characterization of a putative NPR3 gene from the tropical tree species Theobroma cacao (TcNPR3). Like in Arabidopsis, TcNPR3 was constitutively expressed across a wide range of tissue types and developmental stages but with some differences in relative levels compared to Arabidopsis. To test the function of TcNPR3, we performed transgenic complementation analysis by introducing a constitutively expressing putative TcNPR3 transgene into an Arabidopsis npr3 mutant. TcNPR3 expressing Arabidopsis plants were partially restored to the WT pathogen phenotype (immature flowers susceptible to bacterial infection). To test TcNPR3 function directly in cacao tissues, a synthetic microRNA targeting TcNPR3 mRNA was transiently expressed in cacao leaves using an Agrobacterium-infiltration method. TcNPR3 knock down leaf tissues were dramatically more resistance to infection with Phytophthora capsici in a leaf bioassay, showing smaller lesion sizes and reduced pathogen replication. We conclude that TcNPR3 functions similar to the Arabidopsis NPR3 gene in the regulation of the cacao defense response. Since TcNPR3 did not show a perfect complementation of the Arabidopsis NPR3 mutation, the possibility remains that other functions of TcNPR3 remain to be found. This novel knowledge can contribute to the breeding of resistant cacao varieties against pathogens through molecular markers based approaches or biotechnological strategies.

  17. Proanthocyanidin synthesis in Theobroma cacao: genes encoding anthocyanidin synthase, anthocyanidin reductase, and leucoanthocyanidin reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Shi, Zi; Maximova, Siela; Payne, Mark J; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2013-12-05

    The proanthocyanidins (PAs), a subgroup of flavonoids, accumulate to levels of approximately 10% total dry weight of cacao seeds. PAs have been associated with human health benefits and also play important roles in pest and disease defense throughout the plant. To dissect the genetic basis of PA biosynthetic pathway in cacao (Theobroma cacao), we have isolated three genes encoding key PA synthesis enzymes, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR). We measured the expression levels of TcANR, TcANS and TcLAR and PA content in cacao leaves, flowers, pod exocarp and seeds. In all tissues examined, all three genes were abundantly expressed and well correlated with PA accumulation levels, suggesting their active roles in PA synthesis. Overexpression of TcANR in an Arabidopsis ban mutant complemented the PA deficient phenotype in seeds and resulted in reduced anthocyanidin levels in hypocotyls. Overexpression of TcANS in tobacco resulted in increased content of both anthocyanidins and PAs in flower petals. Overexpression of TcANS in an Arabidopsis ldox mutant complemented its PA deficient phenotype in seeds. Recombinant TcLAR protein converted leucoanthocyanidin to catechin in vitro. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing TcLAR had decreased amounts of anthocyanidins and increased PAs. Overexpressing TcLAR in Arabidopsis ldox mutant also resulted in elevated synthesis of not only catechin but also epicatechin. Our results confirm the in vivo function of cacao ANS and ANR predicted based on sequence homology to previously characterized enzymes from other species. In addition, our results provide a clear functional analysis of a LAR gene in vivo.

  18. Enhanced somatic embryogenesis in Theobroma cacao using the homologous BABY BOOM transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, Sergio L; Erwin, Rachel L; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J; Curtis, Wayne R

    2015-05-16

    Theobroma cacao, the chocolate tree, is an important economic crop in East Africa, South East Asia, and South and Central America. Propagation of elite varieties has been achieved through somatic embryogenesis (SE) but low efficiencies and genotype dependence still presents a significant limitation for its propagation at commercial scales. Manipulation of transcription factors has been used to enhance the formation of SEs in several other plant species. This work describes the use of the transcription factor Baby Boom (BBM) to promote the transition of somatic cacao cells from the vegetative to embryonic state. An ortholog of the Arabidopsis thaliana BBM gene (AtBBM) was characterized in T. cacao (TcBBM). TcBBM expression was observed throughout embryo development and was expressed at higher levels during SE as compared to zygotic embryogenesis (ZE). TcBBM overexpression in A. thaliana and T. cacao led to phenotypes associated with SE that did not require exogenous hormones. While transient ectopic expression of TcBBM provided only moderate enhancements in embryogenic potential, constitutive overexpression dramatically increased SE proliferation but also appeared to inhibit subsequent development. Our work provides validation that TcBBM is an ortholog to AtBBM and has a specific role in both somatic and zygotic embryogenesis. Furthermore, our studies revealed that TcBBM transcript levels could serve as a biomarker for embryogenesis in cacao tissue. Results from transient expression of TcBBM provide confirmation that transcription factors can be used to enhance SE without compromising plant development and avoiding GMO plant production. This strategy could compliment a hormone-based method of reprogramming somatic cells and lead to more precise manipulation of SE at the regulatory level of transcription factors. The technology would benefit the propagation of elite varieties with low regeneration potential as well as the production of transgenic plants, which

  19. Association mapping of seed and disease resistance traits in Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motilal, Lambert A; Zhang, Dapeng; Mischke, Sue; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Boccara, Michel; Fouet, Olivier; Lanaud, Claire; Umaharan, Pathmanathan

    2016-12-01

    Microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism markers that could be used in marker assisted breeding of cacao were identified for number of filled seeds, black pod resistance and witches' broom disease resistance. An association mapping approach was employed to identify markers for seed number and resistance to black pod and witches' broom disease (WBD) in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Ninety-five microsatellites (SSRs) and 775 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed on 483 unique trees in the International Cocoa Genebank Trinidad (ICGT). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) and association mapping studies were conducted to identify markers to tag the phenotypic traits. Decay of LD occurred over an average 9.3 cM for chromosomes 1-9 and 2.5 cM for chromosome 10. Marker/trait associations were generally identified based on general linear models (GLMs) that incorporated principal components from molecular information on relatedness factor. Seven markers (mTcCIR 8, 66, 126, 212; TcSNP368, 697, 1370) on chromosomes 1 and 9 were identified for number of filled seeds (NSEED). A single marker was found for black pod resistance (mTcCIR280) on chromosome 3, whereas six markers on chromosomes 4, 5, 6, 8, and 10 were detected for WBD (mTcCIR91, 183; TcSNP375, 720, 1230 and 1374). It is expected that this association mapping study in cacao would contribute to the knowledge of the genetic determinism of cocoa traits and that the markers identified herein would prove useful in marker assisted breeding of cacao.

  20. Estado legal mundial del cadmio en cacao (Theobroma cacao): fantasía o realidad

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Tobón, Claudia Stella

    2015-01-01

    El cacao colombiano está bien posicionado en el mercado internacional por su sabor y aroma; sin embargo, en materia de contaminantes, existe a una preocupación a escala nacional debido a la presencia de cadmio en las semillas. Este metal, cuando se acumula en el organismo, es el responsable de serias enfermedades que lo deterioran lentamente. Aunque se conoce que a partir del 2019, la Comunidad Europea comenzará a exigir al cacao y sus derivados unos niveles máximos de cadmio, no es bien cono...

  1. Diversity of chloroplast genome among local clones of cocoa (Theobroma cacao, L.) from Central Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwastika, I. Nengah; Pakawaru, Nurul Aisyah; Rifka, Rahmansyah, Muslimin, Ishizaki, Yoko; Cruz, André Freire; Basri, Zainuddin; Shiina, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    Chloroplast genomes typically range in size from 120 to 170 kilo base pairs (kb), which relatively conserved among plant species. Recent evaluation on several species, certain unique regions showed high variability which can be utilized in the phylogenetic analysis. Many fragments of coding regions, introns, and intergenic spacers, such as atpB-rbcL, ndhF, rbcL, rpl16, trnH-psbA, trnL-F, trnS-G, etc., have been used for phylogenetic reconstructions at various taxonomic levels. Based on that status, we would like to analysis the diversity of chloroplast genome within species of local cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) from Central Sulawesi. Our recent data showed, there were more than 20 clones from local farming in Central Sulawesi, and it can be detected based on phenotypic and nuclear-genome-based characterization (RAPD- Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and SSR- Simple Sequences Repeat) markers. In developing DNA marker for this local cacao, here we also included analysis based on the variation of chloroplast genome. At least several regions such as rpl32-TurnL, it can be considered as chloroplast markers on our local clone of cocoa. Furthermore, we could develop phylogenetic analysis in between clones of cocoa.

  2. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of methanolic plant part extracts of Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2014-11-10

    The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50) was 358.3±7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0±1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4%±1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50)=41.4±3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts.

  3. In Vitro Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Methanolic Plant Part Extracts of Theobroma cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Baharum

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50 was 358.3 ± 7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0 ± 1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4% ± 1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50 = 41.4 ± 3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts.

  4. Genetic diversity of naturalized cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification of genetically diverse cacao with disease resistance, high productivity and desirable organoleptic traits is vitally important to the agricultural crop’s long-term sustainability. Environmental changes, pests and diseases as well as nation’s sovereign property rights have led to a de...

  5. Fertilizer requirements of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in South-Western Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, M.

    1971-01-01

    The studies reported on were conducted in the period 1961-1970 when the author was employed by the Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria at Ibadan, formerly a sub-station of the West African Cocoa Research Institute.

    In the first three chapters information is given on the cacao industry and on

  6. Genome analysis methods: Theobroma cacao [PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link and Genome analysis methods[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Theobroma cacao ... 2n=20 ... 2011 Sanger (WGS), Roche/454 , Illumina 26 Gb 326 Mb 16.7x... Newbler 4,792 25,912 EUGene following specific training for T. cacao 28,798 CIRAD; http://cocoagendb.cirad.fr Dec2010 Dec2010 10.1038/ng.736 21186351 ...

  7. EFECTO DE UN GEL DE THEOBROMA CACAO EN EL CONTROL DE CARIES VESTIBULAR EN PACIENTES CON TRATAMIENTO DE ORTODONCIA. CONSULTA PRIVADA. AREQUIPA. 2014

    OpenAIRE

    SALAS LINARES, MARY JULISSA

    2015-01-01

    THEOBROMA CACAO GENERALIDADES DESCRIPCIÓN ORIGEN Y EXTENSIÓN CLASIFICACIÓN CIENTÍFICA VARIEDADES DEL CACAO DISTRIBUCIÓN USOS MEDICINALES EFECTO ANTICARIOGÉNICO GEL CARIES DENTAL FACTORES DE RIESGO MICROORGANISMOS IMPLICADOS EN LA CARIES DENTAL CARIES EN EL ESMALTE CLASIFICACIÓN DE LA CARIES MÉTODOS DE DETECCIÓN DE CARIES CRITERIOS ICDAS

  8. Soil microorganisms and plant diseases associated to cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. genotypes in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Freile Almeida

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente investigación fue analizar la relación de los microorganismos del suelo y las principales enfermedades que afectan los clones promisorios de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. en la Amazonía Ecuatoriana. Se evaluaron los clones EET-95, EET-96, EET-103 y CCN-51, respectivamente, éste último utilizado como control, para ello, se determinó la cantidad de bacterias, hongos y actinomicetos totales, expresados en unidades formadoras de colonias (UFC por gramo de suelo, presentes en la rizósfera de los tres clones de cacao, así como la aparición de las principales enfermedades que atacan al cultivo del cacao. Los datos fueron analizados estadísticamente mediante ANOVA de un factor y prueba HSD de Tukey p≤0,05. Las bacterias fueron los microorganismos de mayor asociación a los clones en este estudio, seguido de actinomicetos y hongos. El clon CCN-51 presentó la mayor cantidad de bacterias, los clones EET-96 y EET-103, presentaron mayor incidencia de actinomicetos y el clon EET-103, la mayor presencia de hongos. La enfermedad escoba de bruja, cuyo agente causal es Cripinellis perniciosa Sthael Singer., afectó en menor medida a los clones EET-103 y CCN-51, mientras que la moniliasis causada por el hongo Moniliophthora roreri (Cif & Par Evans et al., puso en evidencia al clon EET-103 con la mayor incidencia de esta enfermedad y conversivamente al clon CCN-51 con la menor incidencia del patógeno.

  9. Altered physiology, cell structure, and gene expression of Theobroma cacao seedlings subjected to Cu toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Vânia L; de Almeida, Alex-Alan F; Souza, Jadiel de S; Mangabeira, Pedro A O; de Jesus, Raildo M; Pirovani, Carlos P; Ahnert, Dário; Baligar, Virupax C; Loguercio, Leandro L

    2014-01-01

    Seedlings of Theobroma cacao CCN 51 genotype were grown under greenhouse conditions and exposed to increasing concentrations of Cu (0.005, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 mg Cu L(-1)) in nutrient solution. When doses were equal or higher than 8 mg Cu L(-1), after 24 h of treatment application, leaf gas exchange was highly affected and changes in chloroplasts thylakoids of leaf mesophyll cells and plasmolysis of cells from the root cortical region were observed. In addition, cell membranes of roots and leaves were damaged. In leaves, 96 h after treatments started, increases in the percentage of electrolyte leakage through membranes were observed with increases of Cu in the nutrient solution. Moreover, there was an increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in roots due to lipid peroxidation of membranes. Chemical analysis showed that increases in Cu concentrations in vegetative organs of T. cacao increased with the increase of the metal in the nutrient solution, but there was a greater accumulation of Cu in roots than in shoots. The excess of Cu interfered in the levels of Mn, Zn, Fe, Mg, K, and Ca in different organs of T. cacao. Analysis of gene expression via RTq-PCR showed increased levels of MT2b, SODCyt, and PER-1 expression in roots and of MT2b, PSBA, PSBO, SODCyt, and SODChI in leaves. Hence, it was concluded that Cu in nutrient solution at doses equal or above 8 mg L(-1) significantly affected leaf gas exchange, cell ultrastructure, and transport of mineral nutrients in seedlings of this T. cacao genotype.

  10. [Transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with cacao (Theobroma cacao) plantations in Tabasco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrada Figueroa, Georgina Del Carmen; Leal Ascencio, Víctor Javier; Jiménez Sastré, Alejandro; López Álvarez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Tabasco is the Mexican state that reported the highest number (37.4%) of patients with leishmaniasis during 1990-2011. Close to 90% of these patients lived in Chontalpa, where the municipality of Cunduacán accounted for the majority of the cases. One of the characteristics of this region is that houses are located within cacao plantations. To determine if cacao plantations are a risk factor for leishmaniasis transmission in locations of Cunduacán, Tabasco. We performed an analytical and retrospective study of 115 locations in Cunduacán, analyzing the number of localities with or without patients with leishmaniasis registered between 2000-2011 and, additionally, if they had cacao plantations, using a map where different crops were georeferenced. We measured the magnitude of the association (odds ratio, 95% CI). During the period 2000-2011, cases of leishmaniasis were reported in 77 (67.0%) Cunduacán locations, of these, 55 (71.4%) had cocoa plantations, five (6.5%) of banana, five (6.5%) of cane, and 12 (15.6%) had no crops georeferenced. We found that cocoa crops are a risk factor for the transmission of leishmaniasis (OR: 3.438; 95% CI: 1,526-7,742). The probability of transmission of leishmaniasis in areas with cocoa crops is greater than in communities without this crop.

  11. Heavy metal concentrations in cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) originating from East Luwu, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assa, A.; Noor, A.; Yunus, M. R.; Misnawi; Djide, M. N.

    2018-03-01

    Concentrations of some heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, As and Hg) were assessed for cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L) originating from East Luwu, South Sulawesi, Indonesia after five-day fermentation. Consisting of PB 123, BR 25, and MCC 02 cocoa clones, the spectrophotometric analysis showed that concentrations of Pb, Cd, As and Hg in the cocoa beans over the three clones was below the detection limits of 0.100; 0.050, 0.010 and 0.005 mg/kg. For Cu, they were 19.343; 10.391, and 18.594 mg/kg respectively, but still below the maximum critical levels, established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Concentrations of those five heavy metals in the bean shells were found to be parallel to those in the cocoa beans, except for Pb.

  12. Molecular characterization of 93 genotypes of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. with random amplified microsatellites RAMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacenia Morillo C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified microsatellite (RAMs markers six were used to characterize 93 genotypes of cocoa in Tumaco (Colombia. Hundred twenty seven bands were generated. The number of polymorphic loci varied between 11 and 25 for the AG and TG primers, respectively. This study differentiated the 93 genotypes into six groups with a 0.53 similarity, 0.28 mean heterozygosity (He for the population, and 0.12±0.02 genetic differentiation coefficient or Fst. A significant level of genetic diversity was evident in the T. cacao genotypes. This resource would benefit selection programs of individual trees or plant breeding programs. The genotypes clustered in a large proportion in accordance with the collection zone. This characteristic was associated with collection zones and along the rivers in the municipality of Tumaco. The RAM technique proved to be a useful tool for the determination of genetic diversity in Theobroma species.

  13. Characterization of the Proteome of Theobroma cacao Beans by Nano-UHPLC-ESI MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollo, Emanuele; Neville, David; Oruna-Concha, M Jose; Trotin, Martine; Cramer, Rainer

    2018-02-01

    Cocoa seed storage proteins play an important role in flavour development as aroma precursors are formed from their degradation during fermentation. Major proteins in the beans of Theobroma cacao are the storage proteins belonging to the vicilin and albumin classes. Although both these classes of proteins have been extensively characterized, there is still limited information on the expression and abundance of other proteins present in cocoa beans. This work is the first attempt to characterize the whole cocoa bean proteome by nano-UHPLC-ESI MS/MS analysis using tryptic digests of cocoa bean protein extracts. The results of this analysis show that >1000 proteins could be identified using a species-specific Theobroma cacao database. The majority of the identified proteins were involved with metabolism and energy. Additionally, a significant number of the identified proteins were linked to protein synthesis and processing. Several proteins were also involved with plant response to stress conditions and defence. Albumin and vicilin storage proteins showed the highest intensity values among all detected proteins, although only seven entries were identified as storage proteins. A comparison of MS/MS data searches carried out against larger non-specific databases confirmed that using a species-specific database can increase the number of identified proteins, and at the same time reduce the number of false positives. The results of this work will be useful in developing tools that can allow the comparison of the proteomic profile of cocoa beans from different genotypes and geographic origins. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD005586. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. EFFECT LINDAK CACAO FRUIT MATURITY (THEOBROMA CACAO, F) WITH HIGH LEVEL OF POLYPHENOLS AS ANTIOXIDANT

    OpenAIRE

    Langkong, Jumriah

    2013-01-01

    Lindak cacao beans has polyphenol compounds that has a function as antioxidants which is important for the body to ward off a disease like cancer. The content of polyphenols in cocoa pods, influenced by post-harvest and processing. In addition, also influenced by fruit maturity level of lindak cocoa maturity level A (colored yellow on the entire surface of the fruit), B (yellow on the groove and back fruits), and C (colored yellow on the flow of fruit). The purpose of this study was to ana...

  15. Competitividad de las organizaciones productoras de cacao (Theobroma cacao l en el sureste de Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Javier Saballos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Se identificó los factores relacionados a la competitividad de las organizaciones de productores que comercializaron cacao durante el 2014, en la región sureste de Nicaragua. Para identificar los factores relacionados a la competitividad, se estudiaron a través de la “Cadena de Valor” cada una de las actividades primarias y de apoyo, así los indicadores de la competitividad; la productividad, calidad del producto, costos, cuota de mercado, permanencia en el mercado y la rentabilidad. El estudio se realizó mediante encuestas a representantes de siete organizaciones.

  16. Insight into the Wild Origin, Migration and Domestication History of the Fine Flavour Nacional Theobroma cacao L. Variety from Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Loor Solorzano, Rey Gaston; Fouet, Olivier; Lemainque, Arnaud; Pavek, Sylvana; Boccara, Michel; Argout, Xavier; Amores, Freddy; Courtois, Brigitte; Risterucci, Ange Marie; Lanaud, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Ecuador's economic history has been closely linked to Theobroma cacao L cultivation, and specifically to the native fine flavour Nacional cocoa variety. The original Nacional cocoa trees are presently in danger of extinction due to foreign germplasm introductions. In a previous work, a few non-introgressed Nacional types were identified as potential founders of the modern Ecuadorian cocoa population, but so far their origin could not be formally identified. In order to determine the putative ...

  17. Comparative evaluation of total RNA extraction methods in Theobroma cacao using shoot apical meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D V; Branco, S M J; Holanda, I S A; Royaert, S; Motamayor, J C; Marelli, J P; Corrêa, R X

    2016-03-04

    Theobroma cacao is a species of great economic importance with its beans used for chocolate production. The tree has been a target of various molecular studies. It contains many polyphenols, which complicate the extraction of nucleic acids with the extraction protocols requiring a large amount of plant material. These issues, therefore, necessitate the optimization of the protocols. The aim of the present study was to evaluate different methods for extraction of total RNA from shoot apical meristems of T. cacao 'CCN 51' and to assess the influence of storage conditions for the meristems on the extraction. The study also aimed to identify the most efficient protocol for RNA extraction using a small amount of plant material. Four different protocols were evaluated for RNA extraction using one shoot apical meristem per sample. Among these protocols, one that was more efficient was then tested to extract RNA using four different numbers of shoot apical meristems, subjected to three different storage conditions. The best protocol was tested for cDNA amplification using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; the cDNA quality was determined to be satisfactory for molecular analyses. The study revealed that with the best RNA extraction protocol, one shoot apical meristem was sufficient for extraction of high-quality total RNA. The results obtained might enable advances in genetic analyses and molecular studies using reduced amount of plant material.

  18. Biosynthesis, accumulation and degradation of theobromine in developing Theobroma cacao fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Koyama, Yoko; Nagai, Chifumi; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2004-04-01

    We have studied the purine alkaloid content and purine metabolism in Theobroma cacao fruits at differing growth stages: Stage A (young small fruit, fresh weight, ca. 2 g); stage B (medium size fruit, fresh weight, ca. 100 g) and stage C (large size, fresh weight, ca. 500 g). The major purine alkaloid in stage A fruits (mainly pericarp) was theobromine (0.7 micromol g(-1) fresh weight), followed by caffeine (0.09 micromol g(-1) fresh weight). The theobromine content of the pericarp decreased sharply with tissue age, and the caffeine content decreased gradually. A large amount of theobromine (22 micromol g(-1) fresh weight) had accumulated in seeds (mainly cotyledons) of stage C fruits. Theobromine was found also in the seed coat and placenta. Tracer experiments with [8-(14)C]adenine show that the major sites of theobromine synthesis are the young pericarp and cotyledons of T. cacao fruits. Limited amounts of purine alkaloids may be transported from the pericarp to seed tissue, but most purine alkaloids that accumulated in seeds appeared to be synthesised in cotyledons. Degradation of [8-(14)C]theobromine and [8-(14)C]caffeine to CO2 via 3-methylxanthine and ureides (allantoin and allantoic acid) was detected only in the pericarp of stage C fruits.

  19. Physiological responses of Theobroma cacao L. to water soil available in nursery stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Garcia Lozano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the locality of El Espinal, Tolima, the effect of water stress on leaf water potential and gas exchange of plants three clones of cacao (Theobroma cacao L was evaluated. The experiment was established in a split plot design in randomized block arrangement. The main plot was four levels of available soil water, subplot grafted seedlings to three months of three clones with five repetitions. The results showed highly significant differences (P <0.01 in content of soil water, but no differences between the materials evaluated. The loss of water in the soil decreases leaf water potential (Ψf and causes stomatal closure altering gas exchange and vapor pressure deficit (DPV accentuates mainly at noon with increasing evapotranspiration. The magnitude of impact of water deficit depends on climatic variations throughout the day. The climatic variables that affect plant development, are temperature and relative humidity in the form of DPV. Net photosynthesis and growth of cocoa seedlings are physiological variables very sensitive to excess and especially to water deficit.

  20. Recombinant β-1,3-1,4-glucanase from Theobroma cacao impairs Moniliophthora perniciosa mycelial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Dahyana Santos; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Andrade, Bruno Silva; Dos Santos, Tassiara Pereira; Pungartnik, Cristina; Cascardo, Júlio Cezar M; Micheli, Fabienne; Gesteira, Abelmon S

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we identified a gene from Theobroma cacao L. genome and cDNA libraries, named TcGlu2, that encodes a β-1,3-1,4-glucanase. The TcGlu2 ORF was 720 bp in length and encoded a polypeptide of 239 amino acids with a molecular mass of 25.58 kDa. TcGlu2 contains a conserved domain characteristic of β-1,3-1,4-glucanases and presented high protein identity with β-1,3-1,4-glucanases from other plant species. Molecular modeling of TcGlu2 showed an active site of 13 amino acids typical of glucanase with β-1,3 and 1,4 action mode. The recombinant cDNA TcGlu2 obtained by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and whose sequence was confirmed by mass spectrometry, has a molecular mass of about 22 kDa (with His-Tag) and showed antifungal activity against the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of the witches' broom disease in cacao. The integrity of the hyphae membranes of M. perniciosa, incubated with protein TcGlu2, was analyzed with propidium iodide. After 1 h of incubation, a strong fluorescence emitted by the hyphae indicating the hydrolysis of the membrane by TcGlu2, was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first study of a cacao β-1,3-1,4-glucanase expression in heterologous system and the first analysis showing the antifungal activity of a β-1,3-1,4-glucanase, in particular against M. perniciosa.

  1. Theobroma cacao L. pathogenesis-related gene tandem array members show diverse expression dynamics in response to pathogen colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fister, Andrew S; Mejia, Luis C; Zhang, Yufan; Herre, Edward Allen; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2016-05-17

    The pathogenesis-related (PR) group of proteins are operationally defined as polypeptides that increase in concentration in plant tissues upon contact with a pathogen. To date, 17 classes of highly divergent proteins have been described that act through multiple mechanisms of pathogen resistance. Characterizing these families in cacao, an economically important tree crop, and comparing the families to those in other species, is an important step in understanding cacao's immune response. Using publically available resources, all members of the 17 recognized pathogenesis-related gene families in the genome of Theobroma cacao were identified and annotated resulting in a set of ~350 members in both published cacao genomes. Approximately 50 % of these genes are organized in tandem arrays scattered throughout the genome. This feature was observed in five additional plant taxa (three dicots and two monocots), suggesting that tandem duplication has played an important role in the evolution of the PR genes in higher plants. Expression profiling captured the dynamics and complexity of PR genes expression at basal levels and after induction by two cacao pathogens (the oomycete, Phytophthora palmivora, and the fungus, Colletotrichum theobromicola), identifying specific genes within families that are more responsive to pathogen challenge. Subsequent qRT-PCR validated the induction of several PR-1, PR-3, PR-4, and PR-10 family members, with greater than 1000 fold induction detected for specific genes. We describe candidate genes that are likely to be involved in cacao's defense against Phytophthora and Colletotrichum infection and could be potentially useful for marker-assisted selection for breeding of disease resistant cacao varieties. The data presented here, along with existing cacao-omics resources, will enable targeted functional genetic screening of defense genes likely to play critical functions in cacao's defense against its pathogens.

  2. Colombia a Source of Cacao Genetic Diversity As Revealed by the Population Structure Analysis of Germplasm Bank of Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Osorio-Guarín

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Beans of the species Theobroma cacao L., also known as cacao, are the raw material to produce chocolate. Colombian cacao has been classified as a fine flavor cacao that represents the 5% of cacao world’s production. Colombian genetic resources from this species are conserved in ex situ and in-field germplasm banks, since T. cacao has recalcitrant seeds to desication and long-term storage. Currently, the collection of T. cacao of the Colombian Corporation of Agricultural Research (CORPOICA has approximately 700 germplasm accessions. We conducted a molecular analysis of Corpoica’s cacao collection and a morphological characterization of some accessions with the goal to study its genetic diversity and population structure and, to select interesting accessions for the cacao’s breeding program. Phenotypic evaluation was performed based on 18 morphological traits and 4 biochemical traits. PCA analysis of morphological traits explained 60.6% of the total variation in seven components and 100% of the total variation of biochemical traits in four components, grouping the collection in 4 clusters for both variables. We explored 565 accessions from Corpoica’s germplasm and 252 accessions from reference populations using 96 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP molecular markers. Molecular patterns of cacao Corpoica’s collection were obtained amplifying specific alleles in a Fluidigm platform that used integrated circuits of fluids. Corpoica’s collection showed highest genetic diversity [Expected Heterozygosity (HE = 0.314, Observed Heterozygosity (HO = 0.353] that is reduced when reference populations were included in the dataset (HE = 0.294, HO = 0.261. The collection was divided into four clusters based on population structure analysis. Cacao accessions from distinct groups showed some taxonomic concordance and reflected their geographic origins. For instance, accessions classified as Criollo were clearly differentiated in one group and we

  3. THEOBROMA CACAO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    Protein, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars and total sugars decreased significantly .... The principal factors .... Statgraphics software version 3.0 (STSC, Inc., Rockville, MD, USA) was used to ..... Cervantes E and ME Jaramillo-Flores Dynamics of volatile and non-volatile ... processes using principal components analysis.

  4. Theobroma cacao

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-16

    Jul 16, 2014 ... 1Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Higher Teacher's Training College. P. O. Box 47. Yaounde .... ground material was centrifuged at 6000 g for 20 min. The ..... Coffee, cocoa, tea. 20:97-115.

  5. Transient Expression of CRISPR/Cas9 Machinery Targeting TcNPR3 Enhances Defense Response in Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fister, Andrew S; Landherr, Lena; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2018-01-01

    Theobroma cacao , the source of cocoa, suffers significant losses to a variety of pathogens resulting in reduced incomes for millions of farmers in developing countries. Development of disease resistant cacao varieties is an essential strategy to combat this threat, but is limited by sources of genetic resistance and the slow generation time of this tropical tree crop. In this study, we present the first application of genome editing technology in cacao, using Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation to introduce CRISPR/Cas9 components into cacao leaves and cotyledon cells. As a first proof of concept, we targeted the cacao Non-Expressor of Pathogenesis-Related 3 (TcNPR3) gene, a suppressor of the defense response. After demonstrating activity of designed single-guide RNAs (sgRNA) in vitro , we used Agrobacterium to introduce a CRISPR/Cas9 system into leaf tissue, and identified the presence of deletions in 27% of TcNPR3 copies in the treated tissues. The edited tissue exhibited an increased resistance to infection with the cacao pathogen Phytophthora tropicalis and elevated expression of downstream defense genes. Analysis of off-target mutagenesis in sequences similar to sgRNA target sites using high-throughput sequencing did not reveal mutations above background sequencing error rates. These results confirm the function of NPR3 as a repressor of the cacao immune system and demonstrate the application of CRISPR/Cas9 as a powerful functional genomics tool for cacao. Several stably transformed and genome edited somatic embryos were obtained via Agrobacterium -mediated transformation, and ongoing work will test the effectiveness of this approach at a whole plant level.

  6. Identification of yeasts Isolated from processed and frozen cocoa (Theobroma cacao pulp for wine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Trindade

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The alternative use of cocoa (Theobroma cacao for wine production was tested. The pulp samples, obtained from Formosa farm, Itacaré, Brazil, were diluted, homogenized and inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium (SDA and incubated at 28º C for 5-8 days. Selected colonies were tested for the ability to ferment cocoa pulp and divided into fermentative, non-fermentative and weak/late fermentative species. Isolates characterized as fermentative were further tested in a small-scale wine production plant and identified. Species from the genus Brettanomyces constituted the main fermentative yeasts, with the exception of two Kloeckera apis samples. The final wine product was normally pale or clear, making clarification unnecessary, and with a sweet or dry pleasant flavor. The predominance of Brettanomyces species in cocoa pulp indicated its ecological importance in this environment and pointed to an active role of Brettanomyces in the deterioration process of the processed cocoa pulp.O uso alternativo de cacau (Theobroma cacao para produção de vinho foi testado. A polpa de cacau foi obtida da Fazenda Formosa, Itacaré, Brasil. As amostras de polpa foram diluídas, homogeneizadas e inoculadas em meio de Sabouraud dextrose e incubadas a 28°C por 5-8 dias. Colônias selecionadas foram testadas quanto à habilidade de fermentar a polpa de cacau e divididas em fermentadoras, não-fermentadoras e fermentadoras lentas. As amostras fermentadoras foram identificadas e testadas para produção de vinho de cacau em escala piloto. A maioria das amostras fermentadoras pertencem ao gênero Brettanomyces, com exceção de duas amostras de Kloeckera apis. O vinho obtido apresentou coloração fraca e clara, tornando a clarificação desnecessária, além de sabor doce e agradável. A predominância de espécies de Brettanomyces na polpa de cacau poderia indicar sua importância ecológica neste ambiente e sugere uma participação ativa dessas leveduras nos

  7. Morphological, biochemical, molecular and ultrastructural changes induced by Cd toxicity in seedlings of Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Andressa V; de Almeida, Alex-Alan F; Pirovani, Carlos P; Reis, Graciele S M; Almeida, Nicolle M; Mangabeira, Pedro A O

    2015-05-01

    Seeds from Theobroma cacao progenies derived from the self-pollination of 'Catongo'×'Catongo' and the crossing between CCN-10×SCA-6 were immersed for 24h in different Cd solutions (2; 4; 8; 16 and 32 mgL(-1)) along with the control treatment (without Cd). Shortly after, the seeds were sown in plastic tubes containing organic substrate and were grown in a greenhouse for 60 days. The treatment with Cd was observed to cause morphological, biochemical, molecular and ultrastructural changes in both progenies of T. cacao. There has been deformation in chloroplasts, nuclear chromatin condensation, and reduction in thickness of the mesophyll. As for 'Catongo'×'Catongo', a decrease in thickness of the epidermis was noted on the abaxial face. There has been increased guaiacol peroxidase activity in the roots of CCN-10×SCA-6, as well as in the''Catongo'×'Catongo' leaves. In the presence of Cd, CCN-10×SCA-6 showed increased expression of the genes associated with the biosynthesis of phytochelatin (PCS-1) and class III peroxidases (PER-1) in leaves, and metallothionein (MT2b), in roots. In 'Catongo'×'Catongo', there has been an increase in the expression of genes associated with the biosynthesis of PER-1 and cytosolic superoxide dismutase dependent on copper and zinc (Cu-Zn SODCyt) in leaves and from MT2b and PCS-1 and roots. There was higher accumulation of Cd in the aerial parts of seedlings from both progenies, whereas the most pronounced accumulation was seen in''Catongo'×'Catongo'. The increase in Cd concentration has led to lower Zn and Fe levels in both progenies. Hence, one may conclude that the different survival strategies used by CCN-10×SCA-6 made such progeny more tolerant to Cd stress when compared to''Catongo'×'Catongo'. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Application of glycerol as a foliar spray activates the defence response and enhances disease resistance of Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Smith, Philip; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has implicated glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) as a mobile inducer of systemic immunity in plants. We tested the hypothesis that the exogenous application of glycerol as a foliar spray might enhance the disease resistance of Theobroma cacao through the modulation of endogenous G3P levels. We found that exogenous application of glycerol to cacao leaves over a period of 4 days increased the endogenous level of G3P and decreased the level of oleic acid (18:1). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were produced (a marker of defence activation) and the expression of many pathogenesis-related genes was induced. Notably, the effects of glycerol application on G3P and 18:1 fatty acid content, and gene expression levels, in cacao leaves were dosage dependent. A 100 mm glycerol spray application was sufficient to stimulate the defence response without causing any observable damage, and resulted in a significantly decreased lesion formation by the cacao pathogen Phytophthora capsici; however, a 500 mm glycerol treatment led to chlorosis and cell death. The effects of glycerol treatment on the level of 18:1 and ROS were constrained to the locally treated leaves without affecting distal tissues. The mechanism of the glycerol-mediated defence response in cacao and its potential use as part of a sustainable farming system are discussed. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  9. A Larger Chocolate Chip—Development of a 15K Theobroma cacao L. SNP Array to Create High-Density Linkage Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Livingstone

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. is an important cash crop in tropical regions around the world and has a rich agronomic history in South America. As a key component in the cosmetic and confectionary industries, millions of people worldwide use products made from cacao, ranging from shampoo to chocolate. An Illumina Infinity II array was created using 13,530 SNPs identified within a small diversity panel of cacao. Of these SNPs, 12,643 derive from variation within annotated cacao genes. The genotypes of 3,072 trees were obtained, including two mapping populations from Ecuador. High-density linkage maps for these two populations were generated and compared to the cacao genome assembly. Phenotypic data from these populations were combined with the linkage maps to identify the QTLs for yield and disease resistance.

  10. A Larger Chocolate Chip-Development of a 15K Theobroma cacao L. SNP Array to Create High-Density Linkage Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Donald; Stack, Conrad; Mustiga, Guiliana M; Rodezno, Dayana C; Suarez, Carmen; Amores, Freddy; Feltus, Frank A; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Cornejo, Omar E; Motamayor, Juan C

    2017-01-01

    Cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) is an important cash crop in tropical regions around the world and has a rich agronomic history in South America. As a key component in the cosmetic and confectionary industries, millions of people worldwide use products made from cacao, ranging from shampoo to chocolate. An Illumina Infinity II array was created using 13,530 SNPs identified within a small diversity panel of cacao. Of these SNPs, 12,643 derive from variation within annotated cacao genes. The genotypes of 3,072 trees were obtained, including two mapping populations from Ecuador. High-density linkage maps for these two populations were generated and compared to the cacao genome assembly. Phenotypic data from these populations were combined with the linkage maps to identify the QTLs for yield and disease resistance.

  11. Packaging of Post Acclimatized Somatic Embryogenesis Cocoa Plantlet (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soedarsianto Soedarsianto

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Clonal plants that produced by somatic embryogenesis technique is one of the best choice to produce supperior clonal cacao (Theobroma cacao L. planting materials. The somatic embryogenesis technique is a possible way for massive propagation, the outcome is true to type plants, the architecture similarity that the seedlings but there is not segregation like seedlings plants. At present mass production started of plantlets production until post-acclimatized plantlets of somatic embryogenesis cocoa was done at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. Distribution system of the planting materials to whole areas in form of as up-rooted post-acclimatized plantlet. Some problems identified to reduce probability of decreasing viability of up-rooted post-acclimatized plantlets and one of them is extreme internal water deficit. This research investigate of the influece storage condition (air tight and non-air tight and box storage (mica plastic and cardboardbox. The first experiment result show, there is no significant different between mica plastic and cardboard box usage for storage of post-acclimatized cocoa pantlet. Viability of up-rooted post acclimatized cocoa plantlet influenced exactly by air tight and non-air tight storage condition. Air tight storage condition have better viability of up-rooted post acclimatised (81,58% than non-air tight storage condition (65,00%. Leaf sanasence on air tight storage condition (10,33% lower than non-air tight storage (32,58%. There is not significantly on volume storage per plantlet between 4.416 cm3 and 12.600 cm3. Relationship between fallen leaves and cocoa planlet viability follow negative linear correlation y = -1,4719x + 104,88 (R2 = 0,9772. The second experiment treatment showed that maximal storage periode of post cclimatized cocoa plantlet just until 6 days stored (97% and not significant with 3 days one. Viability of post acclimatized cocoa plantlet decreased after 6 days storage period

  12. Progressive erosion of genetic and epigenetic variation in callus-derived cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez López, Carlos M; Wetten, Andrew C; Wilkinson, Michael J

    2010-06-01

    *Relatively little is known about the timing of genetic and epigenetic forms of somaclonal variation arising from callus growth. We surveyed for both types of change in cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plants regenerated from calli of various ages, and also between tissues from the source trees. *For genetic change, we used 15 single sequence repeat (SSR) markers from four source trees and from 233 regenerated plants. For epigenetic change, we used 386 methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) markers on leaf and explant (staminode) DNA from two source trees and on leaf DNA from 114 regenerants. *Genetic variation within source trees was limited to one slippage mutation in one leaf. Regenerants were far more variable, with 35% exhibiting at least one mutation. Genetic variation initially accumulated with culture age but subsequently declined. MSAP (epigenetic) profiles diverged between leaf and staminode samples from source trees. Multivariate analysis revealed that leaves from regenerants occupied intermediate eigenspace between leaves and staminodes of source plants but became progressively more similar to source tree leaves with culture age. *Statistical analysis confirmed this rather counterintuitive finding that leaves of 'late regenerants' exhibited significantly less genetic and epigenetic divergence from source leaves than those exposed to short periods of callus growth.

  13. Karyotype variation in cultivars and spontaneous cocoa mutants (Theobroma cacao L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, G S F; Melo, C A F; Souza, M M; Araújo, I S; Zaidan, H A; Pires, J L; Ahnert, D

    2013-10-18

    Four mutant cocoa accessions with morphological changes and a cultivar sample were karyomorphologically characterized. Slides were prepared by enzymatic digestion of the root meristem and squashed in 45% acetic acid, followed by 2% Giemsa staining. The chromosome number of 2n = 20 was seen in all accessions. The karyotype formula for Cacau Comum and Cacau Rui was 2n = 20m. Submetacentric chromosomes were observed in Cacau Pucala and Cacau Jaca, both with 2n = 18m + 2sm, but the karyotype formula for Cacau Sem Vidro was 2n = 16m + 4sm. Satellites were located on the long arm of the 1st and 2nd chromosome pairs of Cacau Comum, whereas Cacau Pucala had satellites on the 6th chromosome pair. Greater karyotypic variation in Cacau Sem Vidro was found, whose 1st and 2nd chromosome pairs had satellites on the long arm and 6th and 10th pairs had satellites on the short arm. Analysis revealed a lower average chromosome length in Cacau Comum (1.53 ± 0.026 µm) and a higher length in Cacau Sem Vidro (2.26 ± 0.038 µm). ANOVA revealed significant difference (P Theobroma cacao.

  14. Microencapsulation of Theobroma cacao L. waste extract: optimization using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay Alves, Taís Vanessa; Silva da Costa, Russany; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Casazza, Alessandro Alberto; Perego, Patrizia; Carréra Silva Júnior, José Otávio; Ribeiro Costa, Roseane Maria; Converti, Attilio

    2017-03-01

    The cocoa extract (Theobroma cacao L.) has a significant amount of polyphenols (TP) with potent antioxidant activity (AA). This study aims to optimise microencapsulation of the extract of cocoa waste using chitosan and maltodextrin. Microencapsulation tests were performed according to a Box-Behnken factorial design, and the results were evaluated by response surface methodology with temperature, maltodextrin concentration (MD) and extract flowrate (EF) as independent variables, and the fraction of encapsulated TP, TP encapsulation yield, AA, yield of drying and solubility index as responses. The optimum conditions were: inlet temperature of 170 °C, MD of 5% and EF of 2.5 mL/min. HPLC analysis identified epicatechin as the major component of both the extract and microparticles. TP release was faster at pH 3.5 than in water. These results as a whole suggest that microencapsulation was successful and the final product can be used as a nutrient source for aquatic animal feed. Highlights Microencapsulation is optimised according to a factorial design of the Box-Behnken type. Epicatechin is the major component of both the extract and microcapsules. The release of polyphenols from microcapsules is faster at pH 3.5 than in water.

  15. Pengaruh Kadar Air dan Persamaan Model Bet untuk Prediksi Masa Simpan Kakao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Hayati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of moisture content and BET equation to the shelf life of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. has been conducted. Increasing the quality of cocoa beans is with proper post-harvest handling, including how the harvest, the level of ripeness, curing, fermenting, drying up storage. The purpose of this study was to determine the water content and the appropriate levels of critical in determining the shelf life of cocoa. The benefits of this research are as information for farmers in determining the shelf life of cocoa in order to design a storage area corresponding to the respiratory system owned by cocoa. The results showed that the effect of fermentation facilitator (Staphilococcus cerevisiae and drying temperature on water content showed that the fermentation facilitator (Staphilococcus cerevisiae highly significant effect on water content. The drying temperature is also highly significant effect on water content. BET equation obtained was Y = 2,912x + 1.238 (R2 = 0.965, Y = 2,897x + 1.353 (R2 = 0.968 and Y = 2,806x + 1.89 (R2 = 0.954.

  16. Confocal observations of late-acting self-incompatibility in Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Caroline S; Wilkinson, Mike J

    2012-09-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) has an idiosyncratic form of late-acting self-incompatibility that operates through the non-fusion of incompatible gametes. Here, we used high-resolution confocal microscopy to define fine level changes to the embryo sac of the strongly self-incompatible cocoa genotype SCA 24 in the absence of pollination, and following compatible and incompatible pollination. All sperm nuclei had fused with the female nuclei by 48 h following compatible pollinations. However, following incompatible pollinations, we observed divergence in the behaviour of sperm nuclei following release into the embryo sac. Incomplete sperm nucleus migration occurred in approximately half of the embryo sacs, where the sperm nuclei had so far failed to reach the female gamete nuclei. Sperm nuclei reached but did not fuse with the female gamete nuclei in the residual cases. We argue that the cellular mechanisms governing sperm nucleus migration to the egg nucleus and those controlling subsequent nuclear fusion are likely to differ and should be considered independently. Accordingly, we recommend that future efforts to characterise the genetic basis of LSI in cocoa should take care to differentiate between these two events, both of which contribute to failed karyogamy. Implications of these results for continuing efforts to gain better understanding of the genetic control of LSI in cocoa are discussed.

  17. A comparison of tissue preparation methods for protein extraction of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. pod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascensión Martínez-Márquez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa, Theobroma cacao L. is one of the main tropical industrial crops. Cocoa has a very high level of interfering substances, such as polysaccharides and phenolic compounds that could prevent the isolation of suitable protein. Efficient methods of protein extraction are a priority to successfully apply proteomic analyses. We compared and evaluated two methods (A and B of tissue preparation for total protein extract by phenol/SDS extraction protocol. The difference in the application of the two methods was that extensively washed dry powder of pod tissue were made in Method A, whereas that crude extract were prepared Method B. Extracted proteins were examined using one-dimensional electrophoresis (1-D. Results show that each extraction method isolated a unique subset of cocoa pod proteome. Principal component analysis showed little variation in the data obtained using Method A, while that in Methods B showed no low reproducibility, thus demonstrating that Method A is a reliable for preparing cocoa pod proteins. The protocol is expected to be applicable to other recalcitrant plant tissues and to be of interest to laboratories involved in plant proteomics analyses. A combination of extraction approaches is recommended for increasing proteome coverage when using gel-based isolation techniques.

  18. Use of Trichoderma fungi in spray solutions to reduce Moniliophthora roreri infection of Theobroma cacao fruits in Northeastern Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, John; Herrera, Geovanny; Vaughan, Christopher S; McCoy, Michael B

    2014-09-01

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is an important cash crop in tropical climates such as that of Latin America. Over the past several decades, the infection of cultivated cacao by Moniliophthllora roreri, known commonly as "monilia", has significantly hindered cacao production in Latin America. Studies have proposed the use of Trichoderma sp. fungi in biocontrol treatments to prevent and reduce monilia infection, yet tests of Trichoderma-containing spray treatments on cacao agroforests have produced mixed results. Researchers and agricultural workers have suggested that addition of soil, fly ash, or other carbon sources to a Trichoderma spray may improve its efficacy in fighting monilia. To test these suggestions, we designed a series of spray mixtures including Thichoderma cultures, soil, and all necessary controls. We applied the spray mixtures to 80 cacao trees (20 trees for each of four resistant-selected clones to monilia) at the FINMAC organic cacao plantation in Pueblo Nuevo de Guacimo, Limón Province, in northeastern Costa Rica in March-April 2013. Five treatments were applied (control, water, water plus sterilized soil, water plus Trichoderma, and water plus sterilized soil plus Trichoderma). Each treatment was applied to four trees of each clone. We monitored the incidence of monilia infection under each spray treatment over the course of 35d. We found that spraying entire cacao trees two times with a mixture containing Trichoderma and sterilized soil significantly reduced the incidence of monilia infection by 11% (p ≤ 0.05) in only 35d, as compared to the control. This reduction in loss of cacao pods translates into an increase of plantation mean productivity of 1,500 kg dried beans/ha by 198 kg/ha up to 1,698 kg/ha or by a total increase over the whole 110 ha plantation by 21,780 kg. We propose that using such an antifungal spray over the whole course of a crop cycle (120 days) would decrease infection incidence even more. Application of this fungal control

  19. Use of Trichoderma fungi in spray solutions to reduce Moniliophthora roreri infection of Theobroma cacao fruits in Northeastern Costa Rica

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    John Seng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cacao (Theobroma cacao is an important cash crop in tropical climates such as that of Latin America. Over the past several decades, the infection of cultivated cacao by Moniliophthora roreri, known commonly as “monilia”, has significantly hindered cacao production in Latin America. Studies have proposed the use of Trichoderma sp. Fungi in biocontrol treatments to prevent and reduce monilia infection, yet tests of Trichoderma-containing spray treatments on cacao agroforests have produced mixed results. Researchers and agricultural workers have suggested that addition of soil, fly ash, or other carbon sources to a Trichoderma spray may improve its efficacy in fighting monilia. To test these suggestions, we designed a series of spray mixtures including Trichoderma cultures, soil, and all necessary controls. We applied the spray mixtures to 80 cacao trees (20 trees for each of four resistant-selected clones to monilia at the FINMAC organic cacao plantation in Pueblo Nuevo de Guacimo, Limón Province, in northeastern Costa Rica in March-April 2013. Five treatments were applied (control, water, water plus sterilized soil, water plus Trichoderma, and water plus sterilized soil plus Trichoderma. Each treatment was applied to four trees of each clone. We monitored the incidence of moniliainfection under each spray treatment over the course of 35d. We found that spraying entire cacao trees two times with a mixture containing Trichoderma and sterilized soil significantly reduced the incidence of monilia infection by 11% (p<0.05 in only 35d, ascompared to the control. This reduction in loss of cacao pods translates into an increase of plantation mean productivity of 1 500kg dried beans/ha by 198kg/ha up to 1 698kg/ha or by a total increase over the whole 110ha plantation by 21 780kg. We propose that using such an antifungal spray over the whole course of a crop cycle (120 days would decrease infection incidence even more. Application of this fungal

  20. Enhanced resistance in Theobroma cacao against oomycete and fungal pathogens by secretion of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliwell, Emily E; Vega-Arreguín, Julio; Shi, Zi; Bailey, Bryan; Xiao, Shunyuan; Maximova, Siela N; Tyler, Brett M; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2016-03-01

    The internalization of some oomycete and fungal pathogen effectors into host plant cells has been reported to be blocked by proteins that bind to the effectors' cell entry receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P). This finding suggested a novel strategy for disease control by engineering plants to secrete PI3P-binding proteins. In this study, we tested this strategy using the chocolate tree Theobroma cacao. Transient expression and secretion of four different PI3P-binding proteins in detached leaves of T. cacao greatly reduced infection by two oomycete pathogens, Phytophthora tropicalis and Phytophthora palmivora, which cause black pod disease. Lesion size and pathogen growth were reduced by up to 85%. Resistance was not conferred by proteins lacking a secretory leader, by proteins with mutations in their PI3P-binding site, or by a secreted PI4P-binding protein. Stably transformed, transgenic T. cacao plants expressing two different PI3P-binding proteins showed substantially enhanced resistance to both P. tropicalis and P. palmivora, as well as to the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum theobromicola. These results demonstrate that secretion of PI3P-binding proteins is an effective way to increase disease resistance in T. cacao, and potentially in other plants, against a broad spectrum of pathogens. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Association mapping for #Phytophthora# pod rot resistance in a cacao (#Theobroma cacao# L.) population grown in farmers' field

    OpenAIRE

    Efombagn, Mousseni Ives Bruno; Sounigo, Olivier; Courtois, Brigitte; Fouet, Olivier; Jeanneau, Mélanie; Lemainque, Arnaud; Pavek, Sylvana; Lanaud, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora pod rot (PPR) caused by the specie Phytophthora megakarya is an important disease of cacao tree. Association mapping identified markers linked to PPR resistance in a cacao population of 260 trees planted under high disease pressure in a single plantation in a farmer's field. These cacao trees were derived from both selfing and full-sib progenies. The resistance traits were assessed through field observations of the natural pod attacks of the disease on the trunk (PRTnk) or the ca...

  2. [Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) hulls: a posible commercial source of pectins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazarte, Humberto; Sangronis, Elba; Unai, Emaldi

    2008-03-01

    Commercial exploitation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) generates a volume of hulls that could be used in the production of pectins on an industrial scale. Therefore, pectins from cocoa hulls were extracted at different pH and temperature conditions, and their main chemical characteristics were evaluated. EDTA at 0.5% was used for the extraction at pHs 3, 4 and 5 and temperatures of 60, 75 and 90 degrees C, under a 3 2 factorial design. The response variables were yield, content of anhydrous galacturonic acid (AGA), content of metoxil, degree of esterification and equivalent weight of the pectins extracted. The strength of the pectic gel was determined with a TA-XT2 texturometer. Strawberry jam was made with the pectin extracted, and its acceptability was determined using a 7-point hedonic scale. The results obtained were as follows: an extraction yield from 2.64 to 4.69 g/100 g; an AGA content between 49.8 and 64.06 g/100 g; a content of metoxil between 4.72 and 7.18 g/100 g; a degree of esterification between 37.94 and 52.20%; an equivalent weight from 385.47 to 464.61 g/equivalent of H+, and a degree of gelation between 28.64 and 806.03 g force. The pectin extracted at pH 4 and 90 degrees C showed a gelation power of 422.16 g force, purity 62.26 g/100 g of AGA, and a yield of extraction of 3.89 g/100 g and allowed to prepare ajam with an average level of liking of "like moderately". Pectins from cocoa hulls show potential application in the food industry, but it is necessary to optimize the extraction parameters to increase its yield.

  3. Genetic variation in bioaccumulation and partitioning of cadmium in Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Caleb; Lennon, Adrian M; Eudoxie, Gaius; Umaharan, Pathmanathan

    2018-06-02

    Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential heavy metal that is toxic to both plants and animals and chocolates have been identified as a contributor to the human dietary Cd intake. One hundred accessions representing the various genetic groups and hybrid populations in Theobroma cacao L. held at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad were evaluated for leaf and bean cadmium levels with three tree replications. Representative samples of soil from the drip zone around each tree were evaluated for bioavailable cadmium. Although there were significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) among genetic groups for leaf and bean Cd much of the variation was between accessions. There was a 13-fold variation in bean Cd and a 7-fold variation in leaf Cd between accessions despite the bioavailable Cd in the soil being uniform. There were differences in the level of partitioning into beans evident by significant variation (P ≤ 0.05) in bean Cd as a percentage of the cumulative leaf and bean Cd concentration (15-52%) between accessions. Although in general there was a higher concentration of cadmium in the testa than the cotyledon of the cocoa bean there was considerable genetic variation. These results point to the potential of using a genetic strategy to mitigate cadmium within cocoa beans either through breeding or through the use of low cadmium uptake rootstocks in grafting. The results will fuel further work into the understanding of mechanisms and genetics of cadmium uptake and partitioning in cocoa. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. The effect of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L on the basic color stability of thermoplastic nylon resin dentures

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    Amiyatun Naini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nylon thermoplastic resin is material of choice for the making of flexible. This denture do not use wire retention, but has the physical properties of water absorption. In the oral cavity, it will always be in contact with food and beverages consumed. One of the foods that are consumed by the public is chocolate. This study aimed to determine the effect of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L on color stability of the thermoplastic nylon denture base. The study sample was thermoplastic nylon (valplast with a size of 10x10x2 mm soaked in the chocolate solution for 7 and 14 days. As the control, the sample soaked with distilled water. The color testing stability used was densitometer. There were significant differences between the control group (distilled water and the chocolate solution. This was due to dissolved components/tannin having a capillary flow diffusion into thermoplastic nylons that causing discoloration. The conclusion of this study, there was the effect of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L against the color stability of the nylon thermoplastic denture base. The longer time of immersion of nylon thermoplastic the greater the change in color.

  5. Evaluación del potencial biofertilizante de bacterias diazótrofas aisladas de suelos con cultivo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

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    Adriana Zulay Argüello-Navarro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La adaptabilidad del cacao (Theobroma cacao L. en condiciones adversas permite sugerir que la microbiota asociada con la rizosfera desempeña una función importante para la nutrición y el desarrollo de la planta. En el trabajo se evaluó el potencial biofertilizante de bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno (diazótrofas aisladas de suelos cacaoteros por la técnica de diluciones seriadas. Las bacterias se aislaron en medios semiselectivos (NFb, JMV, LGI, JNFb. Los aislados puros se caracterizaron morfológica y bioquímicamente y complementariamente se evaluó la capacidad de fijación biológica de nitrógeno (FBN por el método de Micro-Kjeldahl. Los aislados con mejor capacidad de fijación de nitrógeno fueron seleccionados para evaluar su potencial promotor de crecimiento durante 120 días en plantas de cacao clon CCN 51 establecidas a partir de semillas. El análisis de datos mostró que las plantas de cacao respondieron efectivamente a los tratamientos con bacterias donde las variables de crecimiento y N (% foliar incrementaron significativamente, en comparación con el testigo. Se destacó el aporte de los aislados DKA2J24, DKB3J73 presuntamente del género Burkholderia sp. y DKA1L3 semejante al género Gluconacetobacter sp., todos con un gran potencial como biofertilizantes en la prueba de bioensayo.

  6. Selección de genotipos de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. con resistencia a escoba de bruja (Moniliophthora perniciosa en Los Ríos, Ecuador

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    Omar Miguel Tarqui Freire

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El Programa de Mejoramiento del Cacao y el Café en el INIAP EET-Pichilingue ha estado estudiando, durante varios años, los genotipos de cacao más altos (Theobroma cacao L. caracterizados por la resistencia genética a las principales enfermedades, especialmente la escoba de brujas (Moniliophthora perniciosa Factor limitante para su cultivo en varios países de América Central y del Sur. El objetivo de la investigación fue identificar y seleccionar los clones de cacao con una baja incidencia de la enfermedad de la escoba de brujas. Se probaron 21 genotipos (14 resultantes de Amazonas x Amazonas y (4 de Amazonas x Cruces Nacionales. Entre la población derivada de cruces nacionales vs. nacionales, no se encontraron genotipos mostrando resistencia a la enfermedad. Además, se seleccionó INIAPT 074 del cruce entre CCN 51 x B 60 y TIP 1 y TAP 6 como clones de control. Se evaluaron las siguientes características: Número de mazorcas sanas (MS, Peso fresco (PF, Número de mazorcas enfermas (ME, Número de escobas vegetativas (EBveg, Número de escobas portadoras (EBcojin y Número de chirimoyas. Un análisis de componentes principales y un análisis de conglomerados se realizaron utilizando el método de Ward y se construyó un dendrograma para determinar la similitud entre las características productivas y sanitarias. Se determinó que los genotipos resultantes del cruce amazónico x amazónico: INIAPT 527, INIAPT 560 e INIAPT 526 presentaron menor incidencia de escobas y se identificaron como fuentes de resistencia genética a Moniliophthora perniciosa.

  7. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fupeng; Hao, Chaoyun; Yan, Lin; Wu, Baoduo; Qin, Xiaowei; Lai, Jianxiong; Song, Yinghui

    2015-09-01

    In higher plants, sucrose synthase (Sus, EC 2.4.1.13) is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Although, several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, to date detailed information about the Sus genes is lacking for cacao. This study reports the identification of six novel Sus genes from economically important cacao tree. Analyses of the gene structure and phylogeny of the Sus genes demonstrated evolutionary conservation in the Sus family across cacao and other plant species. The expression of cacao Sus genes was investigated via real-time PCR in various tissues, different developmental phases of leaf, flower bud and pod. The Sus genes exhibited distinct but partially redundant expression profiles in cacao, with TcSus1, TcSus5 and TcSus6, being the predominant genes in the bark with phloem, TcSus2 predominantly expressing in the seed during the stereotype stage. TcSus3 and TcSus4 were significantly detected more in the pod husk and seed coat along the pod development, and showed development dependent expression profiles in the cacao pod. These results provide new insights into the evolution, and basic information that will assist in elucidating the functions of cacao Sus gene family.

  8. Study on the presence and influence of phenolic compounds in callogenesis and somatic embryo development of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L..

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    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. like most tropical trees is recalcitrant in tissue culture. Somatic embryogenesis is generally efficient micropropagation technique to multiply elite material. However, Somatic embryogenesis in cocoa is difficult and this species is considered as recalcitrant. One of the factors often considered as a component of in vitro recalsitrance is a high phenolic content and oxidation of these compounds. In cocoa tissue culture accumulate large amounts of poliphenolics compounds which probably impair further development. This study was conducted to investigate the composition of phenolic compounds in cocoa flower and leaves, and their changes troughout the somatic embryogenesis process. Calli were induced in cacao floral and leaves explants on a half-strenght Murashige and Skoog medium containing 30 g/L Glucose and combination of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4 D with kinetin (kin. Total polyphenol content was observed on Sulawesi 1 cocoa clone. Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus were also compared. The percentage of callus production from flower tissue is 85%, percentage of embryogenic callus 40 %, although  the percentage of somatic embryo production from embryogenic callus callus is 70%. The conservation of callus into somatic embryos followed by decline in phenol content and an increase in peroxidase. The synthesis kinetics for these compounds in calli, under different somatic embryogenesis conditions, revealed a higher concentration under non-embryogenic conditions. So that, phenolic compound can influence the production of calli and an absence the phenolic compound can enhance production of somatic embryo.Kata kunci: Theobroma cacao L., polifenol, embrio somatik, kalus, flavonoid, katekin, in vitro recalcitance

  9. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in elite clones of Theobroma cacao Embriogênese somática e regeneração in vitro de clones elite de Theobroma cacao

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    Thiago Édson Ribeiro da Silva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluated a procedure for somatic embryogenesis and regeneration of cacao (Theobroma cacao L. elite clones. Petal explants from cacao clones TSH 565 and TSH 1188 were cultured on PCG and SCG-2 media, for calli growth. Somatic embryos were formed on the surface of embryogenic calli after transfer to embryo development (ED medium. Clone TSH 565 showed a higher embryogenic potential than TSH 1188. The best combination of carbon source for embryo induction in ED medium was genotype-specific. Embryogenic callus formations increased in micropore tape-sealed Petri dishes, irrespective of cacao genotype. Mature somatic embryos were successfully converted into plantlets.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar um procedimento para embriogênese somática e regeneração de clones elite de cacau. Pétalas dos clones de cacau TSH 565 e TSH 1188 foram cultivadas em meios PCG e SCG-2 para o crescimento de calos. Embriões somáticos desenvolveram-se na superfície dos calos embriogênicos, após a transferência para o meio ED. O clone TSH 565 apresentou maior potencial embriogênico do que o TSH 1188. A melhor combinação de fonte de carbono quanto à indução de embriões em meio ED foi específica do genótipo. A formação de calos embriogênicos foi superior em placas de Petri seladas com fita hipoalergênica, independentemente do genótipo. Embriões maduros de ambos os genótipos foram convertidos em plântulas.

  10. Identification and mapping of conserved ortholog set(COS) II sequences of cacao and their conversion to SNP markers for marker-assisted selection in Theobroma cocoa and comparative genomics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobroma cacao is a tree cultivated in the tropics around the world for its seeds that are the source of both chocolate and cocoa butter. The cacao genome sequencing project initiated as a collaboration between USDA, Mars, Inc. and IBM has generated a great deal of transcriptome and genome sequenc...

  11. The causal agents of witches' broom and frosty pod rot of cacao (chocolate, Theobroma cacao) form a new lineage of Marasmiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aime, M C; Phillips-Mora, W

    2005-01-01

    The two most devastating diseases of cacao (Theobroma cacao)--the source of chocolate--in tropical America are caused by the fungi Crinipellis perniciosa (witches' broom disease) and Moniliophthora roreri (frosty pod rot or moniliasis disease). Despite the agricultural, socio-economic and environmental impact of these fungi, most aspects of their life cycles are unknown, and the phylogenetic relationships of M. roreri have yet to be conclusively established. In this paper, extensive phylogenetic analyses of five nuclear gene regions (28S rDNA, 18S rDNA, ITS, RPB1, and EF1-alpha) confirm that C. perniciosa and M. roreri are sister taxa that belong in the Marasmiaceae (euagarics). Furthermore, these taxa form part of a separate and distinct lineage within the family. This lineage includes the biotrophic fungi Moniliophthora perniciosa comb. nov. and M. roreri, as well as one undescribed endophytic species. The sister genera to Moniliophthora are Marasmius, Crinipellis and Chaetocalathus, which consist mainly of saprotrophic litter fungi.

  12. Pod Characteristics of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. related to rocoa pod borer resistance.

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    Agung Wahyu Susilo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. pod related to cocoa pod borer resistance (CPB had been identified in a series of study. The objective of this research is to evaluate the characteristics of cocoa pod using more diverse of genetic background to obtain selection criteria. Genetic materials for this studywere 25 cocoa clones planted in Central Sulawesi for resistance evaluation. Field evaluation of the resistance were assessed by using variable of the percentage of unextractable beans, number of larvae entry and exit holes by which the clones were grouped into 5 groups of resistance. A laboratory works were carried out to assess pod characteristics based on the number of trichomes, granules of tannin and thickness the lignified-tissue of sclerotic layer using micro-technique method at the different level of pod maturity (3.0; 3.5; 4.0 months. Correlation between groups of those variables was analyzed using canonical correlation. The result performed a positive association between the thickness of sclerotic layer at the secondary furrow with the number of entry holes and the number of entry holes through sclerotic layer. The thickness performed a higher value of the coefficient in association with the variables of canonical for pod characteristics 0.59; 0.55; 0.43 and the variables of canonical correlation for CPB resistance 0.54; 0.51; 0.39 that would presenting the characteristics of pod related to CPB resistance in 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity. Lignification at sclerotic layer was considered as genotypic expressions due to the thickness at the secondary furrow at 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 months of pod maturity performed high value of broad-sense heritability i.e. 0.75, 0.89 and 0.92 respectively. A qualitative assessment of the lignification clearly differentiated the resistant clones of ARDACIAR 10 with the susceptible clones of ICCRI 04, KW 516, and KW 564.

  13. Efficient method of protein extraction from Theobroma cacao L. roots for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolde, F Z; Almeida, A-A F; Silva, F A C; Oliveira, T M; Pirovani, C P

    2014-07-04

    Theobroma cacao is a woody and recalcitrant plant with a very high level of interfering compounds. Standard protocols for protein extraction were proposed for various types of samples, but the presence of interfering compounds in many samples prevented the isolation of proteins suitable for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). An efficient method to extract root proteins for 2-DE was established to overcome these problems. The main features of this protocol are: i) precipitation with trichloroacetic acid/acetone overnight to prepare the acetone dry powder (ADP), ii) several additional steps of sonication in the ADP preparation and extractions with dense sodium dodecyl sulfate and phenol, and iii) adding two stages of phenol extractions. Proteins were extracted from roots using this new protocol (Method B) and a protocol described in the literature for T. cacao leaves and meristems (Method A). Using these methods, we obtained a protein yield of about 0.7 and 2.5 mg per 1.0 g lyophilized root, and a total of 60 and 400 spots could be separated, respectively. Through Method B, it was possible to isolate high-quality protein and a high yield of roots from T. cacao for high-quality 2-DE gels. To demonstrate the quality of the extracted proteins from roots of T. cacao using Method B, several protein spots were cut from the 2-DE gels, analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry, and identified. Method B was further tested on Citrus roots, with a protein yield of about 2.7 mg per 1.0 g lyophilized root and 800 detected spots.

  14. Genetic Parameters and the Impact of Off-Types for Theobroma cacao L. in a Breeding Program in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVal, Ashley; Gezan, Salvador A.; Mustiga, Guiliana; Stack, Conrad; Marelli, Jean-Philippe; Chaparro, José; Livingstone, Donald; Royaert, Stefan; Motamayor, Juan C.

    2017-01-01

    Breeding programs of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) trees share the many challenges of breeding long-living perennial crops, and genetic progress is further constrained by both the limited understanding of the inheritance of complex traits and the prevalence of technical issues, such as mislabeled individuals (off-types). To better understand the genetic architecture of cacao, in this study, 13 years of phenotypic data collected from four progeny trials in Bahia, Brazil were analyzed jointly in a multisite analysis. Three separate analyses (multisite, single site with and without off-types) were performed to estimate genetic parameters from statistical models fitted on nine important agronomic traits (yield, seed index, pod index, % healthy pods, % pods infected with witches broom, % of pods other loss, vegetative brooms, diameter, and tree height). Genetic parameters were estimated along with variance components and heritabilities from the multisite analysis, and a trial was fingerprinted with low-density SNP markers to determine the impact of off-types on estimations. Heritabilities ranged from 0.37 to 0.64 for yield and its components and from 0.03 to 0.16 for disease resistance traits. A weighted index was used to make selections for clonal evaluation, and breeding values estimated for the parental selection and estimation of genetic gain. The impact of off-types to breeding progress in cacao was assessed for the first time. Even when present at <5% of the total population, off-types altered selections by 48%, and impacted heritability estimations for all nine of the traits analyzed, including a 41% difference in estimated heritability for yield. These results show that in a mixed model analysis, even a low level of pedigree error can significantly alter estimations of genetic parameters and selections in a breeding program. PMID:29250097

  15. Heavy metal accumulations in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) leaves and cocoa beans grown at three main cacao growing regions of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peru is one of the leading exporters of organic cocoa beans in the world. However, the accumulation of heavy metals in cacao beans represents a considerable quality problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in cacao plants grown at three dif...

  16. Present spatial diversity patterns of Theobroma cacao L. in the neotropics reflect genetic differentiation in pleistocene refugia followed by human-influenced dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evert; van Zonneveld, Maarten; Loo, Judy; Hodgkin, Toby; Galluzzi, Gea; van Etten, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is indigenous to the Amazon basin, but is generally believed to have been domesticated in Mesoamerica for the production of chocolate beverage. However, cacao's distribution of genetic diversity in South America is also likely to reflect pre-Columbian human influences that were superimposed on natural processes of genetic differentiation. Here we present the results of a spatial analysis of the intra-specific diversity of cacao in Latin America, drawing on a dataset of 939 cacao trees genotypically characterized by means of 96 SSR markers. To assess continental diversity patterns we performed grid-based calculations of allelic richness, Shannon diversity and Nei gene diversity, and distinguished different spatially coherent genetic groups by means of cluster analysis. The highest levels of genetic diversity were observed in the Upper Amazon areas from southern Peru to the Ecuadorian Amazon and the border areas between Colombia, Peru and Brazil. On the assumption that the last glaciation (22,000-13,000 BP) had the greatest pre-human impact on the current distribution and diversity of cacao, we modeled the species' Pleistocene niche suitability and overlaid this with present-day diversity maps. The results suggest that cacao was already widely distributed in the Western Amazon before the onset of glaciation. During glaciations, cacao populations were likely to have been restricted to several refugia where they probably underwent genetic differentiation, resulting in a number of genetic clusters which are representative for, or closest related to, the original wild cacao populations. The analyses also suggested that genetic differentiation and geographical distribution of a number of other clusters seem to have been significantly affected by processes of human management and accompanying genetic bottlenecks. We discuss the implications of these results for future germplasm collection and in situ, on farm and ex situ conservation of cacao.

  17. Comparación sensorial del cacao (Theobroma cacao L. Nacional fino de aroma cultivado en diferentes zonas del Ecuador

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    Eddyn Solórzano Chavez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo comparar el perfil sensorial de muestras de cacao de varias zonas productoras del país. Con este propósito el Laboratorio de Calidad Integral de Cacao y Chocolate de la Estación Experimental Tropical Pichilingue del INIAP, recibió muestras de 11 asociaciones de productores. Un panel de cinco miembros con experiencia en degustación de pasta de cacao (licor produjo datos para los siguientes componentes del sabor: cacao, acidez, amargor, astringencia, caramelo, floral, frutal, nuez y verde. El análisis comparativo de las muestras se llevó a cabo mediante la prueba no paramétrica de Kruskal & Wallis. El grado de asociación de distintos pares de variables se examinó mediante un análisis correlacional. La relación entre muestras también se exploró mediante el análisis multivariado de componentes principales. Este análisis condujo a la identificación de las variables originales que más aportaron a la varianza de los dos primeros componentes principales. Diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre muestras se detectaron solo para el sabor a cacao. Las correlaciónes más altas se dieron entre las variables frutal y verde, frutal y astringencia, frutal y amargor, y frutal y nuez, la mayoría de signo negativo. Las variables con más aportación a la varianza (35.20% del primer componente principal fueron frutal, verde y amargor. Acidez, floral y nuez hicieron la mayor aportación al segundo componente principal. La aparente estructuración de dos grupos muestrales en el plano definido sugiere semejanzas y diferencias en su perfil sensorial.

  18. Comparación de métodos preparativos de tejidos para la extracción de proteínas de la mazorca de cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Márquez, Ascensión; Morante-Carriel, Jaime Alfredo; Bru-Martínez, Roque

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa, Theobroma cacao L. is one of the main tropical industrial crops. Cocoa has a very high level of interfering substances, such as polysaccharides and phenolic compounds that could prevent the isolation of suitable protein. Efficient methods of protein extraction are a priority to successfully apply proteomic analyses. We compared and evaluated two methods (A and B) of tissue preparation for total protein extract by phenol/SDS extraction protocol. The difference in the application of the ...

  19. High-resolution transcript profiling of the atypical biotrophic interaction between Theobroma cacao and the fungal pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Thomazella, Daniela Paula de Toledo; Reis, Osvaldo; do Prado, Paula Favoretti Vital; do Rio, Maria Carolina Scatolin; Fiorin, Gabriel Lorencini; José, Juliana; Costa, Gustavo Gilson Lacerda; Negri, Victor Augusti; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2014-11-01

    Witches' broom disease (WBD), caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, is one of the most devastating diseases of Theobroma cacao, the chocolate tree. In contrast to other hemibiotrophic interactions, the WBD biotrophic stage lasts for months and is responsible for the most distinctive symptoms of the disease, which comprise drastic morphological changes in the infected shoots. Here, we used the dual RNA-seq approach to simultaneously assess the transcriptomes of cacao and M. perniciosa during their peculiar biotrophic interaction. Infection with M. perniciosa triggers massive metabolic reprogramming in the diseased tissues. Although apparently vigorous, the infected shoots are energetically expensive structures characterized by the induction of ineffective defense responses and by a clear carbon deprivation signature. Remarkably, the infection culminates in the establishment of a senescence process in the host, which signals the end of the WBD biotrophic stage. We analyzed the pathogen's transcriptome in unprecedented detail and thereby characterized the fungal nutritional and infection strategies during WBD and identified putative virulence effectors. Interestingly, M. perniciosa biotrophic mycelia develop as long-term parasites that orchestrate changes in plant metabolism to increase the availability of soluble nutrients before plant death. Collectively, our results provide unique insight into an intriguing tropical disease and advance our understanding of the development of (hemi)biotrophic plant-pathogen interactions. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of gene expression and proteomic profiles of clonal genotypes from Theobroma cacao subjected to soil flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolde, Fabiana Z; Almeida, Alex-Alan F; Pirovani, Carlos P

    2014-01-01

    Soil flooding causes changes in gene transcription, synthesis and degradation of proteins and cell metabolism. The main objective of this study was to understand the biological events of Theobroma cacao during soil flooding-induced stress, using the analyses of gene expression and activity of key enzymes involved in fermentation, as well as the identification of differentially expressed proteins by mass spectrometry in two contrasting genotypes for flooding tolerance (tolerant - TSA-792 and susceptible - TSH-774). Soil anoxia caused by flooding has led to changes in the expression pattern of genes associated with the biosynthesis of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in leaves and roots of the two evaluated genotypes. Significant differences were observed between the enzyme activities of the two genotypes. Leaves and roots of the TSA-792 genotype showed higher ADH activity as compared to the TSH-774 genotype, whereas the activities of PDC and LDH have varied over the 96 h of soil flooding, being higher for TSA-792 genotype, at the initial stage, and TSH-774 genotype, at the final stage. Some of the identified proteins are those typical of the anaerobic metabolism-involved in glycolysis and alcoholic fermentation-and different proteins associated with photosynthesis, protein metabolism and oxidative stress. The ability to maintain glycolysis and induce fermentation was observed to play an important role in anoxia tolerance in cacao and may also serve to distinguish tolerant and susceptible genotypes in relation to this stressor.

  1. Isolation of dimeric, trimeric, tetrameric and pentameric procyanidins from unroasted cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) using countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Wray, Victor; Winterhalter, Peter

    2015-07-15

    The main procyanidins, including dimeric B2 and B5, trimeric C1, tetrameric and pentameric procyanidins, were isolated from unroasted cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) using various techniques of countercurrent chromatography, such as high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC), low-speed rotary countercurrent chromatography (LSRCCC) and spiral-coil LSRCCC. Furthermore, dimeric procyanidins B1 and B7, which are not present naturally in the analysed cocoa beans, were obtained after semisynthesis of cocoa bean polymers with (+)-catechin as nucleophile and separated by countercurrent chromatography. In this way, the isolation of dimeric procyanidin B1 in considerable amounts (500mg, purity>97%) was possible in a single run. This is the first report concerning the isolation and semisynthesis of dimeric to pentameric procyanidins from T. cacao by countercurrent chromatography. Additionally, the chemical structures of tetrameric (cinnamtannin A2) and pentameric procyanidins (cinnamtannin A3) were elucidated on the basis of (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Interflavanoid linkage was determined by NOE-correlations, for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Study on the presence and influence of phenolic compounds in callogenesis and somatic embryo development of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. like most tropical trees is recalcitrant in tissue culture. Somatic embryogenesis is generally efficient micropropagation technique to multiply elite material. However, Somatic embryogenesis in cocoa is difficult and this species is considered as recalcitrant. One of the factors often considered as a component of in vitro recalsitrance is a high phenolic content and oxidation of these compounds. In cocoa tissue culture accumulate large amounts of poliphenolics compounds which probably impair further development. This study was conducted to investigate the composition of phenolic compounds in cocoa flower and leaves, and their changes troughout the somatic embryogenesis process. Calli were induced in cacao floral and leaves explants on a half-strenght Murashige and Skoog medium containing 30 g/L Glucose and combination of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4 D with kinetin (kin. Total polyphenol content was observed on Sulawesi 1 cocoa clone. Embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus were also compared. The percentage of callus production from flower tissue is 85%, percentage of embryogenic callus 40 %, although the percentage of somatic embryo production from embryogenic callus callus is 70%. The conservation of callus into somatic embryos followed by decline in phenol content and an increase in peroxidase. The synthesis kinetics for these compounds in calli, under different somatic embryogenesis conditions, revealed a higher concentration under non-embryogenic conditions. So that, phenolic compound can influence the production of calli and an absence the phenolic compound can enhance production of somatic embryo.

  3. Sodium-potassium synergism in Theobroma cacao: stimulation of photosynthesis, water-use efficiency and mineral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattward, James N; Almeida, Alex-Alan F; Souza, José O; Gomes, Fábio P; Kronzucker, Herbert J

    2012-11-01

    In ecological setting, sodium (Na(+)) can be beneficial or toxic, depending on plant species and the Na(+) level in the soil. While its effects are more frequently studied at high saline levels, Na(+) has also been shown to be of potential benefit to some species at lower levels of supply, especially in C4 species. Here, clonal plants of the major tropical C3 crop Theobroma cacao (cacao) were grown in soil where potassium (K(+)) was partially replaced (at six levels, up to 50% replacement) by Na(+), at two concentrations (2.5 and 4.0 mmol(c) dm(-3)). At both concentrations, net photosynthesis per unit leaf area (A) increased more than twofold with increasing substitution of K(+) by Na(+). Concomitantly, instantaneous (A/E) and intrinsic (A/g(s)) water-use efficiency (WUE) more than doubled. Stomatal conductance (g(s)) and transpiration rate (E) exhibited a decline at 2.5 mmol dm(-3), but remained unchanged at 4 mmol dm(-3). Leaf nitrogen content was not impacted by Na(+) supplementation, whereas sulfur (S), calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)) and zinc (Zn(2+)) contents were maximized at 2.5 mmol dm(-3) and intermediate (30-40%) replacement levels. Leaf K(+) did not decline significantly. In contrast, leaf Na(+) content increased steadily. The resultant elevated Na(+)/K(+) ratios in tissue correlated with increased, not decreased, plant performance. The results show that Na(+) can partially replace K(+) in the nutrition of clonal cacao, with significant beneficial effects on photosynthesis, WUE and mineral nutrition in this major perennial C3 crop. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  4. Efecto de las cepas nativas Paecilomyces sp. (Bainier y Lecanicillium sp. (Zimm en el control de Carmenta foraseminis Eichlin (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae en cultivos de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer Figueroa Medina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El pasador del fruto, Carmenta foraseminis Eichlin, es un insecto que ha acentuado su ataque en cultivos de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. en los últimos años en Norte de Santander (Colombia. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la patogenicidad de las cepas nativas Giav-3 Paecilomyces sp. y Giav-4 Lecanicillium sp. sobre larvas de C. foraseminis. Para el efecto, se realizaron aislamientos a partir de muestras de suelo recolectadas en el municipio de Tibú, Norte de Santander. Después de obtenidos los cultivos puros se procedió a la caracterización macroscópica y microscópica para la identificación del género de los aislados mediante claves taxonómicas. La infección fue realizada mediante inmersión de larvas en las suspensiones de los aislados en concentraciones de 0, 10(6, 10(7 y 10(8 conidios/ml. En ambos aislados se observó una tendencia lineal respecto a la mortalidad, la cual fue directamente proporcional a las concentraciones del inóculo. La CL50 y CL90 para Giav-3 fue de 10(6.95 y 10(8.70 conidios/ml y para Giav-4 de 10(6.6 y 10(8.04 conidios/ml, respectivamente. Lo cual indica que esta última requirió la menor concentración de inóculo para eliminar el 50% y 90% de la población tratada, lo que supone una mayor efectividad contra las larvas.

  5. Respon Pertumbuhan Bibit Kakao (Theobroma Cacao L.) TerhadapPemberian Pupuk Guano Dan KCl

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagukguk, Pispa; Siagian, Balonggu; Rosanty Lahay, Ratna

    2015-01-01

    Addition of guano in cultivation of cacao seedling is the one step to use organic fertilizer thatcomes from animal feces and it is used to add soil nutrient for the growth of cocoa seedlings, aswell addition of KCl is used to add soil nutrient too. For that purpose addition guano and KCl aimsto increase growth of cacao in cultivation of seedling. This research had been conducted atexperimental field of agriculture fakulty University of North Sumatera in October 2013 - January2014 using factor...

  6. Crecimiento de plántulas de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. en diferentes tamaños de contenedor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Andrea Osorio G.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El volumen del contenedor para la propagación del cacao es determinante, ya que su tamaño influye en el crecimiento y desarrollo de las plántulas, siendo un factor definitivo para el establecimiento del cultivo. En este trabajo se comparó el efecto que tienen diferentes tamaños de contenedor 0,01; 0,02 y 0,1m3 (volumen de sustrato y la duración en vivero, sobre el crecimiento de plantas de cacao, además, se evaluaron los cambios en el sustrato confinado. Se sembraron semillas de cacao en contenedores de diferentes alturas: 25, 45 y 70cm. Se midió la temperatura de las hojas y se colectaron plántulas, para cuantificar la biomasa particionada y crecimiento de la raíz principal. Simultáneamente fueron evaluadas la resistencia a la penetración, la temperatura, la humedad y la porosidad del sustrato. Los resultados evidenciaron diferencias significativas (P<0,05 en la acumulación de fitomasa total. En los contenedores de mayor tamaño (0,1m3 hubo mayor biomasa total, mayor longitud de raíces: 62,17cm, el sustrato presentó menor resistencia a la penetración (0,52Kg cm-2 y temperatura. La temperatura de las hojas se relacionó directamente con la temperatura del suelo e inversamente con la humedad del suelo. Se comprobó que el tamaño del contenedor afecta las características físicas del sustrato y el crecimiento de las plantas, lo cual sugiere que con 0,02m2 (con 45cm altura del contenedor las plantas pueden permanecer 180 días en vivero.

  7. Endophytic Association of Trichoderma asperellum within Theobroma cacao Suppresses Vascular Streak Dieback Incidence and Promotes Side Graft Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmana, Ade; Nasaruddin, Nasaruddin; Hendarto, Hendarto; Hakkar, Andi Akbar; Agriansyah, Nursalim

    2016-09-01

    Trichoderma species are able to persist on living sapwood and leaves of cacao ( Theobroma cacao ) in an endophytic relationship. In this research, we evaluated the ability of Trichodema asperellum introduced at the incision site in the bark for side grafting with the concentration of 4 g/10 mL, 4 g/100 mL, and 4 g/1,000 mL (suspended in water) in suppressing vascular streak dieback (VSD) incidence and promoting growth of side grafts in the field. The incidence of VSD in two local clones of cacao, MCC1 and M04, without application of T. asperellum was 71.2% and 70.1% at 21 wk after grafting, respectively. However, when the two clones were treated with a concentration of 4 g/10 mL T. asperellum , the incidence was 20.6% and 21.7%, respectively, compared to 29.1% and 20.9% at 4 g/100 mL and 18.2% and 15.6% at 4 g/1,000 mL. By comparing to the control, the treatment with the same concentrations of T. asperellum listed above, the total number of stomata in MCC1 decreased by 41.9%, 30.2%, and 14.0% and in M04 by 30.5%, 21.9%, and -2.5% (exception), respectively. Otherwise, the total area of stomata opening increased by 91.4%, 99.7%, and 28.6% in MCC1 and by 203.8%, 253.5%, and 35.9% in M04, respectively. Furthermore, the number of buds and branches treated with a mixture concentration on the the two clones increased by 90.7% and 21.7%, respectively. These data showed that the application of T. asperellum to cacao scions while grafting can decrease VSD incidence in side grafts and increase growth of grafts in addition to decreasing total number of stomata, increasing total area of opened stomata, and increasing number of buds and branches.

  8. Proteome analysis during pod, zygotic and somatic embryo maturation of Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemenak, Nicolas; Kaiser, Edward; Maximova, Siela N; Laremore, Tatiana; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2015-05-15

    Two dimensional electrophoresis and nano-LC-MS were performed in order to identify alterations in protein abundance that correlate with maturation of cacao zygotic and somatic embryos. The cacao pod proteome was also characterized during development. The recently published cacao genome sequence was used to create a predicted proteolytic fragment database. Several hundred protein spots were resolved on each tissue analysis, of which 72 variable spots were subjected to MS analysis, resulting in 49 identifications. The identified proteins represent an array of functional categories, including seed storage, stress response, photosynthesis and translation factors. The seed storage protein was strongly accumulated in cacao zygotic embryos compared to their somatic counterpart. However, sucrose treatment (60 g L(-1)) allows up-regulation of storage protein in SE. A high similarity in the profiles of acidic proteins was observed in mature zygotic and somatic embryos. Differential expression in both tissues was observed in proteins having high pI. Several proteins were detected exclusively in fruit tissues, including a chitinase and a 14-3-3 protein. We also identified a novel cacao protein related to known mabinlin type sweet storage proteins. Moreover, the specific presence of thaumatin-like protein, another sweet protein, was also detected in fruit tissue. We discuss our observed correlations between protein expression profiles, developmental stage and stress responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. ESTUDIO DE LA DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA DE 20 ACCESIONES DE CACAO (Theobroma cacao L. MEDIANTE AP-PCR DE LA COLECCIÓN DEL CENTRO DEL CACAO DE AROMA TENGUEL EN LA FINCA EXPERIMENTAL LA BUSETA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Susana Carranza Patiño

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio consistió en determinar la diversidad genética basada en los marcadores RAPD´s (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA de 20 accesiones de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.de la variedad Nacional, con características de productividad, y niveles de resistencia, susceptibilidad y tolerancia a las rincipales enfermedades causadas por hongos como Ceratocistys fimbriata, Moniliophtora roreri y Crinipelis perniciosa. Este germoplasma de cacao se encuentra localizado en el Centro de Cacao de Aroma Tenguel, en la Finca Experimental “La Buseta” propiedad de la Universidad Técnica Estatal de Quevedo. La extracción de ADN se la realizó utilizando el protocolo de Doyle & Doyle (1990 con algunas modificaciones. 14 oligonucleótidos fueron utilizados para la obtención de marcadores RAPD´s, de los cuales 9 amplificaron productos reproducibles OPA-15, OPC-07, OPC-9, OPC-4, OPC-3, OPC-1, OPA-12 OPC-13 y OPA-7. Los productos de amplificación fueron migrados en geles de agarosa al 1.2% a 90 voltios por una hora. Los marcadores moleculares fueron analizados por medio de una matriz de datos binarios para calcular las distancias genéticas. Los nueve cebadores utilizados generaron 67 bandas de las cuales 59 (88% fueron polimórficas. El dendrograma mostró dos grupos A y B, en el grupo A se incluyo dos accesiones, y en el grupo B se encuentran los 18 restantes el cual incluye 2 subgrupos B1 y B2 en el subgrupo B1 se incluye la accesión (L-22-H-40, y en el subgrupo B2 están incluidas las accesiones que poseen características de productividad. El nivel de diversidad más alto se obtuvo con los oligonucleótidos OPC 04 (0.80, OPC 07 (0.82. El cebador OPC 01 (0.37 reportó el nivel más bajo. Las accesiones (L-22-H-40 (O.75, (L-34-H-07 (0.86 y el (L-42-H-60 (0.72 presentaron los niveles de variabilidad más altos, siendo los valores más bajos los mostrados por las accesiones (L-26-H-64 (O.48 y (L-23-H63 (O.47. El valor de la diversidad

  10. Respon pertumbuhan bibit kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) terhadap pemberian pupuk guano dan KCl

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagukguk, Pispa

    2015-01-01

    Addition of Guano in Cultivation of Cacao Seedling is the one of step to use organic fertilizer that comes from animal feces in the world. For that purpose addition guano aims to increase growth of Cacao in Cultivation of Seedling. This research had been conducted at experimental field of Fakultas Pertanian USU in October 2013 - January 2014 using factorial randomized block design with two factor, i.e. addition dose of Guano (0, 75 , 150 , 225 g/polibag) and dose of KCl (0 , ...

  11. Diallel Analysis and Growth Parameters as Selection Tools for Drought Tolerance in Young Theobroma cacao Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Emerson Alves; Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado de; Ahnert, Dario; Branco, Marcia Christina da Silva; Valle, Raúl René; Baligar, Virupax C

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the combining ability, of T. cacao genotypes preselected for drought tolerance through diallel crosses. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Cacao Research Center (CEPEC), Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, in a completely randomized block design, in an experimental arrangement 21 x 2 [21 complete diallel crosses and two water regimes (control and stressed)]. In the control, soil moisture was kept close to field capacity, with predawn leaf water potential (ΨWL) ranging from -0.1 to -0.5 MPa. In the drought regime, the soil moisture was reduced gradually by decreasing the amount of water application until ΨWL reached -2.0 to -2.5 MPa. Significant differences (p cacao crosses, except for SCA-6 x IMC-67, Catongo x SCA, MOC-01 x Catongo, Catongo x IMC-67 and RB-40 x Catongo. Multivariate analysis showed that stem diameter (CD), total leaf area (TLA), leaf dry biomass (LDB), stem dry biomass (SDB), root dry biomass (RDB), total dry biomass (TDB), root length (RL), root volume (RV), root diameter (RD) cacao genotypes in to tolerant and intolerant to soil water deficit.

  12. Toward The identification Of candidate genes involved in black pod disease resistance in Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing yield, quality and disease resistance are important objectives for cacao breeding programs. Some of the diseases, such as black pod rot (Phytophtora spp), frosty pod (Moniliophthora roreri) and witches’ broom (M. perniciosa), produce significant losses in all or in some of the various pro...

  13. Efecto de la temperatura y tiempo de tostado en los caracteres sensoriales y en las propiedades químicas de granos de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) procedente de Uchiza, San Martín – Perú para la obtención de NIBS

    OpenAIRE

    Aldave Palacios, Gladis Josefina

    2016-01-01

    Estudia las variedades de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) CCN-51 e ICS-6, procedentes del distrito de Uchiza, provincia de Tocache, departamento de San Martín, en Perú. Efectúa el tratamiento térmico de tostado a las temperaturas de 120 y 130 °C por 40 y 50 minutos, los nibs de cacao (granos de cacao tostados y pelados) son evaluados sensorialmente por seis jueces entrenados. La evaluación estadística mediante la prueba no paramétrica de Wilcoxon no halla diferencia significativa entre los tratami...

  14. Possible Impact of Antioxidant Properties of Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao L.) Against Irradiation - Induced Some Biochemical Disorders in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.F.S.; Darwish, M.M.

    2016-01-01

    Man is exposed to natural radiations either from cosmic or terrestrial origins. Furthermore, it is well known that the gamma irradiation of animals induce biochemical alterations which depend mostly on oxidative stress. This work aimed at evaluating the radioprotective efficiency of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) against whole body γ-irradiation of rats. The virtue of cocoa aqueous extract (CAE) was given to rats at a dose of 1 g/ kg for 6 weeks to determine changes in hepatic marker enzymes, lipid profile and antioxidant status. The animals exposed to γ-rays exhibited a pronounced increment in serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (γ GT), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). On the other hand, a significant decline was demonstrated in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). A decrease of hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) content, superoxides dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities was sustained. The CAE administered orally to rats has significantly modulated all the radiation-induced biochemical alterations. These findings revealed that cocoa would exert radio-protective properties

  15. Analysis of the cocobiota and metabolites of Moniliophthora perniciosa-resistant Theobroma cacao beans during spontaneous fermentation in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Valdeci S; Santos, Maria Fs; Gomes, Laidson P; Leite, Analy Mo; Flosi Paschoalin, Vânia M; Del Aguila, Eduardo M

    2018-03-25

    Cocoa bean fermentation is a spontaneous process involving a succession of microbial activities, yeasts, lactic acid, and acetic acid bacteria. The spontaneous fermentation of cocoa beans by Theobroma cacao TSH565 clonal variety, a highly productive hybrid resistant to Moniliophthora perniciosa and Phytophthora spp., was investigated. The natural cocobiota involved in the spontaneous fermentation of this hybrid in southern Brazil, was investigated by using both a culture-dependent microbiological analysis and a molecular analysis. The changes in the physicochemical characteristics and the kinetics of substrate utilization and metabolite production during fermentation were also evaluated. Yeasts (178) and bacteria (244) isolated during fermentation were identified by partial sequencing of the ITS and 16S rDNAs, respectively. After 144 h of fermentation, the indigenous yeast community was composed of Hanseniaspora spp., Saccharomyces spp., and Pichia spp. The bacterial population comprised Lactococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Acetobacter spp. and Lactobacilli strains. The kinetics of substrate transformation reflected the dynamic composition of the cocobiota. Substrates such as glucose, fructose, sucrose, and citric acid, present at the beginning of fermentation, were metabolized to produce ethanol, acetic acid, and lactic acid. The results described here provide new insights into microbial diversity in cocoa bean-pulp mass fermentation and the kinetics of metabolites synthesis, and pave the way for the selection of starter cultures to increase efficiency and consistency to obtain homogeneous and best quality cocoa products. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Prediction of fermentation index of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) based on color measurement and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Roque, Noemí; Abderrahim, Mohamed; Nuñez-Alejos, Luis; Arribas, Silvia M; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2016-12-01

    Several procedures are currently used to assess fermentation index (FI) of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) for quality control. However, all of them present several drawbacks. The aim of the present work was to develop and validate a simple image based quantitative procedure, using color measurement and artificial neural network (ANNs). ANN models based on color measurements were tested to predict fermentation index (FI) of fermented cocoa beans. The RGB values were measured from surface and center region of fermented beans in images obtained by camera and desktop scanner. The FI was defined as the ratio of total free amino acids in fermented versus non-fermented samples. The ANN model that included RGB color measurement of fermented cocoa surface and R/G ratio in cocoa bean of alkaline extracts was able to predict FI with no statistical difference compared with the experimental values. Performance of the ANN model was evaluated by the coefficient of determination, Bland-Altman plot and Passing-Bablok regression analyses. Moreover, in fermented beans, total sugar content and titratable acidity showed a similar pattern to the total free amino acid predicted through the color based ANN model. The results of the present work demonstrate that the proposed ANN model can be adopted as a low-cost and in situ procedure to predict FI in fermented cocoa beans through apps developed for mobile device. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantification of diazotrophs bacteria isolated from cocoa soils (Theobroma cacao L., by the technique of Most Probable Number (MPN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Zulay Argüello Navarro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to quantify diazotrophic bacteria and compare physicochemically rhizospheric soils of three cocoa plantations (Theobroma cacao L. in Norte de Santander Department, Colombia; for which they were characterized, differing in cultivated area, agronomic management and crop age. From serial dilutions of the samples and using the technique of Most Probable Number (MPN, In semisolid culture media (NFb, JMV, LGI, JNFb, the diazotrophs were quantified, evaluating as positive the formation of a subsurface film in the medium contained in sealed vials; equal samples were sent to the Bioambiental laboratory (UNET for physicochemical analyzes. As a result, the evaluated samples showed deficiencies in the percentage of organic matter and elements such as Potassium, Phosphorus and Magnesium. Statistically highly significant differences in MPN were reported. The highest quantification of diazotrophs was reported in the Florilandia farm, which was characterized by drip irrigation. The highest quantification of diazotrophs was recorded in the media NFb and JMV, demonstrating a greater presence of the presumed genera Azospirillum sp. and Burkholderia sp. which are easily isolated from rhizospheric soils, unlike the genera Herbaspirillum sp. and Gluconacetobacter sp. which by their endophytic character tend to be less predominant in this type of samples. It is also concluded that the physicochemical characteristics of the soil, humidity and climatic relationships at the moment of sampling, condition the amount of root exudates and therefore are factors that conditioned the presence of diazotrophs in the samples.

  18. Effect of fertigation through drip and micro sprinkler on plant biometric characters in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, C; Rajamani, K

    2013-12-15

    A field experiment to study the influence of fertigation of N, P and K fertilizers on biometric characters of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) was conducted at the Department of Spices and Plantation Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during January 2010 to December 2011. The experiment was laid out with thirteen treatments replicated three times in a randomized block design. A phenomenal increase in growth parameters such as trunk girth, canopy spread and weight of the pruned branches removed, leaf fresh weight and leaf dry weight was observed with increasing levels of NPK as well as methods of fertilizer application in this study. Among the various treatments, fertigation with 125% 'Recommended Dose of Fertilizers' (125:50:175 g NPK plant year(-1)) as Water Soluble Fertilizers (WSF) through drip irrigation increased all vegetative growth parameters like trunk girth increment (1.62 cm), canopy spread increment (66.79 cm), leaf fresh weight (3.949 g), leaf dry weight (2.039 g), weight of the pruned branches removed (fresh weight 7.628 kg plant(-1)) and dry weight (4.650 kg plant(-1)).

  19. Insight into the wild origin, migration and domestication history of the fine flavour Nacional Theobroma cacao L. variety from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loor Solorzano, Rey Gaston; Fouet, Olivier; Lemainque, Arnaud; Pavek, Sylvana; Boccara, Michel; Argout, Xavier; Amores, Freddy; Courtois, Brigitte; Risterucci, Ange Marie; Lanaud, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Ecuador's economic history has been closely linked to Theobroma cacao L cultivation, and specifically to the native fine flavour Nacional cocoa variety. The original Nacional cocoa trees are presently in danger of extinction due to foreign germplasm introductions. In a previous work, a few non-introgressed Nacional types were identified as potential founders of the modern Ecuadorian cocoa population, but so far their origin could not be formally identified. In order to determine the putative centre of origin of Nacional and trace its domestication history, we used 80 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to analyse the relationships between these potential Nacional founders and 169 wild and cultivated cocoa accessions from South and Central America. The highest genetic similarity was observed between the Nacional pool and some wild genotypes from the southern Amazonian region of Ecuador, sampled along the Yacuambi, Nangaritza and Zamora rivers in Zamora Chinchipe province. This result was confirmed by a parentage analysis. Based on our results and on data about pre-Columbian civilization and Spanish colonization history of Ecuador, we determined, for the first time, the possible centre of origin and migration events of the Nacional variety from the Amazonian area until its arrival in the coastal provinces. As large unexplored forest areas still exist in the southern part of the Ecuadorian Amazonian region, our findings could provide clues as to where precious new genetic resources could be collected, and subsequently used to improve the flavour and disease resistance of modern Ecuadorian cocoa varieties.

  20. Insight into the wild origin, migration and domestication history of the fine flavour Nacional Theobroma cacao L. variety from Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rey Gaston Loor Solorzano

    Full Text Available Ecuador's economic history has been closely linked to Theobroma cacao L cultivation, and specifically to the native fine flavour Nacional cocoa variety. The original Nacional cocoa trees are presently in danger of extinction due to foreign germplasm introductions. In a previous work, a few non-introgressed Nacional types were identified as potential founders of the modern Ecuadorian cocoa population, but so far their origin could not be formally identified. In order to determine the putative centre of origin of Nacional and trace its domestication history, we used 80 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers to analyse the relationships between these potential Nacional founders and 169 wild and cultivated cocoa accessions from South and Central America. The highest genetic similarity was observed between the Nacional pool and some wild genotypes from the southern Amazonian region of Ecuador, sampled along the Yacuambi, Nangaritza and Zamora rivers in Zamora Chinchipe province. This result was confirmed by a parentage analysis. Based on our results and on data about pre-Columbian civilization and Spanish colonization history of Ecuador, we determined, for the first time, the possible centre of origin and migration events of the Nacional variety from the Amazonian area until its arrival in the coastal provinces. As large unexplored forest areas still exist in the southern part of the Ecuadorian Amazonian region, our findings could provide clues as to where precious new genetic resources could be collected, and subsequently used to improve the flavour and disease resistance of modern Ecuadorian cocoa varieties.

  1. Creation of BAC genomic resources for cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L.) for physical mapping of RGA containing BAC clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, D; Lanaud, C; Sabau, X; Fouet, O; Le Cunff, L; Ruiz, E; Risterucci, A M; Glaszmann, J C; Piffanelli, P

    2004-05-01

    We have constructed and validated the first cocoa ( Theobroma cacao L.) BAC library, with the aim of developing molecular resources to study the structure and evolution of the genome of this perennial crop. This library contains 36,864 clones with an average insert size of 120 kb, representing approximately ten haploid genome equivalents. It was constructed from the genotype Scavina-6 (Sca-6), a Forastero clone highly resistant to cocoa pathogens and a parent of existing mapping populations. Validation of the BAC library was carried out with a set of 13 genetically-anchored single copy and one duplicated markers. An average of nine BAC clones per probe was identified, giving an initial experimental estimation of the genome coverage represented in the library. Screening of the library with a set of resistance gene analogues (RGAs), previously mapped in cocoa and co-localizing with QTL for resistance to Phytophthora traits, confirmed at the physical level the tight clustering of RGAs in the cocoa genome and provided the first insights into the relationships between genetic and physical distances in the cocoa genome. This library represents an available BAC resource for structural genomic studies or map-based cloning of genes corresponding to important QTLs for agronomic traits such as resistance genes to major cocoa pathogens like Phytophthora spp ( palmivora and megakarya), Crinipellis perniciosa and Moniliophthora roreri.

  2. Utilization of Cacao Pod Husk (Theobroma cacao l.) as Activated Carbon and Catalyst in Biodiesel Production Process from Waste Cooking Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmat, Devita; Johar Mawarani, Lizda; Dewi Risanti, Doty

    2018-01-01

    Cocoa pod husk (Theobroma cacao l.) is a waste from cocoa beans processing. In this research we employ cocoa pod husk as activated carbon to decrease the value of FFA (Free Fatty Acid) in waste cooking oil and as K2CO3 catalyst in biodiesel production process from waste cooking oil. Cocoa pod husk was crusched and grounded into powder that passed thorugh 60 mesh-screen. As activated carbon, cocoa pod husk was firstly carbonized at three variant temperatures i.e 250°C, 300°C and 350°C. The activation process was done using HCl 2M as activator. Based on the results of XRD and FTIR, the carbonization at all variant temperatures does not cause a significant changes in terms of crystallite structure and water content. The pore of activated carbon started to form in sample that was carbonized at 350°C resulting in pore diameter of 5.14644 nm. This result was supported by the fact that the ability of this activated carbon in reducing the FFA of waste cooking oil was the most pronounced one, i.e. up to 86.7% of FFA. It was found that the performance of cocoa pod husk’s activated carbon in reducing FFA is more effective than esterification using H2SO4 which can only decrease 80.8%. On the other hand, the utilization as K2CO3 catalyst was carried out by carbonization at temperature 650°C and extraction using aquadest solvent. The extraction of cocoa pod husk produced 7.067% K2CO3 catalyst. According to RD results the fraction of K2CO3 compound from the green catalysts is the same as the commercial (SAP, 99%) that is ≥ 60%. From the obtained results, the best yield percentage was obtained using K2CO3 catalyst from cacao pod husk extract, i.e. 73-85%. To cope with biodiesel conversion efficiency, a two-step process consisting pretreatment with activated carbon carbonized at 350°C and esterification with K2CO3 from cocoa pod husk catalyst was developed. This two-step process could reach a high conversion of 85%. From the results it was clear that the produced

  3. Towards the understanding of the cocoa transcriptome: Production and analysis of an exhaustive dataset of ESTs of Theobroma cacao L. generated from various tissues and under various conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argout, Xavier; Fouet, Olivier; Wincker, Patrick; Gramacho, Karina; Legavre, Thierry; Sabau, Xavier; Risterucci, Ange Marie; Da Silva, Corinne; Cascardo, Julio; Allegre, Mathilde; Kuhn, David; Verica, Joseph; Courtois, Brigitte; Loor, Gaston; Babin, Regis; Sounigo, Olivier; Ducamp, Michel; Guiltinan, Mark J; Ruiz, Manuel; Alemanno, Laurence; Machado, Regina; Phillips, Wilberth; Schnell, Ray; Gilmour, Martin; Rosenquist, Eric; Butler, David; Maximova, Siela; Lanaud, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Background Theobroma cacao L., is a tree originated from the tropical rainforest of South America. It is one of the major cash crops for many tropical countries. T. cacao is mainly produced on smallholdings, providing resources for 14 million farmers. Disease resistance and T. cacao quality improvement are two important challenges for all actors of cocoa and chocolate production. T. cacao is seriously affected by pests and fungal diseases, responsible for more than 40% yield losses and quality improvement, nutritional and organoleptic, is also important for consumers. An international collaboration was formed to develop an EST genomic resource database for cacao. Results Fifty-six cDNA libraries were constructed from different organs, different genotypes and different environmental conditions. A total of 149,650 valid EST sequences were generated corresponding to 48,594 unigenes, 12,692 contigs and 35,902 singletons. A total of 29,849 unigenes shared significant homology with public sequences from other species. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation was applied to distribute the ESTs among the main GO categories. A specific information system (ESTtik) was constructed to process, store and manage this EST collection allowing the user to query a database. To check the representativeness of our EST collection, we looked for the genes known to be involved in two different metabolic pathways extensively studied in other plant species and important for T. cacao qualities: the flavonoid and the terpene pathways. Most of the enzymes described in other crops for these two metabolic pathways were found in our EST collection. A large collection of new genetic markers was provided by this ESTs collection. Conclusion This EST collection displays a good representation of the T. cacao transcriptome, suitable for analysis of biochemical pathways based on oligonucleotide microarrays derived from these ESTs. It will provide numerous genetic markers that will allow the construction of a high

  4. Towards the understanding of the cocoa transcriptome: Production and analysis of an exhaustive dataset of ESTs of Theobroma cacao L. generated from various tissues and under various conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argout, Xavier; Fouet, Olivier; Wincker, Patrick; Gramacho, Karina; Legavre, Thierry; Sabau, Xavier; Risterucci, Ange Marie; Da Silva, Corinne; Cascardo, Julio; Allegre, Mathilde; Kuhn, David; Verica, Joseph; Courtois, Brigitte; Loor, Gaston; Babin, Regis; Sounigo, Olivier; Ducamp, Michel; Guiltinan, Mark J; Ruiz, Manuel; Alemanno, Laurence; Machado, Regina; Phillips, Wilberth; Schnell, Ray; Gilmour, Martin; Rosenquist, Eric; Butler, David; Maximova, Siela; Lanaud, Claire

    2008-10-30

    Theobroma cacao L., is a tree originated from the tropical rainforest of South America. It is one of the major cash crops for many tropical countries. T. cacao is mainly produced on smallholdings, providing resources for 14 million farmers. Disease resistance and T. cacao quality improvement are two important challenges for all actors of cocoa and chocolate production. T. cacao is seriously affected by pests and fungal diseases, responsible for more than 40% yield losses and quality improvement, nutritional and organoleptic, is also important for consumers. An international collaboration was formed to develop an EST genomic resource database for cacao. Fifty-six cDNA libraries were constructed from different organs, different genotypes and different environmental conditions. A total of 149,650 valid EST sequences were generated corresponding to 48,594 unigenes, 12,692 contigs and 35,902 singletons. A total of 29,849 unigenes shared significant homology with public sequences from other species.Gene Ontology (GO) annotation was applied to distribute the ESTs among the main GO categories.A specific information system (ESTtik) was constructed to process, store and manage this EST collection allowing the user to query a database.To check the representativeness of our EST collection, we looked for the genes known to be involved in two different metabolic pathways extensively studied in other plant species and important for T. cacao qualities: the flavonoid and the terpene pathways. Most of the enzymes described in other crops for these two metabolic pathways were found in our EST collection.A large collection of new genetic markers was provided by this ESTs collection. This EST collection displays a good representation of the T. cacao transcriptome, suitable for analysis of biochemical pathways based on oligonucleotide microarrays derived from these ESTs. It will provide numerous genetic markers that will allow the construction of a high density gene map of T. cacao

  5. Towards the understanding of the cocoa transcriptome: Production and analysis of an exhaustive dataset of ESTs of Theobroma cacao L. generated from various tissues and under various conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Manuel

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theobroma cacao L., is a tree originated from the tropical rainforest of South America. It is one of the major cash crops for many tropical countries. T. cacao is mainly produced on smallholdings, providing resources for 14 million farmers. Disease resistance and T. cacao quality improvement are two important challenges for all actors of cocoa and chocolate production. T. cacao is seriously affected by pests and fungal diseases, responsible for more than 40% yield losses and quality improvement, nutritional and organoleptic, is also important for consumers. An international collaboration was formed to develop an EST genomic resource database for cacao. Results Fifty-six cDNA libraries were constructed from different organs, different genotypes and different environmental conditions. A total of 149,650 valid EST sequences were generated corresponding to 48,594 unigenes, 12,692 contigs and 35,902 singletons. A total of 29,849 unigenes shared significant homology with public sequences from other species. Gene Ontology (GO annotation was applied to distribute the ESTs among the main GO categories. A specific information system (ESTtik was constructed to process, store and manage this EST collection allowing the user to query a database. To check the representativeness of our EST collection, we looked for the genes known to be involved in two different metabolic pathways extensively studied in other plant species and important for T. cacao qualities: the flavonoid and the terpene pathways. Most of the enzymes described in other crops for these two metabolic pathways were found in our EST collection. A large collection of new genetic markers was provided by this ESTs collection. Conclusion This EST collection displays a good representation of the T. cacao transcriptome, suitable for analysis of biochemical pathways based on oligonucleotide microarrays derived from these ESTs. It will provide numerous genetic markers that will allow

  6. Theobroma cacao extract attenuates the development of Dermatophagoides farinae-induced atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Heerim; Lee, Chang Hyung; Kim, Jong Rhan; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Son, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Jong-Eun; Lee, Ki Won

    2017-02-01

    Cacao beans from Theobroma cacao are an abundant source of polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. Previous studies demonstrated that cacao flavanols decrease pro-inflammatory cytokines resulting in the alleviation of allergic symptoms. We sought to investigate the effects of cacao extract (CE) on Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)-like symptoms. CE attenuated DFE-induced AD-like symptoms as assessed by skin lesion analyses, dermatitis score, and skin thickness. Histopathological analysis revealed that CE suppressed DFE-induced immune cell infiltration into the skin. These observations occurred concomitantly with the downregulation of inflammatory markers including serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E, chemokine; thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and macrophage-derived chemokine as well as the skin-derived cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and interferon-γ. CE also significantly alleviated transepidermal water loss and increased skin hydration. These results suggest that CE, a natural phytochemical-rich food, has potential therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Comparison of polyphenol concentration and composition between genetically diverse cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) accessions selected for high yield and disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is abundant evidence that consumption of cacao and dark chocolate promotes human health and that the main cacao components contributing positive health effects are polyphenols. The polyphenols in cacao bean constitute 12–18% dry weight of the whole bean and are predominantly catechins (37% w/w...

  8. Molecular, Biochemical and Ultrastructural Changes Induced by Pb Toxicity in Seedlings of Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Graciele Santos Monteiro; de Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado; de Almeida, Nicolle Moreira; de Castro, Andressa Vieira; Mangabeira, Pedro Antonio Oliveira; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    Pb is a metal which is highly toxic to plants and animals, including humans. High concentrations of Pb have been observed in beans of T. cacao, as well as in its products. In this work, we evaluated the molecular, biochemical, and ultrastructural alterations in mature leaves and primary roots of seedlings of two progenies of T. cacao, obtained from seed germination in different concentrations of Pb (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 g L(-1)), in the form of Pb(NO3)2. The progenies resulted from self-fertilization of Catongo and a cross of CCN-10 x SCA-6. The Pb, supplied via seminal, caused alterations in the ultrastructures of the mesophyll cells and in the amount of starch grains in the chloroplasts. The dosage of substances reactive to thiobarbituric acid showed that Pb induced lipid peroxidation. The activity of guaiacol peroxidases and the expression of genes associated to synthetase of phytochelatin, SODcyt and PER increased in response to Pb. In addition, there was alteration in the expression of stress-related proteins. The progeny of CCN-10 x SCA-6 was more tolerant to Pb stress when compared to Catongo, since: (i) it accumulated more Pb in the roots, preventing its translocation to the shoot; (ii) it presented higher activity of peroxidases in the roots, which are enzymes involved in the elimination of excess of reactive oxygen species; and (iii) increased expression of the gene in the phytochelatin biosynthesis route. The results of the proteomic analysis were of paramount importance to differentiate the defense mechanisms used by both progenies of T. cacao.

  9. Antimicrobial properties of two novel peptides derived from Theobroma cacao osmotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcao, Loeni L; Silva-Werneck, Joseilde O; Ramos, Alessandra de R; Martins, Natalia F; Bresso, Emmanuel; Rodrigues, Magali A; Bemquerer, Marcelo P; Marcellino, Lucilia H

    2016-05-01

    The osmotin proteins of several plants display antifungal activity, which can play an important role in plant defense against diseases. Thus, this protein can be useful as a source for biotechnological strategies aiming to combat fungal diseases. In this work, we analyzed the antifungal activity of a cacao osmotin-like protein (TcOsm1) and of two osmotin-derived synthetic peptides with antimicrobial features, differing by five amino acids residues at the N-terminus. Antimicrobial tests showed that TcOsm1 expressed in Escherichia coli inhibits the growth of Moniliophthora perniciosa mycelium and Pichia pastoris X-33 in vitro. The TcOsm1-derived peptides, named Osm-pepA (H-RRLDRGGVWNLNVNPGTTGARVWARTK-NH2), located at R23-K49, and Osm-pepB (H-GGVWNLNVNPGTTGARVWARTK-NH2), located at G28-K49, inhibited growth of yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C and Pichia pastoris X-33) and spore germination of the phytopathogenic fungi Fusarium f. sp. glycines and Colletotrichum gossypi. Osm-pepA was more efficient than Osm-pepB for S. cerevisiae (MIC=40μM and MIC=127μM, respectively), as well as for P. pastoris (MIC=20μM and MIC=127μM, respectively). Furthermore, the peptides presented a biphasic performance, promoting S. cerevisiae growth in doses around 5μM and inhibiting it at higher doses. The structural model for these peptides showed that the five amino acids residues, RRLDR at Osm-pepA N-terminus, significantly affect the tertiary structure, indicating that this structure is important for the peptide antimicrobial potency. This is the first report of development of antimicrobial peptides from T. cacao. Taken together, the results indicate that the cacao osmotin and its derived peptides, herein studied, are good candidates for developing biotechnological tools aiming to control phytopathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the sucrose transporter gene family from Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fupeng; Wu, Baoduo; Qin, Xiaowei; Yan, Lin; Hao, Chaoyun; Tan, Lehe; Lai, Jianxiong

    2014-08-10

    In this study, we performed cloning and expression analysis of six putative sucrose transporter genes, designated TcSUT1, TcSUT2, TcSUT3, TcSUT4, TcSUT5 and TcSUT6, from the cacao genotype 'TAS-R8'. The combination of cDNA and genomic DNA sequences revealed that the cacao SUT genes contained exon numbers ranging from 1 to 14. The average molecular mass of all six deduced proteins was approximately 56 kDa (range 52 to 66 kDa). All six proteins were predicted to exhibit typical features of sucrose transporters with 12 trans-membrane spanning domains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that TcSUT2 and TcSUT4 belonged to Group 2 SUT and Group 4 SUT, respectively, and the other TcSUT proteins were belonging to Group 1 SUT. Real-time PCR was conducted to investigate the expression pattern of each member of the SUT family in cacao. Our experiment showed that TcSUT1 was expressed dominantly in pods and that, TcSUT3 and TcSUT4 were highly expressed in both pods and in bark with phloem. Within pods, TcSUT1 and TcSUT4 were expressed more in the seed coat and seed from the pod enlargement stage to the ripening stage. TcSUT5 expression sharply increased to its highest expression level in the seed coat during the ripening stage. Expression pattern analysis indicated that TcSUT genes may be associated with photoassimilate transport into developing seeds and may, therefore, have an impact on seed production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Doxorubicin induced neuro- and cardiotoxicities in experimental rats: Protection against oxidative damage by Theobroma cacao Stem bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Kosoko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available 80 rats, randomly selected, were divided into 3 treatment groups: pre-, co- and post-treatment; consisting of 6 sub-groups each (5 rats per sub-group: baseline, normal saline (2 mL, α-lipoic acid (20 mg/kg body weight, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg body weight Theobroma cacao stem bark aqueous extract (TCAE. All rats except for baseline group were intoxicated with 20 mg/kg body weight doxorubicin (DOX intraperitoneally. The animals in pre- or post-treatment group received a single dose of DOX (20 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally 24 h before or after 7 days’ oral administration with TCAE respectively while those in co-treatment group were co-administered 2.86 mg/kg body weight of DOX with either normal saline, α- lipoic acid or TCAE orally for 7 days. Animals were sacrificed (pre- and post- treatment groups were sacrificed on the ninth day while the co-treatment group sacrificed on the 8th day. Brain and heart tissue samples were harvested for enzyme markers of toxicity, oxidative stress and histopathological examinations. DOX intoxication caused significant decrease in activities of LDH and ACP, and increase in γGT and ALP activities in brain tissues while causing a significant increase in LDH, ACP, γGT activities and decrease in ALP activity in the cardiac tissues. DOX intoxication caused a significant increase in concentrations of H2O2 generated, MDA and PC, XO, MPx and NOX activities with concomitant decrease in CAT, SOD, GPx and GST activities, and in concentrations of GSH, AsA and α-Toc in brain and cardiac tissues. Pre-, co- and post-treatment with TCAE at either 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg body weight significantly reversed the oxidative damage to the organs induced by DOX-intoxication. The result affirmed that T. cacao stem bark aqueous extract protected against DOX induced oxidative damage in brain and cardiac tissues of experimental rats.

  12. Genetic identification of Theobroma cacao L. trees with high Criollo ancestry in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Ovando, J A; Molina-Freaner, F; Nuñez-Farfán, J; Ovando-Medina, I; Salvador-Figueroa, M

    2014-12-12

    Criollo-type cacao trees are an important pool of genes with potential to be used in cacao breeding and selection programs. For that reason, we assessed the diversity and population structure of Criollo-type trees (108 cultivars with Criollo phenotypic characteristics and 10 Criollo references) using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Cultivars were selected from 7 demes in the Soconusco region of southern Mexico. SSRs amplified 74 alleles with an average of 3.6 alleles per population. The overall populations showed an average observed heterozygosity of 0.28, indicating heterozygote deficiency (average fixation index F = 0.50). However, moderate allelic diversity was found within populations (Shannon index for all populations I = 0.97). Bayesian method analysis determined 2 genetic clusters (K = 2) within individuals. In concordance, an assignment test grouped 37 multilocus genotypes (including 10 references) into a first cluster (Criollo), 54 into a second (presumably Amelonado), and 27 admixed individuals unassigned at the 90% threshold likely corresponding to the Trinitario genotype. This classification was supported by the principal coordinate analysis and analysis of molecular variance, which showed 12% of variation among populations (FST = 0.123, P cocoa.

  13. Application of IBA in environmental remediation using skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumbu, K. [Department of Chemistry, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7535 (South Africa); Mars, J.A.; Gihwala, D. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7535 (South Africa)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The industrial sector is one of the most dynamic sectors of the economy and is of cardinal importance in economic development and poverty alleviation. Furthermore, economies with low levels of industrialisation are gradually shifting dependence from agriculture to the industrial sector, while developed economies, with a high level of industrialisation, are shifting from the industrial to the service sector [1]. Amongst the various industrial sectors, a substantial portion of effluents containing heavy metals are generated by electroplating (nickel, lead, zinc and copper), tanneries (chrome) and other chemical industries. Many engineering processes have been designed to remove the heavy metals from the polluted parts of the ecosystem. These processes are however highly capital intensive. To establish a less costly means of removal of heavy metal pollution, the dried skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) were pulverized and used in the absorption of the heavy metals Ni and Pb. After adsorption by the metals, the powders were dried and then pressed into tablets. For quantification of the elemental adsorption, PIXE, using the Geo PIXE computational software, is a versatile multi-element analytical technique, and has minimum detection limits down to concentration ranges as low as 0.1 parts per million [2,3]. To determine the composition of the major elements such as C, O and N, Backscattering Spectrometry, using SimNRA software, [4] was used. In this study we report on the economic viability of using the skins of cocoa and sweet potato in the removal of Ni and Pd from polluted waters. (author)

  14. Application of IBA in environmental remediation using skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumbu, K.; Mars, J.A.; Gihwala, D.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The industrial sector is one of the most dynamic sectors of the economy and is of cardinal importance in economic development and poverty alleviation. Furthermore, economies with low levels of industrialisation are gradually shifting dependence from agriculture to the industrial sector, while developed economies, with a high level of industrialisation, are shifting from the industrial to the service sector [1]. Amongst the various industrial sectors, a substantial portion of effluents containing heavy metals are generated by electroplating (nickel, lead, zinc and copper), tanneries (chrome) and other chemical industries. Many engineering processes have been designed to remove the heavy metals from the polluted parts of the ecosystem. These processes are however highly capital intensive. To establish a less costly means of removal of heavy metal pollution, the dried skins of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) were pulverized and used in the absorption of the heavy metals Ni and Pb. After adsorption by the metals, the powders were dried and then pressed into tablets. For quantification of the elemental adsorption, PIXE, using the Geo PIXE computational software, is a versatile multi-element analytical technique, and has minimum detection limits down to concentration ranges as low as 0.1 parts per million [2,3]. To determine the composition of the major elements such as C, O and N, Backscattering Spectrometry, using SimNRA software, [4] was used. In this study we report on the economic viability of using the skins of cocoa and sweet potato in the removal of Ni and Pd from polluted waters. (author)

  15. The effect of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on in vitro callogenesis of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. development using modern breeding techniques can be facilitated by propagation of planting material through somatic embryogenesis. Various factors that may affect embryogenesis are the composition of culture medium and culture condition. Hormone commonly used to initiate the formation of callus is auxin with type 2.4-D (2.4 Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the addition of 2.4 -D hormoneson the process of cocoa embryogenesis. The treatments were arragged in factorial combination in completely randomized design, which consisted of two factors. Thefirst factor was the concentration of auxin 2,4-D 25 %, 50 %, 75 %, and 100 %; and the second factor was cocoa clones; Sulawesi 01 and Sulawesi 02. The resultshowed that the addition of 2.4-D hormone up to 100% on somatic embryogenesis of cocoa for Sulawesi 01 clone was not significantly different from Sulawesi 02 clone for all parameters. While on the addition of 2.4-D, there was significant difference between Sulawesi 01 and 02. Cocoa embryogenic callus using the addition of 2.4-D (25%-100% was significantly different from control. Increased concentrations of 2,4-D hormone which is applied onto media would inhibit the formation of the somatic embryo. Addition of 2.4 D 25%, encouraged towards non-embryogenic callus. Keywords: 2.4 Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, embryogenic callus, somatic embryos, cocoa, medium culture, hormone

  16. Absorption of N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acids in healthy humans by oral administration of cocoa (Theobroma cacao).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Timo; Lang, Roman; Keller, Daniela; Hensel, Andreas; Hofmann, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    Besides flavan-3-ols, a family of N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acids (NPAs) has been recently identified as polyphenol/amino acid conjugates in the seeds of Theobroma cacao as well as in a variety of herbal drugs. Stimulated by reports on their biological activity, the purpose of this study was to investigate if these amides are absorbed by healthy volunteers after administration of a cocoa drink. For the first time, 12 NPAs were quantified in human urine by means of a stable isotope dilution analysis with LC-MS/MS (MRM) detection. A maximum amount was found in the urine taken 2 h after the cocoa consumption. The highest absolute amount of NPAs excreted with the urine was found for N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid (5), but the highest recovery rate (57.3 and 22.8%), that means the percentage amount of ingested amides excreted with the urine, were determined for N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-glutamic acid (6) and N-[4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-tyrosine (13). In order to gain first insights into the NPA metabolism in vivo, urine samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS before and after beta-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment. As independent of the enzyme treatment the same NPA amounts were found in urine, there is strong evidence that these amides are metabolized neither via their O-glucuronides nor their O-sulfates. In order to screen for caffeic acid O-glucuronides as potential NPA metabolites, urine samples were screened by means of LC-MS/MS for caffeic acid 3-O-beta-D-glucuronide and 4-O-beta-D-glucuronide. But not even trace amounts of one of these glucuronides were detectable, thus excluding them as major NPA metabolites and underlining the importance of future investigations on a potential O-methylation or reduction of the N-phenylpropenoyl moiety in NPAs.

  17. Application of neem (Azadirachta indica) as biological pesticides in cocoa seed (Theobroma cacao) storage using various local adsorbent media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiyani, S. A.; Sunawan; Pawestri, A. E.

    2018-03-01

    Cocoa seeds are recalcitrant (the water content is more than 40%) that require special handling. The use of adsorbent media to reduce the decrease in the quality of cocoa seeds and extend their shelf life in this storage has not been widely done. Local adsorbent media such as sawdust, sand and ash have the potential to maintain the viability of cocoa seeds. The objective of this research was to determine the interaction of the application of neem (Azadirachta indica) as biological pesticides and the use of various natural adsorbent media in the storage of cocoa seeds (Theobroma cacao). It was an experimental study with a factorial design composed of three factors. The first factor was the medium adsorbent type for the storage of cocoa seed, which consists of three levels (river sand, ash, and sawdust). The second factor was the concentration of neem leaves for pre-storage treatment with three levels (10, 20, and 30%). The third factor was the storage time (10 and 20 days). The results of the study indicated that the combination of the three factors showed a significant interaction in the height of the plant and the diameter of the stem of the seedling at 28 days after sowing. The fresh weight of the seedlings of the seeds that were stored in ash media gave a better result than the seedlings of seeds that had been stored in the river sand and the sawdust as adsorbent media. The application of 20% extract of neem leaves gave the best influence for the seeds that were stored for 20 days.

  18. Successful pod infections by Moniliophthora roreri result in differential Theobroma cacao gene expression depending on the clone's level of tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S; Melnick, Rachel L; Crozier, Jayne; Phillips-Mora, Wilberth; Strem, Mary D; Shao, Jonathan; Zhang, Dapeng; Sicher, Richard; Meinhardt, Lyndel; Bailey, Bryan A

    2014-09-01

    An understanding of the tolerance mechanisms of Theobroma cacao used against Moniliophthora roreri, the causal agent of frosty pod rot, is important for the generation of stable disease-tolerant clones. A comparative view was obtained of transcript populations of infected pods from two susceptible and two tolerant clones using RNA sequence (RNA-Seq) analysis. A total of 3009 transcripts showed differential expression among clones. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated shifts in 152 different metabolic pathways between the tolerant and susceptible clones. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time qRT-PCR) analyses of 36 genes verified the differential expression. Regression analysis validated a uniform progression in gene expression in association with infection levels and fungal loads in the susceptible clones. Expression patterns observed in the susceptible clones diverged in tolerant clones, with many genes showing higher expression at a low level of infection and fungal load. Principal coordinate analyses of real-time qRT-PCR data separated the gene expression patterns between susceptible and tolerant clones for pods showing malformation. Although some genes were constitutively differentially expressed between clones, most results suggested that defence responses were induced at low fungal load in the tolerant clones. Several elicitor-responsive genes were highly expressed in tolerant clones, suggesting rapid recognition of the pathogen and induction of defence genes. Expression patterns suggested that the jasmonic acid-ethylene- and/or salicylic acid-mediated defence pathways were activated in the tolerant clones, being enhanced by reduced brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis and catabolic inactivation of both BR and abscisic acids. Finally, several genes associated with hypersensitive response-like cell death were also induced in tolerant clones. © 2014

  19. Effects of enriched compost with efficient microorganisms on the germination of recalcitrant seeds of breadfruit (Parkinson Fosberg and Theobroma cacao L.

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    Yánez Yánez Wilfrido

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted at the Center for Research, Graduate Studies and Amazon Conservation (CIPA of the Amazon State University, Ecuador. The purpose was to assess the effect of enriched compost Germination, day and day’s emergency transplantation two species of tropical origin and breadfruit Theobroma cacao. The experimental field is located in the province of Napo, 16'-1 and S and 77º 36'' 58'y 76'' W, at an altitude of 556 meters, with temperature between 18 and 32oC, average annual precipitation above 3000mm and relative humidity between 87 and 89%. An experimental design with five treatments in a randomized complete block design with three replications was applied. Treatments consisted of compost (1 MS, (2 lactic acid bacteria, (3 commercial yeast, (4 a combination thereof and (5 only compost, witness. It was determined that the compost mixture (T4 as a whole, has the greatest effect on the parameters of the seeds. Germination was found that in two of the T3 and T4 treatments significantly decreased the number of days to germination, in relation to the witness, 33 days and 13 days Artocarpus altilis, Theobroma cacao. The number of emerged plants, increase in both species with the addition of EM, lactic acid bacteria and commercial yeast (T4. a reduction is also reported in the days to transplant species studied to be significant particularly in cocoa. It was also determined that most bioburden corresponded to bacteria.

  20. First typology of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) systems in Colombian Amazonia, based on tree species richness, canopy structure and light availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Salazar, Juan Carlos; Ngo Bieng, Marie Ange; Melgarejo, Luz Marina; Di Rienzo, Julio A; Casanoves, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    We present a typology of cacao agroforest systems in Colombian Amazonia. These systems had yet to be described in the literature, especially their potential in terms of biodiversity conservation. The systems studied are located in a post-conflict area, and a deforestation front in Colombian Amazonia. Cacao cropping systems are of key importance in Colombia: cacao plays a prime role in post conflict resolution, as cacao is a legal crop to replace illegal crops; cacao agroforests are expected to be a sustainable practice, promoting forest-friendly land use. We worked in 50 x 2000 m2 agroforest plots, in Colombian Amazonia. A cluster analysis was used to build a typology based on 28 variables characterised in each plot, and related to diversity, composition, spatial structure and light availability for the cacao trees. We included variables related to light availability to evaluate the amount of transmitted radiation to the cacao trees in each type, and its suitability for cacao ecophysiological development. We identified 4 types of cacao agroforests based on differences concerning tree species diversity and the impact of canopy spatial structure on light availability for the cacao trees in the understorey. We found 127 tree species in the dataset, with some exclusive species in each type. We also found that 3 out of the 4 types identified displayed an erosion of tree species diversity. This reduction in shade tree species may have been linked to the desire to reduce shade, but we also found that all the types described were compatible with good ecophysiological development of the cacao trees. Cacao agroforest systems may actually be achieving biodiversity conservation goals in Colombian Amazonia. One challenging prospect will be to monitor and encourage the conservation of tree species diversity in cacao agroforest systems during the development of these cropping systems, as a form of forest-friendly management enhancing sustainable peace building in Colombia.

  1. First typology of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) systems in Colombian Amazonia, based on tree species richness, canopy structure and light availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Salazar, Juan Carlos; Melgarejo, Luz Marina; Di Rienzo, Julio A.; Casanoves, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Aim and background We present a typology of cacao agroforest systems in Colombian Amazonia. These systems had yet to be described in the literature, especially their potential in terms of biodiversity conservation. The systems studied are located in a post-conflict area, and a deforestation front in Colombian Amazonia. Cacao cropping systems are of key importance in Colombia: cacao plays a prime role in post conflict resolution, as cacao is a legal crop to replace illegal crops; cacao agroforests are expected to be a sustainable practice, promoting forest-friendly land use. Material and methods We worked in 50 x 2000 m2 agroforest plots, in Colombian Amazonia. A cluster analysis was used to build a typology based on 28 variables characterised in each plot, and related to diversity, composition, spatial structure and light availability for the cacao trees. We included variables related to light availability to evaluate the amount of transmitted radiation to the cacao trees in each type, and its suitability for cacao ecophysiological development. Main results We identified 4 types of cacao agroforests based on differences concerning tree species diversity and the impact of canopy spatial structure on light availability for the cacao trees in the understorey. We found 127 tree species in the dataset, with some exclusive species in each type. We also found that 3 out of the 4 types identified displayed an erosion of tree species diversity. This reduction in shade tree species may have been linked to the desire to reduce shade, but we also found that all the types described were compatible with good ecophysiological development of the cacao trees. Main conclusions and prospects Cacao agroforest systems may actually be achieving biodiversity conservation goals in Colombian Amazonia. One challenging prospect will be to monitor and encourage the conservation of tree species diversity in cacao agroforest systems during the development of these cropping systems, as a form of

  2. First typology of cacao (Theobroma cacao L. systems in Colombian Amazonia, based on tree species richness, canopy structure and light availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Suárez Salazar

    Full Text Available We present a typology of cacao agroforest systems in Colombian Amazonia. These systems had yet to be described in the literature, especially their potential in terms of biodiversity conservation. The systems studied are located in a post-conflict area, and a deforestation front in Colombian Amazonia. Cacao cropping systems are of key importance in Colombia: cacao plays a prime role in post conflict resolution, as cacao is a legal crop to replace illegal crops; cacao agroforests are expected to be a sustainable practice, promoting forest-friendly land use.We worked in 50 x 2000 m2 agroforest plots, in Colombian Amazonia. A cluster analysis was used to build a typology based on 28 variables characterised in each plot, and related to diversity, composition, spatial structure and light availability for the cacao trees. We included variables related to light availability to evaluate the amount of transmitted radiation to the cacao trees in each type, and its suitability for cacao ecophysiological development.We identified 4 types of cacao agroforests based on differences concerning tree species diversity and the impact of canopy spatial structure on light availability for the cacao trees in the understorey. We found 127 tree species in the dataset, with some exclusive species in each type. We also found that 3 out of the 4 types identified displayed an erosion of tree species diversity. This reduction in shade tree species may have been linked to the desire to reduce shade, but we also found that all the types described were compatible with good ecophysiological development of the cacao trees.Cacao agroforest systems may actually be achieving biodiversity conservation goals in Colombian Amazonia. One challenging prospect will be to monitor and encourage the conservation of tree species diversity in cacao agroforest systems during the development of these cropping systems, as a form of forest-friendly management enhancing sustainable peace building in

  3. Tc-MYBPA an Arabidopsis TT2-like transcription factor and functions in the regulation of proanthocyanidin synthesis in Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Shi, Zi; Maximova, Siela N; Payne, Mark J; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2015-06-25

    The flavan-3-ols catechin and epicatechin, and their polymerized oligomers, the proanthocyanidins (PAs, also called condensed tannins), accumulate to levels of up to 15 % of the total weight of dry seeds of Theobroma cacao L. These compounds have been associated with several health benefits in humans. They also play important roles in pest and disease defense throughout the plant. In Arabidopsis, the R2R3 type MYB transcription factor TT2 regulates the major genes leading to the synthesis of PA. To explore the transcriptional regulation of the PA synthesis pathway in cacao, we isolated and characterized an R2R3 type MYB transcription factor MYBPA from cacao. We examined the spatial and temporal gene expression patterns of the Tc-MYBPA gene and found it to be developmentally expressed in a manner consistent with its involvement in PAs and anthocyanin synthesis. Functional complementation of an Arabidopsis tt2 mutant with Tc-MYBPA suggested that it can functionally substitute the Arabidopsis TT2 gene. Interestingly, in addition to PA accumulation in seeds of the Tc-MYBPA expressing plants, we also observed an obvious increase of anthocyanidin accumulation in hypocotyls. We observed that overexpression of the Tc-MYBPA gene resulted in increased expression of several key genes encoding the major structural enzymes of the PA and anthocyanidin pathway, including DFR (dihydroflavanol reductase), LDOX (leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase) and BAN (ANR, anthocyanidin reductase). We conclude that the Tc-MYBPA gene that encodes an R2R3 type MYB transcription factor is an Arabidopsis TT2 like transcription factor, and may be involved in the regulation of both anthocyanin and PA synthesis in cacao. This research may provide molecular tools for breeding of cacao varieties with improved disease resistance and enhanced flavonoid profiles for nutritional and pharmaceutical applications.

  4. The Theobroma cacao B3 domain transcription factor TcLEC2 plays a duel role in control of embryo development and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Clemens, Adam; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2014-04-24

    The Arabidopsis thaliana LEC2 gene encodes a B3 domain transcription factor, which plays critical roles during both zygotic and somatic embryogenesis. LEC2 exerts significant impacts on determining embryogenic potential and various metabolic processes through a complicated genetic regulatory network. An ortholog of the Arabidopsis Leafy Cotyledon 2 gene (AtLEC2) was characterized in Theobroma cacao (TcLEC2). TcLEC2 encodes a B3 domain transcription factor preferentially expressed during early and late zygotic embryo development. The expression of TcLEC2 was higher in dedifferentiated cells competent for somatic embryogenesis (embryogenic calli), compared to non-embryogenic calli. Transient overexpression of TcLEC2 in immature zygotic embryos resulted in changes in gene expression profiles and fatty acid composition. Ectopic expression of TcLEC2 in cacao leaves changed the expression levels of several seed related genes. The overexpression of TcLEC2 in cacao explants greatly increased the frequency of regeneration of stably transformed somatic embryos. TcLEC2 overexpressing cotyledon explants exhibited a very high level of embryogenic competency and when cultured on hormone free medium, exhibited an iterative embryogenic chain-reaction. Our study revealed essential roles of TcLEC2 during both zygotic and somatic embryo development. Collectively, our evidence supports the conclusion that TcLEC2 is a functional ortholog of AtLEC2 and that it is involved in similar genetic regulatory networks during cacao somatic embryogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of the functional analysis of a LEC2 ortholog in a species other then Arabidopsis. TcLEC2 could potentially be used as a biomarker for the improvement of the SE process and screen for elite varieties in cacao germplasm.

  5. Biochemical precursor effects on the fatty acid production in cell suspension cultures of Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, O; Gallego, A M; Urrea, A; Rojas, L F; Correa, C; Atehortúa, L

    2017-02-01

    Cocoa butter (CB) is composed of 96% palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic fatty acids that are responsible for the hardness, texture and fusion properties of chocolate. Through in vitro plant cell culture it is possible to modify CB lipid profiles and to study the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway on a subcellular level, evaluating fundamental aspects to enhance in vitro fatty acid production in a specific and controlled way. In this research, culture media was supplemented with acetate, biotin, pyruvate, bicarbonate and glycerol at three different concentrations and the effects on the biomass production (g/L), cell viability, and fatty acids profile and production was evaluated in in vitro cell suspensions culture. It was found that biotin stimulated fatty acid synthesis without altering cell viability and cell growth. It was also evident a change in the lipid profile of cell suspensions, increasing middle and long chain fatty acids proportion, which are unusual to those reported in seeds; thus implying that it is possible to modify lipid profiles according to the treatment used. According to the results of sucrose gradients and enzyme assays performed, it is proposed that cacao cells probably use the pentose phosphate pathway, mitochondria being the key organelle in the carbon flux for the synthesis of reductant power and fatty acid precursors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Sintesis Sabun Lunak Yang Mengandung Polihidroksi Dari Minyak Biji Kakao (Theobroma cacao,L

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    Chairul Saleh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research about synthesis of  Soft Soap Containing polyhydroxy from Cocoa seed Oil, beginning with the manufacture of the polyhydroxy compound wherein the polyhydroxy compound is obtained through a process of epoxidation and hydroxylation by reacting oils cocoa beans with peroxide acetic acids (peroxy acetate was obtained from the reaction of glacial acetic acid with hydrogen peroxide with an acid catalyst sulfate followed by oxirane ring opening process (hydrolysis at a temperature of 40-45  oC for 2 hours, the results obtained with the reaction yield of 60 %. In the form of a mixture of soft soap is obtained by saponification of compounds polyhydroxy with Potassium Hydroxide at a temperature 70-75  oC for 1 hour with a yield of  86,45  %.  Polyhydroxy compound and soap from the cocoa bean oil was analyzed by FT-IR spectrophotometer. Respectively iodine from the cocoa bean oil 102,93mg I / gram of oil and polyhydroxy compound is 20,21 mg I / gram of oil. HLB of soap Software of oil and polyhydroxy cocoa beans from the cocoa bean oil is determined by titration method and obtained HLB of soft soap from the cocoa bean oil was 8.74 while the polyhydroxy from cacao seed oil is 10,94. Keywords: Cocoa bean oil, Polyhydroxy compound, Soft soap polyhydroxy.

  7. Ekstraksi Pektin dari Kulit Kakao (Theobroma cacao L. Menggunakan Amonium Oksalat

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    Cut Erika

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cocoa L is one of the local superior commodities in Aceh Province. The production of cocoa continues to increase significantly every year. Cocoa Pod husk is a waste product of cocoa beans industry, which is containing pectin with concentration ranged between 2-10%. Pectin extraction is one of the potential researches to increase economic value of cocoa pod husks. This study aimed to determine the effect of extraction time and pH on the characteristics of cocoa pod husk pectin. Pectin was extracted from cocoa pod husks using ammonium oxalate, extraction time (60 and 120 min and pH (2.6, 3.6 and 4.6. The use of ammonium oxalate produced high yield of pectin ranged from 6.63 to 12.75%, moisture content was 7,36 to 10,77%, methoxyl content was 5.19 to 5.70%, anhydrogalacturonic acid of 59.84 to 63.14%, the esterification degree was 48.43 to 51.43 % and relative viscosity was 40 – 186,6 cP. The extraction time for 60 minutes at pH 3,6 showed a higher yield compared to 120 min at pH 4,6. Pectin on the extraction time of 60 minutes at pH 3.6 had the highest relative viscosity was 186,6 cP, and the lowest viscosity of pectin obtained at pH 2.6 and extraction time of 60 min which was 40 cP. Keywords: cocoa pod husks, ammonium oxalate, extraction time, pH

  8. Molecular, physiological and biochemical responses of Theobroma cacao L. genotypes to soil water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ivanildes C Dos; Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado de; Anhert, Dário; Conceição, Alessandro S da; Pirovani, Carlos P; Pires, José L; Valle, Raúl René; Baligar, Virupax C

    2014-01-01

    Six months-old seminal plants of 36 cacao genotypes grown under greenhouse conditions were subjected to two soil water regimes (control and drought) to assess, the effects of water deficit on growth, chemical composition and oxidative stress. In the control, soil moisture was maintained near field capacity with leaf water potentials (ΨWL) ranging from -0.1 to -0.5 MPa. In the drought treatment, the soil moisture was reduced gradually by withholding additional water until ΨWL reached values of between -2.0 to -2.5 MPa. The tolerant genotypes PS-1319, MO-20 and MA-15 recorded significant increases in guaiacol peroxidase activity reflecting a more efficient antioxidant metabolism. In relation to drought tolerance, the most important variables in the distinguishing contrasting groups were: total leaf area per plant; leaf, stem and total dry biomass; relative growth rate; plant shoot biomass and leaf content of N, Ca, and Mg. From the results of these analyses, six genotypes were selected with contrasting characteristics for tolerance to soil water deficit [CC-40, C. SUL-4 and SIC-2 (non-tolerant) and MA-15, MO-20, and PA-13 (tolerant)] for further assessment of the expression of genes NCED5, PP2C, psbA and psbO to water deficit. Increased expression of NCED5, PP2C, psbA and psbO genes were found for non-tolerant genotypes, while in the majority of tolerant genotypes there was repression of these genes, with the exception of PA-13 that showed an increased expression of psbA. Mutivariate analysis showed that growth variables, leaf and total dry biomass, relative growth rate as well as Mg content of the leaves were the most important factor in the classification of the genotypes as tolerant, moderately tolerant and sensitive to water deficit. Therefore these variables are reliable plant traits in the selection of plants tolerant to drought.

  9. Analisis Pindah Panas pada Ruang Fermentasi Biji Kakao (Theobroma cacao L dengan Menggunakan Kotak Kayu dan Styrofoam

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    Fazzatul Rahmi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Fermentasi merupakan kegiatan untuk melepaskan zat lendir dari permukaan kulit biji dan menghasilkan biji mutu dan aroma yang baik. Selain itu fermentasi juga dilakukan untuk menghindari tumbuhnya jamur selama masa penyimpanan. Selama fermentasi berlangsung akan terjadinya perpindahan panas/ suhu di dalam kotak fermentasi. Tujuan yang ingin dicapai dalam penelitian yaitu untuk melihat perubahan suhu selama proses fermentasi, mengetahui pengaruh bahan kotak (kayu dan styrofoam terhadap perpindahan panas di dalam kotak fermentasi dan perpindahan panas dari dalam kotak fermentasi terhadap lingkungan luar. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh bahwa suhu ideal fermentasi pada kotak kayu dihasilkan pada hari ke-5, sedangkan kotak styrofoam suhu ideal dihasilkan pada hari ke-3. Perpindahan panas pada bahan kayu suhunya lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan bahan styrofoam. Hal ini disebabkan karena panas pada kotak kayu keluar lebih cepat, sehingga suhu pada proses fermentasi bisa lebih rendah dibandingkan menggunakan kotak styrofoam. Hasil fermentasi biji kakao dengan menggunakan kotak kayu didapatkan biji kakao yang bagus yaitu pada hari ke-5 fermentasi dan kotak styrofoam pada hari ke-5 fermentasi didapatkan biji kakao yang berjamur.   Analysis Of Transfer Heat Room Of Cocoa Seed Fermentation (Theobroma cacao L. Using Wood Box and Styrofoam Abstract. Fermentation is an activity to remove mucous substances from the skin surface to produce quality of seed and good aroma. In addition, fermentation also done to avoid the growth of mold during storage period. During fermentation, the heat transfer / temperature will be happen inside the fermentation box. The aim of this study is to observe the changes of temperature during the fermentation process, knowing the effect of packaging materials (wood and styrofoam to heat transfer in the fermentation box and heat transfer from inside of fermentation box to the environment in the outside. The results showed

  10. Variabilidad genética de Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime y Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae en variedades de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. Genetic variability of Moniliophthora perniciosa (Stahel Aime & Phillips-Mora, comb. nov. (Agaricales - Marasmiaceae in varieties of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

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    Carolina Osorio-Solano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Moniliophthora perniciosa, agente causante de la ‘escoba de bruja’ en cacao (Theobroma cacao, presenta una elevada variabilidad genética y discrepancias en su taxonomía y es una de las enfermedades más importantes en plantaciones cacaoteras que ocasiona pérdidas económicas a nivel mundial cercanas a 70%, y de 40% a nivel nacional. La caracterización de la diversidad genética de los biotipos es importante para la ejecución de proyectos encaminados al manejo de este patógeno y el desarrollo de materiales resistentes de cacao. En este estudio se analizaron 12 aislamientos del hongo obtenidos de diferentes materiales de cacao. Cada una de las muestras se evaluó con marcadores moleculares que tienen como blanco una región del ADN ribosomal (ADNr nuclear conocida como ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer, una región intergénica (IGS-1 y cinco secuencias simples repetidas (SSR. El marcador IGS-1 permitió la determinación del biotipo C, no obstante se encontró una variabilidad genética evidente dentro de este biotipo, aún no registrada. El análisis de la diversidad genética de M. perniciosa por medio de marcadores microsatélite arrojó un valor total de 0.4260, una heterocigosidad total de 0.6143 y un índice de información polimórfica (PIC de 0.3407, valores considerados de rango medio a alto para los aislamientos estudiados y que estiman la variabilidad genética presente en M. perniciosa.Moniliophthora perniciosa, the founder agent of the ‘witch’s broom’ on cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. is one of the most important diseases in cocoa plantations, causing economic losses close to 70% worldwide and 40% nationwide. It shows a high genetic variability and discrepancies in its taxonomy. Characterization of the genetic diversity of biotypes is important for projects aimed towards the handling of this pathogen and the development of resistant cocoa materials. Twelve isolations of the fungus were analyzed in this study from different

  11. Genome-wide analysis reveals divergent patterns of gene expression during zygotic and somatic embryo maturation of Theobroma cacao L., the chocolate tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximova, Siela N; Florez, Sergio; Shen, Xiangling; Niemenak, Nicolas; Zhang, Yufan; Curtis, Wayne; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2014-07-16

    Theobroma cacao L. is a tropical fruit tree, the seeds of which are used to create chocolate. In vitro somatic embryogenesis (SE) of cacao is a propagation system useful for rapid mass-multiplication to accelerate breeding programs and to provide plants directly to farmers. Two major limitations of cacao SE remain: the efficiency of embryo production is highly genotype dependent and the lack of full cotyledon development results in low embryo to plant conversion rates. With the goal to better understand SE development and to improve the efficiency of SE conversion we examined gene expression differences between zygotic and somatic embryos using a whole genome microarray. The expression of 28,752 genes was determined at 4 developmental time points during zygotic embryogenesis (ZE) and 2 time points during cacao somatic embryogenesis (SE). Within the ZE time course, 10,288 differentially expressed genes were enriched for functions related to responses to abiotic and biotic stimulus, metabolic and cellular processes. A comparison ZE and SE expression profiles identified 10,175 differentially expressed genes. Many TF genes, putatively involved in ethylene metabolism and response, were more strongly expressed in SEs as compared to ZEs. Expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis and seed storage protein genes were also differentially expressed in the two types of embryos. Large numbers of genes were differentially regulated during various stages of both ZE and SE development in cacao. The relatively higher expression of ethylene and flavonoid related genes during SE suggests that the developing tissues may be experiencing high levels of stress during SE maturation caused by the in vitro environment. The expression of genes involved in the synthesis of auxin, polyunsaturated fatty acids and secondary metabolites was higher in SEs relative to ZEs despite lack of lipid and metabolite accumulation. These differences in gene

  12. Shade tree diversity and aboveground carbon stocks in Theobroma cacao agroforestry systems: implications for REDD+ implementation in a West African cacao landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawoe, Evans; Asante, Winston; Acheampong, Emmanuel; Bosu, Paul

    2016-12-01

    The promotion of cacao agroforestry is one of the ways of diversifying farmer income and creating incentives through their inclusion in REDD+ interventions. We estimated the aboveground carbon stocks in cacao and shade trees, determined the floristic diversity of shade trees and explored the possibility of implementing REDD+ interventions in cacao landscapes. Using replicated multi-site transect approach, data were collected from nine 1-ha plots established on 5 km long transects in ten cacao growing districts in Ghana West Africa. Biomass of cacao and shade trees was determined using allometric equations. One thousand four hundred and one (1401) shade trees comprising 109 species from 33 families were recorded. Total number of species ranged from 34 to 49. Newbouldia laevis (Bignoniacea) was the most frequently occurring specie and constituted 43.2 % of all shade trees. The most predominant families were Sterculiaceae and Moraceae (10 species each), followed by Meliaceae and Mimosaceae (8 species each) and Caesalpiniacaea (6 species). Shannon diversity indices (H', H max and J') and species richness were low compared to other similar studies. Shade tree densities ranged from 16.2 ± 3.0 to 22.8 ± 1.7 stems ha -1 and differed significantly between sites. Carbon stocks of shade trees differed between sites but were similar in cacao trees. The average C stock in cacao trees was 7.45 ± 0.41 Mg C ha -1 compared with 8.32 ± 1.15 Mg C ha -1 in the shade trees. Cacao landscapes in Ghana have the potential of contributing to forest carbon stocks enhancement by increasing the stocking density of shade trees to recommended levels.

  13. Assessing genetic diversity in java fine-flavor cocoa (theobroma cacao l.) Germplasm by simple sequence repeat (ssr) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indonesia is the 3rd largest cocoa producing countries in the world, with an annual cacao bean production of 572,000 tons. The currently cultivated cacao varieties in Indonesia were inter-hybrids of various clones introduced from the Americas since the 16th century. Among them, “Java cocoa” is a wel...

  14. Evaluación in vitro de Microorganismos Nativos por su Antagonismo contra Moniliophthora roreri Cif & Par en Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. In vitro evaluation of Native Microorganisms for their Antagonism against Moniliophthora roreri Cif & Parin Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Villamil Carvajal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La moniliasis, causada por Moniliophthora roreri Cif & Par, se ha convertido en la principal enfermedad limitante de la producción de cacao en Colombia y otros países. Con el objetivo de explorar alternativas para el biocontrol de esta enfermedad, hongos y bacterias aislados de frutos y suelo rizosférico de lotes plantados con cacao fueron evaluados por su antagonismo contra M. roreri. La evaluación se realizó en cajas Petri con PDA, para lo cual se colocó en el centro de las mismas, un disco de 5 mm de diámetro colonizado por el patógeno y a 3 cm del borde, sobre los ejes horizontal y vertical, cada uno de los aislamientos. Los microorganismos nativos que inicialmente mostraron antagonismo fueron posteriormente evaluados in vitro por su capacidad de restringir el crecimiento y esporulación de M. roreri. Los resultados indicaron que de 53 aislamientos de frutos y suelo rizosférico, 7 mostraron antagonismo contra M. roreri y entre ellos los más efectivos fueron los hongos H5 y H20 y la bacteria B3, los hongos para la restricción tanto del crecimiento como de la esporulación y la bacteria para el crecimiento. El hongo H20 inhibió en su totalidad el crecimiento de M. roreri. Estos resultados hacen posible que estos aislamientos sean promisorios para su incorporación al manejo de la enfermedad bajo condiciones de campo. De acuerdo con la caracterización morfológica y las pruebas bioquímicas los hongos pertenecen al género Trichoderma y la bacteria al género Bacillus.Abstract. The moniliasis, caused by Moniliophthora roreri Cif & Par, has become the principal disease limiting cocoa production in Colombia and other countries. With the objective of exploring alternatives for the biocontrol of this disease, fungi and bacteria isolated from cocoa fruits and rhizospheric soil from plots planted to cocoa trees were evaluated for their antagonism against M. roreri. The evaluation was conducted in Petri dishes containing PDA, by

  15. Srovnání pěstování kakaovníku pravého (Theobroma cacao L.) v agrolesnických a monokulturních systémech

    OpenAIRE

    Andrušíková, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis contains characteristic of species Theobroma cacao. In this work is described origin and history, processing and world market with cocoa beans. In work is compared cultivation at plantation in agroforestry and monoculture systems. There is compared the benefits and disadvantages of usage of this systems. In the work is mentioned some informations about world organization, which are interested in agroforestry and also agroforestry certification.

  16. High-Resolution Transcript Profiling of the Atypical Biotrophic Interaction between Theobroma cacao and the Fungal Pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Thomazella, Daniela Paula de Toledo; Reis, Osvaldo; do Prado, Paula Favoretti Vital; do Rio, Maria Carolina Scatolin; Fiorin, Gabriel Lorencini; José, Juliana; Costa, Gustavo Gilson Lacerda; Negri, Victor Augusti; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Witches’ broom disease (WBD), caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, is one of the most devastating diseases of Theobroma cacao, the chocolate tree. In contrast to other hemibiotrophic interactions, the WBD biotrophic stage lasts for months and is responsible for the most distinctive symptoms of the disease, which comprise drastic morphological changes in the infected shoots. Here, we used the dual RNA-seq approach to simultaneously assess the transcriptomes of cacao and M. perniciosa during their peculiar biotrophic interaction. Infection with M. perniciosa triggers massive metabolic reprogramming in the diseased tissues. Although apparently vigorous, the infected shoots are energetically expensive structures characterized by the induction of ineffective defense responses and by a clear carbon deprivation signature. Remarkably, the infection culminates in the establishment of a senescence process in the host, which signals the end of the WBD biotrophic stage. We analyzed the pathogen’s transcriptome in unprecedented detail and thereby characterized the fungal nutritional and infection strategies during WBD and identified putative virulence effectors. Interestingly, M. perniciosa biotrophic mycelia develop as long-term parasites that orchestrate changes in plant metabolism to increase the availability of soluble nutrients before plant death. Collectively, our results provide unique insight into an intriguing tropical disease and advance our understanding of the development of (hemi)biotrophic plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:25371547

  17. Theobroma cacao increases cells viability and reduces IL-6 and sVCAM-1 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Budi; Baktiyani, Siti Candra Windu; Nurdiana, Nurdiana

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether an ethanolic extract of Theobroma cacao bean is able to increase cell viability and decrease IL-6 and sVCAM-1 in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluency, endothelial cells were divided into six groups, which included control (untreated), endothelial cells exposed to plasma from normal pregnancy, endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of T. cacao (PP+TC) at the following three doses: 25, 50, and 100 ppm. The analysis was performed in silico using the Hex 8.0, LigPlus and LigandScout 3.1 software. Analysis on IL-6 and sVCAM-1 levels were done by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that seven of them could bind to the protein NFκB (catechin, leucoanthocyanidin, niacin, phenylethylamine, theobromine, theophylline, and thiamin). This increase in IL-6 was significantly (Pcacao extract. Plasma from PP significantly increased sVCAM-1 levels compared to untreated cells. This increase in sVCAM-1 was significantly attenuated by all doses of the extract. In conclusion, T. cacao extract prohibits the increase in IL-6 and sVCAM-1 in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Therefore this may provide a herbal therapy for attenuating the endothelial dysfunction found in preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Farming Systems in the Norte de Santander Department and Assessment Their Sustainability / Caracterización de los Sistemas de Producción de Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. en el Departamento de Norte de Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Arturo Ramírez Sulvarán

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. based economyhas been considered a valid alternative to support sustainable development in northeastern Colombia. However, there is a lack of information about the cocoa production systems in the region which is needed for the implementation of effective plans to improve their performance and sustainability. Four of the main cocoa producing municipalities in the Norte de Santanderdepartment were considered for this study: Teorama, Bucarasica, Cúcuta and San Calixto. These entities were selected due to their adequate security conditions, availability of field assistants and departmental representativeness in cocoa production. The objective was to obtain basic information for local, specific and participatory actions for the sustainability of the cocoa production systems and to improve the living conditions of farmers. The methodology used was based on the farming system approach, considering the socioeconomic, technological and agro-ecologicalcomponents, and their relationships, and evaluating themaccording to the principles of sustainable agriculture. The phases covered were: (1 analysis of secondary data, (2 formulation and evaluation of sustainability indicators, (3 design, implementation and analysis of survey data and (4 validation by the farmers of the obtained information and the prioritization of problems. The results indicate that there is only one cocoa production system of a family-mercantile type, with low technology. Most farmers havelow incomes and basic needs such as health, education and public services are not met. They do not employ the agronomic and postharvest practices recommended by specialists. The water and soil resources are being degraded. In general, the farming system leans towards unsustainability and it is vital that integrative actions be taken to change this situation. / Se considera que el desarrollo de una economía basada en el cacao (Theobroma cacao L

  19. Verificación del método analítico de espectroscopia de absorción atómica con horno de grafito para la cuantificación de cadmio en almendra de cacao (Theobroma cacao).

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo Abad, Lourdes Salomé

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to verify the performance parameters of the analytical method of atomic absorption spectroscopy with graphite furnace for quantification of cadmium in cocoa (Theobroma cacao) almond, for which a protocol was prepared, analyzes were performed on the certified reference material (MRC), the concentration of cadmium in dry cocoa beans four farms (Farm A, B, C and D) located in the cocoa zone of the country, Flavio Alfaro Manabí, was determined an...

  20. Influencia de factores agroambientales sobre la calidad del clon de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. PH-16 en la región cacaotera de Bahia, Brasil/Inuence of agro-environmental factors on the quality of cacao (Theobroma cacao L. clone PH-16 in the cacao region of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Amorim Homem de Abreu Loureiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Los desafíos técnicos y cientícos actuales para el cultivo del cacao implican la necesidad de evaluar múltiples atributos relacionados con la producción primaria y con los criterios de calidad. El estudio se realizó con el clon de cacao PH-16 en la zona húmeda de la región cacaotera de Bahia, Brasil. El objetivo fue conocer la inuencia del sitio de cultivo sobre las variables físicas y químicas antes y después de la fermentación de los granos de cacao. Las variables químicas más inuenciadas por el medio ambiente fueron el pH y la acidez total de los granos con mucílago, y el pH, acidez total e índice de pigmentos de los granos fermentados. El sitio de cultivo que corresponde al Argisol Amarillo Distróco latosólico, en el sistema agroforestal Cabruca con densidad media de 35 árboles de sombra por hectárea, presentó los granos con mejores atributos de calidad.

  1. Time-Related Changes in Volatile Compounds during Fermentation of Bulk and Fine-Flavor Cocoa (Theobroma cacao Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Cevallos-Cevallos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is one of the most consumed foods worldwide and cacao fermentation contributes to the unique sensory characteristics of chocolate products. However, comparative changes in volatiles occurring during fermentation of Criollo, Forastero, and Nacional cacao—three of the most representative cultivars worldwide—have not been reported. Beans of each cultivar were fermented for five days and samples were taken every 24 hours. Volatiles from each sample were adsorbed into a solid phase microextraction fiber and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aroma potential of each compound was determined using available databases. Multivariate data analyses showed partial clustering of samples according to cultivars at the start of the fermentation but complete clustering was observed at the end of the fermentation. The Criollo cacao produced floral, fruity, and woody aroma volatiles including linalool, epoxylinalool, benzeneethanol, pentanol acetate, germacrene, α-copaene, aromadendrene, 3,6-heptanedione, butanal, 1-phenyl ethenone, 2-nonanone, and 2-pentanone. Nacional cacao produced fruity, green, and woody aroma volatiles including 2-nonanone, 3-octen-1-ol, 2-octanol acetate, 2-undecanone, valencene, and aromadendrene. The Forastero cacao yielded floral and sweet aroma volatiles such as epoxylinalool, pentanoic acid, benzeneacetaldehyde, and benzaldehyde. This is the first report of volatiles produced during fermentation of Criollo, Forastero, and Nacional cacao from the same origin.

  2. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to caffeine and theobromine in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) and enhancement of mood (ID 4276) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to caffeine and theobromine in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) and enhancement of mood. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States...... or directly from stakeholders. The food that is the subject of the health claim is cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). The Panel considers that whereas the food, cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.), is not sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect evaluated in this opinion, the food constituents, caffeine...

  3. Actividad antioxidante de clones de cacao (Theobroma cacao l.) finos y aromáticos cultivados en el estado de Chiapas-México

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez González, Martha Beatriz; Cely Niño, Víctor Hugo; Ramírez, Sandra Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: determinar la capacidad antioxidante y contenido de grasa de clones de cacao, provenientes de especies nativas del Estado de Chiapas, México. Materiales y métodos: en extractos de 34 muestras semillas de cacao diluidas en metanol al 95% y clasificadas según pH en tres grupos: I (5,52-5,90), II (5,91- 6,28) y III (6,29-6,67), se realizaron ensayos analíticos de variables físicas y químicas. Se evaluó la inhibición de radicales 2,2-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH) a 517 nm, el contenid...

  4. Caracterización de cultivares de cacao (Theobroma cacao L) por su respuesta de defensa a Moniliophthora roreri y su polimorfismo de SSRs

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Botello, Darwin Hernando

    2015-01-01

    La moniliasis del Cacao producida por Moniliophthora roreri, es un hongo basidiomiceto considerado como la enfermedad potencial más limitante de la producción en el cultivo en Colombia. La respuesta de defensa frente a su infección actualmente es considerada como susceptible en todos los materiales comerciales utilizados para el cultivo en el mundo. En Colombia, recientemente se han identificado algunos materiales regionales con un comportamiento fitosanitario en campo favorabl...

  5. El polisulfuro de calcio en el manejo de la moniliasis Moniliophthora roreri (Cif & Par. Evans et al. del cacao Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ramírez González

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El cacao es severamente afectado por el hongo Moniliophthora roreri (Cif & Par. Evans et al., el cual daña los frutos y puede ocasionar pérdidas totales y su control es principalmente cultural. El objetivo del trabajo es determinar la efectividad del polisulfuro de calcio (PC como alternativa para su manejo. El patógeno fue aislado y cultivado in vitro y se evaluó el efecto del PC sobre la germinación y formación de conidias; en el campo, sobre frutos se asperjó PC antes y después de la inoculación con M. roreri y se determinó la incidencia e índices de severidad interna y externa. En una plantación de cacao se asperjó PC y se determinó su incidencia y producción. El PC in vitro inhibió el crecimiento y la formación de conidias; la aplicación de PC antes o después de la inoculación artificial con M. roreri sobre frutos inhibe completamente el desarrollo de la enfermedad; con aspersiones de PC en plantaciones de cacao la incidencia de la enfermedad fue de 0,53%, mientras que fue de 21% con manejo cultural y del 69,6% con testigo de inoculación natural; la producción de cacao seco/año fue de un 90,6% más con PC que en el testigo de inoculación natural, por lo que resulta viable integrar PC en el manejo deM. roreri.

  6. Sequencing of a QTL-rich region of the Theobroma cacao genome using pooled BACs and the identification of trait specific candidate genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blackmon Barbara P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BAC-based physical maps provide for sequencing across an entire genome or a selected sub-genomic region of biological interest. Such a region can be approached with next-generation whole-genome sequencing and assembly as if it were an independent small genome. Using the minimum tiling path as a guide, specific BAC clones representing the prioritized genomic interval are selected, pooled, and used to prepare a sequencing library. Results This pooled BAC approach was taken to sequence and assemble a QTL-rich region, of ~3 Mbp and represented by twenty-seven BACs, on linkage group 5 of the Theobroma cacao cv. Matina 1-6 genome. Using various mixtures of read coverages from paired-end and linear 454 libraries, multiple assemblies of varied quality were generated. Quality was assessed by comparing the assembly of 454 reads with a subset of ten BACs individually sequenced and assembled using Sanger reads. A mixture of reads optimal for assembly was identified. We found, furthermore, that a quality assembly suitable for serving as a reference genome template could be obtained even with a reduced depth of sequencing coverage. Annotation of the resulting assembly revealed several genes potentially responsible for three T. cacao traits: black pod disease resistance, bean shape index, and pod weight. Conclusions Our results, as with other pooled BAC sequencing reports, suggest that pooling portions of a minimum tiling path derived from a BAC-based physical map is an effective method to target sub-genomic regions for sequencing. While we focused on a single QTL region, other QTL regions of importance could be similarly sequenced allowing for biological discovery to take place before a high quality whole-genome assembly is completed.

  7. A physiological production model for cacao : results of model simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, P.A.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    CASE2 is a physiological model for cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) growth and yield. This report introduces the CAcao Simulation Engine for water-limited production in a non-technical way and presents simulation results obtained with the model.

  8. Two Theobroma cacao genotypes with contrasting pathogen tolerance show aberrant transcriptional and ROS responses after salicylic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fister, Andrew S; O'Neil, Shawn T; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Tyler, Brett M; Guiltinan, Mark J; Maximova, Siela N

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of pathogen susceptibility in various crop plants is crucial to increasing the stability of food, feed, and fuel production. Varietal differences in defence responses provide insights into the mechanisms of resistance and are a key resource for plant breeders. To explore the role of salicylic acid in the regulation of defence in cacao, we demonstrated that SA treatment decreased susceptibility to a pod rot pathogen, Phytophthora tropicalis in two genotypes, Scavina 6 and Imperial College Selection 1, which differ in their resistance to several agriculturally important pathogens. Transient overexpression of TcNPR1, a major transcriptional regulator of the SA-dependent plant immune system, also increased pathogen tolerance in cacao leaves. To explore further the genetic basis of resistance in cacao, we used microarrays to measure gene expression profiles after salicylic acid (SA) treatment in these two cacao genotypes. The two genotypes displayed distinct transcriptional responses to SA. Unexpectedly, the expression profile of the susceptible genotype ICS1 included a larger number of pathogenesis-related genes that were induced by SA at 24h after treatment, whereas genes encoding many chloroplast and mitochondrial proteins implicated in reactive oxygen species production were up-regulated in the resistant genotype, Sca6. Sca6 accumulated significantly more superoxide at 24h after treatment of leaves with SA. These experiments revealed critical insights regarding the molecular differences between cacao varieties, which will allow a better understanding of defence mechanisms to help guide breeding programmes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Evaluación microbiológica y sensorial de fermentados de pozol blanco, con cacao (Theobroma cacao y coco (Cocos nucifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Jiménez Vera

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El pozol es una bebida de maíz que se consume en el sureste de México y en algunos países de Centroamérica. Se puede consumir recién elaborado o fermentado. Tradicionalmente se consume solo (pozol blanco, aunque también es común agregarle cacao o coco. En este trabajo se evaluaron cambios microbiológicos durante la fermentación natural a temperatura ambiental, de tres tipos de pozol: blanco, con cacao y coco. La concentración de bacterias coliformes disminuyó a partir del tercer día de fermentación y a los 12 días se obtuvo una concentración de 2,20 log UFC/g. En las bacterias lácticas se observó el mayor crecimiento; ellas alcanzaron una concentración de 8,00 log UFC/g a los 3 días de fermentación que se mantuvo durante los 9 días siguientes. Se realizaron pruebas de nivel de agrado y preferencia con 31 jueces consumidores. La adición de ingredientes como el cacao o el coco no mejoraron el nivel de agrado entre los consumidores evaluados (p > 0,05. El pozol blanco y fresco fue el preferido (32 %. En el futuro, estos resultados pueden ser utilizados para clasificar al pozol como una bebida funcional, debido a la presencia de bacterias lácticas en concentración similar a la encontrada en el yogur.

  10. Evaluación de fungicidas sistémicos y de contacto en el control de la moniliasis (Moniliophthora roreri) del cacao (Theobroma cacao).

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo Damián, Isaí

    2012-01-01

    La moniliasis causada por Moniliophthora roreri, es una de las enfermedades más destructivas del cacao en América. Afecta exclusivamente al fruto en cualquier etapa de desarrollo, causando pérdidas de hasta el 100% de la producción. Las prácticas culturales han sido el método más aplicado para el combate de la enfermedad, por lo que la selección de fungicidas adecuados contra M. roreri que puedan ser incluidos en programas de manejo de la enfermedad. El objetivo de la presente investigación f...

  11. Evaluación del desempeño de un secador solar directo sobre semillas de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Romero Frasca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló un secador solar directo con un diseño basado en dispositivos deshidratadores rudimentarios de uso regular, en granjas cacaoteras de Tabasco; con el objetivo de evaluar su desempeño en la obtención de cacao seco con- forme a la NMX-F-352-S-1980, mediante una exposición a luz solar durante cuatro días. Re- sultados: disminución paulatina del contenido de humedad hasta en un 7.50%, en promedio, en un producto con valor comercial a insertarse en el mercado.

  12. [Effect of mixed edaphic bacterial inoculants in the early development of improved cocoa cultivars (Theobroma cacao L.) in a traditional agroforestry system of Oaxaca, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipólito-Romero, E; Carcaño-Montiel, M G; Ramos-Prado, J M; Vázquez-Cabañas, E A; López-Reyes, L; Ricaño-Rodríguez, J

    Cocoa plant (Theobroma cacao L.) is native from South America and it represents one of the most significant "bio-cultural" resources of Mesoamerica, since it is a region where it was domesticated and had a relevance as ritual drink and as currency in many pre-hispanic cultures until the arrival of the Spaniards who spread its use worldwide, and became it one of the most consumed commodity goods. Through this research, an alternative is proposed to address the problem of cultivars through the introduction of a wide variety of cocoa plants in traditional agroforestry systems, in synergy with the inoculation of nitrogen-fixing and insoluble phosphor solubilizing edaphic bacterial consortia. Four cultivars of improved grafted cocoa plants were introduced in a traditional agroforestry plot and three fertilization treatments were applied: application of biofertilizer, application of chemical fertilizer and control. Measurements of height, stem diameter, number of leaves and branches were recorded at 2 and 12 months after planting and rhizosphere microbial populations were characterized. Growth results showed good potential for all studied cultivars and it was observed that biofertilization foresees significant effects in some of the growth indicators of cocoa plant. Thereby, plant associations in an agroforestry system could be favorable to promote fruit development and resistance to pests and diseases. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Organic and Conventional Fertilization on the Growth and Production of Theobroma Cacao L. Under an Agroforestry System in Rivera (Huila, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faver Álvarez Carrillo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of organic fertilizing schemes on the cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. growth and production under agroforestry systems (AFS has been scarcely studied. In this sense, in Rivera (Huila-Colombia, the effect of different management strategies for amendment application in cocoa under agroforestry systems was evaluated. Four treatments were considered: i conventional fertilizing or farmer fertilizing (chemical, T1; ii Potassium sulfate (chemical, T2; iii eco-cocoa + Super 4 (ECO-S4 (organical, T3; and iv the mixture of among the treatments with potassium sulfate + eco-cocoa (SP-ECO (chemical + organical, T4. Variance analysis, Fisher test (p<0.05 and principal components analysis (PCA were used for data comparisons. For the height of cocoa plants, there was an average increase of 22.5 cm, while for stem diameter was 4.71 cm, with significant differences between the treatments. In general, an effect of the fertilizing scheme on the agronomic parameters of cocoa evaluated was found —especially for some important variables such as number of grains per pod and average weight of the grain—. There were similar parameters between the chemical and the organic treatments. This demonstrates that organic schemes of fertilizing could be an important alternative for improving cocoa production.

  14. Anti-inflammatory properties of clovamide and Theobroma cacao phenolic extracts in human monocytes: evaluation of respiratory burst, cytokine release, NF-κB activation, and PPARγ modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawu; Locatelli, Monica; Bardelli, Claudio; Amoruso, Angela; Coisson, Jean Daniel; Travaglia, Fabiano; Arlorio, Marco; Brunelleschi, Sandra

    2011-05-25

    There is a great interest in the potential health benefits of biologically active phenolic compounds in cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and dark chocolate. We investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of clovamide (a N-phenylpropenoyl-L-amino acid amide present in cocoa beans) and two phenolic extracts from unroasted and roasted cocoa beans, by evaluating superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) production, cytokine release, and NF-κB activation in human monocytes stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The effects of rosmarinic acid are shown for comparison. Clovamide and rosmarinic acid inhibited PMA-induced O(2)(-) production and cytokine release (with a bell-shaped curve and maximal inhibition at 10-100 nM), as well as PMA-induced NF-κB activation; the two cocoa extracts were less effective. In all tests, clovamide was the most potent compound and also enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) activity, which may exert anti-inflammatory effects. These findings indicate clovamide as a possible bioactive compound with anti-inflammatory activity in human cells.

  15. Analysis of community income on suren (Toona sureni (Blume) Merr.) and cacao crops (Theobroma cacao L.) in Simalungun, North Sumatera-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifah, S.; Afifuddin, Y.; Widya, S.

    2018-02-01

    Agroforestry is the management and integration of trees, crops and/or livestock on the same plot of land and can be an integral component of productive agriculture. It may include existing native forests and forests established by landholders. The study was conducted in Mekar Sari Raya village, Panei sub, Simalungun regency, North Sumatera. This study aims to gain the ability to use agroforestry in suren crops and cocoa that provides benefits to farmers and the feasibility of the model farm. The study site has Net Present Value (NPV) is 2,670,306,905 ( IDR) for 15 of year, Gross B/C Ratio (BCR) is 2.3; Internal Rate of Return ( IRR) is 28 %; and Payback Period (PP) for 5 years 4 months 24 days. Agroforestry using commodities cacao and suren crops are financially feasible to be cultivated and developed.

  16. ANÁLISIS DE LA ESTRUCTURA ARBÓREA DEL SISTEMA AGROFORESTAL DE CACAO (Theobroma cacao L. EN EL SOCONUSCO, CHIAPAS - MÉXICO

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    Hugo Alexander Roa Romero

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la abundancia, riqueza, importancia, equidad y diversidad de los árboles encontrados en sistemas agroforestales de cacao, del Soconusco, Chiapas, México. La presente investigación, se desarrolló en la región costera del Soconusco, ubicada al sur del estado de Chiapas; se muestrearon los municipios de Huehuetán, Tapachula y Tuxtla Chico, por ser los más representativos en área sembrada de cacao. En cada municipio, se establecieron al azar siete parcelas temporales de 50 x 50 m cada una, lo que suma en total 5,25 hectáreas, en las cuales se registraron variables como el diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP: 1,3 m sobre el nivel del suelo, área basal, y sombrío en el cacaotal. Se encontraron 46 especies agrupadas en 21 familias, las especies con el mayor valor de importancia fueron Mangifera indica y Pouteria sapota, convirtiéndose en las especies de sombra más frecuentemente encontradas. La composición florística denotó una mayor similitud en los municipios de Tapachula y Huehuetán, como lo muestra el mayor porcentaje del índice de Jaccard y en lo que respecta a diversidad, el municipio de Tuxtla Chico presentó el mayor valor según el índice de Shannon. Este estudio determina la existencia de una cobertura definitiva de preferencia asociada a los árboles frutales.

  17. Eficiencia fisiológica de uso de NPK en clones autoincompatible y autocompatible de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. en Colombia

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    Yina Jazbleidi Puentes-Páramo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar la eficiencia fisiológica de N-P-K en clones de cacao de sabor y aroma autocompatible (CCN-51, ICS-95 y autoincompatible: (TSH-565, ICS-39, con la finalidad de determinar la capacidad de producción de grano seco por unidad de nutriente absorbido. Se utilizó un diseño en bloques completos al azar con cinco tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones, los tratamientos fueron diseñados a partir del nivel de fertilidad natural del suelo (TR-Tratamiento de referencia y sobre este el 25, 50, 75 y 100% más de Nitrógeno-Fósforo-Potasio (N-P-K, correspondiente al T1, T2, T3 y T4. Los resultados evidencian que hay diferencias altamente significativas entre clones para los nutrientes N-P-K absorbidos, exhibiendo mayor absorción de nitrógeno, seguido de potasio y por ultimo fósforo, en este sentido, el clon autocompatible CCN-51 mostro mayor habilidad de absorción para la mayoría de nutrientes, excepto fósforo, sin embargo, no es generalizada la mayor habilidad para clones autocompatibles con respecto a clones autoincompatibles.  La mayor eficiencia fisiológica de uso de nutrientes N-P-K se presentó en el tratamiento uno y la menor capacidad de producción de grano seco de cacao por unidad de nutriente se presentó con la dosis nutricional más alta en el tratamiento cuatro, lo cual sugiere que a mayor dosis disminuye la eficiencia fisiológica de uso de nitrógeno, fósforo y potasio de los clones.

  18. Bacillus subtilis and Enterobacter cloacae endophytes from healthy Theobroma cacao L. trees can systemically colonize seedlings and promote growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Hianna Almeida Câmara; Silva, Anderson Barbosa; Gomes, Fábio Pinto; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Faria, José Cláudio; de Souza, Jorge Teodoro; Loguercio, Leandro Lopes

    2013-03-01

    Clonal genotypes resistant to fungal diseases are an important component of the cocoa production system in southeastern Bahia state (Brazil), so that technologies for faster production of stronger and healthier plantlets are highly desirable. In this study, the effects of inoculated bacterial endophytes isolated from healthy adult cacao plants on seedlings, and aspects related to inoculation methods, colonization patterns, and photosynthesis were investigated. Sequencing of 16S rRNA, hsp-60, and rpo-B genes placed the wild-type isolates within the species Enterobacter cloacae (isolates 341 and 344) and Bacillus subtilis (isolate 629). Spontaneous rifampicin-resistant (rif(R)) variants for 344 were also produced and tested. Endophytic application was either by immersion of surface sterilized seeds in bacterial suspensions or direct inoculation into soil, 20 days after planting non-inoculated seeds into pots. Results from in vitro recovery of inoculated isolates showed that the wild-type endophytes and rif(R) variants systemically colonized the entire cacao seedlings in 15-20 days, regardless of the inoculation method. Some endophytic treatments showed significant increases in seedlings' height, number of leaves, and dry matter. Inoculation methods affected the combined application of endophytes, which maintained the growth-promotion effects, but not in the same manner as in single applications. Interestingly, the 344-3.2 rif(R) variant showed improved performance in relation to both the wild type and another related variant. Photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance increased significantly for some endophytic treatments, being partially associated with effects on growth and affected by the inoculation method. The results suggest that E. cloacae and B. subtilis endophytes from healthy adult plants (not transmitted by seeds) were able to promote vegetative growth on cacao seedlings. The development of products for large-scale use in seedlings

  19. Efecto del ácido giberélico y la 6-bencilaminopurina sobre el desarrollo de yemas en injertos de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

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    Cárdenas-Hernández Julián F.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Gran parte de los cultivos de cacao en el país son viejos y necesitan ser renovados debido a sus bajos rendimientos. Por esta razón se aborda la producción masiva de plántulas injertadas con materiales de alta productividad, que sin embargo presentan problemas en el prendimiento y desarrollo de las yemas. En el Centro de Investigación Nataima-Corpoica (Espinal, Tolima, plántulas de cacao del clon IMC67 tratadas con desbrote apical fueron injertadas con yemas de los clones CCN51 e ICS95. El ensayo siguió un diseño completamente aleatorizado con siete tratamientos, tres de ellos correspondientes a concentraciones de 5, 10 y 15 mg L-1 de ácido giberélico (AG3, y otros tres aplicando 6-bencilaminopurina (6BAP en las mismas concentraciones, más un testigo sin aplicación de hormonas. Cada 3 días se midieron la altura, el diámetro, la longitud, el número de hojas y el área foliar del injerto, además de su masa fresca y seca al final del experimento, el cual duró 30 días. El AG3 permitió alcanzar los mayores valores en longitud, número de hojas, área foliar y masa fresca y seca del injerto. Para los mismos parámetros, los tratamientos con 6BAP alcanzaron valores similares a los obtenidos con AG3 (con diferencias estadísticas en algunos casos, además de los mayores diámetros del injerto. Dentro de las aplicaciones de AG3, la realizada a una concentración de 10 mg L-1 mostró los mejores resultados en ambos clones. Sin la aplicación de hormonas, las yemas del clon ICS95 desarrollaron una mayor área foliar y alcanzaron mayores valores de masa fresca y seca que las yemas del clon CCN51. Sin embargo, después de aplicar los tratamientos, los dos clones presentaron valores similares.

  20. Improving Nutritional Quality of Cocoa Pod (Theobroma cacao) through Chemical and Biological Treatments for Ruminant Feeding: In vitro and In vivo Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laconi, Erika B; Jayanegara, Anuraga

    2015-03-01

    Cocoa pod is among the by-products of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) plantations. The aim of this study was to apply a number of treatments in order to improve nutritional quality of cocoa pod for feeding of ruminants. Cocoa pod was subjected to different treatments, i.e. C (cocoa pod without any treatment or control), CAm (cocoa pod+1.5% urea), CMo (cocoa pod+3% molasses), CRu (cocoa pod+3% rumen content) and CPh (cocoa pod+3% molasses+Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculum). Analysis of proximate and Van Soest's fiber fraction were performed on the respective treatments. The pods were then subjected to an in vitro digestibility evaluation by incubation in rumen fluid-buffer medium, employing a randomized complete block design (n = 3 replicates). Further, an in vivo evaluation of the pods (35% inclusion level in total mixed ration) was conducted by feeding to young Holstein steers (average body weight of 145±3.6 kg) with a 5×5 latin square design arrangement (n = 5 replicates). Each experimental period lasted for 30 d; the first 20 d was for feed adaptation, the next 3 d was for sampling of rumen liquid, and the last 7 d was for measurements of digestibility and N balance. Results revealed that lignin content was reduced significantly when cocoa pod was treated with urea, molasses, rumen content or P. chrysosporium (pCAm>CRu>CMo. Among all treatments, CAm and CPh treatments significantly improved the in vitro dry matter and organic matter digestibility (pcocoa pod. Average daily gain of steers receiving CAm or CPh treatment was significantly higher than that of control (pcocoa pod.

  1. Chemical, physico-chemical and sensory characterization of mixed açai (Euterpe oleracea and cocoa´s honey (Theobroma cacao jellies

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    Biano Alves de Melo Neto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Four formulations of mixed açaí (Euterpe oleracea (A and cocoa´s honey (Theobroma cacao (CH jellies were prepared according to the following proportions: T1 (40% A:60% CH, T2 (50% A:50% CH, T3 (60% A: 40% CH and T4 (100% A - control. All formulations were prepared using a rate 60:40 (w/w of sucrose and pulp, plus 0.5% pectin and the products reached to average of 65% soluble solids content. The jellies were analyzed by chemical and physicochemical (titratable acidity, pH, soluble solid content, dry matter, total protein, lipids, vitamin C and calories and sensory characteristics; also were evaluated levels of P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn. It was used a hedonic scale of 7 points to evaluate the attributes: overall impression, spreadability, brightness, flavor, texture and color, and also was verified the purchase intention score. The titratable acidity and pH ranged from 0.46 to 0.64% and 3.35 to 3.64, respectively, that are within the range found at most fruit jellies. The soluble solids content ranged between 65.2 and 65.5 ºBrix. The sensory acceptance results showed that all treatments (T1, T2, T3 and T4 presented means of sensory attributes above 4, demonstrating good acceptance of the product, but the treatment T1 presented the higher scores for the evaluated attributes. Cocoa´s honey added a positive influence on the attributes of color, texture and spreadability.

  2. Préférences alimentaires de Sahlbergella singularis Hagl. (Hemiptera: Miridae vis-à-vis de quelques clones de cacaoyers (Theobroma cacao L.

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    Amang, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding Preferences of Sahlbergella singularis Hagl. (Hemiptera: Miridae to some Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Clones. The selection of cocoa clones, resistant to Sahlbergella singularis Hagl. was done in the laboratory according to the standardized method of indoor microtests based on the study of mirid feeding preferences. Fourteen cocoa clones were involved. The Sca6 clone was the control. An index (i which expresses the ratio of the number of stings on the clone to that obtained on the control was calculated for each cultivar. Which has enabled to quantify the levels of attractiveness of cocoa clones to S. singularis and to classify these clones in three groups: less attractive clones (i< 1, non different (i= 1 and more attractive (i> 1. The results obtained showed that the mean numbers of feeding stings on the control (tr ranged from 5.49 to 5.62 (5.49≤ tr≤ 5.62 and that obtained on the other clones (tc from 5.29 to 6.18 (5.29≤ tc ≤ 6.18. The Na33 clone had the highest stings mean number (6.18 and IFC 100 the lowest one (5.29. The High Amazonian clone Na33 was the most attractive and the clones ICS100, IFC100, (exotic trinitario, Sca12 (catongo and Na32 (High Amazonian were less attractive. On the other hand the clones IFC1363, IFC1362, IFC1374 (catongo, UPA337, T60/887, ICS1 and IMC60 (High Amazonians and ICS95 (exotic trinitario were non different. The reactivity seemed not depending on the origin of the clone. Save the High Amazonian clone Na33 which was the most attractive there were among non different and less attractive clones as well exotic trinitario, catongo as High Amazonians.

  3. DAMPAK APLIKASI INSEKTISIDA PERMETRIN TERHADAP HAMA PENGISAP BIJAIJ HELOPELTIS SPP. (HEMIPTERA: MIRIDAE DAN ARTROPODA NON-TARGET PADA PERTANAMAN KAKAO (THEOBROMA CACAO L.

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    Rosma Hasibuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Impact of Permethrin-Insecticide Application on Mirid Pest of Cocoa Helopeltis spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae and on Non-target  Arthropods in Cocoa Plantations (Theobroma cacao L.. Cocoa mirid bugs, Helopeltis spp., (Hemiptera: Miridae are the most important pest of cocoa in Indonesia. A field study was conducted to investigate the effect of permethrin on cocoa mirids and non-target arthropods at a cocoa plantation in specific place. A randomized complete block design was used in which each of four blocks consisted of 5 treatments (4 concentrations of permethrin; 50; 100; 200; and 250 ppm and control. The results indicated that the application of permethrin significantly increased the cocoa mirids mortaliiy throughout all sprayed cocoa trees (up to 100% 72 h after application. Even at 1 h after application, the percentage of Cocoa mirids mortality 29.2% - 53.9% on cocoa trees sprayed with permethrin at concentrations of 50 - 250 ppm was significantly higher than that on control plant (3.6%. At 72 h after treatments, application of permethrin at concentrations of 200 and 250 ppm caused a complete kill (mortalty of 100% in the test mirids. Meanwhile, ground cloths caught at least 22 fanilies of abore-ground arthropods that were found killed by permethrin applications. Moreover, the number of non-target arthropods killed by permethrin at concentrations of 100 - 250 ppm (27.3 - 85.3 individuals/ground cloth were signifcantly higher than that on control trees. These results demonstrated that despite high efficacy of permethrin in controlling of cocoa mirids (Hetopeltis spp., its application also had adverse effects on non-target arthropods incocoa plantations.

  4. Genetic diversity and structure of managed and semi-natural populations of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) in the Huallaga and Ucayali Valleys of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dapeng; Arevalo-Gardini, Enrique; Mischke, Sue; Zúñiga-Cernades, Luis; Barreto-Chavez, Alejandro; Del Aguila, Jorge Adriazola

    2006-09-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is indigenous to the Amazon region of South America, and it is well known that the Peruvian Amazon harbours a large number of diverse cocoa populations. A small fraction of the diversity has been collected and maintained as an ex-situ germplasm repository in Peru. However, incorrect labelling of accessions and lack of information on genetic diversity have hindered efficient conservation and use of this germplasm. This study targeted assessment of genetic diversity and population structure in a managed and a semi-natural population. Using a capillary electrophoresis genotyping system, 105 cocoa accessions collected from the Huallaga and Ucayali valleys of Peru were fingerprinted. Based on 15 loci SSR profiles, genetic identity was examined for each accession and duplicates identified, population structure assessed and genetic diversity analysed in these two populations. Ten synonymous mislabelled groups were identified among the 105 accessions. The germplasm group in the Huallaga valley was clearly separated from the group in Ucayali valley by the Bayesian assignment test. The Huallaga group has lower genetic diversity, both in terms of allelic richness and of gene diversity, than the Ucayali group. Analysis of molecular variance suggested genetic substructure in the Ucayali group. Significant spatial correlation between genetic distance and geographical distances was detected in the Ucayali group by Mantel tests. These results substantiate the hypothesis that the Peruvian Amazon hosts a high level of cocoa genetic diversity, and the diversity has a spatial structure. The introduction of exotic seed populations into the Peruvian Amazon is changing the cocoa germplasm spectrum in this region. The spatial structure of cocoa diversity recorded here highlights the need for additional collecting and conservation measures for natural and semi-natural cocoa populations.

  5. Characterization of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene family from chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Maximova, Siela N.; Guiltinan, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyol-ACP is catalyzed by a plastid-localized soluble stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD). The activity of SAD significantly impacts the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and is thus a major determinant of fatty acid composition. The cacao genome contains eight putative SAD isoforms with high amino acid sequence similarities and functional domain conservation with SAD genes from other species. Sequence variation in known functional domains between different SAD family members suggested that these eight SAD isoforms might have distinct functions in plant development, a hypothesis supported by their diverse expression patterns in various cacao tissues. Notably, TcSAD1 is universally expressed across all the tissues, and its expression pattern in seeds is highly correlated with the dramatic change in fatty acid composition during seed maturation. Interestingly, TcSAD3 and TcSAD4 appear to be exclusively and highly expressed in flowers, functions of which remain unknown. To test the function of TcSAD1 in vivo, transgenic complementation of the Arabidopsis ssi2 mutant was performed, demonstrating that TcSAD1 successfully rescued all AtSSI2 related phenotypes further supporting the functional orthology between these two genes. The identification of the major SAD gene responsible for cocoa butter biosynthesis provides new strategies for screening for novel genotypes with desirable fatty acid compositions, and for use in breeding programs to help pyramid genes for quality and other traits such as disease resistance. PMID:25926841

  6. Behavior of introduced regional clones of Theobroma cacao toward the infection Moniliophthora roreri in three different regions of Colombia

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    Jaimes Yeirme

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Moniliasis (frosty pod rot, caused by Moniliophthora roreri, is the most limiting disease of cacao bean production in Colombia. Disease control has focused primarily on the implementation of cultural methods, which are inefficient and increase costs of production. A promising alternative for the control of M. roreri is the genetic approach, involving the search for plants with known resistance in the field. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of 13 regional clones of Corpoica Selection Colombia (SCC, ten regional Fedecacao clones (with the initial F, three clones Caucasia (CAU and 13 introduced clones for resistance to M. roreri, by monitoring symptoms and signs of the pathogen in fruits of the cacao at three experimental sites located in Arauquita (Arauca, San Vicente and Rionegro (Santander. To estimate the degree of susceptibility or resistance of each clone, the pathogen was inoculated into fruits 75-5 days old. Eight weeks later, the variables Incidence, Internal Severity Index and External Severity Index were evaluated. In the three experimental sites, the ICS clone 95 behaved as a resistant plant with ISI ranging from 1.4 to 1.9. In the other clones tested, susceptibility varied according to altitude and environmental conditions. However, the ICS clone 95 showed partial resistance, varying the spread of the pathogen in the plant tissue.

  7. Characterization of a stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase gene family from chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufan; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    In plants, the conversion of stearoyl-ACP to oleoyol-ACP is catalyzed by a plastid-localized soluble stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD). The activity of SAD significantly impacts the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and is thus a major determinant of fatty acid composition. The cacao genome contains eight putative SAD isoforms with high amino acid sequence similarities and functional domain conservation with SAD genes from other species. Sequence variation in known functional domains between different SAD family members suggested that these eight SAD isoforms might have distinct functions in plant development, a hypothesis supported by their diverse expression patterns in various cacao tissues. Notably, TcSAD1 is universally expressed across all the tissues, and its expression pattern in seeds is highly correlated with the dramatic change in fatty acid composition during seed maturation. Interestingly, TcSAD3 and TcSAD4 appear to be exclusively and highly expressed in flowers, functions of which remain unknown. To test the function of TcSAD1 in vivo, transgenic complementation of the Arabidopsis ssi2 mutant was performed, demonstrating that TcSAD1 successfully rescued all AtSSI2 related phenotypes further supporting the functional orthology between these two genes. The identification of the major SAD gene responsible for cocoa butter biosynthesis provides new strategies for screening for novel genotypes with desirable fatty acid compositions, and for use in breeding programs to help pyramid genes for quality and other traits such as disease resistance.

  8. Population dynamics of epiphytic mycoparasites of the genera Clonostachys and Fusarium for the biocontrol of black pod (Phytophthora palmivora) and moniliasis (Moniliophthora roreri) on cocoa (Theobroma cacao).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopen, G Martijn ten; Rees, Robert; Aisa, Philo; Stirrup, Tim; Krauss, Ulrike

    2003-05-01

    Mycoparasites collected from aerial parts of the cocoa plant (Theobroma cacao) have shown great promise in the control of black pod, caused by Phytophthora palmivora, and moniliasis, caused by Moniliophthora roreri. However, the ecology of epiphytic mycoparasites is still poorly understood although it has a direct bearing on applied biocontrol practices, ranging from the identification and isolation of promising biocontrol candidates to formulation needs and required application frequency. One objective of this study was to determine the natural abundance of mycoparasites on cocoa flowers and pods in relation to crop development stage and cultivar. For this purpose, native mycoparasites were detected on cocoa flowers and pods using the precolonised plate baiting technique. Furthermore, the survival of an applied Clonostachys rosea isolate on cocoa pods on shaded and non-shaded trees was compared as well as the recolonisation patterns of surface-sterilised pods by native mycoparasites under these conditions. Clonostachys spp. were the most commonly isolated native mycoparasites, followed by Fusarium spp. No differences in the occurrence of native, epiphytic mycoparasites were observed between the three main cocoa cultivars, 'Criollo', 'Forastero' and 'Trinitario', nor between clones within these groups. Thus, a single biocontrol inoculum can be suitable for application to cultivar mixtures of cocoa commonly grown together in a field. Different susceptibility classes of segregating F1 populations of hybrids with resistance against M. roreri and P. palmivora supported similar population levels and taxonomic assemblages of mycoparasites. Therefore, we reject the hypothesis that these antagonists mediate resistance. Mycoparasite abundance and genetic disease resistance to black pod and moniliasis are independent phenomena and should lead to additive effects if employed simultaneously in an integrated disease management programme. The survival of applied C. rosea was not

  9. Tc-cAPX, a cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase of Theobroma cacao L. engaged in the interaction with Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causing agent of witches' broom disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camillo, Luciana Rodrigues; Filadelfo, Ciro Ribeiro; Monzani, Paulo Sérgio; Corrêa, Ronan Xavier; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Micheli, Fabienne; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2013-12-01

    The level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in plants signalizes the induction of several genes, including that of ascorbate peroxidase (APX-EC 1.11.1.11). APX isoenzymes play a central role in the elimination of intracellular H2O2 and contribute to plant responses to diverse stresses. During the infection process in Theobroma cacao by Moniliophthora perniciosa oxidative stress is generated and the APX action recruited from the plant. The present work aimed to characterize the T. cacao APX involved in the molecular interaction of T. cacao-M. perniciosa. The peroxidase activity was analyzed in protein extracts from cocoa plants infected by M. perniciosa and showed the induction of peroxidases like APX in resistant cocoa plants. The cytosolic protein of T. cacao (GenBank: ABR68691.2) was phylogenetically analyzed in relation to other peroxidases from the cocoa genome and eight genes encoding APX proteins with conserved domains were also analyzed. The cDNA from cytosolic APX was cloned in pET28a and the recombinant protein expressed and purified (rTc-cAPX). The secondary structure of the protein was analyzed by Circular Dichroism (CD) displaying high proportion of α-helices when folded. The enzymatic assay shows stable activity using ascorbate and guaiacol as an electron donor for H2O2 reduction. The pH 7.5 is the optimum for enzyme activity. Chromatographic analysis suggests that rTc-cAPX is a homodimer in solution. Results indicate that the rTc-cAPX is correctly folded, stable and biochemically active. The purified rTc-cAPX presented biotechnological potential and is adequate for future structural and functional studies. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  10. Horticultural traits associated with cacao accessions recommended for Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important agricultural product from which the international chocolate industry is based upon. Increasing demand for chocolate, especially in emerging markets in Asia, coupled with reduced worldwide production has led to shortfalls in cacao ‘bean’ supplies. Deficits...

  11. Coffee vs. Cacao: A Case Study from the Vietnamese Central Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Dang Thanh; Shively, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Mr. Nam, the vice chair of a village in Dak Lak province of Vietnam, was keen to protect farmers in his village from the sharp decline in prices of coffee ("Coffea canephora" Pierre ex Froehner). He did this by encouraging farmers in his village to plant cacao ("Theobroma cacao" L. subsp. "cacao"). Cacao was suitable…

  12. Soil physical and chemical properties of cacao farms in the south western region of cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The low macro nutrient content (K, Ca and Mg) in soils under cacao is one of the major causes of the poor cacao (Theobroma cacao L) yields. Efforts were made to assess the major physical and chemical properties of soils from some important cacao zones of the South West Region of Cameroon in order t...

  13. Genetic identity, ancestry and parentage in farmer selections of cacao from Aceh, Indonesia revealed by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is the source of cocoa powder and butter used for chocolate and this species originated in the rainforests of South America. Indonesia is the 3rd largest cacao producer in the world with an annual cacao output of 0.55 million tons. Knowledge of on-farm genetic diversity is...

  14. Phytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora, closely related causal agents of cacao black pod induce similar reactions when infecting pods of a susceptible cacao genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) cause black pod rot of Theobroma cacao. Of these two clade 4 species; Pmeg is more virulent and is displacing Ppal on cacao in many cacao production areas in Africa. To understand the advantages Pmeg has over Ppal, we compared symptom...

  15. Embriogénesis somática secundaria en el genotipo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) inifap 1 y su descripción histológica

    OpenAIRE

    Lázaro, A. Alejandro; Azpeitia-Morales, A.; Sáenz-Carbonell, L.; Mirafuentes Hernández, F.

    2015-01-01

    La embriogénesis somática aplicada para la propagación clonal de plantas de cacao, aun es de baja eficiencia, por lo que el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la respuesta de los cotiledones procedentes de embriones somáticos primarios como fuente de explante para inducir embriogénesis somática secundaria (ESS) en presencia de fitohormonas y sin estas en el genotipo de cacao inifap 1, asi como describir los eventos de la ESS desde los 30 hasta los 240 días de cultivo. El uso de las fi...

  16. Embriogénesis somática secundaria en el genotipo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) inifap 1 y su descripción histológica

    OpenAIRE

    A. Alejandro-Lázaro; A. Azpeitia-Morales; L. Sáenz-Carbonell; F . Mirafuentes Hernández

    2015-01-01

    La embriogénesis somática aplicada para la propagación clonal de plantas de cacao, aun es de baja eficiencia, por lo que el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la respuesta de los cotiledones procedentes de embriones somáticos primarios como fuente de explante para inducir embriogénesis somática secundaria (ESS) en presencia de fitohormonas y sin estas en el genotipo de cacao inifap 1, asi como describir los eventos de la ESS desde los 30 hasta los 240 días de cultivo. El uso de l...

  17. Successful pod infections by Moniliophthora roreri result in differential Theobroma cacao gene expression depending on the clone’s level of tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    As many of the tolerant cacao clones are slowly losing the tolerance against Frosty pod rot (FPR) caused by Moniliophthora roreri, the knowledge of this tolerance at the molecular level can help to generate more stable tolerant clone against FPR. RNA-Seq analysis was carried out to obtain a comparat...

  18. Unexpected Genome Variability at Multiple Loci Suggests Cacao Swollen Shoot Virus Comprises Multiple, Divergent Molecular Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) [Badnavirus, Caulimoviridae] causes swollen shoot disease of Theobroma cacao L. in West Africa. Since ~2000, various diagnostic tests have failed to detect CSSV in ~50-70% of symptomatic cacao plants, suggesting the possible emergence of new, previously uncharacteriz...

  19. Evaluation of soil amendments as a remediation alternative for cadmium contaminated soils under cacao plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated plant-available cadmium (Cd) in soils results in contamination to cacao (Theobroma cacao L) beans. Effectiveness of vermicompost and zeolite in reducing available Cd in three cacao-growing soils was studied under laboratory conditions. Sorption-desorption experiments were conducted in soils...

  20. Impact of soils and cropping systems on composition of mineral elements of dry cacao beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    In view of its high economic value, cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) researchers are seeking technological innovations that increase production and improve the quality of cacao beans. The objective of this study was to characterize the mineral (P, K, Ca, Mg, Si, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ba) composition of caca...

  1. Soil microbial communities under cacao agroforestry and cover crop systems in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) trees are grown in tropical regions worldwide for chocolate production. We studied the effects of agroforestry management systems and cover cropping on soil microbial communities under cacao in two different replicated field experiments in Peru. Two agroforestry systems, Imp...

  2. Concentration of Cadmium in Cacao Beans and its Relationship with Soil Cadmium in Southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentration of cadmium (Cd) in cacao (Theobroma cacao, L.) beans above a critical level (0.6 mg kg-1 established by the European Union) has raised concerns of safety in the consumption of cacao-based chocolate (dark chocolate). Currently, little is available regarding Cd concentration in soil,...

  3. Discovery and mapping of a new expressed sequence tag-single nucleotide polymorphism and simple sequence repeat panel for large-scale genetic studies and breeding of Theobroma cacao L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegre, Mathilde; Argout, Xavier; Boccara, Michel; Fouet, Olivier; Roguet, Yolande; Bérard, Aurélie; Thévenin, Jean Marc; Chauveau, Aurélie; Rivallan, Ronan; Clement, Didier; Courtois, Brigitte; Gramacho, Karina; Boland-Augé, Anne; Tahi, Mathias; Umaharan, Pathmanathan; Brunel, Dominique; Lanaud, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Theobroma cacao is an economically important tree of several tropical countries. Its genetic improvement is essential to provide protection against major diseases and improve chocolate quality. We discovered and mapped new expressed sequence tag-single nucleotide polymorphism (EST-SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and constructed a high-density genetic map. By screening 149 650 ESTs, 5246 SNPs were detected in silico, of which 1536 corresponded to genes with a putative function, while 851 had a clear polymorphic pattern across a collection of genetic resources. In addition, 409 new SSR markers were detected on the Criollo genome. Lastly, 681 new EST-SNPs and 163 new SSRs were added to the pre-existing 418 co-dominant markers to construct a large consensus genetic map. This high-density map and the set of new genetic markers identified in this study are a milestone in cocoa genomics and for marker-assisted breeding. The data are available at http://tropgenedb.cirad.fr. PMID:22210604

  4. Theobromine, the primary methylxanthine found in Theobroma cacao, prevents malignant glioblastoma proliferation by negatively regulating phosphodiesterase-4, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin kinase, and nuclear factor-kappa B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Miwa, Shinji; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Yachie, Akihiro

    2014-01-01

    Theobromine, a caffeine derivative, is the primary methylxanthine produced by Theobroma cacao. We previously showed that methylxanthines, including caffeine and theophylline, have antitumor and antiinflammatory effects, which are in part mediated by their inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE). A member of the PDE family, PDE4, is widely expressed in and promotes the growth of glioblastoma, the most common type of brain tumor. The purpose of this study was to determine whether theobromine could exert growth inhibitory effects on U87-MG, a cell line derived from human malignant glioma. We show that theobromine treatment elevates intracellular cAMP levels and increases the activity of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, whereas it attenuates p44/42 extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity and the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin kinase and nuclear factor-kappa B signal pathways. It also inhibits cell proliferation. These results suggest that foods and beverages containing cocoa bean extracts, including theobromine, might be extremely effective in preventing human glioblastoma.

  5. Macro and micro nutrient uptake parameters and use efficiency in cacao genotypes influenced by deficient to excess levels of soil K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important economic crop for many of the tropical countries. Adequate levels of soil K are essential for good growth and achieving high cocoa bean yields. Soils under cacao invariably have low levels of plant available K to support good cacao growth. Growth chamber ex...

  6. Accurate determination of genetic identity for a single cacao bean, using molecular markers with a nanofluidic system, ensures cocoa authenticity and traceability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important tropical crop since it is the source of cocoa butter and powder for the confectionery industry. Production and marketing of premium high-value fine flavored cacao provide opportunities for cacao growers, the chocolate industry and consumers. The higher far...

  7. Sulphur depletion altered somatic embryogenesis in Theobroma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Somatic embryogenesis is a useful tool for Theobroma cacao improvement and propagation. Depending on culture medium composition, different morphogenetic structures (including somatic embryo) occur in response to alteration of genes expression patterns and biochemical changes. The effect of SO42- ion deficiency ...

  8. Origin, dispersal and current global distribution of cacao genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is cultivated globally as the unique source of cocoa butter and powder for the confectionery industries. In spite of its economical importance, cocoa was and continues to be dominantly produced in low-input and low-output systems. Production constraints, including depletio...

  9. CACAO TO COCOA TO CHOCOLATE: HEALTHY FOOD?

    OpenAIRE

    ROYA KELISHADI

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chocolate is derived from cocoa beans - the fruit of the cacao tree or Theobroma cacao (the latin term: food of the gods). Recent published articles demonstrate that the quality and quantity of the antioxidants in cocoa and chocolate are very high and their flavonoids are believed to reduce the number of free radicals in the body that contribute to medical problems, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer and also to offer some anti-aging health benefits. Cocoa can lower the leukot...

  10. In Vitro Studies on the Antioxidant Property and Inhibition of α-Amylase, α-Glucosidase, and Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme by Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S; Nwanna, Esther E; Longe, Kuburat O

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study sought to investigate the antidiabetic and antihypertensive mechanisms of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) bean through inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, angiotensin-1 converting enzyme, and oxidative stress. Methodology. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the water extractable phytochemicals from the powdered cocoa bean were determined and the effects of the extract on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities were investigated in vitro. Furthermore, the radicals [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2..-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), hydroxyl (OH), and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property of the extract were assessed. Results. The results revealed that the extract inhibited α-amylase (1.81 ± 0.22 mg/mL), α-glucosidase (1.84 ± 0.17 mg/mL), and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (0.674 ± 0.06 mg/mL [lungs], 1.006 ± 0.08 mg/mL [heart]) activities in a dose-dependent manner and also showed dose-dependent radicals [DPPH (16.94 ± 1.34 mg/mL), NO (6.98 ± 0.886 mg/mL), OH (3.72 ± 0.26 mg/mL), and ABTS (15.7 ± 1.06 mmol/TEAC·g] scavenging ability. Conclusion. The inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the cocoa bean extract could be part of the possible mechanism by which the extract could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension.

  11. In Vitro Studies on the Antioxidant Property and Inhibition of α-Amylase, α-Glucosidase, and Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme by Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Cocoa (Theobroma cacao Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu Oboh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study sought to investigate the antidiabetic and antihypertensive mechanisms of cocoa (Theobroma cacao bean through inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, angiotensin-1 converting enzyme, and oxidative stress. Methodology. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the water extractable phytochemicals from the powdered cocoa bean were determined and the effects of the extract on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities were investigated in vitro. Furthermore, the radicals [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2..-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS, hydroxyl (OH, and nitric oxide (NO] scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property of the extract were assessed. Results. The results revealed that the extract inhibited α-amylase (1.81 ± 0.22 mg/mL, α-glucosidase (1.84 ± 0.17 mg/mL, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (0.674 ± 0.06 mg/mL [lungs], 1.006 ± 0.08 mg/mL [heart] activities in a dose-dependent manner and also showed dose-dependent radicals [DPPH (16.94 ± 1.34 mg/mL, NO (6.98 ± 0.886 mg/mL, OH (3.72 ± 0.26 mg/mL, and ABTS (15.7 ± 1.06 mmol/TEAC·g] scavenging ability. Conclusion. The inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the cocoa bean extract could be part of the possible mechanism by which the extract could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension.

  12. In Vitro Studies on the Antioxidant Property and Inhibition of α-Amylase, α-Glucosidase, and Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme by Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademosun, Ayokunle O.; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O.; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S.; Nwanna, Esther E.; Longe, Kuburat O.

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study sought to investigate the antidiabetic and antihypertensive mechanisms of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) bean through inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, angiotensin-1 converting enzyme, and oxidative stress. Methodology. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the water extractable phytochemicals from the powdered cocoa bean were determined and the effects of the extract on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities were investigated in vitro. Furthermore, the radicals [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2..-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), hydroxyl (OH), and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property of the extract were assessed. Results. The results revealed that the extract inhibited α-amylase (1.81 ± 0.22 mg/mL), α-glucosidase (1.84 ± 0.17 mg/mL), and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (0.674 ± 0.06 mg/mL [lungs], 1.006 ± 0.08 mg/mL [heart]) activities in a dose-dependent manner and also showed dose-dependent radicals [DPPH (16.94 ± 1.34 mg/mL), NO (6.98 ± 0.886 mg/mL), OH (3.72 ± 0.26 mg/mL), and ABTS (15.7 ± 1.06 mmol/TEAC·g] scavenging ability. Conclusion. The inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the cocoa bean extract could be part of the possible mechanism by which the extract could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:25295218

  13. Inhibitory Effect of Phragmanthera Incana (Schum.) Harvested from Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao) and Kolanut (Cola Nitida) Trees on Fe2+ induced Lipid Oxidative Stress in Some Rat Tissues - In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunmefun, O. T.; Fasola, T. R.; Saba, A. B.; Akinyemi, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence in both experimental and clinical studies has shown the participation of oxidative stress in the development and progression of diabetes mellitus. This study therefore, sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of methanolic extract of Phragmanthera incana leaves, a mistletoe species harvested from Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and Kolanut (Cola nitida) on FeSO4 induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas, liver, kidney, heart and brain in vitro. The methanolic extract was prepared with 90% methanol (v/v); subsequently, the antioxidant properties and inhibitory effect of the extract on Fe2+ induced lipid peroxidation in some rat tissues were determined in vitro. Incubation of the different rat tissues homogenate in the presence of Fe caused a significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of the tissues. However, the methanolic extracts of Phragmanthera incana leaves harvested from both Cocoa and Kolanut trees caused a significant decrease in the MDA contents of all the tissues tested in a dose-dependent manner. However, the extract of Phragmanthera incana leaves harvested from kolanut trees had a better inhibitory effect on Fe2+- induced lipid peroxidation in the rat tissues homogenates than that of Phragmanthera incana leaves harvested from cocoa trees. This higher inhibitory effect could be attributed to its significantly higher antioxidant properties as typified by their phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging ability and reducing power. Therefore, oxidative stress associated with diabetes and its other complications could be potentially managed/prevented by harnessing Phragmanthera incana leaves as cheap nutraceuticals. However, Phragmanthera incana leaves harvested from kolanut trees exhibited better antioxidant properties.

  14. Embriogénesis somática secundaria en el genotipo de cacao (Theobroma cacao L. inifap 1 y su descripción histológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alejandro-Lázaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La embriogénesis somática aplicada para la propagación clonal de plantas de cacao, aun es de baja eficiencia, por lo que el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la respuesta de los cotiledones procedentes de embriones somáticos primarios como fuente de explante para inducir embriogénesis somática secundaria (ESS en presencia de fitohormonas y sin estas en el genotipo de cacao inifap 1, asi como describir los eventos de la ESS desde los 30 hasta los 240 días de cultivo. El uso de las fitohormonas ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiácetico (2,4-D y thidiazuron (TDZ son importantes para inducir la embriogénesis somática (ES primaria en cacao. Adicionalmente para generar la ESS se han utilizado fitohormonas. En la presente investigación, fueron establecidos cuatro tratamientos con fregmentos de cotiledón, con 2,4-D y TDZ en forma combinada e independiente, incluyendo un testigo sin fitohormonas. Los resultados mostraron, que los fragmentos de cotiledón cultivados sin fitohormonas favorece la ESS, obteniendo un promedio de seis embriones somáticos secundarios (ESs a los 210 días de cultivo contra uno para el tratamiento suplementado con TDZ. El meristemo apical y radicular se presentó en un periodo de 240 días, se observaron embriones somáticos con estructuras externas como: cotiledones, ápices y raíces. Los resultados mostraron que la exclusión del 2,4-D y el thidiazuron no son importantes para inducir la ESS. El mayor número de ESs se encontró en un medio desprovisto de fitohormonas por lo que esta información es relevante, debido a que los explantes de cotiledones procedentes de embriones somáticos primarios, generan mayor número de ESs en esta especie. Estos resultados constituyen el primer reporte de la inducción de la ESs sin fitohormonas.

  15. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de Lippia sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. y Par. Evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (Theobroma cacao L. In vitro effect of essential oils of three Lippia species on Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. and Par. Evans et al., causative agent of moniliasis of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Stefany Lozada

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5 extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas. Los aislados de monilia (M1, M2, M3, M4 y M5 fueron caracterizados por su morfología, germinación y crecimiento en medios de cultivo. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes concentraciones de los AEs fue evaluada contra el aislado M2 y la cepa de M. roreri (ATCC 64239, para determinar su efecto sobre la germinación y la inhibición del crecimiento micelial. Los AEs estudiados inhibieron 100% de la germinación y del crecimiento micelial cuando fueron utilizados en concentraciones de 800 - 1000 µg/ml. Concentraciones de 200 µg/ml también mostraron efecto sobre los aislamientos fúngicos, siendo los AEs obtenidos de L. origanoides (AE2 y AE3 los más activos. Estos estaban compuestos principalmente por timol, p-cimeno, g-terpineno, acetato de timilo, carvacrol, b-mirceno, trans-b-cariofileno. Diferencias significativas (P The in vitro antifungal effect of five essential oils (EOs (EO1, EO2, EO3, EO4 and EO5 extracted from Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora and L. alba on isolates of Monilia (Moniliophthora roreri was evaluated. Lippia plants were collected at five locations in Colombia, and monilia isolates were obtained from infected cocoa fruits collected in San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. The fungi strains (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5 were characterized by morphology, germination and growth in culture media. Antifungal activity of different concentrations of EOs was evaluated against the M2 and the isolated strain of M. roreri (ATCC 64239 determining their effect on germination and mycelial growth inhibition. The five essential oils studied inhibited

  16. Development of a nopal fiber (Opuntia ficus-indica and powdered cocoa (Theobroma cacao added beef patties, nutritive, physicochemical and sensory characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H. Chamorro-Ramirez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate addition effect of 3% of nopal fiber (FN and cacao powder (CA on the physicochemical, nutritional content and sensory acceptation of patty meat. A total of 144 patties were elaborated in three different batches: Control (TC no addition; FN with 3% of FN; and CA with 3% of CA. Physicochemical tests (pH, Aw, texture (TPA and instrumental color (CIE-Lab at different storage times (0, 2, 7, 14 and 28 days, besides to nutritional content and acceptation test. pH increased in all the treatments at 28 days of storage, where CA addition decreased luminosity (P>0.05 and maintained higher a* values (P0.05. FN or CA addition increased fiber content (P<0.05. Patties with FN showed a moderate acceptation. Since addition of FN or CA did not decreased consumer acceptation, these can be employed as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  17. Efecto del pH, la luz y la concentración de sacarosa en la Embriogénesis somática de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Valverde Cerdas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se llevó a cabo una investigación con el fin de establecer la metodología adecuada para inducir embriogénesis somática en cacao, a partir de semillas maduras. Se estudió el efecto del pH, la luz y la concentración de sacarosa sobre la respuesta embriogénica. Los dos cultivares mostraron diferente respuesta morfogénica y en ambos, estuvo influenciada por el pH, la luz y la concentración de sacarosa. La mejor respuesta embriogénica se obtuvo con un pH de 6,7. El número de embriones producidos fue mayor bajo condiciones de oscuridad que en presencia de luz. La formación de callo y la diferenciación de embriones somáticos estuvo directamente influenciada por la concentración de azúcar en el medio de cultivo. La mayor cantidad de embriones se obtuvo con niveles de sacarosa entre 4% y 6% para el híbrido UF-613xIMC-67 y niveles entre 2% y 4% de sacarosa para el cultivar CATIE-1000. Se presento una embriogénesis somática directa. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren la necesidad de continuar realizando estudios con esta especie.

  18. The relic Criollo cacao in Belize- genetic diversity and relationship with Trinitario and other cacao clones held in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is native to the South American rainforest but it was domesticated in Mesoamerica. The relic Criollo cocoa in Belize has been well known in the premium chocolate market for its high-quality. Knowledge of genetic diversity in this variety is essential for efficient conserva...

  19. Identification of candidate genes involved in Witches' broom disease resistance in a segregating mapping population of Theobroma cacao L. in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royaert, Stefan; Jansen, Johannes; da Silva, Daniela Viana; de Jesus Branco, Samuel Martins; Livingstone, Donald S; Mustiga, Guiliana; Marelli, Jean-Philippe; Araújo, Ioná Santos; Corrêa, Ronan Xavier; Motamayor, Juan Carlos

    2016-02-11

    Witches' broom disease (WBD) caused by the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is responsible for considerable economic losses for cacao producers. One of the ways to combat WBD is to plant resistant cultivars. Resistance may be governed by a few genetic factors, mainly found in wild germplasm. We developed a dense genetic linkage map with a length of 852.8 cM that contains 3,526 SNPs and is based on the MP01 mapping population, which counts 459 trees from a cross between the resistant 'TSH 1188' and the tolerant 'CCN 51' at the Mars Center for Cocoa Science in Barro Preto, Bahia, Brazil. Seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) that are associated with WBD were identified on five different chromosomes using a multi-trait QTL analysis for outbreeders. Phasing of the haplotypes at the major QTL region on chromosome IX on a diversity panel of genotypes clearly indicates that the major resistance locus comes from a well-known source of WBD resistance, the clone 'SCAVINA 6'. Various potential candidate genes identified within all QTL may be involved in different steps leading to disease resistance. Preliminary expression data indicate that at least three of these candidate genes may play a role during the first 12 h after infection, with clear differences between 'CCN 51' and 'TSH 1188'. We combined the information from a large mapping population with very distinct parents that segregate for WBD, a dense set of mapped markers, rigorous phenotyping capabilities and the availability of a sequenced genome to identify several genomic regions that are involved in WBD resistance. We also identified a novel source of resistance that most likely comes from the 'CCN 51' parent. Thanks to the large population size of the MP01 population, we were able to pick up QTL and markers with relatively small effects that can contribute to the creation and selection of more tolerant/resistant plant material.

  20. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de Lippia sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. y Par. Evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Stefany Lozada

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5 extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas. Los aislados de monilia (M1, M2, M3, M4 y M5 fueron caracterizados por su morfología, germinación y crecimiento en medios de cultivo. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes concentraciones de los AEs fue evaluada contra el aislado M2 y la cepa de M. roreri (ATCC 64239, para determinar su efecto sobre la germinación y la inhibición del crecimiento micelial. Los AEs estudiados inhibieron 100% de la germinación y del crecimiento micelial cuando fueron utilizados en concentraciones de 800 - 1000 µg/ml. Concentraciones de 200 µg/ml también mostraron efecto sobre los aislamientos fúngicos, siendo los AEs obtenidos de L. origanoides (AE2 y AE3 los más activos. Estos estaban compuestos principalmente por timol, p-cimeno, g-terpineno, acetato de timilo, carvacrol, b-mirceno, trans-b-cariofileno. Diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 sobre la susceptibilidad se observaron entre las dos cepas fúngicas estudiadas, siendo en general más susceptible el aislado M2 que la cepa ATCC. Los AEs de L. origanoides son candidatos para ser usados como posibles biofungicidas en el control de la moniliasis. Son necesarios estudios futuros orientados a determinar la actividad in vivo antifúngica de estos AEs y sus principales componentes.

  1. Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de Lippia sobre Moniliophthora roreri (Cif. y Par. Evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozada Betty Stefany

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evaluó el efecto antifúngico in vitro de cinco aceites esenciales (AEs (AE1, AE2, AE3, AE4 y AE5 extraídos de Lippia origanoides, L. citriodora y L. alba sobre aislados de monilia (Moniliophthora roreri obtenidos de frutos de cacao infectados provenientes de San Vicente de Chucurí, Santander, Colombia. Las plantas de Lippia fueron colectadas en cinco localidades colombianas. Los aislados de monilia (M1, M2, M3, M4 y M5 fueron caracterizados por su morfología, germinación y crecimiento en medios de cultivo. La actividad antifúngica de diferentes concentraciones de los AEs fue evaluada contra el aisla- do M2 y la cepa de M. roreri (ATCC 64239, para determinar su efecto sobre la germinación y la inhibi- ción del crecimiento micelial. Los AEs estudiados inhibieron 100% de la germinación y del crecimiento micelial cuando fueron utilizados en concentraciones de 800 - 1000 µg/ml. Concentraciones de 200 µg/ml también mostraron efecto sobre los aislamientos fúngicos, siendo los AEs obtenidos de L. ori- ganoides (AE2 y AE3 los más activos. Estos estaban compuestos principalmente por timol, p-cimeno,

    y-terpineno, acetato de timilo, carvacrol, 1-mirceno, trans-1ccariofileno. Diferencias significativas (P <

    0.05 sobre la susceptibilidad se observaron entre las dos cepas fúngicas estudiadas, siendo en gene- ral más susceptible el aislado M2 que la cepa ATCC. Los AEs de L. origanoides son candidatos para ser usados como posibles biofungicidas en el control de la moniliasis. Son necesarios estudios futuros orientados a determinar la actividad in vivo antifúngica de estos AEs y sus principales componentes.

  2. Nitrogen forms and levels influence on growth and nutrition of cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonium and nitrate are the major forms of N present in tropical soils. A climatically controlled growth chamber experiment was conducted to assess the influence of forms (NO3-, NH4+, and mix of NO3- + NH4+) and levels (1.5 to 12.0 mM) of N on the growth and nutrition of cacao (Theobroma cacao L). ...

  3. Cacao genetic resources research at the USDA-ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current USDA ARS Tropical Agriculture Research Station’s (TARS) cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) collection in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, consists of 262 clonally propagated accessions. Each accession is represented by six individual trees grafted onto a common ‘Amelonado’ seedling rootstock and planted ...

  4. SISTEM PENDUKUNG KEPUTUSAN TEKNOLOGI PENANGANAN DAN KELAYAKAN INVESTASI PASCAPANEN KAKAO (Theobroma cacao L. (STUDI KASUS DI KABUPATEN PIDIE JAYA, PROPINSI ACEH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raida Agustina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa beans produced by smallholders have low quality because of gaps in information on post-harvest tecnology. Information is needed to provide decision-support making for choosing one alternative implementation of the handling technology cocoa most appropriate and in accordance with the conditions of its territory which can improve the quality of dried cocoa beans. The purpose of this study was developed an  decision-support system software as a tool for decision making cocoa post-harvest handling, obtain the best alternative based on technical analysis and economic analysis, evaluate the feasibility of investment, and know the value of the sensitivity of each alternative. This study was carried out from July to December 2010 in Bandar Baru sub district, Pidie Jaya district of Aceh province. Survey and interview were used to collecting data. Collected data used to create a database for a decision-support system model of cocoa post-harvest handling technology, which was processed using  the Java programming language. Based on the analysis post harvest technology of cocoa to farmers and investors indicated a mechanical alternative is the best alternative because it produces the greatest benefits. Mechanical alternative  gives farmers a profit of Rp.1,419,279,165 per year and gives investors a profit of Rp. 1,023,246,397 per year and feasibility analysis shows NPV Rp 923,577,155 and the value of R/C ratio of 3 is also available in mechanical alternative. The results of sensitivity analysis on each alternative show that the most influential variables on the profitability of farmers and investors is wage labor, the price of fresh cacao fruit, and the price of dry beans. Keywords: Decision-support system, information, cocoa, post harvest technology   ABSTRAK Biji kakao yang dihasilkan perkebunan rakyat memiliki mutu yang rendah karena adanya kesenjangan dalam informasi mengenai teknologi penanganan pascapanen. Informasi dibutuhkan untuk memberi

  5. Efeitos do alagamento do substrato no crescimento e na composição química de genótipos clonais de Theobroma cacao L. Effects of substrate flooding on growth and chemical composition of Theobroma cacao L. clonal genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Carmo Rehem

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O alagamento do solo pode promover alterações no metabolismo celular e causar desvios nas condições ótimas de crescimento das plantas, gerando uma condição de estresse. Objetivou-se no presente trabalho avaliar os efeitos do alagamento no crescimento e na nutrição mineral de seis clones de T. cacao (CP-49, CCN-10, CP-06, CEPEC-2007, CEPEC-2008 e PS-1319, para elucidar possíveis mecanismos de tolerância ao alagamento. Mudas clonais de T. cacao, com 6 meses de idade, foram submetidas ao alagamento, juntamente com o tratamento-controle (não alagado, por 30 dias. Observou-se, no final desse período, que o alagamento promoveu diminuição nas taxas de crescimento relativo radicular (exceto para CP-06 e de área foliar, acúmulo de matéria seca e incremento nas taxas de crescimento relativo caulinar (exceto para os clones CP-06 e CEPEC-2008 e assimilatória líquida (exceto para o clone alagado PS-1319 e de massa foliar específica para os clones CP-49, CCN-10 e CP-06. Os clones que sobreviveram aos 30 dias de alagamento apresentaram baixos valores de razão de área foliar. De modo geral, o alagamento do substrato acarretou deficiência na absorção de macro e micronutrientes minerais, exceto de Fe. Dentre os clones avaliados, o CP-49 foi tolerante e o CEPEC-2008 não tolerante ao alagamento. Os demais clones ficaram numa posição intermediária. Logo, o clone CP-49 tem grande potencial para ser cultivado em condições de alagamento.Soil flooding can induce changes in cell metabolism and cause deviations in optimum conditions for plant growth, creating a stress condition. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of flooding on growth and mineral nutrition of six T. cacao clones (CP-49, CCN-10, CP-06, CEPEC-2007, CEPEC-2008 and PS-1319, aiming to clarify the possible mechanisms of soil flooding tolerance. Plants of T. cacao with 6 months of age were subject to soil flooding, along with the control treatment (not flooded

  6. Efecto preventivo de un extracto de cacao enriquecido en polifenoles sobre ratas con alteraciones endocrino metabólicas inducidas por sacarosa

    OpenAIRE

    Villagarcía, Hernán Gonzalo; González Arbeláez, Luisa Fernanda; Castro, María Cecilia; Ríos, José Luis; Massa, María Laura; Schinella, Guillermo Raúl; Francini, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Existe una creciente evidencia de que el consumo de ciertos alimentos, suplementos alimenticios o bebidas tradicionales puede reducir el daño oxidativo en diferentes sistemas biológicos. Alimentos derivados del cacao, tales como polvos de cacao, chocolate y otros productos relacionado con el cacao son alimentos ricos en polifenoles derivados de las semillas fermentadas, tostados y procesados industrialmente de Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae). Estos productos, consumidos en todo el mundo...

  7. Cacao usage by the earliest Maya civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, W Jeffrey; Tarka, Stanley M; Powis, Terry G; Valdez, Fred; Hester, Thomas R

    2002-07-18

    The Maya archaeological site at Colha in northern Belize, Central America, has yielded several spouted ceramic vessels that contain residues from the preparation of food and beverages. Here we analyse dry residue samples by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization mass spectrometry, and show that chocolate (Theobroma cacao) was consumed by the Preclassic Maya as early as 600 bc, pushing back the earliest chemical evidence of cacao use by some 1,000 years. Our application of this new and highly sensitive analytical technique could be extended to the identification of other ancient foods and beverages.

  8. Yield performance and bean quality traits of cacao propagated by grafting and somatic embryo-derived cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) has great potential as a component of a small tropical farming system. It adapts to a wide range of soils of climatic conditions, grows well under minimum tillage, adapts to temporary intercropping, has the potential of being sold in local and export markets and the pods are ...

  9. Biological control of Black Pod Disease and Seedling Blight of cacao caused by Phytophthora Species using Trichoderma from Aceh Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cocoa tree, Theobroma cacao L., suffers large yield losses in Aceh Indonesia to the disease black pod rot, caused by Phytophthora spp. Despite having the largest area under cacao production in Sumatra, farmers in the Aceh region have low overall production because of losses to insect pests and b...

  10. Variability and correlation of physical attributes of soils cultivated with cacao trees in two climate zones in southern Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao) is a very important crop in southern Bahia, Brazil, which needs good climate and soil conditions and management for great productivity. In this region, the culture is developed in a large variety of soils, which indicates differentiated products. The aim of this study was to ...

  11. The pathogenesis-related protein PR-4b from Theobroma cacao presents RNase activity, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) dependent-DNase activity and antifungal action on Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Menezes, Sara; de Andrade Silva, Edson Mario; Matos Lima, Eline; Oliveira de Sousa, Aurizângela; Silva Andrade, Bruno; Santos Lima Lemos, Livia; Peres Gramacho, Karina; da Silva Gesteira, Abelmon; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho; Micheli, Fabienne

    2014-06-11

    The production and accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins (PR proteins) in plants in response to biotic or abiotic stresses is well known and is considered as a crucial mechanism for plant defense. A pathogenesis-related protein 4 cDNA was identified from a cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction cDNA library and named TcPR-4b. TcPR-4b presents a Barwin domain with six conserved cysteine residues, but lacks the chitin-binding site. Molecular modeling of TcPR-4b confirmed the importance of the cysteine residues to maintain the protein structure, and of several conserved amino acids for the catalytic activity. In the cacao genome, TcPR-4b belonged to a small multigene family organized mainly on chromosome 5. TcPR-4b RT-qPCR analysis in resistant and susceptible cacao plants infected by M. perniciosa showed an increase of expression at 48 hours after infection (hai) in both cacao genotypes. After the initial stage (24-72 hai), the TcPR-4b expression was observed at all times in the resistant genotypes, while in the susceptible one the expression was concentrated at the final stages of infection (45-90 days after infection). The recombinant TcPR-4b protein showed RNase, and bivalent ions dependent-DNase activity, but no chitinase activity. Moreover, TcPR-4b presented antifungal action against M. perniciosa, and the reduction of M. perniciosa survival was related to ROS production in fungal hyphae. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a PR-4 showing simultaneously RNase, DNase and antifungal properties, but no chitinase activity. Moreover, we showed that the antifungal activity of TcPR-4b is directly related to RNase function. In cacao, TcPR-4b nuclease activities may be related to the establishment and maintenance of resistance, and to the PCD mechanism, in resistant and susceptible cacao genotypes, respectively.

  12. OBTENÇÃO E UTILIZAÇÃO DA ENZIMA POLIFENOLOXIDASE EXTRAÍDA DE POLPA DE PINHA (Annona squamosa L. MADURA NO MELHORAMENTO DO SABOR DO CACAU (Theobroma cacao L. OBTAINING AND USE OF POLYPHENOLOXIDASE ENZYME EXTRACTED FROM RIPE CUSTARD APPLE (Annona squamosa L. PULP ON THE COCOA (Theobroma cacao L. NIBS IN TASTE IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZA DOROTEA POZZOBON DE ALBUQUERQUE LIMA

    2001-12-01

    material obtained was called partially purified enzyme, being the analyses of activity carried out with catechol as substract, showing biochemical characteristics of 5.0 to 6.5 stability pH and 10 to 30°C stability temperature the nibs were autoclaved (121°C for 15 minutes and non-autoclaved from the same origin, raw nuts insuficiently fermented and dried were soaked in a solution of the enzyme containing 200 units/min/mL, for 30, 60, 90, 210 and 360 minutes, at 23°C and pH 6.0 . The nibs were homogeneized with the enzyme solution each 15 minutes, dried, ground and became unfatted. After enzymatic treatment over 210 minutes carried out on the non-autoclaved unfatted cocoa nibs, it was possible to observe diminishing of 15% in the total phenol, 15% tannin content, 10% of flavan-3-ois and 18% of anthocyanidins concentrations. The nibs of autoclaved unfatted cacao showed diminishing of 25% in the total phenol, 26% of tannins 23% of flavan-3-ois, and 51% of anthocyanidins concentrations.

  13. Studies on the translocation pattern, persistence characteristics and metabolic pathway of sumithion [O, O-dimethyl-O-(3-methyl-4-nitrophenyl) phosphorothioate] in the cocoa tree Theobroma Cacao L; Etudes sur la repartition par translocation, les caracteristiques de persistance et les processus metabolitiques du sumithion [O, O-dimethyl-O-(3-methyl-4-nitrophenyl) phosphorothionate] dans le cacaoyer Theobroma Cacao L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, Alamelu; Sundaram, K. M.S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Ghana, Legon (Ghana)

    1970-01-15

    undergone complete degradation within an interval of 10 days after treatment, i. e. within an interval of 5 days after the day from which it was detectable. Thus the presence of anticholinesterase agents in the cocoa plants was shown to be practically nil after a period of 10 days from the date of application. In the present investigation it became evident from the uptake studies that {sup 32}P-materials were detectable in the tree even up to 72 days after the insecticide was applied; the chloroform/water partition technique showed the presence of {sup 32}P-materials in the water layer and in the residue up to 28 days after treatment whereas the spectrophotometric and column-chromatographic techniques were able to detect sumithion and sumioxon only up to 10 days after application. This definitely indicated that during this 10-day period sumithion and sumioxon underwent complete degradation and were hydrolysed into water-soluble phosphoric and substituted phosphoric acid-{sup 32}P which were probably utilised later in the formation of water-insoluble proteins- {sup 32}P of high molecular weights. These proteins- {sup 32}P seem to persist for a considerable length of time in the tree thus accounting for the persistent radioactivity even up to ca. 3 months after application. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont étudié la répartition par translocation et les processus métabolitiques du sumithion, insecticide par contact, dans le cacaoyer, après application foliaire de ce produit, soit ordinaire, soit marqué avec {sup 32}P. La répartition par translocation montre que la radioactivité est initialement le plus élevée dans les échantillons d’écorce et le plus faible dans les échantillons de fruits (fèves de cacao en particulier). Ensuite, pendant environ deux mois et demi, la radioactivité de l'écorce décroît rapidement alors que celle des fèves augmente constamment, ce qui prouve que {sup 32}P de l'insecticide finit par être incorporé dans les protéines qui

  14. Combination of RNAseq and SNP nanofluidic array reveals the center of genetic diversity of cacao pathogen Moniliophthora roreri in the upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia and its clonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniliophthora roreri is the fungal pathogen that causes frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of Theobroma cacao L., the source of chocolate. FPR occurs in most of the cacao producing countries in the Western Hemisphere, causing yield losses up to 80%. Genetic diversity within the FPR pathogen population ma...

  15. The pathogenesis-related protein PR-4b from Theobroma cacao presents RNase activity, Ca2+ and Mg2+ dependent-DNase activity and antifungal action on Moniliophthora perniciosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The production and accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins (PR proteins) in plants in response to biotic or abiotic stresses is well known and is considered as a crucial mechanism for plant defense. A pathogenesis-related protein 4 cDNA was identified from a cacao-Moniliophthora perniciosa interaction cDNA library and named TcPR-4b. Results TcPR-4b presents a Barwin domain with six conserved cysteine residues, but lacks the chitin-binding site. Molecular modeling of TcPR-4b confirmed the importance of the cysteine residues to maintain the protein structure, and of several conserved amino acids for the catalytic activity. In the cacao genome, TcPR-4b belonged to a small multigene family organized mainly on chromosome 5. TcPR-4b RT-qPCR analysis in resistant and susceptible cacao plants infected by M. perniciosa showed an increase of expression at 48 hours after infection (hai) in both cacao genotypes. After the initial stage (24-72 hai), the TcPR-4b expression was observed at all times in the resistant genotypes, while in the susceptible one the expression was concentrated at the final stages of infection (45-90 days after infection). The recombinant TcPR-4b protein showed RNase, and bivalent ions dependent-DNase activity, but no chitinase activity. Moreover, TcPR-4b presented antifungal action against M. perniciosa, and the reduction of M. perniciosa survival was related to ROS production in fungal hyphae. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of a PR-4 showing simultaneously RNase, DNase and antifungal properties, but no chitinase activity. Moreover, we showed that the antifungal activity of TcPR-4b is directly related to RNase function. In cacao, TcPR-4b nuclease activities may be related to the establishment and maintenance of resistance, and to the PCD mechanism, in resistant and susceptible cacao genotypes, respectively. PMID:24920373

  16. Calidad físico química y sensorial de granos y licor de cacao (Theobroma Cacaol. Usando cinco métodos de fermentación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. José Nicasio Quevedo Guerrero

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available La investigación se realizó en la Granja Experimental Santa Inés de la Universidad Técnica de Machala, durante el segundo semestre del 2016. El objetivo de la investigación fue comparar la eficiencia los fermentadores más usados por los pequeños productores cacaoteros de El Oro, en el beneficio de los granos de cacao, con un nuevo método denominado rotor de madera, propuesto por los autores del presente trabajo, mediante el análisis de variables físico-químicas y la evaluación sensorial del licor de cacao. El ensayo constó de los tratamientos: saco de yute (T1, rotor de madera (T2, rumo o montón (T3, caja de madera (T4 y balde plástico (T5, los cuales se evaluaron bajo un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. El secado se efectuó de forma natural en marquesinas bajo cubierta de plástico calibre 6. El análisis de variables químicas, físicas y sensoriales reveló diferencias significativas (p < 0.05 entre tratamientos. El T2 registró 96% de calidad física del grano y el mejor perfil sensorial con calificaciones altas en sabores cacao, floral, frutal, nuez y caramelo y calificaciones bajas en sabor astringente y amargo. La fermentación se desarrolló dentro de la plantación de cacao, esto permitió la presencia de Drosophila melanogaster M., vector de Saccharomyces cerevisiae y otras levaduras que pudieron haber inferido en la calidad de los granos. Palabras clave: Astringente, pizarrosas, Drosophila melanogaster M., levaduras.

  17. Moniliophthora roreri (Cif y Par) Evans et al. en el cultivo de cacao

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Mora, Fernando David; Garcés Fiallos, Felipe Rafael

    2012-01-01

    More than a century, cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in Ecuador has been an important source of income for farmers and currency for the country, becoming one of the biggest exporters worldwide. Then, gradually lost that status due to the attack of diseases, including moniliasis caused by [Moniliophthora roreri (Cif and Par) Evans et al.]. It can cause damage of up to 80% in production. Currently there is little scientific date information on its occurrence, symptoms, etiology, epidemiology, life c...

  18. Molecular and metabolic changes of cherelle wilt of cacao and its effect on Moniliophthora roreri

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seeds of Theobroma cacao L. pods are processed into cocoa products. Cherelle wilt is physiological thinning of young pods that result in loss of potential pods. Cherelle wilt first occurs 50 days after pollination (DAP) and a second thinning occurs around 70 DAP. Cherelles are also highly sus...

  19. Path analysis of phenotypic traits in young cacao plants under drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Emerson Alves Dos; Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado de; Branco, Marcia Christina da Silva; Santos, Ivanildes Conceição Dos; Ahnert, Dario; Baligar, Virupax C; Valle, Raúl René

    2018-01-01

    Drought is worldwide considered one of the most limiting factors of Theobroma cacao production, which can be intensified by global climate changes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the phenotypic correlation among morphological characteristics of cacao progenies submitted to irrigation and drought conditions and their partitions into direct and indirect effects. Path analysis with phenotypic plasticity index was used as criteria for estimation of basic and explanatory variables. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Cacao Research Center (CEPEC), Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil, in a randomized block 21 x 2 factorial arrangement [21 cacao progenies obtained from complete diallel crosses and two water regimes (control and drought)] and six replications. In general, drought conditions influenced biomass production in most progenies, causing significant reductions in total leaf area, leaf number, leaf biomass, fine-roots length (diameter cacao progenies drought tolerant.

  20. Vascular Streak Dieback of cacao in Southeast Asia and Melanesia: in planta detection of the pathogen and a new taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Gary J; Ismaiel, Adnan; Rosmana, Ade; Junaid, Muhammad; Guest, David; McMahon, Peter; Keane, Philip; Purwantara, Agus; Lambert, Smilja; Rodriguez-Carres, Marianela; Cubeta, Marc A

    2012-01-01

    Vascular Streak Dieback (VSD) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Southeast Asia and Melanesia is caused by a basidiomycete (Ceratobasidiales) fungus Oncobasidium theobromae (syn. =Thanatephorus theobromae). The most characteristic symptoms of the disease are green-spotted leaf chlorosis or, commonly since about 2004, necrotic blotches, followed by senescence of leaves beginning on the second or third flush behind the shoot apex, and blackening of infected xylem in the vascular traces at the leaf scars resulting from the abscission of infected leaves. Eventually the shoot apex is killed and infected branches die. In susceptible cacao the fungus may grow through the xylem down into the main stem and kill a mature cacao tree. Infections in the stem of young plants prior to the formation of the first 3-4 lateral branches usually kill the plant. Basidiospores released from corticioid basidiomata developed on leaf scars or along cracks in the main vein of infected leaves infect young leaves. The pathogen commonly infects cacao but there are rare reports from avocado. As both crops are introduced to the region, the pathogen is suspected to occur asymptomatically in native vegetation. The pathogen is readily isolated but cultures cannot be maintained. In this study, DNA was extracted from pure cultures of O. theobromae obtained from infected cacao plants sampled from Indonesia. The internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), consisting of ITS1, 5.8S ribosomal RNA and ITS2, and a portion of nuclear large subunit (LSU) were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences placed O. theobromae sister to Ceratobasidium anastomosis groups AG-A, AG-Bo, and AG-K with high posterior probability. Therefore the new combination Ceratobasidium theobromae is proposed. A PCR-based protocol was developed to detect and identify C. theobromae in plant tissue of cacao enabling early detection of the pathogen in plants. A second species of Ceratobasidium, Ceratobasidium ramicola

  1. Accurate determination of genetic identity for a single cacao bean, using molecular markers with a nanofluidic system, ensures cocoa authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wanping; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Mischke, Sue; Bellato, Cláudia M; Motilal, Lambert; Zhang, Dapeng

    2014-01-15

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), the source of cocoa, is an economically important tropical crop. One problem with the premium cacao market is contamination with off-types adulterating raw premium material. Accurate determination of the genetic identity of single cacao beans is essential for ensuring cocoa authentication. Using nanofluidic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping with 48 SNP markers, we generated SNP fingerprints for small quantities of DNA extracted from the seed coat of single cacao beans. On the basis of the SNP profiles, we identified an assumed adulterant variety, which was unambiguously distinguished from the authentic beans by multilocus matching. Assignment tests based on both Bayesian clustering analysis and allele frequency clearly separated all 30 authentic samples from the non-authentic samples. Distance-based principle coordinate analysis further supported these results. The nanofluidic SNP protocol, together with forensic statistical tools, is sufficiently robust to establish authentication and to verify gourmet cacao varieties. This method shows significant potential for practical application.

  2. 21 CFR 163.110 - Cacao nibs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.110 Cacao nibs. (a... is “cacao nibs”, “cocoa nibs”, or “cracked cocoa”. (1) When the cacao nibs, or the cacao beans from...

  3. Variación de las propiedades físicas de la grasa de cacao con la temperatura

    OpenAIRE

    de Dios Alvarado, Juan

    1994-01-01

    Values of physical properties determined at different temperatures in fat extracted from fresh cacao seeds (Theobroma cacao) are presented. Linear relationships define the effect of temperature on the refraction index, density and surface tension, a logarithmic function was established for viscosity. The values of density and viscosity are used to determine the coefficient of volumetric thermal expansion and activation energy, respectively. Data of specific heat, thermal diffusivity and therm...

  4. Cacao diseases: important threats to chocolate production worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT Theobroma cacao, cacao, is an ancient, neotropical domesticate. It is now grown throughout the humid, lowland tropics and is the basis of a multibillion dollar confectionary trade. Diverse diseases impact production of the crop. They reduce yields by ca. 20%, but could cause far greater losses if certain highly damaging diseases were to become more widely distributed. Among the most potentially dangerous of these diseases are frosty pod, caused by Moniliophthora roreri, and witches' broom, caused by M. perniciosa (previously Crinipellis perniciosa). These two diseases occur only in the Western Hemisphere, and severe losses would follow their introduction to West Africa and Asia, where ca. 86% of all cacao production occurs. Elsewhere, Cacao swollen shoot virus and the damaging black pod agent, Phytophthora megakarya, are found in Western Africa; whereas vascular streak dieback, caused by Oncobasidium theobromae, is present only in Asia. Breeding programs are challenged by minimal resistance to some of the diseases. Progress that has been made is threatened by the "emergence" of other serious diseases, such as Ceratocystis wilt (Ceratocystis cacaofunesta). During this symposium, new insights are discussed on the biology, origins, pathology and phylogeny of the pathogens; as well as the biological, chemical and genetic management of the diseases that they cause.

  5. Caracteriza??o de subst?ncias fen?licas e alcaloides dos res?duos do cupua?u (Theobroma grandiflorum (willd. Ex spreng.) Schum)

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Milena Campelo Freitas de

    2013-01-01

    Theobroma grandiflorum ? uma esp?cie nativa da Amaz?nia com elevado potencial econ?mico, que pertence ao mesmo g?nero que o cacau (Theobroma cacao). Seu fruto, conhecido como cupua?u, ? o maior no g?nero Theobroma, chegando a atingir at? 4 kg em massa. A base econ?mica dessa esp?cie concentra-se no mesocarpo (polpa), bastante conhecido e comercializado para a produ??o de sucos, n?ctares, sorvetes entre outros. No processo de obten??o da polpa do cupua?u s?o gerados subprodutos que corresponde...

  6. Cacao biotechnology: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasuriya, Anushka M; Dunwell, Jim M

    2018-01-01

    Theobroma cacao-The Food of the Gods, provides the raw material for the multibillion dollar chocolate industry and is also the main source of income for about 6 million smallholders around the world. Additionally, cocoa beans have a number of other nonfood uses in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Specifically, the potential health benefits of cocoa have received increasing attention as it is rich in polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. At present, the demand for cocoa and cocoa-based products in Asia is growing particularly rapidly and chocolate manufacturers are increasing investment in this region. However, in many Asian countries, cocoa production is hampered due to many reasons including technological, political and socio-economic issues. This review provides an overview of the present status of global cocoa production and recent advances in biotechnological applications for cacao improvement, with special emphasis on genetics/genomics, in vitro embryogenesis and genetic transformation. In addition, in order to obtain an insight into the latest innovations in the commercial sector, a survey was conducted on granted patents relating to T. cacao biotechnology. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Protocol for isolation of Moniliophthora roreri (Cif and Par Evans et al. from cacao fruits cv. `National' in the Ecuadorian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Carrera-Sánchez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Moniliophthora roreri is a pathogen of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. that causes high economic losses in Ecuador. This paper is intended to present a protocol for the isolation of the pathogen from cocoa fruits cv. `National', showing signs and symptoms of disease. The fruits were collected on farms of Napo (Ecuador. By wet chamber, it was able to induce profusely, sporulation on the surface of selected lesions. The isolations were performed from conidia directly located on the surface of fruits with brown powdery appearance. Isolation procedures and suggested of possible applications are presented.   Key words: amazonia, basidiomycetes, fungi, moniliasis, Theobroma cacao L.

  8. High-resolution melt and morphological analyses of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from cacao: tools for the control of Cacao swollen shoot virus spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetten, Andy; Campbell, Colin; Allainguillaume, Joël

    2016-03-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) are key vectors of badnaviruses, including Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV), the most damaging virus affecting cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). The effectiveness of mealybugs as virus vectors is species dependent, and it is therefore vital that CSSV resistance breeding programmes in cacao incorporate accurate mealybug identification. In this work, the efficacy of a CO1-based DNA barcoding approach to species identification was evaluated by screening a range of mealybugs collected from cacao in seven countries. Morphologically similar adult females were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, and then, following DNA extraction, were screened with CO1 barcoding markers. A high degree of CO1 sequence homology was observed for all 11 individual haplotypes, including those accessions from distinct geographical regions. This has allowed the design of a high-resolution melt (HRM) assay capable of rapid identification of the commonly encountered mealybug pests of cacao. HRM analysis readily differentiated between mealybug pests of cacao that cannot necessarily be identified by conventional morphological analysis. This new approach, therefore, has potential to facilitate breeding for resistance to CSSV and other mealybug-transmitted diseases. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Trichoderma theobromicola and T. paucisporum: two new species isolated from cacao in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Gary J; Suarez, Carmen; Solis, Karina; Holmes, Keith A; Thomas, Sarah E; Ismaiel, Adnan; Evans, Harry C

    2006-04-01

    Trichoderma theobromicola and T. paucisporum spp. nov. are described. Trichoderma theobromicola was isolated as an endophyte from the trunk of a healthy cacao tree (Theobroma cacao, Malvaceae) in Amazonian Peru; it sporulates profusely on common mycological media. Trichoderma paucisporum is represented by two cultures that were obtained in Ecuador from cacao pods partially infected with frosty pod rot, Moniliophthora roreri; it sporulates sporadically and most cultures remain sterile on common media and autoclaved rice. It sporulates more reliably on synthetic low-nutrient agar (SNA) but produces few conidia. Trichoderma theobromicola was reintroduced into cacao seedlings through shoot inoculation and was recovered from stems but not from leaves, indicating that it is an endophytic species. Both produced a volatile/diffusable antibiotic that inhibited development of M. roreri in vitro and on-pod trials. Neither species demonstrated significant direct in vitro mycoparasitic activity against M. roreri.

  10. Abscisic Acid and the Maturation of Cacao Embryos in Vitro 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Valerie Creaser

    1992-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) was tested for its ability to affect development of immature zygotic embryos of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in vitro, by adding exogenous ABA, fluridone, or mefluidide to cultured embryos. Endogenous ABA levels, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were increased by exogenous ABA or by culture on sucrose increasing to 21%, and were decreased by fluridone and, to a lesser extent, by mefluidide. The effects of these on maturation were measured as effects on anthocyanins, lipids, and fatty acid saturation, all of which increase with maturation of the cacao embryo. Maturation was stimulated by increasing sucrose and, to a lesser degree, the addition of ABA, but decreasing endogenous ABA by treating with fluridone significantly inhibited all maturation parameters. Although desiccation tolerance does not develop in cacao embryos, these results suggest that ABA and sucrose are both needed for the initiation of events associated with maturation in vitro. PMID:16668805

  11. Combination of RNAseq and SNP nanofluidic array reveals the center of genetic diversity of cacao pathogen Moniliophthora roreri in the upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia and its clonality

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Shahin S.; Shao, Jonathan; Strem, Mary D.; Phillips-Mora, Wilberth; Zhang, Dapeng; Meinhardt, Lyndel W.; Bailey, Bryan A.

    2015-01-01

    Moniliophthora roreri is the fungal pathogen that causes frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of Theobroma cacao L., the source of chocolate. FPR occurs in most of the cacao producing countries in the Western Hemisphere, causing yield losses up to 80%. Genetic diversity within the FPR pathogen population may allow the population to adapt to changing environmental conditions and adapt to enhanced resistance in the host plant. The present study developed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers fro...

  12. Molecular Characterization of Resistant Accessions of Cocoa (Theobroma cocoa L.) to Phytophthora Pod Rot Selected on-Farm in Côte-d’Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa is (Theobroma cacao L.) is a significant agricultural commodity in Côted’Ivoire which ranks 1st in the world cocoa export. Phytophthora pod rot (Ppr)also call Black pod is the most widespread disease of cocoa. Lost due to this disease depends on the species of the pathogen and vary globally fr...

  13. The genome sequence of the most widely cultivated cacao type and its use to identify candidate genes regulating pod color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamayor, Juan C; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Schmutz, Jeremy; Haiminen, Niina; Livingstone, Donald; Cornejo, Omar; Findley, Seth D; Zheng, Ping; Utro, Filippo; Royaert, Stefan; Saski, Christopher; Jenkins, Jerry; Podicheti, Ram; Zhao, Meixia; Scheffler, Brian E; Stack, Joseph C; Feltus, Frank A; Mustiga, Guiliana M; Amores, Freddy; Phillips, Wilbert; Marelli, Jean Philippe; May, Gregory D; Shapiro, Howard; Ma, Jianxin; Bustamante, Carlos D; Schnell, Raymond J; Main, Dorrie; Gilbert, Don; Parida, Laxmi; Kuhn, David N

    2013-06-03

    Theobroma cacao L. cultivar Matina 1-6 belongs to the most cultivated cacao type. The availability of its genome sequence and methods for identifying genes responsible for important cacao traits will aid cacao researchers and breeders. We describe the sequencing and assembly of the genome of Theobroma cacao L. cultivar Matina 1-6. The genome of the Matina 1-6 cultivar is 445 Mbp, which is significantly larger than a sequenced Criollo cultivar, and more typical of other cultivars. The chromosome-scale assembly, version 1.1, contains 711 scaffolds covering 346.0 Mbp, with a contig N50 of 84.4 kbp, a scaffold N50 of 34.4 Mbp, and an evidence-based gene set of 29,408 loci. Version 1.1 has 10x the scaffold N50 and 4x the contig N50 as Criollo, and includes 111 Mb more anchored sequence. The version 1.1 assembly has 4.4% gap sequence, while Criollo has 10.9%. Through a combination of haplotype, association mapping and gene expression analyses, we leverage this robust reference genome to identify a promising candidate gene responsible for pod color variation. We demonstrate that green/red pod color in cacao is likely regulated by the R2R3 MYB transcription factor TcMYB113, homologs of which determine pigmentation in Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and Brassicaceae. One SNP within the target site for a highly conserved trans-acting siRNA in dicots, found within TcMYB113, seems to affect transcript levels of this gene and therefore pod color variation. We report a high-quality sequence and annotation of Theobroma cacao L. and demonstrate its utility in identifying candidate genes regulating traits.

  14. The genome sequence of the most widely cultivated cacao type and its use to identify candidate genes regulating pod color

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Theobroma cacao L. cultivar Matina 1-6 belongs to the most cultivated cacao type. The availability of its genome sequence and methods for identifying genes responsible for important cacao traits will aid cacao researchers and breeders. Results We describe the sequencing and assembly of the genome of Theobroma cacao L. cultivar Matina 1-6. The genome of the Matina 1-6 cultivar is 445 Mbp, which is significantly larger than a sequenced Criollo cultivar, and more typical of other cultivars. The chromosome-scale assembly, version 1.1, contains 711 scaffolds covering 346.0 Mbp, with a contig N50 of 84.4 kbp, a scaffold N50 of 34.4 Mbp, and an evidence-based gene set of 29,408 loci. Version 1.1 has 10x the scaffold N50 and 4x the contig N50 as Criollo, and includes 111 Mb more anchored sequence. The version 1.1 assembly has 4.4% gap sequence, while Criollo has 10.9%. Through a combination of haplotype, association mapping and gene expression analyses, we leverage this robust reference genome to identify a promising candidate gene responsible for pod color variation. We demonstrate that green/red pod color in cacao is likely regulated by the R2R3 MYB transcription factor TcMYB113, homologs of which determine pigmentation in Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and Brassicaceae. One SNP within the target site for a highly conserved trans-acting siRNA in dicots, found within TcMYB113, seems to affect transcript levels of this gene and therefore pod color variation. Conclusions We report a high-quality sequence and annotation of Theobroma cacao L. and demonstrate its utility in identifying candidate genes regulating traits. PMID:23731509

  15. Cambios de las propiedades físico-químicas y perfil de ácidos grasos en cacao de Chuao, durante el beneficio

    OpenAIRE

    Lares Amaiz, Mary; Pérez Sira, Elevina; Álvarez Fernández, Clímaco; Perozo González, José; El Khori, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    El beneficio del cacao Theobroma cacao, en Venezuela, cambia de una región a otra y está influenciado por las condiciones ambientales de la región, lo cual trae consigo variaciones en la calidad de los productos finales y poco se ha reportado en relación a esto. Es por ello, que el objetivo del presente trabajo fue caracterizar las propiedades fisicoquímicas y el perfil de ácidos grasos de los granos de cacao de la cosecha denominada “San Juanera” en la región de Chuao y en diferentes etapas ...

  16. Moniliophthora roreri, causal agent of cacao frosty pod rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Bryan A; Evans, Harry C; Phillips-Mora, Wilbert; Ali, Shahin S; Meinhardt, Lyndel W

    2017-12-01

    Taxonomy: Moniliophthora roreri (Cif.) H.C. Evans et al. ; Phylum Basidiomycota; Class Agaricomycetes; Order Agaricales; Family Marasmiaceae; Genus Moniliophthora. Biology: Moniliophthora roreri attacks Theobroma and Herrania species causing frosty pod rot. Theobroma cacao (cacao) is the host of major economic concern. Moniliophthora roreri is a hemibiotroph with a long biotrophic phase (45-90 days). Spore masses, of apparent asexual origin, are produced on the pod surface after initiation of the necrotrophic phase. Spores are spread by wind, rain and human activity. Symptoms of the biotrophic phase can include necrotic flecks and, in some cases, pod malformation, but pods otherwise remain asymptomatic. Relationship to Moniliophthora perniciosa: Moniliophthora roreri and Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of witches' broom disease of cacao, are closely related. Their genomes are similar, including many of the genes they carry which are considered to be important in the disease process. Moniliophthora perniciosa, also a hemibiotroph, has a typical basidiomycete lifestyle and morphology, forming clamp connections and producing mushrooms. Basidiospores infect meristematic tissues including flower cushions, stem tips and pods. Moniliophthora roreri does not form clamp connections or mushrooms and infects pods only. Both pathogens are limited to the Western Hemisphere and are a threat to cacao production around the world. Agronomic importance: Disease losses caused by frosty pod rot can reach 90% and result in field abandonment. Moniliophthora roreri remains in the invasive phase in the Western Hemisphere, not having reached Brazil, some islands within the Caribbean and a few specific regions within otherwise invaded countries. The disease can be managed by a combination of cultural (for example, maintenance of tree height and removal of infected pods) and chemical methods. These methods benefit from regional application, but can be cost prohibitive. Breeding for

  17. Reacción a Moniliophthora roreri en Theobroma spp. en Caquetá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Sterling Cuéllar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar in situ la reacción de 50 materiales genéticos de tres especies de Theobroma(T. cacao, T. grandiflorum y T. bicolor a la inoculación controlada de tres aislados autóctonos de Moniliophthora roreri (agente causal de la moniliasis del cacao en el Departamento de Caquetá (Amazonia colombiana. Las variables incidencia de la enfermedad (IMr, severidad externa (SE y severidad interna (SI, se evaluaron nueve semanas después de la inoculación de mazorcas de 2 a 3 meses de edad con una suspensión de esporas de 1,2 x 105 esporas/mL. La enfermedad se evidenció en las tres especies de Theobroma, sin embargo, ésta no se presentó en 13 de los 50 materiales genéticos evaluados, representados así: seis T. grandiflorum, cinco T. bicolor y dos T. cacao. Los materiales genéticos de T. bicolor y T. grandiflorum fueron los menos afectados comparados con los de T. cacao. Se encontraron diferencias significativas para IMr, SE y SI entre las tres especies de Theobroma y entre los 50 materiales genéticos. Diferencias significativas entre los aislados solo ocurrieron para SE. La incidencia y la severidad de la enfermedad entre materiales genéticos, fueron influenciadas por el patógeno aislado. Los materiales genéticos con menor reacción a M. roreri pueden ser utilizados en programas de mejoramiento por resistencia a la moniliasis.

  18. Cacao diseases-the trilogy revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Harry C

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT This paper reviews the significant advances by the diseases themselves, as well as by the scientists, in the intervening period since the disease trilogy was first delimited in 1989. The impact of these diseases, black pod, witches' broom, and frosty pod rot, has increased dramatically. In addition, there have been radical changes in the taxonomic profiles of these pathogens, which have been based on both traditional (morphological, cytological) and modern (molecular) approaches. Black pod is caused by a complex of Phytophthora species, in which P. palmivora still is the most important worldwide. However, recent invasion of the principal cacao-growing countries of West Africa by the more virulent P. megakarya has been cause for concern. The latter evolved in the ancient forests straddling the Cameroon-Nigerian border as a primary coloniser of fallen fruit. Conversely, frosty pod rot, caused by Moniliophthora roreri, and witches' broom, caused by M. (Crinipellis) perniciosa, both neotropical diseases, are hemibiotrophic, coevolved pathogens. Respectively, M. roreri arose on Theobroma gileri in submontane forests on the north-western slopes of the Andes, whereas M. perniciosa developed as a complex of pathotypes with a considerably wider geographic and host range within South America; the cacao pathotype evolved on that host in the Amazon basin. The inter-relationships of these vicariant species and their recent spread are discussed, together with control strategies.

  19. Frosty pod of cacao: a disease with a limited geographic range but unlimited potential for damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Mora, W; Wilkinson, M J

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT Moniliophthora roreri, the cause of frosty pod rot (FP), is a specialized fungal pathogen (family Marasmiaceae) that invades only actively growing pods of cacao, Theobroma cacao, and related species of Theobroma and Herrania. FP damages pods and the commercially important seeds that some of these species produce. M. roreri was confined to northwestern South America until the 1950s. Its appearance in Panama in 1956 signaled a change in its geographic distribution. Now, it is found in 11 countries in tropical America. The fungus is currently in an active dispersal phase, possibly due to an increase in human-mediated spread. FP is more destructive than black pod (Phytophthora spp.) and more dangerous and difficult to control than witches' broom, caused by Moniliophthora (Crinipellis) perniciosa. The aggressiveness of M. roreri, its capacity to survive different environmental conditions, its rapid natural dispersal, its propensity for man-mediated dispersal, and the susceptibility of most commercial cacao genotypes, all indicate that FP presents a substantial threat to cacao cultivation worldwide.

  20. Heavy metals in soils of cocoa plantation (Theobroma cacao L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa has experienced significant growth in recent years in Peru and the presence of heavy metals in the soils of these plantations is a potential problem for the export of this product. Contents of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Pb, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) in soils from 19 plantations that have been in production f...

  1. Hypoglycemic effects of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) autolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmadi, Bahareh; Aminuddin, Farhana; Hamid, Muhajir; Saari, Nazamid; Abdul-Hamid, Azizah; Ismail, Amin

    2012-09-15

    Fat, alkaloid and polyphenol contents of two clones of cocoa (UIT1 and PBC 140) were removed and the remaining powder was autolyzed at pH 3.5 and 5.2. Based on the results, autolysates of UIT produced at pH 3.5 exhibited the highest ability to inhibit α-amylase activity. However, no α-glucosidase inhibition activity was observed under the conditions specified. Autolysates produced under pH 3.5 caused the highest amount of insulin secretion. In streptozotocin-diabetic rats, all cocoa autolysates significantly decreased blood glucose at 4h. To assure that the results from the assays were not due to the polyphenols of cocoa autolysates qualitative and quantitative tests were applied. According to their results cocoa autolysates were found to be free from polyphenols. Analysis of amino acid composition revealed that cocoa autolysates were abundant in hydrophobic amino acids. It can be suggested that besides other compounds of cocoa, its peptides and amino acids could contribute to its health benefits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Flavonoids from Theobroma cacao down-regulate inflammatory mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro, Emma; Franch, Angels; Castellote, Cristina; Pérez-Cano, Francisco; Permanyer, Joan; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria; Castell, Margarida

    2005-11-02

    In the present study, we report the effects of a cocoa extract on the secretion and RNA expression of various proinflammatory mediators by macrophages. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) were significantly and dose-dependently diminished by cocoa extract, and this effect was higher than that produced by equivalent concentrations of epicatechin but was lower than that produced by isoquercitrin. Interestingly, cocoa extract added prior to cell activation resulted in a significantly greater inhibition of TNFalpha secretion. Both cocoa extract and epicatechin decreased TNFalpha, interleukin (IL) 1alpha, and IL-6 mRNA expression, suggesting that their inhibitory effect on cytokine secretion is produced, in part, at the transcriptional level. Cocoa extract also significantly decreased NO secretion in a dose-dependent manner and with a greater effect than that produced by epicatechin. In conclusion, our study shows that cocoa flavonoids not only inhibit NO release from macrophages but also down-regulate inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.

  3. Cacao Phylloplane: The First Battlefield against Moniliophthora perniciosa, Which Causes Witches' Broom Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, D S M; Gramacho, K P; Cardoso, T H S; Micheli, F; Alvim, F C; Pirovani, C P

    2017-07-01

    The phylloplane is the first contact surface between Theobroma cacao and the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes witches' broom disease (WBD). We evaluated the index of short glandular trichomes (SGT) in the cacao phylloplane and the effect of irrigation on the disease index of cacao genotypes with or without resistance to WBD, and identified proteins present in the phylloplane. The resistant genotype CCN51 and susceptible Catongo presented a mean index of 1,600 and 700 SGT cm -2 , respectively. The disease index in plants under drip irrigation was reduced by approximately 30% compared with plants under sprinkler irrigation prior to inoculation. Leaf water wash (LWW) of the cacao inhibited the germination of spores by up to 98%. Proteins from the LWW of CCN51 were analyzed by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by tandem mass spectrometry. The gel showed 71 spots and identified a total of 42 proteins (28 from the plant and 14 from bacteria). Proteins related to defense and synthesis of defense metabolites and involved in nucleic acid metabolism were identified. The results support the hypothesis that the proteins and water-soluble compounds secreted to the cacao phylloplane participate in the defense against pathogens. They also suggest that SGT can contribute to the resistance of cacao.

  4. Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 μm, 250-53 μm, and cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  5. Genome size, cytogenetic data and transferability of EST-SSRs markers in wild and cultivated species of the genus Theobroma L. (Byttnerioideae, Malvaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rangeline Azevedo; Souza, Gustavo; Lemos, Lívia Santos Lima; Lopes, Uilson Vanderlei; Patrocínio, Nara Geórgia Ribeiro Braz; Alves, Rafael Moysés; Marcellino, Lucília Helena; Clement, Didier; Micheli, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    The genus Theobroma comprises several trees species native to the Amazon. Theobroma cacao L. plays a key economic role mainly in the chocolate industry. Both cultivated and wild forms are described within the genus. Variations in genome size and chromosome number have been used for prediction purposes including the frequency of interspecific hybridization or inference about evolutionary relationships. In this study, the nuclear DNA content, karyotype and genetic diversity using functional microsatellites (EST-SSR) of seven Theobroma species were characterized. The nuclear content of DNA for all analyzed Theobroma species was 1C = ~ 0.46 pg. These species presented 2n = 20 with small chromosomes and only one pair of terminal heterochromatic bands positively stained (CMA+/DAPI− bands). The small size of Theobroma ssp. genomes was equivalent to other Byttnerioideae species, suggesting that the basal lineage of Malvaceae have smaller genomes and that there was an expansion of 2C values in the more specialized family clades. A set of 20 EST-SSR primers were characterized for related species of Theobroma, in which 12 loci were polymorphic. The polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.23 to 0.65, indicating a high level of information per locus. Combined results of flow cytometry, cytogenetic data and EST-SSRs markers will contribute to better describe the species and infer about the evolutionary relationships among Theobroma species. In addition, the importance of a core collection for conservation purposes is highlighted. PMID:28187131

  6. Genome size, cytogenetic data and transferability of EST-SSRs markers in wild and cultivated species of the genus Theobroma L. (Byttnerioideae, Malvaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangeline Azevedo da Silva

    Full Text Available The genus Theobroma comprises several trees species native to the Amazon. Theobroma cacao L. plays a key economic role mainly in the chocolate industry. Both cultivated and wild forms are described within the genus. Variations in genome size and chromosome number have been used for prediction purposes including the frequency of interspecific hybridization or inference about evolutionary relationships. In this study, the nuclear DNA content, karyotype and genetic diversity using functional microsatellites (EST-SSR of seven Theobroma species were characterized. The nuclear content of DNA for all analyzed Theobroma species was 1C = ~ 0.46 pg. These species presented 2n = 20 with small chromosomes and only one pair of terminal heterochromatic bands positively stained (CMA+/DAPI- bands. The small size of Theobroma ssp. genomes was equivalent to other Byttnerioideae species, suggesting that the basal lineage of Malvaceae have smaller genomes and that there was an expansion of 2C values in the more specialized family clades. A set of 20 EST-SSR primers were characterized for related species of Theobroma, in which 12 loci were polymorphic. The polymorphism information content (PIC ranged from 0.23 to 0.65, indicating a high level of information per locus. Combined results of flow cytometry, cytogenetic data and EST-SSRs markers will contribute to better describe the species and infer about the evolutionary relationships among Theobroma species. In addition, the importance of a core collection for conservation purposes is highlighted.

  7. El consumo de cacao en Venezuela y en el Mundo desde una perspectiva sostenible (1960-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero Rizzuto, Liliana; Anido R., José Daniel; Azuaje, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Con origen probable en la cuenca amazónica, el consumo del Theobroma cacao L. se difundió rápidamente al resto de América, de Europa y del mundo. A partir de estadísticas oficiales y otras fuentes bibliográficas y hemerográficas, el objetivo de este artículo es caracterizar el consumo de cacao y de sus productos derivados, tanto al nivel mundial (a partir de la década de 1960) como de Venezuela (a partir de 1949), desde una perspectiva sostenible. Es una investigación documental, ...

  8. KARAKTERISASI ENZIM POLIFENOL OKSIDASE BIJI KAKAO (Theobroma cacao Linn. Characterization of Polyphenol Oxidase Enzyme of Cocoa Beans (Theobroma cacao Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Ganda Putra

    2012-05-01

    max equals to 595,24 U/gram (db of cocoa beans and K equals to 0,20 M; result of SDS- PAGE of enzyme shows protein bands at M� of 11,75; 17,80; 27,80; 36,03 and 131,52 kDa; and finally, optimumcondition of enzyme activity is at the temperature of 53,43oC; pH 5,42 and incubation time of 80,91 minutes. ABSTRAK Telah dilakukan penelitian dengan tujuan untuk: (1 mengetahui karakteristik enzim polifenol oksidase dan (2 menen- tukan kondisi (suhu, pH dan waktu inkubasi optimum aktivitas enzim polifenol oksidase, yang diisolasi dari biji kakao kering. Hasil penelitian berupa kondisi (suhu, pH dan waktu inkubasi optimum aktivitas enzim polifenol oksidase akan diaplikasikan untuk perbaikan mutu biji kakao kering melalui teknik rehidrasi. Penelitian ini dilakukan melalui tahapan: (1 isolasi enzim polifenol oksidase dari 10 sampel biji kakao kering di Provinsi Bali, (2 karakterisasi enzim polifenol oksidase (aktivitas, kinetika enzim, BM dan (3 penentuan kondisi suhu, pH dan waktu inkubasi optimum. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa: (1 aktivitas enzim polifenol oksidase rata-rata 157,49 ± 58,03 U/gram (bk biji kakao dengan aktivitas maksimum 258,22 U/gram (bk biji kakao dan minimum 59,01 U/gram (bk biji kakao; maks sebesar 595,24 U/gram (bk biji kakao dan K sebesar 0,20 M; hasil SDS-PAGE enzim menunjukkan pita-pita protein yang terbentuk pada BM 11,75; 17,80; 27,80; 36,03 dan 131,52 kDa; dan (2 kondisi optimum aktivitas enzimadalah suhu 53,43oC; pH 5,42 dan waktu inkubasi 80,91 menit.

  9. Differential expression of jasmonate biosynthesis genes in cacao genotypes contrasting for resistance against Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litholdo, Celso G; Leal, Gildemberg A; Albuquerque, Paulo S B; Figueira, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The resistance mechanism of cacao against M. perniciosa is likely to be mediated by JA/ET-signaling pathways due to the preferential TcAOS and TcSAM induction in a resistant genotype. The basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa causes a serious disease in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), and the use of resistant varieties is the only sustainable long-term solution. Cacao resistance against M. perniciosa is characterized by pathogen growth inhibition with reduced colonization and an attenuation of disease symptoms, suggesting a regulation by jasmonate (JA)/ethylene (ET) signaling pathways. The hypothesis that genes involved in JA biosynthesis would be active in the interaction of T. cacao and M. perniciosa was tested here. The cacao JA-related genes were evaluated for their relative quantitative expression in susceptible and resistant genotypes upon the exogenous application of ET, methyl-jasmonate (MJ), and salicylic acid (SA), or after M. perniciosa inoculation. MJ treatment triggered changes in the expression of genes involved in JA biosynthesis, indicating that the mechanism of positive regulation by exogenous MJ application occurs in cacao. However, a higher induction of these genes was observed in the susceptible genotype. Further, a contrast in JA-related transcriptional expression was detected between susceptible and resistant plants under M. perniciosa infection, with the induction of the allene oxide synthase gene (TcAOS), which encodes a key enzyme in the JA biosynthesis pathway in the resistant genotype. Altogether, this work provides additional evidences that the JA-dependent signaling pathway is modulating the defense response against M. perniciosa in a cacao-resistant genotype.

  10. Immunomodulatory properties of cacao extracts – potential consequences for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kathrin; Geisler, Simon; Ueberall, Florian; Fuchs, Dietmar; Gostner, Johanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory properties of cacao, fruits of Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae), are well documented, and therapeutic applications are described for gastrointestinal, nervous, and cardiovascular abnormalities. Most, if not all of these disease conditions involve inflammation or immune activation processes. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and related biochemical pathways like tryptophan breakdown by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and neopterin formation are deeply involved in their pathogenesis. Neopterin concentrations and the kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp, an estimate of IDO activity) are elevated in a significant proportion of patients with virus infections, cancer, autoimmune syndrome, neurodegeneration, and coronary artery disease. Moreover, higher neopterin and Kyn/Trp concentrations are indicative for poor prognosis. When investigating the effect of aqueous or ethanolic extracts of cacao on IFN-γ, neopterin and Kyn/Trp concentrations in mitogen-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, breakdown of tryptophan by IDO, and formation of neopterin and IFN-γ were dose-dependently suppressed. The effects observed in the cell-based assays are associated with the antioxidant activity of the cacao extracts as determined by the cell-free oxygen radical absorption capacity assay. The influence of cacao extracts on IDO activity could be of particular relevance for some of the beneficial health effects ascribed to cacao: tryptophan breakdown by IDO is strongly involved in immunoregulation, and the diminished availability of tryptophan limits the biosynthesis of neurotransmitter serotonin. The inhibition of tryptophan breakdown by cacao constituents could thus be relevant not only for immune system restoration in patients, but also contribute to mood elevation and thereby improve quality of life. However, the available data thus far are merely in vitro only and future studies need to investigate the influence of cacao on

  11. Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase and Fatty Acid Composition in Theobroma grandiflorum Seeds

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    Casandra Valentina Itriago

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Theobroma grandiflorum is an important fruit tree from Sterculiaceae family, native to the Brazilian Amazon, known in the region as cupuaçu. The seeds have a high fat content (24% with characteristics that resemble those of cocoa (Theobroma cacao butter with potential applications in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The main objective of this work was to explore the seed fats from T. grandiflorum that were analyzed for fatty acid composition by Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID and to analyze their activity for acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Chromatographic analysis provided detection of nine fatty acids. The major fatty acids found in the species were oleic (40.0%, stearic (32.7%, arachidic (10.4% and palmitic (8.0%. The acetylcholinesterase inhibition by fats from seeds was over 40.48%. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v0i0.894 

  12. Cacao in México: Restrictive factors and productivity levels

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    Julio Díaz-José

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. represents one of the most important agricultural crops of the humid Mexican tropics. In the last 10 yr, approximately 23.000 t of this grain were no longer produced per cycle. The objective of this study was to identify characteristics and factors that restrict production in the states of Tabasco and Chiapas. A survey was applied to obtain information about 184 producers and their plantations by two-stage sampling. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multilevel models were adjusted to analyze the information. Results show that there are differences (P < 0.05 in cacao yield between municipalities (380 kg ha-1 + u,o j is the estimated residual for each municipality. Crop productivity levels are higher in the state of Tabasco than in Chiapas (644 and 344 kg ha-1, respectively. Incidence of frosty pod rot of cacoa, also known as moniliasis, induced by Moniliophthora roreri [(Cif H.C. Evans, Stalpers, Samson & Benny 1978] is significantly greater (P < 0.05 in the state of Chiapas (60% than in Tabasco (48%.Producers who carry out more crop management practices increase yields and decrease the pathogen's impact on their plantations. Results suggest the need to apply differentiated public policies to promote production within each region or municipality.

  13. Molecular characterisation of fungal endophytic morphospecies associated with the indigenous forest tree, Theobroma gileri, in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sarah E; Crozier, Jayne; Catherine Aime, M; Evans, Harry C; Holmes, Keith A

    2008-07-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from healthy stems and pods of Theobroma gileri, an alternative host of the frosty pod rot pathogen of cacao. Non-sporulating isolates were grouped into 46 different morphological species according to their colony morphology. Many of these morphospecies were assumed to be basidiomycetes and, therefore, were of particular interest. Basidiomycetous endophytes have received far less attention than ascomycetes and also have potential as biological control agents of the basidiomycetous pathogens of T. cacao: Moniliophthora roreri (frosty pod rot pathogen) and M. perniciosa (witches' broom disease). The morphospecies were further characterised by molecular analyses. Amplification of the nuLSU was undertaken for phylogenetic placement of these non-sporulating cultures and revealed a total of 31 different taxa of which 15 were basidiomycetes belonging to the class Agaricomycetes, and 16 ascomycetes primarily belonging to the Sordariomycetes.

  14. NONLINEAR MODELS FOR DESCRIPTION OF CACAO FRUIT GROWTH WITH ASSUMPTION VIOLATIONS

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    JOEL AUGUSTO MUNIZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cacao (Theobroma cacao L. is an important fruit in the Brazilian economy, which is mainly cultivated in the southern State of Bahia. The optimal stage for harvesting is a major factor for fruit quality and the knowledge on its growth curves can help, especially in identifying the ideal maturation stage for harvesting. Nonlinear regression models have been widely used for description of growth curves. However, several studies in this subject do not consider the residual analysis, the existence of a possible dependence between longitudinal observations, or the sample variance heterogeneity, compromising the modeling quality. The objective of this work was to compare the fit of nonlinear regression models, considering residual analysis and assumption violations, in the description of the cacao (clone Sial-105 fruit growth. The data evaluated were extracted from Brito and Silva (1983, who conducted the experiment in the Cacao Research Center, Ilheus, State of Bahia. The variables fruit length, diameter and volume as a function of fruit age were studied. The use of weighting and incorporation of residual dependencies was efficient, since the modeling became more consistent, improving the model fit. Considering the first-order autoregressive structure, when needed, leads to significant reduction in the residual standard deviation, making the estimates more reliable. The Logistic model was the most efficient for the description of the cacao fruit growth.

  15. Cacao diseases: a global perspective from an industry point of view.

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    Hebbar, Prakash K

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT Diseases of cacao, Theobroma cacao, account for losses of more than 30% of the potential crop. These losses have caused a steady decline in production and a reduction in bean quality in almost all the cacao-producing areas in the world, especially in small-holder farms in Latin America and West Africa. The most significant diseases are witches' broom, caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa, which occurs mainly in South America; frosty pod rot, caused by M. roreri, which occurs mainly in Central and northern South America; and black pod disease, caused by several species of Phytophthora, which are distributed throughout the tropics. In view of the threat that these diseases pose to the sustainability of the cacao crop, Mars Inc. and their industry partners have funded collaborative research involving cacao research institutes and governmental and nongovernmental agencies. The objective of this global initiative is to develop short- to medium-term, low-cost, environmentally friendly disease-management strategies until disease tolerant varieties are widely available. These include good farming practices, biological control and the rational or minimal use of chemicals that could be used for integrated pest management (IPM). Farmer field schools are used to get these technologies to growers. This paper describes some of the key collaborative partners and projects that are underway in South America and West Africa.

  16. Use of radio-active phosphorus in determining the efficiency of fertilizer utilization by cacao plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahenkorah, Y.

    1975-01-01

    Both 32 P labelled phosphate solution and superphosphate were used in studying 1) in situ root distribution and activity of twenty year old Amelonado cacao (Theobroma Cacao L.) during wet and dry seasons, and 2) the efficiency of fertilizer utilization by the cacao plantation. The 32 P content of the leaves was used to determine patterns of root activity. Uptake of 32 P was greatest during the wet season and root activity highest within the upper 3 cm soil layer in both wet and dry seasons. Highest 32 P activity was obtained at a distance of 120-160 cm, and lowest at 91 cm from the base of the tree. For maximum utilization of phosphate fertilizer by a plantation of twenty year old Amelonado cacao, planted at 240 cm x 240 cm spacing, the fertilizer should be broadcast during the wet season. Under low soil moisture conditions, the placement of 32 P labelled superphosphate provides information on the relative availability of fertilizer or soil phosphorus and does not necessarily reflect the activity of the root profile. Active roots of cacao tend to be more extensive and are capable of exploring a much larger area than hitherto expected

  17. Fungal and plant gene expression during the colonization of cacao seedlings by endophytic isolates of four Trichoderma species.

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    Bailey, B A; Bae, H; Strem, M D; Roberts, D P; Thomas, S E; Crozier, J; Samuels, G J; Choi, Ik-Young; Holmes, K A

    2006-11-01

    Endophytic isolates of Trichoderma species are being considered as biocontrol agents for diseases of Theobroma cacao (cacao). Gene expression was studied during the interaction between cacao seedlings and four endophytic Trichoderma isolates, T. ovalisporum-DIS 70a, T. hamatum-DIS 219b, T. harzianum-DIS 219f, and Trichoderma sp.-DIS 172ai. Isolates DIS 70a, DIS 219b, and DIS 219f were mycoparasitic on the pathogen Moniliophthora roreri, and DIS 172ai produced metabolites that inhibited growth of M. roreri in culture. ESTs (116) responsive to endophytic colonization of cacao were identified using differential display and their expression analyzed using macroarrays. Nineteen cacao ESTs and 17 Trichoderma ESTs were chosen for real-time quantitative PCR analysis. Seven cacao ESTs were induced during colonization by the Trichoderma isolates. These included putative genes for ornithine decarboxylase (P1), GST-like proteins (P4), zinc finger protein (P13), wound-induced protein (P26), EF-calcium-binding protein (P29), carbohydrate oxidase (P59), and an unknown protein (U4). Two plant ESTs, extensin-like protein (P12) and major intrinsic protein (P31), were repressed due to colonization. The plant gene expression profile was dependent on the Trichoderma isolate colonizing the cacao seedling. The fungal ESTs induced in colonized cacao seedlings also varied with the Trichoderma isolate used. The most highly induced fungal ESTs were putative glucosyl hydrolase family 2 (F3), glucosyl hydrolase family 7 (F7), serine protease (F11), and alcohol oxidase (F19). The pattern of altered gene expression suggests a complex system of genetic cross talk occurs between the cacao tree and Trichoderma isolates during the establishment of the endophytic association.

  18. CACAO TO COCOA TO CHOCOLATE: HEALTHY FOOD?

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    ROYA KELISHADI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chocolate is derived from cocoa beans - the fruit of the cacao tree or Theobroma cacao (the latin term: food of the gods. Recent published articles demonstrate that the quality and quantity of the antioxidants in cocoa and chocolate are very high and their flavonoids are believed to reduce the number of free radicals in the body that contribute to medical problems, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer and also to offer some anti-aging health benefits. Cocoa can lower the leukotriene/ prostacyclin ratio and is shown to have beneficial effects on platelets and possibly inflammation and vessel dilation. They inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation, raise the high-density lipoprotein (HDL level and reduce the thrombotic tendency. Their antioxidant catechin content is four times that of tea. They help the body process nitric oxide. Their flavanols and procyanidins have inhibitory effects on hemolysis, they can also attribute as a defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS and can inhibit their carcinogenic processes. Also they are shown to inhibit growth and polyamine biosynthesis of human colonic cancer cells. They contain tryptophan and anandamide, which lessen anxiety, promote relaxation and trigger the production of endorphins. Cocoa can prevent dental caries and may play a regulating role in the function of the immune system and prevent infectious and autoimmune diseases. It stimulates lactase enzyme activity. Although caffeine may be harmful in large dose, chocolate contains it in small amount in comparison to coffee and tea. Negative effects of chocolate on childhood hyperactivity and migraine  as well as tension headaches are controversial. Since the theobromine content of chocolate relaxes the esophageal sphincter, patients suffering from heartburn should avoid it. Cocoa can trigger some allergic reactions such as atopic dermatitis. This article reviews the potential health benefits and disadvantages of cocoa

  19. Trigonalidae (Hymenoptera from cacao agroforestry systems in northeastern Brazil, with two new species of Trigonalys Westwood

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    Bernardo Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A survey of Trigonalidae from cacao (Theobroma cacao L. agroforestry systems in southern Bahia, northeastern Brazil, is conducted. A total of 65 specimens were studied, and three species are recognized. Trigonalys melanoleuca Westwood is diagnosed and illustrated. Two new species are described and illustrated. Trigonalys erythrocephala sp. n. has most of head reddish brown; metasomal armature in sternum III conspicuous, Y-shaped; supra-antennal elevation conspicuous; hind coxa with sharp lateral angles, its dorso-mesal portion strigate; legs entirely dark brown; and fore wing lightly infuscate, darker towards anterior margin. Trigonalys gotica sp. n. with body blackish or dark brown and with pale yellow marks; mesopleuron with an oblique mark; female armature absent; frons and vertex punctate-areolate; supra-antennal elevation subtle; propodeal foramen V-shaped; and fore wing vein M arising distinctly basad to 1cu-a.

  20. Moniliophthora roreri (Cif y Par Evans et al. en el cultivo de cacao

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    Fernando David Sánchez Mora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Más de un siglo, el cacao (Theobroma cacaoL. en el Ecuador ha sido fuente importante de ingresos para losagricultoresy de divisas para el país, llegando a ser uno de los exportadores más grandes a nivel mundial.Posteriormente, perdió paulatinamente ese estatus debido al ataque de enfermedades, entre ellas la moniliasiscausada por [Moniliophthoraroreri(Cif y ParEvanset al.]. Esta enfermedad puede causar daños hasta del80% en la producción. Actualmente no existe mucha información actualizada y científica, sobre su ocurrencia,sintomatología, etiología, epidemiología, ciclo de vida y manejo o estrategias de controlde la mencionadaenfermedad, por la tanto se realiza esta revisión con estos tópicos importantes, aportando con esto a esta áreadel conocimiento.

  1. Carbon storage in soil size fractions under two cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F; Ramachandran Nair, P K; Nair, Vimala D; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C; Baligar, Virupax C; Machado, Regina C R

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 microm, 250-53 microm, and <53 microm)-corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions-and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  2. Novel receptor-like kinases in cacao contain PR-1 extracellular domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Paulo José Pereira Lima; Costa, Gustavo Gilson Lacerda; Fiorin, Gabriel Lorencini; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Mondego, Jorge Maurício Costa

    2013-08-01

    Members of the pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR-1) family are well-known markers of plant defence responses, forming part of the arsenal of the secreted proteins produced on pathogen recognition. Here, we report the identification of two cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) PR-1s that are fused to transmembrane regions and serine/threonine kinase domains, in a manner characteristic of receptor-like kinases (RLKs). These proteins (TcPR-1f and TcPR-1g) were named PR-1 receptor kinases (PR-1RKs). Phylogenetic analysis of RLKs and PR-1 proteins from cacao indicated that PR-1RKs originated from a fusion between sequences encoding PR-1 and the kinase domain of a LecRLK (Lectin Receptor-Like Kinase). Retrotransposition marks surround TcPR-1f, suggesting that retrotransposition was involved in the origin of PR-1RKs. Genes with a similar domain architecture to cacao PR-1RKs were found in rice (Oryza sativa), barrel medic (Medicago truncatula) and a nonphototrophic bacterium (Herpetosiphon aurantiacus). However, their kinase domains differed from those found in LecRLKs, indicating the occurrence of convergent evolution. TcPR-1g expression was up-regulated in the biotrophic stage of witches' broom disease, suggesting a role for PR-1RKs during cacao defence responses. We hypothesize that PR-1RKs transduce a defence signal by interacting with a PR-1 ligand. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  3. pH relationship and nutrient availability for cacao in an Entisol from the Colombian Amazon

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    Gelber Rosas-Patiño

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Liming is a common practice in acid soil manage-ment; however, the information on liming in cacao soils of the Colombian Amazon region is precarious. Incubation curves were built in a highly acid Typic Udorthents cultivated with cacao (Theobroma cacao L. - Malvaceae, for which increasing doses (0 - 1 - 3 - 5 - 7 - 9 -11 Mg/ha of dolomite lime (Ca M g (CO32 and calcium carbonate (CaCO3 were used, in order to establish the type and amount of liming material (ME with better reactivity, and the one that is better favored with the acidity changes: pH, Al3+, H+, total acidity. Models to estimate the ME dose needed to manage the soil in order to obtain the desired pH (≥5.5 were generated. Sub-sequently, the soil was then limed under field conditions and pH, Al3+, Al in solution (Alsol, aluminum saturation (SAI, cation exchange capacity (CEC and N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, B, Fe and Mn availability were evaluated. The results show that the greatest reaction of liming materials in these soils occurs after 60 days; applications of 7 Mg/ha allowed to raise the pH from 5.5 to 6.0 and decreases Al and Fe levels. These changes improved the CECand nutrient availability (Ca, Mg, P, Zn for cacao without affecting other nutrients such as N and K.

  4. Infection of non-host model plant species with the narrow-host-range Cacao swollen shoot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friscina, Arianna; Chiappetta, Laura; Jacquemond, Mireille; Tepfer, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) is a major pathogen of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Africa, and long-standing efforts to limit its spread by the culling of infected trees have had very limited success. CSSV is a particularly difficult virus to study, as it has a very narrow host range, limited to several tropical tree species. Furthermore, the virus is not mechanically transmissible, and its insect vector can only be used with difficulty. Thus, the only efficient means to infect cacao plants that have been experimentally described so far are by particle bombardment or the agroinoculation of cacao plants with an infectious clone. We have genetically transformed three non-host species with an infectious form of the CSSV genome: two experimental hosts widely used in plant virology (Nicotiana tabacum and N. benthamiana) and the model species Arabidopsis thaliana. In transformed plants of all three species, the CSSV genome was able to replicate, and, in tobacco, CSSV particles could be observed by immunosorbent electron microscopy, demonstrating that the complete virus cycle could be completed in a non-host plant. These results will greatly facilitate the preliminary testing of CSSV control strategies using plants that are easy to raise and to transform genetically. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  5. Variación de las propiedades físicas de la grasa de cacao con la temperatura

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    de Dios Alvarado, Juan

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Values of physical properties determined at different temperatures in fat extracted from fresh cacao seeds (Theobroma cacao are presented. Linear relationships define the effect of temperature on the refraction index, density and surface tension, a logarithmic function was established for viscosity. The values of density and viscosity are used to determine the coefficient of volumetric thermal expansion and activation energy, respectively. Data of specific heat, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity are included. In addition a melting and solidification points. The information can be used at ambient temperatures or greater current in the elaboration of chocolate and other cocoa products.

    Se presentan los valores experimentales de varias propiedades físicas determinadas en grasa obtenida de semillas de cacao (Theobroma cacao a diferentes temperaturas. El efecto de la temperatura sobre el índice de refracción, la densidad y la tensión superficial, es descrito en forma satisfactoria por ecuaciones lineales, en el caso de la viscosidad esta relación inversa es logarítmica. Los datos de la densidad se utilizan para determinar el coeficiente volumétrico de expansión térmica y los de la viscosidad para cuantificar la energía de activación.
    Se incluyen los datos del calor específico, de la difusividad térmica y de la conductividad térmica, conjuntamente con los puntos de fusión y de solidificación.
    Estos datos técnicos pueden ser utilizados a temperaturas ambientales y superiores que son comunes durante la elaboración de chocolates u otras tecnologías que utilizan cacao.

  6. Independent Origins of Yeast Associated with Coffee and Cacao Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Catherine L; Cromie, Gareth A; Garmendia-Torres, Cecilia; Sirr, Amy; Hays, Michelle; Field, Colburn; Jeffery, Eric W; Fay, Justin C; Dudley, Aimée M

    2016-04-04

    Modern transportation networks have facilitated the migration and mingling of previously isolated populations of plants, animals, and insects. Human activities can also influence the global distribution of microorganisms. The best-understood example is yeasts associated with winemaking. Humans began making wine in the Middle East over 9,000 years ago [1, 2]. Selecting favorable fermentation products created specialized strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae [3, 4] that were transported along with grapevines. Today, S. cerevisiae strains residing in vineyards around the world are genetically similar, and their population structure suggests a common origin that followed the path of human migration [3-7]. Like wine, coffee and cacao depend on microbial fermentation [8, 9] and have been globally dispersed by humans. Theobroma cacao originated in the Amazon and Orinoco basins of Colombia and Venezuela [10], was cultivated in Central America by Mesoamerican peoples, and was introduced to Europeans by Hernán Cortés in 1530 [11]. Coffea, native to Ethiopia, was disseminated by Arab traders throughout the Middle East and North Africa in the 6(th) century and was introduced to European consumers in the 17(th) century [12]. Here, we tested whether the yeasts associated with coffee and cacao are genetically similar, crop-specific populations or genetically diverse, geography-specific populations. Our results uncovered populations that, while defined by niche and geography, also bear signatures of admixture between major populations in events independent of the transport of the plants. Thus, human-associated fermentation and migration may have affected the distribution of yeast involved in the production of coffee and chocolate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of Genome Wide Association and Genomic Prediction for Improvement of Cacao Productivity and Resistance to Black and Frosty Pod Diseases

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    J. Alberto Romero Navarro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a highly valued and palatable confectionery product. Chocolate is primarily made from the processed seeds of the tree species Theobroma cacao. Cacao cultivation is highly relevant for small-holder farmers throughout the tropics, yet its productivity remains limited by low yields and widespread pathogens. A panel of 148 improved cacao clones was assembled based on productivity and disease resistance, and phenotypic single-tree replicated clonal evaluation was performed for 8 years. Using high-density markers, the diversity of clones was expressed relative to 10 known ancestral cacao populations, and significant effects of ancestry were observed in productivity and disease resistance. Genome-wide association (GWA was performed, and six markers were significantly associated with frosty pod disease resistance. In addition, genomic selection was performed, and consistent with the observed extensive linkage disequilibrium, high predictive ability was observed at low marker densities for all traits. Finally, quantitative trait locus mapping and differential expression analysis of two cultivars with contrasting disease phenotypes were performed to identify genes underlying frosty pod disease resistance, identifying a significant quantitative trait locus and 35 differentially expressed genes using two independent differential expression analyses. These results indicate that in breeding populations of heterozygous and recently admixed individuals, mapping approaches can be used for low complexity traits like pod color cacao, or in other species single gene disease resistance, however genomic selection for quantitative traits remains highly effective relative to mapping. Our results can help guide the breeding process for sustainable improved cacao productivity.

  8. System level analysis of cacao seed ripening reveals a sequential interplay of primary and secondary metabolism leading to polyphenol accumulation and preparation of stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Nägele, Thomas; Doerfler, Hannes; Fragner, Lena; Chaturvedi, Palak; Nukarinen, Ella; Bellaire, Anke; Huber, Werner; Weiszmann, Jakob; Engelmeier, Doris; Ramsak, Ziva; Gruden, Kristina; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2016-08-01

    Theobroma cacao and its popular product, chocolate, are attracting attention due to potential health benefits including antioxidative effects by polyphenols, anti-depressant effects by high serotonin levels, inhibition of platelet aggregation and prevention of obesity-dependent insulin resistance. The development of cacao seeds during fruit ripening is the most crucial process for the accumulation of these compounds. In this study, we analyzed the primary and the secondary metabolome as well as the proteome during Theobroma cacao cv. Forastero seed development by applying an integrative extraction protocol. The combination of multivariate statistics and mathematical modelling revealed a complex consecutive coordination of primary and secondary metabolism and corresponding pathways. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid metabolism dominated during the early developmental stages (stages 1 and 2; cell division and expansion phase). This was accompanied with a significant shift of proteins from phenylpropanoid metabolism to flavonoid biosynthesis. At stage 3 (reserve accumulation phase), metabolism of sucrose switched from hydrolysis into raffinose synthesis. Lipids as well as proteins involved in lipid metabolism increased whereas amino acids and N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids decreased. Purine alkaloids, polyphenols, and raffinose as well as proteins involved in abiotic and biotic stress accumulated at stage 4 (maturation phase) endowing cacao seeds the characteristic astringent taste and resistance to stress. In summary, metabolic key points of cacao seed development comprise the sequential coordination of primary metabolites, phenylpropanoid, N-phenylpropenoyl amino acid, serotonin, lipid and polyphenol metabolism thereby covering the major compound classes involved in cacao aroma and health benefits. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Genome-wide identification and characterization of cacao WRKY transcription factors and analysis of their expression in response to witches' broom disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Monteiro de Almeida, Dayanne; Oliveira Jordão do Amaral, Daniel; Del-Bem, Luiz-Eduardo; Bronze Dos Santos, Emily; Santana Silva, Raner José; Peres Gramacho, Karina; Vincentz, Michel; Micheli, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation, led by transcription factors (TFs) such as those of the WRKY family, is a mechanism used by the organism to enhance or repress gene expression in response to stimuli. Here, we report on the genome-wide analysis of the Theobroma cacao WRKY TF family and also investigate the expression of WRKY genes in cacao infected by the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa. In the cacao genome, 61 non-redundant WRKY sequences were found and classified in three groups (I to III) according to the WRKY and zinc-finger motif types. The 61 putative WRKY sequences were distributed on the 10 cacao chromosomes and 24 of them came from duplication events. The sequences were phylogenetically organized according to the general WRKY groups. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that subgroups IIa and IIb are sister groups and share a common ancestor, as well as subgroups IId and IIe. The most divergent groups according to the plant origin were IIc and III. According to the phylogenetic analysis, 7 TcWRKY genes were selected and analyzed by RT-qPCR in susceptible and resistant cacao plants infected (or not) with M. perniciosa. Some TcWRKY genes presented interesting responses to M. perniciosa such as Tc01_p014750/Tc06_p013130/AtWRKY28, Tc09_p001530/Tc06_p004420/AtWRKY40, Tc04_p016130/AtWRKY54 and Tc10_p016570/ AtWRKY70. Our results can help to select appropriate candidate genes for further characterization in cacao or in other Theobroma species.

  10. Genome-wide identification and characterization of cacao WRKY transcription factors and analysis of their expression in response to witches' broom disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Monteiro de Almeida, Dayanne; Oliveira Jordão do Amaral, Daniel; Del-Bem, Luiz-Eduardo; Bronze dos Santos, Emily; Santana Silva, Raner José; Peres Gramacho, Karina; Vincentz, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation, led by transcription factors (TFs) such as those of the WRKY family, is a mechanism used by the organism to enhance or repress gene expression in response to stimuli. Here, we report on the genome-wide analysis of the Theobroma cacao WRKY TF family and also investigate the expression of WRKY genes in cacao infected by the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa. In the cacao genome, 61 non-redundant WRKY sequences were found and classified in three groups (I to III) according to the WRKY and zinc-finger motif types. The 61 putative WRKY sequences were distributed on the 10 cacao chromosomes and 24 of them came from duplication events. The sequences were phylogenetically organized according to the general WRKY groups. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that subgroups IIa and IIb are sister groups and share a common ancestor, as well as subgroups IId and IIe. The most divergent groups according to the plant origin were IIc and III. According to the phylogenetic analysis, 7 TcWRKY genes were selected and analyzed by RT-qPCR in susceptible and resistant cacao plants infected (or not) with M. perniciosa. Some TcWRKY genes presented interesting responses to M. perniciosa such as Tc01_p014750/Tc06_p013130/AtWRKY28, Tc09_p001530/Tc06_p004420/AtWRKY40, Tc04_p016130/AtWRKY54 and Tc10_p016570/ AtWRKY70. Our results can help to select appropriate candidate genes for further characterization in cacao or in other Theobroma species. PMID:29084273

  11. Aplicación de Antagonistas Microbianos para el Control Biológico de Moniliophthora roreri Cif & Par en Theobroma cacao L. Bajo Condiciones de Campo / Application of Microbial Antagonists for the Biological Control of Moniliophthora roreri Cif & Par in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Villamil Carvajal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. En Colombia, las pérdidas ocasionadas porMoniliophthora roreri Cif & Par en el cultivo de cacao continúansiendo considerables. El objetivo del presente estudio fue investigarla actividad antagónica de dos aislamientos autóctonos deTrichoderma sp. y uno de Bacillus sp. ante M. roreri, en condicionesde campo. Los tratamientos fueron: T1, hongo H5; T2, hongo H20;T3, bacteria B3 y T4, testigo. Se evaluó incidencia y severidadexterna e interna en los frutos. Los resultados de severidad externae interna mostraron que respecto al control la disminucióndel daño en los frutos fue del 19,5 y 11,2% en el T1, del 28 y19,5% en el T2 y del 13,5 y 8,5% en el T3, respectivamente condiferencias estadísticas a favor del T2. Se concluye que entre lostres antagonistas evaluados, el hongo H20 (Trichoderma sp. tieneel mayor potencial para el control de la moniliasis del cacao encondiciones de campo. / Abstract. In Colombia, the economic losses caused byMoniliophthora roreri Cif & Par in the cocoa cultivation continuebeing considerable. The objective of this study was to investigatethe antagonistic activity of two indigenous isolates of Trichodermasp and one of Bacillus sp. over M. roreri under field conditions. Thetreatments were: T1, fungus H5; T2, fungus H20; T3, bacteria B3; T4,control. The variables evaluated on the cocoa fruits were incidenceand external and internal severity. The results of the externaland internal severity showed that with respect to the control thedamage reduction on the cocoa fruits was 19,5 and 11,2% in T1,28 and 19,5% in T2, and 13,5 and 8,5% in T3, respectively withstatistical differences in favor of T2. It is concluded that amongthe three evaluated antagonists, the fungus H20 (Trichoderma sp.has the greatest potential for the biocontrol of frosty pod rot in thecocoa cultivation under field conditions.

  12. Trichoderma species from the cacao agroecosystem with biocontrol potential of Moniliophthora roreri

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    Omar Reyes-Figueroa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La moniliasis del cacao ( Moniliophthora roreri es la principal limitante parasítica de la producción de cacao ( Theobroma cacao en México. Una alternativa sostenible para el control de la enfermedad es el uso del hongo Trichoderma . El objetivo del presente estudio fue seleccionar aislamientos nativos de Trichoderma con las mejores características antagónicas y fisiológicas in vitro, para el control de M. roreri . Para ello, se caracterizaron 50 aislamientos de Trichoderma , obtenidos del agroecosistema cacao. El crecimiento micelial y la producción de conidios a 25, 30 y 35 °C se consideraron variables fisiológicas. El micoparasitismo, antibiosis y antagonismo potencial fueron las variables antagónicas. Se encontraron diferencias significativas ( P = 0.0001 en todas las variables evaluadas . El intervalo de temperatura óptima para el crecimiento micelial y producción de conidios fue de 25 a 30 °C. El micoparasitismo varió de 0 a 100 % y solo los aislamientos de seis especies mostraron esta característica. La antibiosis osciló entre 6.8 y 55.5 %, y el antagonismo potencial varió de 3.4 a 69 %. Trichoderma virens (TTC017 y T. harzianum (TTC090, TTC039, TTC073 mostraron el mejor biocontrol potencial in vitro , por lo que son cepas prometedoras para futuras investigaciones sobre control biológico de la moniliasis del cacao.

  13. Evaluation of soil amendments as a remediation alternative for cadmium-contaminated soils under cacao plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R; Li, Y; Baligar, V C

    2016-09-01

    Elevated plant-available cadmium (Cd) in soils results in contamination to cacao (Theobroma cacao L) beans. Effectiveness of vermicompost and zeolite in reducing available Cd in three cacao-growing soils was studied under laboratory conditions. Sorption-desorption experiments were conducted in soils and amendments. Cadmium was added at 0 or 5 mg kg(-1) (spiked), then, amendments were incorporated at 0, 0.5, or 2 %. Amended soils were incubated at room temperature for 28 days. Plant-available Cd was determined using 0.01 M CaCl2 (WSE) and Mehlich 3 (M3) extraction procedures in subsamples taken from individual bags at six time intervals. Soils and amendments displayed different sorption characteristics and a better fit was attained with Freundlich model (R (2) > 0.82). Amendments were ineffective in reducing extractable Cd in non-spiked soils. In Cd-spiked soils, vermicompost at 2 % significantly reduced WSE-Cd (P soils and significantly diminished M3-extractable Cd (P soil. Vermicompost at 0.5 % significantly decreased WSE-Cd (P soils with low sorption capacity for Cd. In contrast, zeolite failed to reduce WSE- or M3-extractable Cd in all studied soils. A negative correlation occurred between soil pH and WSE-Cd (r > -0.89, P soils.

  14. Extracción de nutrientes por los frutos de cacao en dos localidades en Costa Rica.

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    Parménides Furcal Beriguete

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente investigación fue analizar la extracción de nutrientes en frutos de clones de cacao (Theobroma cacao. El estudio se hizo en plantaciones de cacao de siete años, en las localidades de Katira, Guatuso y el Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, entre los meses de marzo a agosto del año 2014. El diseño experimental utilizado fue completamente al azar con tres repeticiones; para el análisis se mezclaron por separado las semillas y la cáscara de tres frutos, para formar una repetición de cada uno de los siete clones de cacao seleccionados por el CATIE por su tolerancia a moniliasis (Moniliophthora roreri, calidad y altos rendimientos. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que de una tonelada de semillas secas de estos clones, incluyendo la cáscara del fruto, se extraen entre 33,45 a 37,80 kg de nitrógeno (N, entre 40,35 y 50,64 kg de potasio (K, y de fósforo (P en un rango de 7,33 a 8,37 kg. El orden de extracción de los nutrientes fue: K>N>P>Mg>Ca>Mn>Fe>Zn>B=Cu.

  15. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties in long term improved natural and traditional agroforestry management systems of cacao genotypes in Peruvian Amazon.

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    Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique; Canto, Manuel; Alegre, Julio; Loli, Oscar; Julca, Alberto; Baligar, Virupax

    2015-01-01

    Growing cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in an agroforestry system generates a productive use of the land, preserves the best conditions for physical, chemical and biological properties of tropical soils, and plays an important role in improving cacao production and fertility of degraded tropical soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two long term agroforestry systems of cacao management on soil physical and chemical properties in an area originally inhabited by 30 years old native secondary forest (SF). The two agroforestry systems adapted were: improved natural agroforestry system (INAS) where trees without economic value were selectively removed to provide 50% shade and improved traditional agroforestry system (ITAS) where all native trees were cut and burnt in the location. For evaluation of the changes of soil physical and chemical properties with time due to the imposed cacao management systems, plots of 10 cacao genotypes (ICS95, UF613, CCN51, ICT1112, ICT1026, ICT2162, ICT2171, ICT2142, H35, U30) and one plot with a spontaneous hybrid were selected. Soil samples were taken at 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm depths before the installation of the management systems (2004), and then followed at two years intervals. Bulk density, porosity, field capacity and wilting point varied significantly during the years of assessment in the different soil depths and under the systems assessed. Soil pH, CEC, exchangeable Mg and sum of the bases were higher in the INAS than the ITAS. In both systems, SOM, Ext. P, K and Fe, exch. K, Mg and Al+H decreased with years of cultivation; these changes were more evident in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Overall improvement of SOM and soil nutrient status was much higher in the ITAS than INAS. The levels of physical and chemical properties of soil under cacao genotypes showed a marked difference in both systems.

  16. Differential gene expression by Moniliophthora roreri while overcoming cacao tolerance in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Bryan A; Melnick, Rachel L; Strem, Mary D; Crozier, Jayne; Shao, Jonathan; Sicher, Richard; Phillips-Mora, Wilberth; Ali, Shahin S; Zhang, Dapeng; Meinhardt, Lyndel

    2014-09-01

    Frosty pod rot (FPR) of Theobroma cacao (cacao) is caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora roreri. Cacao clones tolerant to FPR are being planted throughout Central America. To determine whether M. roreri shows a differential molecular response during successful infections of tolerant clones, we collected field-infected pods at all stages of symptomatology for two highly susceptible clones (Pound-7 and CATIE-1000) and three tolerant clones (UF-273, CATIE-R7 and CATIE-R4). Metabolite analysis was carried out on clones Pound-7, CATIE-1000, CATIE-R7 and CATIE-R4. As FPR progressed, the concentrations of sugars in pods dropped, whereas the levels of trehalose and mannitol increased. Associations between symptoms and fungal loads and some organic and amino acid concentrations varied depending on the clone. RNA-Seq analysis identified 873 M. roreri genes that were differentially expressed between clones, with the primary difference being whether the clone was susceptible or tolerant. Genes encoding transcription factors, heat shock proteins, transporters, enzymes modifying membranes or cell walls and metabolic enzymes, such as malate synthase and alternative oxidase, were differentially expressed. The differential expression between clones of 43 M. roreri genes was validated by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The expression profiles of some genes were similar in susceptible and tolerant clones (other than CATIE-R4) and varied with the biotrophic/necrotropic shift. Moniliophthora roreri genes associated with stress metabolism and responses to heat shock and anoxia were induced early in tolerant clones, their expression profiles resembling that of the necrotrophic phase. Moniliophthora roreri stress response genes, induced during the infection of tolerant clones, may benefit the fungus in overcoming cacao defense mechanisms. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  17. A genome survey of Moniliophthora perniciosa gives new insights into Witches' Broom Disease of cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondego, Jorge M C; Carazzolle, Marcelo F; Costa, Gustavo G L; Formighieri, Eduardo F; Parizzi, Lucas P; Rincones, Johana; Cotomacci, Carolina; Carraro, Dirce M; Cunha, Anderson F; Carrer, Helaine; Vidal, Ramon O; Estrela, Raíssa C; García, Odalys; Thomazella, Daniela P T; de Oliveira, Bruno V; Pires, Acássia Bl; Rio, Maria Carolina S; Araújo, Marcos Renato R; de Moraes, Marcos H; Castro, Luis A B; Gramacho, Karina P; Gonçalves, Marilda S; Neto, José P Moura; Neto, Aristóteles Góes; Barbosa, Luciana V; Guiltinan, Mark J; Bailey, Bryan A; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Cascardo, Julio Cm; Pereira, Gonçalo A G

    2008-11-18

    The basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease (WBD) in cacao (Theobroma cacao). It is a hemibiotrophic pathogen that colonizes the apoplast of cacao's meristematic tissues as a biotrophic pathogen, switching to a saprotrophic lifestyle during later stages of infection. M. perniciosa, together with the related species M. roreri, are pathogens of aerial parts of the plant, an uncommon characteristic in the order Agaricales. A genome survey (1.9x coverage) of M. perniciosa was analyzed to evaluate the overall gene content of this phytopathogen. Genes encoding proteins involved in retrotransposition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) resistance, drug efflux transport and cell wall degradation were identified. The great number of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (1.15% of gene models) indicates that M. perniciosa has a great potential for detoxification, production of toxins and hormones; which may confer a high adaptive ability to the fungus. We have also discovered new genes encoding putative secreted polypeptides rich in cysteine, as well as genes related to methylotrophy and plant hormone biosynthesis (gibberellin and auxin). Analysis of gene families indicated that M. perniciosa have similar amounts of carboxylesterases and repertoires of plant cell wall degrading enzymes as other hemibiotrophic fungi. In addition, an approach for normalization of gene family data using incomplete genome data was developed and applied in M. perniciosa genome survey. This genome survey gives an overview of the M. perniciosa genome, and reveals that a significant portion is involved in stress adaptation and plant necrosis, two necessary characteristics for a hemibiotrophic fungus to fulfill its infection cycle. Our analysis provides new evidence revealing potential adaptive traits that may play major roles in the mechanisms of pathogenicity in the M. perniciosa/cacao pathosystem.

  18. A genome survey of Moniliophthora perniciosa gives new insights into Witches' Broom Disease of cacao

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    Bailey Bryan A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease (WBD in cacao (Theobroma cacao. It is a hemibiotrophic pathogen that colonizes the apoplast of cacao's meristematic tissues as a biotrophic pathogen, switching to a saprotrophic lifestyle during later stages of infection. M. perniciosa, together with the related species M. roreri, are pathogens of aerial parts of the plant, an uncommon characteristic in the order Agaricales. A genome survey (1.9× coverage of M. perniciosa was analyzed to evaluate the overall gene content of this phytopathogen. Results Genes encoding proteins involved in retrotransposition, reactive oxygen species (ROS resistance, drug efflux transport and cell wall degradation were identified. The great number of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (1.15% of gene models indicates that M. perniciosa has a great potential for detoxification, production of toxins and hormones; which may confer a high adaptive ability to the fungus. We have also discovered new genes encoding putative secreted polypeptides rich in cysteine, as well as genes related to methylotrophy and plant hormone biosynthesis (gibberellin and auxin. Analysis of gene families indicated that M. perniciosa have similar amounts of carboxylesterases and repertoires of plant cell wall degrading enzymes as other hemibiotrophic fungi. In addition, an approach for normalization of gene family data using incomplete genome data was developed and applied in M. perniciosa genome survey. Conclusion This genome survey gives an overview of the M. perniciosa genome, and reveals that a significant portion is involved in stress adaptation and plant necrosis, two necessary characteristics for a hemibiotrophic fungus to fulfill its infection cycle. Our analysis provides new evidence revealing potential adaptive traits that may play major roles in the mechanisms of pathogenicity in the M. perniciosa/cacao

  19. Perfil sensorial de pó de cacau (Theobroma cacao L.) alcalinizado Sensory profile and acceptance of alkalinized cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) powder

    OpenAIRE

    Eliete da Silva Bispo; Vera Lúcia Pupo Ferreira; Ligia Regina Radomille de Santana; Katumi Yotsuyanagi

    2005-01-01

    A Análise Descritiva Quantitativa(ADQ) foi empregada para caracterização das amostras de pós de cacau que representaram a amplitude do delineamento composto rotacional central 2 do processo de alcalinização dos "nibs" de cacau. As variáveis independentes foram faixas de temperatura de 60 a 120 ºC, de tempo de 30 a 150min e de concentração de K2CO3 de 1,22 a 4,78%. Foram avaliadas oito amostras de pó de cacau representativas das variações de cor e aceitabilidade do total das amostras obtidas e...

  20. Perfil sensorial de pó de cacau (Theobroma cacao L. alcalinizado Sensory profile and acceptance of alkalinized cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliete da Silva Bispo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A Análise Descritiva Quantitativa(ADQ foi empregada para caracterização das amostras de pós de cacau que representaram a amplitude do delineamento composto rotacional central 2 do processo de alcalinização dos "nibs" de cacau. As variáveis independentes foram faixas de temperatura de 60 a 120 ºC, de tempo de 30 a 150min e de concentração de K2CO3 de 1,22 a 4,78%. Foram avaliadas oito amostras de pó de cacau representativas das variações de cor e aceitabilidade do total das amostras obtidas experimentalmente e duas amostras de marcas comerciais. A análise do aroma foi feita diretamente nos pós de cacau alcalinizados e a dos demais atributos na forma de bebida achocolatada (2% do pó de cacau e 7% de açúcar em leite desnatado esterilizado. Doze provadores selecionados com base no seu poder de discriminação, reprodutibilidade e concordância com a equipe geraram em consenso, pelo método de rede (Kelly's Repertory Grid Method, três termos descritos para o aroma (alcalino, chocolate e queimado e doze para os achocolatados (solubilidade, marrom, marrom avermelhado, chocolate, queimado, caramelo, doce, adstringente, alcalino, amargo, salgado e corpo. As avaliações das amostras foram feitas monadicamente com três repetições e em cabines individuais. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos a ANOVA, teste de Tukey e Análise de Componentes Principais. As avaliações dos aromas dos pós de cacau mostraram relação direta entre o aroma alcalino e os teores de álcali, temperatura e tempo do processo. De modo geral, os produtos com menores concentrações de K2CO3 (1,22 - 3,00% apresentaram aroma e sabor de chocolate mais fortes. Encontrou-se uma relação direta entre os teores de álcali no produto e o sabor alcalino, queimado e adstringente e uma relação inversa com a luminosidade da cor. Assim, as amostras com maior concentração de K2CO3 (4,78%, foram consideradas pela equipe sensorial, as de mais forte sabor e aroma alcalino, queimado e adstringente, assim como de cor marrom e marrom avermelhado mais escura. Todos os processos levaram à obtenção de amostras com alta solubilidade e fraco sabor amargo.The Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (ADQ was used aiming to show the sensory characterization of cocoa powder samples representing the range of a central composite design, 2³ of the process of alkalization of the cocoa "nibs" using variables independent such as temperature (60, 72, 90 and 108 ºC, time (30, 54, 90, 126 and 150min and concentration of K2CO3(0.0, 1.22, 3.0 and 4.78%. Two commercial samples of alkalinized cocoa powder were appraised. The analysis of the flavour was accomplished in the alkalinized cocoa powders and the other atributes in the chocolate beverage form (2% of the alkalinized cocoa powders and 7% of sugar in skimmed sterilized milk. Twelve panelists were selectedbased in their to detect setterness, reliability and agreement with the panel. The data were evaluated by means of variance analysis ANOVA for the factors sample and panelist, as well as of the interaction sample x panelist. The Tukey test was applied for comparison of the averages of samples at the level of 5%. The principal components technique was applied to the data, obtaining the configuration of the samples considering all attributes. Roughly samples with K2CO3 between 1.22 to 3.0% and one of the commercial samples were considered with stronger chocolate flavour, as well as, weaker alkaline flavour and taste. Samples with K2CO3 with 4,78% were considered the darkest color and strongest alkaline flavour and astringency. For the chocolate beverage there was no significant difference at 5% level in relation to solubility and bitter flavor.

  1. OPTIMASI ISOLASI LIPASE INDIGENOUS BIJI KAKAO (Theobroma cacao L. The Optimizing of Isolation of Cocoa Bean Indogenous Lipase (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I D. G. Mayun Permana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to optimize the isolation method of cocoa bean lipase. The research is held by determining the position of lipase on cocoa bean, varying extraction medium and isolation process. The result shows that the lipase of cocoa bean is   cytosolic enzyme. The defatting process do not increase the lipase activity. Polyphenols inhibit the lipase activity, so that removal of the polyphenol will increase the activity. Blocking the polyphenol with polyvinilpolypirrolidone (PVPP will also increase the activity.The optimum consentration of PVPP is 8 %. The lipase activity will reach the highest when homogenized for 10 menit at 10,000 rpm. The best medium extraction for lipase isolation is 0.15 M phosphate buffer pH 7.5 containing sucrose 0.6 M and CaCl  1.0 mM.   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengoptimasi isolasi lipase indigenous biji kakao. Optimasi diawali dengan menentukan keberadaan lipase kemudian optimasi medium ekstraksi dan proses ekstraksi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa lipase berada dalam sitosol. Penghilangan lemak tidak meningkatkan aktivitas lipase. Senyawa polifenol menghambat aktivitas lipase dan penghilangan polifenol dapat meningkatkan aktivitas lipase. Polyvinilpolypirrolidone (PVPP dapat menghambat polifenol sehingga dapat meningkatkan aktivitas lipase. Konsentrasi PVPP optimum adalah 8 % dari berat biji kakao. Proses homogenisasi optimum diperoleh dalam waktu 10 menit pada kecepatan 10.000 rpm. Medium ekstraksi untuk isolasi lipase biji kakao terbaik adalah bufer fosfat 0,15 M  dan pH 7,5 yang mengandung sukrosa 0,6 M dan 1,0 mM CaCl .

  2. STUDI PEMBUATAN TEH DAUN TANAMAN KAKAO (Theobroma cacao L SEBAGAI MINUMAN PENYEGAR (Production of Tea from Cocoa Leaves (Theobroma cacao L as Refreshment Beverage

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    Supriyanto Supriyanto

    2015-02-01

    kakao kering berkadar air 3-5%. Dilakukan pengamatan dan analisis meliputi kadar air, warna, kadar total polifenol, aktivitas antioksidan dan uji sensoris pada air rebusan teh daun kakao sebagai minuman penyegar. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa minuman penyegar hasil rebusan teh daun kakao dapat diterima oleh panelis, dan  yang paling disukai adalah air rebusan teh yang dibuat dari daun kakao muda dilayukan 10 menit. Air rebusan tersebut  warnanya sangat coklat, sedikit berbau daun, agak pahit dan sedikit sepat. Bubuk teh daun kakao mengandung total polifenol antara 0,42-0,74 mg/100 g, mempunyai aktivitas antioksidan antara 20,31 – 36,86%. Kata kunci: Daun kakao, pelayuan, umur daun, teh daun kakao, polifenol

  3. Carbon and water fluxes above a cacao plantation in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, U.; Ibrom, A.

    2003-04-01

    The investigation of interactions between biosphere and atmosphere of the major land use types of the tropical rain forest margin area in South East Asia and quantification of the impact that land use change from undisturbed primary rain forest to pasture has on these interactions is task of subprogramme B1 within the DFG-funded project STORMA (Stability of Rain Forest Margins). In order to fulfill the projects tasks the different major land use types have to be investigated and each ecosystem characterized one by one and compared to a reference site in an undisturbed primary rain forest, to see the changes in the atmosphere-biospheric interactions, i. e. in water and carbon household, with land use change and thus the impact on regional climate. One of the major land use types in the valleys around the Lore Lindu National Park on Sulawesi are Cacao plantations, Theobroma cacao. A site in the Palolo valley near the village Nopu was chosen as research site since the area there is covered with small Cacao fields which form to one big area of Cacao and matches the requirements of the applied research approach. Since Cacao trees need to be shaded especially when younger, shadow trees had been planted and trees of the former forest had been left standing to serve as wind breaks and sun shades. The plantations in Nopu, Palolo valley, consist not only of fields of cultivated Cacao, but also serve as environment and home to the farmers and their families. The whole area of Cacao plantation is interspersed with wooden farm houses, which are also sources of carbon dioxide due to cooking or small power plants etc. and thus have to be taken into account when looking at the carbon household of this specific ecosystem. An estimation of the components of the carbon and water household and the contribution of the humans living within this environment to the carbon household of Cacao plantations of this ecosystem is subject of this presentation. From December 2001 until April 2002

  4. Tree spatial structure, host composition and resource availability influence mirid density or black pod prevalence in cacao agroforests in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidoin, Cynthia; Babin, Régis; Bagny Beilhe, Leïla; Cilas, Christian; ten Hoopen, Gerben Martijn; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Combining crop plants with other plant species in agro-ecosystems is one way to enhance ecological pest and disease regulation mechanisms. Resource availability and microclimatic variation mechanisms affect processes related to pest and pathogen life cycles. These mechanisms are supported both by empirical research and by epidemiological models, yet their relative importance in a real complex agro-ecosystem is still not known. Our aim was thus to assess the independent effects and the relative importance of different variables related to resource availability and microclimatic variation that explain pest and disease occurrence at the plot scale in real complex agro-ecosystems. The study was conducted in cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforests in Cameroon, where cocoa production is mainly impacted by the mirid bug, Sahlbergella singularis, and black pod disease, caused by Phytophthora megakarya. Vegetation composition and spatial structure, resource availability and pest and disease occurrence were characterized in 20 real agroforest plots. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the causal variables that explain mirid density and black pod prevalence. The results of this study show that cacao agroforests can be differentiated on the basis of vegetation composition and spatial structure. This original approach revealed that mirid density decreased when a minimum number of randomly distributed forest trees were present compared with the aggregated distribution of forest trees, or when forest tree density was low. Moreover, a decrease in mirid density was also related to decreased availability of sensitive tissue, independently of the effect of forest tree structure. Contrary to expectations, black pod prevalence decreased with increasing cacao tree abundance. By revealing the effects of vegetation composition and spatial structure on mirids and black pod, this study opens new perspectives for the joint agro-ecological management of cacao pests and diseases at the

  5. Dinitrogen fixation by legume shade trees and direct transfer of fixed N to associated cacao in a tropical agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Pekka; Leblanc, Humberto A

    2015-02-01

    Natural abundance of (15)N (δ (15)N) was determined in bulk soil, rhizospheric soil and vegetation in an organically managed cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) plantation with Inga edulis Mart. legume trees (inga) as the principal shade for studying the nitrogen (N) cycle in the system. Cacao without contact with legumes in an adjacent plantation was used as the reference for N2 fixation and direct N transfer calculations. Bulk and rhizospheric soils contained 72 and 20%, respectively, of whole- system N. No vegetation effect on δ (15)N in rhizospheric soil was detected, probably due to the high native soil N pool. Fine roots of the cacaos associated with inga contained ∼35% of N fixed from the atmosphere (Nf) out of the total N. Leaves of all species had significantly higher δ (15)N than fine roots. Twenty percent of system Nf was found in cacao suggesting direct N transfer from inga via a common mycelial network of mycorrhizal fungi or recycling of N-rich root exudates of inga. Inga had accumulated 98 kg [Nf] ha(-1) during the 14-year history of the plantation. The conservative estimate of current N2 fixation rate was 41 kg [Nf] ha(-1) year(-1) based on inga biomass only and 50 kg [Nf] ha(-1) year(-1) based on inga and associated trees. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Evolution of soil organic carbon during a chronosequence of transformation from cacao (Theobroma cacao l. plantation to grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Salvador Morales

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the impact of the soil use change of the Cocoa Agroforestry System (CAS on soil organic carbon (SOC levels and other indicating soil chemical fertility properties (apparent density ρb, cation exchange capacity CEC, total soil N TSN, when a soil use change occurs from CAS to grassland (GL. For this, in order to be selected was recorded, considering different time intervals (1-5, 6-10 y 11-20 years. However, a CAS of 20-35 years was considered as a reference. In addition, soil samples were taken at -30 cm depth to determine the contents of SOC, TSN, CEC, ρb, soil organic matter (SOM and the soil C/N relationship. Consequently, an in situ resistance to soil penetration was evaluated. The results indicated the change in soil use from CAS to GL, did not cause a significant decrease in the amount of stored SOC (0-30 cm during the considered time with respect to CAS. However, if only the first -10 cm of soil is sampled, a significant soil compaction is observed throughout a decrease in the CEC value in the long term (20 years.

  7. First Microsatellite Markers Developed from Cupuassu ESTs: Application in Diversity Analysis and Cross-Species Transferability to Cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz Dos Santos, Lucas; Moreira Fregapani, Roberta; Falcão, Loeni Ludke; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Costa, Marcos Mota do Carmo; Lopes, Uilson Vanderlei; Peres Gramacho, Karina; Alves, Rafael Moyses; Micheli, Fabienne; Marcellino, Lucilia Helena

    2016-01-01

    The cupuassu tree (Theobroma grandiflorum) (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum. is a fruitful species from the Amazon with great economical potential, due to the multiple uses of its fruit´s pulp and seeds in the food and cosmetic industries, including the production of cupulate, an alternative to chocolate. In order to support the cupuassu breeding program and to select plants presenting both pulp/seed quality and fungal disease resistance, SSRs from Next Generation Sequencing ESTs were obtained and used in diversity analysis. From 8,330 ESTs, 1,517 contained one or more SSRs (1,899 SSRs identified). The most abundant motifs identified in the EST-SSRs were hepta- and trinucleotides, and they were found with a minimum and maximum of 2 and 19 repeats, respectively. From the 1,517 ESTs containing SSRs, 70 ESTs were selected based on their functional annotation, focusing on pulp and seed quality, as well as resistance to pathogens. The 70 ESTs selected contained 77 SSRs, and among which, 11 were polymorphic in cupuassu genotypes. These EST-SSRs were able to discriminate the cupuassu genotype in relation to resistance/susceptibility to witches' broom disease, as well as to pulp quality (SST/ATT values). Finally, we showed that these markers were transferable to cacao genotypes, and that genome availability might be used as a predictive tool for polymorphism detection and primer design useful for both Theobroma species. To our knowledge, this is the first report involving EST-SSRs from cupuassu and is also a pioneer in the analysis of marker transferability from cupuassu to cacao. Moreover, these markers might contribute to develop or saturate the cupuassu and cacao genetic maps, respectively.

  8. First Microsatellite Markers Developed from Cupuassu ESTs: Application in Diversity Analysis and Cross-Species Transferability to Cacao.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Ferraz Dos Santos

    Full Text Available The cupuassu tree (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng. Schum. is a fruitful species from the Amazon with great economical potential, due to the multiple uses of its fruit´s pulp and seeds in the food and cosmetic industries, including the production of cupulate, an alternative to chocolate. In order to support the cupuassu breeding program and to select plants presenting both pulp/seed quality and fungal disease resistance, SSRs from Next Generation Sequencing ESTs were obtained and used in diversity analysis. From 8,330 ESTs, 1,517 contained one or more SSRs (1,899 SSRs identified. The most abundant motifs identified in the EST-SSRs were hepta- and trinucleotides, and they were found with a minimum and maximum of 2 and 19 repeats, respectively. From the 1,517 ESTs containing SSRs, 70 ESTs were selected based on their functional annotation, focusing on pulp and seed quality, as well as resistance to pathogens. The 70 ESTs selected contained 77 SSRs, and among which, 11 were polymorphic in cupuassu genotypes. These EST-SSRs were able to discriminate the cupuassu genotype in relation to resistance/susceptibility to witches' broom disease, as well as to pulp quality (SST/ATT values. Finally, we showed that these markers were transferable to cacao genotypes, and that genome availability might be used as a predictive tool for polymorphism detection and primer design useful for both Theobroma species. To our knowledge, this is the first report involving EST-SSRs from cupuassu and is also a pioneer in the analysis of marker transferability from cupuassu to cacao. Moreover, these markers might contribute to develop or saturate the cupuassu and cacao genetic maps, respectively.

  9. First Microsatellite Markers Developed from Cupuassu ESTs: Application in Diversity Analysis and Cross-Species Transferability to Cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz dos Santos, Lucas; Moreira Fregapani, Roberta; Falcão, Loeni Ludke; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Costa, Marcos Mota do Carmo; Lopes, Uilson Vanderlei; Peres Gramacho, Karina; Alves, Rafael Moyses

    2016-01-01

    The cupuassu tree (Theobroma grandiflorum) (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum. is a fruitful species from the Amazon with great economical potential, due to the multiple uses of its fruit´s pulp and seeds in the food and cosmetic industries, including the production of cupulate, an alternative to chocolate. In order to support the cupuassu breeding program and to select plants presenting both pulp/seed quality and fungal disease resistance, SSRs from Next Generation Sequencing ESTs were obtained and used in diversity analysis. From 8,330 ESTs, 1,517 contained one or more SSRs (1,899 SSRs identified). The most abundant motifs identified in the EST-SSRs were hepta- and trinucleotides, and they were found with a minimum and maximum of 2 and 19 repeats, respectively. From the 1,517 ESTs containing SSRs, 70 ESTs were selected based on their functional annotation, focusing on pulp and seed quality, as well as resistance to pathogens. The 70 ESTs selected contained 77 SSRs, and among which, 11 were polymorphic in cupuassu genotypes. These EST-SSRs were able to discriminate the cupuassu genotype in relation to resistance/susceptibility to witches’ broom disease, as well as to pulp quality (SST/ATT values). Finally, we showed that these markers were transferable to cacao genotypes, and that genome availability might be used as a predictive tool for polymorphism detection and primer design useful for both Theobroma species. To our knowledge, this is the first report involving EST-SSRs from cupuassu and is also a pioneer in the analysis of marker transferability from cupuassu to cacao. Moreover, these markers might contribute to develop or saturate the cupuassu and cacao genetic maps, respectively. PMID:26949967

  10. The cacao Criollo genome v2.0: an improved version of the genome for genetic and functional genomic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argout, X; Martin, G; Droc, G; Fouet, O; Labadie, K; Rivals, E; Aury, J M; Lanaud, C

    2017-09-15

    Theobroma cacao L., native to the Amazonian basin of South America, is an economically important fruit tree crop for tropical countries as a source of chocolate. The first draft genome of the species, from a Criollo cultivar, was published in 2011. Although a useful resource, some improvements are possible, including identifying misassemblies, reducing the number of scaffolds and gaps, and anchoring un-anchored sequences to the 10 chromosomes. We used a NGS-based approach to significantly improve the assembly of the Belizian Criollo B97-61/B2 genome. We combined four Illumina large insert size mate paired libraries with 52x of Pacific Biosciences long reads to correct misassembled regions and reduced the number of scaffolds. We then used genotyping by sequencing (GBS) methods to increase the proportion of the assembly anchored to chromosomes. The scaffold number decreased from 4,792 in assembly V1 to 554 in V2 while the scaffold N50 size has increased from 0.47 Mb in V1 to 6.5 Mb in V2. A total of 96.7% of the assembly was anchored to the 10 chromosomes compared to 66.8% in the previous version. Unknown sites (Ns) were reduced from 10.8% to 5.7%. In addition, we updated the functional annotations and performed a new RefSeq structural annotation based on RNAseq evidence. Theobroma cacao Criollo genome version 2 will be a valuable resource for the investigation of complex traits at the genomic level and for future comparative genomics and genetics studies in cacao tree. New functional tools and annotations are available on the Cocoa Genome Hub ( http://cocoa-genome-hub.southgreen.fr ).

  11. Enraizamiento de Estacas de Cacao Defoliadas (Teobroma Cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delisle A.

    1947-06-01

    Full Text Available Los factores más importantes que controlan el enraizamiento de estacas de cacao son: adecuada cantidad de humedad y de agua. Para controlar estos factores muchos métodos han empleado con éxito. Es importante hacer notar que uno de los principales inconvenientes relacionados con este problema es el mantenimiento de las hojas en estado verde y sanas en las estacas. Variaciones en la cantidad de sombra y humedad tienden frecuentemente a producir en las hojas amarillamientos y parches negruzcos aun en las bien acondicionadas y generalmente estas estacas acaban por morirse. De acuerdo con Pyke (Second Anual Report on Cacao Research 1932 la caída de las hojas por deficiencia en el sombreado origina principalmente la pérdida de las estacas; esto es, las estas que retienen sus hojas v verdes y sanas enraizan casi siempre.

  12. Differential expression of the lethal gene Luteus-Pa in cacao of the Parinari series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehem, B C; Almeida, A-A F; Figueiredo, G S F; Gesteira, A S; Santos, S C; Corrêa, R X; Yamada, M M; Valle, R R

    2016-02-22

    The recessive lethal character Luteus-Pa is found in cacao (Theobroma cacao) genotypes of the Parinari series (Pa) and is characterized by expression of leaf chlorosis and seedling death. Several genotypes of the Pa series are bearers of the gene responsible for the expression of the Luteus-Pa character, which can be used as a tool for determining relationships between genotypes of this group. To evaluate this phenomenon, we analyzed the differential expression of genes between mutant seedlings and wild-type hybrid Pa 30 x 169 seedlings, with the aim of elucidating the possible lethal mechanisms of the homozygous recessive character Luteus-Pa. Plant material was harvested from leaves of wild and mutant seedlings at different periods to construct a subtractive library and perform quantitative analysis using real-time PCR. The 649 sequences obtained from the subtractive library had an average length of 500 bp, forming 409 contigs. The probable proteins encoded were grouped into 10 functional categories. Data from ESTs identified genes associated with Rubisco, peroxidases, and other proteins and enzymes related to carbon assimilation, respiration, and photosystem 2. Mutant seedlings were characterized by synthesizing defective PsbO and PsbA proteins, which were overexpressed from 15 to 20 days after seedling emergence.

  13. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Stephen J; Preston, Amy G; Hurst, Jeffrey W; Payne, Mark J; Mann, Julie; Hainly, Larry; Miller, Debra L

    2011-02-07

    Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  14. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Julie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g, total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g, and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g. Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  15. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit". PMID:21299842

  16. ASSESSMENT OF CACAO SEEDS OF “GAPOKTAN” AT LINTAS SEKAYAM SANGGAU WEST KALIMANTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Azri

    2015-01-01

    Cacao seeds price at farmers level in 2013 is IDR 800 per kg. Expected by implementing technology cacao seeds be processed products such as cocoa powder can increase added value for cacao farmers. From aspect of expected processing most cacao must fermented with Indonesian cacao quality standard requirements in accordance with SNI 01-2323-2002 so that quality of cacao Indonesia can be accepted in international market. Cacao seeds done after fermented cacao seeds for three up to...

  17. The Age of Chocolate: a biogeographic history of Theobroma and Malvaceae

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    James Edward Richardson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dated molecular phylogenies of broadly distributed lineages can help to compare patterns of diversification in different parts of the world. An explanation for greater Neotropical diversity compared to other parts of the tropics is that it was an accident of the Andean orogeny. Using dated phylogenies, of chloroplast ndhF and nuclear DNA WRKY sequence datasets, generated using BEAST we demonstrate that the diversification of the genera Theobroma and Herrania occurred from 12.7 (11.6-14.9 [95% HPD] million years ago (Ma and thus coincided with Andean uplift from the mid-Miocene and that this lineage had a faster diversification rate than other major clades in Malvaceae. We also demonstrate that Theobroma cacao, the source of chocolate, diverged from its most recent common ancestor 9.9 (7.7-12.9 95% HPD Ma, in the mid-to late-Miocene, suggesting that this economically important species has had ample time to generate significant within-species genetic diversity that is useful information for a developing chocolate industry. In addition, we address questions related to the latitudinal gradient in species diversity within Malvaceae. A faster diversification rate is an explanation for the greater species diversity at lower latitudes. Alternatively, tropical conditions may have existed for longer and occupied greater areas than temperate ones meaning that tropical lineages have had more time and space in which to diversify. Our dated molecular phylogeny of Malvaceae demonstrated that at least one temperate lineage within the family diverged from tropical ancestors then diversified at a rate comparable with many tropical lineages in the family. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that Malvaceae are more species rich in the tropics because tropical lineages within the family have existed for longer and occupied more space than temperate ones, and not because of differences in diversification rate.

  18. Impact of fermentation on nitrogenous compounds of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) from various origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, C; Gunata, Z; Breysse, A; Davrieux, F; Boulanger, R; Sauvage, F X

    2016-02-01

    Tangential filtration technique was used to separate and quantify three different fractions of nitrogenous compounds depending on their molecular size, during cocoa fermentation. On every phenotype and origin analyzed, protein profile of non-fermented samples was similar. During fermentation course, proteins get degraded with a concomitant increase in amino acids content. Peptides between 3 and 10 kDa were observed at low levels. A strong correlation between amino acids and ammonia nitrogen, a fermentation marker was found. Attention was drawn on each fraction, and enabled to point out other phenomenon occurring during fermentation. The migration of some nitrogenous compounds towards the bean shell during fermentation was demonstrated. Acetone treatment of cocoa powder prior to SDS-PAGE led to losses of nitrogenous compounds. This result gives clues on the tanning phenomenon carried out by polyphenols on nitrogenous compounds, phenomenon which increases during fermentation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. In vitro seed germination and rootstock establishing for micrografting of Theobroma cacao L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micrografting has been successfully implemented in several plant species of Acacia, Citrus, Eucalyptus, Havea, Malus, Olea, Opuntia, Prunus and other genera. This technique is employed for plant rejuvenation, true-to-type propagation, genetic improvement, recovery of virus-free plants, testing of po...

  20. Use of a proteolytic enzyme in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. processing

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    Edy Sousa de Brito

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein hydrolysis using an exogenous protease on cocoa nibs was performed to verify the formation of precursors and the effect on cocoa flavour. An experimental design was used to check the influence of temperature (30 to 70 ºC and enzyme : substrate ratio [E/S] (97.5 to 1267.5 U g-1 of protein. The % Degree of Hydrolysis (% DH was affected mainly by [E/S] leading to a 4-fold increase (from 5 to 20 % after 6 hours of treatment. During cocoa nibs roasting, there was a greater consumption of hydrolysis compounds in the sample treated with protease as compared to the control, indicating their participation in the Maillard reaction. An increased perception of chocolate flavour and bitter taste was observed in a product formulated with protease treated cocoa.Foi feita uma hidrólise da proteína dos nibs de cacau usando-se uma protease para verificar a formação de precursores e o efeito sobre o sabor do cacau. Um desenho experimental foi usado para verificar a influência da temperatura (30 a 70 ºC e razão enzima : substrato [E/S] (97,5 a 1267,5 U g-1 de proteína. O grau de hidrólise % (%DH foi afetado principalmente pela [E/S], tendo sofrido um aumento de 4 vezes (de 5 para 20 % após 6 horas de tratamento. Durante a torração dos nibs houve um consumo maior dos compostos de hidrólise na amostra tratada com protease em comparação com o controle, indicando a participação desses compostos na reação de Maillard. Foi observado um aumento na percepção do sabor de chocolate e do gosto amargo em um produto formulado com o cacau tratado com a protease.

  1. Use of a proteolytic enzyme in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) processing

    OpenAIRE

    Brito,Edy Sousa de; Pezoa García,Nelson Horacio; Amancio,Allan César

    2004-01-01

    Protein hydrolysis using an exogenous protease on cocoa nibs was performed to verify the formation of precursors and the effect on cocoa flavour. An experimental design was used to check the influence of temperature (30 to 70 ºC) and enzyme : substrate ratio [E/S] (97.5 to 1267.5 U g-1 of protein). The % Degree of Hydrolysis (% DH) was affected mainly by [E/S] leading to a 4-fold increase (from 5 to 20 %) after 6 hours of treatment. During cocoa nibs roasting, there was a greater consumption ...

  2. Assessment of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) butter content and composition throughout fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servent, Adrien; Boulanger, Renaud; Davrieux, Fabrice; Pinot, Marie-Neige; Tardan, Eric; Forestier-Chiron, Nelly; Hue, Clotilde

    2018-05-01

    Cocoa fermentation is a crucial step for the development of cocoa aroma and precursors of high quality cocoa and by-products. This bioprocess has been studied for years to understand cocoa chemical changes but some matters concerning changes in fat content remain that are investigated in this work. Changes in the quantity (free and total fat), extractability and composition of cocoa butter were assessed in samples from Madagascar, the Dominican Republic and Ecuador. Increases in free fat content were highlighted in samples from each origin thanks to the use of the 'soxtec' solvent method, which preserves the integrity of the butter. A 4.71% increase in free fat was measured in the Ecuadorian samples fermented for 144 h. Conversely, total fat content remained stable throughout fermentation. Protein and polyphenol contents decreases were linked to fat content augmentation by a strong negative interaction. Triglyceride and total and linked fatty acid kinetics (0 to 6 days) of the butter remained statistically stable during fermentation, as did unsaponifiable matter. The origin of fermentation had a predominant and significant impact on composition, revealed by PCA. This work underlines and explains the importance of fermentation process in improving yield of fat that can be extracted while preserving the composition of this cocoa butter. This study highlights an interaction in cocoa unfermented or partially fermented beans. This phenomenon causes butter content retention but is slowly broken after 72 h fermentation. Therefore, fermentation appears to be also necessary to enhance the cocoa butter content extracted from the nibs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Strategies for Control of Moniliophthora roreri and Moniliophthora perniciosa in Theobroma cacao L.: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Andrea Tirado-Gallego,

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important limitations of cocoa production worldwide is primarily diseases caused by the pathogenic fungi of the genus Moniliophthora sp., especially, Moniliophthora roreri and Moniliophthora perniciosa, causing moniliasis and the witches' broom disease, respectively; both diseases are highly invasive and endemic in cocoa. The objective of this study was to describe the control strategies that can be used to handle the moniliasis and witches' broom diseases. This study was conducted in accor-dance with the Prisma (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement, for which a systematic literature search in the ScienceDirect, Springer Link and Scopus databases was used. Original investigation articles over the last 12 years were included, inclusion and exclusion criteria were also applied. In countries like Brazil and Costa Rica, the year with most reports of related articles was 2008. The most used strategies for the disease control are the phytosanitation, the copper-based fungicides and biologic agents control of fungus and bacteria, specially, Trichoderma sp. and Bacillus sp. One of the most recommended methodologies on the studied articles was the optimization of treatments employing the combination of physical, biological and chemical agents

  4. Food Fingerprinting: Characterization of the Ecuadorean Type CCN-51 of Theobroma cacao L. Using Microsatellite Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Luise; Felbinger, Christine; Haase, Ilka; Rudolph, Barbara; Biermann, Bernhard; Fischer, Markus

    2015-05-13

    The cocoa type "Colección Castro Naranjal 51" (CCN-51) is known for its resistance to specific climate conditions and its high yield, but it shows a weaker flavor profile and therefore is marketed as bulk cocoa. In a previous study, the two cocoa types Arriba and CCN-51 could easily be distinguished, but differences among the CCN-51 samples were observed. This was unexpected, as CCN-51 is reported to be a clone. To confirm whether CCN-51 is a pure clone, 10 simple sequence repeats (SSR) located on the nuclear genome were used to analyze various CCN-51 samples in comparison to the cocoa varieties Arriba and Criollo. As expected, there are differences in the SSR pattern among CCN-51, Arriba, and Criollo, but a variability within the CCN-51 sample set was detected as well. The previously described sequence variation in the chloroplast genome was confirmed by a variability in the microsatellite loci of the nuclear genome for a comprehensive cultivar collection of CCN-51 of both bean and leaf samples. In summary, beneath somaclonal variation, misidentification of plant collections and also sexual reproduction of CCN-51 can be suggested.

  5. Streptomyces cameroonensis sp. nov., a Geldanamycin Producer That Promotes Theobroma cacao Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjeko, Thaddée; Tchinda, Romaric Armel Mouafo; Zitouni, Mina; Nana, Joëlle Aimée Vera Tchatchou; Lerat, Sylvain; Beaulieu, Carole

    2017-03-31

    The taxonomy of an actinobacterial strain, designated JJY4 T , was established using a polyphasic approach. JJY4 T was isolated from the rhizosphere of Chromolaena odorata in Yaoundé (Cameroon) during a project for the selection of biological control agents. Strain JJY4 T exhibited antimicrobial activities against bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes. Strain JJY4 T also exhibited the traits of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria such as the solubilization of inorganic phosphate, production of siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. In planta assays performed on cocoa plantlets confirmed that strain JJY4 T exhibited strong abilities to promote plant growth and protect against Phytophthora megakarya, the main causal agent of cocoa pod rot. The formation of rugose-ornamented spores in spiral spore chains by strain JJY4 T is a typical feature of members found in the Streptomyces violaceusniger clade and, similar to some members of the clade, strain JJY4 T produces geldanamycin. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed this classification and suggests that strain JJY4 T be added to the subclade constituted of the type strains Streptomyces malaysiensis DSM 41697 T and Streptomyces samsunensis DSM 42010 T . However, DNA-DNA relatedness and physiological characteristics allowed for the differentiation of strain JJY4 T from its closest phylogenetic relatives. Based on these results, strain JJY4 T (=NRRL B-65369, =NBRC 112705) appears to represent a novel species in the S. violaceusniger clade for which the proposed name is Streptomyces cameroonensis sp. nov.

  6. Utilization of wood ash as seedling media of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao

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    Fitria Nugraheni Sukmawati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An effort to increase productivity is provision of inorganic fertilizers. Inorganic fertilizer application in longtem as found to attenuate the availability of micronutrients and to decrease soil fertility. One possibility to replace inorganic fertilizer is the use of ash derived from plants, such as wood ash. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of wood ash on soil K availability and to optimize the dose of wood ash which can give good influence on the growth of cocoa seedlings. The experiment was conducted at the experimental station Polytechnic LPP in Wedomartani, Sleman, Yogyakarta. The design used is non factorial randomized block design with 5 treatments, which is the ratio of ash and soil 0: 1 (A1 / Control; 0.25: 1 (A2; 0.5: 1 (A3; 0.75: 1 (A4; and 1: 1 (A5. Observations of treatment effects were made on the seedling height, number of leaves, stem diameter, wet weight and dry weight. Soil analysis was conducted to determine the content of macro elements, micro elements, and pH media. The results showed that ash increases the pH of the media to alkaline range and increase the availability of P and K soil to toxic range. Giving ash reduced the availability of N and caused chlorosis on cocoa seedlings.

  7. COCOA (Theobroma cacao) Polyphenol-Rich Extract Increases the Chronological Lifespan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiges, I; Arola, L

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model organism with conserved aging pathways. Yeast chronological lifespan experiments mimic the processes involved in human non-dividing tissues, such as the nervous system or skeletal muscle, and can speed up the search for biomolecules with potential anti-aging effects before proceeding to animal studies. OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of a cocoa polyphenol-rich extract (CPE) in expanding the S. cerevisiae chronological lifespan in two conditions: in the stationary phase reached after glucose depletion and under severe caloric restriction. MEASUREMENTS: Using a high-throughput method, wild-type S. cerevisiae and its mitochondrial manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase null mutant (sod2Δ) were cultured in synthetic complete dextrose medium. After 2 days, 0, 5 and 20 mg/ml of CPE were added, and viability was measured throughout the stationary phase. The effects of the major components of CPE were also evaluated. To determine yeast lifespan under severe caloric restriction conditions, cultures were washed with water 24 h after the addition of 0 and 20 mg/ml of CPE, and viability was followed over time. RESULTS : CPE increased the chronological lifespan of S. cerevisiae during the stationary phase in a dose-dependent manner. A similar increase was also observed in (sod2Δ). None of the major CPE components (theobromine, caffeine, maltodextrin, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin and procyanidin B2) was able to increase the yeast lifespan. CPE further increased the yeast lifespan under severe caloric restriction. CONCLUSION: CPE increases the chronological lifespan of S. cerevisiae through a SOD2-independent mechanism. The extract also extends yeast lifespan under severe caloric restriction conditions. The high-throughput assay used makes it possible to simply and rapidly test the efficacy of a large number of compounds on yeast aging, requiring only small amounts, and is thus a convenient screening assay to accelerate the search for biomolecules with potential anti-aging effects.

  8. Characterization of leaf, flower, and pod morphology among Vietnamese cocoa varieties (Theobroma cacao L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viet, L.T.; Hang, P.T.; Everaert, H.; Rottiers, H.; Dung, T.N

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the morphological traits of 63 cocoa varieties that have been imported and cultivated in Vietnam. These cocoa varieties were collected from five regions in Southern Vietnam and were classified into three groups based on their phylogenetic relationships. Their morphological features were individually evaluated and analysed. This included leaf characteristics (leaf and stem anatomy) and flower features (ligule shape, anther number, pollen, stamen and ovule, fruit, seed). The results of this study showed a large variation across all morphological characteristics of the evaluated cocoa varieties. The Vietnamese cocoa flower showed a diversity of morphological characteristics including five shapes of ligule (oval, broad, deltoid, elliptic and sub-lanceolate) and each stamen also has a bilobed anther with the exception of trilobed anther for TD11. Furthermore, the shape of pollen grains was found homogeneous in all 63 varieties. The colour of the stamens and ovules was purple and white respectively for all examined samples. Three kinds of fruit shapes were identified, namely Angoleta, Amelonado and Cundeamor, and these were of various colours. Additionally, an anatomical analysis on the midrib structure of the leaves from the 63 varieties showed the highest similarity, likewise the stem structure. The colour of young leaves was observed as being green and red. This is the primary research that scrutinizes the morphological biodiversity of Vietnamese cocoa varieties during the three-decade development of the Vietnam cocoa project. The results have a practical applications for cocoa cross-breeding and botanical taxonomy. (author)

  9. Theobroma cacao L., the Food of the Gods: a scientific approach beyond myths and claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, M; Conti, A

    2010-01-01

    Cocoa beans are rich source of polyphenols, contributing about 10% of the dry weight of the whole bean and its derivative chocolate, particularly dark chocolate, is considered one of the major contributors of antioxidants to the American diet after fruits and vegetables. At present the wide variation in cocoa processing and in the content and profile of polyphenols make it difficult to determine to what extent the findings about positive effects expressed in different studies, translate into tangible clinical benefits. Moreover, before claiming any healthy properties to a plant, natural product or food item on human subject, a basic research project approved by scientific and ethical commissions has to be performed. Until now the definition, composition, manufacturing specifications, packaging and labelling of cocoa and chocolate products in Europe, are regulated by "Directive 2000/36/EC of the European parliament and of the council". The definitions take changes in consumer tastes, chocolate composition and labelling into account, but do not consider the real potential of healthy, beneficial and nutraceutical effects. In fact, they fail to establish an official analytical methodology for the quantification of phenolic compounds in cocoa and chocolate. Moreover quantification of these compounds is not used in product classification. This article reviews many qualitative differences of cocoa and chocolate, in particular dark chocolate, aiming to establish the different implications for public health through the use of the analyzed concentration of polyphenols in cocoa products. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Top Grafting Performance of Some Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Clones as Affected by Scion Budwood Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhrusy Zakariyya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Reducing budwood number is an efficient effort to overcome problemsrelated with limited scion materials. The objective of this research was to studythe effect of scion budwood number in some clones on the performance of graftedcocoa seedlings. The research was conducted at Kaliwining Research Station,Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute, Jember, Indonesia at an elevationof 48 m above sea level. Layout for this study used factorial with 2 factors inrandomized complete block design, with four replications for every treatment.The first factor was clone type, namely MCC 02 and Sulawesi 1; whereas the secondfactor was number of grafted scion budwood, namely one, two, and three graftedbudwoods. There was no interaction between clone and number of scion budwoodfor variables of shoot length, stem girth, content of total chlorophyll, chlorophylla, and chlorophyll b. Meanwhile, there was interaction for stomatal conductanceand stomatal diffusion resistance. Clone significantly affected photosynthesisand stomatal diffusion resistance, while number of scion budwood affected significantlythe shoot length. Photosynthesis activity of MCC 02 was higher comparedto Sulawesi 1. In average, stomatal diffusion resistance of Sulawesi 1 was higherthan MCC 02. The shoot length of one grafted budwood was higher than thetwo or three grafted budwood.

  11. EVALUASI MEDIA DAN FREKUENSI PENYIRAMAN TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN BIBIT KAKAO (Theobroma cacao L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reki Hendrata

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available are oftentimes met by problem of availability  irrigating water. The aims  of this research was  to study the know influence of media and frequency of sprinkler irrigation  to growth of seed of cocoa plant, the best of media and also frequency of optimum sprinkler it to growth of seed. The research was conducted in month of April until July 2007 in  Wonocatur, Banguntapan subdistrict, Bantul Regency.The experiment was arranged in a  factorial completete romdomed design with two factor. The first factor were media ( M consisted to by 4 level, namely M1 : latosol soil , M2 : latosol soil + organic munure (2:1, M3 : sphagnum, and M4 : sphagnum + organic munure (2:1. The factor second  of sprinkler frequency irrigation (P, consisted of  3 level, with  P1 : 1 day, P2 : 2 day  and P3 : 3 day once, so that obtained  12 combination of treatment three repeated. The results showed that the kinds of media have an in with high seed, leaf amount, diamater, and the length root seed. The media  sphagnum + organic manure (M4 give influence tend to compared  by better could be leaf amount, high, and the diameter. The media organic  manure (M2 which were give effect tend to compared  by better of length root grow. The sprinkler irigation  3 day once (P3 show better effect to length root grow  seed, although was not  interakasion.

  12. The remineralization potential of cocoa (Theobroma cacao bean extract to increase the enamel micro hardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistianingsih Sulistianingsih

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Remineralization is the process of returning mineral ions into a hydroxyapatite structure characterized by mineral deposition on the enamel surface. The presence of mineral deposition would affect the micro hardness of tooth enamel. The use of fluorine as remineralization agent with side effects such as fluorosis. Cocoa bean extract contains theobromin that can be used as an alternative remineralization ingredients. The objectives was to determine micro hardness email after remineralization using cocoa bean extract as natural material and to compare with fluorine use as synthetic material. Methods: Thirty-six maxillary first premolar tooth crown was cut and planted in the epoxy resin. Teeth were then immersed in demineralization solution at pH 4 for 6 hours. The sample were divided into 2 groups, 18 for the fluorine group and the remaining group of cocoa extract. Vickers microhardness test was used before treatment, after demineralized and after remineralization. Results: Enamel microhardness value before treatment in the fluorine group average value was 376.17 VHN and the cocoa extract group was 357.33 VHN. After demineralization in fluorine group was 268,13 VHN and cocoa extract group was 235,93 VHN. After remineralization in fluorine group was 321,08 VHN and cocoa extract group was 293,86 VHN. The results of the analysis showed that the level of micro hardness email after remineralization was not significantly different in two groups (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Cocoa extract is able to increase the microhardness of enamel so it can act as a substitution for fluorine remineralization.

  13. A preliminary survey into ways of overcoming self-incompatibility in theobroma cacao L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu-Ampomah, Y.; Klu, G.Y.P.; Lamptey, T.V.O.; Novak, F.

    1990-01-01

    Varying concentrations of NAA and GA 3 (100-500 mg/l) were applied to the base of self-incompatible cocoa flowers with the view to delaying floral abscission and thus lengthening the time needed for the fusion of self-incompatible male and female gametes. NAA above 300 mg/l slightly delayed floral abscission but this did not help overcome the self-incompatibility whilst none of the GA 3 concentrations used either delayed floral abscission or promoted self-compatibility. Similar concentrations of both hormones when applied to the stigma before selfing also did not help to overcome the self-incompatibility. Self-incompatibility was partially overcome by treating compatible pollen with 60Gy of gamma rays and mixing it with self-incompatible pollen. Compatible pollen treated at 60Gy and used alone to pollinate self-incompatible flowers resulted in 100 percent flat, non-viable cocoa beans whilst gamma treated pollen mixed with self-incompatible pollen produced about 30 percent fully formed and viable cocoa beans. This appears to suggest that the irradiated compatible pollen is acting as mentor pollen and promoting selfing. (author)

  14. Effect of polyethylene glycol 6000 and storage period on seed quality of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astiti Rahayu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased productivity of cocoa needs high quality of cocoa seeds which are generally provided by certified seed gardens located far from smallholders farm, where seed delivery takes long time and may reduce physiological quality of seeds. One effort to maintain the seed quality is by treatment the seeds with polyethylene glycol6000 (PEG 6000. This study was aimed to study the interaction of PEG 6000 concentration and storage period on cocoa seed quality, and to determine the best concentration of PEG 6000 and storage period to maintain cocoa seed quality. The research was conducted in seed storage room, seed laboratory and green houseof PPPPTK, Cianjur. The experimental design used was a factorial completely randomized design and each combination treatment repeated three times. The first factor was concentration of PEG 6000 of 0%, 20%, 40%, and 60%, and the second factor was the storage period of 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 9 weeks, and 12 weeks. The results showed that concentration of PEG 60% with three weeks storage period was able to minimize the number of moldy seeds. The concentration of PEG 20%, 40%, and 60% were able to prevent seed germination in storage until six weeks. Concentration of PEG 6000 20% was able to maintain moisture content, seed germination, and germination rate.Key words:cocoa seed, storage, recalcitrant, PEG

  15. Dietary flavanols and procyanidin oligomers from cocoa (Theobroma cacao) inhibit platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Karen J; Chronopoulos, Andriana K; Singh, Indu; Francis, Maureen A; Moriarty, Helen; Pike, Marilyn J; Turner, Alan H; Mann, Neil J; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2003-06-01

    Flavonoids may be partly responsible for some health benefits, including antiinflammatory action and a decreased tendency for the blood to clot. An acute dose of flavanols and oligomeric procyanidins from cocoa powder inhibits platelet activation and function over 6 h in humans. This study sought to evaluate whether 28 d of supplementation with cocoa flavanols and related procyanidin oligomers would modulate human platelet reactivity and primary hemostasis and reduce oxidative markers in vivo. Thirty-two healthy subjects were assigned to consume active (234 mg cocoa flavanols and procyanidins/d) or placebo (cocoa flavanols and procyanidins/d) tablets in a blinded parallel-designed study. Platelet function was determined by measuring platelet aggregation, ATP release, and expression of activation-dependent platelet antigens by using flow cytometry. Plasma was analyzed for oxidation markers and antioxidant status. Plasma concentrations of epicatechin and catechin in the active group increased by 81% and 28%, respectively, during the intervention period. The active group had significantly lower P selectin expression and significantly lower ADP-induced aggregation and collagen-induced aggregation than did the placebo group. Plasma ascorbic acid concentrations were significantly higher in the active than in the placebo group (P antioxidant status did not change in either group. Cocoa flavanol and procyanidin supplementation for 28 d significantly increased plasma epicatechin and catechin concentrations and significantly decreased platelet function. These data support the results of acute studies that used higher doses of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins.

  16. Origin-based polyphenolic fingerprinting of Theobroma cacao in unfermented and fermented beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Roy N; Grimbs, Sergio; Behrends, Britta; Bernaert, Herwig; Ullrich, Matthias S; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2017-09-01

    A comprehensive analysis of cocoa polyphenols from unfermented and fermented cocoa beans from a wide range of geographic origins was carried out to catalogue systematic differences based on their origin as well as fermentation status. This study identifies previously unknown compounds with the goal to ascertain, which of these are responsible for the largest differences between bean types. UHPLC coupled with ultra-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry was employed to identify and relatively quantify various oligomeric proanthocyanidins and their glycosides amongst several other unreported compounds. A series of biomarkers allowing a clear distinction between unfermented and fermented cocoa beans and for beans of different origins were identified. The large sample set employed allowed comparison of statistically significant variations of key cocoa constituents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioactive compounds in different cocoa (Theobroma cacao, L cultivars during fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Fontes Moreau Cruz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One component that contribute to the flavor and aroma of chocolate are the polyphenols, which have received much attention due to their beneficial implications to human health. Besides bioactive action, polyphenols and methylxantines are responsible for astringency and bitterness in cocoa beans. Another important point is its drastic reduction during cocoa processing for chocolate production and the difference between cultivars. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the modifications in monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxanthines during fermentation of three cocoa cultivars grown in southern Bahia. Cocoa beans from three cultivars were fermented and sun dried and monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxantines were determinated. The results showed that each cultivar have different amounts of phenolic compounds and the behaviour of them is different during fermentation. The amount of methylxantines varied but there was not a pattern for methylxantines behavior during process. In addition a huge reduction in phenolic compounds could be observed after drying. Differently of phenolic compounds, methylxantines did not have great modification after sun drying. So, the differences observed in this study between cultivars, take to the conclusion that the compounds studied in those cocoa cultivars have different behavior during fermentation and drying, which consequently, give to these cultivars differences in sensory characteristics.

  18. Estudo reológico de chocolates elaborados com diferentes cultivares de cacau (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bacelar Leite

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O chocolate pode ser definido como uma suspensão de partículas sólidas (açúcar, sólidos de cacau e sólidos de leite em uma fase gordurosa contínua, que contribui para o aroma, o sabor e a cor, além de promover forma ao produto final. A reologia de chocolates é quantificada durante a produção usando-se dois parâmetros: tensão inicial (yield stress e viscosidade aparente (plástica, em que, geralmente, se utiliza o modelo de Casson. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar reologicamente formulações de chocolates produzidos a partir de diferentes cultivares de cacau. As amostras de chocolate foram formuladas com 73,6% de cacau e foram realizadas as seguintes análises: determinação do teor de lipídeos; composição em triacilgliceróis; testes reológicos, e análise do tamanho máximo de partículas. O chocolate proveniente da cultivar PH16 apresentou menor conteúdo de gordura (36,53 g.100 g–1, maior tamanho de partículas (21 µm, maior valor de tensão inicial (20,91 Pa e maior área de histerese, com mais ampla tixotropia quando comparada às amostras dos chocolates provenientes das cultivares SR162 e Convencional. Os resultados encontrados no estudo reológico mostraram a interferência do conteúdo de gordura e do tamanho de partículas na tensão inicial dos produtos.

  19. Determination of Selection Index of Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao L.) Yield Traits Using Regression Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Setyawan, Bayu; Taryono; Mitrowihardjo, Suyadi

    2016-01-01

    The increasing chocolate consumption has not been followed by growing production of dry cocoa beans. In order to support the increase in cocoa production, planting materials with high yield are needed. The objective of this research was to determine the components of cocoa traits affecting weight of dry cocoa beans, and set a selection index for superior cocoa trees. The experiment material were four cocoa hybrid populations of which their family ancestry were unknown, and were planted on Sam...

  20. Nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of "cocoa honey" (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Nascimento da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa honey is considered as the liquid portion of cocoa pulp that is released from the fruit soon after it is cut open and can be used before fermentation by simple extraction due to its nutritional characteristics. The objective of the present study is to determine the biochemical characteristics of a cocoa by-product, "cocoa honey" (CH, produced in the State of Bahia-Brazil. The biochemical characterization was conducted to determine reducing sugars, total sugars, vitamin C, total dietary fiber, flavonoids, and total antioxidant activity using an EC50. It was observed that cocoa honey can be considered a source of bioactive compounds, can be consumed in natura or processed, and used as an ingredient in the chocolate industry and in other food products. However, it is necessary to use complementary methods, such as HPLC, to quantify the phenolic compounds of this by-product.

  1. Nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of "cocoa honey" (Theobroma cacao L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Elias Nascimento da; Ramos,Danilo da Cruz; Menezes,Lígia Miranda; Souza,Alexilda Oliveira de; Lannes,Suzana Caetano da Silva; Silva,Marcondes viana da

    2014-01-01

    Cocoa honey is considered as the liquid portion of cocoa pulp that is released from the fruit soon after it is cut open and can be used before fermentation by simple extraction due to its nutritional characteristics. The objective of the present study is to determine the biochemical characteristics of a cocoa by-product, "cocoa honey" (CH), produced in the State of Bahia-Brazil. The biochemical characterization was conducted to determine reducing sugars, total sugars, vitamin C, total dietary...

  2. Pembuatan Sabun Cair Menggunakan Alkali Dari Kulit Coklat (Theobroma cacao L.) dengan Minyak Kelapa

    OpenAIRE

    Paduana, Aulia Bismar

    2017-01-01

    120405037 Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi kulit coklat sebagai alkali pada proses pembuatan sabun natural dan mengetahui sifat-sifat sabun natural yang dihasilkan dari minyak kelapa sebagai sumber asam lemak. Bahan ? bahan yang digunakan, antara lain minyak kelapa, alkali dari kulit coklat dan aquadest. Variabel ? variabel yang diamati, antara lain temperatur reaksi pembuatan sabun, waktu pengadukan dan waktu reaski penyabunan. Penelitian diawali dengan pembuatan alkali d...

  3. El mercado mundial del cacao

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero R, María Liliana; Díaz Morales, Katty Marisabel

    2004-01-01

    Los cambios que ha experimentado la economía mundial en los últimos años han afectado significativamente las relaciones de intercambio de los países productores de materias primas, implicando transformaciones en su economía. Bajo este escenario el presente artículo tiene como objetivo caracterizar el comercio mundial de cacao en grano. Para ello se plantea inicialmente la descripción y evolución de las principales variables que afectan el comercio mundial de este rubro, así como los cambios e...

  4. Cacao use and the San Lorenzo Olmec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powis, Terry G.; Cyphers, Ann; Gaikwad, Nilesh W.; Grivetti, Louis; Cheong, Kong

    2011-01-01

    Mesoamerican peoples had a long history of cacao use—spanning more than 34 centuries—as confirmed by previous identification of cacao residues on archaeological pottery from Paso de la Amada on the Pacific Coast and the Olmec site of El Manatí on the Gulf Coast. Until now, comparable evidence from San Lorenzo, the premier Olmec capital, was lacking. The present study of theobromine residues confirms the continuous presence and use of cacao products at San Lorenzo between 1800 and 1000 BCE, and documents assorted vessels forms used in its preparation and consumption. One elite context reveals cacao use as part of a mortuary ritual for sacrificial victims, an event that occurred during the height of San Lorenzo's power. PMID:21555564

  5. Combination of RNAseq and SNP nanofluidic array reveals the center of genetic diversity of cacao pathogen Moniliophthora roreri in the upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia and its clonality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin S Ali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Moniliophthora roreri is the fungal pathogen that causes frosty pod rot (FPR disease of Theobroma cacao L., the source of chocolate. FPR occurs in most of the cacao producing countries in the Western Hemisphere, causing yield losses up to 80%. Genetic diversity within the FPR pathogen population may allow the population to adapt to changing environmental conditions and adapt to enhanced resistance in the host plant. The present study developed SNP markers from RNASeq results for 13 M. roreri isolates and validated the markers for their ability to reveal genetic diversity in an international M. roreri collection. The SNP resources reported herein represent the first study of RNASeq-derived SNP validation in M. roreri and demonstrates the utility of RNASeq as an approach for de novo SNP identification in M. roreri. A total of 88 polymorphic SNPs were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 172 M. roreri cacao isolates resulting in 37 distinct genotypes (including 14 synonymous groups. Absence of heterozygosity for the 88 SNP markers indicates reproduction in M. roreri is clonal and likely due to a homothallic life style. The upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia showed the highest levels of genetic diversity with 20 distinct genotypes of which 13 were limited to this region, and indicates this region as the possible center of origin for M. roreri.

  6. Combination of RNAseq and SNP nanofluidic array reveals the center of genetic diversity of cacao pathogen Moniliophthora roreri in the upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia and its clonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S; Shao, Jonathan; Strem, Mary D; Phillips-Mora, Wilberth; Zhang, Dapeng; Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Bailey, Bryan A

    2015-01-01

    Moniliophthora roreri is the fungal pathogen that causes frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of Theobroma cacao L., the source of chocolate. FPR occurs in most of the cacao producing countries in the Western Hemisphere, causing yield losses up to 80%. Genetic diversity within the FPR pathogen population may allow the population to adapt to changing environmental conditions and adapt to enhanced resistance in the host plant. The present study developed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from RNASeq results for 13 M. roreri isolates and validated the markers for their ability to reveal genetic diversity in an international M. roreri collection. The SNP resources reported herein represent the first study of RNA sequencing (RNASeq)-derived SNP validation in M. roreri and demonstrates the utility of RNASeq as an approach for de novo SNP identification in M. roreri. A total of 88 polymorphic SNPs were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 172 M. roreri cacao isolates resulting in 37 distinct genotypes (including 14 synonymous groups). Absence of heterozygosity for the 88 SNP markers indicates reproduction in M. roreri is clonal and likely due to a homothallic life style. The upper Magdalena Valley of Colombia showed the highest levels of genetic diversity with 20 distinct genotypes of which 13 were limited to this region, and indicates this region as the possible center of origin for M. roreri.

  7. IDENTIFICACIÓN DE HONGOS MICORRÍZICOS ARBUSCULARES EN SISTEMAS AGROFORESTALES CON CACAO EN EL TRÓPICO HÚMEDO ECUATORIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Oswaldo Prieto-Benavides

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue aislar e identificar hongos formadores de micorriza arbuscular asociados a sistemas agroforestales con cacao (Theobroma cacao L.. Se muestrearon cinco sistemas ubicados en fincas de la zona central del trópico húmedo ecuatoriano, en la provincia de Los Ríos, en los cantones Quevedo y Valencia: fincas La Represa, La Propiedad, La Unión, Fátima y Mi Recuerdo. Las muestras de suelo y raíces se recolectaron en la época seca entre los meses de junio y diciembre del 2009. Los géneros de hongos micorrízicos arbusculares encontrados fueron los siguientes: Gigaspora, Acaulospora, Glomus y Scutellospora. En todos los sitios muestreados el género con mayor representatividad en cantidad de esporas encontradas por gramo de suelo fue Glomus, mientras que para Gigaspora hubo la menor cantidad de esporas. También se evaluó el porcentaje de colonización micorrízica existente en T. cacao donde el mayor porcentaje de densidad de colonización se encontró en las muestras recolectadas de las fincas Mi Recuerdo y La Unión, y el menor porcentaje en la finca La Propiedad.

  8. Cacao, flavanolen, en hart- en vaatziekten: Stand van de wetenschap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsse, B.; Kromhout, D.

    2010-01-01

    De gedachte dat cacao gezondheidseffecten bezit is niet nieuw. Al in de 18e eeuw werd verondersteld dat cacao een veelvoud aan kwalen kon verlichten, alleen ontbrak hiervoor lange tijd de wetenschappelijke onderbouwing. Nadat halverwege de jaren negentig van de vorige eeuw werd ontdekt dat cacao

  9. Phytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora, Causal Agents of Black Pod Rot, Induce Similar Plant Defense Responses Late during Infection of Susceptible Cacao Pods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S.; Shao, Jonathan; Lary, David J.; Strem, Mary D.; Meinhardt, Lyndel W.; Bailey, Bryan A.

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and Phytophthora palmivora (Ppal) cause black pod rot of Theobroma cacao L. (cacao). Of these two clade 4 species, Pmeg is more virulent and is displacing Ppal in many cacao production areas in Africa. Symptoms and species specific sporangia production were compared when the two species were co-inoculated onto pod pieces in staggered 24 h time intervals. Pmeg sporangia were predominantly recovered from pod pieces with unwounded surfaces even when inoculated 24 h after Ppal. On wounded surfaces, sporangia of Ppal were predominantly recovered if the two species were simultaneously applied or Ppal was applied first but not if Pmeg was applied first. Pmeg demonstrated an advantage over Ppal when infecting un-wounded surfaces while Ppal had the advantage when infecting wounded surfaces. RNA-Seq was carried out on RNA isolated from control and Pmeg and Ppal infected pod pieces 3 days post inoculation to assess their abilities to alter/suppress cacao defense. Expression of 4,482 and 5,264 cacao genes was altered after Pmeg and Ppal infection, respectively, with most genes responding to both species. Neural network self-organizing map analyses separated the cacao RNA-Seq gene expression profiles into 24 classes, 6 of which were largely induced in response to infection. Using KEGG analysis, subsets of genes composing interrelated pathways leading to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, ethylene and jasmonic acid biosynthesis and action, plant defense signal transduction, and endocytosis showed induction in response to infection. A large subset of genes encoding putative Pr-proteins also showed differential expression in response to infection. A subset of 36 cacao genes was used to validate the RNA-Seq expression data and compare infection induced gene expression patterns in leaves and wounded and unwounded pod husks. Expression patterns between RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR were generally reproducible. The level and timing of altered gene expression was

  10. Proteomic analysis during of spore germination of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease in cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Joise Hander; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Santos, Everton Cruz; da Silva Santiago, André; Santana, Juliano Oliveira; de Sousa, Aurizângela Oliveira; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2017-08-17

    Moniliophthora perniciosa is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for witches' broom disease of cacao trees (Theobroma cacao L.). Understanding the molecular events during germination of the pathogen may enable the development of strategies for disease control in these economically important plants. In this study, we determined a comparative proteomic profile of M. perniciosa basidiospores during germination by two-dimensional SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. A total of 316 proteins were identified. Molecular changes during the development of the germinative tube were identified by a hierarchical clustering analysis based on the differential accumulation of proteins. Proteins associated with fungal filamentation, such as septin and kinesin, were detected only 4 h after germination (hag). A transcription factor related to biosynthesis of the secondary metabolite fumagillin, which can form hybrids with polyketides, was induced 2 hag, and polyketide synthase was observed 4 hag. The accumulation of ATP synthase, binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP), and catalase was validated by western blotting. In this study, we showed variations in protein expression during the early germination stages of fungus M. perniciosa. Proteins associated with fungal filamentation, and consequently with virulence, were detected in basidiospores 4 hag., for example, septin and kinesin. We discuss these results and propose a model of the germination of fungus M. perniciosa. This research can help elucidate the mechanisms underlying basic processes of host invasion and to develop strategies for control of the disease.

  11. PRENDIMIENTO DE DOS TIPOS DE INJERTOS EN CACAO EN DISTINTAS FASES LUNARES, SIUNA 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Reyes Martínez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sin duda, los productores saben de la influencia lunar y sobre el movimiento de la savia en las plantas en determinados momentos, debido a los conocimientos ancestrales y experiencias adquiridas. Sin embargo, en relación al prendimiento de injertos en cacao (Theobroma cacao, existen pocos estudios científicos que demuestren tales efectos. El objetivo principal del estudio fue comparar los efectos de las fases lunares en el prendimiento de dos tipos de injertos en cacao. Para ello se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo bifactorial, con tres repeticiones por cada una de las fases y un universo de 576 plantas. La variable de medición únicamente fue el prendimiento de las plantas que se injertaron. Los datos fueron procesados en el programa Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS versión 21 y se sometieron al análisis de varianza ANDEVA con un nivel de confianza del 95%. Los análisis revelan que existen diferencias significativas para las técnicas de injertación (p=0.011<0.05 y se obtuvo mayores prendimientos en los injertos de yema sobre los de bisel. Con respecto al efecto de las fases lunares sobre los dos tipos de injertos no se encontró evidencia estadística (p=0.950>0.05. En base al análisis combinado de varianza no existen diferencias significativas para la interacción fases lunares y técnicas de injertación puesto que (p=0.761>0.05. Summary There is no doubt the producers know of the moon influence and the sap movement in plants at certain moments, due to the ancestral knowledge and experiences gained. However, in relation to the root taking of grafts in cocoa (Theobroma cacao, there are few scientific studies that demonstrate such effects. The main objective of this study was to compare the effects of moon phases in the root taking of two types of grafts in cocoa. To do this we used a complete randomized design with bifactorial order, with three replays for each of the phases and a universe of 576

  12. Spatial and temporal effects of drought on soil CO2 efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straaten, O.; Veldkamp, E.; Köhler, M.; Anas, I.

    2010-04-01

    Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao) - Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month experiment, we compared soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration) from three roof plots with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture conditions and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced), or increasingly wet conditions (as evidenced in control plots). The roof plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease). The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable - while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly (responsive) to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70) (n=11), others did not react at all (non-responsive) (n=7). A significant correlation was measured between responsive soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61) and Gliricidia (R=0.65). Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. The litter layer contributed approximately 3-4% of the total CO2 efflux during dry periods and up to 40% during wet periods. Within days of roof opening soil CO2 efflux rose to control plot levels. Thereafter, CO2 efflux remained comparable between roof and control plots. The cumulative effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was not significantly different: the control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The relatively mild decrease measured in soil CO2 efflux indicates that this agroforestry ecosystem is capable of mitigating droughts with only minor stress symptoms.

  13. CACAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroux, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    An initial prototype for a computer-assisted integrated mechanical design system was presented in 1986. This paper focused on the objectives of such a system as illustrated by an intentionally straightforward example. After the first prototype tests, the data base conceptual scheme has move towards a broader-based, more user-friendly system. This paper presents its guiding principles and the final architecture of the system

  14. CACAO facility. Radioactive targets at Orsay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacri, C.O.; Petitbon-Thevenet, V.; Mottier, J.; Lefort, H.; Durnez, A.; Fortuna, F.

    2014-01-01

    CACAO, Chimie des Actinides et Cibles radioActives a Orsay (actinide chemistry and radioactive targets at Orsay), is a new laboratory dedicated to the fabrication and characterization of radioactive targets. It is supported by the radiochemistry group and the stable target service of the IPNO. The recurring needs of physicists working in the nuclear fuel cycle physics and the growing difficulties to obtain radioactive targets elsewhere were the main motivating factors behind the construction of this new laboratory. The first targets of 235,238 U and 232 Th have already been prepared although the full operating licenses still need to be obtained. In this paper, the installation and the equipment of CACAO will be described. An extensive study of a U test target fabricated by the CACAO laboratory has been performed and results are reported here. The different techniques used to characterize the deposit are presented and the outcome is discussed. (author)

  15. Planeamiento estratégico del cacao

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales Herrera, Christian; Silva Dávalos, Nelson; Gálvez Moyano, Julio; Mercado Sotomayor, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    xvi, 188 h. : il. ; 30 cm. La presente tesis desarrolla el plan estratégico para el Cacao en el Perú, el cual tiene como principal objetivo establecer estrategias que permitirán el desarrollo sostenible a largo plazo y una mejora sustantiva en la calidad de vida de los integrantes de la cadena productiva y pobladores de las zona cacaoteras. Al mismo tiempo, se realiza un análisis de la situación actual del Cacao que ayuda a conocer la realidad y lo que representa a nivel nacion...

  16. The mitochondrial genome of Moniliophthora roreri, the frosty pod rot pathogen of cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gustavo G L; Cabrera, Odalys G; Tiburcio, Ricardo A; Medrano, Francisco J; Carazzolle, Marcelo F; Thomazella, Daniela P T; Schuster, Stephen C; Carlson, John E; Guiltinan, Mark J; Bailey, Bryan A; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Meinhardt, Lyndel W

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we report the sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of the Basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora roreri, which is the etiologic agent of frosty pod rot of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). We also compare it to the mtDNA from the closely-related species Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes witches' broom disease of cacao. The 94 Kb mtDNA genome of M. roreri has a circular topology and codes for the typical 14 mt genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. It also codes for both rRNA genes, a ribosomal protein subunit, 13 intronic open reading frames (ORFs), and a full complement of 27 tRNA genes. The conserved genes of M. roreri mtDNA are completely syntenic with homologous genes of the 109 Kb mtDNA of M. perniciosa. As in M. perniciosa, M. roreri mtDNA contains a high number of hypothetical ORFs (28), a remarkable feature that make Moniliophthoras the largest reservoir of hypothetical ORFs among sequenced fungal mtDNA. Additionally, the mt genome of M. roreri has three free invertron-like linear mt plasmids, one of which is very similar to that previously described as integrated into the main M. perniciosa mtDNA molecule. Moniliophthora roreri mtDNA also has a region of suspected plasmid origin containing 15 hypothetical ORFs distributed in both strands. One of these ORFs is similar to an ORF in the mtDNA gene encoding DNA polymerase in Pleurotus ostreatus. The comparison to M. perniciosa showed that the 15 Kb difference in mtDNA sizes is mainly attributed to a lower abundance of repetitive regions in M. roreri (5.8 Kb vs 20.7 Kb). The most notable differences between M. roreri and M. perniciosa mtDNA are attributed to repeats and regions of plasmid origin. These elements might have contributed to the rapid evolution of mtDNA. Since M. roreri is the second species of the genus Moniliophthora whose mtDNA genome has been sequenced, the data presented here contribute valuable information for understanding the evolution of fungal mt genomes among

  17. Breeding for disease resistance in cacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao production must increase in order to meet the projected rise in the demand for chocolate. Approximately one-third of global production is lost annually to diseases and insects. Four diseases account for the greatest losses worldwide: black pod, caused by four Phytophthora spp; witches’ broom...

  18. De jacht op het geheim van cacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Je kans op een dodelijke hartaanval halveert als je elke dag een groot paaseitje pure chocolade eet, blijkt uit een recente Nederlandse epidemiologische studie. En ook andere studies laten zien dat consumptie van cacao beschermt tegen hart- en vaatziekten. Maar het is nog een raadsel hoe dat precies

  19. POLYPHENOLS DISTRIBUTION AND RESERVE SUBSTANCES ANALYSIS IN CACAO SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS

    OpenAIRE

    GALLEGO RÚA, Adriana María; HENAO RAMÍREZ, Ana María; URREA TRUJILLO, Aura Inés; ATEHORTÚA GARCÉS, Lucía

    2016-01-01

    In order to understand the causes of lack of regeneration in cacao somatic embryos, two cacao varieties with different responses to regeneration potential were described based on their capacity to store different compounds. It is well known that seed reserves play a central role in the regenerative capability of somatic embryos; thus, we followed histochemical changes and reserve fluctuations of proteins, polysaccharides and polyphenols during somatic embryogenesis (SE) in the two cacao varie...

  20. dbVar

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — dbVar is a database of genomic structural variation. It accepts data from all species and includes clinical data. It can accept diverse types of events, including...

  1. Verification of genetic identity of introduced cacao germplasm in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, high-throughput genotyping with SNP markers was used to fingerprint 160 cacao trees in the germplasm collection at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana (CRIG). ... Keywords: Cacao, conservation, chocolate, DNA fingerprint, molecular marker, tropical plant, off-type, true-to-type, West Africa.

  2. Mining of expressed sequence tag libraries of cacao

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) provide researchers with a quick and inexpensive route for discovering new genes, data on gene expression and regulation, and also provide genic markers that help in constructing genome maps. Cacao is an important perennial crop of humid tropics. Cacao EST sequences, as available ...

  3. Apuntes sobre el Cultivo del Cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavarriaga. Eduardo

    1940-09-01

    Full Text Available El sombrío constituye uno de los problemas que se presentan en el cultivo del cacao, de necesaria resolución para ayuda del agricultor en su labor al producir tan importante grano. Contribuye a la economía del cultivo un conocimiento amplio de la cuestión que debe preocupar al productor inquiriendo no solamente por lo acostumbrado en la región, sino por lo que en otras partes se conoce sobre el particular, para abandonar un poco el emperismo y hacer una industria cada día más próspera. Como razón a favor del sombrío, tenemos los países en donde se produce cacao de fina calidad; Trinidad, Venezuela. Nicaragua, siempre acostumbran la sombra; y sin ir muy lejos, en el Valle del Cauca, donde no se cultiva a pleno sol y se obtienen plantaciones de larga duración y producto superior, es bien conocido el beneficio de ella; allí, los agricultores conocen los desastrosos efectos que ocasiona la falta de sombra, cuando por cualquier causa mueren los árboles que la suministran. Por tanto, en este estudio indicaremos el uso de la sombra para el cacao, como el medio de conservar la fertilidad y buenas condiciones del suelo, obtener buenos rendimientos y asegurar larga vida a la plantación.

  4. Sieving Effect of Sorting Machine with Vibration Table Type on Cacao Pod Based Compost

    OpenAIRE

    Soekarno, Siswoyo; Suharyanto, Edy; Arif, Ahmad Hudi

    2009-01-01

    Cacao pod is the biggest part (70% of weight) of Cacao, which was not optimaly utilized.Cacao podis one of organic material that can be functioned as an organic fertilizer, such as compost. When utilizedwith right proportion, organic fertilizer is safe for plants and not degrades the soil composition. Compostingprocess is one of utilization form of Cacao pod. The size reduction of cacao pod in the organic fertilizerprocess would help to accelerate the composting process. Smaller particle size...

  5. Impacto de las condiciones de beneficio sobre los compuestos precursores de aroma en granos de cacao (Theobroma cacao L del clon CCN-51.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pallares Pallares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The influence of the days of fermentation and drying in the aroma compounds (volatile fraction of cocoa beans CCN-51 was evaluated. The method used was Gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry, coupled to Head Space Solid Phase Micro Extraction (HS-SPMEGC-GS. A multifactorial experimental design was created, containing 15 experiments per repetition. The fermentation technique was microfermentation in boxes, while drying was achieved by exposing the samples to the sun. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA allowed to explain 68% of the total variability associated with aroma characteristics (volatile compounds. Both, desirable and undesirable compounds were identified throughout the processes of fermentation and drying. The benefit process (fermentation and drying was divided in stages depending on the degree of fermentation. The desirable compounds identified were: 3-methy-1-butanol, 2-phenyl-ethanol, benzaldehyde, phenyl acetaldehyde, ethylhexanoate, ethyl benzoate, ethylphenyl acetate and 2-phenyl ethyl acetate, which are associated with odoriferous notes very nice (chocolate, candy, sweet, nutty, honey, fruity, floral. Finally, a pre-treatment of cocoa beans CCN-51 prior to fermentation was proposed to be incorporated during the benefit of the beans as it seems to enhance the formation of desirable aroma compounds.

  6. Hvem var morderen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene Vinther

    2014-01-01

    Folkemindesamleren og forfatteren Helene Strange (1874-1943) skrev flere gange om et giftmord på en præst på Nordfalster i 1755. Hun satte spørgsmålstegn ved højesteretsdommen og hævdede, at en uskyldig pige blev dømt, mens den virkelige morder slap fri. Det var folkets uskrevne dom, som i over...... hundrede år var blevet fortalt mundtligt videre på egnen, og hun forsøgte – med forskellige midler – at få bragt denne version af historien frem i offentligheden....

  7. Paulus var kristendommens Lenin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    En af Luthers inspirationskilder var Paulus, hvis løsning på lokale problemer fik globale konsekvenser. Han trak en skarp grænse mellem det snavsede kød og den rene sjæl og mellem vantro og tro.......En af Luthers inspirationskilder var Paulus, hvis løsning på lokale problemer fik globale konsekvenser. Han trak en skarp grænse mellem det snavsede kød og den rene sjæl og mellem vantro og tro....

  8. Combining ability, heritability and genotypic relations of different physiological traits in cacao hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Allan Silva; de Almeida, Alex-Alan Furtado; Branco, Márcia Christina da Silva; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso; Ahnert, Dario

    2017-01-01

    Selecting parents and evaluating progenies is a very important step in breeding programs and involves approaches such as understanding the initial stages of growth and characterizing the variability among genotypes for different parameters, such as physiological, growth, biomass partitioning and nutrient translocation to the aerial part. In these cases, facilitating tools can be used to understand the involved gene dynamics, such as diallel crosses and genetic and phenotypic correlations. Our main hypothesis is that the contrasting phenotypes of these parental genotypes of cocoa used are due to genetic factors, and progenies derived from crosses of these parental genotypes are useful for breeding programs related to plant architecture, physiological parameters and translocation of mineral nutrients. We aimed to evaluate the combining abilities in progenies of cacao (Theobroma cacao L) originating from contrasting parents for canopy vigor. Emphasis was given to the evaluation of morphological and physiological parameters and the phenotypic and genotypic correlations to understand the dynamics of the action of the genes involved, as well as in expression profile from genes of gibberellins biosynthesis pathway in the parents. Fifteen F1 progenies were obtained from crosses of six clones (IMC 67, P4B, PUCALA, SCA 6, SCA 24 and SJ 02) that were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with four replicates of 12 plants per progeny, in a balanced half table diallel scheme. It is possible to identify and select plants and progenies of low, medium and high height, as there is expressive genetic variability for the evaluated parameters, some of these on higher additive effects, others on larger nonadditive effects and others under a balance of these effects. Most physiological parameters evaluated show that for selection of plants with the desired performance, no complex breeding methods would be necessary due to the high and medium heritability observed. Strong

  9. Microbiological analysis of coliforms and mesophilic aerobic spore formers in gamma irradiated cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.); Analise microbiologica de coliformes e aerobicos mesofilos em amendoas de cacau (Theobroma cacao L.) irradiadas com radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barata, Anderson Demetrio; Mansur Netto, Elias [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia

    1995-12-31

    The presence of coliforms in processed foods is an useful indicator of post-sanitization and post processing contamination, and members of the mesophilic aerobic spore formers have great importance in food spoilage. Spore - forming aerobic bacilli have been observed in fermenting cocoa in Jamaica and West Africa. The results of this work has shown a considerable reduction of the mesophilic aerobic spore formers in irradiated Brazilian Comun Cocoa beans as long as the irradiation dose was increased from 1.05 to 3.99 kGy. The presence of coliforms irradiated has not been found even in the coroa beans with the dose of 1.05 kGy. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab.

  10. EFEK KONSUMSI MINUMAN BUBUK KAKAO (Theobroma cacao L. BEBAS LEMAK TERHADAP SIFAT ANTIOKSIDATIF LIMFOSIT SUBYEK PEREMPUAN [The Effect of Fat Free Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao L. Powder Drinks Consumption on Antioxidative Activity of Lymphocyte of Women Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erniati1

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of cocoa both in vivo and in vitro have been reported in many studies. Cocoa is a rich source of flavonoids known to have antioxidant activity, such as catechin, epicatechin and procyanidin. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of fat free cocoa powder drink consumption on antioxidative properties and proliferation activities of woman lymphocyte. Healthy woman subjects were divided into cocoa group (n = 9 and control group (n = 9. Cocoa powder drink containing skim milk and sugar was given to the cocoa groups every morning for 25 days. The control group received only water containing skim milk and sugar. Both cocoa and control group received physical medical checkup at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Their peripheral blood was taken for lymphocyte antioxidant analysis. The measured antioxidant properties consisted of antiradical activity by DPPH method, malonaldehyde (MDA and glutathione levels. The data of cocoa group showed that there was a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05 in antiradical level from 31+11.2 to 40.19+7.42% and glutathione from 48.2±10.5 to 66.7±15.9 μmol/land a decrease in MDA level in the lymphocyte (p < 0.05 from 2.98±2.21 to 1.29±0.33 μmol/las compared to the control group (from 25.77±6.9 to 26.79±6.12%; 34.7±20.7 to 37.8±19.2 μmol/land 3.01±1.53 to 2.069±0.707 μmol/l respectively after consumption of the cocoa powder drink. The results of this research revealed that fat free cocoa powder has a strong antioxidant activity which was manifested up to the blood cells.

  11. Spatial and temporal effects of drought on soil CO2 efflux in a cacao agroforestry system in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Anas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change induced droughts pose a serious threat to ecosystems across the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly to those areas not adapted to natural dry periods. In order to study the vulnerability of cacao (Theobroma cacao – Gliricidia sepium agroforestry plantations to droughts a large scale throughfall displacement roof was built in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In this 19-month experiment, we compared soil surface CO2 efflux (soil respiration from three roof plots with three adjacent control plots. Soil respiration rates peaked at intermediate soil moisture conditions and decreased under increasingly dry conditions (drought induced, or increasingly wet conditions (as evidenced in control plots. The roof plots exhibited a slight decrease in soil respiration compared to the control plots (average 13% decrease. The strength of the drought effect was spatially variable – while some measurement chamber sites reacted strongly (responsive to the decrease in soil water content (up to R2=0.70 (n=11, others did not react at all (non-responsive (n=7. A significant correlation was measured between responsive soil respiration chamber sites and sap flux density ratios of cacao (R=0.61 and Gliricidia (R=0.65. Leaf litter CO2 respiration decreased as conditions became drier. The litter layer contributed approximately 3–4% of the total CO2 efflux during dry periods and up to 40% during wet periods. Within days of roof opening soil CO2 efflux rose to control plot levels. Thereafter, CO2 efflux remained comparable between roof and control plots. The cumulative effect on soil CO2 emissions over the duration of the experiment was not significantly different: the control plots respired 11.1±0.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, while roof plots respired 10.5±0.5 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. The relatively mild decrease measured in soil CO2 efflux indicates that this agroforestry ecosystem is capable of mitigating droughts with only minor stress symptoms.

  12. The storage capacity of cocoa seeds (Theobroma cacao L.) through giving Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) in the various of storage container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahay, R. R.; Misrun, S.; Sipayung, R.

    2018-02-01

    Cocoa is plant which it’s seed character is recalcitrant. Giving PEG and using various of storage containers was hoped to increase storage capacity of cocoa seeds as long as period of saving. The reseach was aimed to identify the storage capacity of cocoa seeds through giving PEG in the various of storage containers. Research took place in Hataram Jawa II, Kabupaten Simalungun, Propinsi Sumatera Utara, Indonesia. The method of this research is spit-split plot design with 3 replication. Storage period was put on main plot which was consisted of 4 level, PEG concentration was put on sub plot, consisted of 4 level and storage container was put on the sub sub plot consisted of 3 types. The results showed that until 4 days at storage with 45 % PEG concentration at all storage container, percentage of seed germination at storage can be decreased to be 2.90 %, and can be defensed until 16 days with 45 % PEG concentration at perforated plastic storage container. Percentage of molded seeds and seed moisture content were increased with added period of storage but seed moisture content was increased until 12 days at storage and was decreased at 16 days in storage.

  13. Environmental Growing Conditions in Five Production Systems Induce Stress Response and Affect Chemical Composition of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niether, Wiebke; Smit, Inga; Armengot, Laura; Schneider, Monika; Gerold, Gerhard; Pawelzik, Elke

    2017-11-29

    Cocoa beans are produced all across the humid tropics under different environmental conditions provided by the region but also by the season and the type of production system. Agroforestry systems compared to monocultures buffer climate extremes and therefore provide a less stressful environment for the understory cocoa, especially under seasonally varying conditions. We measured the element concentration as well as abiotic stress indicators (polyamines and total phenolic content) in beans derived from five different production systems comparing monocultures and agroforestry systems and from two harvesting seasons. Concentrations of N, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Na, and Zn were higher in beans produced in agroforestry systems with high stem density and leaf area index. In the dry season, the N, Fe, and Cu concentration of the beans increased. The total phenolic content increased with proceeding of the dry season while other abiotic stress indicators like spermine decreased, implying an effect of the water availability on the chemical composition of the beans. Agroforestry systems did not buffer the variability of stress indicators over the seasons compared to monocultures. The effect of environmental growing conditions on bean chemical composition was not strong but can contribute to variations in cocoa bean quality.

  14. CONTRIBUIÇÃO AO ESTUDO ANATÔMICO DA FOLHA E DO CAULE DO CACAUEIRO (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAKAYAMA L.H.I

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo descrever a anatomia da folha e do caule adulto enfatizando a caracterização dos tricomas e das estruturas secretoras do cacaueiro. Foram analisadas amostras de caule e folhas (limbo e pecíolo, correspondente ao 3º nó, além de folhas novas de 5cm de comprimento. A lâmina foliar é hipoestomática, com estômatos do tipo anomocítico. Em ambas as faces do limbo ocorrem quatro tipos de tricomas: sendo dois tectores e dois glandulares. Na epiderme adaxial estão presentes as glândulas secretoras de mucilagem. O mesofilo é dorsiventral; o parênquima paliçádico é formado por duas ou três camadas. O parênquima lacunoso apresenta células coletoras. Ao longo do mesofilo predomina feixes colaterais envolvidos por bainha esclerenquimática que se estende até as epidermes. O padrão de venação é do tipo Camptodroma com ramificações mistas Brochidrodomas e Eucamptodromos. O pecíolo e o caule apresentam a epiderme com os tricomas descritos para o limbo; No parênquima cortical e medular do pecíolo e caule, há células contendo grãos de amido, idioblastos contendo drusas e canais de mucilagem. O sistema vascular ao longo do pecíolo se diferencia quanto a organização. O caule apresenta camadas de clorênquima, e de colênquima. Ocorre a esclerificação das células deste último, com o desenvolvimento. Segue-se um anel descontínuo de fibras do floema primário. A medula é ampla e se esclerifica com o desenvolvimento.

  15. In vitro pharmacological activity of the tetrahydroisoquinoline salsolinol present in products from Theobroma cacao L. like cocoa and chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzig, M F; Putscher, I; Henklein, P; Haber, H

    2000-11-01

    Cocoa and chocolate contain the tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid salsolinol up to a concentration of 25 microg/g. Salsolinol is a dopaminergic active compound which binds to the D(2) receptor family, especially to the D(3) receptor with a K(i) of 0.48+/-0.021 micromol/l. It inhibits the formation of cyclic AMP and the release of beta-endorphin and ACTH in a pituitary cell system. Taking the detected concentration and the pharmacological properties into account, salsolinol seems to be one of the main psychoactive compounds present in cocoa and chocolate and might be included in chocolate addiction.

  16. Influences of superheated steam roasting on changes in sugar, amino acid and flavour active components of cocoa bean (Theobroma cacao).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zzaman, Wahidu; Bhat, Rajeev; Yang, Tajul Aris; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2017-10-01

    Roasting is one of the important unit operations in the cocoa-based industries in order to develop unique flavour in products. Cocoa beans were subjected to roasting at different temperatures and times using superheated steam. The influence of roasting temperature (150-250°C) and time (10-50 min) on sugars, free amino acids and volatile flavouring compounds were investigated. The concentration of total reducing sugars was reduced by up to 64.61, 77.22 and 82.52% with increased roasting temperature at 150, 200 and 250°C for 50 min, respectively. The hydrophobic amino acids were reduced up to 29.21, 36.41 and 48.87% with increased roasting temperature at 150, 200 and 250°C for 50 min, respectively. A number of pyrazines, esters, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, carboxyl acids and hydrocarbons were detected in all the samples at different concentration range. Formation of the most flavour active compounds, pyrazines, were the highest concentration (2.96 mg kg -1 ) at 200°C for 10 min. The superheated steam roasting method achieves the optimum roasting condition within a short duration Therefore, the quality of cocoa beans can be improved using superheated steam during the roasting process. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Microbiological analysis of coliforms and mesophilic aerobic spore formers in gamma irradiated cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barata, Anderson Demetrio; Mansur Netto, Elias

    1995-01-01

    The presence of coliforms in processed foods is an useful indicator of post-sanitization and post processing contamination, and members of the mesophilic aerobic spore formers have great importance in food spoilage. Spore - forming aerobic bacilli have been observed in fermenting cocoa in Jamaica and West Africa. The results of this work has shown a considerable reduction of the mesophilic aerobic spore formers in irradiated Brazilian Comun Cocoa beans as long as the irradiation dose was increased from 1.05 to 3.99 kGy. The presence of coliforms irradiated has not been found even in the coroa beans with the dose of 1.05 kGy. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab

  18. FORMULASI SEDIAAN MOUTHWASH PENCEGAH PLAK GIGI EKSTRAK BIJI KAKAO (Theobroma cacao L DAN UJI EFEKTIVITAS PADA BAKTERI Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apriyanti Anastasia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on the formulation of preparations mouthwash prevention of dental plaque extract of cocoa beans also has been tested in Streptococcus mutans bacteria by variations in the concentration of glycerin as a humectant in preparation which aims to determine the effect of different concentrations of glycerin as a humectant to the physical properties, chemical properties and inhibition zone Streptococcus mutans bacteria in mouthwash formula and to know the mouthwash formula that has the physical quality and the highest antibacterial activity. The method used includes the step of extraction of cocoa beans, preparation of a mouthwash with 4 formula using variations of glycerin F1 (0%, F2 (15%, F3 (20% and F4 (25% followed by an evaluation formula that includes organoleptic tests, pH test and the test of inhibition diameter. Tests performed on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. The results showed the concentration of glycerin as a humectant in a mouthwash formula cocoa seed extract has an effect on the diameter of inhibition zone, but did not have a significant effect on the physical and chemical properties of cocoa seed extracts mouthwash, The concentration of glycerin which meets the physical quality and the most excellent antibacterial activity that is 15% contained in the formula 2.

  19. Use of gamma rays to induce mutants resistant to cocoa swollen shoot disease in Theobroma cacao L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu Ampomah, Y.; Owusu, G.K.; Sackey, S.; Padi, B.; Abdul Karimu, A.

    1996-01-01

    Vegetative buds of three cocoa varieties, ‘Amelonado’ (P30), ‘Trinitario’ (K5) and ‘Upper Amazon’ (T85/799) were irradiated with 15, 20 and 25 Gy of γ-rays, respectively, and budded on to rootstocks to generate MV1 shoots. The terminal buds of the shoots were removed to induce the formation of MV2 shoots, from which MV3 shoots were similarly derived. The MV3 plants were screened for resistance to the Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus (CSSV) by patch-graft inoculation of the root-stocks. Only a few plants from each of the three cocoa varieties were found to be symptomless after indexing. These plants were multiplied by budding to the MV4 and MV5 stages and screened at each stage for CSSV resistance by inoculation using virus-carrying mealybugs. At the MV5 stage, some plants still remained symptomless and this was confirmed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study reveals that γ-rays can be used to induce genetic variability for resistance to CSSV in cocoa, as well as for other traits such as chlorophyll deficiency. (author)

  20. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in different cocoa clones (Theobroma cacao L.) developed in the southern region of Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Leonardo Fonseca; Felício, Ana Lúcia de Souza Madureira; Miranda, Lucas Caldeirão Rodrigues; Pires, Tassia Cavalcante; Bispo, Eliete da Silva; Hirooka, Elisa Yoko

    2018-01-01

    Brazil is the sixth largest producer of cocoa beans in the world, after Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Indonesia, Nigeria and Cameroon. The southern region of Bahia stands out as the country's largest producer, accounting for approximately 60% of production. Due to damage caused by infestation of the cocoa crop with the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, which causes 'witch's broom disease', research in cocoa beans has led to the cloning of species that are resistant to the disease; however, there is little information about the development of other fungal genera in these clones, such as Aspergillus, which do not represent a phytopathogenicity problem but can grow during the pre-processing of cocoa beans and produce mycotoxins. Thus, the aim of this work was to determine the presence of aflatoxin (AF) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa clones developed in Brazil. Aflatoxin and ochratoxin A contamination were determined in 130 samples from 13 cocoa clones grown in the south of Bahia by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. The method was evaluated for limit of detection (LOD) (0.05-0.90 μg kg -1 ), limit of quantification (0.10-2.50 μg kg -1 ) and recovery (RSD) (89.40-95.80%) for AFB 1 , AFB 2 , AFG 1 , AFG 2 and OTA. Aflatoxin contamination was detected in 38% of the samples in the range of

  1. Relationship between fermentation index and other biochemical changes evaluated during the fermentation of Mexican cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Cortes, Teresa; Salgado-Cervantes, Marco Antonio; García-Alamilla, Pedro; García-Alvarado, Miguel Angel; Rodríguez-Jimenes, Guadalupe del C; Hidalgo-Morales, Madeleine; Robles-Olvera, Víctor

    2013-08-15

    During traditional cocoa processing, the end of fermentation is empirically determined by the workers; consequently, a high variability on the quality of fermented cocoa beans is observed. Some physicochemical properties (such as fermentation index) have been used to measure the degree of fermentation and changes in quality, but only after the fermentation process has concluded, using dried cocoa beans. This would suggest that it is necessary to establish a relationship between the chemical changes inside the cocoa bean and the fermentation conditions during the fermentation in order to standardize the process. Cocoa beans were traditionally fermented inside wooden boxes, sampled every 24 h and analyzed to evaluate fermentation changes in complete bean, cotyledon and dried beans. The value of the fermentation index suggested as the minimal adequate (≥1) was observed at 72 h in all bean parts analyzed. At this time, values of pH, spectral absorption, total protein hydrolysis and vicilin-class globulins of fermented beans suggested that they were well fermented. Since no difference was found between the types of samples, the pH value could be used as a first indicator of the end of the fermentation and confirmed by evaluation of the fermentation index using undried samples, during the process. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. In vitro hypoglycemic and cholesterol lowering effects of dietary fiber prepared from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsor-Atindana, John; Zhong, Fang; Mothibe, Kebitsamang Joseph

    2012-10-01

    Three dietary fiber (DF) powders; soluble dietary fiber (SDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and total dietary fiber (TDF) were prepared from cocoa bean shells (CBS) by enzymatic treatment. These DFs were evaluated for their effects on glucose adsorption, glucose diffusion, starch hydrolysis, cholesterol binding, sodium cholate binding and oil binding capacities using in vitro model systems by simulating gastric intestinal conditions. The results showed that SDF generally exhibited significantly (p 0.05) glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI) and oil binding capacity, when compared with IDF and TDF which both showed similar effects. Moreover, it was discovered that the three CBS dietary fiber powders contained intrinsic antioxidants (phenolic compounds). The study suggested that CBS could be an alternative cheap source of DF with additional benefits. Thus, CBS fibers could be incorporated as low calorie bulk ingredients in high-fiber diet to reduce calorie and cholesterol levels and control blood glucose level.

  3. Investigations on the Aroma of Cocoa Pulp ( Theobroma cacao L.) and Its Influence on the Odor of Fermented Cocoa Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetschik, Irene; Kneubühl, Markus; Chatelain, Karin; Schlüter, Ansgar; Bernath, Konrad; Hühn, Tilo

    2018-03-14

    The odor-active constituents of cocoa pulp have been analyzed by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) for the first time. Pulps of three different cocoa varieties have been investigated. The variety CCN51 showed low flavor intensities, in terms of flavor dilution (FD) factors, in comparison to varieties FSV41 and UF564, for which floral and fruity notes were detected in higher intensities. To gain first insights on a molecular level of how the cocoa pulp odorants affected the odor quality of cocoa beans during fermentation, quantitative measurements of selected aroma compounds were conducted in pulp and bean at different time points of the fermentation. The results showed significantly higher concentrations of 2-phenylethanol and 3-methylbutyl acetate in pulp than in the bean during the different time steps of the fermentation, whereas the reverse could be observed for the odorants linalool and 2-methoxyphenol. The findings of this study constitute a basis for further investigations on the aroma formation of cocoa during fermentation.

  4. Effect of pulp preconditioning on acidification, proteolysis, sugars and free fatty acids concentration during fermentation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Quao, Jennifer; Budu, Agnes Simpson; Takrama, Jemmy; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi

    2011-11-01

    Changes in acidification, proteolysis, sugars and free fatty acids (FFAs) concentrations of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp preconditioning (pod storage or PS) and fermentation were investigated. Non-volatile acidity, pH, proteolysis, sugars (total, reducing and non-reducing) and FFAs concentrations were analysed using standard methods. Increasing PS consistently decreased the non-volatile acidity with concomitant increase in pH during fermentation of the beans. Fermentation decreased the pH of the unstored beans from 6.7 to 4.9 within the first 4 days and then increased slightly again to 5.3 by the sixth day. Protein, total sugars and non-reducing sugars decreased significantly (p cocoa beans was largely affected by fermentation than by PS.

  5. Flavanols, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activity changes during cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) roasting as affected by temperature and time of processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannone, F; Di Mattia, C D; De Gregorio, M; Sergi, M; Serafini, M; Sacchetti, G

    2015-05-01

    The effect of roasting on the content of flavanols and proanthocyanidins and on the antioxidant activity of cocoa beans was investigated. Cocoa beans were roasted at three temperatures (125, 135 and 145 °C), for different times, to reach moisture contents of about 2 g 100 g(-1). Flavanols and proanthocyanidins were determined, and the antioxidant activity was tested by total phenolic index (TPI), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) methods. The rates of flavanol and total proanthocyanidin loss increased with roasting temperatures. Moisture content of the roasted beans being equal, high temperature-short time processes minimised proanthocyanidins loss. Moisture content being equal, the average roasting temperature (135 °C) determined the highest TPI and FRAP values and the highest temperature (145 °C) determined the lowest TPI values. Moisture content being equal, low temperature-long time roasting processes maximised the chain-breaking activity, as determined by the TRAP method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Deciphering the Theobroma cacao self-incompatibility system: from genomics to diagnostic markers for self-compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanaud, Claire; Fouet, Olivier; Legavre, Thierry; Lopes, Uilson; Sounigo, Olivier; Eyango, Marie Claire; Mermaz, Benoit; Da Silva, Marcos Ramos; Loor Solorzano, Rey Gaston; Argout, Xavier; Gyapay, Gabor; Ebaiarrey, Herman Ebai; Colonges, Kelly; Sanier, Christine; Rivallan, Ronan; Mastin, Géraldine; Cryer, Nicholas; Boccara, Michel; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Efombagn Mousseni, Ives Bruno; Peres Gramacho, Karina; Clément, Didier

    2017-10-13

    Cocoa self-compatibility is an important yield factor and has been described as being controlled by a late gameto-sporophytic system expressed only at the level of the embryo sac. It results in gametic non-fusion and involves several loci. In this work, we identified two loci, located on chromosomes 1 and 4 (CH1 and CH4), involved in cocoa self-incompatibility by two different processes. Both loci are responsible for gametic selection, but only one (the CH4 locus) is involved in the main fruit drop. The CH1 locus acts prior to the gamete fusion step and independently of the CH4 locus. Using fine-mapping and genome-wide association studies, we focused analyses on restricted regions and identified candidate genes. Some of them showed a differential expression between incompatible and compatible reactions. Immunolocalization experiments provided evidence of CH1 candidate genes expressed in ovule and style tissues. Highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) diagnostic markers were designed in the CH4 region that had been identified by fine-mapping. They are characterized by a strong linkage disequilibrium with incompatibility alleles, thus allowing the development of efficient diagnostic markers predicting self-compatibility and fruit setting according to the presence of specific alleles or genotypes. SSR alleles specific to self-compatible Amelonado and Criollo varieties were also identified, thus allowing screening for self-compatible plants in cocoa populations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Effect of genotype of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) on attractiveness to the mirid Sahlbergella singularis (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibog, Luc; Babin, Régis; Mbang, Joseph Amang A; Decazy, Bernard; Nyassé, Salomon; Cilas, Christian; Eskes, Albertus B

    2008-09-01

    Mirids are a major constraint to cocoa growing in Africa. Cocoa breeding for tolerance/resistance could be effective in an integrated pest management system. Attractiveness is one aspect of tolerance/resistance, and decreasing the attractiveness of cocoa trees should be a good way of reducing damage. Small-scale laboratory tests were carried out in Cameroon to assess differences in the attractiveness to mirids of eleven cocoa genotypes. The genotypes were ranked according to their attractiveness score and a distance from a mean value. An analysis of variance was performed and revealed significant differences between cocoa genotypes (F=3.15, Pcocoa genotype groupings revealed three major categories, with BE10 and SNK413 proving to be the most attractive. In contrast, five genotypes, IMC60, the Catongo Trinitario genotypes, Playa Alta2 (from Venezuela), SIC5 and SNK614, proved to be less attractive than the mean. Four genotypes (PA107, SNK619, UPA134 and T60/887) displayed similar attractiveness to the mean. The circular microtest offered the advantage of not needing a reference cocoa genotype. The least attractive clones, such as IMC60, were also the most tolerant in the field. Comparisons with the results of other studies are proposed.

  8. Effect of Cryopreservation and Post-Cryopreservation Somatic Embryogenesis on the Epigenetic Fidelity of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Raphael; Wetten, Andy; Marcelino Rodríguez López, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    While cocoa plants regenerated from cryopreserved somatic embryos can demonstrate high levels of phenotypic variability, little is known about the sources of the observed variability. Previous studies have shown that the encapsulation-dehydration cryopreservation methodology imposes no significant extra mutational load since embryos carrying high levels of genetic variability are selected against during protracted culture. Also, the use of secondary rather than primary somatic embryos has been shown to further reduce the incidence of genetic somaclonal variation. Here, the effect of in vitro conservation, cryopreservation and post-cryopreservation generation of somatic embryos on the appearance of epigenetic somaclonal variation were comparatively assessed. To achieve this we compared the epigenetic profiles, generated using Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphisms, of leaves collected from the ortet tree and from cocoa somatic embryos derived from three in vitro conditions: somatic embryos, somatic embryos cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen and somatic embryos generated from cryoproserved somatic embryos. Somatic embryos accumulated epigenetic changes but these were less extensive than in those regenerated after storage in LN. Furthermore, the passage of cryopreserved embryos through another embryogenic stage led to further increase in variation. Interestingly, this detected variability appears to be in some measure reversible. The outcome of this study indicates that the cryopreservation induced phenotypic variability could be, at least partially, due to DNA methylation changes. Phenotypic variability observed in cryostored cocoa somatic-embryos is epigenetic in nature. This variability is partially reversible, not stochastic in nature but a directed response to the in-vitro culture and cryopreservation.

  9. Sensory-guided decomposition of roasted cocoa nibs (Theobroma cacao) and structure determination of taste-active polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Timo; Bareuther, Sabine; Hofmann, Thomas

    2005-06-29

    Sequential application of solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography, and RP-HPLC in combination with taste dilution analyses, followed by LC-MS and 1D/2D-NMR experiments and thiolytic degradation, revealed that, besides theobromine and caffeine, the flavan-3-ols epicatechin, catechin, procyanidin B-2, procyanidin B-5, procyanidin C-1, [epicatechin-(4beta-->8)](3)-epicatechin, and [epicatechin-(4beta-->8)](4)-epicatechin were among the key compounds contributing to the bitter taste as well as the astringent mouthfeel imparted upon consumption of roasted cocoa. In addition, a series of quercetin, naringenin, luteolin, and apigenin glycopyranosides as well as a family of not previously identified amino acid amides, namely, (+)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid, (+)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid, (-)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-glutamic acid, (-)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-glutamic acid, (-)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-3-hydroxy-L-tyrosine, (+)-N-[4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-aspartic acid, and (+)-N-(E)-cinnamoyl-L-aspartic acid, have been identified as key astringent compounds of roasted cocoa. Furthermore, (-)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-3-hydroxy-l-tyrosine (clovamide), (-)-N-[4'-hydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-tyrosine (deoxyclovamide), and (-)-N-[3',4'-dihydroxy-(E)-cinnamoyl]-L-tyrosine, reported previously as antioxidants, have been found as contributors of cocoa's astringent taste. By means of the half-tongue test, the taste thresholds of flavan-3-ols and glycosides have been determined.

  10. Genetic Structure and Molecular Diversity of Cacao Plants Established as Local Varieties for More than Two Centuries: The Genetic History of Cacao Plantations in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Elisa S L; Cerqueira-Silva, Carlos Bernard M; Mori, Gustavo M; Ahnert, Dário; Mello, Durval L N; Pires, José Luis; Corrêa, Ronan X; de Souza, Anete P

    2015-01-01

    Bahia is the most important cacao-producing state in Brazil, which is currently the sixth-largest country worldwide to produce cacao seeds. In the eighteenth century, the Comum, Pará and Maranhão varieties of cacao were introduced into southern Bahia, and their descendants, which are called 'Bahian cacao' or local Bahian varieties, have been cultivated for over 200 years. Comum plants have been used to start plantations in African countries and extended as far as countries in South Asia and Oceania. In Brazil, two sets of clones selected from Bahian varieties and their mutants, the Agronomic Institute of East (SIAL) and Bahian Cacao Institute (SIC) series, represent the diversity of Bahian cacao in germplasm banks. Because the genetic diversity of Bahian varieties, which is essential for breeding programs, remains unknown, the objective of this work was to assess the genetic structure and diversity of local Bahian varieties collected from farms and germplasm banks. To this end, 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to genotype 279 cacao plants from germplasm and local farms. The results facilitated the identification of 219 cacao plants of Bahian origin, and 51 of these were SIAL or SIC clones. Bahian cacao showed low genetic diversity. It could be verified that SIC and SIAL clones do not represent the true diversity of Bahian cacao, with the greatest amount of diversity found in cacao trees on the farms. Thus, a core collection to aid in prioritizing the plants to be sampled for Bahian cacao diversity is suggested. These results provide information that can be used to conserve Bahian cacao plants and applied in breeding programs to obtain more productive Bahian cacao with superior quality and tolerance to major diseases in tropical cacao plantations worldwide.

  11. Polyphenols distributions and reserve substances analysis in cacao somatic embryogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana María Gallego Rúa; Ana María Henao Ramírez; Aura Inés Urrea Trujillo; Lucía Atehortúa Garcés

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTIn order to understand the causes of lack of regeneration in cacao somatic embryos, two cacao varieties with different responses to regeneration potential were described based on their capacity to store different compounds. It is well known that seed reserves play a central role in the regenerative capability of somatic embryos; thus, we followed histochemical changes and reserve fluctuations of proteins, polysaccharides and polyphenols during somatic embryogenesis (SE) in the two cac...

  12. Genome and secretome analysis of the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, Moniliophthora roreri, which causes frosty pod rot disease of cacao: mechanisms of the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Lyndel W; Costa, Gustavo Gilson Lacerda; Thomazella, Daniela P T; Teixeira, Paulo José P L; Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; Schuster, Stephan C; Carlson, John E; Guiltinan, Mark J; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Farmer, Andrew; Ramaraj, Thiruvarangan; Crozier, Jayne; Davis, Robert E; Shao, Jonathan; Melnick, Rachel L; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Bailey, Bryan A

    2014-02-27

    The basidiomycete Moniliophthora roreri is the causal agent of Frosty pod rot (FPR) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao), the source of chocolate, and FPR is one of the most destructive diseases of this important perennial crop in the Americas. This hemibiotroph infects only cacao pods and has an extended biotrophic phase lasting up to sixty days, culminating in plant necrosis and sporulation of the fungus without the formation of a basidiocarp. We sequenced and assembled 52.3 Mb into 3,298 contigs that represent the M. roreri genome. Of the 17,920 predicted open reading frames (OFRs), 13,760 were validated by RNA-Seq. Using read count data from RNA sequencing of cacao pods at 30 and 60 days post infection, differential gene expression was estimated for the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of this plant-pathogen interaction. The sequencing data were used to develop a genome based secretome for the infected pods. Of the 1,535 genes encoding putative secreted proteins, 1,355 were expressed in the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases. Analysis of the data revealed secretome gene expression that correlated with infection and intercellular growth in the biotrophic phase and invasive growth and plant cellular death in the necrotrophic phase. Genome sequencing and RNA-Seq was used to determine and validate the Moniliophthora roreri genome and secretome. High sequence identity between Moniliophthora roreri genes and Moniliophthora perniciosa genes supports the taxonomic relationship with Moniliophthora perniciosa and the relatedness of this fungus to other basidiomycetes. Analysis of RNA-Seq data from infected plant tissues revealed differentially expressed genes in the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases. The secreted protein genes that were upregulated in the biotrophic phase are primarily associated with breakdown of the intercellular matrix and modification of the fungal mycelia, possibly to mask the fungus from plant defenses. Based on the transcriptome data, the

  13. THE ISOLATION OF COMPOUND POLYPHENOL FROM WAJO DISTRICT CACAO BEAN AND CACAO WASTE THROUGH FERMENTATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Wijaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to utilize the liquid smoke, charcoal, oil and gas that have been produced from cocoa waste shell from fast pyrolysis technology at 125-500 oC. The charcoal of the cocoa waste was analyzed using a bomb calorimeter at 5925 cal/g showed that it contains 52.02% of lignin; 17.27% of alpha cellulose and 19.56% of hemicellulose, respectively. The HPLC analysis of Wajo district cacao bean resulted in polyphenol compound as 308.35. GC-MS analysis of cocoa shell liquid smoke that pyrolized at 125-500 oC produces severals compounds such as acetic acid, n-buthane, methyl esther, propanoac acid, butanoac acid, methyl pyridine, 1-hydroxy-2-propanone, and mequinol. The FTIR analysis of cocoa bean showed a hydroxyl group at 3450.65 cm-1, carbonyl group at 1730.15 cm-1, CH group at 719.45-607.58 cm-1. The crystallinity degree of Wajo District cocoa shell analyzed using XRD was 26,50%. The existence of chemical compounds in liquid smoke products have been found as raw chemicals.  Content of biomass carbon at these cacao waste increased according to the increase of pyrolisis temperature, while the carbon emission of these three materials decreased as the temperature increased. Compound polyphenol from cacao bean has a potent as anti oxidant that is friendly  for environmental and healthy.   Keywords: cacao  bean, fermentation,  polyphenol,  and  chemical

  14. Emerging resistance against different fungicides in Lasiodiplodia theobromae, the cause of mango dieback in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman ur Ateeq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dieback of mango caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae is among several diseases responsible for low crop production in Pakistan. To further complicate the issue, resistance in L. theobromae is emerging against different fungicides. L. theobromae was isolated from diseased samples of mango plants collected from various orchards in the Multan District. The efficacy of different fungicides viz. copper oxychloride, diethofencarb, pyrachlostrobin, carbendazim, difenoconazole, mancozeb, and thiophanate-methyl was evaluated in vitro using a poison food technique. Thiophanate-methyl at all concentrations was found to be the most effective among five systemic fungicides against L. theobromae, followed by carbendazim, difenoconazole and diethofencarb. The fungicides, i.e., thiophanate-methyl, difenoconazole, carbendazim and diethofencarb showed maximum efficacy with increasing concentration. The isolates of L. theobromae showed some resistance development against the tested fungicides when compared with previous work. These investigations provide new information about chemical selection for the control of holistic disease in mango growing zones of Pakistan.

  15. Development and characterization of microsatellites for the cacao fungal pathogen Moniliophthora roreri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao is an important cash crop in Central and South America and a valuable food commodity in the United States and the global economy. The fungus Moniliophthora roreri infects and destroys cacao fruits and threatens the production of cacao in South and Central America and the Caribbean. To understa...

  16. Data from proteome analysis of Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Botryosphaeriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla C. Uranga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Trunk disease fungi are a global problem affecting many economically important fruiting trees. The Botryosphaeriaceae are a family of trunk disease fungi that require detailed biochemical characterization in order to gain insight into their pathogenicity. The application of a modified Folch extraction to protein extraction from the Botryosphaeriaceae Lasiodiplodia theobromae generated an unprecedented data set of protein identifications from fragmentation analysis and de novo peptide sequencing of its proteome. This article contains data from protein identifications obtained from a database-dependent fragmentation analysis using three different proteomics algorithms (MSGF, Comet and X! Tandem via the SearchGUI proteomics pipeline program and de novo peptide sequencing. Included are data sets of gene ontology annotations using an all-Uniprot ontology database, as well as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-only and a Candida albicans-only ontology database, in order to discern between those proteins involved in common functions with S. cerevisiae and those in common with the pathogenic yeast C. albicans. Our results reveal the proteome of L. theobromae contains more ontological categories in common to C. albicans, yet possesses a much wider metabolic repertoire than any of the yeasts studied in this work. Many novel proteins of interest were identified for further biochemical characterization and annotation efforts, as further discussed in the article referencing this article (1. Interactive Cytoscape networks of molecular functions of identified peptides using an all-Uniprot ontological database are included. Data, including raw data, are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD005283.

  17. Cacao Intensification in Sulawesi: A Green Prosperity Model Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.; Elchinger, M.; Hill, G.; Katz, J.; Barnett, J.

    2014-09-01

    NREL conducted eight model projects for Millennium Challenge Corporation's (MCC) Compact with Indonesia. Green Prosperity, the largest project of the Compact, seeks to address critical constraints to economic growth while supporting the Government of Indonesia's commitment to a more sustainable, less carbon-intensive future. This study evaluates techniques to improve cacao farming in Sulawesi Indonesia with an emphasis on Farmer Field Schools and Cocoa Development Centers to educate farmers and for train the trainer programs. The study estimates the economic viability of cacao farming if smallholder implement techniques to increase yield as well as social and environmental impacts of the project.

  18. Da Danmark var en slavenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Rikke Louise Alberg; Brunbech, Peter Johan Yding; Poulsen, Jens Aage

    I mere end 250 år var Danmark en stor kolonimagt. Skt. Jan, Skt. Thomas og Skt. Croix, eller U.S. Virgin Islands, som de kaldes i dag, var danske kolonier, hvor der bl.a. blev dyrket sukkerrør og bomuld. Det hårde arbejde blev udført af slaver, som man fra slutningen af 1600-tallet begyndte at tr...

  19. var. puiggarianum (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Gauna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionó Batrachospermum atrum var. puiggarianum por primera vez en la provincia de Buenos Aires. La identificación de las muestras se basó en el análisis de la morfología microscópica y en el número cromosómico de cada una de las generaciones de su ciclo de vida bajo cultivo. Los talos se estudiaron con microscopio óptico, y la cariología, por medio de la técnica de carmín acético. El ciclo de vida presentó tres generaciones: una gametofítica haploide, una carposporófitica diploide que originó la última fase Chantransia diploide. Los talos gametófitos estuvieron formados por verticilos separados por zonas internodales, cada uno de ellos constituidos por ramas primarias densamente comprimidas. Entre éstas se observaron ramas portadoras de espermatangios y de carpogonios. Las zonas internodales estuvieron constituidas por células corticales y axiales. Los carposporófitos ovoideos estuvieron formados por filamentos gonimoblásticos portadores de carposporangios terminales. El estado Chantransia se caracterizó por presentar filamentos cortos con pocas células. El material estudiado presentó un número haploide n = 4 y diploide 2n = 8.

  20. Cacao diseases: A history of old enemies and new encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book reviews the current knowledge of cacao pathogens and their management methods. Topics discussed include the history, biology, and genetic diversity of Moniliophthora (causing witches’ broom and frosty pod rot) and Phytophthora species (causing black pod rot) that cause diseases resulting i...

  1. Antimicrobial and plant growth-promoting properties of the cacao endophyte Bacillus subtilis ALB629.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcäo, L L; Silva-Werneck, J O; Vilarinho, B R; da Silva, J P; Pomella, A W V; Marcellino, L H

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the effects of the endophyte Bacillus subtilisALB629 on the growth of cacao seedlings at early developmental stage and to evaluate its antimicrobial properties. Germinating cacao seeds were inoculated with ALB629, and seedlings growth was evaluated 30 days later. Significant increase (P cacao-grafting procedure in the field, ALB629 increased the grafting success rate (24%), indicating its protective effect. In addition, this Bacillus secretes an antagonist compound, as shown by the antifungal activity of the cell-free culture. Bacillus subtilisALB629 promotes cacao root growth, besides promoting growth of the aerial part of cacao seedlings. It has antimicrobial properties and produces an antifungal compound. ALB629 presented beneficial characteristics for cacao cultivation, being a good biological control agent candidate. Furthermore, it is a potential source of antifungal compound with potential for commercial exploitation. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Suppressive effects of cacao polyphenols on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Midori; Baba, Seigo

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies in humans have shown that the cacao polyphenols, (-)-epicatechin and its oligomers, prevent in vitro and ex vivo low-density lipoprotein oxidation mediated by free radical generators and metal ions and also reduce plasma LDL-cholesterol levels. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cacao polyphenols on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (-/-) mice. Mice aged 8 weeks (n = 90) were randomized into three groups, and fed either normal mouse chow (controls) or chow supplemented with 0.25 or 0.40 % cacao polyphenols for 16 weeks. The mean plaque area in cross-sections of the brachiocephalic trunk was measured and found to be lower in the 0.25 % cacao polyphenol group than in the control group (p cacao polyphenol group (p cacao polyphenols inhibit the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (-/-) mice by reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  3. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of raw, roasted and puffed cacao beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, SuJung; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2016-03-01

    The antioxidant capacity and attributable bioactive compounds of puffed cacao beans were investigated. Roasting was carried out at 190°C for 15min and puffing was performed at 4-7kgf/cm(2). Cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) showed the highest total polyphenols (23.16mgGAE/gsample) and total flavonoids (10.65mgCE/gsample) (pbeans reflected the total polyphenols and flavonoids measured. The quantities of theobromine, catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 were higher in cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) than in roasted cacao beans. Puffed cacao beans received a good sensory score in flavor, but sourness increased as puffing pressure increased. Thus, these results suggest that, in cacao bean processing, puffing could be an alternative to roasting, which provide a rich taste and high antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. INFLUENCIA DE LA ÉPOCA DE COSECHA EN LA CALIDAD DEL LICOR DE CACAO TIPO NACIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Alexis Ruíz Pinargote

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la influencia de las épocas de cosecha (invierno y verano sobre las características físicas, sensoriales y bromatológicas del cacao nacional perteneciente al jardín clonal de la ESPAM MFL. Los análisis se efectuaron a partir de muestras de almendras secas evaluándose porcentaje de fermentación, almendras violetas, peso de semillas y testa, sabores básicos y específicos, pH, acidez, ceniza y grasa. Los datos fueron procesados mediante la prueba de T para encontrar diferencias entre épocas usando el programa estadístico INFOSTAT versión 2008. Los resultados muestran significación estadística para la fermentación entre las épocas del año, el mayor porcentaje de fermentación obtenido fue de 96.5 % del clon EET-19 en verano, mientras que en invierno sobresalió el clon EET-103. El perfil sensorial de los sabores específicos obtuvo mayores diferencias en el sabor floral con respecto al frutal y nuez, además de los sabores básicos con niveles medios y altos entre épocas; las propiedades bromatológicas acidez y ceniza fueron parecidas entre invierno y verano; contrario al pH y grasa que varían significativamente entre épocas. Se concluye que las épocas del año influyen sobre las propiedades físicas, sensoriales y bromatológicas del cacao nacional.

  5. Protein (Viridiplantae): 417622 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 09 ... 214909:3609 ... 3640:3609 ... 3641:3609 ... Uncharacterized protein TCM_008191 Theobroma cacao MEETSLGLSFTKDENFREWYSEIYFVAVNSEMIECNDISSYYILRSRAISIGRLTCTFPAAVCTPEIKASFNILLRVNDVQ

  6. Measurement of the CP-violation parameter Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, L.K.; Barker, A.R.; Briere, R.A.; Makoff, G.; Papadimitriou, V.; Patterson, J.R.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Somalwar, S.V.; Wah, Y.W.; Winstein, B.; Winston, R.; Woods, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Swallow, E.C.; Bock, G.J.; Coleman, R.; Enagonio, J.; Hsiung, Y.B.; Ramberg, E.; Stanfield, K.; Tschirhart, R.; Yamanaka, T.; Gollin, G.D.; Karlsson, M.; Okamitsu, J.K.; Debu, P.; Peyaud, B.; Turlay, R.; Vallage, B.

    1993-01-01

    A measurement of the CP-violation parameter Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon) has been made using the full E731 data set. We find Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon)=(7.4±5.2±2.9)x10 -4 where the first error is statistical and the second systematic

  7. Cacao Cultivation under Diverse Shade Tree Cover Allows High Carbon Storage and Sequestration without Yield Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Rajab, Yasmin; Leuschner, Christoph; Barus, Henry; Tjoa, Aiyen; Hertel, Dietrich

    2016-01-01

    One of the main drivers of tropical forest loss is their conversion to oil palm, soy or cacao plantations with low biodiversity and greatly reduced carbon storage. Southeast Asian cacao plantations are often established under shade tree cover, but are later converted to non-shaded monocultures to avoid resource competition. We compared three co-occurring cacao cultivation systems (3 replicate stands each) with different shade intensity (non-shaded monoculture, cacao with the legume Gliricidia sepium shade trees, and cacao with several shade tree species) in Sulawesi (Indonesia) with respect to above- and belowground biomass and productivity, and cacao bean yield. Total biomass C stocks (above- and belowground) increased fivefold from the monoculture to the multi-shade tree system (from 11 to 57 Mg ha-1), total net primary production rose twofold (from 9 to 18 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). This increase was associated with a 6fold increase in aboveground biomass, but only a 3.5fold increase in root biomass, indicating a clear shift in C allocation to aboveground tree organs with increasing shade for both cacao and shade trees. Despite a canopy cover increase from 50 to 93%, cacao bean yield remained invariant across the systems (variation: 1.1-1.2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). The monocultures had a twice as rapid leaf turnover suggesting that shading reduces the exposure of cacao to atmospheric drought, probably resulting in greater leaf longevity. Thus, contrary to general belief, cacao bean yield does not necessarily decrease under shading which seems to reduce physical stress. If planned properly, cacao plantations under a shade tree cover allow combining high yield with benefits for carbon sequestration and storage, production system stability under stress, and higher levels of animal and plant diversity.

  8. Cacao breeding in Bahia, Brazil - strategies and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uilson Vanderlei Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cacao was introduced in Bahia in 1756, becoming later the largest producer state in the country. In order to supportthe planting of cacao in the region, a breeding program was established by CEPEC at the beginning of the 1970s. For a long time,the program consisted in testing new hybrids (full-sibs and releasing a mixture of the best ones to farmers. Lately, particularly afterthe witches´ broom arrival in the region, in 1989, recurrent breeding strategies were implemented, aiming mainly the developmentof clones. From 1993 to 2010, more than 500 progenies, accumulating 30 thousand trees, were developed by crossing many parentswith resistance to witches´ broom, high yield and other traits. In this period, more than 500 clones were put in trials and 39 clonesand 3 hybrids were released to farmers. In this paper the strategies and results achieved by the program are reviewed. Overall theprogram has good interface with pathology and genomic programs.

  9. Chemical composition on cacao leaves infected by viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, M.; Delilah, M.; Syafrul, L.; Suryadi.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical analysis on cacao leaves that have chlorosis spots caused by cocoa swollen shoot viruses were carried out. It can be shown that leaves with chlorosis spots contain less chlorophyl and lipides than those without, but both do not show any significant difference in the concentration of water, glucose, saccharides, amino acid and proteins. It can be concluded that transport systems in the infected leaves are good so that the water and saccharides distribution in them are not disturbed. (author tr.)

  10. El nombre 'Forastero' no más: A new protocol for meaningful cacao germplasm classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The title of this article (The name ‘Forastero’ no more) is to convey an attempt in this paper to try to convince the cacao scientific community not to use the term Forastero to identify cacao germplasm of non-Criollo origin. The term Forastero originated in Latin America to differentiate the intro...

  11. Influence of low light intensity and soil flooding on cacao physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growth and development of plants frequently are limited by multiple abiotic stresses that occur simultaneously in the environment. Cabruca’ an agroforestry system is a main cropping system invariably adapted for cultivation of cacao in southern Bahia, Brazil. In this system of management cacao is gr...

  12. First report of frosty pod rot caused by Moniliophthora roreri on cacao in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosty pod rot (FPR) is a devastating cacao disease caused by the basidiomycete Moniliophthora roreri (Aime and Phillips-Mora, 2005). The disease is confined to 13 countries in Central and South America and constitutes a permanent threat for cacao cultivation worldwide. In July 2012, FPR was detect...

  13. Development of a marker assisted selection program for cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, R J; Kuhn, D N; Brown, J S; Olano, C T; Phillips-Mora, W; Amores, F M; Motamayor, J C

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT Production of cacao in tropical America has been severely affected by fungal pathogens causing diseases known as witches' broom (WB, caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa), frosty pod (FP, caused by M. roreri) and black pod (BP, caused by Phytophthora spp.). BP is pan-tropical and causes losses in all producing areas. WB is found in South America and parts of the Caribbean, while FP is found in Central America and parts of South America. Together, these diseases were responsible for over 700 million US dollars in losses in 2001 (4). Commercial cacao production in West Africa and South Asia are not yet affected by WB and FP, but cacao grown in these regions is susceptible to both. With the goal of providing new disease resistant cultivars the USDA-ARS and Mars, Inc. have developed a marker assisted selection (MAS) program. Quantitative trait loci have been identified for resistance to WB, FP, and BP. The potential usefulness of these markers in identifying resistant individuals has been confirmed in an experimental F(1) family in Ecuador.

  14. Apuntes sobre el Cultivo del Cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochoa Horacio

    1940-03-01

    Full Text Available Por muchos años permaneció el cultivo del cacao en nuestro país, en un deplorable atraso técnico; el agricultor a duras penas si tenía conocimientos generales de su explotación y, de una industria que tuvo su auge debido a la extensividad de las plantaciones, hoy sólo resta una reducida porción de ella. ¿Qué factores operaron esa tan notoria reducción hasta el punto de que exportadores en otros tiempos nos convertimos en importadores obligados de ese producto? Hay muchas razones de orden técnico y de orden económico. Los cacaotaleros obtenían halagadoras retribuciones cuando el jornal consistía en la alimentación que se le daba a la peonada y cuando, generoso, añadía una sobretasa en dinero. Bajo ese sistema de explotación, el descuadre que pudiera ocasionar tanto las enfermedades criptogámicas como los plagas, no era suficiente como para provocar el pesimismo en el hacendado y por tanto inducirlo al abandono de la plantación. A medida que las condiciones sociales del campesino se fueron modificando y su standard de vida aumentaba, cambió fundamentalmente el mecanismo de la industria Se observó entonces que los árboles morían y que era pobre la producción; que lo que en tiempos pasados fuera un negocio lucrativo, se les había convertido en una actividad improductiva y, para controlar estos fenómenos que se generalizaban en todas las zonas cacaotaleras, opusieron la ignorancia, el rutinarismo y la desidia. Lentamente se han ido modificando los conceptos antiguos sobre el trabajo cultural y los cuidados que con relación a las enfermedades y plagas requiere este delicado cultivo; la rutina está echando paso atrás y las experiencias científicas que procuran la prosperidad del plantío, se ponen en práctica en algunas zonas . Esto da esperanza para la reconstitución de la industria cacaotalera en nuestro país, que cuenta con inmensas regiones de óptima calidad para hacerla florecer sobre bases nuevas, con

  15. Morphological, Physiological, and Taxonomic Characterization of Actinobacterial Isolates Living as Endophytes of Cacao Pods and Cacao Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchinda, Romaric Armel Mouafo; Boudjeko, Thaddée; Simao-Beaunoir, Anne-Marie; Lerat, Sylvain; Tsala, Éric; Monga, Ernest; Beaulieu, Carole

    2016-01-01

    Vascular plants are commonly colonized by endophytic actinobacteria. However, very little is known about the relationship between these microorganisms and cacao fruits. In order to determine the physiological and taxonomic relationships between the members of this community, actinobacteria were isolated from cacao fruits and seeds. Among the 49 isolates recovered, 11 morphologically distinct isolates were selected for further characterization. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allowed the partition of the selected isolates into three phylogenetic clades. Most of the selected endophytic isolates belonged to the Streptomyces violaceusniger clade. Physiological characterization was carried out and a similarity index was used to cluster the isolates. However, clustering based on physiological properties did not match phylogenetic lineages. Isolates were also characterized for traits commonly associated with plant growth-promoting bacteria, including antibiosis and auxin biosynthesis. All isolates exhibited resistance to geldanamycin, whereas only two isolates were shown to produce this antibiotic. Endophytes were inoculated on radish seedlings and most isolates were found to possess plant growth-promoting abilities. These endophytic actinobacteria inhibited the growth of various plant pathogenic fungi and/or bacteria. The present study showed that S. violaceusniger clade members represent a significant part of the actinobacterial community living as endophytes in cacao fruits and seeds. While several members of this clade are known to be geldanamycin producers and efficient biocontrol agents of plant diseases, we herein established the endophytic lifestyle of some of these microorganisms, demonstrating their potential as plant health agents.

  16. Descomposición y liberación de nutrimentos desde las raíces finas de los sistemas agroforestales de cacao con sombras de poró y laurel, en Turrialba, Costa Rica Descomposición y liberación de nutrimentos desde las raíces finas de los sistemas agroforestales de cacao con sombras de poró y laurel, en Turrialba, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Arboleda Fernando

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Se usó el método de bolsas de descomposición para estudiar la pérdida de biomasa y liberación de N, P, K, Ca y Mg desde las raíces finas (<2 mm en los sistemas agroforestales de cacao con sombras de poró y laurel. Se muestrearon bolsas a las 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 18 y 25 semanas en las épocas seca y lluviosa. Las tasas de descomposición y liberación de nutrimentos fueron bien descritas por un modelo exponencial doble. Se observó alta relación entre las tasas de pérdida de biomasa y liberación de N de las tres especies. Las tasas de liberación de nutrimentos fueron K > Mg > P > N > Ca. Después de una semana de incubación cerca del 90% del K fue liberado mientras que el Ca tendió a la acumulación. Las raíces de poró fueron las de más rápida descomposición y liberación de nutrimentos, excepto de K. El poró sería la especie de sombra adecuada para sistemas de producción que requieran rápida recirculación de nutrimentos. El laurel exhibió tasas lentas de descomposición y liberación de nutrimentos.

    Palabras claves: Agroforestería, Theobroma cacao, Erythrina poeppigiana, Cordia alliodora, recirculación de nutrimentos, descomposición de raíces finas.

  17. Cacao Crop Management Zones Determination Based on Soil Properties and Crop Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla Silva Matos de Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The use of management zones has ensured yield success for numerous agricultural crops. In spite of this potential, studies applying precision agricultural techniques to cacao plantations are scarce or almost nonexistent. The aim of the present study was to delineate management zones for cacao crop, create maps combining soil physical properties and cacao tree yield, and identify what combinations best fit within the soil chemical properties. The study was conducted in 2014 on a cacao plantation in a Nitossolo Háplico Eutrófico (Rhodic Paleudult in Bahia, Brazil. Soil samples were collected in a regular sampling grid with 120 sampling points in the 0.00-0.20 m soil layer, and pH(H2O, P, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, H+Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, SB, V, TOC, effective CEC, CEC at pH 7.0, coarse sand, fine sand, clay, and silt were determined. Yield was measured in all the 120 points every month and stratified into annual, harvest, and early-harvest cacao yields. Data were subjected to geostatistical analysis, followed by ordinary kriging interpolation. The management zones were defined through a Fuzzy K-Means algorithm for combinations between soil physical properties and cacao tree yield. Concordance analysis was carried out between the delineated zones and soil chemical properties using Kappa coefficients. The zones that best classified the soil chemical properties were defined from the early-harvest cacao yield map associated with the clay or sand fractions. Silt content proved to be an inadequate variable for defining management zones for cacao production. The delineated management zones described the spatial variability of the soil chemical properties, and are therefore important for site-specific management in the cacao crop.

  18. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowska, Martyna M; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment.

  19. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Malgorzata Kotowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing towards the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density. We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia; three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, wood density showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and wood density. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation

  20. A fast algorithm for computer aided collimation gamma camera (CACAO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanguillaume, C.; Begot, S.; Quartuccio, M.; Douiri, A.; Franck, D.; Pihet, P.; Ballongue, P.

    2000-08-01

    The computer aided collimation gamma camera is aimed at breaking down the resolution sensitivity trade-off of the conventional parallel hole collimator. It uses larger and longer holes, having an added linear movement at the acquisition sequence. A dedicated algorithm including shift and sum, deconvolution, parabolic filtering and rotation is described. Examples of reconstruction are given. This work shows that a simple and fast algorithm, based on a diagonal dominant approximation of the problem can be derived. Its gives a practical solution to the CACAO reconstruction problem.

  1. DESEMPENHO E DIGESTIBILIDADE DE OVINOS ALIMENTADOS COM FARELO DE CACAU (Theobroma cacao L. EM DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE SUBSTITUIÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mattos Veloso

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho e digestibilidade aparente de ovinos alimentados com dietas contendo farelo de cacau em substituição ao concentrado (milho e farelo de soja. Utilizaram-se dezesseis ovinos Santa Inês, fêmeas, não prenhes, não lactantes, com peso médio inicial de 25 kg e aproximadamente doze meses de idade, mantidos em baias individuais. O experimento teve a duração de 78 dias, sendo 15 de período pré-experimental e 63 dias de período experimental. Forneceram-se as dietas em mistura completa, na proporção 50:50% (volumoso:concentrado,sendo utilizado como volumoso o feno da parte aérea da mandioca, com níveis de inclusão de farelo de cacau no concentrado de 0%, 10%, 20% e 30%. Forneciam-se dietas pela manhã, sendo ajustadas de forma a sobrar 10%. Semanalmente, coletaram-se as sobras e amostras de alimentos para análises laboratoriais. Avaliaram-se o consumo, o ganho médio diário de peso, a conversão alimentar e a digestibilidade aparente. A inclusão do farelo de cacau não promoveu diferença nos consumos de matéria seca, proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro, no ganho de peso médio diário,na conversão alimentar e digestibilidade dos nutrientes. O consumo de fibra em detergente ácido aumentou linearmente com a inclusão do farelo de cacau na dieta. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Alimentação, concentrado, confinamento, ruminante, subproduto.

  2. Processo de alcalinização dos "nibs" de cacau (Theobroma cacao L.) e avaliação da qualidade do pó

    OpenAIRE

    Eliete da Silva Bispo

    1999-01-01

    Resumo: Com o lançamento de novos produtos, que vem ocorrendo nos últimos anos, em virtude de fatores como o desenvolvimento tecnológico, crescimento da concorrência externa, competitividade do setor e exigência do consumidor, que incorporou novos valores às suas preferências, as indústrias do Brasil, estão necessitando aprimorar o processo de desenvolvimento de novos produtos, visando uma velocidade de lançamento cada vez maior, de maneira mais econômica e eficiente. Diante deste cenário, a...

  3. Estudo do melhoramento do sabor de cacau (Theobroma cacao L.) atraves de ação enzimatica durante a fermentação

    OpenAIRE

    Marinalda da Silva Soares

    2001-01-01

    Resumo: A fermentação das sementes de cacau é uma atividade indispensável para o desenvolvimento dos precursores do aroma de chocolate. Durante essa etapa a polpa que envolve as sementes é metabolizada por microrganismos, produzindo, principalmente, etanol e ácido acético, que são absorvidos pelos cotilédones causando a morte da semente e promovendo alterações físico-químicas importantes na constituição do sabor. Entre essas, pode-se ressaltar a formação de aminoácidos e açúcares redutores li...

  4. OBTAINING AND USE OF POLYPHENOLOXIDASE ENZYME EXTRACTED FROM RIPE CUSTARD APPLE (Annona squamosa L.) PULP ON THE COCOA (Theobroma cacao L.) NIBS IN TASTE IMPROVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    LIMA, ELIZA DOROTEA POZZOBON DE ALBUQUERQUE; PASTORE, GLÁUCIA MARIA; BARBERY, SANDRA DRINA FERNANDEZ; GARCIA, NELSON HORÁCIO PEZOA; BRITO, EDY SOUSA DE; LIMA, CARLOS ALBERTO DE ALBUQUERQUE

    2001-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a obtenção e a utilização da enzima polifenoloxidase (PPO) extraída de polpa de pinha madura na redução do teor de compostos polifenólicos com a finalidade de diminuir a adstringência e o amargor das amêndoas de cacau processadas na forma de "nibs". A PPO foi extraída com tampão fosfato de potássio 0,025M (pH 7,5), adicionando sulfato de amônio para a precipitação da enzima. O material em pó obtido foi denominado de enzima parcialmente purificada...

  5. Estudo do melhoramento do sabor de cacau (Theobroma cacao L.) utilizando polifenoloxidase extraida da pinha (Annona squamosa L.) e tratamento termico não convencional

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Drina Fernandez Barbery

    1999-01-01

    Resumo: Existem grandes diferenças no sabor de cacau dependendo de sua origem de produção, certas regiões produzem amêndoas com excessivo sabor ácido e amargo e forte adstringência. Em geral as amêndoas de cacau produzidas no Brasil e na Malásia, têm apresentado teores excessivos de acidez comparados com amêndoas provenientes do leste africano, por este motivo estas amêndoas são utilizadas em quantidades limitadas nas formulações. A presença do ácido acético e láctico seja de forma individual...

  6. The effectiveness of betel leaf (Piper betle Linn extract gel and cocoa bean (Theobroma cacao L extract gel application against the hardness of enamel surface in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni Jekti Nugroho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Nowadays several ways  have been evolved  to increase the hardness of the enamel surface as an effort to prevent caries. One of the alternatives that can be used is application of gel with herbal basic material. Material and Methods : The use of herbal basic material is preferred by people because the side effects are relatively small compared to synthetic drugs. Piper betle and cocoa beans are medicinal plants that is often used by people to inhibit caries. This is because piper betle and cocoa beans contain hardness that may influence the enamel surface. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of piper betle extract gel and cocoa bean extract gel against the hardness of enamel surface. The samples, maxillary first premolar teeth, which has been extracted and does not have caries, were divided into 3 treatment groups: piper betle extract gel, cocoa bean extract gel, and distilled water as a negative control. Each treatment group consisted of 8 samples. The samples are decoronated in cemento-enamel junction (CEJ areas and planted on orthoplast blocks with labial surface facing up. Samples were applied in labial enamel surface to 5, 15 and 35 minutes period times. Samples before and after the application in each treatment group were measured using Universal Hardness Tester. Data were collected and analyzed using ANNOVA Repeated test. Results : Showed there were significant differences (p 0.05 of enamel surface hardness before and after the application of piper betel extract gel and distilled water. Conclusion : Therefore it can be concluded that cocoa been extract gel is more effective to increase the hardness of email surface.

  7. Production of bioplastic from jackfruit seed starch (Artocarpus heterophyllus) reinforced with microcrystalline cellulose from cocoa pod husk (Theobroma cacao L.) using glycerol as plasticizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, M.; Gana, A.; Maysarah, S.; Ginting, M. H. S.; Harahap, M. B.

    2018-02-01

    The production of bioplastic from jackfruit seed starch reinforced with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) cocoa pod husk using glycerol as plasticizer was investigated to determine the most optimum mass and volume of MCC and glycerol in producing bioplastics. To produce MCC, Cocoa pod husk was subjected to alkali treatment, bleaching, and hydrochloric acid hydrolysis. The degree of crystallinity of MCC, were determined by XRD, functional group by FT-IR and morphologycal analysis by SEM. Analysis of bioplastic mechanical properties includes tensile strength and elongation at break based on ASTM D882 standard. Bioplastics were produced by casting method from jackfruit seed starch and reinforced with MCC from cocoa pod husk at starch mass to MCC ratio of 6:4, 7:3, 8:2, and 9:1, using glycerol as plasticizer at 20%, 25%, 30% (wt/v of glycerol to starch). From the result, the isolated MCC from cocoa pod husk were in a form of rod-like shape of length 5-10 µm with diameter 11.635 nm and 74% crystallinity. The highest tensile strength of bioplastics was obtained at starch to MCC mass ratio of 8:2, addition of 20% glycerol with measured tensile strength of 0.637 MPa and elongation at break of 7.04%. Transform infrared spectroscopy showed the functional groups of bioplastics, which the majority of O-H groups were found at the bioplastics with reinforcing filler MCC that represented substantial hydrogen bonds.

  8. The content of polyphenolic compounds in cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.), depending on variety, growing region, and processing operations: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oracz, Joanna; Zyzelewicz, Dorota; Nebesny, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenols form the largest group of compounds among natural antioxidants, which largely affect the overall antioxidant and anti-free radical activity of cocoa beans. The qualitative and quantitative composition of individual fractions of polyphenolic compounds, even within one species, is very diverse and depends on many factors, mainly on the area of cocoa trees cultivation, bean maturity, climatic conditions during growth, and the harvest season and storage time after harvest. Thermal processing of cocoa beans and cocoa derivative products at relatively high temperatures may in addition to favorable physicochemical, microbiological, and organoleptic changes result in a decrease of polyphenols concentration. Technological processing of cocoa beans negatively affects the content of polyphenolic compounds.

  9. Near infra-red characterization of changes in flavan-3-ol derivatives in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) as a function of fermentation temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Clotilde; Brat, Pierre; Gunata, Ziya; Samaniego, Ivan; Servent, Adrien; Morel, Gilles; Kapitan, André; Boulanger, Renaud; Davrieux, Fabrice

    2014-10-15

    Flavan-3-ols were successfully extracted from cocoa by the Fast-Prep device and analyzed by HPLC-DAD, and their identifications were confirmed by injection of authentic standards. (-)-Epicatechin was the most abundant component with an average of 9.4 mg/g dried cocoa powder. More than 700 cocoa samples were used to calibrate the NIRS. An efficient calibration model was developed to accurately determine any flavan-3-ol compound of ground dried cocoa beans (SEP = 2.33 mg/g in the case of total flavan-3-ols). This performance enabled NIRS to be used as an efficient and easy-to-use tool for estimating the level of targeted compounds. The analysis of the PLS loadings of the model and pure epicatechin spectra gave proof that NIRS was calibrated on an indirect strong correlation resulting in the changes in flavan-3-ols during fermentation and their interaction with some major components, such as proteins. Total flavan-3-ol concentration fell from an average of 33.3 mg/g for unfermented samples to an average of 6.2 mg/g at the end of fermentation. Changes in flavan-3-ol content were dependent upon the origin and highly correlated to the fermentation level expressed as the sum of temperatures (average R(2) = 0.74), a good marker of the fermentation process and of the heterogeneity of the batch.

  10. Theobroma cacao L., "The food of the gods": Quality determinants of commercial cocoa beans, with particular reference to the impact of fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Líma, L.J.R.; Almeida, M.H.; Nout, M.J.R.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of commercial cocoa beans, the principal raw material for chocolate production, relies on the combination of factors that include the type of planting material, the agricultural practices, and the post-harvest processing. Among these, the fermentation of the cocoa beans is still the most

  11. Multi-element, multi-compound isotope profiling as a means to distinguish the geographical and varietal origin of fermented cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomande, Didier; Antheaume, Ingrid; Leroux, Maël; Lalande, Julie; Balayssac, Stéphane; Remaud, Gérald S; Tea, Illa

    2015-12-01

    Multi-element stable isotope ratios have been assessed as a means to distinguish between fermented cocoa beans from different geographical and varietal origins. Isotope ratios and percentage composition for C and N were measured in different tissues (cotyledons, shells) and extracts (pure theobromine, defatted cocoa solids, protein, lipids) obtained from fermented cocoa bean samples. Sixty-one samples from 24 different geographical origins covering all four continental areas producing cocoa were analyzed. Treatment of the data with unsupervised (Principal Component Analysis) and supervised (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis) multiparametric statistical methods allowed the cocoa beans from different origins to be distinguished. The most discriminant variables identified as responsible for geographical and varietal differences were the δ(15)N and δ(13)C values of cocoa beans and some extracts and tissues. It can be shown that the isotope ratios are correlated with the altitude and precipitation conditions found in the different cocoa-growing regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Major phytopathogens and strains from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) are differentiated by MALDI-MS lipid and/or peptide/protein profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Fábio Neves; Tata, Alessandra; Belaz, Kátia Roberta Anacleto; Magalhães, Dilze Maria Argôlo; Luz, Edna Dora Martins Newman; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira

    2017-03-01

    Phytopathogens are the main disease agents that promote attack of cocoa plantations in all tropical countries. The similarity of the symptoms caused by different phytopathogens makes the reliable identification of the diverse species a challenge. Correct identification is important in the monitoring and management of these pests. Here we show that matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) in combination with multivariate data analysis is able to rapidly and reliably differentiate cocoa phytopathogens, namely Moniliophthora perniciosa, Phytophthora palmivora, P. capsici, P. citrophthora, P. heveae, Ceratocystis cacaofunesta, C. paradoxa, and C. fimbriata. MALDI-MS reveals unique peptide/protein and lipid profiles which differentiate these phytopathogens at the level of genus, species, and single strain coming from different hosts or cocoa tissues collected in several plantations/places. This fast methodology based on molecular biomarkers is also shown to be sufficiently reproducible and selective and therefore seems to offer a suitable tool to guide the correct application of sanitary defense approaches for infected cocoa plantations. International trading of cocoa plants and products could also be efficiently monitored by MALDI-MS. It could, for instance, prevent the entry of new phytopathogens into a country, e.g., as in the case of Moniliophthora roreri fungus that is present in all cocoa plantations of countries bordering Brazil, but that has not yet attacked Brazilian plantations. Graphical Abstract Secure identification of phytopathogens attacking cocoa plantations has been demonstrated via typical chemical profiles provided by mass spectrometric screening.

  13. Enzymatic activity of proteases and its isoenzymes in fermentation process in cultivars of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. produced in southern Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Santos SOUSA

    Full Text Available Abstract The fermentation of cocoa seeds envolves microbial processes and the action of enzymes. To identify the possible differences in the cocoa fermentation process, with regards to proteolysis, this study has the objective of determining protease activity (under predetermined conditions and its isoenzymes in two cocoa cultivars (PH-16 and HRT-1188 in different cocoa fermentation times, in addition to establishing the microbial load (molds and yeasts and aerobic mesophilic. Protease and its isoenzymes were extracted and partially purified and the enzymatic activities determined by spectrophotometry. The results showed that the proteases activity was higher at 66h of fermentation for both cultivars. When the isoenzymes activity was evaluated, the results demonstrated similar activity behavior for both cultivars, with regards to the isoenzymes aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidase, although the behavior of the endoprotease isoenzyme activity proved to be a little different for TSH-1188 cultivar. Concerning microbiological analyses, the results indicate that the period after molds and yeast counting reduction is consistent with the period of protease activity increase.

  14. Optimization of Culture Medium for the Growth of Candida sp. and Blastobotrys sp. as Starter Culture in Fermentation of Cocoa Beans (Theobroma cacao) Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahazar, N H; Zakuan, Z; Norhayati, H; MeorHussin, A S; Rukayadi, Y

    2017-01-01

    Inoculation of starter culture in cocoa bean fermentation produces consistent, predictable and high quality of fermented cocoa beans. It is important to produce healthy inoculum in cocoa bean fermentation for better fermented products. Inoculum could minimize the length of the lag phase in fermentation. The purpose of this study was to optimize the component of culture medium for the maximum cultivation of Candida sp. and Blastobotrys sp. Molasses and yeast extract were chosen as medium composition and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was then employed to optimize the molasses and yeast extract. Maximum growth of Candida sp. (7.63 log CFU mL-1) and Blastobotrys sp. (8.30 log CFU mL-1) were obtained from the fermentation. Optimum culture media for the growth of Candida sp., consist of 10% (w/v) molasses and 2% (w/v) yeast extract, while for Blastobotrys sp., were 1.94% (w/v) molasses and 2% (w/v) yeast extract. This study shows that culture medium consists of molasses and yeast extract were able to produce maximum growth of Candida sp. and Blastobotrys sp., as a starter culture for cocoa bean fermentation.

  15. Theobroma cacao L., "The food of the Gods": quality determinants of commercial cocoa beans, with particular reference to the impact of fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Lídia J R; Almeida, M Helena; Nout, M J Rob; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2011-09-01

    The quality of commercial cocoa beans, the principal raw material for chocolate production, relies on the combination of factors that include the type of planting material, the agricultural practices, and the post-harvest processing. Among these, the fermentation of the cocoa beans is still the most relevant since it is the process whereby the precursors of the cocoa flavor arise. The formation of these precursors depends on the activity of different microbial groups on the beans pulp. A comparison of fermentations in different countries showed that a well-defined microbial succession does not always take place and that the role of Bacillus spp. in this process remains unclear. Considering the overriding importance of the fermentation to achieve high quality commercial cocoa beans, we discuss the need of addressing the impact of the farming system, the ripeness state of the pods, and the role of microbial interactions on the fermentation in future research. In addition, the problem of high acidification cocoa beans, aspects dealing with the volatile fraction of the flavor, and the cocoa butter properties, all were identified as critical aspects that need further investigation. The standardization of the microbiological methods and the application of metagenomic approaches would magnify the knowledge in this domain.

  16. Flavor Profile of Clone CCN 51 Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. Produced in Three Farms Municipality of San Vicente de Chucurí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Fernando Quintana Fuentes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Colombia is one of the bigger producers of cocoa in America, the production is consumed in the totally in internal form. The department of Santander is me bigger producer of cocoa in Colombia and the municipality of San Vicente de Chucuri is considered the cocoa capital of the country. Actually theColombian federation of cocoa (Fedecacao together with the Unad have an agreement of cooperation for the strengthening of the evaluating capacity of the sensorial quality of the cocoa.In the process of evaluation of the sensorial quality of the cocoa liqueur (clone CNN 51 we established the needs in accordance to the current regulations for the implementation of a panel of trained judges, from the preselection, selection, specific training, training evaluation and the evaluation of the final samples ofthree representative farms in where is cultivated the clone CCN 51 in San Vicente del Chucuri.We conform a group of eleven trained judges and we obtained the sensorial profile of flavor for the samples for three representative farms of the municipality.

  17. ESTUDO PROSPECTIVO DA FERMENTAÇÃO DO CACAU (Theobroma cacao L. SOB O ENFOQUE EM PEDIDOS DE PATENTES DEPOSITADOS NO MUNDO ENTRE 1899 A 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrielle Souza Leão Macêdo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O cacaueiro tem importância econômica no contexto internacional por ser um commodity de participação relevante no comércio mundial de produtos agrícolas tanto em importações quanto exportações. As etapas de beneficiamento do cacau, principalmente a fermentação, devem ser conduzidas com excelência para garantir a  uniformidade das amêndoas de cacau e chocolates de alta qualidade. Este estudo tem por objetivo identificar patentes depositadas que tratam de  fermentação  do cacau. A pesquisa foi realizada nas bases de Espacenet (EP, utilizando como palavras-chave cocoa*and fermentation*. Foram encontradas 75 patentes depositadas nessa base de dados e nenhuma no Brasil (INPI. Observou-se que nos anos de 1991 e 2012, foram depositadas 48 patentes de novas tecnologias, métodos e equipamentos aplicáveis ao processo de fermentação de cacau, provavelmente pelo incentivo recebido pelos pesquisadores das áreas. O Reino Unido, Rússia e Estados Unidos, apesar de não produzir cacau, apresentam-se como países com maior investimento em relação à esta tecnologia de processamento.

  18. Flavor Profile of Clone CCN 51 Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Produced in Three Farms Municipality of San Vicente de Chucurí

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Fernando Quintana Fuentes; Salomón Goméz Castelblanco

    2011-01-01

    Colombia is one of the bigger producers of cocoa in America, the production is consumed in the totally in internal form. The department of Santander is me bigger producer of cocoa in Colombia and the municipality of San Vicente de Chucuri is considered the cocoa capital of the country. Actually theColombian federation of cocoa (Fedecacao) together with the Unad have an agreement of cooperation for the strengthening of the evaluating capacity of the sensorial quality of the cocoa.In the proces...

  19. The effect of fermented cocoa pod (Theobroma cacao) husk supplemented with mineral on in vitro digestibility, rumen bacteria population and rumen liquid characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhaita; Definiati, N.; Santoso, U.; Akbar, S. A.; Henuk, Y. L.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of mineral supplementation, such as S, P and Zn on the nutrients digestibility of fermented cocoa pod husk, the population of rumen bacteria and rumen liquid characteristics in vitro. The study used a randomized block design with 5 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments tested were: T0 = without minerals; T1 = 0.2% S mineral; T2 = 0.27% P mineral; T3 = S and P; and T4 = S, P and Zn at 50 ppm. Parameters measured were: (1) digestibility of dry matter and organic matter; (2) rumen bacterial and cellulolytic bacterial populations; (3) characteristics of rumen liquid in vitro. The results of the study showed that mineral supplementation significantly (P digestibility. Mineral supplementation had no effect on the total population of rumen bacteria and cellulolytic rumen bacterial populations. The characteristics of rumen liquid such pH, VFA and NH3 were in optimal condition. In conclusion supplementation of S, P and Zn simultaneously gave the best results to improve the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter and to maintain rumen liquid characteristics under optimal conditions for growth and microbial activity

  20. Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of fermented cocoa (Theobroma cacao beans with manual and semi-mechanized transfer, between fermentation boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro. P. Peláez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate variation in the physical and chemical properties of fermented cocoa beans with cocoa beans transfer between wooden fermentation boxes manually (M and semi-mechanized (SM way. Mass temperature, moisture, pH, and total acidity of the cotyledon and pulp; the total polyphenol, anthocyanin, reducing sugar, theobromine, and caffeine content in fresh, fermented, and dried beans; and percentage of fermented beans and time required to move beans during fermentation were determined. The cocoa used grew in the Pachiza district of the San Martin region of Peru. Cocoa sampling was each 0, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 h of fermentation. The cocoa mass temperature was highest with both removal systems after 96 h of fermentation. M cotyledon and pulp samples had the highest moisture content and titratable acidity, while cotyledon and pulp pH with both systems were statistically equal. In contrast, fermented beans had a higher polyphenol, anthocyanin, reducing sugar, theobromine, and caffeine content with SM. SM produced the greatest amount of fermentation (91.67% and required the shortest amount of time to move beans (78.56 min. In conclusion, the system of fermentation of cocoa beans with SM was faster and produced fermented grains with high chemical quality.

  1. Health benefits of methylxanthines in cacao and chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rafael; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva

    2013-10-18

    One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption.

  2. Health Benefits of Methylxanthines in Cacao and Chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rafael; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva

    2013-01-01

    One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption. PMID:24145871

  3. Health Benefits of Methylxanthines in Cacao and Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Franco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption.

  4. Evaluación mediante la tecnología NIRS de los insumos, su transformación y el chocolate elaborado con cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) de Tabasco.

    OpenAIRE

    Pons Burelo, Clara Inés

    2010-01-01

    En el CODEX STAN 87-1891 se definen las características que contiene los chocolates de mesa y golosina, indicando los parámetros: proteína, humedad, ceniza y grasa y los contenidos máximos y mínimos permitidos. Los métodos convencionales de análisis para determinar estos parámetros son necesarios para el control de calidad y es un prerrequisito para el etiquetado nutrimental del alimento. Una alternativa metodológica de análisis utilizada para obtener no solo lo que contiene la muestra sino d...

  5. Antimicrobial effects of ionizing radiation on artificially and naturally contaminated cacao beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restaino, L.; Myron, J.J.J.; Lenovich, L.M.; Bills, S.; Tscherneff, K.

    1984-01-01

    With an initial microbial level of ca. 10 7 microorganisms per g of Ivory Coast cacao beans, 5 kGy of gamma radiation from a Co 60 source under an atmosphere of air reduced the microflora per g by 2.49 and 3.03 logs at temperatures of 35 and 50 0 C, respectively. Bahia cacao beans were artificially contaminated with dried spores of Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium citrinum, giving initial fungal levels of 1.9 x 10 4 and 1.4 x 10 3 spores per g of whole Bahia cacao beans, respectively. The average D 10 values for A. flavus and P. citrinum spores on Bahia cacao beans were 0.66 and 0.88 kGy, respectively. 12 references

  6. Radionuclides in coffee, cacao and chocolate in Serbia during 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mraovic, T.; Jankovic-Mandic, Lj; Mraovic, T.)

    2007-01-01

    The object of this work was monitoring radioactivity in 88 products of coffee, cacao and chocolate in Serbia during 2006-2007. The each product contained legal criterion for radionuclide safety. (author) [sr

  7. Incorporation du coprah et des cuticules de cacao et d'arachide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incorporation du coprah et des cuticules de cacao et d'arachide dans l'aliment du ( tilapia du nil( ( Oreohromis niloticus , linné, 1758) eleve en etang : Effet sur la croissance et la composition biochimique.

  8. Production and robustness of a Cacao agroecosystem: effects of two contrasting types of management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, Rodolphe; Wiegand, Kerstin; Meyer, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Ecological intensification, i.e. relying on ecological processes to replace chemical inputs, is often presented as the ideal alternative to conventional farming based on an intensive use of chemicals. It is said to both maintain high yield and provide more robustness to the agroecosystem. However few studies compared the two types of management with respect to their consequences for production and robustness toward perturbation. In this study our aim is to assess productive performance and robustness toward diverse perturbations of a Cacao agroecosystem managed with two contrasting groups of strategies: one group of strategies relying on a high level of pesticides and a second relying on low levels of pesticides. We conducted this study using a dynamical model of a Cacao agroecosystem that includes Cacao production dynamics, and dynamics of three insects: a pest (the Cacao Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella) and two characteristic but unspecified beneficial insects (a pollinator of Cacao and a parasitoid of the Cacao Pod Borer). Our results showed two opposite behaviors of the Cacao agroecosystem depending on its management, i.e. an agroecosystem relying on a high input of pesticides and showing low ecosystem functioning and an agroecosystem with low inputs, relying on a high functioning of the ecosystem. From the production point of view, no type of management clearly outclassed the other and their ranking depended on the type of pesticide used. From the robustness point of view, the two types of managements performed differently when subjected to different types of perturbations. Ecologically intensive systems were more robust to pest outbreaks and perturbations related to pesticide characteristics while chemically intensive systems were more robust to Cacao production and management-related perturbation.

  9. From whole-body counting to imaging: The computer aided collimation gamma camera project (CACAO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanguillaume, C.; Begot, S.; Quartuccio, M.; Douiri, A.; Ballongue, P

    2000-07-01

    Whole-body counting is the method of choice for in vivo detection of contamination. To extend this well established method, the possible advantages of imaging radiocontaminants are examined. The use of the CACAO project is then studied. A comparison of simulated reconstructed images obtained by the CACAO project and by a conventional gamma camera used in nuclear medicine follows. Imaging a radionuclide contaminant with a geometrical sensitivity of 10{sup -2} seems possible in the near future. (author)

  10. From whole-body counting to imaging: The computer aided collimation gamma camera project (CACAO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanguillaume, C.; Begot, S.; Quartuccio, M.; Douiri, A.; Ballongue, P.

    2000-01-01

    Whole-body counting is the method of choice for in vivo detection of contamination. To extend this well established method, the possible advantages of imaging radiocontaminants are examined. The use of the CACAO project is then studied. A comparison of simulated reconstructed images obtained by the CACAO project and by a conventional gamma camera used in nuclear medicine follows. Imaging a radionuclide contaminant with a geometrical sensitivity of 10 -2 seems possible in the near future. (author)

  11. Effects of habitat management on different feeding guilds of herbivorous insects in cacao agroforestry systems

    OpenAIRE

    Novais, Samuel M. A.; Macedo-Reis, Luiz E.; DaRocha, Wesley D.; Neves, Frederico S.

    2016-01-01

    AbstractHuman pressure on natural habitats increases the importance of agroforests for biodiversity conservation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of cacao traditional cultivation system (CTCS) on the conservation of the herbivorous insect community when compared with a monodominant rubber agroforest, a type of agricultural system for cacao cultivation. The insects were sampled in three habitats in Southeastern Bahia, Brazil: native forests, CTCS and rubber agroforests. In...

  12. New var reconstruction algorithm exposes high var sequence diversity in a single geographic location in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dara, Antoine; Drábek, Elliott F; Travassos, Mark A; Moser, Kara A; Delcher, Arthur L; Su, Qi; Hostelley, Timothy; Coulibaly, Drissa; Daou, Modibo; Dembele, Ahmadou; Diarra, Issa; Kone, Abdoulaye K; Kouriba, Bourema; Laurens, Matthew B; Niangaly, Amadou; Traore, Karim; Tolo, Youssouf; Fraser, Claire M; Thera, Mahamadou A; Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Plowe, Christopher V; Silva, Joana C

    2017-03-28

    Encoded by the var gene family, highly variable Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP1) proteins mediate tissue-specific cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes, resulting in immune evasion and severe malaria disease. Sequencing and assembling the 40-60 var gene complement for individual infections has been notoriously difficult, impeding molecular epidemiological studies and the assessment of particular var elements as subunit vaccine candidates. We developed and validated a novel algorithm, Exon-Targeted Hybrid Assembly (ETHA), to perform targeted assembly of var gene sequences, based on a combination of Pacific Biosciences and Illumina data. Using ETHA, we characterized the repertoire of var genes in 12 samples from uncomplicated malaria infections in children from a single Malian village and showed them to be as genetically diverse as vars from isolates from around the globe. The gene var2csa, a member of the var family associated with placental malaria pathogenesis, was present in each genome, as were vars previously associated with severe malaria. ETHA, a tool to discover novel var sequences from clinical samples, will aid the understanding of malaria pathogenesis and inform the design of malaria vaccines based on PfEMP1. ETHA is available at: https://sourceforge.net/projects/etha/ .

  13. Molecular characterization of previously elusive badnaviruses associated with symptomatic cacao in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chingandu, Nomatter; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Sreenivasan, Thyail N; Surujdeo-Maharaj, Surendra; Umaharan, Pathmanathan; Gutierrez, Osman A; Brown, Judith K

    2017-05-01

    Suspected virus-like symptoms were observed in cacao plants in Trinidad during 1943, and the viruses associated with these symptoms were designated as strains A and B of cacao Trinidad virus (CTV). However, viral etiology has not been demonstrated for either phenotype. Total DNA was isolated from symptomatic cacao leaves exhibiting the CTV A and B phenotypes and subjected to Illumina HiSeq and Sanger DNA sequencing. Based on de novo assembly, two apparently full-length badnavirus genomes of 7,533 and 7,454 nucleotides (nt) were associated with CTV strain A and B, respectively. The Trinidad badnaviral genomes contained four open reading frames, three of which are characteristic of other known badnaviruses, and a fourth that is present in only some badnaviruses. Both badnaviral genomes harbored hallmark caulimovirus-like features, including a tRNA Met priming site, a TATA box, and a polyadenylation-like signal. Pairwise comparisons of the RT-RNase H region indicated that the Trinidad isolates share 57-71% nt sequence identity with other known badnaviruses. Based on the system for badnavirus species demarcation in which viruses with less than 80% nt sequence identity in the RT-RNase gene are considered members of separate species, these isolates represent two previously unidentified badnaviruses, herein named cacao mild mosaic virus and cacao yellow vein banding virus, making them the first cacao-infecting badnaviruses identified thus far in the Western Hemisphere.

  14. Tree spacing impacts the individual incidence of Moniliophthora roreri disease in cacao agroforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo Bieng, Marie Ange; Alem, Laudine; Curtet, Chloé; Tixier, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Using conventional pesticides in crop protection has raised serious environmental concerns and there is therefore a need for integrated pest management (IPM) methods. In this paper, we found that the spacing of trees can impact disease, which could result in a reduction in pesticide applications and may act as a potential IPM method. We studied Frosty Pod Rot (FPR) in 20 cacao agroforests in Costa Rica (Upala region). Using a generalized linear mixed model, we analyzed the impact of the neighborhood composition and distance from a studied cacao individual on its individual FPR incidence. We found that the number of cacao tree neighbors in a radius of 3.7 m and the number of fruit trees in a radius of 4.3 m had a significant negative influence on the incidence of FPR on individual cacao trees. Moreover, cacao tree neighbors had the most significant local influence compared to the neighborhood of other taller categories such as fruit or forest trees. The mechanisms involved are related to the barrier effect, due to the effectiveness of the cacao tree's architecture as an efficient barrier against FPR spore dispersal. This paper provides new insights into optimization of the spatial environment around each host as an original IPM method. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Agroforestry systems of timber species and cacao: survival and growth during the early stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmer Espinoza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, increased emphasis has been placed on diversifying the types of trees to shade cacao (Theobromacacao L. and to achieve additional services. Agroforestry systems that include profitable and native timber trees are a viable alternative but it is necessary to understand the growth characteristics of these species under different environmental conditions. Thus, timber tree species selection should be based on plant responses to biotic and abiotic factors. The aims of this study were (1 to evaluate growth rates and leaf area indices of the four commercial timber species: Cordia thaisiana, Cedrela odorata, Swietenia macrophylla and Tabebuia rosea in conjunction with incidence of insect attacks and (2 to compare growth rates of four Venezuelan Criollo cacao cultivars planted under the shade of these four timber species during the first 36 months after establishment. Parameters monitored in timber trees were: survival rates, growth rates expressed as height and diameter at breast height and leaf area index. In the four Cacao cultivars: height and basal diameter. C. thaisiana and C. odorata had the fastest growth and the highest survival rates. Growth rates of timber trees will depend on their susceptibility to insect attacks as well as to total leaf area. All cacao cultivars showed higher growth rates under the shade of C. odorata. Growth rates of timber trees and cacao cultivars suggest that combinations of cacao and timber trees are a feasible agroforestry strategy in Venezuela.

  16. arXiv Observation of the $\\varXi^{-}_{b}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Baszczyk, Mateusz; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Bordyuzhin, Igor; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Déléage, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hopchev, P H; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Koliiev, Serhii; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kosmyntseva, Alena; Kozachuk, Anastasiia; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lefèvre, Regis; Lemaitre, Florian; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Tenglin; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Morgunova, Olga; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Mulder, Mick; Mussini, Manuel; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Thi Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nieswand, Simon; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Nogay, Alla; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Pais, Preema Rennee; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Pastore, Alessandra; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubert, Konstantin; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevens, Holger; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Toriello, Francis; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Yu; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2017-09-10

    The observation of the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is reported, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb detector in $pp$ collisions at centre-of-mass energies of $7$ and $8~\\mathrm{TeV}$. The production rate of $\\varXi_{b}^{-}$ baryons detected in the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is measured relative to that of $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}$ baryons using the decay $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda$. Integrated over the $b$-baryon transverse momentum $p_{\\rm T}<25~\\mathrm{GeV/}c $ and rapidity $2.0 < y < 4.5$, the measured ratio is \\begin{equation*} \\frac{f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}}{f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}}\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-})}{\\mathcal{B}(\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda)}=(4.19\\pm 0.29~(\\mathrm{stat})\\pm0.14~(\\mathrm{syst}))\\times 10^{-2}, \\end{equation*}where $f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}$ and $f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}$ are the fragmentation fractions of $b\\to\\varXi_{...

  17. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF FERULIC ACID BY THE PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI Colletotrichum acutatum AND Lasiodiplodia theobromae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alejandro Numpaque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial transformation of ferulic acid (FA offers a cleaner, more economical alternative for the natural production of flavorings and fragrances. In the present study, the biotransformation of FA using the filamentous phytopathogenic fungi Colletotrichum acutatum and Lasiodiplodia theobromae was researched. Initially, the toxicity of FA against both fungi was evaluated; the FA displayed a moderate toxicity (total inhibition at concentrations ≥ 2000 mg L-1 and apparently a detoxification mechanism was present. Afterwards, the microorganisms were incubated with the substrate at room conditions using a Czapek-Dox culture medium. The results demonstrated that the FA was mainly converted to 4-vinylguaiacol, reaching the highest abundance within the first 48 hours. To a lesser extent, acetovanillone, ethylguaiacol, and vanillin, among others, were produced. Interestingly, the compounds generated in the biotransformation of FA with C. acutatum and L. theobromae have been used as flavorings. Based on the identified metabolites, a possible metabolic pathway was proposed.

  18. Fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranga, Carla C.; Beld, Joris; Mrse, Anthony; Córdova-Guerrero, Iván; Burkart, Michael D.; Hernández-Martínez, Rufina

    2016-01-01

    The Botryosphaeriaceae are a family of trunk disease fungi that cause dieback and death of various plant hosts. This work sought to characterize fatty acid derivatives in a highly virulent member of this family, Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of an isolated compound revealed (Z, Z)-9,12-ethyl octadecadienoate, (trivial name ethyl linoleate), as one of the most abundant fatty acid esters produced by L. theobromae. A variety of naturally produced esters of fatty acids were identified in Botryosphaeriaceae. In comparison, the production of fatty acid esters in the soil-borne tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, and the non-phytopathogenic fungus Trichoderma asperellum was found to be limited. Ethyl linoleate, ethyl hexadecanoate (trivial name ethyl palmitate), and ethyl octadecanoate, (trivial name ethyl stearate), significantly inhibited tobacco seed germination and altered seedling leaf growth patterns and morphology at the highest concentration (0.2 mg/mL) tested, while ethyl linoleate and ethyl stearate significantly enhanced growth at low concentrations, with both still inducing growth at 98 ng/mL. This work provides new insights into the role of naturally esterified fatty acids from L. theobromae as plant growth regulators with similar activity to the well-known plant growth regulator gibberellic acid. - Highlights: • Lasiodiplodia theobromae produces a wide variety of fatty acid esters in natural substrates. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate inhibit tobacco germination at 0.2 mg/mL. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate induce tobacco germination at 98 ng/mL. • Tobacco growth increase in ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate parallels gibberellic acid. • A role as plant growth regulators is proposed for fatty acid esters.

  19. Fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga, Carla C., E-mail: curanga@cicese.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana 3918, Zona Playitas, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Beld, Joris, E-mail: joris.beld@drexelmed.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0358 (United States); Mrse, Anthony, E-mail: amrse@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0358 (United States); Córdova-Guerrero, Iván, E-mail: icordova@uabc.edu.mx [Universidad Autónoma de Baja California (UABC), Calzada Universidad 14418 Parque Industrial Internacional Tijuana, Tijuana, B.C. 22390 (Mexico); Burkart, Michael D., E-mail: mburkart@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0358 (United States); Hernández-Martínez, Rufina, E-mail: ruhernan@cicese.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana 3918, Zona Playitas, 22860 Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2016-04-01

    The Botryosphaeriaceae are a family of trunk disease fungi that cause dieback and death of various plant hosts. This work sought to characterize fatty acid derivatives in a highly virulent member of this family, Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of an isolated compound revealed (Z, Z)-9,12-ethyl octadecadienoate, (trivial name ethyl linoleate), as one of the most abundant fatty acid esters produced by L. theobromae. A variety of naturally produced esters of fatty acids were identified in Botryosphaeriaceae. In comparison, the production of fatty acid esters in the soil-borne tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, and the non-phytopathogenic fungus Trichoderma asperellum was found to be limited. Ethyl linoleate, ethyl hexadecanoate (trivial name ethyl palmitate), and ethyl octadecanoate, (trivial name ethyl stearate), significantly inhibited tobacco seed germination and altered seedling leaf growth patterns and morphology at the highest concentration (0.2 mg/mL) tested, while ethyl linoleate and ethyl stearate significantly enhanced growth at low concentrations, with both still inducing growth at 98 ng/mL. This work provides new insights into the role of naturally esterified fatty acids from L. theobromae as plant growth regulators with similar activity to the well-known plant growth regulator gibberellic acid. - Highlights: • Lasiodiplodia theobromae produces a wide variety of fatty acid esters in natural substrates. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate inhibit tobacco germination at 0.2 mg/mL. • Ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate induce tobacco germination at 98 ng/mL. • Tobacco growth increase in ethyl stearate and ethyl linoleate parallels gibberellic acid. • A role as plant growth regulators is proposed for fatty acid esters.

  20. Phytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora, closely related causal agents of cacao black pod rot, underwent increases in genome sizes and gene numbers by different mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and P. palmivora (Ppal) are closely related species causing black pod rot of cacao. While Ppal is a cosmopolitan plant pathogen, cacao is the only known host of importance for Pmeg. Pmeg is more virulent on cacao than Ppal. Therefore, we have sequenced both the Pmeg and...

  1. Optimized Jasmonic Acid Production by Lasiodiplodia theobromae Reveals Formation of Valuable Plant Secondary Metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Eng

    Full Text Available Jasmonic acid is a plant hormone that can be produced by the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae via submerged fermentation. From a biotechnological perspective jasmonic acid is a valuable feedstock as its derivatives serve as important ingredients in different cosmetic products and in the future it may be used for pharmaceutical applications. The objective of this work was to improve the production of jasmonic acid by L. theobromae strain 2334. We observed that jasmonic acid formation is dependent on the culture volume. Moreover, cultures grown in medium containing potassium nitrate as nitrogen source produced higher amounts of jasmonic acid than analogous cultures supplemented with ammonium nitrate. When cultivated under optimal conditions for jasmonic acid production, L. theobromae secreted several secondary metabolites known from plants into the medium. Among those we found 3-oxo-2-(pent-2-enyl-cyclopentane-1-butanoic acid (OPC-4 and hydroxy-jasmonic acid derivatives, respectively, suggesting that fungal jasmonate metabolism may involve similar reaction steps as that of plants. To characterize fungal growth and jasmonic acid-formation, we established a mathematical model describing both processes. This model may form the basis of industrial upscaling attempts. Importantly, it showed that jasmonic acid-formation is not associated to fungal growth. Therefore, this finding suggests that jasmonic acid, despite its enormous amount being produced upon fungal development, serves merely as secondary metabolite.

  2. Molecular characterisation of a germplasm bank for Theobroma genus using the RAPD technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovany Moreno

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available RAPD markers (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA were used for analysing 145 individuals (128 T. grandiflorum and 17 T. bicolor from the ex situ Theobroma genus germplasm bank at Instituto Sinchi, located at San José del Guaviare. 5 primers able to generated polymorphism were selected from an initial set of 20, generating 114 bands that enable to us to distinguish between more than 99% of individuals analysed: 57 bands for T. grandiflorum (84.2% polymorphic, 45 bands for T. bicolor (26.7% polymorphic and 12 bands shared between the two species (58.3% polymorphic. A high degree of intra-specific similarity particularly in T. bicolor was established from the similarity matrix obtained by using the Dice index and represented in a UPGMA dendrogram and the principal components analysis (PCA. The comparison of this analysis with a previous morpho-agronomic evaluation of some T. grandiflorum individuals revealed that the groups generated on the basis of its agronomic and morphological traits were heterogeneous at molecular level. The obtained information will be used as a tool in strategies regarding maintenance, enrichment and use of the germplasm bank. Key words: Theobroma grandiflorum, Theobroma bicolour, RAPD, molecular characterisation.

  3. Taxonomical studies on endemic scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans stat. nov. (asteraceae) from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyuncu, O.; Kus, G.

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomic status of Scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans belonging to the tribe. cichoreae (Asteraceae). S. pygmaea samples were collected from Arayit mountain. We suggest that these two subspecies should be classified as varietes because of their morphological and anatomical characteristics, ecological and geographical similarities. Moreover being together in the same localities of these under species taxa supports our opinion, i.e. S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. pygmaea stat. nov. and S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. nutans (Czeczott) O. Koyuncu and Yaylac, stat. nov. (author)

  4. "Var Teatre"--A Pioneer Turns 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Pamela L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Stockholm Municipal Youth and Children's theatre ("Var Teatre"), an institution of 14 theatres and attendant professional staff devoted exclusively to drama activities for children and teenagers. (PD)

  5. Anti-HIV and immunomodulation activities of cacao mass lignin-carbohydrate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Hiroshi; Kawano, Michiyo; Thet, May Maw; Hashimoto, Ken; Satoh, Kazue; Kanamoto, Taisei; Terakubo, Shigemi; Nakashima, Hideki; Haishima, Yuji; Maeda, Yuuichi; Sakurai, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a prominent antiviral and macrophage stimulatory activity of cacao lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC) has been reported. However, the solubility and sterility of LCC have not been considered yet. In the present study, complete solubilisation and sterilisation was achieved by autoclaving under mild alkaline conditions and the previously reported biological activities were re-examined. LCCs were obtained by 1% NaOH extraction and acid precipitation, and a repeated extraction-precipitation cycle. Nitric oxide (NO) and cytokine productions were assayed by the Griess method and ELISA, respectively. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression was determined by Western blot analysis. Superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide radical-scavenging activity was determined by ESR spectroscopy. Cacao mass LCC showed reproducibly higher anti-HIV activity than cacao husk LCC. Cacao mass LCC, up to 62.5 μg/ml, did not stimulate mouse macrophage-like cells (RAW264.7 and J774.1) to produce NO, nor did it induce iNOS protein, in contrast to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cacao mass LCC and LPS synergistically stimulated iNOS protein expression, suggesting a different point of action. Cacao mass LCC induced tumour necrosis factor-α production markedly less than LPS, and did not induce interleukin-1β, interferon-α or interferon-γ. ESR spectroscopy showed that cacao mass LCC, but not LPS, scavenged NO produced from NOC-7. This study demonstrated several new biological activities of LCCs distinct from LPS and further confirmed the promising antiviral and immunomodulating activities of LCCs.

  6. 4D-Var Developement at GMAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, Joanna S.; Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Offce (GMAO) is currently using an IAU-based 3D-Var data assimilation system. GMAO has been experimenting with a 3D-Var-hybrid version of its data assimilation system (DAS) for over a year now, which will soon become operational and it will rapidly progress toward a 4D-EnVar. Concurrently, the machinery to exercise traditional 4DVar is in place and it is desirable to have a comparison of the traditional 4D approach with the other available options, and evaluate their performance in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) DAS. This work will also explore the possibility for constructing a reduced order model (ROM) to make traditional 4D-Var computationally attractive for increasing model resolutions. Part of the research on ROM will be to search for a suitably acceptable space to carry on the corresponding reduction. This poster illustrates how the IAU-based 4D-Var assimilation compares with our currently used IAU-based 3D-Var.

  7. Exportación de nibs de cacao nativo de fino aroma con niveles de cadmio <= 0.5 mg/kg

    OpenAIRE

    Santa Cruz Muñoz, Iris Magaly

    2016-01-01

    La tesis expone un plan de negocios que surge a raíz de la demanda creciente internacional del cacao debido a una demanda de un chocolate con mayor contenido de cacao, la cual debe satisfacer normas sociales, saludables, ecológicas y éticas del cual el Perú es reconocido como país productor de Cacao de Fino Aroma. Asimismo, existe la amenaza que tienen los productores latinoamericanos de cacao por haberse encontrado altos niveles de cadmio en granos de cacao, siendo este perjudicial para la s...

  8. Cadmium bioaccumulation and gastric bioaccessibility in cacao: A field study in areas impacted by oil activities in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraza, F.; Schreck, E.; Lévêque, T.; Uzu, G.; López, F.; Ruales, J.; Prunier, J.; Marquet, A.; Maurice, L.

    2017-01-01

    Cacao from South America is especially used to produce premium quality chocolate. Although the European Food Safety Authority has not established a limit for cadmium (Cd) in chocolate raw material, recent studies demonstrate that Cd concentrations in cacao beans can reach levels higher than the legal limits for dark chocolate (0.8 mg kg −1 , effective January 1st, 2019). Despite the fact that the presence of Cd in agricultural soils is related to contamination by fertilizers, other potential sources must be considered in Ecuador. This field study was conducted to investigate Cd content in soils and cacao cultivated on Ecuadorian farms in areas impacted by oil activities. Soils, cacao leaves, and pod husks were collected from 31 farms in the northern Amazon and Pacific coastal regions exposed to oil production and refining and compared to two control areas. Human gastric bioaccessibility was determined in raw cacao beans and cacao liquor samples in order to assess potential health risks involved. Our results show that topsoils (0–20 cm) have higher Cd concentrations than deeper layers, exceeding the Ecuadorian legislation limit in 39% of the sampling sites. Cacao leaves accumulate more Cd than pod husks or beans but, nevertheless, 50% of the sampled beans have Cd contents above 0.8 mg kg −1 . Root-to-cacao transfer seems to be the main pathway of Cd uptake, which is not only regulated by physico-chemical soil properties but also agricultural practices. Additionally, natural Cd enrichment by volcanic inputs must not be neglected. Finally, Cd in cacao trees cannot be considered as a tracer of oil activities. Assuming that total Cd content and its bioaccessible fraction (up to 90%) in cacao beans and liquor is directly linked to those in chocolate, the health risk associated with Cd exposure varies from low to moderate. - Highlights: • Cd in cacao beans is enriched 4 times compared to soils contents. • Cd bioaccumulates in beans mainly through root