WorldWideScience

Sample records for thematic study prepared

  1. Possibility of Preparing Thematic Maps Through Developing of the Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Husnjak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is a well known fact that nowadays planning of sustainable development and land use requires a lot of reliable and good quality information, which serves as the basis for timely and adequate decision-making. One of the most important forms of information is presented in various maps. Until recently, preparing of such data was, no doubt, a rather complex and time-consuming task. However, at present, thanks to, first of all, the GIS technology it is possible to develop corresponding geographic information systems with databases which then allow comparatively simple and quick preparing of necessary thematic maps. The paper first presents the method of developing the Geographic and Land Information System (GLIS of the Karlovac County which, although developed for the purpose of agricultural development, may also be used in the development of forestry, environment protection, physical planning, water management and for soil conservation and regulation. Several examples illustrate the possibilities of preparing of specialised maps based on this GLIS. The basic data for developing of the geographic and land information system were the data of the Basic Soil Maps and topographic maps of the Republic of Croatia at the scale of 1:50 000 or 1:25 000, and the data from other studies made for the purpose of agricultural development in the area. These data, together with the results of processing and analysing of this data, by digitalisation, generalisation and interpolation, were incorporated into an integrated database of the geographic and land information system by using Microstation, AutoCad, ArcInfo, ArcWiew and Access software and the corresponding hardware. GLIS database consists of two parts. The first part includes the data referring to polygons - pedological contours, and the other part the data on pedological profiles. The base is organised in a way that enable the preparation of different thematic maps, but it can be also used in digital form

  2. Hydrological planning studies using Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervin, J. C.; Mulligan, P. J.; Lu, Y. C.; Marcell, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    NASA, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, is evaluating the capabilities of Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for environmental and hydrological applications. Attention is given to the results of studies conducted at the Clinton River Basin in Michigan and the eastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland. In the former, the evaluation conducted was for the band combinations: (1) 2, 3, and 4; (2) 3, 4, and 5; (3) 3, 4, 5, and 6; and (4) all seven bands. In the latter case, Multispectral Scanner (MSS) and TM data were classified for combinations (1), (3) and (4). Wetland classification accuracy for the 7-band TM data in this study was found to be 9 percent higher than with MSS data, allowing more reliable and accurate monitoring.

  3. Introduction to thematic collection "Historical and geological studies of earthquakes"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Kenji; Wang, Jian; Hammerl, Christa; Malik, Javed N.

    2017-12-01

    This thematic collection contains eight papers mostly presented at the 2016 AOGS meeting in Beijing. Four papers describe historical earthquake studies in Europe, Japan, and China; one paper uses modern instrumental data to examine the effect of giant earthquakes on the seismicity rate; and three papers describe paleoseismological studies using tsunami deposit in Japan, marine terraces in Philippines, and active faults in Himalayas. Hammerl (Geosci Lett 4:7, 2017) introduced historical seismological studies in Austria, starting from methodology which is state of the art in most European countries, followed by a case study for an earthquake of July 17, 1670 in Tyrol. Albini and Rovida (Geosci Lett 3:30, 2016) examined 114 historical records for the earthquake on April 6, 1667 on the east coast of the Adriatic Sea, compiled 37 Macroseismic Data Points, and estimated the epicenter and the size of the earthquake. Matsu'ura (Geosci Lett 4:3, 2017) summarized historical earthquake studies in Japan which resulted in about 8700 Intensity Data Points, assigned epicenters for 214 earthquakes between AD 599 and 1872, and estimated focal depth and magnitudes for 134 events. Wang et al. (Geosci Lett 4:4, 2017) introduced historical seismology in China, where historical earthquake archives include about 15,000 sources, and parametric catalogs include about 1000 historical earthquakes between 2300 BC and AD 1911. Ishibe et al. (Geosci Lett 4:5, 2017) tested the Coulomb stress triggering hypothesis for three giant (M 9) earthquakes that occurred in recent years, and found that at least the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes caused the seismicity rate change. Ishimura (2017) re-estimated the ages of 11 tsunami deposits in the last 4000 years along the Sanriku coast of northern Japan and found that the average recurrence interval of those tsunamis as 350-390 years. Ramos et al. (2017) studied 1000-year-old marine terraces on the west coast of Luzon Island, Philippines

  4. Tilapia (Tilapiinae. Thematic bibliography

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    N. Kolesnyk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Forming a thematic bibliographic list of publications on certain issues of the biotechnics of the cultivation of tilapia (Tilapiinae in accordance with the specificity of aquaculture in the conditions of different types of fish farms of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Methodology. In the process of the preparation of the thematic list, both holistic and selective methods have been used. The bibliographic core was formed by Ukrainian, Russian and English literature sources from the stock of the scientific library of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS and scientific electronic library “CyberLeninka”. Findings. A thematic bibliographic list of major publication was formed: thematic collections of research papers, proceedings of international scientific and practical conferences, scientific works, articles and dissertation abstracts. It is composed of 202 sources, 85 of which are in English. The listed publications cover a time period from 1965 to 2017. However, the majority of them are after 1991. The scientific sources illustrate the studies on feeding, selective breeding, ecology, culture technologies and aquaculture-biological characteristics of the most widespread fish in world aquaculture – tilapia. The literary sources are arranged in alphabetical order by author or title, and described according to DSTU 8302:2015 “Information and documentation. Bibliographic reference. General principles and rules of composition”, with the amendments (code UKND 01.140.40, as well as in accordance with the requirements of APA style — international standard of references. Practical value. The list may be useful for scientists, practitioners, students, whose area of ​​interests covers the questions of the cultivation and study of the biological features of tilapia.

  5. Tilapia (Tilapiinae). Thematic bibliography

    OpenAIRE

    N. Kolesnyk; M. Simon

    2018-01-01

    Purpose. Forming a thematic bibliographic list of publications on certain issues of the biotechnics of the cultivation of tilapia (Tilapiinae) in accordance with the specificity of aquaculture in the conditions of different types of fish farms of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Methodology. In the process of the preparation of the thematic list, both holistic and selective methods have been used. The bibliographic core was formed by Ukrainian, Russian and English literature sources from the sto...

  6. Content analysis and thematic analysis: Implications for conducting a qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Turunen, Hannele; Bondas, Terese

    2013-09-01

    Qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis are two commonly used approaches in data analysis of nursing research, but boundaries between the two have not been clearly specified. In other words, they are being used interchangeably and it seems difficult for the researcher to choose between them. In this respect, this paper describes and discusses the boundaries between qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis and presents implications to improve the consistency between the purpose of related studies and the method of data analyses. This is a discussion paper, comprising an analytical overview and discussion of the definitions, aims, philosophical background, data gathering, and analysis of content analysis and thematic analysis, and addressing their methodological subtleties. It is concluded that in spite of many similarities between the approaches, including cutting across data and searching for patterns and themes, their main difference lies in the opportunity for quantification of data. It means that measuring the frequency of different categories and themes is possible in content analysis with caution as a proxy for significance. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. The ethical dimension of nursing care rationing: A thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vryonides, Stavros; Papastavrou, Evridiki; Charalambous, Andreas; Andreou, Panayiota; Merkouris, Anastasios

    2015-12-01

    In the face of scarcity, nurses may inevitably delay or omit some nursing interventions and give priority to others. This increases the risk of adverse patient outcomes and threatens safety, quality, and dignity in care. However, it is not clear if there is an ethical element in nursing care rationing and how nurses experience the phenomenon in its ethical perspective. The purpose was to synthesize studies that relate care rationing with the ethical perspectives of nursing, and find the deeper, moral meaning of this phenomenon. A systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies was used. Searching was based on guidelines suggested by Joana Brigs Institute, while the synthesis has drawn from the methodology described. Primary studies were sought from nine electronic databases and manual searches. The explicitness of reporting was assed using consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research. Nine studies involving 167 nurse participants were included. Synthesis resulted in 35 preliminary themes, 14 descriptive themes, and four analytical themes (professional challenges and moral dilemmas, dominating considerations, perception of a moral role, and experiences of the ethical effects of rationing). Discussion of relationships between themes revealed a new thematic framework. Every effort has been taken, for the thoroughness in searching and retrieving the primary studies of this synthesis, and in order for them to be treated accurately, fairly and honestly and without intentional misinterpretations of their findings. Within limitations of scarcity, nurses face moral challenges and their decisions may jeopardize professional values, leading to role conflict, feelings of guilt, distress and difficulty in fulfilling a morally acceptable role. However, more research is needed to support certain relationships. Related literature is limited. The few studies found highlighted the essence of justice, equality in care and in values when prioritizing care

  8. The Effect of Thematic Classes on English Vocabulary Learning: A Study of Iranian Junior High School Students

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    Zeinab Mahmoudi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to verify the effect of thematic classes on English vocabulary learning. Thematic class is an educational project, which recently started to be used in junior high schools in Iran. The ministry of Education in Iran has launched the project of thematic classes to improve learning in 2010 with the hope of copying with some of the educational problems so that students experience deeper learning.  For subjects of the study, 90 7th grade students of junior high school in Taybad, Khorasan e Razavi were selected. Three groups were used in this study: two experimental groups and one control group. Each group consisted of 30 female students, who settled randomly in the groups, respectively. Their range of age was between 13 and 14. A vocabulary-based test, which was designed by the researcher, was used as the main measurement tool in the study to evaluate the students' achievement in the course. The course lasted 10 weeks, two sessions per week. The results reflected the positive effect of thematic classes on vocabulary learning. Therefore, educational implication of thematic class for junior high school is suggestible.

  9. Family perspectives on deceased organ donation: thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, A; Chapman, J R; Gillis, J; Craig, J C; Butow, P; Howard, K; Irving, M; Sutanto, B; Tong, A

    2014-04-01

    A major barrier to meeting the needs for organ transplantation is family refusal to give consent. This study aimed to describe the perspectives of donor families on deceased donation. We conducted a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies. Electronic databases were searched to September 2012. From 34 studies involving 1035 participants, we identified seven themes: comprehension of sudden death (accepting finality of life, ambiguity of brain death); finding meaning in donation (altruism, letting the donor live on, fulfilling a moral obligation, easing grief); fear and suspicion (financial motivations, unwanted responsibility for death, medical mistrust); decisional conflict (pressured decision making, family consensus, internal dissonance, religious beliefs); vulnerability (valuing sensitivity and rapport, overwhelmed and disempowered); respecting the donor (honoring the donor's wishes, preserving body integrity) and needing closure (acknowledgment, regret over refusal, unresolved decisional uncertainty, feeling dismissed). Bereaved families report uncertainty about death and the donation process, emotional and cognitive burden and decisional dissonance, but can derive emotional benefit from the "lifesaving" act of donation. Strategies are needed to help families understand death in the context of donation, address anxieties about organ procurement, foster trust in the donation process, resolve insecurities in decision making and gain a sense of closure. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  10. A Thematic Review of Studies into the Effectiveness of Context-Based Chemistry Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ültay, Neslihan; Çalık, Muammer

    2012-12-01

    Context-based chemistry education aims at making connections between real life and the scientific content of chemistry courses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate context-based chemistry studies. In looking for the context-based chemistry studies, the authors entered the keywords `context-based', `contextual learning' and `chemistry education' in well-known databases (i.e. Academic Search Complete, Education Research Complete, ERIC, Springer LINK Contemporary). Further, in case the computer search by key words may have missed a rather substantial part of the important literature in the area, the authors also conducted a hand search of the related journals. To present a detailed thematic review of context-based chemistry studies, a matrix was used to summarize the findings by focusing on insights derived from the related studies. The matrix incorporates the following themes: needs, aims, methodologies, general knowledge claims, and implications for teaching and learning, implications for curriculum development and suggestions for future research. The general knowledge claims investigated in this paper were: (a) positive effects of the context-based chemistry studies; (b) caveats, both are examined in terms of students' attitudes and students' understanding/cognition. Implications were investigated for practice in context- based chemistry studies, for future research in context- based chemistry studies, and for curriculum developers in context- based chemistry studies. Teachers of context-based courses claimed that the application of the context-based learning approach in chemistry education improved students' motivation and interest in the subject. This seems to have generated an increase in the number of the students who wish to continue chemistry education at higher levels. However, despite the fact that the majority of the studies have reported advantages of context-based chemistry studies, some of them have also referred to pitfalls, i.e. dominant

  11. The perspectives of adults living with peritoneal dialysis: thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Lesmana, Brian; Johnson, David W; Wong, Germaine; Campbell, Denise; Craig, Jonathan C

    2013-06-01

    Most patients with end-stage renal disease require dialysis to survive because they are unable to access kidney transplantation. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is recommended by some clinical practice guidelines as the dialysis treatment of choice for adults without significant comorbid conditions or those with residual kidney function. This study aims to synthesize published qualitative studies of patients' experiences, beliefs, and attitudes about PD. We conducted a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies of adult perspectives of living with PD. Databases (MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and CINAHL), theses, and reference lists were searched to November 2011. 39 studies involving 387 participants were included. We identified 7 themes: resilience and confidence (determination and overcoming vicissitudes), support structures (strong family relationship, peer support, professional dedication, social abandonment, and desire for holistic care), overwhelming responsibility (disruptive intrusion, family burden, and onerous treatment regimen), control (gaining bodily awareness, achieving independence and self-efficacy, and information seeking), freedom (flexibility and autonomy, retaining social functioning, and ability to travel), sick identity (damage to self-esteem and invisible suffering), and disablement (physical incapacitation and social loss and devaluation). PD can offer patients a sense of control, independence, self-efficacy, and freedom. However, holistic and multidisciplinary care is needed to mitigate the risks of impaired self-esteem, physical incapacitation, reduced social functioning, and poor sense of self-worth. Strategies that aim to strengthen social support and promote resilience and confidence in patients are integral to achieving positive adjustment, improved psychosocial outcomes, and treatment satisfaction. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Literature and Sports: A High School Textbook Employing a Thematic Approach to the Study of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reising, Robert William

    The purpose of this dissertation is twofold: (1) to provide a secondary school literature textbook suitable for use in an 8- or 10-week period, all of whose selections share the theme of sports; and (2) to provide a three part rationale for such a textbook--the first part discussing the evolution, uses, and potential of the thematic unit as a…

  13. Introduction to thematic collection “Historical and geological studies of earthquakes”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Satake

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This thematic collection contains eight papers mostly presented at the 2016 AOGS meeting in Beijing. Four papers describe historical earthquake studies in Europe, Japan, and China; one paper uses modern instrumental data to examine the effect of giant earthquakes on the seismicity rate; and three papers describe paleoseismological studies using tsunami deposit in Japan, marine terraces in Philippines, and active faults in Himalayas. Hammerl (Geosci Lett 4:7, 2017 introduced historical seismological studies in Austria, starting from methodology which is state of the art in most European countries, followed by a case study for an earthquake of July 17, 1670 in Tyrol. Albini and Rovida (Geosci Lett 3:30, 2016 examined 114 historical records for the earthquake on April 6, 1667 on the east coast of the Adriatic Sea, compiled 37 Macroseismic Data Points, and estimated the epicenter and the size of the earthquake. Matsu’ura (Geosci Lett 4:3, 2017 summarized historical earthquake studies in Japan which resulted in about 8700 Intensity Data Points, assigned epicenters for 214 earthquakes between AD 599 and 1872, and estimated focal depth and magnitudes for 134 events. Wang et al. (Geosci Lett 4:4, 2017 introduced historical seismology in China, where historical earthquake archives include about 15,000 sources, and parametric catalogs include about 1000 historical earthquakes between 2300 BC and AD 1911. Ishibe et al. (Geosci Lett 4:5, 2017 tested the Coulomb stress triggering hypothesis for three giant (M~9 earthquakes that occurred in recent years, and found that at least the 2004 Sumatra–Andaman and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes caused the seismicity rate change. Ishimura (2017 re-estimated the ages of 11 tsunami deposits in the last 4000 years along the Sanriku coast of northern Japan and found that the average recurrence interval of those tsunamis as 350–390 years. Ramos et al. (2017 studied ~ 1000-year-old marine terraces on the west

  14. SMEX03 Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery: Alabama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides imagery developed from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data for use in studying land cover...

  15. SMEX03 Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery: Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides imagery developed from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data for use in studying land cover...

  16. Thematic synthesis of qualitative studies on patient and caregiver perspectives on end-of-life care in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Cheung, Katharine L; Nair, Sumi Sukumaran; Kurella Tamura, Manjula; Craig, Jonathan C; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C

    2014-06-01

    Although dialysis prolongs life for patients with end-stage kidney disease, 20% of deaths in this population are preceded by dialysis therapy withdrawal. Recently, there has been more focus on conservative (nondialytic) care as a legitimate option, particularly for elderly patients. This study aims to describe patients' and caregivers' perspectives on conservative treatment and end-of-life care in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies. Patients with CKD and caregivers. MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and reference lists were searched to May 2013. Thematic synthesis was used to analyze the findings. 26 studies involving more than 711 patients (non-dialysis dependent [n=41], hemodialysis [n=544], peritoneal dialysis [n=9]; unspecified dialysis modality [n=31], conservative management [n=86]) and 178 caregivers were included. We identified 5 themes: invasive suffering (bodily deterioration, loss of freedom and independence, unyielding fatigue and pain, resignation, treatment burden and harm, financial strain), personal vulnerability (imminence of death, misunderstanding and judgment, autonomy and dignity, medical abandonment, trust and safety), relational responsibility (being a burden, demonstrating loyalty, protecting others from grief), negotiating existential tensions (accepting natural course of life, disrupted aging, worthlessness, living on borrowed time, respecting sanctity of life, life satisfaction, preserving self-identity), and preparedness (decisional clarity, informational power, spirituality and hope). Non-English articles were excluded; therefore, the transferability of findings to other populations is unclear. Some patients with CKD experience physical and psychosocial frailty and feel ambivalent about prolonging life. Some caregivers believe in providing relief from suffering, but are uncertain about making decisions regarding dialysis therapy initiation and discontinuation. We suggest that

  17. A Thematic Review of Studies into the Effectiveness of Context-Based Chemistry Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultay, Neslihan; Calik, Muammer

    2012-01-01

    Context-based chemistry education aims at making connections between real life and the scientific content of chemistry courses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate context-based chemistry studies. In looking for the context-based chemistry studies, the authors entered the keywords "context-based", "contextual learning" and "chemistry…

  18. Thematic Structure in Barack Obama's Press Conference: A Systemic Functional Grammar Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuswoyo, Heri

    2016-01-01

    This article looks into the theme--rheme pattern of presidential press conference that can be employed by speakers to organize the text in order to have a texture. Since a message should be conveyed in clause contextually and co-textually. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to analyze and describe the theme-rheme pattern employed in…

  19. The joy of seeing Christ: A thematic study of joy in the Gospel of John

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J.C. Jordaan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the recurring references to joy in the fourth Gospel brings to light that joy is developed in the Gospel as a distinct theme. This theme is developed in typical Johannine style within a spiral-like pattern, with its climax in the joy of seeing Jesus as the risen Lord. Furthermore, starting with Abraham in the Old Testament and climaxing in Jesus’ appearance after his resurrection, joy in the fourth Gospel is evolved within the broad theological framework of God’s covenant and his kingdom. Blydskap om Christus te sien: ’n Tematiese studie van blydskap in die Johannes-Evangelie.’n Ondersoek na die herhaalde verwysings na blydskap in die vierde Evangelie bring aan die lig dat blydskap in hierdie Evangelie tot ’n selfstandige tema uitgebou word. Die tema is volgens die tipiese spiraalpatroon van Johannes se gedagtegang gerangskik, met sy klimaks in die blydskap daarvan om Jesus as die opgestane Here te sien. Binne hierdie patroon word die blydskaptema vanaf Abraham in die Ou Testament tot by Jesus se verskyning ná sy opstanding openbaringshistories ontvou en binne die breë raamwerk van die verbond en die koninkryk van God ontwikkel.

  20. A Thematic Study of the Role of Social Support in the Body Image of Burn Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Kellie; Chur-Hansen, Anna; Parker, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that social support is important for the development and maintenance of body image satisfaction for people who have sustained burn injuries. This qualitative study explored the specific mechanisms by which social support impacts the body image satisfaction of burn survivors, drawing on nine participants’ in depth accounts. Participants were recruited through a burns unit at a public hospital in South Australia. Interviews were conducted with nine female burn survivors aged between 24 and 65 (mean age 44.6). Participants described their perceptions about their appearance post burn and their social support experiences. Four themes were identified: acceptance, social comparison, talking about appearance concerns, and the gaze of others. Results indicate that for these participants, social support was an important factor in coming to terms with changes in appearance, specifically support that helps to minimise feelings of difference. Unhelpful aspects of social support were also identified included feeling that suffering was being dismissed and resenting the perceived expectation from supports to be positive. Social supports are important to consider in relation to body image for those working with people who have survived burn injuries. PMID:26973929

  1. A thematic study of the role of social support in the body image of burn survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellie Hodder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that social support is important for the development and mainte- nance of body image satisfaction for people who have sustained burn injuries. This qualitative study explored the specific mechanisms by which social support impacts the body image satisfaction of burn survivors, drawing on nine participants’ in depth accounts. Participants were recruited through a burns unit at a public hospital in South Australia. Interviews were conducted with nine female burn survivors aged between 24 and 65 (mean age 44.6. Participants described their perceptions about their appearance post burn and their social support experiences. Four themes were identified: acceptance, social comparison, talking about appearance concerns, and the gaze of others. Results indicate that for these participants, social support was an important factor in coming to terms with changes in appearance, specifically support that helps to minimise feelings of difference. Unhelpful aspects of social support were also identified included feeling that suffering was being dismissed and resenting the perceived expectation from supports to be positive. Social supports are important to consider in relation to body image for those working with people who have survived burn injuries.

  2. Thematic curriculum approach

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    Šefer Jasmina P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Thematic curriculum combines disciplines and media. The process is problem-oriented and the scenario most often follows the logic of exploring or storytelling. Those two approaches to teaching are appropriate because they fit into interdisciplinary and creative open-ended problem solving through play, as insisted upon by thematic curriculum. The matrix, where seven types of abilities intersect with five types of problems according to their degree of openness, defines well the outcomes of teaching. However, it did not prove to be suitable for planning the majority of activities in thematic curriculum, for it follows with difficulty the process of exploring or storytelling i.e. it disrupts the subject matter coherence of thematic curriculum. Therefore, it is suggested that matrix should be used for disciplinary curriculum planning but for that of thematic curriculum only in exclusive cases. The matrix should be used primarily as a framework for evaluating the distribution of various types of abilities and problem situations in teaching. The logic of diverse approaches to teaching reflects itself in the manner of planning and organizing the teaching process. Conceptual, visual-graphic, structural and other aids employed during educational process planning should suit the nature of the approach chosen. On the basis of qualitative investigations of educational process, in the present paper considerations are given to various approaches to teaching development of various drafts for the planning of teaching, and recognition of the logic of storytelling and exploring in thematic curriculum.

  3. Patients' Perspectives and Experiences Living with Systemic Sclerosis: A Systematic Review and Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Ayano; Tunnicliffe, David J; Thakkar, Vivek; Singh-Grewal, Davinder; O'Neill, Sean; Craig, Jonathan C; Tong, Allison

    2016-07-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic, progressive autoimmune disease with major end-organ involvement. Much attention has been focused on the management of physical and clinical manifestations; however, the effect of the disease and treatment on the patient's identity, relationships, functioning, and mental well-being are less known. We aimed to describe the patients' perspectives and experiences of living with SSc. Electronic databases were searched to October 2014. Thematic synthesis was used to analyze the findings. We included 26 studies involving 463 patients. Six key themes were identified: distressing appearance transformation (disturbing facial changes, stigmatizing sickness, unrecognizable self), palpable physical limitations (bodily restrictions, frustrating mind-body disconnect, pervasive fatigue, disabling pain), social impairment (breaking intimacy, struggling to fulfill family responsibilities, maintaining work, losing independence), navigating uncertainty (diagnostic ambiguity, medically fending for oneself, unpredictable course of illness), alone and misunderstood (fearful avoidance of fellow patients, invisible suffering), and gradual acceptance and relative optimism (adapting to change and accepting limitations, taking a positive spin, cautious hoping, empowering relationships, valuing medical support). SSc is a rare and unpredictable illness that undermines patients' sense of certainty and control and impairs their self-image, identity, and daily functioning. Patient-centered care that encompasses strategies to promote self-esteem, resilience, and self-efficacy may help to improve treatment satisfaction and health and quality of life outcomes for patients with SSc.

  4. Barriers and Facilitators to Safe Food Handling among Consumers: A Systematic Review and Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Research Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Young

    Full Text Available Foodborne illness has a substantial health and economic burden on society, and most cases are believed to be due to unsafe food handling practices at home. Several qualitative research studies have been conducted to investigate consumers' perspectives, opinions, and experiences with safe food handling at home, and these studies provide insights into the underlying barriers and facilitators affecting their safe food handling behaviours. We conducted a systematic review of previously published qualitative studies in this area to synthesize the main across-study themes and to develop recommendations for future consumer interventions and research. The review was conducted using the following steps: comprehensive search strategy; relevance screening of abstracts; relevance confirmation of articles; study quality assessment; thematic synthesis of the results; and quality-of-evidence assessment. A total of 39 relevant articles reporting on 37 unique qualitative studies were identified. Twenty-one barriers and 10 facilitators to safe food handling were identified, grouped across six descriptive themes: confidence and perceived risk; knowledge-behaviour gap; habits and heuristics; practical and lifestyle constraints; food preferences; and societal and social influences. Our overall confidence that each barrier and facilitator represents the phenomenon of interest was rated as high (n = 11, moderate (11, and low (9. Overarching analytical themes included: 1 safe food handling behaviours occur as part of a complex interaction of everyday consumer practices and habituation; 2 most consumers are not concerned about food safety and are generally not motivated to change their behaviours based on new knowledge about food safety risks; and 3 consumers are amenable to changing their safe food handling habits through relevant social pressures. Key implications and recommendations for research, policy and practice are discussed.

  5. Barriers and Facilitators to Safe Food Handling among Consumers: A Systematic Review and Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian; Waddell, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness has a substantial health and economic burden on society, and most cases are believed to be due to unsafe food handling practices at home. Several qualitative research studies have been conducted to investigate consumers’ perspectives, opinions, and experiences with safe food handling at home, and these studies provide insights into the underlying barriers and facilitators affecting their safe food handling behaviours. We conducted a systematic review of previously published qualitative studies in this area to synthesize the main across-study themes and to develop recommendations for future consumer interventions and research. The review was conducted using the following steps: comprehensive search strategy; relevance screening of abstracts; relevance confirmation of articles; study quality assessment; thematic synthesis of the results; and quality-of-evidence assessment. A total of 39 relevant articles reporting on 37 unique qualitative studies were identified. Twenty-one barriers and 10 facilitators to safe food handling were identified, grouped across six descriptive themes: confidence and perceived risk; knowledge-behaviour gap; habits and heuristics; practical and lifestyle constraints; food preferences; and societal and social influences. Our overall confidence that each barrier and facilitator represents the phenomenon of interest was rated as high (n = 11), moderate (11), and low (9). Overarching analytical themes included: 1) safe food handling behaviours occur as part of a complex interaction of everyday consumer practices and habituation; 2) most consumers are not concerned about food safety and are generally not motivated to change their behaviours based on new knowledge about food safety risks; and 3) consumers are amenable to changing their safe food handling habits through relevant social pressures. Key implications and recommendations for research, policy and practice are discussed. PMID:27907161

  6. An Exploration of Therapists' Reactions to Working with Children Displaying Sexually Problematic Behaviour: A Thematic Analytic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevade, Devayani; Norris, Emma; Swann, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Nine therapists were interviewed regarding their reactions to children displaying sexually problematic behaviour and how they managed these reactions. The framework of countertransference was used to understand therapists' reactions. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The participants reported a wide range of powerful and…

  7. Taxonomic and thematic semantic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirman, Daniel; Landrigan, Jon-Frederick; Britt, Allison E

    2017-05-01

    Object concepts are critical for nearly all aspects of human cognition, from perception tasks like object recognition, to understanding and producing language, to making meaningful actions. Concepts can have 2 very different kinds of relations: similarity relations based on shared features (e.g., dog-bear), which are called "taxonomic" relations, and contiguity relations based on co-occurrence in events or scenarios (e.g., dog-leash), which are called "thematic" relations. Here, we report a systematic review of experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience evidence of this distinction in the structure of semantic memory. We propose 2 principles that may drive the development of distinct taxonomic and thematic semantic systems: differences between which features determine taxonomic versus thematic relations, and differences in the processing required to extract taxonomic versus thematic relations. This review brings together distinct threads of behavioral, computational, and neuroscience research on semantic memory in support of a functional and neural dissociation, and defines a framework for future studies of semantic memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. ORFEO, THE PLEIADES ACCOMPANIMENT PROGRAM AND ITS USERS THEMATIC COMMISSIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tinel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available ORFEO, the PLEIADES Accompaniment Program, was set up by CNES, the French Space Agency, to prepare, accompany and promote the use and the exploitation of the images acquired by this Very High Resolution optical sensor. It was initiated in 2004 and will last until the end of the first year of the satellite life (launched in December 2011 . The Thematic part of the ORFEO accompaniment program covers a large range of applications, and aims at specifying and validating products and services required by users. An in-depth work of user needs assessments in eight thematic domains (sea and coastline, risks and humanitarian aid, cartography and urban planning, geophysical hazards, hydrology, forestry, agriculture and defence has given rise to a large number of feasibility studies from 2006 to 2011. The Methodological Part of the ORFEO accompaniment program aims at preparing the use and exploitation of these submetric images. CNES decided to develop Orfeo Toolbox (OTB, an open source library capitalising the methodological know-how as a set of image processing and algorithmic components. Among other, OTB provides a number of heavily documented image processing functionalities such as filtering, feature extraction, segmentation, classification, change detection, 3D extraction, GIS links,.... As a conclusion to the ORFEO program, the PLEIADES Users Thematic Commissioning (UTC started three months after the satellite launch and will last until mid 2013. It covers a large number of specific interest ORFEO sites, on which PLEIADES images are being intensively acquired and processed. These ORFEO sites have been chosen according to the expectations expressed by the users in terms of their interest for dedicated thematic, their geographic location and their multi-thematic content. This paper presents the ORFEO program achievements (thematic and methodology and the organisation of the Users Thematic Commissioning (sites, studies. The paper is illustrated with some

  9. [Bioequivalence studies of pharmaceutical preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetchý, D; Frýbortová, K; Rabisková, M; Danecková, H

    2007-01-01

    Bioequivalence studies are very important for the development of a pharmaceutical preparation in the pharmaceutical industry. Their rationale is the monitoring of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters after the administration of tested drugs. The target of such study is to evaluate the therapeutic compatibility of tested drugs (pharmaceutical equivalents or pharmaceutical alternatives). The importance of bioequivalence studies is increasing also due to the large growth of the production and consumption of generic products. Generic products represent approximately 50 % of the whole consumption in many European countries and USA. The search output of bioequivalence study is together with the pharmaceutical quality data of medical product one of the main part of the registration file submitted to a national regulatory authorities. The registration of generic products does not demand complicated and expensive clinical study contrary to original product. The comparison of the original and the generic product via bioequivalence study is suggested as sufficient. The aim of this article is to provide to a medical public a summary about the types of bioequivalence studies, their range, rules of their practise and let them gain their own attitude to this question.

  10. The Design of Tactile Thematic Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Megan M.; Lobben, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the design and legibility of tactile thematic maps, focusing on symbolization and the comprehension of spatial patterns on the maps. The results indicate that discriminable and effective tactile thematic maps can be produced using classed data with a microcapsule paper production method. The participants…

  11. Children's experiences of living with a parent with mental illness: A systematic review of qualitative studies using thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Rumi; Keogh, Brian

    2018-03-01

    eight studies were included following review and quality appraisal. Pertinent data were extracted, coded and analysed using a thematic approach. Results Four themes emerged from the analytic process which described the children's understanding of mental illness, their relationship with their parents, their coping strategies and their social connections. Implications for Practice Mental health nurses need to recognize the psychosocial needs of children, and to acknowledge, the wider impact mental illness has of the family. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. IDRC Thematic Priorities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Claire Thompson

    hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease); prevention and reduction of disease risks from pandemics, emerging infectious diseases, and disease risk linked to tobacco. 2) Social and Economic Policy. The Social and Economic Policy thematic area invests in the efforts of public and private sector actors to establish ...

  13. Automated vegetation classification using Thematic Mapper Simulation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelman, K. S.; Cate, R. B.; Bizzell, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the results of a study of Thematic Mapper Simulation (TMS) data. One of the objectives of the study was related to an evaluation of the usefulness of the Thematic Mapper's (TM) improved spatial resolution and spectral coverage. The study was undertaken as part of a preparation for the efficient incorporation of Landsat 4 data into ongoing technology development in remote sensing. The study included an application of automated Landsat vegetation classification technology to TMS data. Results of comparing TMS data to Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data were found to indicate that all field definition, crop type discrimination, and subsequent proportion estimation may be greatly increased with the availability of TM data.

  14. CLPX-Satellite: Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of Lansat thematic mapper imagergy collected over the Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX) Large Regional Study Area (LRSA), located...

  15. SMEX02 Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides imagery developed from Landsat 5 and 7 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for use in studying land cover features during the Soil Moisture Experiment...

  16. SMEX03 Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery: Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides imagery developed from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for use in studying land cover features during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2003...

  17. SMEX04 Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery, Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides imagery developed from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for use in studying land cover features during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2004...

  18. Longer-term needs of stroke survivors with communication difficulties living in the community: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective To review and synthesise qualitative literature relating to the longer-term needs of community dwelling stroke survivors with communication difficulties including aphasia, dysarthria and apraxia of speech. Design Systematic review and thematic synthesis. Method We included studies employing qualitative methodology which focused on the perceived or expressed needs, views or experiences of stroke survivors with communication difficulties in relation to the day-to-day management of their condition following hospital discharge. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences and AMED and undertook grey literature searches. Studies were assessed for methodological quality by two researchers independently and the findings were combined using thematic synthesis. Results Thirty-two studies were included in the thematic synthesis. The synthesis reveals the ongoing difficulties stroke survivors can experience in coming to terms with the loss of communication and in adapting to life with a communication difficulty. While some were able to adjust, others struggled to maintain their social networks and to participate in activities which were meaningful to them. The challenges experienced by stroke survivors with communication difficulties persisted for many years poststroke. Four themes relating to longer-term need were developed: managing communication outside of the home, creating a meaningful role, creating or maintaining a support network and taking control and actively moving forward with life. Conclusions Understanding the experiences of stroke survivors with communication difficulties is vital for ensuring that longer-term care is designed according to their needs. Wider psychosocial factors must be considered in the rehabilitation of people with poststroke communication difficulties. Self-management interventions may be appropriate to help this subgroup of stroke survivors manage their

  19. Learning psychology as a challenging process towards development as well as “studies as usual”: a thematic analysis of medical students’ reflective writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semb O

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Olof Semb,1 Niclas Kaiser,2 Sven-Olof Andersson,1 Elisabet Sundbom3 1Department of Clinical Sciences, Division for Professional Development, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 2Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 3Department of Clinical Sciences, Division for Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Abstract: Reflective writing in medical training has been shown to be most effective when combined with some form of personal meeting or dialog. During a course in medical psychology for medical students, reflective texts were followed up by an individual personal talk with a teacher from the course. Thematic analysis of the texts revealed four separate sub-themes: 1 the course has enabled me and the class to develop, which is good albeit arduous; 2 understanding myself is a resource in understanding people as well as knowing psychology; 3 the course provided me with new, purely intellectual skills as well as eye-openers; and 4 the receiving teacher is an integral part of my reflective writing. The main theme, capturing the students’ writing process, concluded that students perceive the course as “Learning psychology as a challenging process towards development” as well as “studies as usual”. Ethical, psychological, and pedagogical aspects are discussed in the paper. Keywords: reflective writing, self-knowledge, individual personal talks, thematic analysis, medical education

  20. PREPARATION AND REACTIVITY STUDIES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Each of the reactive groups might form cross- linking networks under thermal curing reaction with curing agents to bring about high cross- linking density. So, it was considered worthwhile to study the synthesis, characterization and curing reaction of the maleimidophenyl glycidylether epoxy compounds with different amines.

  1. Longer-term needs of stroke survivors with communication difficulties living in the community: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Faye; Clarke, David

    2017-10-06

    To review and synthesise qualitative literature relating to the longer-term needs of community dwelling stroke survivors with communication difficulties including aphasia, dysarthria and apraxia of speech. Systematic review and thematic synthesis. We included studies employing qualitative methodology which focused on the perceived or expressed needs, views or experiences of stroke survivors with communication difficulties in relation to the day-to-day management of their condition following hospital discharge. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences and AMED and undertook grey literature searches. Studies were assessed for methodological quality by two researchers independently and the findings were combined using thematic synthesis. Thirty-two studies were included in the thematic synthesis. The synthesis reveals the ongoing difficulties stroke survivors can experience in coming to terms with the loss of communication and in adapting to life with a communication difficulty. While some were able to adjust, others struggled to maintain their social networks and to participate in activities which were meaningful to them. The challenges experienced by stroke survivors with communication difficulties persisted for many years poststroke. Four themes relating to longer-term need were developed: managing communication outside of the home, creating a meaningful role, creating or maintaining a support network and taking control and actively moving forward with life. Understanding the experiences of stroke survivors with communication difficulties is vital for ensuring that longer-term care is designed according to their needs. Wider psychosocial factors must be considered in the rehabilitation of people with poststroke communication difficulties. Self-management interventions may be appropriate to help this subgroup of stroke survivors manage their condition in the longer-term; however, such

  2. Learning psychology as a challenging process towards development as well as "studies as usual": a thematic analysis of medical students' reflective writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semb, Olof; Kaiser, Niclas; Andersson, Sven-Olof; Sundbom, Elisabet

    2014-01-01

    Reflective writing in medical training has been shown to be most effective when combined with some form of personal meeting or dialog. During a course in medical psychology for medical students, reflective texts were followed up by an individual personal talk with a teacher from the course. Thematic analysis of the texts revealed four separate sub-themes: 1) the course has enabled me and the class to develop, which is good albeit arduous; 2) understanding myself is a resource in understanding people as well as knowing psychology; 3) the course provided me with new, purely intellectual skills as well as eye-openers; and 4) the receiving teacher is an integral part of my reflective writing. The main theme, capturing the students' writing process, concluded that students perceive the course as "Learning psychology as a challenging process towards development" as well as "studies as usual". Ethical, psychological, and pedagogical aspects are discussed in the paper.

  3. Learning psychology as a challenging process towards development as well as “studies as usual”: a thematic analysis of medical students’ reflective writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semb, Olof; Kaiser, Niclas; Andersson, Sven-Olof; Sundbom, Elisabet

    2014-01-01

    Reflective writing in medical training has been shown to be most effective when combined with some form of personal meeting or dialog. During a course in medical psychology for medical students, reflective texts were followed up by an individual personal talk with a teacher from the course. Thematic analysis of the texts revealed four separate sub-themes: 1) the course has enabled me and the class to develop, which is good albeit arduous; 2) understanding myself is a resource in understanding people as well as knowing psychology; 3) the course provided me with new, purely intellectual skills as well as eye-openers; and 4) the receiving teacher is an integral part of my reflective writing. The main theme, capturing the students’ writing process, concluded that students perceive the course as “Learning psychology as a challenging process towards development” as well as “studies as usual”. Ethical, psychological, and pedagogical aspects are discussed in the paper. PMID:25540601

  4. The art of being healthy: a qualitative study to develop a thematic framework for understanding the relationship between health and the arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Christina R; Knuiman, Matthew; Wright, Peter; Rosenberg, Michael

    2014-04-25

    In recent years the health-arts nexus has received increasing attention; however, the relationship is not well understood and the extent of possible positive, negative and unintended outcomes is unknown. Guided by the biopsychosocial model of health and theories of social epidemiology, the aim of this study was to develop a framework pertaining to the relationship between arts engagement and population health that included outcomes, confounders and effect modifiers. A health-arts framework is of value to researchers seeking to build the evidence base; health professionals interested in understanding the health-arts relationship, especially those who use social prescribing for health promotion or to complement treatments; in teaching medical, nursing and health-science students about arts outcomes, as well as artists and health professionals in the development of policy and programmes. A qualitative study was conducted. Semistructured interviews were analysed thematically. Western Australia. 33 Western Australian adults (18+ years). Participants were randomly selected from a pool of general population nominees who engaged in the arts for enjoyment, entertainment or as a hobby (response rate=100%). A thematic analysis was conducted using QSR-NVivo10. The resulting framework contained seven outcome themes and 63 subthemes. Three themes specifically related to health, that is, mental, social and physical health, while economic, knowledge, art and identity outcomes were classified as health determinants. Within each theme, positive, negative and unintended outcomes (subthemes) were identified and categorised as relating to the individual and/or to the community. A list of confounding and/or effect modifying factors, related to both the arts and health, was identified. Given the increasing pressure on health resources, the arts have the potential to assist in the promotion of health and healing. This framework expands on current knowledge, further defines the health

  5. Thematic cartography as a geographical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Perko

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A thematic map may be a geographical application (tool in itself or the basis for some other geographical work. The development of Slovene thematic cartography accelerated considerably following the independence of the country in 1991. From the viewpoint of content and technology, its greatest achievements are the Geographical Atlas of Slovenia and the National Atlas of Slovenia, which are outstanding achievements at the international level and of great significance for the promotion of Slovenia and Slovene geography and cartography. However, this rapid development has been accompanied by numerous problems, for example, the ignoring of various Slovene and international conventions for the preparation of maps including United Nations resolutions, Slovene and international (SIST ISO, and copyright laws.

  6. Doctors' perceptions and use of evidence-based medicine: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swennen, M.H.J.; Heijden, G.J.M.G. van der; Boeije, H.R.; Rheenen, N. van; Verheul, F.J.M.; Graaf, Y. van der; Kalkman, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Many primary qualitative studies of barriers and facilitators for doctors’ use of evidence-based medicine (EBM) are available, but knowledge remains fragmented. This study sought to synthesize the results of these qualitative studies, taking the variability across context (i.e., medical

  7. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  8. Introduction to the Volume's Two Thematic Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Chase-Dunn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The first batch contains an article by Political Scientist Daniel Whitcncck on epistemic communities and global leadership and a special thematic section focussing around the ideas ofW. Warren Wagar regarding the future of the world-system and global politics. The second batch of papers in Volume 2 has been edited by P. Nick Kardulias of the Department of Anthropology and Sociology at Kenyon College. This special thematic section focusses on anthropological and archaeological approaches to the study of world systems.

  9. Public responses to the sharing and linkage of health data for research purposes: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Mhairi; de St Jorre, Jenna; Pagliari, Claudia; Jepson, Ruth; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah

    2016-11-10

    The past 10 years have witnessed a significant growth in sharing of health data for secondary uses. Alongside this there has been growing interest in the public acceptability of data sharing and data linkage practices. Public acceptance is recognised as crucial for ensuring the legitimacy of current practices and systems of governance. Given the growing international interest in this area this systematic review and thematic synthesis represents a timely review of current evidence. It highlights the key factors influencing public responses as well as important areas for further research. This paper reports a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies examining public attitudes towards the sharing or linkage of health data for research purposes. Twenty-five studies were included in the review. The included studies were conducted primarily in the UK and North America, with one study set in Japan, another in Sweden and one in multiple countries. The included studies were conducted between 1999 and 2013 (eight studies selected for inclusion did not report data collection dates). The qualitative methods represented in the studies included focus groups, interviews, deliberative events, dialogue workshops and asynchronous online interviews. Key themes identified across the corpus of studies related to the conditions necessary for public support/acceptability, areas of public concern and implications for future research. The results identify a growing body of evidence pointing towards widespread general-though conditional-support for data linkage and data sharing for research purposes. Whilst a variety of concerns were raised (e.g. relating to confidentiality, individuals' control over their data, uses and abuses of data and potential harms arising) in cases where participants perceived there to be actual or potential public benefits from research and had trust in the individuals or organisations conducting and/or overseeing data linkage/sharing, they

  10. Attitudes of Participants of Tourist Animation – Case Study: Thematic Events as A Practical Training (Novi Sad, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Stamenković

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Most tourists go to tourist resorts not only to rest, but also to learn something new, study the culture, tradition, folklore, national dishes and dances. In that sense, animation and animators represent a link between tourists and hosts. Animation can be defined as an integral part of the tourist offer, which entails enriching the offer with different contents, which provides an incentive for tourists to experience a more eventful travel. The aim of these studies was to develop a new measuring instrument that could be used in Serbia to measure festival motivators that play the key role for travels to destinations that are primarily festival in nature. The results have shown event managers that they need to initiate complex and comprehensive studies of the needs, motives, and expectations of those participating in such events

  11. The thematic hierarchy in sentence comprehension: A study on the interaction between verb class and word order in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattei, Carolina A; Dickey, Michael W; Wainselboim, Alejandro J; París, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Linking is the theory that captures the mapping of the semantic roles of lexical arguments to the syntactic functions of the phrases that realize them. At the sentence level, linking allows us to understand "who did what to whom" in an event. In Spanish, linking has been shown to interact with word order, verb class, and case marking. The current study aims to provide the first piece of experimental evidence about the interplay between word order and verb type in Spanish. We achieve this by adopting role and reference grammar and the extended argument dependency model. Two different types of clauses were examined in a self-paced reading task: clauses with object-experiencer psychological verbs and activity verbs. These types of verbs differ in the way that their syntactic and semantic structures are linked, and thus they provide interesting evidence on how information that belongs to the syntax-semantics interface might influence the predictive and integrative processes of sentence comprehension with alternative word orders. Results indicate that in Spanish, comprehension and processing speed is enhanced when the order of the constituents in the sentence mirrors their ranking on a semantic hierarchy that encodes a verb's lexical semantics. Moreover, results show that during online comprehension, predictive mechanisms based on argument hierarchization are used rapidly to inform the processing system. Our findings corroborate already existing cross-linguistic evidence on the issue and are briefly discussed in the light of other sentence-processing models.

  12. Health App Use Among Individuals With Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety: A Survey Study With Thematic Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubanovich, Caryn Kseniya; Mohr, David C; Schueller, Stephen M

    2017-06-23

    Researchers have largely turned to commercial app stores, randomized trials, and systematic reviews to make sense of the mHealth landscape. Few studies have approached understanding by collecting information from target end users. The end user perspective is critical as end user interest in and use of mHealth technologies will ultimately drive the efficacy of these tools. The purpose of this study was to obtain information from end users of mHealth technologies to better understand the physical and mental health apps people use and for what purposes. People with depressive or anxious symptoms (N=176) seeking entry into a trial of mental health and well-being apps for Android devices completed online questionnaires assessing depression and anxiety (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7), past and current mental health treatment-seeking behavior, overall mobile device use, and use of mobile health apps. Participants reported the physical health and mental health apps on their devices and their reasons for using them. Data were extracted from the participant self-reports and apps and app purposes were coded in order to categorize them. Participants were largely white, middle-aged females from the Midwest region of the United States recruited via a health care organization and Web-based advertising (135 female, 41 male, mean age 38.64 years, age range 19-75 years.) Over three-quarters (137/176, 77.8%) of participants indicated having a health app on their device. The top 3 kinds of apps were exercise, fitness, and pedometers or heart rate monitoring apps (93/176, 52.8%); diet, food, or calorie counting apps (65/177, 36.9%); and mental health/wellness apps (46/177, 26.1%). The mean number of mobile physical and mental health apps on a participant's phone was 2.15 (SD 3.195). Of 176 participants, 107 (60.8%) specifically reported the top 5 health apps that they used and their purposes. Across the 107 participants, a total of 285 apps were

  13. Structural And Lithological Reconnaissance Studies Of Part Of North Central Nigeria Using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus Etm And Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Srtm Satellite Imageries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apata Dolapo Moses

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Structural and Lithological studies of a part of North Central Nigeria which lies between latitudes 9o11l21.87N and 11o 3l37.29N and longitudes 7o 43l 53.01E and 6o 25l50.65 E covering an area of 170 km by 183 km was carried out using Landsat enhanced thematic mapper plusETM and shuttle radar topography mission satellite imageries SRTM. These imageries were visually and digitally interpreted using softwares such as ArcGis 9.2 Global mapper Multispec Ilwis 3.4 and Microsoft Paint. The zone is comprised of cellar basement rocks such as Granite Migmatite Gneiss Schist and Quartzite which show megascopic structures such as joints faults and folds. The drainage pattern within the area which include dendritic rectangular braided and annular were identified and their geologic implication was inferred. A Rock Outcrop map and a Lineament map of the study area was constructed. Rossete diagram made from the lineaments shows that the principal Strike direction in the study area is NNE-SSW which conforms to the general structural trend direction in the Nigerian Basement.

  14. Case study: Natural bodybuilding contest preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Brandon M; Fitschen, Peter J; Ranadive, Sushant M; Fernhall, Bo; Wilund, Kenneth R

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the physiological changes that occur in a natural bodybuilder during prolonged contest preparation for a proqualifying contest. During the 26-week preparation, the athlete undertook a calorically restrictive diet with 2 days of elevated carbohydrate intake per week, increased cardiovascular (CV) training, and attempted to maintain resistance-training load. The athlete was weighed twice a week and body composition was measured monthly by DXA. At baseline and every 2 weeks following CV structure and function was measured using a combination of ultrasound, applanation tonometry, and heart rate variability (HRV). Cardiorespiratory performance was measured by VO(2)peak at baseline, 13 weeks, and 26 weeks. Body weight (88.6 to 73.3 Kg, R(2) = .99) and percent body fat (17.5 to 7.4%) were reduced during preparation. CV measurements including blood pressure (128/61 to 113/54 mmHg), brachial pulse wave velocity (7.9 to 5.8m/s), and measures of wave reflection all improved. Indexed cardiac output was reduced (2.5 to 1.8L/m(2)) primarily due to a reduction in resting heart rate (71 to 44 bpm), and despite an increase in ejection faction (57.9 to 63.9%). Assessment of HRV found a shift in the ratio of low to high frequency (209.2 to 30.9%). Absolute VO2 was minimally reduced despite weight loss resulting in an increase in relative VO2 (41.9 to 47.7 ml/Kg). In general, this prolonged contest preparation technique helped the athlete to improve body composition and resulted in positive CV changes, suggesting that this method of contest preparation appears to be effective in natural male bodybuilders.

  15. Patient preparation for nuclear medicine studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stathis, V.J.; Cantrell, D.W.; Cantrell, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this chapter are described methods of patient preparation that can favorably affect the outcome of nuclear medicine studies in specific situations. Some of these practices may be considered essential to the success of the nuclear medicine procedure, whereas others may be thought of simply as a means of obtaining more valid or reliable information. Regardless of relative importance, each of the preparatory methods discussed can contribute to the quality of the respective study and can serve as a means of maximizing the value of nuclear medicine procedures. The specific patient preparation techniques discussed in this chapter may not be readily applicable to every practice setting or situation. These or similar procedures can be used or modified as necessary. It is important, however, that when new protocols are developed, the rationale and theoretical basis of each technique be considered

  16. INTERPRETING THE READABILITY IN SIMPLIFIED EDITIONS OF CHILDREN’S LITERATURE FROM A THEMATIC PERSPECTIVE: A CASE STUDY ON ALICE’S ADVENTURES IN WONDERLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingjia Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Readability formulas developed on the foundation of the structuralist approach have been proven capable of providing satisfactory indexes about the readability in most cases, but cannot explain “causes of difficulty or... how to write readably” (Klare, 1974, p. 62. This paper will explore the thematic structure under the framework of Systemic Functional Linguistics as an explanation perspective for the achievement of readability in simplified editions of children’s literature. The study is based on a comparison between the original and two simplified editions of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland in terms of Theme composition and Theme status, respectively. The two adaptations have provided explicit conjunctions and an explicit identity chain, respectively, as the major tool to assist young readers with reading. Green (1865 has foregrounded the tactic relationship between clauses by adding Textual Theme back to the clause and by revising the clausal order in complexes. Swan (1988 has omitted most Textual Themes either on purpose or along with the deletion of plots, and rewritten marked Themes into unmarked, modifying the development of text into a linear pattern and converging the clausal order in text towards that in spoken language.

  17. Effects of acculturation, coping strategies, locus of control, and self-efficacy on chronic pain: study of Chinese immigrant women in Italy - insights from a thematic field analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Tania Simona; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Siri, Anna; Cisneros Puebla, César; Friese, Susanne; Simões, Mário; Candau, Joël; Khabbache, Hicham

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain represents a common public health concern worldwide. It is a complex phenomenon, owing to the interaction of different factors, including biological, physiological, psychological, environmental, and social variables. Some groups, such as women and immigrants, are particularly vulnerable. However, little is known about how Chinese women in Italy live with and face chronic pain. The present study aimed at filling this knowledge gap by examining the burden of chronic pain in Chinese immigrants in Italy in terms of acculturation processes, perceived control over disease, social networks, and coping strategies. A qualitative approach was used, performing a thematic field analysis. We interviewed 82 Chinese women from different Italian towns (Genoa, Milan, Turin, Bologna, Florence, and Prato) in depth. The sense of belonging to the host culture was strong in our sample. However, this did not simply reflect or translate into a linear engagement with medical systems, as health care pathways were more complex and dual (both Chinese and Western). Chinese women who felt deeply rooted in the Italian environment did not discontinue the use of traditional Chinese medicine. Chronic pain extensively and adversely affected daily life, particularly interfering with work. Coping strategies were mainly adaptive behaviors, being problem focused or maladaptive, relying upon "cope and avoid" mechanisms. Chinese women preferred to use traditional Chinese remedies rather than conventional medicine, while using the Italian system in emergencies. Perceived control over chronic pain was usually external. Finally, Chinese women with chronic pain benefit from social networks and support, which were mainly composed of Chinese peers. In conclusion, our findings underline the tremendous burden of chronic pain affecting all aspects of Chinese women's lives. Health care workers and providers should be aware of the complexity of chronic pain Therefore, a holistic approach, involving

  18. Empirically Testing Thematic Analysis (ETTA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkier Gildberg, Frederik; Bradley, Stephen; Tingleff, Ellen Boldrup

    2015-01-01

    Text analysis is not a question of a right or wrong way to go about it, but a question of different traditions. These tend to not only give answers to how to conduct an analysis, but also to provide the answer as to why it is conducted in the way that it is. The problem however may be that the li....../develop for themselves. The advantage of utilizing the presented analytic approach is argued to be the integral empirical testing, which should assure systematic development, interpretation and analysis of the source textual material....... between tradition and tool is unclear. The main objective of this article is therefore to present Empirical Testing Thematic Analysis, a step by step approach to thematic text analysis; discussing strengths and weaknesses, so that others might assess its potential as an approach that they might utilize...

  19. Thematic Maps for Humanitarian Demining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Krtalić

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian Mine Action Centre (CROMAC reviewed, defined and marked the entire mine suspected area (MSA in Croatia by the year 2004. However, due to the need to reduce risk and the lack of information from the deepest reaches of the MSA, its surface area was defined as larger than in reality. Mine clearance is a long-term, expensive process, and Croatia has committed itself to resolving the problem of landmines on its territory by 201 9. Such developments have led to searching for and finding solutions to speed up resolution of the mine problem in Croatia (and in the world through reducing the defined MSA. The reduction of an already defined MSA requires additional data and information from the deepest reaches of the MSA, on the basis of which a revision of existing SMEs to make reductions will be carried out. Based on these data and revision of the existing MSA, reduction can be performed. All subsequently collected data and information, together with previously known data from the CROMAC Mine Information System (MIS, are processed in the decision support system in conditions of uncertainty. The results obtained are displayed on different thematic maps, showing the positions of objects and their spatial impact on the environment. Thus, thematic maps allow insights into topics which experts in humanitarian demining can use to make decisions in the process. These thematic maps are the result of the methodology created within the project Space and Airborne Mined Area Reduction Tools (SMART, and further developed in the technological project System for Multisensor Airborne Reconnaissance and Surveillance in Emergency Situations and Environmental Protection, TP-06/0007-01 , Ministry of Science, Education and Sports; Deployment of Advanced Intelligence Decision Support System for Mine Suspected Area Reduction in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the author's doctoral dissertation. This paper establishes the new terminology for new, improved thematic maps

  20. Service users’ experiences and views of aggressive situations in mental health care: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudde CB

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Camilla Buch Gudde,1,2 Turid Møller Olsø,4 Richard Whittington,1,5,6 Solfrid Vatne,3 1Forensic Department Brøset, Centre for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry, St Olavs Hospital, 2Department of Social Work and Health Science, Faculty of Social Science and Technology Management, NTNU, Trondheim, 3Institute of Health and Social Sciences, Molde University College, Molde, 4Norwegian Resource Centre for Community Mental Health, NTNU Social Research AS, 5Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 6Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK Background: Aggressive situations occurring within mental health services can harm service users, staff, and the therapeutic environment. There is a consensus that the aggression phenomenon is multidimensional, but the picture is still unclear concerning the complex interplay of causal variables and their respective impact. To date, only a small number of empirical studies include users’ views of relevant factors. The main objective of this review is to identify and synthesize evidence relating to service users’ experiences and views of aggressive situations in mental health settings. Methods: We included qualitative studies of any design reporting on service users’ own experiences of conditions contributing to aggressive situations in mental health care and their views on preventative strategies. Eligible articles were identified through an electronic database search (PsycINFO, PubMed, Ovid Nursing Database, Embase, and CINAHL, hand search, and cross-referencing. Extracted data were combined and interpreted using aspects of thematic synthesis. Results: We reviewed 5,566 records and included 13 studies (ten qualitative and three mixed methods. Service users recognized that both their own mental state and negative aspects of the treatment environment affected the development of aggressive situations

  1. Radon thematic days - Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the Radon thematic days organized by the French society of radiation protection (SFRP). Twenty five presentations (slides) are compiled in the document and deal with: 1 - General introduction about radon (Sebastien Baechler, IRA); 2 - Survey of epidemiological studies (Dominique Laurier, IRSN); 3 - Dosimetric model (Eric Blanchardon, Estelle Davesne, IRSN); 4 - Radon issue in Franche-Comte: measurement of the domestic exposure and evaluation of the associated health impact (Francois Clinard, InVS); 5 - WHO's (World Health Organization) viewpoint in limiting radon exposure in homes (Ferid Shannoun, OMS); 6 - Radon measurement techniques (Roselyne Ameon, IRSN); 7 - Quality of radon measurements (Francois Bochud, IRA); 8 - International recommendations (Jean-Francois Lecomte, IRSN); 9 - Radon management strategy in Switzerland - 1994-2014 (Christophe Murith, OFSP); 10 - 2011-2015 action plan for radon risk management (Jean-Luc Godet, Eric Dechaux, ASN); 11 - Radon at work place in Switzerland (Lisa Pedrazzi, SUVA); 12 - Strategies of radiation protection optimization in radon exposure situations (Cynthia Reaud, CEPN); 13 - Mapping of the radon potential of geologic formations in France (Geraldine Ielsch, IRSN); 14 - Radon database in Switzerland (Martha Gruson, OFSP); 15 - Radon 222 in taps water (Jeanne Loyen, IRSN); 16 - Buildings protection methods (Bernard Collignan, CSTB, Roselyne Ameon, IRSN); 17 - Preventive and sanitation measures in Switzerland (Claudio Valsangiacomo, SUPSI); 18 - Training and support approach for building specialists (Joelle Goyette-Pernot, Fribourg engineers and architects' school); 19 - Status of radon bulk activity measurements performed between 2005-2010 in public areas (Cyril Pineau, ASN); 20 - Neuchatel Canton experiments (Didier Racine, SENE); 21 - Montbeliard region experience in the radon risk management (Isabelle Netillard, Pays de Montbeliard Agglomeration); 22

  2. Both associative activation and thematic extraction count, but thematic false memories are more easily rejected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Paula; Garcia-Marques, Leonel; Fernandez, Angel; Albuquerque, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to analyse the roles played by associative activation and thematic extraction in the explanation of false memories using the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Associative lists with two different types of critical items (CIs) were used: one, the associative CI, corresponded to the word most strongly primed by the associates in the list and another, the thematic CI, was the word that best described the theme of the list. Following three different types of encoding instructions (standard, warning or strategic), false recognition for these two types of CIs was analysed in either self-paced or speeded response recognition tests. The results showed considerable levels of false memories for both types of CIs. Even without the quality of being "good themes", associative CIs produced high levels of false recognition, which suggests that associative activation plays a prominent role in false memory formation. More interestingly, thematic CIs were more prone to be edited out, reinforcing the argument that thematic identifiability has a major role in the rejection of false memories.

  3. Thematic mapping from satellite imagery

    CERN Document Server

    Denègre, J

    2013-01-01

    Thematic Mapping from Satellite Imagery: A Guidebook discusses methods in producing maps using satellite images. The book is comprised of five chapters; each chapter covers one stage of the process. Chapter 1 tackles the satellite remote sensing imaging and its cartographic significance. Chapter 2 discusses the production processes for extracting information from satellite data. The next chapter covers the methods for combining satellite-derived information with that obtained from conventional sources. Chapter 4 deals with design and semiology for cartographic representation, and Chapter 5 pre

  4. SMEX05 Landsat Thematic Mapper GEOTIFF Imagery: Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides imagery developed from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for use in studying land cover features. Data are provided in Georeferenced Tagged...

  5. SMEX02 Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery, Iowa, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides imagery developed from Landsat 5 and 7 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for use in studying land cover features during the Soil Moisture Experiment...

  6. Studies on the Preparation of Magnetic Photocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.; Scott, J.; Beydoun, D.; Amal, R.

    2005-01-01

    A crystalline titanium dioxide coating was deposited onto silica insulated magnetite particles to prepare a stable magnetic photocatalyst. The direct deposition of crystalline titanium dioxide was conducted by aging dispersions of insulated magnetite particles in a titanium sol-gel precursor mixture at 60-90 deg. C. The coating process was found to be influenced by pH, alkoxide precursor concentration, aging time and reaction temperature. A mechanism for the formation of the titanium dioxide coating has been proposed. The photocatalytic performance of the prepared particles was found to be related to the preparation conditions

  7. A study of UF4 preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, I.S.; Doh, J.B.; Choi, Y.D.

    1985-05-01

    Uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ), green salt, is very important intermediate in the production of metallic uranium and uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) for enrichment. The hydrofluorination of uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (HF), produced from ADU (ammonium diuranate) process or AUC (ammonium uranyl carbonate) process, are commercially used for the production of uranium tetrafluoride. At present, a new approach such as direct UF 4 preparation at the mine-site without further precipitation, filteration and drying of yellow cake from leaching solution has been studied. The single step continous reduction of uranium hexafluoride to uranium tetrafluoride is one of the most interesting process being applied for the commercial use of a large amount of depleted UF 6 which is produced in tail after enrichment. The direct conversion of UF 6 and UF 4 with hydrogen and fluorine gases using cold wall reactor has a certain advantage over various wet process such as AUD and AUC processes in which hydrolysis of UF 6 and various kind of chemicals are required, including liquid waste treatment. This report reviews and analyzes the theory and processes being used commercially or under study. (Author)

  8. Thematic report on social psychology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, C.

    2002-01-01

    Social psychology is concerned with the interactions among people and groups, and with their gradual formation of shared - or conflicting - attitudes, opinions and understandings. In preparing to provide feedback to the FSC Turku Workshop, I anticipated that it would be useful to structure my observations around concepts like: As in other societal and study contexts, these concepts certainly had meaning here in the FSC Turku Workshop. They may form one set of tools with which we may consider further the background to a Decision in Principle, or stakeholder involvement. They may offer a lens through which the experience of the workshop itself may be perceived and evaluated. I found that one more concept (something to which linguists or anthropologists might refer as a semantic polarity) seemed to capture well the dynamic of our time together. That concept is: 'inside-outside'. (author)

  9. Studies of radiolabelled preparations in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.G.; Hardy, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Rabbits are used to investigate the dose-response relationship of radiopharmaceuticals. The relationship can be divided into three phases:- (i) Pharmaceutical, covering the rate of release of the drug from the preparation. (ii) Pharmacokinetic, comprising processes of absorption, distribution and metabolism. (iii) Pharmacodynamic, interaction of the drug with the receptor site. (U.K.)

  10. [Study on the appropriate parameters of automatic full crown tooth preparation for dental tooth preparation robot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, F S; Wang, Y; Zhang, Y P; Sun, Y C; Wang, D X; Lyu, P J

    2017-05-09

    Objective: To further study the most suitable parameters for automatic full crown preparation using oral clinical micro robot. Its purpose is to improve the quality of automated tooth preparing for the system and to lay the foundation for clinical application. Methods: Twenty selected artificial resin teeth were used as sample teeth. The micro robot automatic tooth preparation system was used in dental clinic to control the picosecond laser beam to complete two dimensional cutting on the resin tooth sample according to the motion planning path. Using the laser scanning measuring microscope, each layer of cutting depth values was obtained and the average value was calculated. The monolayer cutting depth was determined. The three-dimensional (3D) data of the target resin teeth was obtained using internal scanner, and the CAD data of full-crown tooth preparation was designed by CAD self-develged software. According to the depth of the single layer, 11 complete resin teeth in phantom head were automatically prepared by the robot controlling the laser focused spot in accordance with the layer-cutting way. And the accuracy of resin tooth preparation was evaluated with the software. Using the same method, monolayer cutting depth parameter for cutting dental hard tissue was obtained. Then 15 extracted mandibular and maxillary first molars went through automatic full crown tooth preparation. And the 3D data of tooth preparations were obtained with intra oral scanner. The software was used to evaluate the accuracy of tooth preparation. Results: The results indicated that the single cutting depth of cutting resin teeth and in vitro teeth by picosecond laser were (60.0±2.6) and (45.0±3.6) μm, respectively. Using the tooth preparation robot, 11 artificial resin teeth and 15 complete natural teeth were automatically prepared, and the average time were (13.0±0.7), (17.0±1.8) min respectively. Through software evaluation, the average preparation depth of the occlusal surface

  11. Pharmaceutical studies on and clinical application of olanzapine suppositories prepared as a hospital preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Kimura, Satoru; Takahashi, Kenichi; Yokoyama, Yuta; Miyazawa, Masayuki; Kushibiki, Satoko; Katamachi, Morio; Kizu, Junko

    2016-01-01

    Background A new formulation of olanzapine available for terminally ill patients is needed. Rectal administration using suppositories is an alternative for patients for whom administration via the oral route is not feasible. In the present study, we prepared olanzapine suppositories, and confirmed using pharmaceutical tests. Furthermore, we demonstrated the efficacy and safety of olanzapine suppositories in terminally ill patients. Methods We prepared olanzapine suppositories using bases cons...

  12. Preparation of fish material for interlaboratory study on PFCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korytar, P.; Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.; Lohman, M.; Barneveld, van E.

    2007-01-01

    The Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit (IVM) has requested Wageningen IMARES for the preparation of fish material for use in interDlaboratory performance study on analysis of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). It was requested that the material should be prepared from fillet of

  13. New preparation of fish material for interlaboratory study on PFCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korytar, P.; Lohman, M.; Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.; Barneveld, van E.

    2007-01-01

    The Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit (IVM) has requested Wageningen IMARES to prepare a new fish material for use in the interlaboratory performance study on analysis of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) due to the low amount of contaminants in the previously prepared material.

  14. Preparation of cesium targets for gamma-spectroscopic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Basu, S. K.; Chanda, S.; Deb, P.; Eqbal, Md; Kundu, S.; Joseph, D.

    2000-11-01

    A procedure to prepare monoisotopic cesium compound targets for gamma-spectroscopic experiments is described. Using this procedure, uniform targets up to thicknesses of 0.6-1.2 mg/cm 2 were prepared and used for in-beam spectroscopic studies. The purity of the target was tested by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) measurements.

  15. Preparation and method of study of fossil diatoms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    to be exercised during the preparation of the samples A method for the preparation of strewn slides is then explained A detailed procedure for the study of diatom-strewn slides under the microscope, using the "England finder", is described, and a note on diatom...

  16. Studies on tin oxide films prepared by electron beam evaporation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transparent conducting tin oxide thin films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation and spray pyrolysis methods. Structural, optical and electrical properties were studied under different preparation conditions like substrate temperature, solution flow rate and rate of deposition. Resistivity of undoped evaporated ...

  17. Hermeneutic phenomenological analysis: the 'possibility' beyond 'actuality' in thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ken H M; Chiang, Vico C L; Leung, Doris

    2017-07-01

    This article discusses the ways researchers may become open to manifold interpretations of lived experience through thematic analysis that follows the tradition of hermeneutic phenomenology. Martin Heidegger's thinking about historical contexts of understandings and the notions of 'alētheia' and 'techne' disclose what he called meaning of lived experience, as the 'unchanging Being of changing beings'. While these notions remain central to hermeneutic phenomenological research, novice phenomenologists usually face the problem of how to incorporate these philosophical tenets into thematic analysis. Discussion paper. This discussion paper is based on our experiences of hermeneutic analysis supported by the writings of Heidegger. Literature reviewed for this paper ranges from 1927 - 2014. We draw on data from a study of foreign domestic helpers in Hong Kong to demonstrate how 'dwelling' in the language of participants' 'ek-sistence' supported us in a process of thematic analysis. Data were collected from December 2013 - February 2016. Nurses doing hermeneutic phenomenology have to develop self-awareness of one's own 'taken-for-granted' thinking to disclose the unspoken meanings hidden in the language of participants. Understanding the philosophical tenets of hermeneutic phenomenology allows nurses to preserve possibilities of interpretations in thinking. In so doing, methods of thematic analysis can uncover and present the structure of the meaning of lived experience. We provide our readers with vicarious experience of how to begin cultivating thinking that is aligned with hermeneutic phenomenological philosophical tenets to conduct thematic analysis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A thematic analysis of newspaper articles on xenophobia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of the study was to analyse the themes of newspaper articles on xenophobia and tourism in South Africa. A thematic analysis was conducted to achieve this goal. The study found that a lack of service delivery is a source of criminal acts such as xenophobia. The study revealed that criminal acts of this nature have a ...

  19. Studies for site preparation for ITER construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardeau, A.; Blanc, F.; Cardettini, J.D.; Mandine, J.R.; Guerin, R.; Patisson, L.; Bergegere, P.; Santagiustina, A.; Garin, P.

    2004-01-01

    The implantation of a nuclear facility such as ITER (about 20 buildings on 40 ha) requires many preparatory studies, particularly with respect to: Underground characteristics; Topography, layout; Deforestation, excavations; Networks, fences and roads; Impact of seismic hazard on design. This paper presents the main results of these studies, carried out within the European ITER Site Studies framework. A dedicated paper in the conference deals with the transport studies. To choose the site for ITER implantation, detailed geological, hydrogeological and geophysical investigations have been carried out. Taking into account the meteorological data (particularly the main wind direction), topography, access, electrical supply, fluids needs and constraints (gravity systems), buildings and roads have been implemented. (authors)

  20. TOEFL Preparation Courses: A Study of Washback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, J. Charles; Hamp-Lyons, Liz

    1996-01-01

    Presents a case study of the effects of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) on two teachers in the same institution. The study investigates claims that the TOEFL exerts an undesirable influence on language teaching. Findings reveal that influences on what happens in class are more complex than unexamined beliefs about washback allow.…

  1. Preparation and reactivity studies of maleimidophenyl glycidylether ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alkali/solvent) and water absorption resistance. Morphological studies by the SEM technique further confirmed the phase homogeneity network of the cured systems. KEY WORDS: Amine, Epoxy resin, Maleimide, Curing, Epichlorohydrin. Bull.

  2. PREPARATION, SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES AND X-RAY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molar conductance measurements in dmf indicate 1:3 electrolytes in all cases. Magnetic moment values are close proximity of the Van Vleck values. IR studies suggest the coordination of the ligand is through the azomethine, the phenolic oxygen atom and the carbonyl oxygen of the hydrazonic moiety. The nitrate ion is also ...

  3. Impact of Thematic Approach on Communication Skill in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokan, Varun; Venugopal, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of thematic approach on communication skills for preschool children. The study was a quasi experimental non-equivalent pretest-post-test control group design whereby 5-6 year old preschool children (n = 49) were randomly assigned to an experimental and a control group. The experimental group students were exposed…

  4. Episodic Specificity in Acquiring Thematic Knowledge of Novel Words from Descriptive Episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meichao; Chen, Shuang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Xiaohong; Yang, Yufang

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined whether thematic relations of the novel words could be acquired via descriptive episodes, and if yes, whether it could be generalized to thematically related words in a different scenario. In Experiment 1, a lexical decision task was used where the novel words served as primes for target words in four conditions: (1) corresponding concepts of the novel words, (2) thematically related words in the same episodes as that in learning condition, (3) thematically related words in different episodes, or (4) unrelated words served as targets. Event related potentials elicited by the targets revealed that compared to the unrelated words, the corresponding concepts and thematically related words in the same episodes elicited smaller N400s with a frontal-central distribution, whereas the thematically related words in different episodes elicited an enhanced late positive component. Experiment 2 further showed a priming effect of the corresponding concepts on the thematically related words in the same episodes as well as in a different episode, indicating that the absence of a priming effect of the learned novel words on the thematically related words in different episode could not be attributed to inappropriate selection of thematically related words in the two conditions. These results indicate that only the corresponding concepts and the thematically related words in the learning episodes were successfully primed, whereas the thematic association between the novel words and the thematically related words in different scenarios could only be recognized in a late processing stage. Our findings suggest that thematic knowledge of novel words is organized via separate scenarios, which are represented in a clustered manner in the semantic network.

  5. IDRC Thematic Priorities | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC Doctoral Research Awards support research aligned with IDRC's mandate and thematic priorities. Proposed research must fit within the priorities of the Agriculture and Environment, Inclusive Economies, or Technology and Innovation program areas as set out in this document.

  6. Preparation of stimuli for timbre perception studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuschagne, Ilse B; Hanekom, Johan J

    2013-09-01

    Stimuli used in timbre perception studies must be controlled carefully in order to yield meaningful results. During psychoacoustic testing of individual timbre properties, (1) it must be ensured that timbre properties do not co-vary, as timbre properties are often not independent from one another, and (2) the potential influence of loudness, pitch, and perceived duration must be eliminated. A mathematical additive synthesis method is proposed which allows complete control over two spectral parameters, the spectral centroid (corresponding to brightness) and irregularity, and two temporal parameters, log rise-time (LRT) and a parameter characterizing the sustain/decay segment, while controlling for covariation in the spectral centroid and irregularity. Thirteen musical instrument sounds were synthesized. Perceptual data from six listeners indicate that variation in the four timbre properties mainly influences loudness and that perceived duration and pitch are not influenced significantly for the stimuli of longer duration (2 s) used here. Trends across instruments were found to be similar.

  7. [An epidemiological study on pesticide poisoning with mixed preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, W; Chen, S; Tao, B

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the incidence of pesticide poisoning with mixed preparation and risk factors contributing to it. Twenty-five administrative villages were studied in three townships of Jiangsu and Shandong Provinces with cluster sampling. The sampled villages were divided into study group (12 villages) and control group (13 villages) with approximately equal number of people each. Pesticide sprayers in the study group applied mixed preparation containing organophosphorous and dimethrin and those in the control group applied single organophosphorous preparation. All the sprayers in sampled villages were interviewed with a same questionnaire about their situation of pesticide spraying during the observation period. Cases of pesticide poisoning were ascertained by seniors physicians in occupational diseases after group discussion. Incidence of pesticide poisoning was higher in 2 179 sprayers of the study group (10.10 %) than that in 2 615 of the control group (2.29%), with a highly statistically difference (chi(2) = 12.46, P poisoning with mixed preparation were smoking or taking food during spraying, leaking or breakdown of sprayers, without washing their whole body as soon as possible after spraying, poor personal protection, spraying for a long time, spraying by women and spraying pesticide on cotton. If toxicity of mixed preparation of single pesticide showed a synergistic or additional effect, risk of poisoning by spraying mixed preparation increased. Health education and technical training should be strengthened for pesticide sprayers.

  8. Thematization Strategies in the Generic Moves of Research Article Introductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assef Khalili

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the heterogeneity of ideas regarding the definitions of genre, there are also common instances shared among scholars interested in particular aspects of the notion. Swales (1990 and Bhatia (1993 are primarily interested in the sociological and psychological aspects of genre's functioning and construction, respectively.. Swales analyzes the genre of 'article introduction', into four generic moves on the basis of the communicative intentions they serve, and Bhatia investigates the tactical aspects of their construction. The present paper, is an attempt to study the patterns of thematic development-based on Daneš(1974 proposed patterns-  in such generic moves. For this purpose, 12 academic papers were analyzed for their constituent generic move structures, with respect to the thematic choices and progression inside these moves. The results indicated that each move has characteristic patterns of thematic selection and progression, which must be motivated by the global discourse topic and the communicative intention of these moves, as moves of dissimilar communicative intentions had characteristic patterns of thematic selections. In the light of the result of the experiment conducted on the teachability of generic moves, it is believed that the present study can have insightful implications for writing and reading pedagogy.

  9. Solar thematic maps for space weather operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigler, E. Joshua; Hill, Steven M.; Reinard, Alysha A.; Steenburgh, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Thematic maps are arrays of labels, or "themes", associated with discrete locations in space and time. Borrowing heavily from the terrestrial remote sensing discipline, a numerical technique based on Bayes' theorem captures operational expertise in the form of trained theme statistics, then uses this to automatically assign labels to solar image pixels. Ultimately, regular thematic maps of the solar corona will be generated from high-cadence, high-resolution SUVI images, the solar ultraviolet imager slated to fly on NOAA's next-generation GOES-R series of satellites starting ~2016. These thematic maps will not only provide quicker, more consistent synoptic views of the sun for space weather forecasters, but digital thematic pixel masks (e.g., coronal hole, active region, flare, etc.), necessary for a new generation of operational solar data products, will be generated. This paper presents the mathematical underpinnings of our thematic mapper, as well as some practical algorithmic considerations. Then, using images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Advanced Imaging Array (AIA) as test data, it presents results from validation experiments designed to ascertain the robustness of the technique with respect to differing expert opinions and changing solar conditions.

  10. Uranium mining sites - Thematic sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A first sheet proposes comments, data and key numbers about uranium extraction in France: general overview of uranium mining sites, status of waste rock and tailings after exploitation, site rehabilitation. The second sheet addresses the sources of exposure to ionizing radiations due to ancient uranium mining sites: discussion on the identification of these sources associated with these sites, properly due to mining activities or to tailings, or due to the transfer of radioactive substances towards water and to the contamination of sediments, description of the practice and assessment of radiological control of mining sites. A third sheet addresses the radiological exposure of public to waste rocks, and the dose assessment according to exposure scenarios: main exposure ways to be considered, studied exposure scenarios (passage on backfilled path and grounds, stay in buildings built on waste rocks, keeping mineralogical samples at home). The fourth sheet addresses research programmes of the IRSN on uranium and radon: epidemiological studies (performed on mine workers; on French and on European cohorts, French and European studies on the risk of lung cancer associated with radon in housing), study of the biological effects of chronic exposures. The last sheet addresses studies and expertises performed by the IRSN on ancient uranium mining sites in France: studies commissioned by public authorities, radioactivity control studies performed by the IRSN about mining sites, participation of the IRSN to actions to promote openness to civil society

  11. Children's understandings’ of obesity, a thematic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Fielden

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a major concern in today's society. Research suggests the inclusion of the views and understandings of a target group facilitates strategies that have better efficacy. The objective of this study was to explore the concepts and themes that make up children's understandings of the causes and consequences of obesity. Participants were selected from Reception (4–5 years old and Year 6 (10–11 years old, and attended a school in an area of Sunderland, in North East England. Participants were separated according to age and gender, resulting in four focus groups, run across two sessions. A thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006 identified overarching themes evident across all groups, suggesting the key concepts that contribute to children's understandings of obesity are “Knowledge through Education,” “Role Models,” “Fat is Bad,” and “Mixed Messages.” The implications of these findings and considerations of the methodology are discussed in full.

  12. Studies on raising and preparation of planting stock of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed germination studies, seedling growth, planting stock preparation and field trial at planting espacement of 3 m x 3 m were evaluated in the study. Soaking seeds in tap water for ten days with daily replacement of water yielded 100% seed germination for A. africana, 100% for A. boonei and 90% for A. lebbeck ...

  13. Pharmaceutical studies on and clinical application of olanzapine suppositories prepared as a hospital preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Kimura, Satoru; Takahashi, Kenichi; Yokoyama, Yuta; Miyazawa, Masayuki; Kushibiki, Satoko; Katamachi, Morio; Kizu, Junko

    2016-01-01

    A new formulation of olanzapine available for terminally ill patients is needed. Rectal administration using suppositories is an alternative for patients for whom administration via the oral route is not feasible. In the present study, we prepared olanzapine suppositories, and confirmed using pharmaceutical tests. Furthermore, we demonstrated the efficacy and safety of olanzapine suppositories in terminally ill patients. We prepared olanzapine suppositories using bases consisting of different compositions of Witepsol H-15, Witepsol S-55, and Witepsol E-75. The suppository release test was performed, and the olanzapine suppository with the best dissolution rate was selected. The suppository was assessed using the content uniformity test, content test in suppositories, hardness test, stability test, and clinical efficacy and safety. The dissolution rate at 360 min of olanzapine suppositories with Witepsol H-15 was the best (77.0 ± 3.3 %). The suppositories prepared had a uniform weight (2.47 ± 0.02 g) and content (2.11 ± 0.07 mg). The power required to break suppositories was 7.96 ± 0.55 kgf. When olanzapine suppositories were stored with protection from light, their contents were maintained regardless of whether the temperature was at 4 °C or room temperature. The numbers of patients administered 2.5 mg, 5 mg, and 10 mg of olanzapine suppositories were 4, 19, and 1. The percentages of patients with delirium or nausea and vomiting cured with olanzapine suppositories were 82 and 57 %, respectively. We suggest that olanzapine suppositories prepared in the hospital by pharmacists will improve the quality of life of terminally ill patients. UMIN000022172. May 2, 2016 retrospectively registered.

  14. Toward a Theory of Thematic Curricula: Constructing New Learning Environments for Teachers and Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Carole Cook; Sokoloff, Harris J.

    A theory of thematic curriculum emerged during the development of a thematic unit on pets, entitled "Pets and Me." The unit, intended for preschool through grade five, focuses on the human-animal bond, incorporating language arts, math, science, social studies, physical education, art, and music activities. "Pets and Me" was developed,…

  15. Thematic characterisation of Ndebele izichothozo | Ndlovu | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a thematic categorisation of izichothozo. It identifies the themes that are pursued in the folk humour. Images that are used in izichothozo are derived from a range of themes that help derive the humour. Social realities are subjected to humorous transformations, and these social and cultural realities are used as ...

  16. Preparing Global Citizens through the Study of Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood-Tucker, Toni Fuss

    2012-01-01

    The preparation of students for global citizenship represents a central challenge to social studies educators in the twenty-first century. Two-thirds of the world's poor are steeped in abject poverty and its grim consequences. The world refugee problem has reached staggering proportions. There is an international epidemic of human trafficking, and…

  17. Studies on preparation and characterization of indium doped zinc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The preparation of indium doped zinc oxide films is discussed. Variation of structural, electrical and optical properties of the films with zinc acetate concentration and indium concentration in the solution are investigated. XRD studies have shown a change in preferential orientation from (002) to (101) crystal plane with ...

  18. Studies on the preparation and the photoelectrochemical properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 4. Studies on the preparation and the photoelectrochemical properties of the nanoporous titania films attached with and without photosensitizer TCPP. Yun-Lan Gong Fei-Hui Li Fei Lu Chang Dai. Volume 38 Issue 4 August 2015 pp 847-856 ...

  19. Preparation and studies of some thermal, mechanical and optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Preparation and studies of some thermal, mechanical and optical properties of xAl2O3(1 – x)NaPO3 glass system. K V SHAH, V SUDARSAN†, M GOSWAMI, A SARKAR, S MANIKANDAN,. RAKESH KUMAR, B I SHARMA, V K SHRIKHANDE and G P KOTHIYAL*. Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, ...

  20. Pennsylvania's Preparing for a Changing World Instrument: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, James R.; Shannon, Gregory A.

    The validities of the Pennsylvania Educational Quality Assessment (EQA) Preparing for a Changing World Instruments at grades 5, 8, and 11 were investigated. The study was carried out in a suburban school district where many students had experienced a great deal of change in their lives. At each grade level approximately 60 students who had…

  1. Preparation, characterization and in vitro study of biocompatible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silk fibroin hydrogels were prepared by treating a 12% (w/v) silk fibroin aqueous solution at 4°C (thermgel) and lyophilized. The swelling and thermorheological behaviour of fibroin hydrogels were studied. The morphology and crystalline structure of lyophilized hydrogels were investigated by scanning electron microscopy ...

  2. Studies on tin oxide films prepared by electron beam evaporation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Transparent conducting tin oxide thin films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation and spray pyrolysis methods. Structural, optical and electrical properties were studied under different pre- paration conditions like substrate temperature, solution flow rate and rate of deposition. Resistivity of un-.

  3. Preparation and study of dialkyl nitroxide radicals; Preparation et etude de radicaux nitroxydes diacyles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenavas, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    These radicals are obtained by oxidation of N-hydroxy-imides with lead tetracetate or p-nitro-perbenzoic acid. These imides are prepared by heating dicarboxylic acids anhydrides with benzyloxy-amine followed by catalytic hydrogenation of N-benzyloxy-imides so obtained. Two series of radicals have mainly been studied, the first concerning five-membered cyclic imides, the second six-membered cyclic imides, these molecules having methyls substituents or no on the carbon ring. N. M. R. spectra of some O-benzyl-imides have been analysed. These different results have made it possible to study the conformation and stereochemistry of these imides. (author) [French] Ces radicaux sont obtenus par oxydation d'imides N-hydroxyles par le tetracetate de plomb ou l'acide p-nitroperbenzoique; ces imides sont prepares par chauffage d'anhydrides de diacides en presence de benzyloxyamine suivie d'une hydrogenation catalytique des N-benzyloxyimides ainsi obtenus. Deux series de radicaux ont principalement ete etudies: la premiere relative a des imides cycliques a cinq chainons, la seconde a des imides cycliques a six chainons, ces molecules ayant des substituants methyles ou non sur la chaine carbonee. Les derives O-benzyles de quelques-uns de ces imides ont ete analyses en R. M. N. Ces differents resultats ont permis une etude de la conformation et de la stereochimie de ces imides. (auteur)

  4. Preparation and study of properties of dispersed graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Seliverstova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ability of graphene oxide to form stable dispersion in organic solvents was studied in this work. As it was shown, sonication of graphene leads to the decreas of the particle size. Stability of prepared graphene dispersions was studied upon measurements of distribution of number of the particles via size and change of optical density of the solutions with time. It was found that graphene oxide forms a more stable dispersion in tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide than in chloroform and acetone.

  5. Thematic Analysis of Persian Documents in the Field of Quran Study and Medicine in National Scientific-Research Journals from 1992 to 2013 "An Opportunity for Evidence Based Decision Making".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Pezhman; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Shafiei, Nematollah

    2017-06-01

    Several documents have investigated the area of Quran study and medicine from different points of view; the present study has been assessing all the documents about Quran study and medicine, published in Iranian scientific-research journals, to create an opportunity of revising the interventions executed in this areas and targeting the decisions in order to draw a clear and more realistic vision. In this simple review study, scientific-research and general informative websites in the period of 1992-2013 were explored by taking advantage of critical keywords such as Islamic medicine and Islamic lifestyle. After the initial retrieval, 348 articles were finally ready for the evaluation process. Chi-square test was used to assess the significance of patterns differences between years of study. Minimum and maximum numbers of articles were published in 1992 (0.28 %) and 2011 (12.35 %), respectively. The level of execution of studies by using different methods was as follows: about 3.44 % qualitative, 29.59 % cross-sectional descriptive-analytical, 30.45 % review, 1.14 % case-control, 17.52 % experimental, 3.73 % cohort methods and 12.93 % were performed by other methods. The most common subject study was "The effects of fasting and Ramadan on health" (21.83 %). The most important journals hosting this field articles were the journals of medicine and refinement (27.01 %), as well as the Quran and medicine (12.64 %), respectively. Chi-square test showed significant thematic differences during the 21 years of study. Based on the available evidences, the number of descriptive papers was yet more than the analytical, interventional and scientific-comparative articles. Also, the most studies had been reviewing the medical-Islamic documents. This reflects the need for revising the search strategies of Quran study and medicine.

  6. New Chitosan/Ag/Carbacylamidophosphate nanocomposites: Preparation and antibacterial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Oroujzadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new Chitosan-based nanocomposite films were prepared: Chitosan /7% Ag nanoparticles (NPs (NC1 and Chitosan/7% Ag NPs/5%Carbacylamidophosphate(NC2, in which the carbacylamidophosphate derivitive is N-Nicotinyl-N′,N″- bis(hexamethylenyl phosphorictriamide (NHE with the formula: C5H4NC(ONHP(O(NC6H122. X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS methods were used to characterize and confirm the prepared frameworkrs. XRD graph of the two nanocomposites showed all the characteristic peaks of NHE, Ag NPs, and chitosan, indicating the fact that the preparing process has not made any changes in the phases of the nanocomposites components. All the SEM micrographs and EDS analysis results also confirmed the desired structures. To study the effect of the additive NHE on the antibacterial activity of the films, in vitro antibacterial tests were done on the prepared nanocomposites against two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Brain-Heart Infusion(BHI medium. Results showed that the antibacterial effects of the nanocomposite containing NHE on each of the four bacteria is stronger than those for the nanocomposite without NHE.

  7. Electrochemical and Thermal Studies of Prepared Conducting Chitosan Biopolymer Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlaing Hlaing Oo; Kyaw Naing; Kyaw Myo Naing; Tin Tin Aye; Nyunt Wynn

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, chitosan based conducting bipolymer films were prepared by casting and solvent evaporating technique. All prepared chitosan films were of pale yellow colour, transparent, and smooth. Sulphuric acid was chosen as the cross-linking agent. It enhanced conduction pathway in cross-linked chitosan films. Mechanical properties, solid-state, and thermal behavior of prepared chitosan fimls were studied by means of a material testing machine, powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). By the XRD diffraction pattern, high molecular weight of chitosan product indicates the semi-crystalline nature, but the prepared chitosan film and doped chitosan film indicate significantly lower in crystallinity prove which of the amorphous characteristics. In addition, DSC thermogram of pure chitosan film exhibited exothermic peak around at 300 C, indicating polymer decomposition of chitosan molecules in chitosan films. Furthermore, these DSC thermograms clearly showed that while pure chitosan film display exothermal decomposition, the doped chitosan films mainly endothermic characteristics. The ionic conductivity of doped chitosan films were in the order of 10 to 10 S cm , which is in the range of semi-conductor. These results showed that cross-linked chitoson films may be used as polymer electrolyte film to fabricate solid state electrochemical cells

  8. Fourth Thematic CERN School of Computing

    CERN Multimedia

    Alberto Pace, CSC Director

    2016-01-01

    The Fourth Thematic School of Computing (tCSC2016) takes place this year in Split, Croatia, from 22 to 28 May 2016.   The theme is "Efficient and Parallel Processing of Scientific Data", looking at: The challenge of scientific data processing: commonalities, analogies and the main differences between different sciences. Size of scientific software projects. Parallelism and asynchronism: computation and I/O. The School is open to postgraduate students and research workers with a few years' experience in elementary particle physics, computing, engineering or related fields.  All applicants are welcome, including former and future participants in the main CSC summer school. Registration will close on 15 February and participation is limited to 24 students. To register, please go here. About: The Thematic Schools are part of the annual series of CERN Schools of Computing, to promote advanced learning and knowledge exchange on the subject of scientific compu...

  9. Innovate with the CTI National Thematic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, Susanne Lauber

    2014-12-01

    Winning in the global market place with brilliant innovations is the recipe for success for the Swiss economy. Indeed, Switzerland always stands out in the global rankings when it comes to innovation. Yet there is nothing as dangerous as to rest on one's laurels, and this is particularly true for R&D-based businesses. For this reason CTI, the Commission for Technology and Innovation, offers Swiss companies quick and effective access to knowledge available at Swiss public research institutions, and to international R&D programs promoting application-oriented research. Knowledge and technology transfer are promoted - via its KTT support - through National Thematic Networks (NTNs), Innovation Mentors and information platforms. The following article highlights the activities of the National Thematic Networks and invites Swiss companies and research institutes to benefit from the multiple offers and services available.

  10. Study of bagasse/tapioca starch film preparation and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyang; Wei, Xiaoyi; Chang, Gang; Fu, Tiaokun; Cui, Lihong; Li, Jihua

    2017-06-01

    Bagasse/tapioca starch films (BT) were prepared with various contents of bagasse (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt% based on tapioca starch), and the effect of bagasse concentration was studied by the performance of the BT films. Then, the BT films characteristics were analyzed using the instruments about ultraviolet spectrophotometer (US), SEM, TGA and XRD. The dispersion of the bagasse became better with bagasse concentration increasing, the intermolecular hydrogen bonding became stronger while the transparency values of the films decreased.

  11. Novel technology to prepare oral formulations for preclinical safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Toshiyuki; Hashimoto, Naofumi

    2008-02-28

    A novel method to prepare oral formulations, normally suspended dosage form, for preclinical safety studies in animals has been developed using a rotation/revolution mixer. Small hard balls made of zirconia were added to the mixing process to evaluate effectiveness in making a high quality suspension. The driving with balls loaded in the cylindrical container (vessel) of the mixer was quite efficient in dispersing and milling the particles of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in an aqueous medium. The API powder and a small amount of oral aqueous medium (vehicle) were successfully mixed by the spinning motion of the balls in the vessel as though the paste-like suspension was kneaded with a mortar and pestle. It was found that the milled suspension with the mean size of 10-20microm could be prepared, in addition finer milling of less than 10microm could be achieved by selecting the material of vessel. Optimum driving conditions including mixing time, size and quantity of balls, and the standard operational procedure was established using compounds varying in physicochemical properties. The particle size and quantitative analysis by HPLC showed that the resultant suspension was well-milled and highly homogeneous with the nearly intended concentration of API. The proposed method established by this experiment could be applied to the actual safety studies in the real preparation scale of oral suspension.

  12. An action research study on the effect of an examination preparation course on Veterinary Technology National Examination scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Jennifer S.

    The action research project used for this dissertation was intended to examine the effect of implementing an examination preparation course for graduates taking the Veterinary Technology National Examination in Louisiana. Previous data showed that scores on the VTNE were declining at not only the state, but also the national level, thus allowing less graduates to enter the workforce as Registered Veterinary Technicians in Louisiana. The research question was "What impact did the exam prep course have on VTNE test scores?" The researcher focused on helping to better prepare graduates from a local community college Veterinary Technology program to take the VTNE by implementing an exam review course in the semester prior to graduation from the program. The focus of the review course was not only content review, but also test taking techniques, help with study habits, as well as presentation of techniques to help deal with test anxiety. Three sources of data were collected by the researcher including pre and post intervention VTNE scores, as well as survey results completed by the graduates participating in the study. There were 13 graduates who participated in the study, and the data for 50 prior graduates was used as a comparison for score improvement. Upon completion of the intervention, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that while the intervention did have a positive effect on the graduates in terms of feeling prepared for the exam, it did not improve VTNE scores. A survey was administered to the participants upon completion of the course, and thematic coding was used to analyze the qualitative data. Overall the results indicated the learners felt the course helped prepare them for the VTNE, and the majority recommended implementing it for future learners.

  13. Comparative study on Kasisa Bhasma prepared by two different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Dhirajsingh; Tekale, G. S.; Patgiri, BJ

    2011-01-01

    Preparation of bhasma (calcined powder of metal/minerals) includes various processing steps like purification (Shodhana), levigation (Bhavana),calcinations cycle(Marana), improving quality and removing blemishes (Amritikarana) etc, processing of bhasma aims at formation of herbo-mineral complex molecule which can act in minimal dosage, palatable, easy for assimilation, highly efficacious with minimal or no complication. Although the most important equipment mentioned for Marana i.e. cow dung cakes and some type of woods are not only difficult to collect but also expensive and create pollution during puta and it's difficult task to give controlled heat in traditional method. Hence, a Modified Portable Bhasma Nirman Yantra (MPBNY) was prepared for puta (equipment for calcination) procedure which is easy to handle, portable and facilitate to supply controlled heat. A comparative study was conducted on Kasisa Bhasma prepared by traditional method and by using MPBNY with special reference to physico-chemical properties. The prepared Kasisa Bhasma was subjected to modern analytical parameters such as A.A.S. (Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy), X.R.D. (X-ray Diffraction) and Ayurvedic parameters eg. Rekhapurnatva (bhasma should enters in between lines of finger), Varitaratva (bhasma should float on the surface of water), Niramlatva (bitter less), Apunarbhava (bhasma should not regain its metallic nature after strong heating with jiggery, Abrus precatorius linn., honey and ghee) and Niruttha (bhasma should not regain its metallic nature after strong heating with silver). It was observed that Kasisa Bhasma of both methods possesses similar organoleptic as well as physico-chemical properties. PMID:23284208

  14. Effects of acculturation, coping strategies, locus of control, and self-efficacy on chronic pain: study of Chinese immigrant women in Italy – insights from a thematic field analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Re TS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tania Simona Re,1 Nicola Luigi Bragazzi,1,2 Anna Siri,1 César Cisneros Puebla,3 Susanne Friese,4 Mário Simões,5 Joël Candau,6 Hicham Khabbache7 1UNESCO Chair “Health Anthropology, Biosphere and Healing Systems”, Genoa, Italy; 2Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL, School of Public Health, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 3Department of Sociology, Metropolitan Autonomous University-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco, Mexico; 4Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity, Göttingen, Germany; 5Medical Faculty, University of Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal; 6Laboratory of Anthropology and Cognitive and Social Psychology (LAPCOS, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France; 7Faculty of Literature and Humanistic Studies, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez, Morocco Abstract: Chronic pain represents a common public health concern worldwide. It is a complex phenomenon, owing to the interaction of different factors, including biological, physiological, psychological, environmental, and social variables. Some groups, such as women and immigrants, are particularly vulnerable. However, little is known about how Chinese women in Italy live with and face chronic pain. The present study aimed at filling this knowledge gap by examining the burden of chronic pain in Chinese immigrants in Italy in terms of acculturation processes, perceived control over disease, social networks, and coping strategies. A qualitative approach was used, performing a thematic field analysis. We interviewed 82 Chinese women from different Italian towns (Genoa, Milan, Turin, Bologna, Florence, and Prato in depth. The sense of belonging to the host culture was strong in our sample. However, this did not simply reflect or translate into a linear engagement with medical systems, as health care pathways were more complex and dual (both Chinese and Western. Chinese women who felt deeply rooted in the Italian environment did not discontinue the use of

  15. Evaluation of corn/soybeans separability using Thematic Mapper and Thematic Mapper Simulator data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, D. E.; Badhwar, G. D.; Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.; Shen, S. S.; Sorensen, C. T.; Carnes, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Multitemporal Thematic Mapper, Thematic Mapper Simulator, and detailed ground truth data were collected for a 9- by 11-km sample segment in Webster County, IA, in the summer of 1982. Three dates were acquired each with Thematic Mapper Simulator (June 7, June 23, and July 31) and Thematic Mapper (August 2, September 3, and October 21). The Thematic Mapper Simulator data were converted to equivalent TM count values using TM and TMS calibration data and model based estimates of atmospheric effects. The July 31, TMS image was compared to the August 2, TM image to verify the conversion process. A quantitative measure of proportion estimation variance (Fisher information) was used to evaluate the corn/soybeans separability for each TM band as a function of time during the growing season. The additional bands in the middle infrared allowed corn and soybeans to be separated much earlier than was possible with the visible and near-infrared bands alone. Using the TM and TMS data, temporal profiles of the TM principal components were developed. The greenness and brightness exhibited behavior similar to MSS greenness and brightness for corn and soybeans.

  16. Effects of acculturation, coping strategies, locus of control, and self-efficacy on chronic pain: study of Chinese immigrant women in Italy – insights from a thematic field analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Tania Simona; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Siri, Anna; Cisneros Puebla, César; Friese, Susanne; Simões, Mário; Candau, Joël; Khabbache, Hicham

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain represents a common public health concern worldwide. It is a complex phenomenon, owing to the interaction of different factors, including biological, physiological, psychological, environmental, and social variables. Some groups, such as women and immigrants, are particularly vulnerable. However, little is known about how Chinese women in Italy live with and face chronic pain. The present study aimed at filling this knowledge gap by examining the burden of chronic pain in Chinese immigrants in Italy in terms of acculturation processes, perceived control over disease, social networks, and coping strategies. A qualitative approach was used, performing a thematic field analysis. We interviewed 82 Chinese women from different Italian towns (Genoa, Milan, Turin, Bologna, Florence, and Prato) in depth. The sense of belonging to the host culture was strong in our sample. However, this did not simply reflect or translate into a linear engagement with medical systems, as health care pathways were more complex and dual (both Chinese and Western). Chinese women who felt deeply rooted in the Italian environment did not discontinue the use of traditional Chinese medicine. Chronic pain extensively and adversely affected daily life, particularly interfering with work. Coping strategies were mainly adaptive behaviors, being problem focused or maladaptive, relying upon “cope and avoid” mechanisms. Chinese women preferred to use traditional Chinese remedies rather than conventional medicine, while using the Italian system in emergencies. Perceived control over chronic pain was usually external. Finally, Chinese women with chronic pain benefit from social networks and support, which were mainly composed of Chinese peers. In conclusion, our findings underline the tremendous burden of chronic pain affecting all aspects of Chinese women’s lives. Health care workers and providers should be aware of the complexity of chronic pain Therefore, a holistic approach

  17. ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Multibody Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Multibody Dynamics : Computational Methods and Applications

    2016-01-01

    This book includes selected papers from the ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Multibody Dynamics, that took place in Barcelona, Spain, from June 29 to July 2, 2015. By having its origin in analytical and continuum mechanics, as well as in computer science and applied mathematics, multibody dynamics provides a basis for analysis and virtual prototyping of innovative applications in many fields of contemporary engineering. With the utilization of computational models and algorithms that classically belonged to different fields of applied science, multibody dynamics delivers reliable simulation platforms for diverse highly-developed industrial products such as vehicle and railway systems, aeronautical and space vehicles, robotic manipulators, smart structures, biomechanical systems,and nanotechnologies.

  18. Learning effects of thematic peer-review: A qualitative analysis of reflective journals on spiritual care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van L.J.; Tiesinga, L.J.; Jochemsen, H.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the learning effects of thematic peer-review discussion groups (Hendriksen, 2000. Begeleid intervisie model, Collegiale advisering en probleemoplossing, Nelissen, Baarn.) on developing nursing students’ competence in providing spiritual care. It also discusses the factors that

  19. Learning effects of thematic peer-review : A qualitative analysis of reflective journals on spiritual care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Rene; Tiesinga, Lucas J.; Jochemsen, Henk; Post, Doeke

    This study describes the learning effects of thematic peer-review discussion groups (Hendriksen, 2000. Begeleid intervisie model, Collegiate advisering en probleemoplossing, Nelissen, Baarn.) on developing nursing students' competence in providing spiritual care. It also discusses the factors that

  20. Landsat-D thematic mapper simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, G. F.; Tilton, E. L., III

    The design and testing program for the airborne Landsat-D thematic-mapper simulator (TMS) is summarized. The TMS is intended to provide data similar enough to those expected from Landsat-D to facilitate the development of data-processing software. The design process comprised mainly modifications on the existing MSS-simulator fiber optics, dichroics, and detectors to provide 7-channel coverage of the 0.45-12.3-micron range at 60-deg angle of view, corresponding to a 418-element, 13.8-km-wide ground swath. The TMS is carried on a Lear 23 aircraft operating at 750 km/h and 12-m altitude and equipped with a 15.2-cm aerial mapping camera and a ground-updated inertial navigational system. Agricultural, forestry, and geological trial applications are reviewed, and some sample results are given. The significant improvements predicted for the Landsat-D thematic mapper (relative to the Landsat MSS) are seen as confirmed, with the possible exception of the 120-m-resolution version of channel 7.

  1. Preparation and biological studies of 68Ga-DOTA-alendronate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Fakhari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In line with previous research on the development of conjugated bisphosphonate ligands as new bone-avid agents, in this study, DOTA conjugated alendronate (DOTA-ALN was synthesized and evaluated after labeling with gallium-68 (68Ga.Methods: DOTA-ALN was synthesized and characterized, followed by 68Ga-DOTA-ALN preparation, using DOTA-ALN and 68GaCl3 (pH: 4-5 at 92-95°C for 10 min. Stability tests, hydroxyapatite assay, partition coefficient calculation,biodistribution studies, and imaging were performed on the developed agent in normal rats.Results: The complex was prepared with high radiochemical purity (>99% as depicted by radio thin-layer chromatography; specific activity: 310-320GBq/mmol after solid phase purification and was stabilized for up to 90 min with a logP value of -2.91. Maximum ligand binding (65% was observed in the presence of 50 mg of hydroxyapatite; a major portion of the activity was excreted through the kidneys. With the exception of excretory organs, gastrointestinal tract organs, including the liver, intestine, and colon, showed significant uptake; however, the bone uptake was low (

  2. Study of barium bismuth titanate prepared by mechanochemical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Z.Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium-bismuth titanate, BaBi4Ti4O15 (BBT, a member of Aurivillius bismuth-based layer-structure perovskites, was prepared from stoichiometric amounts of barium titanate and bismuth titanate obtained via mechanochemical synthesis. Mechanochemical synthesis was performed in air atmosphere in a planetary ball mill. The reaction mechanism of BaBi4Ti4O15 and the preparation and characteristics of BBT ceramic powders were studied using XRD, Raman spectroscopy, particle analysis and SEM. The Bi-layered perovskite structure of BaBi4Ti4O15 ceramic forms at 1100 °C for 4 h without a pre-calcination step. The microstructure of BaBi4Ti4O15 exhibits plate-like grains typical for the Bi-layered structured material and spherical and polygonal grains. The Ba2+ addition leads to changes in the microstructure development, particularly in the change of the average grain size.

  3. [Study on technology in preparation of Fructus Auranti extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chongyao; Ye, Zhengliang; Li, Dekun; Zhou, Dazheng; Shui, Wenbo

    2011-11-01

    To optimize the method of Fructus Auranti extracts preparation. The extraction conditions and resin type were examined by using naringin as main indices. The sampling amount, the elution solvent and their flow rates were optimized. The recycling times and recovery capacity of resin were also studied. The best extraction could be obtained by adding 10 times amount of NaOH (pH 11) for 3 times, 1 hour each time. The purification conditions were specified as follows: using D101 macroporous resin, the sampling ratio of resin weight to raw material was 1:0.8 with a flow rate of 2 BV x h(-1) and 4 BV 50% aqueous ethanol as elusion solven. By using this method, the naringin in the product could reach above 30%. Besides, the optimum method is simple and practical.

  4. Preparation of Chitin, Study of Physicochemical Properties and Biopesticide Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Rohyami

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chitin was preparated from shrimp shells by chemically method. Preparation was carried out by deproteination shrimp shells powder < 150 mesh with 1 - 2 M NaOH, demineralization followed by reaction with 1.0 M HCl and depigmentation with (1 : 2 : 4, v/v of chloroform : methanol : water. Physicochemical properties of chitin was determined from characterization of infrared spectra, ash value, loss on drying and total of nitrogen. Biopesticide activities of chitin was done to pest Bemisia tabaci at guava leaves with various concentration from 0.5 to 2.0 % chitin on 3 % v/v acetic acid. This study indicated that concentration of NaOH on deproteination process effected to its physicochemicals properties. Effectivity of 2 M NaOH on deproteination reaction was higher than 1 M NaOH . The degree of chitin deacetylation from 2 M NaOH was 13.61% and had lower molar ratio of total nitrogen. The degree of deacetylation of chitin from 1 M NaOH had lower and had higher molar ratio of total nitrogen. Physicochemicals properties of chitin quite an impact on its ability to reduce pest Bemisia tabaci. Biopesticide activity assay showed that treatment for 2 days on average mortality rate of 13.83%. Deacetylation of chitin which has a higher degree have a greaterability biopesticide with a mortality rate of up to 38.24%. This study the effect of deproteination process to biopesticide activities of chitin.Key Words : chitin, degree of deacetilation, molar ratio, biopesticide, Bemisia tabaci

  5. Study on Root Canal Preparation with Endo Motor Tecnika Vision and Sealing of Root Canal Filing

    OpenAIRE

    藤原, 治; 佐々木, 重夫; 天野, 義和; フジワラ, オサム; ササキ, シゲオ; アマノ, ヨシカズ; Osamu, FUJIWARA; Shigeo, SASAKI; Yoshikazu, AMANO

    2008-01-01

    Because root canal preparation in root canal treatment takes long time, various special contraangle handpiece are developed to promote efficiency of root canal preparation. Root canal are prepared with computerized micro motor handpiece. The purpose of this study is to examine the time of root canal preparation and the difference of sealing efficiency of root canal fillings between exclusive point and other point after preparation in the cases of files Endo and motor technika vision, and to f...

  6. Steps for preparing uranium production feasibility studies: A guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    Uranium exploration, development and eventual production, form a series of progressive and logical steps. Each step is part of a progression of activities with the objective of obtaining new or additional information from which a crucial decision is to be made. This guidebook is primarily aimed at mineral management personnel in developing countries who have little or no experience in preparing feasibility studies in uranium production. It is not a textbook which describes the geology, mining or processing of uranium. This guidebook deals with the philosophy, basic principles and important factors in the various stages of economic evaluation of the project. This guidebook is primarily concerned with small to medium sized mining projects. However, it can also provide useful guidance for the initial study of larger mining projects. More detailed studies of larger projects, however, should be left to well known experts in the field. While the mineral commodity in question is uranium, the procedures and approaches outlined in this guidebook are generally applicable to the study of other commodities. Refs, figs, tabs

  7. Evaluation of research methods to study domestic food preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongoni, R.; Verkerk, R.; Dekker, M.; Steenbekkers, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Domestic preparation practices influence the sensory properties and nutritional composition of food products. Information on the variability in actual domestic preparation practices is needed to assess the influence of applied conditions on the sensory and nutritional quality of food. The

  8. Thematic procedures of the United Nations Commission on human rights and international law : in search of a sense of community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutter, Jeroen

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the so-called "thematic approach" as a method available to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights to take cognizance of and to react upon violations of human rights worldwide. To this end, three different thematic procedures, the Working Group on Enforced or

  9. The thematic plant life assessment network (PLAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.C.; McGarry, D. [EC/JRC Institute for Advanced Materials, Petten (Netherlands); Pedersen, H.H. [Brite Euram DG XII, Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-12-31

    The Plant Life Assessment Network (PLAN) is a Brite Euram Type II Thematic Network, initiated by the European Commission to facilitate structured co-operation between all cost shared action projects already funded by the Commission which fall under this common technical theme. The projects involved address a multiplicity of problems associated with plant life assessment and are drawn from Brite-Euram, Standards, Measurement and Testing, Nuclear Fission Safety and Esprit EC programmes. The main aim of the Network is to initiate, maintain and monitor a fruitful co-operation process between completed, ongoing and future EC R and D projects, thereby promoting improved cross fertilization and enhanced industrial exploitation of R and D results. As the project is in its infancy, this presentation covers the background to the initiative in some detail. In particular two key aspects are highlighted, namely, the requirement of the EC to launch such a network in the area of plant life assessment including its evolution from two small Thematic Research Actions and, secondly, the mechanism for structuring the Network in an ordered and proven way along the lines of the EC/JRC European Networks, PISC, NESC, AMES, ENIQ, ENAIS and EPERC. The operating and financial structure of the Network is detailed with reference made to the role of the executive Steering Committee, The Network Project Leader and the Network Financial Co-ordinator. Each of the 58 projects involved in the Network, representing a wide range of industrial sectors and disciplines, is distributed in terms of their efforts between 4 disciplinary Clusters covering Inspection, Instrumentation and Monitoring, Structural Mechanics and Maintenance. For each of these Clusters, an expert has been appointed as a Project Technical Auditor to support the elected Cluster Co-ordinator to define Cluster Tasks, which contribute to the overall objectives of the project. From the Project Representatives, Cluster Task Leaders and

  10. Studies on preparation of aceclofenac pellets by centrifugal granulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zibin GAO

    Full Text Available To prepare aceclofenac pellets by centrifugal granulation. Using 90~100 g of starch pellets as the core pellets,100 g of aceclofenac mixed with 50 g of microcrystalline cellulose(MCC and 4 g talc, methyl cellulose (HPMC as binder,the aceclofenac pellets were prepared by centrifugal granulation .And evaluate the quality of the pellets. The aceclofenac pellets had high yield and less losses,the pellets had a partical size of 0.70~0.88 mm(18~24 mesh)and had uniform particle size .the moisture ,drug content and dissolution meet the requirement . Aceclofenac pellets were prepared by the process of centrifugal granulation .The preparation prescription and process parameters were optimized by single factor method .and the pellets meet the standard requirements.

  11. Thematic tourism vs. mass tourism in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Červinka Michal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article titled Thematic Tourism vs. Mass Tourism in the Czech Republic is concerned with the relationship between thematic tourism, mass tourism and presuppositions of the tourism development. The authors aim is to compare the turnout of thematic tourism attractions and sights focused on mass tourism paying attention to presuppositions of the tourism development and barriers for the turnout of thematic monuments. Comparisons will be based on presuppositions of tourism development and will be based especially on the specifics of thematic tourism - as a marginal field within the tourism industry. The application part will focus on the comparison of sights with massive turnout in the Czech Republic and thematic landmarks as the subject of thematic tourism. Special attention will be paid to the comparison of the two most visited monuments in the Czech Republic as for mass tourism - the Charles Bridge, and the most visited monument as for thematic tourism - the hydro-power plant Dlouhé Stráně, a technical representative of thematic tourism. Both monuments were elected by general public on the list of Seven Wonders of the Czech Republic in 2013. The aim is to confirm / refute the hypothesis that quality preconditions of tourism development are essential for the development of tourism and visiting tourist attractions. The article will use secondary data analysis methods and author's own field research.

  12. Preparation and characterization studies of metaborates, Cu1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    annealing of the melt of stoichiometry, CuO⋅B2O3, at. 1000°C (Martinez-Ripoll et al 1971). Attempts to prepare. CBM (x = 0) by this method always ended with impuri- ties. Olaf Muller et al reported the preparation of FeBO3 using B2O3 flux and the reaction time was reduced con- siderably by the addition of small amount of ...

  13. Preparation and purification of organic samples for selenium isotope studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banning, Helena; Stelling, Monika; König, Stephan; Schoenberg, Ronny; Neumann, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an important micronutrient but also a strong toxin with a narrow tolerance range for many organisms. As such, a globally heterogeneous Se distribution in soils is responsible for various disease patterns (i.e. Se excess and deficiency) and environmental problems, whereby plants play a key role for the Se entrance into the biosphere. Selenium isotope variations were proved to be a powerful tracer for redox processes and are therefore promising for the exploration of the species dependent Se metabolism in plants and the Se cycling within the Critical Zone. Plant cultivation setups enable systematic controlled investigations, but samples derived from them-plant tissue and phytoagar-are particularly challenging and require specific preparation and purification steps to ensure precise and valid Se isotope analytics performed with HG-MC-ICP-MS. In this study, different methods for the entire process from solid tissue preparation to Se isotope measurements were tested, optimized and validated. A particular microwave digestion procedure for plant tissue and a vacuum filtration method for phytoagar led to full Se recoveries, whereby unfavorable organic residues were reduced to a minimum. Three purification methods predominantly described in the literature were systematically tested with pure Se solution, high concentrated multi-element standard solution as well as plant and phytoagar as target matrices. All these methods efficiently remove critical matrix elements, but differ in Se recovery and organic residues. Validation tests doping Se-free plant material and phytoagar with a reference material of known Se isotope composition revealed the high impact of organic residues on the accuracy of MC-ICP-MS measurements. Only the purification method with no detectable organic residues, hydride generation and trapping, results in valid mass bias correction for plant samples with an average deviation to true δ82/76Se values of 0.2 ‰ and a reproducibility (2 SD

  14. A Thematic Approach to Increasing Climate Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, R. J.; Schwerin, T. G.; Witiw, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA), an NSF, NASA, and NOAA supported program providing K-12 teacher professional development uses a thematic approach to frame participant inquiry. To address topics such as carbon sequestration, ocean acidification or aerosols, ESSEA online courses present participants with scenarios or contexts depicting an anomaly or perturbation to the Earth system. The courses deepen teachers’ content knowledge within an inquiry environment through reflection, analysis and self-discovery. Courses familiarize participants with Earth system analyses and provide a suite of techniques that can be employed to facilitate student learning, for example, through the use of Problem-based learning (PBL). Problem-based learning (PBL) is designed to "simultaneously develop both problem solving strategies and disciplinary knowledge bases and skills by placing students in the active role of problem-solvers confronted with an ill-structured problem that mirrors real-world problems.” PBL models are generally characterized by the following steps: 1) the presentation of a problem to a small group of students, 2) discussion of the problem among the students which produces tentative explanations of the problem, and 3) an attempt to solve the problem. When participants work to solve ill-structured problems, they are working toward learning generalized procedures for problem solving that will transfer to new situations (University of Delaware, 1999). At the end of an ESSEA course experience, teachers are better equipped with the content and the confidence in using inquiry in the teaching of climate science.

  15. ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Multibody Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fisette, Paul; Multibody Dynamics : Computational Methods and Applications

    2013-01-01

    This volume provides the international multibody dynamics community with an up-to-date view on the state of the art in this rapidly growing field of research which now plays a central role in the modeling, analysis, simulation and optimization of mechanical systems in a variety of fields and for a wide range of industrial applications. This book contains selected contributions delivered at the ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Multibody Dynamics, which was held in Brussels, Belgium and organized by the Université catholique de Louvain, from 4th to 7th July 2011.  Each paper reflects the State-of-Art in the application of Multibody Dynamics to different areas of engineering. They are enlarged and revised versions of the communications, which were enhanced in terms of self-containment and tutorial quality by the authors. The result is a comprehensive text that constitutes a valuable reference for researchers and design engineers which helps to appraise the potential for the application of multibody dynamics meth...

  16. Thematic Organization in MA TEFL Students' Argumentative, Cause and Effect, and Process Types of Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeideh Ahangari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is generally recognized that many second language learners have difficulties with cohesion in academic texts.  Writing seems to be the most difficult subject for many students. To produce good writing, it is necessary to know how to organize Theme and Rheme in a text. Thematic structure as an important feature in textual metafunction plays a significant role in promoting the textual coherence. This research is concerned with the insights presenting the relationship between theme and rheme derived from Systemic Functional Linguistics. Halliday (1994 claimed that the structuring of language as a message is realized in the thematic structures of the constituent clauses of a text. To Halliday, the basic unit for thematic analysis is the clause. Thereby, this study was an attempt to compare different thematic types and thematic progression patterns in EFL students' academic writing texts. For this purpose, the researcher selected 30 MA students of English language teaching as the participants of the study after administering a TOEFL test and excluding the outliers. Each participant was required to write three different types of argumentative, process and cause & affect compositions. The collected data were analyzed according to the Thematization process from the textual metafunction aspects. The results showed some differences in the thematic structure of the different types of compositions. The findings of this study have some implications to the EFL students. They can learn to perform the same analysis in their own writings; thus improving cohesion in their own texts. Theme/rheme plays a major role in organizing the message and in enabling it to be communicated and understood clearly.

  17. Studies on silicon quantum dots prepared at different working pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal A. Al-Agel

    Full Text Available This research work describes the synthesis and characterization of Si quantum dots of thickness 20 nm prepared on glass/quartz substrate by Physical Vapour Condensation Technique at the working pressure of 5 and 10 Torr with fixed substrate temperature 77 K using liquid nitrogen. The synthesized quantum dots were studied by FESEM, HRTEM, X-ray diffraction, UV–visible spectroscopy, photoluminescence and FTIR spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction pattern of synthesized quantum dots shows the amorphous nature. FESEM images of synthesized quantum dots suggest that the size of quantum dots varies from 4–6 nm which is further confirmed by HRTEM. On the basis of optical absorbance by UV–visible spectroscopy, a direct band gap has been detected. FTIR spectra suggest that the as-grown Si quantum dots are partially oxidized which is due exposure of samples to air after taking out the samples from the chamber. PL spectra show a broad peak at 444 nm, which may be attributed to the configuration of amorphous Si quantum dots. A slight shift in the peak position has been observed with increase in working pressure from 5 Torr to 10 Torr. The dc conductivity with temperature of Si quantum dots has also been studied from 303 to 454 K. It is evident that the dc conductivity (σdc enhances linearly with temperature, showing that conduction in Si quantum dots is due to an activated action which further verify the semiconductor deportment of these quantum dots. Keywords: Si quantum dots, Thin films, XRD, Optical properties, Electrical properties

  18. Semantic and Thematic List Learning of Second Language Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Javad; Khezrlou, Sima

    2014-01-01

    This article overviews research on second language vocabulary instruction with a specific focus on semantic and thematic vocabulary-clustering types. The theoretical benefits associated with both the semantic and thematic approaches, as well as the potential problems associated with them, are discussed. The conclusion drawn is that reinforcing the…

  19. Response to "Learning through Life": Thematic Area of Poverty Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This paper responds to the NIACE report "Learning through Life" in relation to the report's thematic area of poverty reduction. The paper draws on the thematic working papers that informed the report as well as wider literature on poverty. It takes a multidimensional perspective of poverty, drawing on Sen's concept of poverty as "unfreedom" and…

  20. Study on multipartite quantum states: preparation, simulation, and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruszynska, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis different problems are investigated related to the description as well as the manipulation of multipartite quantum states. Because of the superposition principle, the state of a composite quantum system can be entangled, i.e. exhibit quantum correlations between the sites. The entanglement of two-qubit systems is well understood. There is only one kind of entanglement which can be directly related to the value of the Schmidt coefficients. However this is not the case for multipartite entanglement of qubit systems. Unlike in the two-qubit case, a multipartite quantum state can be entangled in many different ways, which complicates the classification and characterization of such states. The storage and manipulation of a quantum state is a challenging task because of the decoherence resulting from the interaction of the state with its environment. One way to overcome this difficulty is to use entanglement purification which will be the subject of the first part of this thesis. Entanglement purification allows to extract a small number of nearly pure states out of a bigger set of mixed states. We review existing bipartite and multipartite entanglement purification protocols and introduce new protocols which are capable of purifying any graph state, enlarging by this the class of states which can be purified. The second part deals with the preparation and distribution of high-fidelity multi-party entangled states via noisy channels and operations. In the particular case of GHZ and cluster states, we study different strategies using bipartite or multipartite purification protocols. The most efficient strategy depends on the target fidelity one wishes to achieve and on the quality of transmission channel and local operations. We show the existence of a crossing point beyond which the strategy making use of the purification of the state as a whole is more efficient than a strategy in which pairs are purified before they are connected to the final state. We

  1. Explaining the persistence of false memories: a proposal based on associative activation and thematic extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Paula; Garcia-Marques, Leonel; Lapa, Ana; Fernandez, Angel

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to analyse the effect of retention intervals on associative and thematic false memories. Two experiments, using two types of critical items that were either associatively or thematically related to studied material, were conducted. In both experiments, one group of participants performed a recognition test immediately after the presentation of lists, and another group performed the task one week later. In Experiment 1, the recognition test consisted of pairs of items with four response alternatives (both items had been presented, only the left item had been presented, only the right item had been presented or none of the items had been presented). Critical items were also manipulated so that they were either presented in or absent from the list. In Experiment 2, a standard recognition test that differed in the mode of presentation was used: self-paced or speeded response. Both experiments showed that associative critical items were more recognised than thematic critical items in the immediate condition. However, whereas associative critical items decayed after a one-week delay, thematic critical items were similarly recognised at both retention intervals. The findings of the present study suggest that each type of process - associative and thematic - behave differently over time.

  2. Preparation of DNA films for studies under vacuum conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smialek, M. A.; Balog, Richard; Jones, N. C.

    2010-01-01

    to the evacuation process when films were formed from DNA samples in ultra high purity water only. A variety of bases were tested for their possible protective capabilities and sodium hydroxide solution was found to be the most effective in maintaining the supercoiled structure of plasmid DNA during the preparation...

  3. Study on the preparation and formation mechanism of barium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports a simple method to prepare barium sulphate nanoparticles by use of tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid and stearic acid as modifier. The barium sulphate nanoparticles obtained are characterized by using Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission ...

  4. Preparing Business Students for the Challenge Ahead: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Mary; Ho, To Ming

    2005-01-01

    In a rapidly changing society, business education needs to likewise change and evolve to remain relevant and useful. This paper looks at the graduates of one university in Hong Kong and examines how well they feel they are prepared for the world of work. Through the analysis of secondary data, an assessment was made of the success or otherwise of…

  5. Study of Preparation and Properties on Polymer-modified Magnetite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, polyacrylamide (PAM)-modified magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were prepared by in situ polymerization in aqueous solution. The particle size, morphology, crystal phase and magnetic properties were measured utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ...

  6. Recent study of nanomaterials prepared by inert gas condensation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ITO), ZnO, Al2O3, Ag2O, CdO, CuO, ZnSe:ZnO etc., were prepared by this technique and characterized. Results of some of these materials will be presented in this paper. In solid-state 207Pb NMR on PbF2 a separate signal due to the presence ...

  7. THEMATIC PROGRESSION VARIATION OF THE GREAT GATSBY ENGLISH-BAHASA INDONESIA TRANSLATIONAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Nursanti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The data-based research on which this article is based aimed at (1 describing the thematic progression variation of The Great Gatsby texts, (2 describing the contextual factors that motivate the variation in question, and (3 describing the effects of the variation on the texts as translational texts. The study applied a qualitative approach which employed a sematic-translational content analysis of qualitative and quantiative data. The results show that thematic progression variation falls into the low category at average indicated by the mean score of 0.76. The most prominent variation was repre-sented by the low category of variation. The variations were performed by adding or omitting Themes, splitting one units of thematic structure into more than one unit, downranking, not expressing and creating new clauses. The factors that motivate the variation are the different linguistic properties bet-ween English and Bahasa Indonesia and the situational contexts. In terms of effects, the variation caused dangling clauses which cannot be identified from which they are developed. Keywords: thematic progression, thematic structure, Theme, Rheme

  8. The effect of thematic learning model, learning style, and reading ability on the students’ learning outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurlaela, L.; Samani, M.; Asto, I. G. P.; Wibawa, S. C.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at gaining empirical findings of the effectiveness of thematic instructional model as compared to conventional instruction; and the potential capacity of thematic instructional model in accommodating different learning styles and reading abilities. This is an experimental research design with 140 elementary students as research subject. The data were collected by using achievement test, learning style questionnaire, and reading comprehension test, and analyzed by using Anava. The results indicate: there is a significant difference in achievement between students who use thematic instructional model and those using conventional model; a significant difference in achievement between students with visual learning style and those having auditorial learning style; a significant difference between students with high reading ability and those with low reading ability. Student’s achievement is influenced by the interaction between instructional model and student’s learning style. Student’s achievement is not influenced by the interaction between instructional model and student’s reading ability, the interaction between student’s learning style and student’s reading ability, and the interaction among instructional model, learning style and student’s reading ability. The conclusion is thematic instructional model was more effective than conventional instruction and thematic instructional model had a capacity in accommodating different learning styles and reading abilities.

  9. Thematic analysis of tiles painted by blood and marrow transplant patients during treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mische Lawson, L; Chau, J; Schoel, A

    2016-11-01

    The majority of research on understanding the illness focuses on analysing the written or verbal content. Thematic analysis of images is a novel qualitative approach that can enhance knowledge of the experience of illness. This study used thematic analysis to examine 171 tiles painted by patients through the Tiles of Hope programme in an outpatient blood and marrow transplant unit. Major themes identified in this study were Faith, Hope, Positive Attitude, Nature and Social Support. These themes provided a better understanding of patients' perceptions in relation to their experience with illness through the art-making process. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Variations in thematic mapper spectra of soil related to tillage and crop residue management - Initial evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, M. W.; Ruschy, D. L.; Linden, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    A cooperative research project was initiated in 1982 to study differences in thematic mapper spectral characteristics caused by variable tillage and crop residue practices. Initial evaluations of radiometric data suggest that spectral separability of variably tilled soils can be confounded by moisture and weathering effects. Separability of bare tilled soils from those with significant amounts of corn residue is enhanced by wet conditions, but still possible under dry conditions when recent tillage operations have occurred. In addition, thematic mapper data may provide an alternative method to study the radiant energy balance at the soil surface in conjunction with variable tillage systems.

  11. The Preparation of Cognitively Agile Principals for Turnaround Schools: A Leadership Preparation Programme Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Guerra, Daniel; Pisapia, John; Mick, Annie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of two educational leadership university programmes to improve the cognitive agility of their graduates. The research looked to discover whether the aspiring principals exited the programmes with an increased ability to employ cognitive agility--the ability to use the multiple thinking skills of…

  12. Pre-Service Special Education Teachers' Professionalism and Preparation in Terms of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zboon, Eman; Ahmad, Jamal

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at examining Jordanian pre-service special education teachers' professionalism and preparation on the topic of child sexual abuse (CSA). Qualitative research data from interviews with 20 pre-service special education teachers were analysed using thematic analysis. The results showed that these participants generally hold avoiding…

  13. Preparation and characterization of cadmium telluride. Study of nuclear spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornet, Alain.

    1976-01-01

    Cadmium telluride single crystals have been grown by three different methods: zone refining, Bridgman and travelling heater method (THM). Characterization has been undertaken especially on the THM ingots by different methods, including time of flight, thermally stimulated current and thermoluminescence. A theoretical level scheme approach has been used to establish the mechanism of self-compensation with halogens. Finally nuclear radiation detection has been prepared and investigated. The following parameters have been considered: detector efficiency, energy resolution, stability in time and under irradiation. Structure suppressing polarization effects in chlorine compensated THM samples are presented [fr

  14. [Studies on preparation technology of microspheres of contraceptives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Y; Lu, B

    1993-01-01

    Contraceptive poly ethylglycol-lactide (PEGL), an artificial biodegradable polymer microsphere was prepared by a solvent evaporation process using levonorgestrel (LNG) and estradiol (E2) as model drugs and PEGL as the core material. The experimental conditions were optimized, the mean volume diameter obtained being 30 microns and rate of encapsulation 75-82%. In vitro, it was found that the drug release rate decreased with decreasing drug content in the microspheres. The microspheres of the contraceptive maintained anticonception duration in mice for over 6 months, indicating that the microspheres have remarkably long acting sustained release action.

  15. Preparation and Use of Liposomes in Immunological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    single or a few intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) injections. An advantage to immunization with lipo- somes is that the...greater than one year.’’ Liposomes are prepared as described in Section V.A. Just prior to im- munization, the liposomes are mixed with alum ( aluminum ...approximately 10 mg of aluminum per ml. This stock suspension settles out on storage and must be resuspended by mixing on a rotary shaker for 5 h. The desired

  16. A study on preparation of 188Re-HEDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Duanzhi; Guo Zili; Zhang Jiong; Min Xiaofeng; Yu Junfeng; Li Busen; Hu Weiqing; He Weiyu; Wang Yongxian

    1999-01-01

    The development of a new potential bone pain palliation agent, 188 Re-HEDP, was described here. The ligand HEDP was synthesized giving a yield over 90% and the 188 Re-HEDP was prepared with generator-produced 188 Re. Labelling yield and radiochemical purity were determined by TLC and HPLC. The optimal labelling conditions were systematically investigated and the kit formulation was developed. The labelling efficiency of 188 Re-HEDP was greater than 95%, and the radiochemical purity was still over 90% after stored at 15 degree C for 12 hrs

  17. Study of nano-nitramine explosives: preparation, sensitivity and application

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Liu; Wei Jiang; Qing Yang; Jian Song; Ga-zi Hao; Feng-sheng Li

    2014-01-01

    Nano-nitramine explosives (RDX, HMX, CL-20) are produced on a bi-directional grinding mill. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations show that the prepared particles are semi-spherical, and the narrow size distributions are characterized using the laser particle size analyzer. Compared with the micron-sized samples, the nano-products show obvious decrease in friction and impact sensitivities. In the case of shock sensitivities, nano-products have lower values by 59.9% (RDX), 56.4% ...

  18. Study on fluorouracil–chitosan nanoparticle preparation and its antitumor effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaimin Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To successfully prepare fluorouracil–chitosan nanoparticles, and further analyze its anti-tumor activity mechanism, this paper makes a comprehensive study of existing preparation prescription and makes a detailed analysis of fluorouracil–chitosan in vitro release and pharmacodynamic behavior of animals. Two-step synthesis method is adopted to prepare 5-FU–CS–mPEG prodrugs, and infrared, 1H NMR and differential thermal analysis are adopted to analyze characterization synthetic products of prepared drugs. To ensure clinical efficacy of prepared drugs, UV spectrophotometry is adopted for determination of drug loading capacity of prepared drugs, transmission electron microscopy is adopted to observe the appearance, dynamic dialysis method is used to observe in vitro drug release of prepared drugs and fitting of various release models is done. Anti-tumor effect is studied via level of animal pharmacodynamics. After the end of the experiment, tumor inhibition rate, spleen index and thymus index of drugs are calculated. Experimental results show that the prepared drugs are qualified in terms of regular shape, dispersion, drug content, etc. Animal pharmacodynamics experiments have shown that concentration level of drug loading capacity of prepared drugs has a direct impact on anti-tumor rate. The higher the concentration, the higher the anti-tumor rate. Results of pathological tissue sections of mice show that the prepared drugs cause varying degrees of damage to receptor cells, resulting in cell necrosis or apoptosis problem. It can thus be concluded that ion gel method is an effective method to prepare drug-loading nanoparticles, with prepared nanoparticles evenly distributed in regular shape which demonstrate good slow-release characteristics in receptor vitro and vivo. At the same time, after completion of drug preparation, relatively strong anti-tumor activity can be generated for the receptor, so this mode of preparation enjoys broad

  19. Suicide Notes from India and the United States: A Thematic Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaars, Antoon A.; Girdhar, Shalina; Dogra, T. D.; Wenckstern, Susanne; Leenaars, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is a global concern, hence, cross-cultural research ought to be important; yet, there is a paucity of cross-cultural study in suicidology. This study sought to investigate suicide notes drawn from India and the United States, as these countries have similar suicide rates but markedly different cultures. A thematic or theoretical-conceptual…

  20. Automatic processing of semantic relations in fMRI: neural activation during semantic priming of taxonomic and thematic categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Olga; Weis, Susanne; Zellagui, Nadia; Huber, Walter; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Mathiak, Klaus; Kircher, Tilo

    2008-07-07

    Most current models of knowledge organization are based on hierarchical or taxonomic categories (animals, tools). Another important organizational pattern is thematic categorization, i.e. categories held together by external relations, a unifying scene or event (car and garage). The goal of this study was to compare the neural correlates of these categories under automatic processing conditions that minimize strategic influences. We used fMRI to examine neural correlates of semantic priming for category members with a short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of 200 ms as subjects performed a lexical decision task. Four experimental conditions were compared: thematically related words (car-garage); taxonomically related (car-bus); unrelated (car-spoon); non-word trials (car-derf). We found faster reaction times for related than for unrelated prime-target pairs for both thematic and taxonomic categories. However, the size of the thematic priming effect was greater than that of the taxonomic. The imaging data showed signal changes for the taxonomic priming effects in the right precuneus, postcentral gyrus, middle frontal and superior frontal gyri and thematic priming effects in the right middle frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate. The contrast of neural priming effects showed larger signal changes in the right precuneus associated with the taxonomic but not with thematic priming response. We suggest that the greater involvement of precuneus in the processing of taxonomic relations indicates their reduced salience in the knowledge structure compared to more prominent thematic relations.

  1. The cost of switching between taxonomic and thematic semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrigan, Jon-Frederick; Mirman, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Current models and theories of semantic knowledge primarily capture taxonomic relationships (DOG and WOLF) and largely do not address the role of thematic relationships in semantic knowledge (DOG and LEASH). Recent evidence suggests that processing or representation of thematic relationships may be distinct from taxonomic relationships. If taxonomic and thematic relations are distinct, then there should be a cost associated with switching between them even when the task remains constant. This hypothesis was tested using two different semantic-relatedness judgment tasks: Experiment 1 used a triads task and Experiment 2 used an oddball task. In both experiments, participants were faster to respond when the same relationship appeared on consecutive trials than when the relationship types were different, even though the task remained the same and the specific relations were different on each trial. These results are consistent with the theory that taxonomic and thematic relations rely on distinct processes or representations.

  2. SMEX03 Landsat Thematic Mapper NDVI and NDWI: Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) data set was developed from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for...

  3. Landsat 4-5 Thematic Mapper V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: The Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) is a sensor carried onboard Landsats 4 and 5 and has acquired images of the Earth nearly continuously from July 1982 to...

  4. The UNESCO Thematic Initiative ``Astronomy and World Heritage''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, Anna

    2016-10-01

    My presentation is divided into two parts: the first part retraces chronologically all the main achievements accomplished within the framework of this Thematic Initiative; the second provides key information regarding the nomination process.

  5. SMEX03 Landsat Thematic Mapper NDVI and NDWI: Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) data set was developed from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for...

  6. Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: The Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) is a sensor carried onboard the Landsat 7 satellite and has acquired images of the Earth nearly...

  7. 77 FR 6549 - Notice of Availability for Public Comment of Interconnection Facilities Studies Prepared for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    .... DOE hereby announces the availability for public comment of the Interconnection Studies prepared for... availability for public comment of the Interconnection Facilities Studies prepared as part of the application... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. PP-334] Notice of Availability for Public Comment of...

  8. Preparing students for graduate study: an eLearning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintz, Christine; Posey, Laurie

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the development and preliminary evaluation of an eLearning program intended to provide incoming nursing students with the basic knowledge, skills and abilities needed to succeed in graduate-level, online coursework. Using Mayer's principles (2008) for the effective design of multimedia instruction, an open-access, self-directed, online program was developed. The Graduate School Boot Camp includes five online modules focused on learning strategies and time management, academic writing, technology, research, and library skills. To motivate and engage learners, the program integrates a fun, graphical sports theme with audiovisual presentations, examples, demonstrations and practice exercises. Learners begin with a self-assessment based on the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire or MSLQ (Pintrich et al., 1993). To assess change in knowledge levels before and after completing the program, learners take a pre-test and post-test. Preliminary findings indicate that the students found the information relevant and useful. They enjoyed the self-paced, multimedia format, and liked the option to return to specific content later. This innovative program offers a way to prepare students proactively, and may prove useful in identifying students at risk and connecting them with the appropriate resources to facilitate successful program completion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of nano-nitramine explosives: preparation, sensitivity and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nano-nitramine explosives (RDX, HMX, CL-20 are produced on a bi-directional grinding mill. The scanning electron microscope (SEM observations show that the prepared particles are semi-spherical, and the narrow size distributions are characterized using the laser particle size analyzer. Compared with the micron-sized samples, the nano-products show obvious decrease in friction and impact sensitivities. In the case of shock sensitivities, nano-products have lower values by 59.9% (RDX, 56.4% (HMX, and 58.1% (CL-20, respectively. When nano-RDX and nano-HMX are used in plastic bonded explosives (PBX as alternative materials of micron-sized particles, their shock sensitivities are significantly decreased by 24.5% (RDX and 22.9% (HMX, and their detonation velocities are increased by about 1.7%. Therefore, it is expected to promote the application of nano-nitramine explosives in PBXs and composite modified double-based propellants (CMDBs so that some of their properties would be improved.

  10. Systematic studies of tannin–formaldehyde aerogels: preparation and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral-Labat, Gisele; Szczurek, Andrzej; Fierro, Vanessa; Pizzi, Antonio; Celzard, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Gelation of tannin–formaldehyde (TF) solutions was systematically investigated by changing pH and concentration of TF resin in water. In this way we constructed the TF phase diagram, from which chemical hydrogels could be described, and also synthesized thermoreversible tannin-based hydrogels. Conditions of non-gelation were also determined. Hydrogels were dried in supercritical CO 2 , leading to a broad range of TF aerogels. The latter were investigated for volume shrinkage, total porosity, micro-, meso- and macropore volumes, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area, microscopic texture, mechanical and thermal properties. All these properties are discussed in relation to each other, leading to an accurate and self-consistent description of these bioresource-based highly porous materials. The conditions for obtaining the highest BET surface area or mesopore volume were determined and explained in relation to the preparation conditions. The highest BET surface area, 880 m 2 g −1 , is remarkably high for organic aerogels derived from a natural resource. (paper)

  11. Systematic studies of tannin-formaldehyde aerogels: preparation and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral-Labat, Gisele; Szczurek, Andrzej; Fierro, Vanessa; Pizzi, Antonio; Celzard, Alain

    2013-02-01

    Gelation of tannin-formaldehyde (TF) solutions was systematically investigated by changing pH and concentration of TF resin in water. In this way we constructed the TF phase diagram, from which chemical hydrogels could be described, and also synthesized thermoreversible tannin-based hydrogels. Conditions of non-gelation were also determined. Hydrogels were dried in supercritical CO2, leading to a broad range of TF aerogels. The latter were investigated for volume shrinkage, total porosity, micro-, meso- and macropore volumes, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, microscopic texture, mechanical and thermal properties. All these properties are discussed in relation to each other, leading to an accurate and self-consistent description of these bioresource-based highly porous materials. The conditions for obtaining the highest BET surface area or mesopore volume were determined and explained in relation to the preparation conditions. The highest BET surface area, 880 m2 g-1, is remarkably high for organic aerogels derived from a natural resource.

  12. Impact of bowel preparation type on the quality of colonoscopy: a multicenter community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel; Walayat, Saqib; Ahmed, Zohair; Dhillon, Sonu; Asche, Carl V; Puli, Srinivas; Ren, Jinma

    2016-01-01

    High-quality bowel preparation is crucial for achieving the goals of colonoscopy. However, choosing a bowel preparation in clinical practice can be challenging because of the many formulations. This study aims to assess the impact the type of bowel preparation on the quality of colonoscopy in a community hospital setting. A retrospective, observational study was conducted utilizing a colonoscopy screening/surveillance database in central Illinois during the period of January 1, 2010, to March 31, 2014. Patients without bowel preparation assessment were excluded from this study. Controlling for the confounders, generalized linear models were used to estimate the adjusted impact [odds ratio (OR)] of bowel preparation type on the quality of preparation (excellent, good, fair, and poor), and on the detection of advanced adenoma. The association between the time of withdrawal after insertion and the quality of preparation was also examined using a linear model. A total of 28,368 colonoscopies; half the patients were male, and the average age was 61±9 years. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used in the majority (70.2%) of bowel preparations, followed by sodium sulfate (21.4%), sodium phosphate (2.5%), magnesium sulfate (0.4%), and others. Compared with PEG, magnesium sulfate had a poorer quality of bowel preparations (OR=0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9; ppreparation was significantly improved by using sodium sulfate (OR=5.7, 95% CI 5.4-6.1; p2.1, 95% CI 1.8-2.5; ppreparation, the better quality of preparation significantly increased the detection rate of advanced adenoma (5.0, 3.6, and 2.9% for excellent, good, and fair, respectively). When possible, sodium sulfate-based preparations should be recommended in the community setting for colonoscopy because of their high quality of bowel preparation.

  13. Promoting of Thematic-Based Integrated Science Learning on the Junior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursitasari, Indarini Dwi; Nuryanti, Siti; Rede, Amran

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to explain the effect of thematic based integrated science learning to the student's critical thinking skills and character. One group pretest-posttest design is involving thirty students in one of the junior high school in the Palu city. A sample was taken using purposive sampling. Data of critical thinking skills…

  14. The Comparison of a Thematic versus Regional Approach to Teaching a World Geography Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korson, Cadey; Kusek, Weronika

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of a regional or thematic approach to the study and presentation of world geography have long been debated. The goal to not reimagine these debates or to promote one approach over another; the aim is to explore how world geography courses are currently being taught in American universities. By polling and sharing information about…

  15. A Thematic and Stylistic Analysis of Aidoo's Novels and Short Stories

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempts a comparative analysis of the thematic and stylistic representation of womanhood in Ama Ata Aidoo's novels, Our Sister Killjoy and Changes: A Love Story, and collections of short stories, No Sweetness Here and The Girl Who Can and Other Stories. Some of the recurrent themes in Aidoo's fiction include ...

  16. Curriculum change in Uganda: teacher perspectives on the new thematic curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altinyelken, H.K.

    2010-01-01

    Based on a fieldwork study, this article seeks to investigate the implementation of ‘thematic curriculum’ in Uganda from the perspectives of teachers. The article shows that although the majority of teachers are enthusiastic about the new curriculum, their implementation efforts are constrained by a

  17. Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harden Angela

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing recognition of the value of synthesising qualitative research in the evidence base in order to facilitate effective and appropriate health care. In response to this, methods for undertaking these syntheses are currently being developed. Thematic analysis is a method that is often used to analyse data in primary qualitative research. This paper reports on the use of this type of analysis in systematic reviews to bring together and integrate the findings of multiple qualitative studies. Methods We describe thematic synthesis, outline several steps for its conduct and illustrate the process and outcome of this approach using a completed review of health promotion research. Thematic synthesis has three stages: the coding of text 'line-by-line'; the development of 'descriptive themes'; and the generation of 'analytical themes'. While the development of descriptive themes remains 'close' to the primary studies, the analytical themes represent a stage of interpretation whereby the reviewers 'go beyond' the primary studies and generate new interpretive constructs, explanations or hypotheses. The use of computer software can facilitate this method of synthesis; detailed guidance is given on how this can be achieved. Results We used thematic synthesis to combine the studies of children's views and identified key themes to explore in the intervention studies. Most interventions were based in school and often combined learning about health benefits with 'hands-on' experience. The studies of children's views suggested that fruit and vegetables should be treated in different ways, and that messages should not focus on health warnings. Interventions that were in line with these suggestions tended to be more effective. Thematic synthesis enabled us to stay 'close' to the results of the primary studies, synthesising them in a transparent way, and facilitating the explicit production of new concepts and hypotheses

  18. The Role Of The Integrated, Thematic Project To Learning Progress Of The Child In The Early Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Cornelia Stoian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have proposed to present you the results of an empirical research in order to identify the positive aspects of the integrated, thematic project in learning progress of children in preschool. Using the observation method, we analyzed children's results regarding the objectives in the respect to the objectives in the grid. Children's progress in learning represents the confirmation and affirmation of the role of this integrated, thematic project in supporting the early learning child.

  19. A Comparative Study of Leadership Preparation Programs in Gama (Brazil) and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges-Gatewood, Mara Rubia Fonseca; McNeal, Larry

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the relationship, if any, between leadership preparation programs types and how well school administrators are prepared to set a widely shared vision, develop a school culture, effectively manage school operations and resources, collaborate with faculty and community members, act with integrity and…

  20. TOGAF version 9 foundation study guide preparation for the TOGAF 9 Part 1 examination

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This document is a Study Guide for TOGAF™ 9 Foundation.It gives an overview of every learning objective for the TOGAF 9 Foundation Syllabus and in-depth coverage on preparing and taking the TOGAF 9 Part 1 Examination. It is specifically designed to help individuals prepare for certification.

  1. The Effect of Full Crown Preparation on Normal and Inflamed Pulp Tissue: An Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bidar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Full crown preparation may have adverse effects on pulp tissue. In this study, the effect of full-crown preparation on intact versus inflamed pulp tissue was studied. Methods: Fifteen healthy mature cats were randomly selected for this study. The study was performed on four canine teeth of each cat. Cats were anesthetized and then radiographs were taken from the canine teeth. Class V cavities were prepared in cat canine teeth. Soft decayed dentin was placed on the floor of cavities and sealed. After 1 month, all of the samples prepared for crown fabrication. Before crown preparation, an impression was taken in a custom tray. During crown preparation, the remnants of carious dentin were removed and undercuts were sealed by glass-ionomer. After preparation, self-cured acrylic temporary crowns were fabricated in a direct procedure and cemented permanently by glass-ionomer. One week later, teeth of the opposite jaw were prepared in a similar procedure. After 2 months, vital perfusion performed and the pulp tissue was histologically examined. Results: There was no significant difference between 4 groups, regarding to histologic status of the pulp. In healthy lower jaw, inflammation was the most frequent but in the other groups, necrosis was most frequent. Also, there was no significant difference between the upper jaw and the lower jaw groups regarding to the frequency of necrosis and inflammation. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between intact and inflamed groups regarding the frequency of necrosis and inflammation

  2. The Effect of Full Crown Preparation on Normal and Inflamed Pulp Tissue: An Animal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Vardkar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Full crown preparation may have adverse effects on pulp tissue. In this study, the effect of full-crown preparation on intact versus inflamed pulp tissue was studied. Methods: Fifteen healthy mature cats were randomly selected for this study. The study was performed on four canine teeth of each cat. Cats were anesthetized and then radiographs were taken from the canine teeth. Class V cavities were prepared in cat canine teeth. Soft decayed dentin was placed on the floor of cavities and sealed. After 1 month, all of the samples prepared for crown fabrication. Before crown preparation, an impression was taken in a custom tray. During crown preparation, the remnants of carious dentin were removed and undercuts were sealed by glass-ionomer. After preparation, self-cured acrylic temporary crowns were fabricated in a direct procedure and cemented permanently by glass-ionomer. One week later, teeth of the opposite jaw were prepared in a similar procedure. After 2 months, vital perfusion performed and the pulp tissue was histologically examined. Results: There was no significant difference between 4 groups, regarding to histologic status of the pulp. In healthy lower jaw, inflammation was the most frequent but in the other groups, necrosis was most frequent. Also, there was no significant difference between the upper jaw and the lower jaw groups regarding to the frequency of necrosis and inflammation. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between intact and inflamed groups regarding the frequency of necrosis and inflammation

  3. Limited-preparation CT colonography in frail elderly patients: a feasibility study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2010-05-01

    Full colonic preparation can be onerous and may be poorly tolerated in frail elderly patients. The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess the image quality and diagnostic yield of limited-preparation CT colonography (CTC) in elderly patients with suspected colorectal cancer who were deemed medically unfit or unsuitable for colonoscopy.

  4. The Preparation of Teacher Candidates for K-12 Online Learning Environments: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nicole V.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how teacher education programs may better prepare teacher candidates to teach in K-12 online learning environments. The primary research question addressed was: What specific knowledge, skills, and dispositions should teacher education programs include in their curriculum to better prepare teacher…

  5. Medical Student Professionalism Narratives: A Thematic Analysis and Interdisciplinary Comparative Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Aaron W

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Professionalism development is influenced by the informal and hidden curriculum. The primary objective of this study was to better understand this experiential learning in the setting of the Emergency Department (ED. Secondarily, the study aimed to explore differences in the informal curriculum between Emergency Medicine (EM and Internal Medicine (IM clerkships. Methods A thematic analysis was conducted on 377 professionalism narratives from medical students completing a required EM clerkship from July 2008 through May 2010. The narratives were analyzed using established thematic categories from prior research as well as basic descriptive characteristics. Chi-square analysis was used to compare the frequency of thematic categories to prior research in IM. Finally, emerging themes not fully appreciated in the established thematic categories were created using grounded theory. Results Observations involving interactions between attending physician and patient were most abundant. The narratives were coded as positive 198 times, negative 128 times, and hybrid 37 times. The two most abundant narrative themes involved manifesting respect (36.9% and spending time (23.7%. Both of these themes were statistically more likely to be noted by students on EM clerkships compared to IM clerkships. Finally, one new theme regarding cynicism emerged during analysis. Conclusions This analysis describes an informal curriculum that is diverse in themes. Student narratives suggest their clinical experiences to be influential on professionalism development. Medical students focus on different aspects of professionalism depending on clerkship specialty.

  6. Medical student professionalism narratives: a thematic analysis and interdisciplinary comparative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Aaron W; Malone, Matthew; Kman, Nicholas E; Caterino, Jeffrey M; Khandelwal, Sorabh

    2011-08-12

    Professionalism development is influenced by the informal and hidden curriculum. The primary objective of this study was to better understand this experiential learning in the setting of the Emergency Department (ED). Secondarily, the study aimed to explore differences in the informal curriculum between Emergency Medicine (EM) and Internal Medicine (IM) clerkships. A thematic analysis was conducted on 377 professionalism narratives from medical students completing a required EM clerkship from July 2008 through May 2010. The narratives were analyzed using established thematic categories from prior research as well as basic descriptive characteristics. Chi-square analysis was used to compare the frequency of thematic categories to prior research in IM. Finally, emerging themes not fully appreciated in the established thematic categories were created using grounded theory. Observations involving interactions between attending physician and patient were most abundant. The narratives were coded as positive 198 times, negative 128 times, and hybrid 37 times. The two most abundant narrative themes involved manifesting respect (36.9%) and spending time (23.7%). Both of these themes were statistically more likely to be noted by students on EM clerkships compared to IM clerkships. Finally, one new theme regarding cynicism emerged during analysis. This analysis describes an informal curriculum that is diverse in themes. Student narratives suggest their clinical experiences to be influential on professionalism development. Medical students focus on different aspects of professionalism depending on clerkship specialty.

  7. In Vitro Study of Release of Metronidazole Tablets Prepared from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of okra gum to release it\\'s medicament in bioadhesive polymer-based drug delivery system. Bioadhesive studies using the tensiometer were done to evaluate its bioadhesivenes. Conventional tablets were made with okra gum as binder and in-vitro release studies carried out ...

  8. Establishing the Thematic Structure and Investigating the most Prominent Theta Roles Used in Sindhi Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Ali Veesar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the thematic structure of the Sindhi verbs to find theta roles in the Sindhi language. The study tries to answer the research questions; “What are the thematic structures of Sindhi verbs?” and “What are the prominent theta roles in the Sindhi language?” It examines the argument/thematic structure of Sindhi verbs and also finds the theta roles assigned by the Sindhi verbs to their arguments along with the most prominent theta roles used in the Sindhi language. The data come from the two interviews taken from two young native Sindhi speakers, which consist of 2 hours conversation having 1,669 sentences in natural spoken version of the Sindhi language. Towards the end, it has been found that the Sindhi language has certain theta roles which are assigned by the verbs to their arguments in sentences. Each verb phrase in our data is thus examined and studied in detail in terms of Argument/Thematic structure in order to find theta roles in Sindhi language. Thus, in this regard, each verb phrase (in a sentence has been examined with the help of Carnie’s theoretical framework (Thematic Relation and Theta Roles: 2006 in order to find the prominent theta roles in the Sindhi language. The data have been examined and analysed on the basis of the Carnie’s theoretical framework. The study finds that the Sindhi language has all (09 theta roles which have been proposed by Carnie (2006. It has been found that six prominent theta roles out of nine are used prominently in Sindhi. The six prominent theta roles in Sindhi language are: agent, theme, beneficiary, recipient, locative and goal.

  9. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic studies of Cu 2, Sn ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The precursor and substituted compounds were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, SEM-EDS and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra. Nitrogen substitution into K5Sb5P2O20 lattice was studied by O-N-H and XPS measurements. The photocatalytic activity of all the compounds was studied by degradation of ...

  10. Enhancing Visitor Experiences Using Thematic Interpretation in Park Guiding Service in Sarawak National Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Victor Luna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing visitor experiences is arguably the primary and most important goal for interpretation by many protected area managers and tourism business. However, little research has been conducted in Sarawak, Malaysia to directly quantify the effects of thematic interpretation has on tourist experiences. Drawing on the TORE-model of interpretation and through the inception of Park Guiding Training and Licensing System in Sarawak since 2007, this quantitative study examines the effectiveness of thematic interpretive guided tours delivered by park guides at Bako National Park, Sarawak, with the assumption that it will further enhance visitor experiences. A descriptive analysis and Pearson's product-moment correlation analysis of sub-indicators of the global evaluation of interpretation of site, and sub-indicators of elaboration surveyed from visitors of purposively sampled park guides revealed a strong measurement and correlation coefficients of visitors’ overall quality of thematic intepretive guided tours effecting visitor satisfaction and experiences. These findings provide empirical evidence that good thematic interpretive guided tour makes a positive impacts on visitor experiences, thus making training of tourism businesses' employees as park guides as a good investment. The suggestions for further research in influencing visitor attitude and shaping visitor behaviour are offered.

  11. Use of Bristol Stool Form Scale to predict the adequacy of bowel preparation - a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, A; Shah, N; Depasquale, J; Baddoura, W; Spira, R; Rector, T

    2016-02-01

    Inadequate bowel preparation continues to be a substantial problem for colonoscopy. The seven-point Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) has been associated with delayed colonic transit in adults. We evaluated the utility of the BSFS to identify patients more likely to present with an inadequate preparation. Two large community-based academic medical centres in New Jersey, USA, studied a prospective cohort of 411 consecutive patients undergoing outpatient colonoscopy who were prescribed similar bowel preparations. The BSFS and several other study variables were collected by gastroenterology fellows during an outpatient visit prior to scheduling colonoscopy. All colonoscopy examinations were performed in the morning by a gastroenterologist who graded the adequacy of bowel preparation. Inadequate preparation was defined as one resulting in a repeat colonoscopy at a shorter time interval than would generally be recommended based solely on risk factors or pathological findings. The ability of study variables to discriminate those who did or did not have an adequate preparation was summarized by the c-statistic. The relationship between variables that provided some discrimination and the probability of an adequate preparation was modelled using logistic regression. The mean age of the study sample was 56 ± 8 (SD) years and 63% were women. Bowel preparation was adequate in 337 (82%) of the patients. The BSFS ratings ranged from 1 to 7. The score was <3 in 144 (35%) indicating lower gastrointestinal motility. There was a statistically significant association between the score and the probability of an adequate bowel preparation (odds ratio 1.4; 95% confidence interval 1.2-1.7; P < 0.001) and the c-statistic was 0.64 (0.58-0.70). Use of the BSFS may help identify patients for whom standard bowel preparation most probably will not be adequate. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  12. Preparation of a Feasibility Study for New Nuclear Power Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    A feasibility study represents an important step in the development of a new build nuclear power plant project. It is a complex but necessary step to determine whether a business opportunity is possible, practical and viable. Technical, economical, financial, regulatory, social, environmental aspects of a nuclear power plant programme need to be considered to allow authorities to make informed decisions regarding the possible implementation of the project This publication assists Member States in developing a feasibility study for nuclear power projects and provides guidance to users who are planning to perform such a study, with consideration of both the technical and process areas. These guidelines condense the experience of individuals involved in previous feasibility study efforts and provide industry best practices in order to maximize the usefulness of any results

  13. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic studies of Cu , Sn ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K5Sb5P2O20 lattice was studied by O-N-H and XPS measurements. The photocatalytic activity of all the com- pounds was studied by degradation of methylene blue and methyl violet. The ion-substituted K5Sb5P2O20 have shown higher photocatalytic activity against both the dyes. The role of reactive intermediate species ...

  14. A Thematic Analysis of Mothers' Motivations for Blogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Archer, Catherine; Harrigan, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Introduction Various forms of social media are used by many mothers to maintain social ties and manage the stress associated with their parenting roles and responsibilities. 'Mommy blogging' as a specific type of social media usage is a common and growing phenomenon, but little is known about mothers' blogging-related experiences and how these may contribute to their wellbeing. This exploratory study investigated the blogging-related motivations and goals of Australian mothers. Methods An online survey was emailed to members of an Australian online parenting community. The survey included open-ended questions that invited respondents to discuss their motivations and goals for blogging. A thematic analysis using a grounded approach was used to analyze the qualitative data obtained from 235 mothers. Results Five primary motivations for blogging were identified: developing connections with others, experiencing heightened levels of mental stimulation, achieving self-validation, contributing to the welfare of others, and extending skills and abilities. Discussion These motivations are discussed in terms of their various properties and dimensions to illustrate how these mothers appear to use blogging to enhance their psychological wellbeing.

  15. Thematic Minireview Series: The State of the Cytoskeleton in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Robert S; Fowler, Velia M

    2015-07-10

    The study of cytoskeletal polymers has been an active area of research for more than 70 years. However, despite decades of pioneering work by some of the brightest scientists in biochemistry, cell biology, and physiology, many central questions regarding the polymers themselves are only now starting to be answered. For example, although it has long been appreciated that the actin cytoskeleton provides contractility and couples biochemical responses with mechanical stresses in cells, only recently have we begun to understand how the actin polymer itself responds to mechanical loads. Likewise, although it has long been appreciated that the microtubule cytoskeleton can be post-translationally modified, only recently have the enzymes responsible for these modifications been characterized, so that we can now begin to understand how these modifications alter the polymerization and regulation of microtubule structures. Even the septins in eukaryotes and the cytoskeletal polymers of prokaryotes have yielded new insights due to recent advances in microscopy techniques. In this thematic series of minireviews, these topics are covered by some of the very same scientists who generated these recent insights, thereby providing us with an overview of the State of the Cytoskeleton in 2015. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. The Conceptual Framework of Thematic Mapping in Case Conceptualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Charles R; Jeffrey, Christina E

    2017-04-01

    This article, the 3rd in a series of 5, introduces the conceptual framework for thematic mapping, a novel approach to case conceptualization. The framework is transtheoretical in that it is not constrained by the tenets or concepts of any one therapeutic orientation and transdiagnostic in that it conceptualizes clients outside the constraints of diagnostic criteria. Thematic mapping comprises 4 components: a definition, foundational principles, defining features, and core concepts. These components of the framework, deemed building blocks, are explained in this article. Like the foundation of any structure, the heuristic value of the method requires that the building blocks have integrity, coherence, and sound anchoring. We assert that the conceptual framework provides a solid foundation, making thematic mapping a potential asset in mental health treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Impact of bowel preparation type on the quality of colonoscopy: a multicenter community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Martin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-quality bowel preparation is crucial for achieving the goals of colonoscopy. However, choosing a bowel preparation in clinical practice can be challenging because of the many formulations. This study aims to assess the impact the type of bowel preparation on the quality of colonoscopy in a community hospital setting. Methods: A retrospective, observational study was conducted utilizing a colonoscopy screening/surveillance database in central Illinois during the period of January 1, 2010, to March 31, 2014. Patients without bowel preparation assessment were excluded from this study. Controlling for the confounders, generalized linear models were used to estimate the adjusted impact [odds ratio (OR] of bowel preparation type on the quality of preparation (excellent, good, fair, and poor, and on the detection of advanced adenoma. The association between the time of withdrawal after insertion and the quality of preparation was also examined using a linear model. Results: A total of 28,368 colonoscopies; half the patients were male, and the average age was 61±9 years. Polyethylene glycol (PEG was used in the majority (70.2% of bowel preparations, followed by sodium sulfate (21.4%, sodium phosphate (2.5%, magnesium sulfate (0.4%, and others. Compared with PEG, magnesium sulfate had a poorer quality of bowel preparations (OR=0.6, 95% CI 0.4–0.9; p<0.05, whereas the quality of bowel preparation was significantly improved by using sodium sulfate (OR=5.7, 95% CI 5.4–6.1; p<0.001 and sodium phosphate (OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.8–2.5; p<0.001. For those who had adequate bowel preparation, the better quality of preparation significantly increased the detection rate of advanced adenoma (5.0, 3.6, and 2.9% for excellent, good, and fair, respectively. Conclusion: When possible, sodium sulfate–based preparations should be recommended in the community setting for colonoscopy because of their high quality of bowel preparation.

  18. Thematic irony in the story of Susanna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... ironic expressions, words and incidents featuring in Susanna. The approach followed ... The main techniques of irony that are available to authors and that will be followed by this study include the ironic use of ..... Jewish people, here, are manipulated and without 'critical examination or knowledge of the ...

  19. Educating for Global Perspectives: A Study of Teacher Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolea, Cyndi Mottola; Russell, William B., III

    2015-01-01

    Multiple global education frameworks have suggested that two keys to globalizing teacher education curricula are the integration of global content courses and participation in co-curricular cross-cultural experiences. Therefore, this study sought to determine the extent to which global content courses and co-curricular cross-cultural experiences…

  20. preparation, spectroscopic studies and x-ray structure of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Molar conductance measurements in dmf indicate 1:3 electrolytes in all cases. Magnetic moment values are close proximity of the Van Vleck values. IR studies suggest the coordination of the ligand is through the azomethine, the phenolic oxygen atom and the carbonyl oxygen of the hydrazonic moiety. The nitrate ion is also ...

  1. Potential utility of the thematic mapper for surface mine monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irons, J.R.; Lachowski, H.M.

    1981-01-01

    One of many potential applications of the thematic mapper (TM) is surface mine monitoring. To assess this potential, data acquired by an aircraft multispectral scanner over Pennsylvania surface mines were preprocessed to simulate the anticipated spectral, spatial, and radiometric characteristics of TM data. False color imagery and thematic maps were derived from the simulated data and compared to imagery and maps derived from LANDSAT multispectral scanner subsystems data. On the basis of this comparison, TM data should definitely increase the detail and accuracy of remotely acquired surface mine information and may enable the remote determination of compliance with reclamation regulations

  2. The thematic framework of Christmas orations by Venclović

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Maja M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines Christmas orations delivered by Gavrilo Stefanović Venclović to Komoran congregation from 1739 to 1743, the records of which are to be found in the anthology of orations, entitled Slova izbrana (1743. Particular attention has been paid to the thematic framework and to defining thematic layers, but in their correlation. In addition to that, the integral part of the analysis is identifying the Church Fathers' notional concepts as patterns to orations by Venclović.

  3. Are graduated intensivists prepared for practice? : A case study from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Ids S.; Brand, Paul L. P.; Pols, Jan; Delwig, Hans; Jaarsma, Debbie A. D. C.; Tulleken, Jaap E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: An evaluation of the alignment between intensive care medicine (ICM) training and practice provides valuable information for the development of ICM training. Therefore this study examines how well recently licensed intensivists feel prepared for practice and whether intensivists from

  4. Studies on the lanthanum arsenate ion-exchanger: preparation, physicochemical properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, A.K.; Mandal, S.K.

    1984-01-01

    The cation-exchange behaviour of lanthanum arsenate has been studied. This paper reports the preparation and physicochemical properties of the exchanger. Its analytical utility is compared with that of other arsenate exchangers. Some practical analytical applications are described. (author)

  5. Radiochemical studies of some preparation methods for phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos-Neskovic, C.; Fedoroff, M.

    1983-01-01

    Various methods of radiochemical separation were tested for the determination of phosphorus in metals and alloys by neutron activation analysis. Classical methods of separation revealed some defects when they were applied to this problem. Methods using liquid extraction gave low yields and were not reproducible. Methods based on precipitation gave better results, but were not selective enough in most cases. Retention on alumina was not possible without preliminary separations. Authors studied a new radiochemical separation based on the extraction of elemental phosphorus in the gaseous phase after reduction at high temperature with carbon. Measurements with radioactive phosphorus showed that the extraction yield is better than 99%. (author)

  6. Natural bodybuilding competition preparation and recovery: a 12-month case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Lindy M; Fukuda, David H; Fahs, Christopher A; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2013-09-01

    Bodybuilding is a sport in which competitors are judged on muscular appearance. This case study tracked a drug-free male bodybuilder (age 26-27 y) for the 6 mo before and after a competition. The aim of this study was to provide the most comprehensive physiological profile of bodybuilding competition preparation and recovery ever compiled. Cardiovascular parameters, body composition, strength, aerobic capacity, critical power, mood state, resting energy expenditure, and hormonal and other blood parameters were evaluated. Heart rate decreased from 53 to 27 beats/min during preparation and increased to 46 beats/min within 1 mo after competition. Brachial blood pressure dropped from 132/69 to 104/56 mmHg during preparation and returned to 116/64 mmHg at 6 mo after competition. Percent body fat declined from 14.8% to 4.5% during preparation and returned to 14.6% during recovery. Strength decreased during preparation and did not fully recover during 6 months of recovery. Testosterone declined from 9.22 to 2.27 ng/mL during preparation and returned back to the baseline level, 9.91 ng/mL, after competition. Total mood disturbance increased from 6 to 43 units during preparation and recovered to 4 units 6 mo after competition. This case study provides a thorough documentation of the physiological changes that occurred during natural bodybuilding competition and recovery.

  7. Study on preparation the egg yolk puff with chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Hui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper was studied chitosans with different degrees of deacetylation (70%,80%,90%,95% and different usages of chitosan that were added to research the effect of functional indexs in the egg yolk puff,such as calcium content and cholesterol content.Preliminarily chitosan was explored in the application of the Egg yolk puff.Text results showed that when the deacetylation degree of chitosan and its usage were 90% and 1% separately,the functional indexs and sensory quality of the Egg yolk puff can reach the equilibrium.Its calcium content was 76.2 mg/100 g,increased by 44.3 percent.Its cholesterol content was 290 mg/100 g,decreased by 35.1%.

  8. Health promotion in adolescent student: Thematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Paola Betancourth-Loaiza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the characteristics of studies on health behaviors of school adolescents, models and strategies in health promotion applicability. Method: Review articles and published texts (2003 - 2012 through electronic and manual search, consulted with the descriptors: health promotion, lifestyle, teens, school and health education in electronic sources such as search engines, libraries electronic and international databases (Schoolar Google, SciELO, PubMed, JSTOR and Ovid. Results: Were found in the scientific literature a total of 92 texts were reviewed, of these 66 were recovered in full text, evidence possible to define two main categories: health behaviors of adolescent students and the different models and strategies in promoting health that can be used with this group. Conclusions: There is evidence of the importance of nursing as an active part in actions from the health promotion under theoretical underpinnings with adolescent students, it must transcend individual counseling with an interdisciplinary approach, based on integrating aspects from objectivities, subjectivity and the obvious need to show results through measurements of effectiveness, as a basis for decisions on public health and point to select strategies based on the best available knowledge.

  9. Cost Effectiveness of Screening Colonoscopy Depends on Adequate Bowel Preparation Rates - A Modeling Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kingsley

    Full Text Available Inadequate bowel preparation during screening colonoscopy necessitates repeating colonoscopy. Studies suggest inadequate bowel preparation rates of 20-60%. This increases the cost of colonoscopy for our society.The aim of this study is to determine the impact of inadequate bowel preparation rate on the cost effectiveness of colonoscopy compared to other screening strategies for colorectal cancer (CRC.A microsimulation model of CRC screening strategies for the general population at average risk for CRC. The strategies include fecal immunochemistry test (FIT every year, colonoscopy every ten years, sigmoidoscopy every five years, or stool DNA test every 3 years. The screening could be performed at private practice offices, outpatient hospitals, and ambulatory surgical centers.At the current assumed inadequate bowel preparation rate of 25%, the cost of colonoscopy as a screening strategy is above society's willingness to pay (<$50,000/QALY. Threshold analysis demonstrated that an inadequate bowel preparation rate of 13% or less is necessary before colonoscopy is considered more cost effective than FIT. At inadequate bowel preparation rates of 25%, colonoscopy is still more cost effective compared to sigmoidoscopy and stool DNA test. Sensitivity analysis of all inputs adjusted by ±10% showed incremental cost effectiveness ratio values were influenced most by the specificity, adherence, and sensitivity of FIT and colonoscopy.Screening colonoscopy is not a cost effective strategy when compared with fecal immunochemical test, as long as the inadequate bowel preparation rate is greater than 13%.

  10. Thematic Units in Teaching English and the Humanities. Second Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Sylvia, Ed.; Culp, Mary Beth, Ed.

    The seven units in this second supplement to "Thematic Units" focus on communication skills, offering English teachers contemporary plans for teaching writing, listening, persuasion, and reasoning. The units were selected for their humanistic approaches to student language learning, combining English instruction with topics in the humanities. Each…

  11. Thematic Units in Teaching English and the Humanities. First Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Sylvia, Ed.; Culp, Mary Beth, Ed.

    The units in this first supplement to "Thematic Units in Teaching English and the Humanities" have been selected, as were those in the original publication, because they involve students actively in reading, writing, listening, and speaking for a purpose--that purpose being to explore and communicate with others on issues of vital interest. The…

  12. Thematic Units in Teaching English and the Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Sylvia, Ed.; Culp, Mary Beth, Ed.

    This book is dedicated to the use of a humanistic, thematic approach to the teaching of English. The chapters deals with such topics as teaching poetry, teaching American folklore and tradition, and helping students achieve greater self-knowledge and self-understanding through using the "speaking voice" in oral and written communication.…

  13. Thematic Units in Teaching English and the Humanities. Third Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Sylvia, Ed.; Culp, Mary Beth, Ed.

    The seven thematic units in this guide focus on communication skills, offering English teachers contemporary plans for teaching writing, listening, reading, reasoning, critical thinking, and appreciation of literary genres. The units were selected for their humanistic approaches to student language learning, combining English instruction with…

  14. Thematization across Machine and Human Translation: English to French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Betty Lou

    1990-01-01

    Comparison of human and machine French translations of independent clauses from an English journal article about physics found that automatic translation was generally faithful to the original thematization, although English complexities and lexical gaps caused the machine to lose, create, and garble some themes. The human translation, although…

  15. Thematic Solutions Using Young Adult Literature to Increase Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jill; Bushman, John H.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss thematic solutions using young adult literature to increase reading comprehension. Here, they emphasize that prior knowledge plays a very important role in the reading process. As students read, they actively "construct meaning through the integration of existing and new knowledge and the flexible use of…

  16. Mobile GIS strategies for disseminating thematic tourist information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses the concept of spatial narratives based on so-called narrative links and their potential role within the implementation of flexible and thematic tourist information systems on mobile gps-enabled devices. References are made to two examples of specific application areas: one from...

  17. Thematic cartography, cartography and the impact of the quantitative revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Cauvin, Colette; Serradj, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    This series in three volumes considers maps as constructions resulting from a number of successive transformations and stages integrated in a logical reasoning and an order of choices. Volume 2 focuses on the impact of the quantitative revolution, partially related to the advent of the computer age, on thematic cartography.

  18. A Thematic Review of Blended Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pima, John Marco; Odetayo, Michael; Iqbal, Rahat; Sedoyeka, Eliamani

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews the international literature on blended learning in view of establishing its thematic trends in higher education. The systematic review through PRISMA, sought to answer three research questions: First, how have publications evolved from 2000 to 2016 in blended learning in higher education? Secondly, what themes are frequently…

  19. A thematic analysis of experiences of varicose veins and minimally invasive surgery under local anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Briony F; Ogden, Jane; Whiteley, Mark S

    2015-06-01

    To gain insight into the experience of living with varicose veins and undergoing minimally invasive surgery under local anaesthesia in a private clinic. Minimally invasive surgery under local anaesthesia is replacing traditional surgical stripping for the treatment for varicose veins. Conscious surgery has previously been associated with elevated levels of anxiety and some associated pain. There is limited research exploring the experiences of patients undergoing varicose vein surgery under local anaesthesia. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 20 patients who took part in a mixed methods study exploring the effects of distraction on intra-operative pain and anxiety. Participants were interviewed eight weeks post surgery about their experiences before, during and after surgery. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Four themes were captured (1) negative emotions associated with symptoms, (2) unpreparedness for the surgical process, (3) feeling cared for and (4) improvements in well-being. An overarching theme of relationships was identified. Overall, varicose veins had a detrimental impact on quality of life prior to surgery. Patients felt unprepared for their procedure and experienced the operation as anxiety provoking and uncomfortable. This was much helped by the support of nursing staff in the theatre. Post surgery, patients' quality of life was reported as improved. More emphasis needs to be placed on preparing patients for surgery under local anaesthesia. The role of the nurse is central to creating a caring, relaxed environment which could improve patient experience. Patients' experiences of varicose veins and their treatment both influence, and are influenced by relationships with others at all stages of the management process. Nurses play an important role in improving patient experience during surgery and care needs to be taken to ensure that patients understand and accept the processes of surgery and recovery. © 2015 John Wiley

  20. Study of the areas and thicknesses of mesiobucal root canals prepared by three endodontic techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Constante,Isa Geralda Teixeira; Davidowicz,Harry; Barletta,Fernando Branco; Moura,Abilio Albuquerque Maranhão de

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare, in vitro, by means of computerized analysis of digital radiographic images, the anatomic alterations produced in the mandibular molar tooth dentinal walls of mesiobucal canals with severe curvature by three different endodontic techniques: Progressive Preparation, Staged and Serial Preparation. A selection was made of 45 extracted, human, mandibular molars, with root curvatures greater than 25°. They were divided into three groups for every techni...

  1. The effect of secondary school study skills preparation on first-year university achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.; Suhre, Cor J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Although many studies have revealed the importance of study skills for students' first-year performance and college retention, the extent of the impact of study skills preparation on students' academic achievement is less clear. This paper explores the impact of pre-university study skills

  2. Study of the influence of homologous serum globulin preparations on the intestinal automicroflora in irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinegin, B.V.; Klemparskaya, N.N.; Mal' tsev, V.N.; Korshunov, G.A.; Shal' nova, G.A.; Kuz' mina, T.D.

    1984-09-01

    In spite of considerable experience of practical use of serum globulin preparations, their effect on automicroflora wasn't studied. The favorable effect of therapeutic injection of homologous serum globulin preparations on automicroflora of small and large intestine of mices was established for the model of acute radiation sickness caused by /sup 60/Co irradiation with 700 R dose. The effect of injecting two types of globulin preparations was studied: ones prepared of blood of intact and hemostimulated mices (to increase the content of normal antitissue antibodies in the serum). Besides the general globulin fraction isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation a study was made on the effect of purified IgG and IgM preparations. Threefold subcutaneous or intraperitoneal globulin in ection of 1 ..mu..g dose in a mice prevented after 2, 24, 48 h after irradiation the development of bacteriosis, typical for radiation injury - decreased accumulation of putrefactive bacteria and reduced the suppression of lactobacilli content. Globulin preparations and fractions of hemostimulated mice serum, enriched by normal antitissue antibodies are the most effective ones.

  3. Obtaining of labelled 'Co-101' preparation and study of its pharmacological kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khujaev, S.; Sultanov, A.; Ganiev, D.A.; Tashmetov, M.; Shermatova, L.; Aliev, Kh.U.; Nazarov, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: One of the most actual problems for the last years is the problem of studying physiological role of microelements in animate nature and their use in biological and medical practice. For some time coordination compounds of microelements are used more bots as less toxic and biologically active medical products. Among numerous microelements favorably influencing a number of physiological processes in an organism, special place takes Cobalt. This element differs from others in that it is part of vitamin B 12 (4,5%). Microorganisms for biosynthesis of B 12 in an organism use Cobalt. At lack of vitamin B 12 in an organism, preparations and concentrates of the vitamin B 12 may be used. One of such preparations is the new preparation 'Co-101', synthesized in Tashkent Pharmaceutical Institute. The given preparation is coordination compound of Cobalt with Inozin. In research of the new preparation Co-101', the most modern method - radio indication (a method of labeled compounds) is used. For labeling of the preparation 57 Co and 58 Co radioisotopes are used. Radioisotopes are obtaining in a nuclear reactor ( 58 Co) and on cyclotron ( 57 Co). From the point of radioactive safety, the more favorable appeared to be 57 Co. Two variants of introduction of radioactive Cobalt in chemical structure of a preparation are of considered: 1-by exchange of an isotope, 2- by introduce of radioisotopes Cobalt into asparagine Cobalt at stage of it synthesis, which is an intermediate product during synthesis of preparation 'Co-101'. The second method had been yield with output compound of up 80% and higher. Received labeling preparation has been used for investigation of his own pharmacological kinetics

  4. Home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions: A qualitative interview study with photo-elicitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Mills

    Full Text Available Food-related choices have an important impact on health. Food preparation methods may be linked to diet and health benefits. However, the factors influencing people's food choices, and how they are shaped by food preparation experiences, are still not fully understood. We aimed to study home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions amongst adults in North East England. A matrix was used to purposively sample participants with diverse socio-demographic characteristics. Participants developed photographic food diaries that were used as prompts during semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using the Framework Method. Interviews were conducted with 18 adults (five men and 13 women, aged approximately 20 to 80 years, to reach data saturation. Participants' practices varied widely, from reliance on pre-prepared foods, to preparing complex meals entirely from basic ingredients. Key themes emerged regarding the cook (identity, the task (process of cooking, and the context (situational drivers. Resources, in terms of time, money and facilities, were also underpinning influences on food preparation. Participants' practices were determined by both personal motivations to cook, and the influence of others, and generally reflected compromises between varied competing demands and challenges in life. Most people appeared to be overall content with their food preparation behaviour, though ideally aspired to cook more frequently, using basic ingredients. This often seemed to be driven by social desirability. Home food preparation is complex, with heterogeneous practices, experiences and perceptions both between individuals and within the same individual over time, according to shifting priorities and circumstances. Generalisability of these findings may be limited by the regional participant sample; however the results support and build upon previous research. Focussing interventions on life transition points at which priorities and

  5. Home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions: A qualitative interview study with photo-elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Susanna; White, Martin; Wrieden, Wendy; Brown, Heather; Stead, Martine; Adams, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Food-related choices have an important impact on health. Food preparation methods may be linked to diet and health benefits. However, the factors influencing people's food choices, and how they are shaped by food preparation experiences, are still not fully understood. We aimed to study home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions amongst adults in North East England. A matrix was used to purposively sample participants with diverse socio-demographic characteristics. Participants developed photographic food diaries that were used as prompts during semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using the Framework Method. Interviews were conducted with 18 adults (five men and 13 women), aged approximately 20 to 80 years, to reach data saturation. Participants' practices varied widely, from reliance on pre-prepared foods, to preparing complex meals entirely from basic ingredients. Key themes emerged regarding the cook (identity), the task (process of cooking), and the context (situational drivers). Resources, in terms of time, money and facilities, were also underpinning influences on food preparation. Participants' practices were determined by both personal motivations to cook, and the influence of others, and generally reflected compromises between varied competing demands and challenges in life. Most people appeared to be overall content with their food preparation behaviour, though ideally aspired to cook more frequently, using basic ingredients. This often seemed to be driven by social desirability. Home food preparation is complex, with heterogeneous practices, experiences and perceptions both between individuals and within the same individual over time, according to shifting priorities and circumstances. Generalisability of these findings may be limited by the regional participant sample; however the results support and build upon previous research. Focussing interventions on life transition points at which priorities and circumstances change

  6. A comparative study of the effects of Vitex agnus castus upon premenstrual syndrome in a mother tincture preparation and in a 3X homoeopathic preparation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Tech. (Homeopathy) The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a mother tincture preparation of Vitex agnus-castus and a hornoeopathic 3x preparation of Vitex agnus-castus in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. A sample of 15 subjects suffering from premenstrual syndrome was selected. The subjects were selected according to the diagnostic criteria of premenstrual syndrome and certain other criteria requtred for the study. The subjects were given questionnaires to co...

  7. Simulation Use for Global Away Rotations (SUGAR): preparing residents for emotional challenges abroad--a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butteris, Sabrina M; Gladding, Sophia P; Eppich, Walter; Hagen, Scott A; Pitt, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Preparation for residents participating in global health (GH) experiences is critical. Active preparatory curricula allowing residents to experience and debrief emotional challenges they may encounter abroad are generally lacking. We sought to evaluate a novel simulation curriculum designed to prepare residents for emotions they may experience in response to challenges abroad. Pediatric GH educators from 7 institutions developed case vignettes incorporating common challenges residents experience abroad. Residents participating in a GH training track or planning to participate in a GH rotation from the 7 institutions were eligible to participate in the simulation curriculum. Participants and trained facilitators completed postsimulation evaluations that were analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis of written comments to assess the utility of the curriculum, emotions evoked, and changes residents anticipated making to their GH rotation preparation. Fifty-one residents and 16 facilitators completed 160 and 52 evaluations, respectively. Overall, respondents found the simulations useful (mean [SD] resident score 4.49 [0.82] and facilitator score 4.85 [0.36] on a 5-point scale [1 = completely useless, 5 = very useful]). Residents reported strong emotions in 153 (98%) of 156 comments. After the sessions, 131 (96%) of 137 comments reflected anticipated changes to GH rotation preparation plans. Active preparation for GH rotations using simulated cases appears to be a useful tool that can be implemented across a variety of sites with minimal facilitator training or simulation experience. The curriculum successfully elicited powerful emotions in residents and provided an opportunity to debrief these experiences before encountering them abroad. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Individual and Group Responses of Fourteen and Fifteen Year Olds to Short Stories, Novels, Poems, and Thematic Apperception Tests: Case Studies Based on Piagetian Genetic Epistemology and Freudian Psychoanalytic Ego Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosky, Anthony R.

    A descriptive profile of adolescent response to literature is presented in this study, which also examines findings in terms of psychoanalytic concepts that relate response to life styles in terms of Piaget's genetic epistemology. There are two primary questions in this investigation: What is the psychological dynamic of response to literature? By…

  9. Biotechnology worldwide and the 'European Biotechnology Thematic Network' Association (EBTNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, F; Dundar, M; Gahan, P B; Gartland, K; Szente, M; Viola-Magni, M P; Akbarova, Y

    2011-09-01

    The European Biotechnology Congress 2011 held under the auspices of the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association (EBTNA) in conjunction with the Turkish Medical Genetics Association brings together a broad spectrum of biotechnologists from around the world. The subsequent abstracts indicate the manner in which biotechnology has permeated all aspects of research from the basic sciences through to small and medium enterprises and major industries. The brief statements before the presentation of the abstracts aim to introduce not only Biotechnology in general and its importance around the world, but also the European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association and its aims especially within the framework of education and ethics in biotechnology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. CERN School of Computing: second thematic school next spring

    CERN Multimedia

    Alberto Pace, CSC Director

    2014-01-01

    tCSC2014 continues the concept prototyped last year. It aims to complement the existing portfolio of CSC events: the historical main summer school, organised since 1970, the inverted CSCs (iCSCs) organized since 2005, and the special schools, as organised in 2006 in Bombay.   Shorter, smaller, focused are the three distinguishing features of the thematic CSC (tCSC). But, though different from the main CSCs, the tCSCs maintain the same guiding principles: Academic dimension on advanced topic Theory and practice Networking and socialisation. The second thematic CSC will take place in Split, Croatia, from 16 to 20 June. All applicants are welcome, including former and future CSC participants in the main summer school. The theme is "Future high-throughput scientific computing", covering: Data-oriented design: Designing for data, data-intensive applications, vectorization. Memory programming: Memory effects in hardware, choosing data structures, non-uniform memory. Program...

  11. Indian elderly women's experiences of food procurement and preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sefali; Dsouza, Sebestina Anita

    2018-02-12

    The present study explored the experiences of Indian elderly women in meal preparation and food procurement. Ten elderly women aged 60-72 years residing in a metropolis were interviewed. Thematic analysis identified two overarching themes: "Meal preparation and food procurement are meaningful occupations" and "Meal preparation and food procurement change with age." The findings suggests that Indian elderly women valued their participation in these activities. They actively adopted alternative strategies and technologies to overcome the challenges experienced while performing these activities. The findings highlight the strong influence of family and financial aspects on the decisions of elderly women with regard to meal preparation and food procurement. The study findings provide salient information on personal and environmental factors that could guide interventions to promote and maintain Indian elderly women's participation in these meaningful occupations.

  12. New Role for the Language Department: Preparing Students for Overseas Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Hans Peter

    Problems encountered by American students engaging in overseas foreign language study programs, frequently generalized as "culture shock," prompt the author to propose a plan for preparing students for foreign study. Remarks are directed to the preparatory program and the reentry program. The role of the foreign language department is described in…

  13. Cultural and historical heritage as a basis for developing cultural thematic routes in the Petrovaradin fortress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for tourism in the modern world is an increasing need for new tourist attractions and products in destinations. The tourism industry adapts to the demands of modern tourism market, introducing innovations to existing destinations and activities. In order to improve the presentation of tourism and cultural heritage of consumption goods, it is necessary to encourage the development of cultural tourist routes that would be applicable in tourism practices. In this case, it refers to the ability to create thematic cultural routes that would have a focus on specific historical and cultural values in the Petrovaradin fortress. The aim of this study, based on the opinions of experts and local people - visitors about the values and potential of the Fortress, was to identify key values, and the possibility that the cultural and historical values are the basis for the creation of thematic cultural routes. The result is obtained via method of interviewing people - visitors, as well as through interviews with three different groups of respondents. This paper presents the views of respondents about the potential of the Fortress and its core values, based on which potential cultural thematic routes are suggested, as well as the results of direct study of the possibilities of creating them. In addition to the field and bibliographic research, the method of content analysis was also applied.

  14. The sustainable development thematic in the research groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Comunian Ferraz

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The technological innovation brought for the debate the question of the sustainable technological development. The article presents an entirety of theoretical reflections on the science, technology and sustainable development themes and to aim the contributions of the Information Science, while interdisciplinary science, with respect to the understanding of the sustainable development. With basis in this reference it was carried through the investigation of descriptive exploratory nature with quanti-qualitative boarding, having as main objective to identify the presence of the sustainable development thematic in research groups of the UFSCar registered in cadastre in the National Directory of Research Groups of the CNPq. The results had shown that the sustainable development thematic is present in eleven researchgroups of the UFSCar distributed in different knowledge areas. Comparing the data gotten with the research groups of the country that had participated of 2004 Census of the National Directory of Research Groups of the CNPq it was verified that it has similarity between both the data. In accordance with scientific literature, confirms that the sustainable development thematic is interdisciplinar and that the knowledge production of the research groups is result to know articulated in some of the knowledge areas.

  15. [LABORATORY AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE COMPLEX PROBIOTIC PREPARATION "BIFILACT-BILS" IN CAPSULATED FORM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neschislyaev, V A; Stolbova, M G; Mokin, P A; Orlova, E V; Ershov, A E

    2016-01-01

    The composition and technology of complex probiotic in hard gelatin capsules was developed in Perm Branch "Biomed" of "Microgen" State Company. The preparation contains three production strains: Lactobacillus plantarum 8P-A3, L. acidophilus K3W24 and Bifidobacterium bifidum 1. Laboratory and experimental (preclinical) study of the probiotic included investigation of the antagonistic activity, "acute" and "chronic" toxicity, the effect of the preparation on histology and hematology of laboratory animals. The result of these studies suggested of the probiotic had high inhibitory activity against pathogenic microflora when compared with probiotic monopreparations and had no toxic effects on laboratory animals.

  16. Modeling and preparation of activated carbon for methane storage II. Neural network modeling and experimental studies of the activated carbon preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namvar-Asl, Mahnaz; Soltanieh, Mohammad; Rashidi, Alimorad

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the activated carbon (AC) preparation for methane storage. Due to the need for the introduction of a model, correlating the effective preparation parameters with the characteristic parameters of the activated carbon, a model was developed by neural networks. In a previous study [Namvar-Asl M, Soltanieh M, Rashidi A, Irandoukht A. Modeling and preparation of activated carbon for methane storage: (I) modeling of activated carbon characteristics with neural networks and response surface method. Proceedings of CESEP07, Krakow, Poland; 2007.], the model was designed with the MATLAB toolboxes providing the best response for the correlation of the characteristics parameters and the methane uptake of the activated carbon. Regarding this model, the characteristics of the activated carbon were determined for a target methane uptake. After the determination of the characteristics, the demonstrated model of this work guided us to the selection of the effective AC preparation parameters. According to the modeling results, some samples were prepared and their methane storage capacity was measured. The results were compared with those of a target methane uptake (special amount of methane storage). Among the designed models, one of them illustrated the methane storage capacity of 180 v/v. It was finally found that the neural network modeling for the assay of the efficient AC preparation parameters was financially feasible, with respect to the determined methane storage capacity. This study could be useful for the development of the Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) technology

  17. [Preparation of Ginkgo biloba extract 50-phospholipid complex and study on its physicochemical properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Le; Lai, Chun-Li; Zhao, Jian-Bin; Chen, Jian-Hai

    2010-10-01

    To optimize the preparation technology of GBE 50-phospholipid complex and study its physicochemical properties. The preparation conditions for GBE 50-phospholipid complex were optimized by means of single factor study and orthogonal design, and taking the complexing rate of total flavonoids as assessment criteria, the complex was analyzed by DSC, IR and determined apparent oil-water distribution coefficients in different pH aqueous solution. The optimized preparation conditions for GBE 50-phospholipid complex were obtained as follows: the solvent was Tetrahydrofuran, the temperature was 30 degrees C, the concentration of GBE 50 was 20 mg/mL, the ratio of GBE 50 to phospholipids was 1 to 1, and the complexing rate was 98%. The complex significantly improved GBE 50 on the solubility in octanol, also on the oil-water apparent partition coefficient. GBE 50-phospholipid complex is very different from GBE 50 on the physicochemical properties.

  18. Preparation of shrimp waste as aqua feedstuff: a study of physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karun Thongprajukeaw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different preparation methods (boiling, microwave irradiation, oven-drying, soaking, and sun-drying for improving the protein quality of shrimp waste (SW when used as aqua feedstuff were observed. The findings from this study indicate that microwave irradiation maintained both the chemical composition and total carotenoid concentration of the SW. This method controlled the appropriate physicochemical characteristics thus promoting proteolytic digestion, as indicated by measurement of changes in pH, water solubility, microstructures, and thermal transition. The protein digestibility based on the use of digestive enzymes from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus also increased after preparation with microwave irradiation. Based on this study, improvement in the protein quality in SW may be achieved by microwave irradiation and this method may be used as an alternative method for preparing aqua feedstuff.

  19. Study of electrokinetic properties of nanofillers used for the preparation of nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górnicka, B.; Gryzło, K.; Górecki, L.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine, how the zeta potential and particle size of nanofillers affect the stability of the dispersion of nanoparticles in the electroinsulating varnish, and consequently can influence the varnish properties. We have investigated the nanofillers that had been used for the preparation of nanocomposites in our earlier works. It has been found that in toluene the zeta potential of all nanofillers is much increased. It enables modifying of nanofillers. Correlation between the properties of the nanocomposite and the results of the particle size measurements has been observed. Thus studies of electrokinetic properties can be used during the preparation of nanocomposites, as well to determine the factors affecting the nanoparticles deagglomeration and a preliminary determination of the optimal technological parameters of process of preparing of nanocomposites.

  20. TEMPERATURE CHANGES ON THE EXTERNAL ROOT SURFACE DURING POST SPACE PREPARATION (in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka Radeva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the temperature changes of the external root surface which occur during post space preparation with Peeso reamers at two different speeds. Materials and methods: Twenty nine extracted single rooted human teeth were used. The tooth crown was removed and the length of the roots was standardized at 15 mm. Then each root canal was prepared with Revo-S Ni-Ti rotary system and filled with sealer and gutta-percha by cold lateral condensation technique. The teeth were divided into three groups: Group 1 (n=12 - post space preparation was performed at 2800 rpm. Group 2 (n=12 - post space preparation was performed at 4700rpm. Control group (n=5 – without post space preparation. Two thermocouples were connected to the outer surface of the root at 4 mm and 8 mm from the coronal part. During post space preparation, the temperature rises were measured using two digital thermometers which registered the temperature changes at 10s, 20s and 30s. Statistical analysis was performed. Results: In the first 10 seconds of the preparation a slight increase of the temperature (1-2°C was observed in the two points of the root surface where the thermocouples were attached to the roots of both groups. In the period from start to 20s the temperature of the teeth prepared with higher speed increased by 4.9°C compared to the teeth prepared at lower speed- the temperature increased by 3.6°C. Between the beginning point and the 30s the increasing of the temperature was higher - 9.1°C in group 2. Conclusion: In both groups, the temperature on the external root surface increased during post space preparation. The higher speed of the Peeso reamers might reach a critical level of 10 degrees on the external root surface which might lessen the possibility of a successful outcome of the endodontically treated teeth.

  1. A Smartphone App for Improvement of Colonoscopy Preparation (ColoprAPP): Development and Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Benjamin; Schmid, Roland; von Delius, Stefan

    2017-09-20

    Optimal bowel preparation is one of the major cornerstones for quality of colonoscopy. But poor bowel preparation still occurs in 10% to 25% of all patients. To optimize patient guidance, we developed a new smartphone app (ColoprAPP) for Android smartphones which guides and accompanies the patient starting 4 days before colonoscopy throughout the whole colonoscopy preparation procedure. The objective of this study was to assess the function of a newly developed smartphone app for supporting colonoscopy preparation. We carried out a prospective feasibility study including 25 patients undergoing outpatient colonoscopy at our hospital. As a control, we retrieved the data of 25 patients undergoing outpatient colonoscopy matching in age, sex, and indication for colonoscopy from our colonoscopy database. Patients were asked to download the smartphone app, ColoprAPP, in addition to being given the regular colonoscopy preparation leaflet. All colonoscopies were performed in the morning after using a split-dose preparation containing a polyethlene glycol-based purgative. The study was designed to test feasibility of the prototype, evaluate grade of bowel cleanliness (Boston bowel preparation scale [BBPS]), and assess patient satisfaction with the app. The smartphone app use was feasible in all patients. BBPS count as a marker for grade of bowel preparation was significantly higher in the smartphone app-supported group (mean 8.1 [SD 0.3] vs 7.1 [SD 0.4], P=.02). Left (mean 2.8 [SD 0.1] vs 2.4 [SD 0.11], P=.02) and transverse colon (mean 2.8 [SD 0.07] vs 2.4 [SD 0.11], Papp-supported group than in controls. Patient satisfaction with a smartphone app-supported colonoscopy preparation was high with an average numeric rating scale score for usefulness of 8.2 (visual analog scale 1-10). A novel developed smartphone app for reinforced education of bowel cleansing was feasible and led to high BBPS scores and patient satisfaction. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02512328; https

  2. What Superintendents Should Do to Position Their Districts to be Prepared for the Changing Nature of Technology in the Next Ten Years: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Ean

    Over the past twenty years, schools and districts have been faced with the challenge of integrating technology into their classroom instruction. The rapid rate of evolution that technology changes has placed new burdens on school and district leaders to plan meaningful professional development, create and develop effective policy, and focus on school and district culture. In the coming years, the changing nature of technology is not expected to slow down and most certainly will accelerate. The purpose of this Delphi study was to identify what K-12 superintendents should do to position their districts to be prepared for the changing nature of technology in the next 10 years. The expert panel for this study was comprised of K-12 superintendents from eight Northern California counties. This Delphi study consisted of three rounds. In Round 1, the expert panel identified 74 strategies that superintendents should do to position their districts to be prepared for the changing nature of technology in the next 10 years. Those items were thematically categorized and where then narrowed down into a list of 30 strategies in preparation for Round 2. During Round 2, the expert panel rated the 30 strategies on the level of influence it would have on preparing districts for the changing nature of technology in the next 10 years using a 6-point Likert scale. In Round 3, each panel member was given the mean rating for each item as well as their own ratings for each item. Each panel member was then given the opportunity to change their ratings to the Round 2 survey. The expert panel identified four strategies which had the highest combined mean and median scores as well as an interquartile range of less than two. Each of the strategies from Round 2 and 3 had a mean score of four or higher. However, consensus was reached on four strategies which were rated with the highest combined mean and median scores. The four highest rated strategies were represented by three categories: culture

  3. Toward combining thematic information with hierarchical multiscale segmentations using tree Markov random field model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueliang; Xiao, Pengfeng; Feng, Xuezhi

    2017-09-01

    It has been a common idea to produce multiscale segmentations to represent the various geographic objects in high-spatial resolution remote sensing (HR) images. However, it remains a great challenge to automatically select the proper segmentation scale(s) just according to the image information. In this study, we propose a novel way of information fusion at object level by combining hierarchical multiscale segmentations with existed thematic information produced by classification or recognition. The tree Markov random field (T-MRF) model is designed for the multiscale combination framework, through which the object type is determined as close as the existed thematic information. At the same time, the object boundary is jointly determined by the thematic labels and the multiscale segments through the minimization of the energy function. The benefits of the proposed T-MRF combination model include: (1) reducing the dependence of segmentation scale selection when utilizing multiscale segmentations; (2) exploring the hierarchical context naturally imbedded in the multiscale segmentations. The HR images in both urban and rural areas are used in the experiments to show the effectiveness of the proposed combination framework on these two aspects.

  4. The influence of thematic congruency, typicality and divided attention on memory for radio advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Luengo, Beatriz; Luna, Karlos; Migueles, Malen

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of the thematic congruence between ads and the programme in which they are embedded. We also studied the typicality of the to-be-remembered information (high- and low-typicality elements), and the effect of divided attention in the memory for radio ad contents. Participants listened to four radio programmes with thematically congruent and incongruent ads embedded, and completed a true/false recognition test indicating the level of confidence in their answer. Half of the sample performed an additional task (divided attention group) while listening to the radio excerpts. In general, recognition memory was better for incongruent ads and low-typicality statements. Confidence in hits was higher in the undivided attention group, although there were no differences in performance. Our results suggest that the widespread idea of embedding ads into thematic-congruent programmes negatively affects memory for ads. In addition, low-typicality features that are usually highlighted by advertisers were better remembered than typical contents. Finally, metamemory evaluations were influenced by the inference that memory should be worse if we do several things at the same time.

  5. THEMATIC PROGRESSION PATTERN : A TECHNIQUE TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ WRITING SKILL VIEWED FROM WRITING APPREHENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Nurdianingsih

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of conducting this research was to find out : (1 whether or not the use of thematic progression pattern is more effective than direct instruction in teaching writing to the second semester students at English Education Department; (2 the students who have a low writing apprehension have better writing skill than those who have a high writng apprehension; and (3 there is an interaction between teaching technique and writing apprehension in teaching writing skill. This reasearch was an experimental research design. The population of this research was the second semester students at English Education Department of IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro. Meanwhile the sample of this research was selected by using cluster random sampling. The instruments of data collection were witing test and writing apprehension questionnaire. The findings of this study are: (1 thematic progression pattern is more effective than direct instruction in teaching writing; (2 the students who have low writing apprehension have better writing skill than those who have high writing apprehension; and (3 there is an interaction between teaching technique and writing apprehension in teaching writing skill. It can be summarized that thematic progression pattern is an effective technique in teaching writing skill at the second semester students of English Education Department in IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro. The effectiveness of the technique is affected by writing apprehension.

  6. Thematic approach and complex scientific school knowledge: thematic and conceptual organization as proposals of open educational path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Watanabe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In a traditional way, the school knowledge of the sciences, especially in high school, is consolidated from a set of conceptual contents that reflects a given historical construction of the referred science, whether Biology, Physics or Chemistry. In this format, textbooks generally present a more deterministic and reductionist view. There are several consequences, in this scheme that impact the formation of students, among them a mechanized learning and little contextual meaning. In an opposing movement to these limitations, the thematic approaches have been proposed and discussed in research of science teaching field, which propose a treatment of a given topic that is considered relevant for the formation of the youth. However, the organization by themes makes it difficult to integrate into the school curricular culture. Facing this question, this article intends to investigate potential ways of dealing with the two mentioned approaches (traditional and thematic methods, identifying possibilities for the building of knowledge with the potential to promote a more critical and reflexive formation. Methodologically, in this perspective, the research proposes a theoretical reflection from the complexity view about the works with themes, but considering the national school reality. From these considerations emerge the proposal of articulation between two forms of organization, conceptual and thematic, which create space for diversified choices by teachers, based on issues of their school daily life and their training goals. These choices are represented by what we call open thematic pathways. From the results, it may be concluded that the proposed strategies can promote an alternative view of science, the complexity idea, to address questions of an open and dynamic nature and, in this way; it may allow reflections about perceptions, attitudes and values. At same time, it aims to ways of acting of teachers with greater autonomy and protagonism

  7. Preparation, characterization and in vitro dissolution study of Nitrazepam: Cyclodextrin inclusion complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to prepare and characterize inclusion complexes of Nitrazepam with Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD and Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin (SBEβCD to study the effect of complexation on the dissolution rate of Nitrazepam, a water-insoluble drug. The phase solubility profile of Nitrazepam with Hydroxypropyl- β-cyclodextrin and Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin was an AP-type, indicating the formation of 2:1 stoichiometric inclusion complexes. Gibbs free energy values were all negative, indicating the spontaneous nature Nitrazepam solubilization and their value decreased with increase in the cyclodextrin concentration, demonstrating that the reaction conditions became more favorable as the concentration of cyclodextrins increased. Complexes of Nitrazepam were prepared with cyclodextrin using various methods such as physical mixing, kneading, spray-drying and lyophilization. The complexes were characterized by Differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction studies. These studies indicated that a complex prepared by lyophilization had successful inclusion of the Nitrazepam molecule into the cyclodextrin cavity. Complexation resulted in a marked improvement in the solubility and wettability of Nitrazepam. Among all the samples, a complex prepared with Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin by lyophilization had the greatest improvement in the in vitro rate of Nitrazepam dissolution. The mean dissolution time for Nitrazepam decreased significantly after preparing complexes. The similarity factor indicated a significant difference between the release profiles of Nitrazepam from complexes, physical mixtures and plain Nitrazepam. To conclude that, the tablets containing complexes prepared with Cyclodextrins had significant improvement in the release profile of Nitrazepam as compared to tablets containing Nitrazepam without cyclodextrin.

  8. Why should I prepare? a mixed method study exploring the motives of medical undergraduate students to prepare for clinical skills training sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although preparation for educational activities is considered beneficial for student learning, many students do not perform preparatory assignments. This phenomenon has received little attention in the literature although it might provide medical educators with the opportunity to enhance student learning. Therefore, we explored why students prepare or not prepare. Methods An explorative mixed methods study was performed. In a qualitative study, 24 short group interviews with medical undergraduate students (n=209) were conducted on why they prepared for skills training sessions. In a subsequent quantitative study the resulting themes were used to construct a questionnaire. The questionnaire was presented to all undergraduate medical students at Maastricht University and 847 students completed it. Scales were constructed by a combination of exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis, and content analysis. Between-class differences in the scale scores were investigated using ANOVA. Results The qualitative study showed that students’ opinions on preparation are influenced by both personal factors, categorized as ‘personal learning style’, ‘attitudes and beliefs’, and ‘planning and organization’, as well as external factors, including ‘preparatory advice’, ‘pressure, consequence, and checking of preparation’, ‘teacher-related motivations’, and ‘contents and schedule of the training sessions’. The quantitative study showed that ‘the objective structured clinical examination’ and ‘facilitation of both understanding and memorizing the learning material’, were the two most motivating items. The two most demotivating aspects were ‘other students saying that preparation was not useful’ and ‘indistinct preparatory advices’. Factor analyses yielded three scales: ‘urge to learn’, ‘expected difficulties’, and ‘lack of motivation‘. Between group differences were found between the three classes on the first

  9. Effect of Different Ceramic Crown Preparations on Tooth Structure Loss: An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimpour, Ashkan

    Objective: To quantify and compare the amount of tooth-structure reduction following the full-coverage preparations for crown materials of porcelain-fused-to-metal, lithium disilicate glass-ceramic and yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline for three tooth morphologies. Methods: Groups of resin teeth of different morphologies were individually weighed to high precision, then prepared following the preparation guidelines. The teeth were re-weighed after preparation and the amount of structural reduction was calculated. Statistical analyses were performed to find out if there was a significant difference among the groups. Results: Amount of tooth reduction for zirconia crown preparations was the lowest and statistically different compared with the other two materials. No statistical significance was found between the amount of reduction for porcelain-fused-to-metal and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic crowns. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, more tooth structure can be saved when utilizing zirconia full-coverage restorations compared with lithium disilicate glass-ceramic and porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns in maxillary central incisors, first premolars and first molars.

  10. Relationship between the Apical Preparation Diameter and the Apical Seal: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoutar Laslami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the study is to define the relationship between the apical preparation diameter and the apical sealing ability to highlight the importance of the preservation of the diameter and the original position of the apical foramen. Materials and Methods. 50 extracted maxillary incisors were randomly allocated into three groups of 15 teeth each (n = 15 according to the apical preparation size: Group 1: finishing file F1 corresponding to size 20 reached the working length (ProTaper Universal system Dentsply®; Group 2: prepared up to size 30 corresponding to finishing file F30; Group 3: prepared up to size 50 corresponding to finishing file F5. Five teeth were assigned to positive and negative control groups. After the filling of the root canals, the teeth were isolated and immersed in a dye solution, then cut longitudinally, photographed, and the dye penetration were calculated using a computer software. Results. Comparison of the three different apical preparation sizes showed no statistically significant differences regarding the apical microleakage. Conclusion. The most important value of the dye penetration was observed in the group with the largest apical diameter.

  11. Fluorescence polarization study of lipids and membranes prepared from brain hemispheres of a hibernating mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaudon, D; Robert, J; Canguilhem, B

    1984-02-29

    The physical behavior of total lipids, microsomes and microsomal lipids prepared from brain hemispheres of European Hamsters (Cricetus cricetus) was approached by the measure of the fluorescence polarization of the probe 1,6-diphenyl 1,3,5-hexatriene. We compare in this study the results obtained for two critical periods for a hibernator: winter (torpid state) and summer (active state). An increase in fluidity was noticed in the winter lipid and membrane preparations. The difference was however of very low magnitude, suggesting that only the microenvironment of some proteins was involved, rather than the bulk membrane fluidity.

  12. Studies on Thorium Adsorption Characteristics upon Activated Titanium Hydroxide Prepared from Rosetta Ilmenite Concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gado, M; Zaki, S

    2016-01-01

    The titanium hydroxide prepared from Rosetta ilmenite concentrate has been applied for Th (IV) adsorption from its acid aqueous solutions. The prepared hydroxide is first characterized by both Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum and thermogravimetric analysis. The relevant factors affecting the adsorption process have been studied. The obtained equilibrium data fits well with the Langmuir isotherm rather than Freundlich isotherm, while the adsorption kinetic data follow the pseudo-second order model. The different thermodynamic parameters have also been calculated and indicate that the adsorption process is spontaneous

  13. Preparation of actinide targets by molecular plating for Coulomb excitation studies at ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J. P.

    1998-01-01

    Molecular plating is now routinely used to prepare sources and targets of actinide elements. Although the technique is simple and fairly reproducible, because of the radioactive nature of the target it is very useful to record various parameters in the preparation of such targets. At Argonne, ∼200 microg/cm 2 thick targets of Pu and Cm were required for Coulomb Excitation (COULEX) Studies with the Argonne-Notre Dame BGO gamma ray facility and later with the GAMMASPHERE. These targets were plated on 50 mg/cm 2 Au backing and were covered with 150 microg/cm 2 Au foil. Targets of 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 242 Pu, 244 Pu and 248 Cm were prepared by dissolving the material in isopropyl alcohol and electroplating the actinide ions by applying 600 volts. The amount of these materials on the target was determined by alpha particle counting and gamma ray counting. Details of the molecular plating and counting will be discussed

  14. Deaf Education Teacher Preparation: A Phenomenological Case Study of a Graduate Program With a Comprehensive Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Karen S; MacGregor, Cynthia J

    2018-01-01

    At a time when deaf education teacher preparation programs are declining in number, little is known about their actual effectiveness. A phenomenological case study of a graduate-level comprehensive deaf education teacher preparation program at a midwestern university explored empowered and enabled learning of teacher candidates using the Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education educator pillars: (a) commitment to the profession, (b) proficiency in practice, and (c) learning impact, all deemed critical to developing quality teachers. A strong connection was found between the program's comprehensive philosophy and its practice. Embracing diversity of d/Deafness and differentiated instruction were the most prevalent themes expressed by participants. Teacher candidates displayed outstanding commitment to the profession and high proficiency in practice. The findings suggest that additional consideration should be given to classroom and behavior management, teacher candidate workload, teaching beyond academics, and preparation for navigating the public school system.

  15. The Implementation of an Intercultural Competence Syllabus to Prepare Study-Abroad Students for Global Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kural, Faruk; Bayyurt, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the outcome of the implementation of a process-oriented model of an intercultural competence (IC) and English as a lingua franca (ELF)-awareness development syllabus to prepare government-sponsored Turkish international sojourners for global communication in English L1 countries. Based on social constructivist research…

  16. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of Tamra Bhasma (incinerated copper prepared with and without Amritikarana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Y. Chaudhari

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: From the present study, it is concluded that TB with Amritikarana was found to be relatively safer than TB without Amritikarana at different dose levels in rats and hence suggest for safely use in humans at therapeutic dose level. It proves the role of Amritikarana in the preparation of TB.

  17. A Study of the Utilization of Palm Fruit Sludge for Food Preparations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the study, palm fruit sludge was recovered and used in human food preparation. The sludge was obtained from palm fruit waste liquid through filtration and dewatering. The wet sludge was dried at 50°C, milled into powder and sieved to obtain the dry powder. Proximate analysis of the dry sludge showed that it contained ...

  18. Preparation, characterization and electrical study of gum arabic/ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gum arabic (GA)-mediated chemical synthesis was carried out for obtaining ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) (particle size of ZnO ≈ 40 nm) which, in turn, was used for preparing ZnO–biopolymer nanocomposites. The dielectric study of this synthesized products is reported in this paper. The synthesized products were ...

  19. Isotactic polypropylene/carbon nanotube composites prepared by latex technology: electrical conductivity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossiord, N.; Wouters, M.E.L.; Miltner, H.E.; Lu, K.; Loos, J.; Mele, B.V.; Koning, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Several series of nanocomposites were prepared using a latex-based process, the main step of which consisted of mixing an aqueous suspension of exfoliated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and a polymer latex. In the present work, a systematic study on the electrical properties of fully amorphous (polystyrene

  20. Tablet Technology in Teacher Preparation: A Case Study--The Nook Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Hope; Hunter, Elizabeth; Douglas, Maegan; Wighting, Mervyn

    2015-01-01

    Regent University's Special Education and Reading Specialist Programs introduced the Nook Initiative fall 2013. This paper discusses the implementation, the need for integrated tablet technology in teacher preparation, initial outcomes of the study, and offers suggestions for practice. A second tablet pilot program introducing the iPad mini in the…

  1. Timetabling and Extracurricular Activities: A Study of Teachers' Attitudes towards Preparation Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Robert F.; Richard, George

    2012-01-01

    Many models of timetabling exist in secondary schools in Western educational jurisdictions. This study examines whether or not teachers teaching a full course load without preparation time during a semester are willing to volunteer to participate in extracurricular activities. This research was conducted in a rural school district in British…

  2. Preparation, characterization and thermal behaviour study of double selenates of lanthanides, yttrium and beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    The lanthanides (III) and yttrium (III) double selenates were studied using common analytical methods, atomic absorption, X-ray diffraction infra-red absorption, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis. These compounds were prepared from the mixture of lanthanides (III) and yttrium (III) selenates aqueous solution and basic beryllium selenates aqueous solution, obeying equimolar relation (1:1) to the cation

  3. Assessing the Penetrating Abilities of Experimental Preparation with Dental Infiltrant Features Using Optical Microscope: Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skucha-Nowak, Małgorzata; Machorowska-Pieniążek, Agnieszka; Tanasiewicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the infiltration technique is to penetrate demineralized enamel with a low viscosity resin. Icon® (DMG) is the first ever and so far the only dental infiltrant. Bacteriostaticity is one of the properties that should be inherent in dental infiltrants, but Icon lacks this feature. The aim of the preliminary study was to properly choose a dye which would allow us to assess the penetrating abilities of our own, experimental preparation with features of a dental infiltrant with bacteriostatic properties and to compare using an optical microscope the depth of infiltration of the designed experimental preparation with the infiltrant available on the market. The preparation is supposed to infiltrate decalcified human enamel and be assessed with an optical microscope. Eosin, neutral fuchsine and methylene blue were added to experimental preparation with dental infiltrant features and to Icon® (DMG) in order to assess the depth of penetration of the experimental solution into the decalcified layers of enamel. The experimental solution mixes well with eosin, neutral fuchsine, and methylene blue. During the preliminary study, the authors concluded that the experimental solution mixes well with methylene blue, neutral fuchsine, and eosin. An addition of eosin to a preparation which infiltrates inner, demineralized enamel layers, facilitates the assessment of such a preparation with an optical microscope. A designed experimental solution with the main ingredients, i.e., 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) with a ratio of 75% to 25% penetrates the demineralized (decalcified) inner parts of the enamel and polymerizes when exposed to light. In order to assess the infiltration of the experimental solution into the demineralized enamel layers, it is required to improve the measurement techniques that utilize optical microscopy.

  4. A comparative study of ChIP-seq sequencing library preparation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Arvind Y M; Hughes, Timothy; Biondi, Shea; Bolduc, Nathalie; Bowman, Sarah K; Camilli, Andrew; Chew, Yap C; Couture, Catherine; Farmer, Andrew; Jerome, John P; Lazinski, David W; McUsic, Andrew; Peng, Xu; Shazand, Kamran; Xu, Feng; Lyle, Robert; Gilfillan, Gregor D

    2016-10-21

    ChIP-seq is the primary technique used to investigate genome-wide protein-DNA interactions. As part of this procedure, immunoprecipitated DNA must undergo "library preparation" to enable subsequent high-throughput sequencing. To facilitate the analysis of biopsy samples and rare cell populations, there has been a recent proliferation of methods allowing sequencing library preparation from low-input DNA amounts. However, little information exists on the relative merits, performance, comparability and biases inherent to these procedures. Notably, recently developed single-cell ChIP procedures employing microfluidics must also employ library preparation reagents to allow downstream sequencing. In this study, seven methods designed for low-input DNA/ChIP-seq sample preparation (Accel-NGS® 2S, Bowman-method, HTML-PCR, SeqPlex™, DNA SMART™, TELP and ThruPLEX®) were performed on five replicates of 1 ng and 0.1 ng input H3K4me3 ChIP material, and compared to a "gold standard" reference PCR-free dataset. The performance of each method was examined for the prevalence of unmappable reads, amplification-derived duplicate reads, reproducibility, and for the sensitivity and specificity of peak calling. We identified consistent high performance in a subset of the tested reagents, which should aid researchers in choosing the most appropriate reagents for their studies. Furthermore, we expect this work to drive future advances by identifying and encouraging use of the most promising methods and reagents. The results may also aid judgements on how comparable are existing datasets that have been prepared with different sample library preparation reagents.

  5. SMEX02 Landsat 5 and 7 Thematic Mapper Land Surface Brightness Temperatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of land surface brightness temperatures (TBs) derived from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper+ (ETM+)...

  6. Safety of Intravenous Application of Mistletoe (Viscum album L. Preparations in Oncology: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. Steele

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this “off-label” application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is described. The frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs to intravenous mistletoe applications was calculated and compared to ADR data from a study on subcutaneous applications. Results. Of 475 cancer patients who received intravenous infusions of Helixor, Abnoba viscum, or Iscador mistletoe preparations, 22 patients (4.6% reported 32 ADRs of mild (59.4% or moderate severity (40.6%. No serious ADRs occurred. ADRs were more frequently reported to i.v. mistletoe administered alone (4.3%, versus prior to chemotherapy (1.6%. ADR frequency differed with respect to preparation type, with Iscador preparations showing a higher relative frequency, compared to Abnoba viscum and Helixor. Overall, patients were almost two times less likely to experience an ADR to intravenous compared to subcutaneous application of mistletoe. Conclusion. Intravenous mistletoe therapy was found to be safe and prospective studies for efficacy are recommended.

  7. Review of the studies on nutrition in Polish preschool children. Part 2. Meals prepared at preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkiel-Pawłowska, Sylwia; Chalcarz, Wojciech

    This article is the second part of the review of the studies on nutrition in Polish preschool children. In the first part, studies on preschool menus assessment were presented and summarised, whereas this article reviews the studies on the assessment of foods and meals prepared at preschool. The aim of this review was to present and summarise the results of the studies on the assessment of meals prepared for children at preschool based on the reports from the preschool food storeroom, the studies on chemical analysis of sample meals served at preschools and the studies on comparison of the results of chemical analysis to the results obtained by calculations obtained from computer programmes. The results of the studies on the assessment of meals prepared for children at preschool using various methods confirm most of the findings from the studies on the assessment of preschool menus. It is necessary to carry out more studies on energy and nutrient content assessment of preschool meals determined by chemical analysis of sample meals in order to provide more accurate information about the real nutritional value of meals served to children at preschool. It is essential to update the Polish food composition tables to enable more precise calculations of nutritional value of the meals planned for children at preschools which will improve the possibility of adjusting preschool meals to the real needs of both 3-year-old and 4-6-year-old children during their stay at preschool.

  8. On the time spent preparing grant proposals: an observational study of Australian researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Danielle L; Barnett, Adrian G; Clarke, Philip; Graves, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the time spent by the researchers for preparing grant proposals, and to examine whether spending more time increase the chances of success. Design Observational study. Setting The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) of Australia. Participants Researchers who submitted one or more NHMRC Project Grant proposals in March 2012. Main outcome measures Total researcher time spent preparing proposals; funding success as predicted by the time spent. Results The NHMRC received 3727 proposals of which 3570 were reviewed and 731 (21%) were funded. Among our 285 participants who submitted 632 proposals, 21% were successful. Preparing a new proposal took an average of 38 working days of researcher time and a resubmitted proposal took 28 working days, an overall average of 34 days per proposal. An estimated 550 working years of researchers' time (95% CI 513 to 589) was spent preparing the 3727 proposals, which translates into annual salary costs of AU$66 million. More time spent preparing a proposal did not increase the chances of success for the lead researcher (prevalence ratio (PR) of success for 10 day increase=0.91, 95% credible interval 0.78 to 1.04) or other researchers (PR=0.89, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.17). Conclusions Considerable time is spent preparing NHMRC Project Grant proposals. As success rates are historically 20–25%, much of this time has no immediate benefit to either the researcher or society, and there are large opportunity costs in lost research output. The application process could be shortened so that only information relevant for peer review, not administration, is collected. This would have little impact on the quality of peer review and the time saved could be reinvested into research. PMID:23793700

  9. Taxonomic and thematic organisation of proper name conceptual knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K

    2011-01-01

    We report the investigation of the organisation of proper names in two aphasic patients (NBC and FBI). The performance of both patients on spoken word to written word matching tasks was inconsistent, affected by presentation rate and semantic relatedness of the competing responses, all hallmarks of a refractory semantic access dysphasia. In a series of experiments we explored the semantic relatedness effects within their proper name vocabulary, including brand names and person names. First we demonstrated the interaction between very fine grain organisation and personal experience, with one patient with a special interest in the cinema demonstrating higher error rates when identifying the names of actors working in a similar film genre (e.g., action movies: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bruce Willis, Sylvester Stallone, Mel Gibson) than those working in different genres (e.g., Arnold Schwarzenegger, Gregory Peck, Robin Williams, Gene Kelly). Second we compared directly two potential principles of semantic organisation - taxonomic and thematic. Furthermore we considered these principles of organisation in the context of the individuals' personal knowledge base. We selected topics matching the interests and experience of each patient, namely cinema and literature (NBC) and naval history (FBI). The stimulus items were arranged in taxonomic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, Agatha Christie), thematic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Mr Darcy), and unrelated arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Wuthering Heights, Hercule Poirot). We documented that different patterns of taxonomic and thematic organisation were constrained by whether the individual has limited knowledge, moderate knowledge or detailed knowledge of a particular vocabulary. It is suggested that moderate proper name knowledge is primarily organised by taxonomy whereas extensive experience results in a more detailed knowledge base in which theme is a powerful organising principle.

  10. Taxonomic and Thematic Organisation of Proper Name Conceptual Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian J. Crutch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the investigation of the organisation of proper names in two aphasic patients (NBC and FBI. The performance of both patients on spoken word to written word matching tasks was inconsistent, affected by presentation rate and semantic relatedness of the competing responses, all hallmarks of a refractory semantic access dysphasia. In a series of experiments we explored the semantic relatedness effects within their proper name vocabulary, including brand names and person names. First we demonstrated the interaction between very fine grain organisation and personal experience, with one patient with a special interest in the cinema demonstrating higher error rates when identifying the names of actors working in a similar film genre (e.g. action movies: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bruce Willis, Sylvester Stallone, Mel Gibson than those working in different genres (e.g. Arnold Schwarzenegger, Gregory Peck, Robin Williams, Gene Kelly. Second we compared directly two potential principles of semantic organisation – taxonomic and thematic. Furthermore we considered these principles of organisation in the context of the individuals' personal knowledge base. We selected topics matching the interests and experience of each patient, namely cinema and literature (NBC and naval history (FBI. The stimulus items were arranged in taxonomic arrays (e.g. Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, Agatha Christie, thematic arrays (e.g. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Mr Darcy, and unrelated arrays (e.g. Jane Austen, Wuthering Heights, Hercule Poirot. We documented that different patterns of taxonomic and thematic organisation were constrained by whether the individual has limited knowledge, moderate knowledge or detailed knowledge of a particular vocabulary. It is suggested that moderate proper name knowledge is primarily organised by taxonomy whereas extensive experience results in a more detailed knowledge base in which theme is a powerful organising principle.

  11. Extracting samples of high diversity from thematic collections of large gene banks using a genetic-distance based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangel Paulo HN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breeding programs are usually reluctant to evaluate and use germplasm accessions other than the elite materials belonging to their advanced populations. The concept of core collections has been proposed to facilitate the access of potential users to samples of small sizes, representative of the genetic variability contained within the gene pool of a specific crop. The eventual large size of a core collection perpetuates the problem it was originally proposed to solve. The present study suggests that, in addition to the classic core collection concept, thematic core collections should be also developed for a specific crop, composed of a limited number of accessions, with a manageable size. Results The thematic core collection obtained meets the minimum requirements for a core sample - maintenance of at least 80% of the allelic richness of the thematic collection, with, approximately, 15% of its size. The method was compared with other methodologies based on the M strategy, and also with a core collection generated by random sampling. Higher proportions of retained alleles (in a core collection of equal size or similar proportions of retained alleles (in a core collection of smaller size were detected in the two methods based on the M strategy compared to the proposed methodology. Core sub-collections constructed by different methods were compared regarding the increase or maintenance of phenotypic diversity. No change on phenotypic diversity was detected by measuring the trait "Weight of 100 Seeds", for the tested sampling methods. Effects on linkage disequilibrium between unlinked microsatellite loci, due to sampling, are discussed. Conclusions Building of a thematic core collection was here defined by prior selection of accessions which are diverse for the trait of interest, and then by pairwise genetic distances, estimated by DNA polymorphism analysis at molecular marker loci. The resulting thematic core collection

  12. Extracting samples of high diversity from thematic collections of large gene banks using a genetic-distance based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa-Filho, Marco; Rangel, Paulo H N; Ferreira, Marcio E

    2010-06-24

    Breeding programs are usually reluctant to evaluate and use germplasm accessions other than the elite materials belonging to their advanced populations. The concept of core collections has been proposed to facilitate the access of potential users to samples of small sizes, representative of the genetic variability contained within the gene pool of a specific crop. The eventual large size of a core collection perpetuates the problem it was originally proposed to solve. The present study suggests that, in addition to the classic core collection concept, thematic core collections should be also developed for a specific crop, composed of a limited number of accessions, with a manageable size. The thematic core collection obtained meets the minimum requirements for a core sample - maintenance of at least 80% of the allelic richness of the thematic collection, with, approximately, 15% of its size. The method was compared with other methodologies based on the M strategy, and also with a core collection generated by random sampling. Higher proportions of retained alleles (in a core collection of equal size) or similar proportions of retained alleles (in a core collection of smaller size) were detected in the two methods based on the M strategy compared to the proposed methodology. Core sub-collections constructed by different methods were compared regarding the increase or maintenance of phenotypic diversity. No change on phenotypic diversity was detected by measuring the trait "Weight of 100 Seeds", for the tested sampling methods. Effects on linkage disequilibrium between unlinked microsatellite loci, due to sampling, are discussed. Building of a thematic core collection was here defined by prior selection of accessions which are diverse for the trait of interest, and then by pairwise genetic distances, estimated by DNA polymorphism analysis at molecular marker loci. The resulting thematic core collection potentially reflects the maximum allele richness with the smallest

  13. Suicide notes from Mexico and the United States: a thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Hernández, Ana-María; Leenaars, Antoon A; Chávez-de Sánchez, María-Isabel; Leenaars, Lindsey

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to investigate suicide notes drawn from Mexico and the United States (US) as these countries share geographical proximity, but markedly different cultures and suicide rates. A theoretical conceptual analysis of 102 suicide notes drawn from these countries, matched for age and sex, was undertaken based on a thematic model of suicide developed by Leenaars,1,2 across countries. The inter-judge reliability was adequate (.86 coefficient of concordance). The results suggested that there are more psychological commonalities than differences. Yet, as this study marks the first one using suicide notes, between Mexico and the USA, much greater study is warranted.

  14. Results of five randomized studies on the immunomodulatory activity of preparations of Echinacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchart, D; Linde, K; Worku, F; Sarkady, L; Holzmann, M; Jurcic, K; Wagner, H

    1995-01-01

    This article describes and discusses five placebo-controlled randomized studies investigating the immunomodulatory activity of preparations containing extracts of Echinacea in healthy volunteers. A total of 134 (18 female and 116 male) healthy volunteers between 18 and 40 years of age were studied. Two studies tested intravenous homeopathic complex preparations containing Echinacea angustifolia D1 (study 1) and D4 (study 5). Two studies (2 and 3a) tested oral alcoholic extracts of roots of E. purpurea, one study an extract of E. pallida roots (study 3b), and one study an extract of E. purpurea herb (study 4). Test and placebo preparations were applied for four (study 5) or five (studies 1-4) consecutive days. The primary outcome measure for immunomodulatory activity was the relative phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PNG), measured in studies 1 and 2 with a microscopic method and in studies 3, 4, and 5 with two different cytometric methods. The secondary outcome measure was the number of leukocytes in peripheral venous blood. Safety was assessed by a screening program of blood and other objective parameters as well as by documentation of all subjective side effects. In studies 1 and 2 the phagocytic activity of PNG was significantly enhanced compared with placebo [maximal stimulation 22.7% (95% confidence interval 17.5-27.9%) and 54.0% (8.4-99.6%), respectively], while in the other studies no significant effects were observed. Analysis of intragroup differences revealed significant changes in phagocytic activity during the observation periods in five test and three control groups. Leukocyte number was not influenced significantly in any study. Side effects due to the test preparations could not be detected. Our studies provide evidence for immunomodulatory activity of the homeopathic combination tested in study 1 and the E. purpureae radix extract tested in study 2. The negative results of the other three studies are difficult to

  15. Mood changes in the course of preparation for the Brazilian university admission exam - a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Marco Aurélio Monteiro; Savalli, Carine; Cúri, Mariana; Gorenstein, Clarice; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2010-03-01

    Academic examinations are an important source of stress for students. This study is intended to assess senior high school students' mood changes during the preparation for a very important academic examination, the Brazilian university admission examination. Positive and Negative Affect Schedule - Expanded Form was used to assess the students three times in the course of the months preceding the examination. ANOVA for repeated measures showed that Negative Affect increased as the examination approached, and that this increment was already present months before the examination took place. A single conditionally independent random effect model showed that time spent studying was associated with fluctuations in mood. Teenagers, in preparation for a very important examination, may present mood disturbances associated with both the proximity of the examination and their study load months before the examination actually takes place. Other stressing factors may play a role in these findings and should be further investigated.

  16. Design and preparation of scenarios for human factors studies in the HAMMLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moracho, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    In the preparation of experiments for Human Factors studies, the scenarios play an important role. As a matter of fact, scenario effect is often demonstrated in the analysis of results. An experimental study referred to as Experiments' 97 was conducted in the Halden Man Machine LABoratory. In the design of the scenarios for this experiment, an effort was made for producing scenarios in compliance with the objectives of the study. Before the experiment simulations, scenario analysis was conducted and documented. This report presents some of the lessons learned from these activities. It also identifies main issues to be considered in the scenario characterisation and preparation. Examples of the scenarios' design document produced for the Experiments' 97 as well as examples of measure definitions for OPAS (OPerator Assessment System) and PPAS (Plant Performance System) are included in the appendixes (author) (ml)

  17. Stability study and lyophilization of vitamin E-loaded nanocapsules prepared by membrane contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayata, N; Abdelwahed, W; Chehna, M F; Charcosset, C; Fessi, H

    2012-12-15

    In this research, we studied the accelerated stability of vitamin E-loaded nanocapsules (NCs) prepared by the nanoprecipitation method. Vitamin E-loaded NCs were optimized firstly at the laboratory scale and then scaled up using the membrane contactor technique. The optimum conditions of the membrane contactor preparation (pilot scale) produced vitamin E-loaded NCs with an average size of 253 nm, polydispersity index 0.19 and a zeta potential -16 mV. The average size, polydispersity index and zeta potential values were 185 nm, 0.12 and -15 mV, respectively for the NCs prepared at laboratory scale. No significant changes were noticed in these values after 3 and 6 months of storage at high temperature (40±2 °C) and relative humidity (75±5%) in spite of vitamin E sensitivity to light, heat and oxygen. The entrapment efficiency of NCs prepared at pilot scale was 97% at the beginning of the stability study, and became (95%, 59%) after 3 and 6 months of storage, respectively. These values at lab-scale were (98%, 96%, and 89%) at time zero and after 3 and 6 months of storage, respectively. This confirms the ability of vitamin E encapsulation to preserve its stability, which is one major goal of our work. Lyophilization of the optimized formula at lab-scale was also performed. Four types of cryoprotectants were tested (poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), sucrose, mannitol, and glucose). Freeze-dried NCs prepared with sucrose were found acceptable. The other lyophilized NCs obtained at different conditions presented large aggregates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sample preparation composite and replicate strategy case studies for assay of solid oral drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Beverly; Harrington, Brent; Li, Fasheng; Guo, Michele Xuemei

    2017-11-30

    Drug product assay is one of several tests required for new drug products to ensure the quality of the product at release and throughout the life cycle of the product. Drug product assay testing is typically performed by preparing a composite sample of multiple dosage units to obtain an assay value representative of the batch. In some cases replicate composite samples may be prepared and the reportable assay value is the average value of all the replicates. In previously published work by Harrington et al. (2014) [5], a sample preparation composite and replicate strategy for assay was developed to provide a systematic approach which accounts for variability due to the analytical method and dosage form with a standard error of the potency assay criteria based on compendia and regulatory requirements. In this work, this sample preparation composite and replicate strategy for assay is applied to several case studies to demonstrate the utility of this approach and its application at various stages of pharmaceutical drug product development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of PDMS conformation in PDMS-based hybrid materials prepared by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancastre, J.J.H.; Fernandes, N.; Margaça, F.M.A.; Miranda Salvado, I.M.; Ferreira, L.M.; Falcão, A.N.; Casimiro, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane-silicate based hybrid materials have recognized properties (high flexibility, low elastic modulus or high mechanical strength) for which there are a large number of applications in development, such as for the bioapplications field. The hybrids addressed in the present study were prepared by gamma irradiation of a mixture of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and zirconium propoxide (PrZr) without addition of any solvent or other product. The materials are homogeneous, transparent, monolithic and flexible. The structure dependence on the PrZr content is addressed. A combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) was used. The results reveal that the polymer in the hybrids prepared with PrZr, in a content≤5 wt%, shows a structure similar to that in the irradiated pure polymer sample. In these samples the presence of ordered polymer regions is clearly found. For samples prepared with higher content of Zr almost no ordered polymer regions are observed. The addition of PrZr plays an important role on polymer conformation in these hybrid materials. - Highlights: ► PDMS-based hybrid materials were prepared by γ-irradiation. ► FTIR, ATR/FT-IR and XRD techniques were used to characterize the materials. ► Changes in FTIR bands reflect growth of crosslinking network. ► Above certain Zr concentration regions of Zr-silicate oxide are formed. ► Zr content determines conformation of the polymer chain network.

  20. A new dietary model to study colorectal carcinogenesis: experimental design, food preparation, and experimental findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, P; Liberman, V; Lubin, F; Angel, S; Owen, R; Trostler, N; Shkolnik, T; Kritchevsky, D

    1996-01-01

    Experimental dietary studies of human colorectal carcinogenesis are usually based on the AIN-76A diet, which is dissimilar to human food in source, preparation, and content. The aims of this study were to examine the feasibility of preparing and feeding rats the diet of a specific human population at risk for colorectal neoplasia and to determine whether changes in the colonic morphology and metabolic contents would differ from those resulting from a standard rat diet. The mean daily food intake composition of a previously evaluated adenoma patient case-control study was used for the "human adenoma" (HA) experimental diet. Foods were prepared as for usual human consumption and processed by dehydration to the physical characteristics of an animal diet. Sixty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized and fed ad libitum the HA or the AIN-76A diet. Every eight weeks, eight rats from each group were sacrificed, and the colons and contents were examined. Analysis of the prepared food showed no significant deleterious changes; food intake and weight gain were similar in both groups. Compared with the controls, the colonic contents of rats fed the HA diet contained significantly less calcium, concentrations of neutral sterols, total lipids, and cholic and deoxycholic acids were increased, and there were no colonic histological changes other than significant epithelial hyperproliferation. This initial study demonstrated that the HA diet can be successfully processed for feeding to experimental animals and is acceptable and adequate for growth but induces significant metabolic and hyperproliferative changes in the rat colon. This dietary model may be useful for studies of human food, narrowing the gap between animal experimentation and human nutritional research.

  1. An interview study analysing patients' experiences and perceptions of non-laxative or full-laxative preparation with faecal tagging prior to CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanouni, A.; Smith, S.G.; Halligan, S.; Taylor, S.A.; Plumb, A.; Boone, D.; Wagner, C. von

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To compare patients' experiences of either non- or full-laxative bowel preparation with additional faecal tagging and subsequent computed tomographic (CT) colonography using in-depth interviews to elicit detailed responses. Materials and methods: Patients who received CT colonography after non- (n = 9) or full-laxative (n = 9) preparation participated in a semi-structured telephone interview at least 2 days after the investigation. Full-laxative preparation consisted of magnesium citrate and sodium picosulphate administered at home (or polyethylene glycol, if contraindicated), followed by hospital-based faecal tagging with iohexol. Non-laxative preparation was home-based barium sulphate for faecal tagging. Interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed to identify recurrent themes on patients' perceptions and experiences. Results: Experiences of full-laxative preparation were usually negative and characterized by pre-test diarrhoea that caused significant interference with daily routine. Post-test flatus was common. Non-laxative preparation was well-tolerated; patients reported no or minimal changes to bowel habit and rapid return to daily routine. Patients reported worry and uncertainty about the purpose of faecal tagging. For iohexol, this also added burden from waiting before testing. Conclusion: Patients' responses supported previous findings that non-laxative preparation is more acceptable than full-laxative preparation but both can be improved. Faecal tagging used in combination with laxative preparation is poorly understood, adding burden and worry. Home-based non-laxative preparation is also poorly understood and patients require better information on the purpose and mechanism in order to give fully informed consent. This may also optimize adherence to instructions. Allowing home-based self-administration of all types of preparation would prevent waiting before testing

  2. Single Session Web-Based Counselling: A Thematic Analysis of Content from the Perspective of the Client

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, S. N.; Lubman, D. I.; Cheetham, A.; Dowling, N. A.; Jackson, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the exponential growth of non-appointment-based web counselling, there is limited information on what happens in a single session intervention. This exploratory study, involving a thematic analysis of 85 counselling transcripts of people seeking help for problem gambling, aimed to describe the presentation and content of online…

  3. Pharmaceutical studies of levothyroxine sodium hydrate suppository provided as a hospital preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuhei; Masuda, Kazushi; Okubo, Masato; Nakasa, Hiromitsu; Sekine, Yuko; Ishii, Itsuko

    2015-01-01

    The levothyroxine sodium hydrate suppository (L-T4-suppository) is provided as a hospital preparation for the treatment of hypothyroid patients with dysphagia in Japan because only oral preparations of levothyroxine sodium (L-T4) are approved for the treatment of hypothyroidism. However, it has been found that serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels do not increase as expected with the hospital preparation, requiring a higher dosage of L-T4 in the L-T4-suppository than in the oral preparations. In this study, to determine an effective thyroid gland hormone-replacement therapy for patients with dysphagia, the pharmaceutical properties of the L-T4-suppository were investigated. Suppositories containing 300 µg L-T4 in a base of Witepsol H-15 and Witepsol E-75 (ratio of 1 : 1) were prepared according to Chiba University Hospital's protocol. Content uniformity, stability, and suppository release were tested. The L-T4-suppository had uniform weight and content. The content and release property were stable over 90 d when the L-T4-suppository was stored at 4 °C and protected from light. The release rate of L-T4 increased as pH increased. However, no L-T4 was released below pH 7.2. The release rate of L-T4 decreased as temperature decreased. These findings suggest that the low level of release of L-T4 in the rectum under physiological conditions may be the cause of the low serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels following L-T4-suppository administration.

  4. TOGAF 9 foundation study guide preparation for the TOGAF 9 part 1 examination

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This title is a Study Guide for Togaf® 9 Foundation. It gives an overview of every learning objective for the Togaf 9 Foundation Syllabus and in-depth coverage on preparing and taking the Togaf 9 Part 1 Examination. It is specifically designed to help individuals prepare for certification. This Study Guide is excellent material for: * Individuals who require a basic understanding of Togaf 9; * Professionals who are working in roles associated with an architecture project such as those responsible for planning, execution, development, delivery, and operation; * Architects who are looking for a first introduction to Togaf 9; * Architects who want to achieve Level 2 certification in a stepwise manner and have not previously qualified as Togaf 8 Certified. A prior knowledge of enterprise architecture is advantageous but not required.

  5. Sample preparation for large-scale bioanalytical studies based on liquid chromatographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedovici, Andrei; Bacalum, Elena; David, Victor

    2018-01-01

    Quality of the analytical data obtained for large-scale and long term bioanalytical studies based on liquid chromatography depends on a number of experimental factors including the choice of sample preparation method. This review discusses this tedious part of bioanalytical studies, applied to large-scale samples and using liquid chromatography coupled with different detector types as core analytical technique. The main sample preparation methods included in this paper are protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, derivatization and their versions. They are discussed by analytical performances, fields of applications, advantages and disadvantages. The cited literature covers mainly the analytical achievements during the last decade, although several previous papers became more valuable in time and they are included in this review. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Comparative study of ZnO thin films prepared by different sol-gel route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Esmaieli Ghodsi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available   Retraction Notice    The paper "Comparative study of ZnO thin films prepared by different sol-gel route" by H. Absalan and F. E. Ghodsi, which appeared in Iranian Journal of Physics Research, Vol. 11, No. 4, 423-428 (in Farsi is translation of the paper "Comparative Study of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Different Sol-Gel Route" by F. E. Ghodsi and H. Absalan, which appeared in ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, Vol 118 (2010 (in English and for this reason is retracted from this journal.The corresponding author  (and also the first author is the only responsible person for this action.   

  7. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Preparation and Properties of Stereoregular Polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Ciardelli, Francesco

    1980-01-01

    This book contains the texts of the main lectures presented at the NATO Advanced Studies Institute on "Advances in Preparation and Properties of Stereoregular Polymers" held at Tirrenia near Pisa, Italy, from October 3 to 14, 1978. A few contributed papers have also been included because they were concerned with topics not included in the main lectures. The primary objective of the Institute was to assist in the further development of stereoregular polymers because of the ever-increasing demand for new products with exceptional chemical and physical properties. This need has reawakened interest in the field. Indeed there is now a rapidly increasing activity in the study of stereoregular polymerization and the preparation of structurally-ordered polymers with the aim of achieving apprecia­ ble improvements in existing polymeric materials through new developments in synthesis and properties as well as in discovering new polymeric structures. In order to achieve these objectives, a broad interdiscipli­ nary co...

  8. Developing sosiocultural base thematic-integrative learning instrument for elementary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Arifin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at: (1 generating sociocultural base-thematic-integrative learning instrument on the theme “My Aspiration” for the students of SD N Pujokusuman 1; and (2 identifying the effectiveness of the sociocultural base-thematic-integrative learning instrument on the theme “My Aspiration”. This study referred to the steps that had been developed by Borg & Gall. The developmental design was categorized into three procedures which consisted of: (a preliminary stage; (b development stage; and (c testing stage. The subjects of the main experiment were 28 elementary school students. Then, the subjects of the operational test were 84 students from SDN Pujokusuman 1. The subjects of operational product test in the experimental group were 56 students and in the control group were 28 students. In gathering the data for this study, the researcher employed interview guideline, learning instrument product assessment sheet, teacher’s checklist observation sheet, student’s checklist observation sheet, learning results test, and teacher’s response questionnaire. In conducting the data analysis, the researcher made use of independent sample t-test with the rate of significance 0.05. The results of the study show that the learning instrument belongs to the “Good” category. The implementation of the learning instrument, in general, belongs to the “Very Good” category. However, there are differences between the control group and the experimental group after the implementation of the sociocultural based-thematic-integrative learning instrument with p < 0.05. There is also a significant improvement with p = 0.0001.

  9. Exploring perceptions of instructors about childbirth preparation training courses: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Otogara, Marzieh; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Poorolajal, Jalal; Radnia, Nahid; Akrami, Forouzan; Bagheri, Fahimeh

    2017-01-01

    Background Childbirth preparation training courses on maternal and neonatal health increase awareness, and capability of pregnant women in overcoming fear and anxiety and managing labor pains. Objective To identify the affecting factors and barriers of these courses from the perspective of their instructors. Methods This qualitative study of the content analysis type, has been conducted on 16 certified teachers of the training courses of the Hamadan city in 2015. Data were collected by semi-s...

  10. State selective electron capture studies with slow state prepared ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    McCullough, R W

    1999-01-01

    Double translational energy spectroscopy has been successfully used to study state selective electron capture processes in atomic and molecular targets involving slow ( nu <1 au) C/sup 2+/, N/sup 2+/ and O/sup 2+/ primary ions in prepared ground or metastable states. The results show that previous TES and total one electron capture measurements involving primary ions beams containing unknown fractions of metastable states require cautious interpretation. (22 refs).

  11. Same-day colonoscopy preparation with Senna alkaloids and bisacodyl tablets: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenidogan, Erdinc; Okan, Ismail; Kayaoglu, Huseyin Ayhan; Akgul, Gokhan Giray; Sansal, Mufit; Tali, Servet; Ozsoy, Zeki; Sahin, Mustafa

    2014-11-07

    To evaluate the efficacy of same-day bowel preparation with Senna alkaloids combined with bisacodyl tablets in routine colonoscopy procedures. Between March and June 2013, a same-day bowel preparation was implemented in our endoscopy unit. The preparation consisted of a semi-liquid, fiber-free diet one day prior to the procedure, with two bisacodyl tablets after lunch and dinner, and 250 mL of Senna alkaloid with 1.5 L of drinking water at 6 am the day of the procedure. The quality control parameters of colonoscopy were evaluated and implemented according to the guidelines of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. The pre-procedure, during-procedure and post-procedure patient data were collected and analyzed: (1) pre-procedure (age, gender, comorbid diseases, colonoscopy indications, complete lack of compliance with the bowel preparation protocol); (2) during-procedure (sedation dose, duration of colonoscopy, withdrawal time, cecal intubation rate, polyp detection rate, Boston Bowel Preparation Scores and presence of foam and clear liquid); and (3) post-procedure (visual analogue scale score, pain during the procedure, patient satisfaction and premature withdrawal due to the insufficient bowel preparation). A total of 75 patients were included in this study with a mean age of 54.64 ± 13.29 years; 53.3% (40/75) were female and 46.7% (35/75) were male. A complete lack of compliance with the bowel preparation protocol was seen in 6.7% of patients (5/75). The mean total duration of colonoscopy was 16.12 ± 6.51 min, and the mean withdrawal time was 8.89 ± 4.07 min. The cecal intubation rate was 93.8% (61/64) and the polyp detection rate was 40% (30/75). The mean Boston Bowel Preparation Score was 7.38 ± 1.81, with the following distribution: right colon, 2.34 ± 0.89; transverse colon, 2.52 ± 0.67; left colon, 2.52 ± 0.63. The mean visual analogue scale score was 4.59 ± 1.57. Due to insufficient bowel preparation, seven patients (7/75; 9.3%) were

  12. Leadership preparation in engineering: A study of perceptions of leadership attributes, preparedness, and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Julia Talarico

    Perceptions of engineers and leaders in the field of engineering regarding leadership preparation for engineers were evaluated in this dissertation. More specifically, engineers' and leaders' perceptions of leadership preparation and the necessary skills of leaders in technical fields were studied. The design and analyses of the study were divided into two parts: (1) Data for employment and college enrollment for engineers in New York State (NYS) were plotted using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in order to evaluate recent data regarding employment and college enrollment for engineers in order to better understand the relevance of leadership preparation in engineering, (2) Perceptions regarding engineering leadership preparedness were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods and inferential statistical methods and engineers' perceptions regarding the importance of chosen leadership attributes were analyzed using inferential statistics and Generalizability Theory (G-theory). Responses to open-ended questions regarding the importance of leadership or management training for engineers, and responses discussing possible implications of increasing leadership or management training for engineers were also examined. Possible implications of the study, and suggestions for future research, were also included.

  13. Preformulation Studies of Bee Venom for the Preparation of Bee Venom-Loaded PLGA Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ho Park

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is known that allergic people was potentially vulnerable to bee venom (BV, which can induce an anaphylactic shock, eventually leading to death. Up until recently, this kind of allergy was treated only by venom immunotherapy (VIT and its efficacy has been recognized worldwide. This treatment is practiced by subcutaneous injections that gradually increase the doses of the allergen. This is inconvenient for patients due to frequent injections. Poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA has been broadly studied as a carrier for drug delivery systems (DDS of proteins and peptides. PLGA particles usually induce a sustained release. In this study, the physicochemical properties of BV were examined prior to the preparation of BV-loaded PLGA nanoparticles NPs. The content of melittin, the main component of BV, was 53.3%. When protected from the light BV was stable at 4 °C in distilled water, during 8 weeks. BV-loaded PLGA particles were prepared using dichloromethane as the most suitable organic solvent and two min of ultrasonic emulsification time. This study has characterized the physicochemical properties of BV for the preparation BV-loaded PLGA NPs in order to design and optimize a suitable sustained release system in the future.

  14. Preformulation Studies of Bee Venom for the Preparation of Bee Venom-Loaded PLGA Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Ho; Kim, Ju-Heon; Jeon, Jong-Woon; Park, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Bong-Joo; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Cho, Cheong-Weon

    2015-08-18

    It is known that allergic people was potentially vulnerable to bee venom (BV), which can induce an anaphylactic shock, eventually leading to death. Up until recently, this kind of allergy was treated only by venom immunotherapy (VIT) and its efficacy has been recognized worldwide. This treatment is practiced by subcutaneous injections that gradually increase the doses of the allergen. This is inconvenient for patients due to frequent injections. Poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) has been broadly studied as a carrier for drug delivery systems (DDS) of proteins and peptides. PLGA particles usually induce a sustained release. In this study, the physicochemical properties of BV were examined prior to the preparation of BV-loaded PLGA nanoparticles NPs). The content of melittin, the main component of BV, was 53.3%. When protected from the light BV was stable at 4 °C in distilled water, during 8 weeks. BV-loaded PLGA particles were prepared using dichloromethane as the most suitable organic solvent and two min of ultrasonic emulsification time. This study has characterized the physicochemical properties of BV for the preparation BV-loaded PLGA NPs in order to design and optimize a suitable sustained release system in the future.

  15. In vitro study of microleakage of different techniques of surface preparation used in pits and fissures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Javadi Nejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different techniques of surface preparation on the microleakage of a sealant applied with traditional acid etching and self-etched bonding agent. Study Design : A total of 60 extracted third molars were randomly assigned into six groups (n = 10/each. The occlusal surfaces were sealed with a sealant (Clinpro after one of the following pretreatments: (1 phosphoric acid etching; (2 Prompt L-Pop; (3 laser + etching; (4 laser + Prompt L-Pop; (5 air abrasion + etching; (6 air abrasion + Prompt L-Pop. The specimens were immersed in a 0.5% basic fuchsin solution. Buccolingual cuts parallel to the long axis of the tooth were made. The surfaces were scored 0--2 for extent of microleakage using a microscope and the data were analyzed statistically. Results : The poorest results were obtained with laser + Prompt L-Pop which showed a greater number of specimens with microleakage (80%. Air abrasion surface preparation + phosphoric acid etching showed less microleakage than the other groups (40%. Kruskal--Wallis and t-tests revealed no significant difference in microleakage between six groups. Conclusion : The self-etching adhesive studied seems an attractive alternative to the acid-etch technique for sealant application in young children where simplifications in the clinical procedure are warranted. No significant difference was noted between the different types of enamel preparation before fissure sealant.

  16. [Study on the Influence of Mineralizer on the Preparation of Calcium Aluminates Based on Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Wang, Liang; Zheng, Huai-li; Chen, Wei; Tang, Xiao-min; Shang, Juan-fang; Qian, Li

    2015-05-01

    In this study, effect of mineralizer on the structure and spectraproperties of calcium aluminates formation was extensively studied. Medium or low-grade bauxite and calcium carbonate were used as raw material and mineralizer CaF2 as additive. Calcium aluminates can be obtained after mixing fully, calcination and grinding. The prepared calcium aluminates can be directly used for the production of polyaluminiumchloride (PAC), polymeric aluminum sulfate, sodium aluminate and some other water treatment agents. The calcium aluminates preparation technology was optimized by investigating the mass ratio of raw materials (bauxiteand calcium carbonate) and mineralizer CaF2 dosage. The structure and spectra properties of bauxite and calcium aluminates were characterized by Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) spectroscopy analysis and the mineralization mechanism of the mineralizer was studied. FTIR spectra indicated that the addition of mineralizer promoted the decomposition and transformation of the diaspore, gibbsite and kaolinite, the decomposition of calcium carbonate, and more adequately reaction between bauxite and calcium carbonate. In addition, not only Ca in calcium carbonate and Si in bauxite were more readily reacted, but also Si-O, Si-O-Al and Al-Si bonds in the bauxite were more fractured which contributed to the release of Al in bauxite, and therefore, the dissolution rate of Al2O3 could be improved. The dissolution rate of Al2O3 can be promoted effectively when the mineralizer CaF2 was added in a mass ratio amount of 3%. And the mineralizer CaF2 cannot be fully functioned, when its dosage was in a mass percent of 1. 5%. Low-grade bauxite was easier to sinter for the preparation of calcium aluminates comparing with the highgrade one. The optimum material ratio for the preparation of calcium aluminates calcium at 1 250 °C was the mass ratio between bauxite and calcium carbonate of 1 : 0. 6 and mineralizer CaF2 mass ratio percent of 3%.

  17. Being prepared for the unprepared: a phenomenology field study of Swedish prehospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Birgitta Wireklint; Dahlberg, Karin

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents a study of prehospital care with particular focus on how ambulance personnel prepare themselves for their everyday assignments. The caring science field study took a phenomenological approach, where data were analyzed for meaning. Two specialist ambulance nurses, three registered nurses, and six paramedics participated. The previously known discrepancy between in-hospital care and prehospital care was further interpreted in this study. The pre-information from an emergency medical dispatch (EMD) center provides ambulance personnel with basic expectations as to what they will have to take care of. At the same time that they maintain their certainty and control, our major findings indicate that prehospital care in emergency medical service requires the personnel to be prepared for an open and flexible encounter with the patient; to be prepared for the unprepared, i.e., to be open and to avoid being governed by predetermined statements. Our findings suggest that the outcomes of good prehospital care affect patient security. The seemingly time-consuming dialogue with the patient facilitates understanding and decision-making regarding the patient's medical needs, and it is comforting to the patient. The ambulance personnel need to be well prepared for this task and fully understand that the situation might differ considerably from the information provided by the EMD centers. All objective information is of great value in this care context, but ultimately it is the patient who provides reliable information about her/his own situation. Copyright © 2012 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Comparative study of absorption kinetics in intestines of rats on Xianlinggubao capsule prepared by different technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huichao; Du, Shouying; Lu, Yang; Chen, Wen; Ma, Yong; Li, Pengyue

    2011-04-01

    To study the characteristics of intestinal absorption of psoralen and isopsoralen of Xianlinggubao capsule, and compare the absorption of Xianlinggubao capsule prepared by different technologies. Non everted gut sac method was applied to investigate the influence of absorption sites and drug concentration on psoralen and isopsoralen absorption, which were determined by HPLC. Although the absorption rate constants of psoralen and isopsoralen in duodenum were more than that in jejunum and ileum, there was no significance difference between them. The absorption rate constants of psoralen kept at the same level when the concentrations of drug solution were at middle and low level, while the absorption rate constant at high level was absolutely lower than them (P Intestinal absorption of psoralen and isopsoralen may be affected by the dissolution. The absorption rate constants of psoralen and isopsoralen in new Xianlinggubao capsules are higher. The absorptions of active components absorption has significant difference in different preparation processes of Xianlinggubao capsule.

  19. Simulated Waste for Leaching and Filtration Studies--Laboratory Preparation Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Harry D.; Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2009-10-27

    This report discusses the simulant preparation procedure for producing multi-component simulants for leaching and filtration studies, including development and comparison activities in accordance with the test plan( ) prepared and approved in response to the Test Specification 24590-WTP-TSP-RT-06-006, Rev 0 (Smith 2006). A fundamental premise is that this approach would allow blending of the different components to simulate a wide variety of feeds to be treated in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). For example, a given feed from the planned feed vector could be selected, and the appropriate components would then be blended to achieve a representation of that particular feed. Using the blending of component simulants allows the representation of a much broader spectrum of potential feeds to the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP).

  20. A FTIR study water in membrane of nitrocellulose prepared by phase inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benosmane, N.; Boutemeur, B.; Hamdi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text.Cellulose derivates were the first biopolymers used to produce synthesis membranes for technical applications, in this study the state of water in asymmetric membrane of nitrocellulose, prepared by the phase inversion process, was investigated using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), after membrane preparation by the wet inversion process in acetone, the spectre FTIR of wet asymmetric membrane of nitrocellulose after immersion in water (after one week) is compared to the spectre of dried asymmetric membrane of nitrocellulose, the difference in spectre of dried and wet membrane indicate a weakly hydrogen-bonded to the polymer hydroxyl groups between water and hydroxyl groups in surface of membrane, the results demonstrate the amount of water species present in the surface of asymmetric membrane and heterogeneous of surface

  1. Pt based PEMFC catalysts prepared from colloidal particle suspensions--a toolbox for model studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speder, Jozsef; Altmann, Lena; Roefzaad, Melanie; Bäumer, Marcus; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Mortensen, Kell; Arenz, Matthias

    2013-03-14

    A colloidal synthesis approach is presented that allows systematic studies of the properties of supported proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalysts. The applied synthesis route is based on the preparation of monodisperse nanoparticles in the absence of strong binding organic stabilizing agents. No temperature post-treatment of the catalyst is required rendering the synthesis route ideally suitable for comparative studies. We report work concerning a series of catalysts based on the same colloidal Pt nanoparticle (NP) suspension, but with different high surface area (HSA) carbon supports. It is shown that for the prepared catalysts the carbon support has no catalytic co-function, but carbon pre-treatment leads to enhanced sticking of the Pt NPs on the support. An unwanted side effect, however, is NP agglomeration during synthesis. By contrast, enhanced NP sticking without agglomeration can be accomplished by the addition of an ionomer to the NP suspension. The catalytic activity of the prepared catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction is comparable to industrial catalysts and no influence of the particle size is found in the range of 2-5 nm.

  2. Building Energy Storage Panel Based on Paraffin/Expanded Perlite: Preparation and Thermal Performance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangfei Kong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the preparation and performance of a building energy storage panel (BESP. The BESP was fabricated through a mold pressing method based on phase change material particle (PCMP, which was prepared in two steps: vacuum absorption and surface film coating. Firstly, phase change material (PCM was incorporated into expanded perlite (EP through a vacuum absorption method to obtain composite PCM; secondly, the composite PCM was immersed into the mixture of colloidal silica and organic acrylate, and then it was taken out and dried naturally. A series of experiments, including differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, scanning electron microscope (SEM, best matching test, and durability test, have been conducted to characterize and analyze the thermophysical property and reliability of PCMP. Additionally, the thermal performance of BESP was studied through a dynamic thermal property test. The results have showed that: (1 the surface film coating procedure can effectively solve the leakage problem of composite phase change material prepared by vacuum impregnation; (2 the optimum adsorption ratio for paraffin and EP was 52.5:47.5 in mass fraction, and the PCMP has good thermal properties, stability, and durability; and (3 in the process of dynamic thermal performance test, BESP have low temperature variation, significant temperature lagging, and large heat storage ability, which indicated the potential of BESP in the application of building energy efficiency.

  3. Building Energy Storage Panel Based on Paraffin/Expanded Perlite: Preparation and Thermal Performance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangfei; Zhong, Yuliang; Rong, Xian; Min, Chunhua; Qi, Chengying

    2016-01-25

    This study is focused on the preparation and performance of a building energy storage panel (BESP). The BESP was fabricated through a mold pressing method based on phase change material particle (PCMP), which was prepared in two steps: vacuum absorption and surface film coating. Firstly, phase change material (PCM) was incorporated into expanded perlite (EP) through a vacuum absorption method to obtain composite PCM; secondly, the composite PCM was immersed into the mixture of colloidal silica and organic acrylate, and then it was taken out and dried naturally. A series of experiments, including differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), best matching test, and durability test, have been conducted to characterize and analyze the thermophysical property and reliability of PCMP. Additionally, the thermal performance of BESP was studied through a dynamic thermal property test. The results have showed that: (1) the surface film coating procedure can effectively solve the leakage problem of composite phase change material prepared by vacuum impregnation; (2) the optimum adsorption ratio for paraffin and EP was 52.5:47.5 in mass fraction, and the PCMP has good thermal properties, stability, and durability; and (3) in the process of dynamic thermal performance test, BESP have low temperature variation, significant temperature lagging, and large heat storage ability, which indicated the potential of BESP in the application of building energy efficiency.

  4. [Therapeutic characteristance and tolerance of topical comfrey preparations. Results of an observational study of patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koll, R; Klingenburg, S

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the anti-inflammatory and analgetic properties of the topical comfrey, preparations Kytta-Salbe f, Kytta-Plasma f and Kytta-Balsam f applied to bruises, sprains and distortions and painful conditions of the muscles and joints. A prospective open multicentric observational study complying with paragraph 67(6) of the AMG and involving 162 general practitioners. During the two-week period of observation, the patients received an average of one to three applications of the comfrey preparation per day. All 492 questionnaires were evaluated. Efficacy and tolerability were assessed by both physician and patient. Pain at rest and on movement, as also tenderness, improved in the overall observation group by an average of 45-47%. The duration of morning joint stiffness decreased from 20 minutes initially to 3 minutes. During the course of treatment with comfrey, more than two-thirds of the patients were able to reduce or even discontinue their intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other specific concomitant medication. In most of the cases, both effectiveness and tolerability were assessed to be excellent or good. The results of the study confirm the effectiveness and tolerability of the topical comfrey preparation investigated in the treatment of bruises, sprains and distortions as well as painful conditions affecting muscles and joints.

  5. The experiences of physical rehabilitation in individuals with spinal cord injuries: a qualitative thematic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Janelle; Singh, Hardeep; Mansfield, Avril; Hitzig, Sander L; Lenton, Erica; Musselman, Kristin E

    2018-01-15

    The purpose of this thematic synthesis review was to identify and synthesise published qualitative research on the perspectives of individuals with spinal cord injuries with respect to physical rehabilitation interventions. The peer-reviewed literature was searched across seven databases and identified abstracts were independently screened by two reviewers. A thematic synthesis methodology was used to code and synthesise the results from the included studies. In total, 7233 abstracts were identified; 31 articles were selected for inclusion, representing 26 physical rehabilitation interventions. The methodological quality of studies was moderate (Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research mean ± standard deviation = 14.39 ± 3.61). The four main themes developed were: (1) Benefits of physical rehabilitation, (2) Challenges of physical rehabilitation, (3) Need for support, and (4) Issue of control. This qualitative thematic synthesis provides key insights into the experiences of individuals with spinal cord injuries who received physical rehabilitation. Recommendations for practice, based on the findings, include creating a diverse, encouraging, and educational physical rehabilitation experience with supportive staff who focus on communication and person-centred care. Implications for Rehabilitation Physical rehabilitation provides psychological as well as physical benefits to people with spinal cord injuries, including motivation, hope, improved self-confidence, and acceptance. Challenges identified during physical rehabilitation for people with spinal cord injuries, such as comparisons, negative emotions, recovery expectations, and slow progress, should be addressed by healthcare professionals to ensure person-centred care. People with spinal cord injuries identified a need for support from health care professionals, family, and friends, as well other people with spinal cord injuries. There is an issue of control in physical rehabilitation for people

  6. The role of sample preparation in interpretation of trace element concentration variability in moss bioindication studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Lamothe, P.J.; Crock, J.G.; Galuszka, A.; Dolegowska, S.

    2011-01-01

    Trace element concentrations in plant bioindicators are often determined to assess the quality of the environment. Instrumental methods used for trace element determination require digestion of samples. There are different methods of sample preparation for trace element analysis, and the selection of the best method should be fitted for the purpose of a study. Our hypothesis is that the method of sample preparation is important for interpretation of the results. Here we compare the results of 36 element determinations performed by ICP-MS on ashed and on acid-digested (HNO3, H2O2) samples of two moss species (Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi) collected in Alaska and in south-central Poland. We found that dry ashing of the moss samples prior to analysis resulted in considerably lower detection limits of all the elements examined. We also show that this sample preparation technique facilitated the determination of interregional and interspecies differences in the chemistry of trace elements. Compared to the Polish mosses, the Alaskan mosses displayed more positive correlations of the major rock-forming elements with ash content, reflecting those elements' geogenic origin. Of the two moss species, P. schreberi from both Alaska and Poland was also highlighted by a larger number of positive element pair correlations. The cluster analysis suggests that the more uniform element distribution pattern of the Polish mosses primarily reflects regional air pollution sources. Our study has shown that the method of sample preparation is an important factor in statistical interpretation of the results of trace element determinations. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  7. 77 FR 38611 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records-Study of Promising Features of Teacher Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records--Study of Promising Features of Teacher Preparation Programs AGENCY... Teacher Preparation Programs'' (18-13-29). The National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional... Abt Associates to conduct a rigorous study of the effect on student learning of teachers who have...

  8. Thematic and compositional variation in Palenque-region incensarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rands, R.L.; Bishop, R.L.; Harbottle, G.

    1978-01-01

    Ceramic incensarios were an important component of ritual paraphernalia in the Palenque region. Tubular flanged cylinders - stands or supports for receptacles in which the incense was actually burned - were highly embellished. The primary concern is with these iconographically-rich objects, focusing on variations in thematic presentation and in paste composition. The latter, mineralogical and chemical composition, has significance in that it enables differentiation among centers of production, leading to a better understanding of where clay resources were procured and, inferentially, where the incensarios were manufactured. An attempt is being made to determine if incensarios of Palenque style were manufactured at a single or at multiple sites, if Palenque itself was a production center, and what can be inferred about trading or distributional patterns of these specialized objects.

  9. Analysis of forest structure using thematic mapper simulator data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D. L.; Westman, W. E.; Brass, J. A.; Stephenson, N. J.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Spanner, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    The potential of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for sensing forest structure information has been explored by principal components and feature selection techniques. In a survey of forest structural properties conducted for 123 field sites of the Sequoia National Park, the canopy closure could be well estimated (r = 0.62 to 0.69) by a variety of channel bands and band ratios, without reference to the forest type. Estimation of the basal area was less successful (r = 0.51 or less) on the average, but could be improved for certain forest types when data were stratified by floristic composition. To achieve such a stratification, individual sites were ordinated by a detrended correspondence analysis based on the canopy of dominant species. The analysis of forest structure in the Sequoia data suggests that total basal area can be best predicted in stands of lower density, and in younger even-aged managed stands.

  10. Introduction to the thematic minireview series on enzyme evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ruma

    2014-10-31

    In this thematic minireview series, the JBC presents five provocative articles on Enzyme Evolution. The reviews discuss stimulating concepts that include the emergence of primordial catalysts at temperatures that were considerably warmer than present day ones and the impact of the cooling environment on the evolution of catalytic fitness and the preservation of catalysis-promoting conformational dynamics. They also discuss the use of Urzymes or invariant modules in enzyme superfamilies as paradigms for understanding the evolution of catalytic efficiency and specificity, the use of bioinformatics approaches to understand the roles of substrate ambiguity and catalytic promiscuity as drivers of evolution, and the challenges associated with assigning catalytic function as the number of superfamily members grows rapidly. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Introduction to the Thematic Minireview Series: Green biological chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jez, Joseph M

    2018-04-06

    Plants and their green cousins cyanobacteria and algae use sunlight to drive the chemistry that lets them grow, survive, and perform an amazing range of biochemical reactions. The ability of these organisms to use a freely available energy source makes them attractive as sustainable and renewable platforms for more than just food production. They are also a source of metabolic tools for engineering microbes for "green" chemistry. This Thematic Minireview Series discusses how green organisms capture light and protect their photosynthetic machinery from too much light; new structural snapshots of the clock complex that orchestrates signaling during the light/dark cycle; challenges for improving stress responses in crops; harnessing cyanobacteria as biofactories; and efforts to engineer microbes for "green" biopolymer production. © 2018 Jez.

  12. 7th ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Smart Structures and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This work was compiled with expanded and reviewed contributions from the 7th ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Smart Structures and Materials, that was held from 3 to 6 June 2015 at Ponta Delgada, Azores, Portugal. The Conference provided a comprehensive forum for discussing the current state of the art in the field as well as generating inspiration for future ideas specifically on a multidisciplinary level. The scope of the Conference included topics related to the following areas: Fundamentals of smart materials and structures; Modeling/formulation and characterization of smart actuators, sensors and smart material systems; Trends and developments in diverse areas such as material science including composite materials, intelligent hydrogels, interfacial phenomena, phase boundaries and boundary layers of phase boundaries, control, micro- and nano-systems, electronics, etc. to be considered for smart systems; Comparative evaluation of different smart actuators and sensors; Analysis of structural concepts and des...

  13. Phonetics and phonology of thematic contrast in German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    It is acknowledged that contrast plays an important role in understanding discourse and information structure. While it is commonly assumed that contrast can be marked by intonation only, our understanding of the intonational realization of contrast is limited. For German there is mainly introspective evidence that the rising theme accent (or topic accent) is realized differently when signaling contrast than when not. In this article, the acoustic basis for the reported impressionistic differences is investigated in terms of the scaling (height) and alignment (positioning) of tonal targets. Subjects read target sentences in a contrastive and a noncontrastive context (Experiment 1). Prosodic annotation revealed that thematic accents were not realized with different accent types in the two contexts but acoustic comparison showed that themes in contrastive context exhibited a higher and later peak. The alignment and scaling of accents can hence be controlled in a linguistically meaningful way, which has implications for intonational phonology. In Experiment 2, nonlinguists' perception of a subset of the production data was assessed. They had to choose whether, in a contrastive context, the presumed contrastive or noncontrastive realization of a sentence was more appropriate. For some sentence pairs only, subjects had a clear preference. For Experiment 3, a group of linguists annotated the thematic accents of the contrastive and noncontrastive versions of the same data as used in Experiment 2. There was considerable disagreement in labels, but different accent types were consistently used when the two versions differed strongly in F0 excursion. Although themes in contrastive contexts were clearly produced differently than themes in noncontrastive contexts, this difference is not easily perceived or annotated.

  14. Rethinking Prefigurative Politics: Introduction to the Special Thematic Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Cornish

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This special thematic section responds to the 21st century proliferation of social movements characterised by the slogans ‘another world is possible’ and ‘be the change you want to see’. It explores prefigurative politics as a means of instantiating radical social change in a context of widening global inequalities, climate change, and the crises and recoveries of neoliberal global capitalism. ‘Prefigurative politics’ refers to a range of social experiments that both critique the status quo and offer alternatives by implementing radically democratic practices in pursuit of social justice. This collection of articles makes the case for psychologists to engage with prefigurative politics as sites of psychological and social change, in the dual interests of understanding the world and changing it. The articles bridge psychology and politics in three different ways. One group of articles brings a psychological lens to political phenomena, arguing that attention to the emotional, relational and intergroup dynamics of prefigurative politics is required to understand their trajectories, challenges, and impacts. A second group focuses a political lens on social settings traditionally framed as psychological sites of well-being, enabling an understanding of their political nature. The third group addresses the ‘border tensions’ of the psychological and the political, contextualising and historicising the instantiation of prefigurative ideals and addressing tensions that arise between utopian ideals and various internal and external constraints. This introduction to the special section explores the concept and contemporary debates concerning prefigurative politics, outlines the rationale for a psychological engagement with this phenomenon, and presents the articles in the special thematic section. The general, prefigurative, aim is to advance psychology’s contribution to rethinking and remaking the world as it could be, not only

  15. Defining Feasibility and Pilot Studies in Preparation for Randomised Controlled Trials: Development of a Conceptual Framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M Eldridge

    Full Text Available We describe a framework for defining pilot and feasibility studies focusing on studies conducted in preparation for a randomised controlled trial. To develop the framework, we undertook a Delphi survey; ran an open meeting at a trial methodology conference; conducted a review of definitions outside the health research context; consulted experts at an international consensus meeting; and reviewed 27 empirical pilot or feasibility studies. We initially adopted mutually exclusive definitions of pilot and feasibility studies. However, some Delphi survey respondents and the majority of open meeting attendees disagreed with the idea of mutually exclusive definitions. Their viewpoint was supported by definitions outside the health research context, the use of the terms 'pilot' and 'feasibility' in the literature, and participants at the international consensus meeting. In our framework, pilot studies are a subset of feasibility studies, rather than the two being mutually exclusive. A feasibility study asks whether something can be done, should we proceed with it, and if so, how. A pilot study asks the same questions but also has a specific design feature: in a pilot study a future study, or part of a future study, is conducted on a smaller scale. We suggest that to facilitate their identification, these studies should be clearly identified using the terms 'feasibility' or 'pilot' as appropriate. This should include feasibility studies that are largely qualitative; we found these difficult to identify in electronic searches because researchers rarely used the term 'feasibility' in the title or abstract of such studies. Investigators should also report appropriate objectives and methods related to feasibility; and give clear confirmation that their study is in preparation for a future randomised controlled trial designed to assess the effect of an intervention.

  16. Study of preparation of TiB2 by TiC in Al melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Haimin; Liu Xiangfa; Nie Jinfeng

    2012-01-01

    TiB 2 particles are prepared by TiC in Al melts and the characteristics of them are studied. It is found that TiC particles are unstable when boron exists in Al melts with high temperature and will transform to TiB 2 and Al 4 C 3 . Most of the synthesized TiB 2 particles are regular hexagonal prisms with submicron size. The diameter of the undersurfaces of these prisms is ranging from 200 nm to 1 μm and the height is ranging from 100 nm to 300 nm. It is considered that controlling the transformation from TiC to TiB 2 is an effective method to prepare small and uniform TiB 2 particles. - Highlights: ► TiC can easily transform into TiB 2 in Al melts. ► TiB 2 formed by TiC will grow into regular hexagonal prisms with submicron size. ► Controlling the transformation from TiC to TiB 2 is an effective method to prepare small and uniform TiB 2 particles.

  17. Identifying the Rehabilitative Potential of Electronically Monitored Release Preparation: A Randomized Controlled Study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwedler, Andreas; Woessner, Gunda

    2017-06-01

    As one of many fields of application, electronic monitoring (EM) of offenders can be used-in conjunction with other measures-for release preparation. Using such measures, policymakers expect an alleviation of the negative effects of imprisonment and the promotion of positive rehabilitative effects by adding structure and social support. At the same time, policymakers are willing to maintain community safety through the close supervision provided by EM. The present study examines participants' psychological and psychosocial changes during two measures of electronically monitored release preparation, namely, home detention and early work release. These findings are compared with a randomized group of participants who remained in custody. In sum, we found no distinctive positive effects of the tested measures. Because most participants already displayed functional psychological characteristics at pretest, there was only a small margin for improvement through electronically monitored release preparation. We conclude that if rehabilitation is sought by the use of such measures, it is important to select a target group that is actually in need of rehabilitative support and equally important to conduct further research on the rehabilitative potential of EM measures.

  18. Studies of Transgenic Mosquitoes in Disease-Endemic Countries: Preparation of Containment Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, M Megan; Mutunga, James Mutuku; Diabaté, Abdoulaye; Namountougou, Moussa; Coulibaly, Mamadou B; Sylla, Lakamy; Kayondo, Jonathan; Balyesima, Victor; Clark, Lorna; Benedict, Mark Q; Raymond, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Novel approaches to area-wide control of vector species offer promise as additional tools in the fight against vectored diseases. Evaluation of transgenic insect strains aimed at field population control in disease-endemic countries may involve international partnerships and should be done in a stepwise approach, starting with studies in containment facilities. The preparations of both new-build and renovated facilities are described, including working with local and national regulations regarding land use, construction, and biosafety requirements, as well as international guidance to fill any gaps in regulation. The examples given are for containment categorization at Arthropod Containment Level 2 for initial facility design, classification of wastes, and precautions during shipping. Specific lessons were derived from preparations to evaluate transgenic (non-gene drive) mosquitoes in West and East African countries. Documented procedures and the use of a non-transgenic training strain for trial shipments and culturing were used to develop competence and confidence among the African facility staff, and along the chain of custody for transport. This practical description is offered to support other research consortia or institutions preparing containment facilities and operating procedures in conditions where research on transgenic insects is at an early stage.

  19. Preparation of actinide targets by molecular plating for coulomb excitation studies at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, J P; Ahmad, I

    1999-01-01

    Molecular plating is now routinely used to prepare sources and targets of actinide elements. Although the technique is simple and fairly reproducible, because of the radioactive nature of the targets, it is very useful to record various parameters in the preparation process. At Argonne, approx 200 mu g/cm sup 2 thick targets of Pu and Cm were required for Coulomb Excitation (COULEX) studies with the Argonne-Notre Dame boron germanate (BGO) gamma-ray facility and later with the GAMMASPHERE. These targets were plated on 50 mg/cm sup 2 Au backings and were covered with 150 mu g/cm sup 2 Au foil. Targets of sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu, sup 2 sup 4 sup 0 Pu, sup 2 sup 4 sup 2 Pu, sup 2 sup 4 sup 4 Pu and sup 2 sup 4 sup 8 Cm were prepared by dissolving the material in isopropyl alcohol and electroplating the actinide ions by applying 600 V. The amount of these materials on the target was determined by alpha particle counting and gamma-ray counting. Details of the molecular plating and counting will be discussed.

  20. Preparation and biological activity studies of resveratrol loaded ionically cross-linked chitosan-TPP nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Wang, Yaping; Yang, Hao; Liu, Xiangyu; Lu, Zhong

    2017-11-01

    Nanoparticles with size range of 10-500nm can be efficiently delivered into cancer cells by the Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) effect. Here, we prepared resveratrol (Res) loaded chitosan (CS) nanoparticles with the size of 172-217nm by an ionic cross-linking method, with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) as the cross-linking agent, to improve the stability, solubility and tumors targeting of the natural anti-cancer drug Res. The prepared Res loaded CS-TPP nanoparticles presented long-term storage stability and UV light stability. The cumulative drug release from nanoparticles in mimetic tumor tissue condition (pH 6.5) was higher than that in physiological condition (pH 7.4). Further, Res-loaded CS-TPP nanoparticles maintained the antioxidant activity of Res even after UV light irradiation. Cell viability study shows that the as prepared drug loaded nanoparticles had similar antiproliferative activity on hepatocellular carcinoma cells SMMC 7721 and lower cytotoxicity on normal hepatocyte cells L02 compared with free Res. Fluorescence microscopy observation revealed that the nanoparticles were efficiently taken in by SMMC 7721 cells. This work indicates the potential use of drug loaded CS-TPP nanoparticles for the efficient delivery of bioactive Res for chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation, homogeneity and stability studies of a candidate LRM for Se speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodo, Erzsebet Tuende; Stefanka, Zsolt; Ipolyi, Ildiko; Soeroes, Csilla; Dernovics, Mihaly; Fodor, Peter [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Food Science, Szent Istvan University, Villanyi ut 29-33, 1118, Budapest (Hungary)

    2003-09-01

    A laboratory reference material (LRM) was prepared from Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) for quality control (QC) purposes of selenium speciation. The preparation of this LRM led through the usual operation steps applied during routine reference material production from biota samples - preparation of the raw material, homogenisation, storage design, checking of homogeneity, microbiological status and possible irradiation effects, and monitoring the species stability vs time at different storage temperatures. The selenium speciation studies to check species stability were carried out on a HPLC-UV-HG-AFS measurement set-up. Special attention was paid to the correct identification of selenium species by applying independent HPLC separation techniques (ion-pairing and anion-exchange chromatography). The concentration of selenomethionine (SeMet) and total Se content were quantified (79.9 {mu}g g{sup -1} (calculated as Se) and 82.9 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively). The homogeneity and stability of this candidate reference material passed the relevant tests recommended by Bureau Communautaire de Reference (BCR). (orig.)

  2. Social Science Pre-service Teachers’ Preparation to Teach About Asia: A Research Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua L. Kenna

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Asia is the world’s largest continent, both in terms of land mass and human population; yet, many of the schools in the United States still embrace a Eurocentric curriculum, and resultantly, U.S. citizens remain largely ignorant about topics pertaining to Asian nations including their geography, histories, politics, economics, religions, and cultures. The ignorance is particularly troubling considering the ever-increasing prominence that Asian nations play in global affairs. A crucial first step in broadening students’ knowledge about Asian topics would be to improve the preparation of pre-service teachers, due to the influence that teachers have in determining students’ educational experiences. Therefore, this phenomenological study sought to inquire about the shared experiences that a group of Social Science Education (SSE seniors had, at a large public university located in the southeastern region of the United States, with regards to how they felt their program prepared them to teach accurately and confidently about topics and issues related to Asia. It was discovered that although the pre-service teachers within the SSE program expressed great confidence in the pedagogical skills they acquired through their teacher education program, they felt their lack of subject knowledge made them ill prepared to teach about Asian related content.

  3. Preparation and study of the nitrides and mixed carbide-nitrides of uranium and of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselin, F.

    1966-06-01

    A detailed description is given of a simple method for preparing uranium and plutonium nitrides by the direct action of nitrogen under pressure at moderate temperatures (about 400 C) on the partially hydrogenated bulk metal. It is shown that there is complete miscibility between the UN and PuN phases. The variations in the reticular parameters of the samples as a function of temperature and in the presence of oxide have been used to detect and evaluate the solubility of oxygen in the different phases. A study has been made of the sintering of these nitrides as a function of the preparation conditions with or without sintering additives. A favorable but non-reproducible, effect has been found for traces of oxide. The best results were obtained for pure UN at 1600 C (96 per cent theoretical density) on condition that a well defined powder, was used. The criterion used is the integral width of the X-ray diffraction lines. The compounds UN and PuN are completely miscible with the corresponding carbides. This makes it possible to prepare carbide-nitrides of the general formula (U,Pu) (C,N) by solid-phase diffusion, at around 1400 C. The sintering of these carbide-nitrides is similar to that of the carbides if the nitrogen content is low; in particular, nickel is an efficient sintering agent. For high contents, the sintering is similar to that of pure nitrides. (author) [fr

  4. Study and development of nanocomposites PBT/bentonite clay treated by ionizing radiation: preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, Mariana do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the preparation and characterization of composites based on poly (butylene terephthalate) - PBT and brazilian modified clay prepared by the melt intercalation. PBT nanocomposites with 3 and 5 % by weight of organically modified clay, by the addition of a quaternary ammonium salt, were prepared by extrusion using a twin-screw extruder machine. After the extrusion process, the materials were injected to obtain specimens tests samples for the characterization tests. Part of the specimens samples were irradiated using an electron beam accelerator with 1.5 MeV at room temperature in the presence of air. Samples of pure PBT and irradiated and non-irradiated nanocomposites were characterized by mechanical tests of tensile, flexural and impact, heat distortion temperature (HDT), X - ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), melt flow index (MFI) thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the correlation between the properties was discussed. The results showed that the addition of clay, in both percentages, promoted an increase greater than 50 % in tensile strength at break and a gain of around 35% in heat distortion temperature when compared to the pure polymer. The treatment with ionizing radiation of electron beam at the doses used in this study showed no significant changes in material properties. (author)

  5. Electrophysiology of Sentence Processing in Aphasia: Prosodic Cues and Thematic Fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M. Sheppard

    2015-05-01

    * [ ] Indicates prosodic contour Methods: Twenty-four healthy college-age control participants (YNCs and ten adults with a Broca’s aphasia participated in this study. Each sentence was presented aurally to the participants over headphones. ERP Data Recording & Analysis. ERPs were recorded from 32-electrode sites across the scalp according to the 10-20 system. ERPs were averaged (100ms prestimulus baseline from artifact free trials time-locked to critical words (i.e., the point of disambiguation “pleased” in the prosodic comparison, and the NP “the song”/”the beer” in the semantic comparison. Mean amplitudes were calculated in two windows: 300-500ms for the N400 effects and 500-1000ms for the P600 effects. Results: The data from our YNCs revealed a biphasic N400-P600 complex in the prosody comparison (Figure 1A. We also found an N400 effect immediately at the NP in the incongruent relative to congruent thematic fit comparison. For the prosodic comparison in the PWA group, a delayed N400 effect was found one word downstream relative to the YNC data in the prosody comparison (Figure 1B. Additionally, an N400 effect was observed in the thematic fit comparison. Discussion: The results suggests that PWA possess a delayed sensitivity to prosodic cues, which then may affect their ability to recover from misanalysis from an incorrect parse. The results also indicate that PWA are sensitive to thematic fit information and have the capacity to process this information similarly to YNCs.

  6. Fracture resistance of lithium disilicate restorations after endodontic access preparation: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompolaki, Despoina; Kontogiorgos, Elias; Wilson, John B; Nagy, William W

    2015-10-01

    Endodontic access preparation through a lithium disilicate restoration is a frequently encountered clinical situation. The common practice of repairing the accessed crown with composite resin may result in a weakened restoration. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of endodontic access preparation on the fracture resistance and microstructural integrity of monolithic pressed and monolithic milled lithium disilicate complete coverage restorations. Twenty monolithic pressed (IPS e.max Press) and 20 monolithic milled (IPS e.max CAD) lithium disilicate restorations were fabricated. Ten of the pressed and 10 of the milled crowns were accessed for a simulated endodontic treatment and subsequently repaired by using a porcelain repair system and composite resin. All specimens were submitted to cyclic loading and then loaded to failure. Force data were recorded and analyzed with 2-way ANOVA followed by a post hoc test (Sidak correction) to indicate significant differences among the groups (α=.05). A Weibull analysis was also performed for each group. Eight (4 pressed and 4 milled) additional restorations were fabricated to complete a scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and evaluate the surface damage created by the endodontic access preparation. A statistically significant difference (P=.019) was found between the pressed intact and pressed repaired restorations and between the pressed intact and milled repaired restorations (P=.002). Specimens that were examined with an SEM showed edge chipping involving primarily the glaze layer around the access openings. Endodontic access preparation of lithium disilicate restorations resulted in a significantly reduced load to failure in the pressed specimens, but not in the milled specimens. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Pilot Stability Study of Dehydroepiandrosterone Rapid-dissolving Tablets Prepared by Extemporaneous Compounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Steven D; Vernak, Charlene; Zhao, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation is used to treat a variety of conditions. Rapid-dissolving tablets are a relatively novel choice for compounded dehydroepiandrosterone dosage forms. While rapid-dissolving tablets offer ease of administration, there are uncertainties about the physical and chemical stability of the drug and dosage form during preparation and over long-term storage. This study was designed to evaluate the stability of dehydroepiandrosterone rapid-dissolving tablets just after preparation and over six months of storage. The Professional Compounding Centers of America rapid-dissolving tablet mold and base formula were used to prepare 10-mg strength dehydroepiandrosterone rapid-dissolving tablets. The formulation was heated at 100°C to 110°C for 30 minutes, released from the mold, and cooled at room temperature for 30 minutes. The resulting rapid-dissolving tablets were individually packaged in amber blister packs and stored in a stability chamber maintained at 25°C and 60% relative humidity. The stability samples were pulled at pre-determined time points for evaluation, which included visual inspection, tablet weight check, United States Pharmacopeia disintegration test, and stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. The freshly prepared dehydroepiandrosterone rapiddissolving tablets exhibited satisfactory chemical and physical stability. Time 0 samples disintegrated within 40 seconds in water kept at 37°C. The high-performance liquid chromatographic results confirmed that the initial potency was 101.9% of label claim and that there was no chemical degradation from the heating procedure. Over six months of storage, there were no significant changes in visual appearance, physical integrity, or disintegration time for any of the stability samples. The high-performance liquid chromatographic results also indicated that dehydroepiandrosterone rapid-dissolving tablets retained >95% label claim with no detectable degradation

  8. Acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats of a hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauss, A G; Merkel, D J; Glaza, S M; Sorenson, S R

    2007-02-01

    Two acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies were conducted in rats to evaluate safety of a patented preparation of hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage (BioCell Collagen II) containing collagen type II, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid. In the acute oral toxicity study, five males and five females of Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a single dose of 5000 mg of the test product per kg body weight and observed for 14 days. All animals survived and exhibited normal body weight gain throughout the study. Macroscopic necropsy examination conducted on day 15 revealed no gross pathological lesions in any of the animals. In the subchronic study, Sprague-Dawley rats (40 males, 40 females) were divided into four same-sex groups (10 animals/group). Animals in each group were administered daily either 0, 30, 300 or 1000 mg of the test product per kg of body weight for over 90 days. All animals survived and showed no significant changes in their body weights and histopathology. Although some differences were observed between the treated and control animals in several parameters, they were generally not dose-related or considered to be of toxicological significance. In conclusion, the results from the two oral toxicity studies with male and female young adult rats indicated that the test preparation from hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage collagen (BioCell Collagen II) was well tolerated at all four doses tested.

  9. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: preparation, characterization, and evaluation of their potential use in bone targeting: an animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Ana Luiza C; Cavalcante, Carolina H; Souza, Marina G F de; Ferreira, Carolina de A; Rubello, Domenico; Chondrogiannis, Sotirios; Cardoso, Valbert N; Ramaldes, Gilson A; Barros, André L B de; Soares, Daniel C F

    2016-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite is used as a drug-delivery system for bone therapy applications because of its biocompatibility, bioactivity, and osteoconductive properties. In addition, hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HApN) might be used as a theranostic probe. The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize hydroxyapatite mesoporous nanoparticles, and radiolabel these nanoparticles with technetium-99m (Tc). Moreover, biodistribution studies were carried out in healthy mice. HApN were synthesized and characterized. Tc-HApN was prepared by adding Tc-pertechnetate to a dispersion of HApN in the presence of stannous chloride. Radiochemical purity and in-vitro stability were determined. The circulation time of Tc-HApN was determined by measuring blood radioactivity in healthy mice. In addition, biodistribution studies were carried out in healthy mice at 1 and 4 h after injection. Tc-HApN showed high radiochemical purity (98.7±0.2%) and in-vitro stability until 24 h. Tc-HApN levels in blood decreased in a biphasic manner, with an α half-life of 1.8 min and a β half-life of 126.9 min. High uptake was achieved in the liver and spleen because of the macrophage uptake. Furthermore, bone uptake was higher than that of the surrounding muscle, resulting in high bone-to-muscle ratios. HApN were synthesized successfully with suitable characteristics for in-vivo applications. Tc-HApN was prepared and showed high stability. Tc-HApN presented increasing bone uptake over time, showing a higher affinity to bone tissues in contrast to surrounding muscle. The present results, together with further studies, may indicate a potential application of HApN as a nanocarrier for bone diseases.

  10. Science-Based Thematic Cultural Art Learning in Primary School (2013 Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warih Handayaningrum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at discussing the development result of thematic cultural art subject’s learning material based on science for primary school (2013 curriculum. This study is expected to inspire teacher to develop learning material that may explore artworks exist in our living environment (based on the context of children’s environment. This study applies steps in developmental research collaboration by Borg & Gall (1989 and Puslitjaknov (2008 to create the product. The development stages comprise observation in several primary schools in Surabaya, Gresik, and Sidoarjo that has implemented 2013 curriculum that is followed up by stages of development. Furthermore, prototype of cultural and art thematic learning material development results are verified by learning material experts, material expert, primary school teacher, and revised afterwards. The result of this research development is a set of teacher and student books. Science-based cultural art here means cultural art learning as the main medium to introduce local culture products (music, drawing, dance, and drama by integrating mathematics, sciences, Bahasa Indonesia, and local language subjects. Cultural art products in the form of dance, music, drawing, dramas will help children to understand a simple mathematical concept, such as: two-dimensional figure, geometry, comparing or estimating longer-shorter, smaller-bigger, or more-less.

  11. Frequency of medication preparation and medication administration errors in a Swiss university Hospital. A prospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küng, Kaspar; Aeschbacher, Katrin; Rütsche, Adrian; Goette, Jeannette

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prospective observational studies from Swiss university hospitals, focusing on the frequency of medication preparation and medication administration errors using direct observation, are still missing. To close this gap, we have conducted a scientific evaluation of an electronically assisted medication preparation and administration process in a Swiss university hospital. Aim: The aim of this study was to measure the frequency of medication preparation and medication administration errors in two units in a Swiss university hospital before the implementation of an electronically assisted medication preparation and administration process. Method: To fulfil the study aims we used direct observation of medical staff during the medication process, the gold standard to detect medication errors. Furthermore, we measured the time that medical staff used in order to prepare and administer medications. Results: During the baseline measure, we observed a total of 14 571 medication doses. Errors in the medication preparation stage occurred between 1 % and 7.6 % depending on unit and type of error. Medication administration errors ranged between 21 % and 27 %. The most frequent administration errors were due to wrong administration time (84.1 %). Conclusions: This is the first study conducted in a Swiss university hospital using direct observation to detect medication preparation and medication administration errors. The current study offers important basic data to evaluate the effect of an electronically assisted medication preparation and administration process scientifically.

  12. Youth experiences of transition from child mental health services to adult mental health services: a qualitative thematic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad, Kathleen L; Sandhu, Vijay K; Sunderji, Nadiya; Charach, Alice

    2017-11-28

    Adolescence and young adulthood is a vulnerable time during which young people experience many development milestones, as well as an increased incidence of mental illness. During this time, youth also transition between Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) to Adult Mental Health Services (AMHS). This transition puts many youth at risk of disengagement from service use; however, our understanding of this transition from the perspective of youth is limited. This systematic review aims to provide a more comprehensive understanding of youth experiences of transition from CAMHS to AMHS, through a qualitative thematic synthesis of the extant literature in this area. Published and unpublished literature was searched using keywords targeting three subject areas: Transition, Age and Mental Health. Studies were included if they qualitatively explored the perceptions and experiences of youth who received mental health services in both CAMHS and AMHS. There were no limitations on diagnosis or age of youth. Studies examining youth with chronic physical health conditions were excluded. Eighteen studies, representing 14 datasets and the experiences of 253 unique service-users were included. Youth experiences of moving from CAMHS and AMHS are influenced by concurrent life transitions and their individual preferences regarding autonomy and independence. Youth identified preparation, flexible transition timing, individualized transition plans, and informational continuity as positive factors during transition. Youth also valued joint working and relational continuity between CAMHS and AMHS. Youth experience a dramatic culture shift between CAMHS and AMHS, which can be mitigated by individualized and flexible approaches to transition. Youth have valuable perspectives to guide the intelligent design of mental health services and their perspectives should be used to inform tools to evaluate and incorporate youth perspectives into transitional service improvement

  13. Preparing the practitioner for advanced academic study: the development of critical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girot, E A

    1995-02-01

    Using an evaluative approach, this paper explores the concept of critical thinking and its development within a recently revised study skills programme, preparing practitioners for the academic post-registration courses in one college of health. The current and almost explosive move of nurse education in the United Kingdom into the halls of higher education seems to recognize the need for higher-order thinking skills in preparation for the unpredictability of nursing practice. Using a quasi-experimental design, the qualitative data analysed from two groups of students who undertook the study skills programme were measured against a control group of students undertaking the same short professional development course through the more traditional university approach of 2 years part-time academic study. The findings acknowledge that the development of critical thinking needs time and exposure to others seeking similar goals. In addition, to encourage the process of critical thought, study skills applied to content should be offered, as well as attention to teaching/learning strategies. If higher education means a change in culture, of attitude towards learning, then a more comprehensive foundation programme may better commence this process. It is anticipated that through such a programme current practitioners may be enabled to achieve successfully within the new academic courses and ultimately be better equipped for the complex decision-making in practice.

  14. The preparation of seminar materials and other study materials in writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozdana Miglič

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The author stresses that study would be m a de easier and swifter if the presenter, in preparing written study materials, would respect certain basic aims and purposes of th e material. The basic purpose of the material is to provide aid in organizing the presentation of in­ formation, to make the study process easier, to highlight the key points, to combine the written word with illustrations, and to include visual and audio components, with the possibility of la ter reproduction. The material should be divided into three parts: an Introduction, to prepare the participants for study and to familiarize them with the aims of the course: the Core Material, which presents neinformation, while also including examples and practical tasks; and a Conclusion, which bas the function of summarizing the information conveyed and of aiding the participants in memorization. ln the article, a detailed description is given of the prin ciples involved in compiling the three specific parts of the material.

  15. Women in engineering: A case study in preparation, persistence, and response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Colin Kim

    This qualitative case study examined women students' perceptions of major influences on their successful completion of a Bachelor of Science degree in nine different disciplines of engineering. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 female engineering students at an Institute of Technology over the period of a school year. The conceptual framework of analysis linked theoretical principles to categories of analysis that were correlated to three outcomes: preparation, persistence, and response. Emergent properties generated from in-depth interviews were then linked to the categories of preparation, interest-congruence, gender identity, social acceptance, campus culture, learning styles, classroom and faculty relations, sense of accomplishment, tokenism, career expectations, and family planning. Data collection was triangulated through individual interviews and a focus group with the 13 respondents and comparisons to quantitative research outcomes concerning self-confidence, persistence, satisfaction, and career expectations. The findings generally support the theories and propositions outlined in the conceptual framework constructed for this study. The most important of these findings include the impact of social conditioning on gender and academic preparation, the correlation of peer group relations to persistence, and the future expectations female students derive from their experiences over their 4 years of study. The data strongly suggest that traditional gender roles are a social conditioning process that can be overcome, permitting women to succeed in nontraditional academic career fields. Further research could build on these findings to explore social changes in attitudes about women engineers in the workplace, comparisons between men and women's persistence styles, and the importance of science and mathematics intervention programs for girls.

  16. Combating substance misuse: competences and preparation of special education department students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zboon, Eman

    2017-01-14

    This study examines Jordanian special education department students' competences and preparation relating to combating substance misuse (SM). Thematic analysis was performed on data from interviews with 150 students. Some participants denied the possibility of addiction among students with disabilities, and presented negative attitudes toward their role in combating SM. In general, the participants displayed low levels of professionalism relating to combating SM, and the results revealed that they felt that their preparation programme had been inadequate and they desired more courses that related to combating SM. These results suggest that Jordanian Universities should emphasise the role of teachers in a preventive approach to SM.

  17. Preparation, Study and Modification of Nanometer-Scale Flat TiO2 Surfaces by Electrochemistry and AFM Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dihn Thi, M. T.; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen; Welinder, Anne Christina

    In order to study local properties of surfaces, it is necessary to control their preparation mode to get reproducible and well characterized samples. The first part of this work concerns the preparation of TiO2 films on Ti substrates that fulfil these criteria. The TiO2 formed by anodisation of t...

  18. Conditioned withdrawal in goldfish: a simple and inexpensive preparation for the study of classical fear conditioning in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barela, Peter B

    2012-02-01

    Summary.-A preparation for the study of classical fear conditioning in vertebrates is described. Its unique features are that it is inexpensive and easy to construct and operate. The following classical conditioning phenomena are demonstrated using this preparation: excitatory conditioning, extinction, contextual conditioning, blocking, a conditioned inhibition discrimination, and latent inhibition.

  19. Ordered mesoporous silica to study the preparation of Ni/Si2 ex nitrate catalysts: impregnation, drying, and thermal treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietsma, J.R.A.; Meeldijk, J.D.; Versluijs-Helder, M.; Broersma, A.; van Dillen, A.J.; de Jongh, P.E.; de Jong, K.P.

    2008-01-01

    In this contribution, we investigated the preparation of Ni/SiO2 catalysts with aqueous [Ni(OH2)6](NO3)2 solutions via the impregnation and drying method using ordered mesoporous silica SBA-15 (mesopore diameter of 9 nm) as model support to study each step in the preparation: impregnation, drying,

  20. A study on the preparation and application of I131 bound serum albumin for lung scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, L.C.; Sison, B.

    1974-01-01

    The study on the preparation of macro-aggregates of serum albumin labelled 131 I is presented. Aggregates produced were further analyzed with regard to its protein content, radioactivity count and particle size. Results showed that protein tends to denaturize upon agitation forming a floc and settling down as a precipitate. Comparing between a shaken and unshaken sample, results showed no change in the amount of radioactivity absorbed by the protein. Heating the protein aggregates of 40-49 mu for 4 minutes with shaking gave the best size particle for pulmonary scanning

  1. Preparation and spectroscopic studies of PbS/nanoMCM-41 nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pourahmad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the preparation and characterization of nanosized PbS particles inside the mesopore channels of nanoMCM-41 silicate molecular sieves. The encapsulation of the lead sulfide was carried out at room temperature by ion-exchange method. Diffuse reflectance ultraviolet–visible spectroscopic studies showed a significant shift in the absorption band for the entrapped metal sulfide as compared to corresponding bulk sulfide. Thus, confirming the quantum confinement of the incorporated nanoparticles in nanoMCM-41.

  2. Study on boron-film thermal neutron converter prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Zifeng; Ye Shuzhen; Chen Ziyu; Song Liao; Shen Ji

    2011-01-01

    The boron film converter used in the position-sensitive thermal neutron detector is discussed and the method of preparing this converter layer via Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) is introduced. The morphology and the composition were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Both boron and boride existed on the layer surface. It was shown that the energy intensity of laser beam and the substrate temperature both had an important influence on the surface morphology of the film.

  3. Study on boron-film thermal neutron converter prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Zifeng; Ye Shuzhen; Chen Ziyu; Song Liao [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Shen Ji, E-mail: shenji@ustc.edu.c [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China)

    2011-02-15

    The boron film converter used in the position-sensitive thermal neutron detector is discussed and the method of preparing this converter layer via Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) is introduced. The morphology and the composition were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Both boron and boride existed on the layer surface. It was shown that the energy intensity of laser beam and the substrate temperature both had an important influence on the surface morphology of the film.

  4. Studying Of Preparation Silver Nano-Particles Using Spinning Disc Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Van Duc; Nguyen Thanh Chung; Tran Ngoc Ha; Ho Minh Quang; Nguyen Thi Thuc Phuong

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of silver nano-particles using spinning disc reactor has been investigated. The effects of technological factors and experimental conditions such as: concentrations of AgNO 3 , glucose, PVP, spinning speed, ect. on quality of nano-silver particles have been studied. With experimental conditions: rotation speed of 2000 rpm, weight rate of m PVP :m AgNO 3 = 1, AgNO 3 concentration of 0.01 M, glucose concentration of 0.02 M, silver particles of about 12 nm were obtained and the nano-silver solution were stable for more than 40 days. (author)

  5. A Comparative Study on Magnetostructural Properties of Barium Hexaferrite Powders Prepared by Polyethylene Glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Durmus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline particles of barium hexaferrite were synthesized by a sol-gel combustion route using nitrate-citrate gels prepared from metal nitrates and citric acid solutions with Fe/Ba molar ratio 12. The present paper aims to study the effect of addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG solutions with different molecular weights (MW: 400, 2000, and 10.000 g/mol on magnetostructural properties of barium hexaferrite. The formation of the barium hexaferrite was inspected using X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR analysis, thermogravimetric (TGA analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM analysis for magnetic measurements.

  6. Study of dosimetric properties of acetylsalicylic acid in pharmaceutical preparations by EPR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez Calderon, J.M.; Negron Mendoza, A.; Ramos Bernal, S.; Gomez Vidales, V.

    2008-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was used to investigate the dosimetric properties of two pharmaceutical preparations containing acetylsalicylic acid, Aspirin (trademark) and Cafiaspirin (trademark). The EPR spectra of the irradiated samples were found to have an asymmetric absorption characterized by a major resonance at g = 2.0033. Dose response was investigated between dose ranges of 2 to 40 kGy for 60 Co-gamma rays. Fading characteristics and dependence on temperature irradiation were also studied. We suggest that commercial Aspirin (trademark) and Cafiaspirin (trademark) tablets can be used as dosimeters for industrial processes. (author)

  7. Comparative study of different activation treatments for the preparation of activated carbon: a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Muhammad Imran; Ashraf, Sania; Intisar, Azeem

    2017-09-01

    In this review, various methods of preparation of activated carbon from agricultural and commercial waste material are reviewed. In addition, we also discuss various activation treatments using a comparative approach. The data are organised in tabulated form for ease of comparative study. A review of numerous characterisation techniques is also provided. The effect of time and temperature, activation conditions, carbonisation conditions and impregnation ratios are explained and several physical and chemical activation treatments of raw materials and their impact on the micro- and mesoporous volumes and surface area are discussed. Lastly, a review of adsorption mechanisms of activated carbon (AC) is also provided.

  8. Study of dosimetric properties of acetylsalicylic acid in pharmaceutical preparations by EPR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez-Calderon, J.M.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Bernal, S.; Gomez-Vidales, V.

    2009-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was used to investigate the dosimetric properties of two pharmaceutical preparations containing acetylsalicylic acid, Aspirin R and Cafiaspirin R . The EPR spectra of the irradiated samples were found to have an asymmetric absorption characterized by a major resonance at g = 2.0033. Dose response was investigated between dose ranges of 2 to 95 kGy for 60 Co-gamma rays. Fading characteristics and dependence on temperature irradiation were also studied. We suggest that commercial Aspirin R and Cafiaspirin R tablets can be used as dosimeters in the case of a short accident. (author)

  9. Thermal Physical, and Infrared Spectroscopic Studies on Glasses Prepared by Microwave Route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagadeesha, N.; Gowda, V. C. Veeranna; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Reddy, C. Narayana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes thermal, physical and spectroscopic properties of glasses prepared by a novel micro wave method. These studies exhibited a strong compositional dependent trend and existence of characteristic boro-vanadate groups in these glasses. The scheme of modification of borate and vanadate groups is controlled by Sanderson's electronegativity principle. Analysis of density and glass transition temperatures suggests the presence of characteristic four coordinated borate and diboro - vanadate groups in these glasses. The presence of [BO 4/2 ] - and [B 2 V 2 O 9 ] 2- ) groups are confirmed by Infrared Spectroscopy of investigated glasses.

  10. URBAN COMMUNITY RESPONSES TO VISUAL APPROPRIATE THEMATIC DESIGN, SUPER HERO PARK BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Duhita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Parks is one of city public area that serves as a communal place for city community. On another perspective, parks is an architectural design that is designed with an aesthetic element to attract. Bandung, since a few years was to make improvements in various sectors, especially in the public space. Through the slogan Creative City, Bandung City Government revived communities part of the citizens by providing place for a activities, creation and production. Thematic Parks became one of the alternative approaches responsive design as part of creative cities development. Object of research study object is Super Hero park. The purpose of research is to analyzing the response of communities to design a thematic park. The study was conducted with a qualitative approach through participation observation method. The scope of the research includes visual appropriate and city community response. The conclussion obtain that visual appropriate are in accordance with the theme. Urban Community was able to respond well the identity of Super Hero park with visual appropriate design.

  11. Landsat D Thematic Mapper image dimensionality reduction and geometric correction accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    To characterize and quantify the performance of the Landsat thematic mapper (TM), techniques for dimensionality reduction by linear transformation have been studied and evaluated and the accuracy of the correction of geometric errors in TM images analyzed. Theoretical evaluations and comparisons for existing methods for the design of linear transformation for dimensionality reduction are presented. These methods include the discrete Karhunen Loeve (KL) expansion, Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA), Thematic Mapper (TM)-Tasseled Cap Linear Transformation and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). A unified approach to these design problems is presented in which each method involves optimizing an objective function with respect to the linear transformation matrix. From these studies, four modified methods are proposed. They are referred to as the Space Variant Linear Transformation, the KL Transform-MDA hybrid method, and the First and Second Version of the Weighted MDA method. The modifications involve the assignment of weights to classes to achieve improvements in the class conditional probability of error for classes with high weights. Experimental evaluations of the existing and proposed methods have been performed using the six reflective bands of the TM data. It is shown that in terms of probability of classification error and the percentage of the cumulative eigenvalues, the six reflective bands of the TM data require only a three dimensional feature space. It is shown experimentally as well that for the proposed methods, the classes with high weights have improvements in class conditional probability of error estimates as expected.

  12. A mixed method thematic review: the importance of hope to the dying patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Kathleen; Harrington, Ann

    2016-01-01

    To review the literature and investigate the meaning of hope to patients receiving palliative care and to examine the themes that foster hope in those patients. Hope is often linked to the future and is a significant factor for patients dealing with adversity, such as a terminal illness. The concept of hope is underreported in the literature. Mixed method thematic review. CINAHL, Scopus, PsychINFO, Informit, PubMed, Science Direct, ProQuest, Web of Science and Google Scholar online databases were searched using keywords and inclusion and exclusion criteria published between 2003-2013. Twelve qualitative articles were thematically analysed using Braun and Clarke's (2006) steps to ascertain major themes and sub-themes. On analysis, the remaining three mixed method studies were found to reflect the themes generated by the qualitative studies. Seven key themes that increased hope were found: disease status; positive personal relationships; positive character traits; quality of life; setting and achieving goals; spirituality/religion; and hope after death. The importance of hope to dying patients was established. Hope is a very complex and personal phenomena requiring hope-enhancing strategies to be individualized. More research is needed with groups whose culture, youth or type of illness may affect their ability to foster and maintain hope. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Comparative study of telmisartan tablets prepared via the wet granulation method and pritor™ prepared using the spray-drying method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junsung; Park, Hee Jun; Cho, Wonkyung; Cha, Kwang-Ho; Yeon, Wonki; Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2011-03-01

    The wet granulation method was successfully used to manufacture amorphous telmisartan tablets (CNU) for comparison with the spray-drying method, used for Pritor™. Drug crystallinity in the tablet was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction, and pharmaceutical properties of the tablets such as hardness, friability, water absorption, and in vitro dissolution in pH 1.2, 4.0, 6.8 and 7.5 were characterized. Especially with regard to the water absorption feature, the CNU tablets showed better performance by maintaining their original structures and by absorbing less water. Since both Pritor™ and CNU tablets had similar physical properties of crystallinity, hardness, friability, and > 50 f(2) value in an in vitro dissolution study, the bioequivalence of CNU tablets should be analyzed in a future in vivo study. Therefore, telmisartan tablets can be produced using a more economical and easier method than that used to produce Pritor™ tablets.

  14. Polymeric nanoparticles containing diazepam: preparation, optimization, characterization, in-vitro drug release and release kinetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrey, Sarvesh; Chourasiya, Vibha; Pandey, Archna

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles formulated from biodegradable polymers like poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) are being extensively investigated as drug delivery systems due to their two important properties such as biocompatibility and controlled drug release characteristics. The aim of this work to formulated diazepam loaded PLGA nanoparticles by using emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is used as stabilizing agent. Diazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative drug, and widely used as an anticonvulsant in the treatment of various types of epilepsy, insomnia and anxiety. This work investigates the effects of some preparation variables on the size and shape of nanoparticles prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method. These nanoparticles were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Zeta potential study was also performed to understand the surface charge of nanoparticles. The drug release from drug loaded nanoparticles was studied by dialysis bag method and the in vitro drug release data was also studied by various kinetic models. The results show that sonication time, polymer content, surfactant concentration, ratio of organic to aqueous phase volume, and the amount of drug have an important effect on the size of nanoparticles. Hopefully we produced spherical shape Diazepam loaded PLGA nanoparticles with a size range under 250 nm with zeta potential -23.3 mV. The in vitro drug release analysis shows sustained release of drug from nanoparticles and follow Korsmeyer-Peppas model.

  15. Study of the mechanical properties of stainless steel 316LN prepared by hot isostatic compression. Influence of preparation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couturier, Raphael

    1999-01-01

    This research thesis has been performed within an R and D programme which aimed at optimising and certifying the HIP process (hot isostatic pressing) from a technological as well as metallurgical point of view. The objective has been to improve dimensional reproducibility of fabricated parts, and metallurgical properties of the dense material. Reference parts are those belonging to PWR primary circuit, and are made in cast austenitic-ferritic steel. Thus, the objective has been to show that these parts can be beneficially fabricated by powder metallurgy in austenitic grade. A mock part (a primary circuit pump wheel at the 1/2 scale) has first been fabricated by HIP, and a more complex shape generator has been designed. The author reports the determination of microstructure and mechanical characteristics of the austenitic 316LN steel produced by HIP and used to fabricate mock parts and demonstrator parts, the study of the relationship between dense material properties and fabrication parameters (temperature, pressure, consolidation time), and the analysis of the consequences of an elaboration by HIP on the 316LN steel with comparison with forged parts. After a presentation of the Powder Metallurgy elaboration technique, the author reports a bibliographical study on the precipitation at Prior Particle Boundaries (PPB), reports the study of microstructure and mechanical properties of the HIPed 316LN, and discusses the possibility of a decrease of precipitation at PPBs by adjusting powder degassing or a granulometric sorting. The last part reports the extension of the study of steel coherence to a temperature range which encompasses the primary circuit operation temperature (350 C). Resilience tests are performed as well as mechanical tests on notched axisymmetric samples. A finite element calculation of these samples allows the validation of the use of a Thomson-type model to describe the emergence of defects which are typical of a steel elaborated by powder

  16. Preparation of canine C-reactive protein serum reference material: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canalias, Francesca; Piñeiro, Matilde; Pato, Raquel; Peña, Raquel; Bosch, Lluís; Soler, Lourdes; García, Natalia; Lampreave, Fermín; Saco, Yolanda; Bassols, Anna

    2018-03-01

    The availability of a species-specific reference material is essential for the harmonization of results obtained in different laboratories by different methods. We describe the preparation of a canine C-reactive protein (cCRP) serum reference material containing purified cCRP stabilized in a serum matrix. The material can be used by manufacturers to assign values to their calibrator and control materials. The serum matrix was obtained using blood collected from healthy dogs, stabilized and submitted for a delipidation process. The reference material was prepared by diluting purified cCRP in the serum matrix containing 1.0 mol/L HEPES buffer, 3.0 mmol/L calcium chloride, 80,000 kUI/L aprotinin, and 1.0 mmol/L benzamidine hydrochloride monohydrate at a pH of 7.2, and dispensing (0.5 mL) the matrix into vials that were then frozen. The pilot batch of 200 vials was shown to be homogeneous and stable after a stability study at various temperatures and over a total time of 110 days. The prepared material was submitted to an assignment value study. Eight laboratories from different European countries participated by using the same reagents for an immunoturbidimetric method adapted for different analyzers. The obtained cCRP concentration in the reference material was 78.5 mg/L with an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of 4.2 mg/L. Canine C-reactive protein serum reference material has been produced that allows harmonization of results obtained by different methods and different laboratories, thus reducing the possibility of errors and misunderstandings. © 2018 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  17. Solution preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results

  18. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies: Preparation, design, and enrollment of cases and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verani, Jennifer R; Baqui, Abdullah H; Broome, Claire V; Cherian, Thomas; Cohen, Cheryl; Farrar, Jennifer L; Feikin, Daniel R; Groome, Michelle J; Hajjeh, Rana A; Johnson, Hope L; Madhi, Shabir A; Mulholland, Kim; O'Brien, Katherine L; Parashar, Umesh D; Patel, Manish M; Rodrigues, Laura C; Santosham, Mathuram; Scott, J Anthony; Smith, Peter G; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Tate, Jacqueline E; Victor, J Chris; Whitney, Cynthia G; Zaidi, Anita K; Zell, Elizabeth R

    2017-06-05

    Case-control studies are commonly used to evaluate effectiveness of licensed vaccines after deployment in public health programs. Such studies can provide policy-relevant data on vaccine performance under 'real world' conditions, contributing to the evidence base to support and sustain introduction of new vaccines. However, case-control studies do not measure the impact of vaccine introduction on disease at a population level, and are subject to bias and confounding, which may lead to inaccurate results that can misinform policy decisions. In 2012, a group of experts met to review recent experience with case-control studies evaluating the effectiveness of several vaccines; here we summarize the recommendations of that group regarding best practices for planning, design and enrollment of cases and controls. Rigorous planning and preparation should focus on understanding the study context including healthcare-seeking and vaccination practices. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies are best carried out soon after vaccine introduction because high coverage creates strong potential for confounding. Endpoints specific to the vaccine target are preferable to non-specific clinical syndromes since the proportion of non-specific outcomes preventable through vaccination may vary over time and place, leading to potentially confusing results. Controls should be representative of the source population from which cases arise, and are generally recruited from the community or health facilities where cases are enrolled. Matching of controls to cases for potential confounding factors is commonly used, although should be reserved for a limited number of key variables believed to be linked to both vaccination and disease. Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies can provide information useful to guide policy decisions and vaccine development, however rigorous preparation and design is essential. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Detection of soil erosion with Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kevin Paul

    1987-01-01

    Pinyon-Juniper woodlands dominate approximately 24.3 million hectares (60 million acres) in the western United States. The overall objective was to test the sensitivity of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data for detecting varying degrees of soil erosion within the Pinyon-Juniper woodlands. A second objective was to assess the potential of the spectral data for assigning the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) crop management (C) factor values to varying cover types within the woodland. Thematic Mapper digital data for June 2, 1984 on channels 2, 3, 4, and 5 were used. Digital data analysis was performed using the ELAS software package. Best results were achieved using CLUS, an unsupervised clustering algorithm. Fifteen of the 40 Pinyon-Juniper signatures were identified as being relatively pure Pinyon-Juniper woodland. Final analysis resulted in the grouping of the 15 signatures into three major groups. Ten study sites were selected from each of the three groups and located on the ground. At each site the following field measurements were taken: percent tree canopy and percent understory cover, soil texture, total soil loss, and soil erosion rate estimates. A technique for measuring soil erosion within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands was developed. A theoretical model of site degradation after Pinyon-Juniper invasion is presented.

  20. The experience of acute leukaemia in adult patients: a qualitative thematic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Constantina; Johnston, Bridget; Themessl-Huber, Markus

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this review was to systematically identify and synthesise all qualitative evidence on how adult patients diagnosed with acute leukaemia experience living with their illness. A systematic search strategy was developed comprising of two search strings: i) acute leukaemia and ii) qualitative methodology. The search strategy was run in seven electronic databases (Medline, CINAHL, PsychINFO, EMBASE, BNI & Archive, SSCI and ASSIA). Nine qualitative studies in adult patients with acute leukaemia, published in peer reviewed journals between 01/1990 and 01/2013 were included in the final sample. The qualitative thematic synthesis resulted in the development of a conceptual model describing a person's path to build a renewed self. Following the initial blow of diagnosis with the range of initial reactions, patients with acute leukaemia are living in a contracting world; they have to deal with the life in hospital, the several losses and the impact of their illness on their emotions and interpersonal relationships. Several factors take up a buffering role at that stage: coping, support, information and hope. Finally, patients accommodate acute leukaemia in their lives through re-evaluating personal values and assigning new meaning to their experience. Results from this thematic synthesis are indicative of the impact of acute leukaemia on patients' lives and the processes they use to make sense and accommodate the illness in their life. Increasing our understanding of these processes is warranted to improve patient care. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. 'Discourse on the Go': Thematic Analysis of Vehicle Graffiti on the Roads of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El-Nashar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates graffiti drawn on vehicles in Egypt as an expression of their authors' social values, religious ideologies and political affiliations.  Little research has been done in Egypt on these meaning-loaded messages. This paper gives further evidence that graffiti are a very powerful mode of expression for groups that feel disenfranchised by the wider society.  The data comprise (614 written graffiti taken from both highway and in-city vehicles from different parts of Egypt. This paper employs Fairclough's (1995 post-structuralist model of discourse analysis which extends the concept of discourse from the traditional and natural 'language in use' to be a social practice per se. One of the aims of this study is to explore the various discourse domains of vehicle graffiti in Egypt through thematically analyzing their patterns of usage. For this aim, the authors have devised a four-pronged thematic classification of such graffiti. The paper also tackles some of the lexical features of graffiti and addresses the language and language variations used. Results show that religious expressions constitute more than half the data.  It is also shown that graffiti about the self or car are positive whereas statements about 'the other' are negative. The analysis reveals a strong positive inclination in the social and philosophical expressions with almost nonexistent political graffiti. Keywords: Graffiti, post-structuralist model, Discourse Analysis, discourse domains, Egypt

  2. THE ANALYSIS OF THEMATIC ROLE IN NARRATIVE TEXTS OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ririn Marlina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed narrative texts of Senior High School textbooks for X Grade, based on Jackendoff’s and Saeed’s theories of thematic role. This research employed a qualitative research design and the data were ten narrative texts taken from Developing English Competencies and Interlanguage for X Grade. The research Questions involve the ways of thematic role in constructing the sentence’s meaning in narrative texts and the thematic role that mostly employed. This research revealed that nine kinds of thematic role (Agent, Patient, Location, Beneficiary, Experiencer, Theme, Source, Goal, and Instrument are available in narrative texts and the role Theme was frequently employed (260 times of 782. Meanwhile, thematic role constructs the sentence’s meaning in narrative texts by observing the verb and the preposition used in the sentence. Thematic role is a way to describe the role of noun phrase in a sentence, so that thematic role is closely related with the grammatical function. It can be also said that the analysis of thematic role in narrative texts is beneficial for educational participants both teacher and student in order to recognize the sentence’s grammatical function. Therefore, thematic role helps them to understand the sentence’s meaning and finally they can grasp the message in a text.

  3. Preparation of Ni–Co–W–Si amorphous cosolute materials and study on adsorption properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ke; Chen, Keng; Huang, Qingming; Xu, Ruting; Chen, Xiaohui

    2017-11-01

    A series of adsorptive materials which contain Ni, Co, W and Si were prepared by several methods. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman, ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV–vis) and N2-physisorption were used to investigate surface characterization and pore structures. The results showed that samples prepared by two-step method were complete amorphous cosolute structures with the special covering layers. The analysis of NH3-temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) illustrated that the different introduction methods of Co and W would made the distribution of acid sites of samples adjustable. When these adsorptive materials were mixed with real diesel (Chinese IV standard, initial concentration of sulfur-containing compounds C 0  =  32.78 mgS l‑1, adsorbents/oil ratio of 1 g/30 ml) at 60 °C for 2 h, the best desulfurization rate could reach 41.20%. This study of cosolute amorphous material could provide a reference for further studies.

  4. Preparation and Study of some Physical Properties of (Polystyrene/Ethel vinyl acetate Blend Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa J. Khadhim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This search aims to fabricate immiscible nanofibers (Polystyrene/Ethyl phenyl acetate blends with different average porous for different applications by electrospinning technique. PS and EVA were mixed by (50/50 to prepare 0.1 (w/v con.%, each polymer dissolved in (Tetra hydro furan . Resulting nanofibers morphology was studied by Atomic force microscopy (AFM and high optical resolution microscope (HORM , Contact angle between the water and the surface of nanofibers by contact angle analyzer also studied for (hydrophilic or hydrophopic behavior . FTIR test for checking the emergence or not of new bonds in the nanofibers blend was performed. AFM Results show that the prepared blends of (PS+EVA have homogenous needle structures (nanofibers at three dimensions , while the results of (HORM shows the nonwoven structures contain intermediates pours structure , Contact angle results show that decrease of the contact angle after adding the EVA polymer to PS, and this refers to the (EVA/PS nanofibers blends have hydrophilic behavior.

  5. Preparation and Morphology Studies of Nano Zinc Oxide Obtained Using Native and Modified Chitosans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Fwu Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nano zinc oxide (ZnO with moderate surface area and high pore volume were prepared using a facile preparation method. Chitosan was utilized as both chelating and structure directing agent. The application of chitosans in this study suggested that even biowastes can be served in a productive manner economically. The surface modification of chitosan was carried out in order to increase the interaction between chitosan and zinc ions. The effect of sodium chloroacetate and isopropyl alcohol on the surface modification process was also explored. FT-IR (Fourier transform-infrared spectrometer and TGA (Thermogravimetric analyses analyses revealed that modified chitosans are more stable than those of unmodified chitosan. Among surface modified chitosans, CMC1 (1.5 M sodium chloroacetate and 75% isopropyl alcohol showed enhanced surface properties. Freundlich adsorption isotherms as preliminary studies confirmed that modified chitosan showed enhanced interaction with zinc ions. The interaction of zinc salt with chitosans produced a zinc-chitosan polymer. This finally cleaved upon calcination to produce nano ZnO. The effects of different calcination temperatures indicated that 450 °C is the optimum calcination temperature to produce the nano ZnO with favored surface area (15.45 m2/g and pore size (221.40 nm. SEM (Scanning electron microscope and TEM (Transmission electron microscope of ZnO indicated that uniform particle and shape distributions were obtained at low calcination temperature (450 °C.

  6. Pharmacology of endothelins: vascular preparations for studying ETA and ETB receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caló, G; Gratton, J P; Télémaque, S; D'Orléans-Juste, P; Regoli, D

    1996-01-12

    Three rabbit vessels, the carotid and pulmonary arteries and the jugular vein were investigated to identify vascular monoreceptor systems (either ETA or ETB) to be used in structure-activity studies on endothelins and their antagonists. The RbCA has been found to behave as a monoreceptor ETA preparation, since it shows much greater sensitivity to ET-1 than to ET-3 and is insensitive to IRL 1620. The contractile response of the RbCA to ET-1 is reduced in the presence of BQ-123 but is not influenced by BQ-788. The RbPA behaves as a pure ETB system when stimulated with the ETB selective agonist IRL 1620. The contractile effect of IRL 1620 is reduced in the presence of BQ-788 but is not influenced by BQ-123. The RbJV responds to ET-1 and to IRL 1620 with contractions that are reduced by both BQ-123 and BQ-788, respectively. THe RbJV appears to be a mixed ETA and ETB system in which the two functional sites play an equivalent role in the stimulatory contractile response. Thus, contractile ETA and ETB receptors have been found in arterial and venous vessels of the rabbit and some of these vessels provide sensitive and selective (either ETA or ETB) preparations that appear to be adequate for pharmacological studies on ET receptor agonists or antagonists.

  7. Preparation of silica thin films by novel wet process and study of their optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sang-Hyeok; Kim, Nam-Jin; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Hwang, Cha-Won; Yoon, Duck-Ki; Ryu, Bong-Ki

    2012-02-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) thin films have gained considerable attention because of their various industrial applications. For example, SiO2 thin films are used in superhydrophilic self-cleaning surface glass, UV protection films, anti-reflection coatings, and insulating materials. Recently, many processes such as vacuum evaporation, sputtering, chemical vapor deposition, and spin coating have been widely applied to prepare thin films of functionally graded materials. However, these processes suffer from several engineering problems. For example, a special apparatus is required for the deposition of films, and conventional wet processes are not suitable for coating the surfaces of substrates with a large surface area and complex morphology. In this study, we investigated the film morphology and optical properties of SiO2 films prepared by a novel technique, namely, liquid phase deposition (LPD). Images of the SiO2 films were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in order to study the surface morphology of these films: these images indicate that films deposited with different reaction times were uniform and dense and were composed of pure silica. Optical properties such as refractive index and transmittance were estimated by UV-vis spectroscopy and ellipsometry. SiO2 films with porous structures at the nanometer scale (100-250 nm) were successfully produced by LPD. The deposited film had excellent transmittance in the visible wavelength region.

  8. Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentecost, E.D.; Vinikour, W.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods.

  9. The role of histological techniques for preparation of bone in studies of pl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alati, T.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques and methodologies for histological preparation of bone samples from plutonium-contaminated laboratory mice are described in the present report. These techniques have been set up within a research program on Pu-239 toxicity at low and very low activities. Pu-239 is a well-known alpha emitter with high relative biological effectiveness; when incorporated in mammalian organism it is also taken up by bone surfaces where osteosarcomas may be induced. This effect is very probably associated to the particular spatial relationships between the incorporated radionuclide and the target cells at risk. The research program actually in progress includes both the studies of late pathological effects, mainly in terms of bone tumor incidence and rate, and the quantitative description of the spatial relationships mentioned above. Whithin this framework, the techniques to described refer to the preparation of histological samples of demineralized bones for traditional histopathological analyses and of mineralized bones for studies of Pu-239 microdistributions by means of fission track analyses

  10. Internal bone temperature change during guided surgery preparations for dental implants: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorati, Marco; Amorfini, Leonardo; Signori, Alessio; Barberis, Fabrizio; Silvestrini Biavati, Armando; Benedicenti, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this pig model study was to verify whether the use of devices (surgical templates) or procedures (flapless or flap) of guided surgery may cause a potentially pathologic increase of temperature during the bone preparation. In this in vitro study, pig ribs with mean cortical thickness of 1.90 mm were used. Open-flap and flapless guided surgery (experimental groups OGS and FGS) and open-flap and flapless conventional technique (control groups OSS and OFS) were performed. Temperature changes were recorded at a distance of 0.5 mm from the final test osteotomy by 2 thermocouples at depths of 1.5 (point A) and 12 mm (point B). Data were collected from 80 measurements, 10 for each group. A statistically significant increase of temperature was reported for the FGS and OGS groups considering the measurement at point A (mean Δt 4.81 degrees and 4.21 degrees, respectively). The measurement at Point B for the FGS group compared to the FSS group did not differ significantly for the 3-mm drill, nor did the OSS group with the 2-mm drill. Site preparation with surgical stents generated higher bone temperature than conventional drilling. However, this heat generation did not reach temperature levels dangerous for the bone.

  11. Raman Spectroscopy Study of Annealing-Induced Effects on Graphene Prepared by Micromechanical Exfoliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ji Eun; Ko, Taeg Yeoung; Ryu, Sun Min

    2010-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy was combined with AFM to investigate the effects of thermal annealing on the graphene samples prepared by the widely used micromechanical exfoliation method. Following annealing cycles, adhesive residues were shown to contaminate graphene sheets with thin molecular layers in their close vicinity causing several new intense Raman bands. Detailed investigation shows that the Raman scattering is very strong and may be enhanced by the interaction with graphene. Although the current study does not pinpoint detailed origins for the new Raman bands, the presented results stress that graphene prepared by the above method may require extra cautions when treated with heat or possibly solvents. Since its isolation from graphite, graphene has drawn a lot of experimental and theoretical research. These efforts have been mostly in pursuit of various applications such as electronics, sensors, stretchable transparent electrodes, and various composite materials. To accomplish such graphene-based applications, understanding chemical interactions of this new material with environments during various processing treatments will become more important. Since thermal annealing is widely used in various research of graphene for varying purposes such as cleaning, nanostructuring, reactions, etc., understanding annealing-induced effects is prerequisite to many fundamental studies of graphene. In this regard, it is to be noted that there has been a controversy on the cause of the annealing-induced hole doping in graphene

  12. Ecological risk assessment guidance for preparation of remedial investigation/feasibility study work plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentecost, E.D.; Vinikour, W.S.

    1993-08-01

    This guidance document (1) provides instructions on preparing the components of an ecological work plan to complement the overall site remedial assessment investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan and (2) directs the user on how to implement ecological tasks identified in the plan. Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfired Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), an RI/FS work plan win have to be developed as part of the site-remediation scoping the process. Specific guidance on the RI/FS process and the preparation of work plans has been developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988a). This document provides guidance to US Department of Energy (DOE) staff and contractor personnel for incorporation of ecological information into environmental remediation planning and decision making at CERCLA sites. An overview analysis of early ecological risk assessment methods (i.e., in the 1980s) at Superfund sites was conducted by the EPA (1989a). That review provided a perspective of attention given to ecological issues in some of the first RI/FS studies. By itself, that reference is of somewhat limited value; it does, however, establish a basis for comparison of past practices in ecological risk with current, more refined methods

  13. Kinetic Degradation and Controlled Drug Delivery System Studies for Sensitive Hydrogels Prepared by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, M.; El-Arnaouty, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Ternary mixtures of N-vinyle-2-pyrrolidone(NVP ), itaconic acid (IA) and gelatin (G) were gamma irradiated to prepared poly(NVP/IA/G) hydrogels. The equilibrium kinetic swelling, drug release behavior, Scan Electron Microscope (SEM) and the swelling-degradation kinetics were studied. Both the diffusion exponent and the diffusion coefficient increase with increasing content of (IA). Also, the swelling behavior of copolymer hydrogels in response to ph value of the external media was studied, it is noted that the highest swelling values at ph 4. The in vitro drug release behavior of these hydrogels was examined by quantification analysis with a UV/VIS spectrophotometers. Chlorpromazine hydrochloride was loaded into dried hydrogels to investigate the stimuli-sensitive property at the specific ph. The release studies show that the highest value of release was at ph 4 which can be used for drug delivery system

  14. Non-aqueous metathesis as a general approach to prepare nanodispersed materials: Case study of scheelites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanasiev, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.afanasiev@ircelyon.univ-lyon1.fr

    2015-09-15

    A general approach to the preparation of inorganic nanoparticles is proposed, using metathesis of precursor salts in non-aqueous liquids. Nanoparticles of scheelites AMO{sub 4} (A=Ba, Sr, Ca; M=Mo, W), were obtained with a quantitative yield. Precipitations in formamide, N-methylformamide, propylene carbonate, DMSO and polyols often provide narrow particle size distributions. Advantageous morphology was explained by strong ionic association in non-aqueous solvents, leading to slow nucleation and negligible Ostwald ripening. Mean particle size below 10 nm and high specific surface areas were obtained for several Ca(Sr)Mo(W)O{sub 4} materials, making them promising for applications as adsorbents or catalysts. Zeta-potential of scheelites in aqueous suspensions showed negative values in a wide range of pH. Systematic study of optical properties demonstrated variation of optical gap in the sequences W>Mo and Ba>Sr>Ca. The observed trends were reproduced by DFT calculations. No quantum confinement effect was observed for small particles, though the surface states induce low-energy features in the optical spectra. - Graphical abstract: Scheelites AMO{sub 4} (A=Ca, Sr, Ba; M=Mo, W) were prepared in various non-aqueous liquids with high specific surface areas and narrow size distributions. The optical gap of scheelites changes in the series Caprepared in various non-aqueous liquids. • Narrow size distributions explained by ionic association in non-aqueous media. • Nanoparticles of less than 10 nm size and highest ever specific surface areas were obtained. • Optical gap of scheelites changes in the series Ca

  15. Are general surgery residents adequately prepared for hepatopancreatobiliary fellowships? A questionnaire-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Houssam; Parikh, Janak; Patel, Shirali; Jeyarajah, D Rohan

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study was conducted to assess the preparedness of hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) fellows upon entering fellowship, identify challenges encountered by HPB fellows during the initial part of their HPB training, and identify potential solutions to these challenges that can be applied during residency training. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to all HPB fellows in accredited HPB fellowship programmes in two consecutive academic years (n = 42). Reponses were then analysed. Results A total of 19 (45%) fellows responded. Prior to their fellowship, 10 (53%) were in surgical residency and the rest were in other surgical fellowships or surgical practice. Thirteen (68%) were graduates of university-based residency programmes. All fellows felt comfortable in performing basic laparoscopic procedures independently at the completion of residency and less comfortable in performing advanced laparoscopy. Eight (42%) fellows cited a combination of inadequate case volume and lack of autonomy during residency as the reasons for this lack of comfort. Thirteen (68%) identified inadequate preoperative workup and management as their biggest fear upon entering practice after general surgery training. A total of 17 (89%) fellows felt they were adequately prepared to enter HPB fellowship. Extra rotations in transplant, vascular or minimally invasive surgery were believed to be most helpful in preparing general surgery residents pursing HPB fellowships. Conclusions Overall, HPB fellows felt themselves to be adequately prepared for fellowship. Advanced laparoscopic procedures and the perioperative management of complex patients are two of the challenges facing HPB fellows. General surgery residents who plan to pursue an HPB fellowship may benefit from spending extra rotations on certain subspecialties. Focus on perioperative workup and management should be an integral part of residency and fellowship training. PMID:25387852

  16. Synthesis and Study of Guest-Rebinding of MIP Based on MAA Prepared using Theophylline Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, T.; Yanti; Royani, I.; Widayani; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based on methacrylic acid (MAA) monomer and theophylline template has been synthesized using a modified bulk polymerization method. Theophylline was employed as a template and it formed a complex with MAA through hydrogen bonding. Self-assembly of template-monomer was followed by cross-linking process using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) cross-linker. The polymerization process was initiated by thermal decomposition of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as the initiator at 60oC after cooling treatment at -5oC. After 7 hours, a rigid polymer was obtained and followed by grinding the polymer and removing the template. As a reference, a nonimprinted polymer (NIP) has also been synthesized using similar procedure by excluding the template. FTIR study was carried out to investigate the presence of theophylline in the as- prepared polymer, MIP, and NIP. The spectra indicated that theophylline was successfully incorporated in the as-prepared polymer. This result was also confirmed by EDS analysis showing that N atoms of the as-prepared polymer were derived from amino group of theophylline. Furthermore, the polymer particles of MIP were irregular in shape and size as shown by its SEM image. The capability of guest-rebinding of the MIP was analyzed through Batchwise guest-binding experiment. The results showed that for initial concentration of theophylline in methanol/chloroform (1/1, v/v) of 0.333 mM, the binding capacity of the MIP was 23.22 /mol/g. Compared to the MIP, the adsorption capacity of the NIP was only 3.73 /mol/g. This result shows that MIP has higher affinity than NIP.

  17. Integrating thematic web portal capabilities into the NASA Earthdata website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. J.; Wong, M. M.; McLaughlin, B. D.; Siarto, J.

    2014-12-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) acquires and distributes an abundance of Earth science data on a daily basis to a diverse user community worldwide. To assist the scientific community and general public in achieving a greater understanding of the interdisciplinary nature of Earth science and of key environmental and climate change topics, the NASA Earthdata website is integrating new methods of presenting and accessing Earth science information, data, research and results. This poster will present the process of integrating thematic web portal capabilities into the NASA Earthdata website, with examples from the recently awarded Sea Level Change Portal. The Earthdata website is a part of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). EOSDIS is a key core capability in NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Program. It provides end-to-end capabilities for managing NASA's Earth science data from various sources - satellites, aircraft, field measurements, and various other programs. Some of the capabilities include twelve Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), Science Computing Facilities (SCFs), a data discovery and service access client (Reverb), dataset directory (Global Change Master Directory - GCMD), near real-time data (Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS - LANCE), Worldview (an imagery visualization interface), Global Imagery Browse Services, the Earthdata Code Collaborative, and a host of other discipline specific data discovery, data access, data subsetting and visualization tools and services.

  18. Decolonizing Psychological Science: Introduction to the Special Thematic Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Adams

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite unprecedented access to information and diffusion of knowledge across the globe, the bulk of work in mainstream psychological science still reflects and promotes the interests of a privileged minority of people in affluent centers of the modern global order. Compared to other social science disciplines, there are few critical voices who reflect on the Euro-American colonial character of psychological science, particularly its relationship to ongoing processes of domination that facilitate growth for a privileged minority but undermine sustainability for the global majority. Moved by mounting concerns about ongoing forms of multiple oppression (including racialized violence, economic injustice, unsustainable over-development, and ecological damage, we proposed a special thematic section and issued a call for papers devoted to the topic of "decolonizing psychological science". In this introduction to the special section, we first discuss two perspectives—liberation psychology and cultural psychology—that have informed our approach to the topic. We then discuss manifestations of coloniality in psychological science and describe three approaches to decolonization—indigenization, accompaniment, and denaturalization—that emerge from contributions to the special section. We conclude with an invitation to readers to submit their own original contributions to an ongoing effort to create an online collection of digitally linked articles on the topic of decolonizing psychological science.

  19. Landsat Thematic Mapper digital information content for agricultural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Barry; Bryant, Nevin; Adams, Steven

    1986-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data collected for Imperial Valley, California in December, 1982 were digitally examined to assess their utility to distinguish among agricultural and other land-covers. Statistics for thirty-seven training sites representing a variety of crops plus urban, water and desert land-covers were obtained and analyzed using transformed divergence (TD) calculations. TD values were employed to assess intraclass variability and the best bands for classification. Four subscenes were selected for clustering or unsupervised signature extraction. These areas were agriculture, urban, desert and water land-covers. The number of clusters for these subscenes were examined and the best TM bands for interclass separability were identified. The results of the clustering and training site analyses for interclass separability were compared. The TM data were useful for the digital delimitation of most crops and other cover types in this analysis. Four bands of data are adequate for classification with the best results obtained by the selection of one band from each of the available portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Different band combinations are best for various land-cover intraclass separability.

  20. A Thematic Analysis of Advertisement in the Telecommunication Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Amah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to determine the types of appeals used in telecommunication advertisement, explain how the themes and appeals used in the advertisement were presented, and see how it could attract subscribers despite the challenges in the industry. Qualitative content analysis method was used to provide a thematic analysis of the messages contained in numbers of selected advertisements shown on YouTube, social media, and television stations in Nigeria. The findings show that the advertisements adopt emotional (love, celebrity appearance, music, comedy, humor, drama and rational appeal to persuade the subscribers. Moreover, the themes of the advertisements focus on accomplishment and improve service regarding call charges, network coverage, network quality, and customer service. It further shows that these strategies employed by the telecommunication industry are capable of influencing the choice of the subscribers in the Nigerian market. The research recommends and concludes that companies should consistently engage the appeals used with more emphasis on the emotional appeal to retain their size of the market.

  1. A thematic analysis of how prisoners overcome suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, Lucy; Bowen, Erica

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the perceptions, beliefs and abilities that support adult male prisoners in overcoming suicidality. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight male life sentenced prisoners in a Category B prison. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data and interpret how prisoners have overcome suicidality. Findings - Five overarching themes were identified; sense of self, presence of meaning, connectedness, shift of perspective and re-establishing control. The themes were closely interconnected and revealed novel insights into the variables that supported prisoners to overcome suicidality. The themes were drawn from a specific prisoner population, which may not be representative of the wider prison population. Additionally, the sole focus on suicidality may be an oversimplification of self-destructive behaviours and could have affected the factors identified. The results highlight the need to refine suicide prevention strategies in prisons; in the assessment of suicide risk, the improvement of supportive regimes and the development of psychological interventions. This research is the first to qualitatively examine the factors involved in overcoming suicide in adult male prisoners. The research is of value to researchers and practitioners alike, as it extends previous research in prison populations and suggests avenues for the development of suicide prevention strategies.

  2. Effects of Thematic-Based Instruction on Students’ Academic Achievement and Attitudes Towards English Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Baş

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of thematic-based instruction on elementary students’ academic achievement and attitudes towards English course. The research was carried out in 2011–2012 education-instruction year in an elementary school in Niğde province. Totally 60 students in two different classes in the 6th grade of this school participated in the study. The pre/post-test control group quasi-experimental research model was used in this study. In order to test the significance between the groups, the independent samples t test was adopted in the study. The results of the research showed a significant difference amongst academic achievement and attitudes towards course in favor of the experimental group.

  3. Microstructural and magnetotransport studies of novel manganite–sebacic acid nanocomposites prepared at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Mariano; Faccio, Ricardo; Pardo, Helena; Tumelero, Milton A.; Pasa, André A.; Mombrú, Álvaro W.

    2015-01-01

    Novel La 2/3 Sr 1/3 MnO 3 :sebacic acid nanocomposites (LSMO–SA-X) were prepared for different fraction additions (X) of sebacic acid (SA). The preparation of these nanocomposites was performed at low temperatures (T∼130 °C) avoiding partial decomposition of the organic matrix. The microstructure of these LSMO–SA-X nanocomposites was studied by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique and both nanoparticles size and inter-particle distances were estimated. The magnetic, electrical and magnetotransport properties were also investigated. An enhancement in the low-field magnetoresistance (LFMR) for lower fractions of SA was obtained with respect to pure LSMO and higher fraction additions showed a decrease in the LFMR due to the higher separation distance between LSMO nanoparticles. The tunnel barrier thickness observed in these nanocomposites was correlated with the interparticle distance obtained by SAXS. The enhancement of magnetoresistance was attributed to the increase in the extrinsic disorder promoted by the SA addition and no enhancement due to intrinsic magnetoresistance of LSMO was evidenced. - Highlights: • The synthesis of novel manganite-sebacic acid nanocomposites is reported. • Microstructural trends are shown using the GISAXS technique. • An enhancement on the LFMR in the nanocomposites with respect to pure manganite was evidenced. • Correlation between microstructure and magnetotransport is discussed

  4. Comparative study of the coprecipitation methods for the preparation of Layered Double Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crepaldi Eduardo L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Coprecipitation is the method most frequently applied to prepare Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs. Two variations of this method can be used, depending on the pH control conditions during the precipitation step. In one case the pH values are allowed to vary while in the other they are kept constant throughout coprecipitation. Although research groups have their preferences, no systematic comparison of the two variations of the coprecipitation method is available in the literature. On this basis, the objective of the present study was to compare the properties of LDHs prepared using the two forms of pH control in the coprecipitation method. The results showed that even though coprecipitation is easier to perform under conditions of variable pH values, materials with more interesting properties, from the point of view of technological applications, are obtained at constant pH. Higher crystallinity, smaller particle size, higher specific surface area and higher average pore diameter were found for materials obtained by coprecipitation at constant pH, when compared to the materials obtained at variable pH.

  5. Thermoluminescence study of aluminium oxide doped germanium prepared by combustion synthesis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saharin Nurul Syazlin Binti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the optimum concentration of germanium (Ge dopant in aluminium oxide (AhO3 samples prepared by combustion synthesis (CS method for thermoluminescence (TL studies. The samples were prepared at various Ge concentration i.e. 1 to 5% mol. The phase formation of un-doped and Ge-doped Al2O3 samples was determined using X-ray Diffraction (XRD. The sharp peaks present in the XRD pattern confirms the crystallinity of the samples. The samples were then exposed to 50 Gy Cobalt-60 sources (Gamma cell 220. TL glow curves were measured and recorded using a Harshaw Model 3500 TLD reader. Comparison of TL peaks were observed to obtain the best composition of Ge dopants. A simple glow curves TL peak at around 175̊C for all composition samples was observed. It was also found that the composition of aluminium oxide doped with 3.0% of germanium exhibits the highest thermoluminescence (TL intensity which is 349747.04 (a.u.

  6. FA-loaded lipid drug delivery systems: preparation, characterization and biological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Claudia; Campisi, Agata; Musumeci, Teresa; Raciti, Giuseppina; Bonfanti, Roberta; Puglisi, Giovanni

    2014-02-14

    The main purpose of this research was to prepare and to characterize ferulic acid-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (FA-NLC) to evaluate the cytotoxic effect on human glioblastoma cancer U87MG cells. First of all, the influence of different materials on mean size and homogeneity of NLC prepared by a low energy organic solvent-free method was investigated. Technological characterization (encapsulation efficiency, mean particle size, homogeneity and in vitro release profile) was performed on the selected NLC in comparison to others lipid carriers, nanoemulsion and SLN. Furthermore, the thermal behavior of NLC and SLN was investigated using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) in order to evaluate their structure. Biological studies (MTT bioassay and caspase-3 cleavage) on the selected NLC showed no cytotoxic effects of the unloaded tested NLC. Besides, the effectiveness of FA-loaded NLC was higher compared to the free drug. Cells treated with FA or FA-loaded NLC showed a greater effect compared to idebenone (IDE) or IDE-loaded NLC, respectively. These results strongly support that FA-loaded NLC could be potentially used for the treatment of glioblastoma.

  7. An In Vitro Study of the Antimicrobial Effects of Indigo Naturalis Prepared from Strobilanthes formosanus Moore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Ru Chiang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Indigo naturalis is effective in treating nail psoriasis coexisting with microorganism infections. This study examines the antimicrobial effects of indigo naturalis prepared from Strobilanthes formosanus Moore. Eight bacterial and seven fungal strains were assayed using the agar diffusion method to examine the effects of indigo naturalis and its bioactive compounds. The bioactive compounds of indigo naturalis were purified sequentially using GFC, TLC, and HPLC. Their structures were identified using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. UPLC-MS/MS was applied to compare the metabolome profiles of indigo naturalis ethyl-acetate (EA extract and its source plant, Strobilanthes formosanus Moore. The results of in vitro antimicrobial assays showed that indigo naturalis EA-extract significantly (≥1 mg/disc inhibits Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermis and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA and mildly inhibits non-dermatophytic onychomycosis pathogens (Aspergillus fumigates and Candida albicans, but has little effect on dermatophyes. Isatin and tryptanthrin were identified as the bioactive compounds of indigo naturalis using S. aureus and S. epidermis as the bioassay model. Both bioactive ingredients had no effect on all tested fungi. In summary, indigo naturalis prepared from Strobilanthes formosanus Moore exhibits antimicrobial effects on Staphylococcus and non-dermatophytic onychomycosis pathogens. Tryptanthrin and isatin may be its major bioactive ingredients against Staphylococcus and the inhibitory effect on MRSA may be due to other unidentified ingredients.

  8. Residual Endodontic Filling Material after Post Space Preparation: A Confocal Microscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yao Teoh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This laboratory study assessed removability of endodontic alkaline cements and resin sealers using coronal cross-sectional slices of roots with single canals. Materials were labelled with 0.1% (w/w sodium fluorescein prior to mixing so that confocal microscopy could be used to quantify material remaining on the walls of post spaces, to assess cleanliness. Roots of extracted teeth were prepared using rotary NiTi instruments then obturated using lateral condensation with gutta percha and epoxy resin sealers (AH-Plus™ or Zirmix™, or were filled by injecting mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA cement (GC Nex™ MTA or MTAmix™ or a hard-setting calcium hydroxide cement (Supercal™. Brown (#3 ParaPost™ drills were used at 600 rpm with a torque setting of 3 N cm−1 for 2 min to remove 5 mm of the root filling. Roots were embedded and coronal slices examined by confocal microscopy, with the perimeter of the drill channel divided into clean, unclean and non-accessible regions. The choice of material affects cleanliness, with MTA being the most difficult and calcium hydroxide cement the easiest to remove. With epoxy resin-based sealers, almost half of the accessible canal walls remained coated with remnants of sealer after post space preparation.

  9. Studies on preparation of the database system for clinical records of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Tsuyoshi

    1981-01-01

    Construction of the database system aimed at multipurpose application of data on clinical medicine was studied through the preparation of database system for clinical records of atomic bomb survivors. The present database includes the data about 110,000 atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki City. This study detailed: (1) Analysis of errors occurring in a period from generation of data in the clinical field to input into the database, and discovery of a highly precise, effective method of input. (2) Development of a multipurpose program for uniform processing of data on physical examinations from many organizations. (3) Development of a record linkage method for voluminous files which are essential in the construction of a large-scale medical information system. (4) A database model suitable for clinical research and a method for designing a segment suitable for physical examination data. (Chiba, N.)

  10. Enhancing sample preparation capabilities for accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon and radiocalcium studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    With support provided by the LLNL Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, the UCR Radiocarbon Laboratory continued its studies involving sample pretreatment and target preparation for both AMS radiocarbon ( 14 C) and radiocalcium ( 41 Ca) involving applications to archaeologically -- and paleoanthropologically- related samples. With regard to AMS 14 C-related studies, we have extended the development of a series of procedures which have, as their initial goal, the capability to combust several hundred microgram amounts of a chemically-pretreated organic sample and convert the resultant CO 2 to graphitic carbon which will consistently yield relatively high 13 C - ion currents and blanks which will yield, on a consistent basis, 14 C count rates at or below 0.20% modern, giving an 2 sigma age limit of >50,000 yr BP

  11. Preparation and study on the structure of keratin/PVA membrane containing wool fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Shen, Shuming; Yang, Xuhong; Tang, Rencheng

    2017-10-01

    The urea / sodium sulfide / sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) method was used to dissolve the wool in this study. Then the Wool fiber/keratin/PVA composites with different proportions were prepared, and the surface morphology, molecular structure, mechanical property of the composite films and the influence of the proportions on their structure and properties were studied. The results showed that, there are α-helix structure, β-sheet and random coil conformations in the pure keratin film, as well as in the wool fiber. Compared with wool fiber, the crystallinity of keratin decreased. PVA can obviously improve the mechanical property of the blended film. When the blended ratio of keratin/PVA is 20/80, the mechanical property of the blended film is greatly improved. The composite films with 8%-16% of wool fibers have better flexibility than those without wool fibers.

  12. Structural, Magnetic and Mossbauer Studies of Magnesium Ferrite Nanoparticles Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Jessyamma; Mathew, M. Jacob

    Magnesium ferrite (MgFe2O4) being a soft magnetic material with fast frequency response, high a.c. heat power generation and high biocompatibility, is widely used in biomedical fields such as targeted drug delivery, magnetic hyperthermia, etc. This paper reports the synthesis of magnetic MgFe2O4 nanoparticles by hydrothermal method using chloride salts of metal ions. The effect of calcination on the structural and magnetic properties is studied by XRD, FTIR, VSM and Mossbauer spectrum analysis. Fine particles in the size range 3-24nm are obtained. On calcination, crystallite size increases and lattice parameter decreases. From the magnetic characterization, it is seen that the magnetic properties mainly depend on crystallite size and cation distribution. The mixed spinel states of the prepared materials are confirmed from the FTIR and Mossbauer spectrum analysis. The doublet spectrum obtained in the Mossbauer studies indicates the superparamagnetic relaxation at room temperature.

  13. Preparation and preliminary studies of [64Cu]-antiMUC-1 for breast cancer targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Alirezapour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available PR81 is a monoclonal antibody that binds with high affinity to MUC1 that over expressed on breast tumors. PR81 is considered a suitable targeting molecule that was radiolabeled using Cu-64 for positron imaging studies. The monoclonal antibody was conjugated with DOTA moiety and after purification was evaluated for radiochemical purity, immunoreactivity, cell toxicity and structure integrity as well as biodistribution study in normal rats. The radiolabeled antibody prepared with acceptable radiochemical purity (> 93.2 ± 0.6 %, ITLC; specific activity; 4.6 µCi/µg, protein structure integration, significant cytotoxicity and significant immunoreactivity retention was assessed by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Animal biodistribution of the 64Cu-DOTA-PR81 was consistent with other radiolabeled antibodies. The results showed that 64Cu-DOTA-PR81 may be considered for tumor imaging for ultimate diagnosis and follow-up of MUC1 expression in oncology.

  14. Preparing foundation-year students for medical studies in a problem-based learning environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Xiangyun; Massoud, Walid; Al-Banna, Nadia Ali

    2016-01-01

    students with these skills. Methods: A 10-point scale online questionnaire consisting of 20 questions was used for data collection. 50 out of the 59 (19 males and 31 females) students responded and self-evaluated a list of learning skills according to the course objectives before and after the course......Purpose: To contribute to the field of preparing new students for their medical studies and to investigate how foundation-year medical students perceive the progression of appropriate learning skills for studying in a PBL medical curriculum via the support of a course aiming at facilitating......- and post-test was high (2.38). Paired t-tests showed significant improvements (po.001) for each of the 4 factors. The four factors together explained 60.7% percent of variance in the data. Discussion: Students reported large improvements among learning skills required in a problem-based medical curriculum...

  15. Tamoxifen-loaded polymeric micelles: preparation, physico-chemical characterization and in vitro evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Gennara; Maniscalco, Laura; Licciardi, Mariano; Giammona, Gaetano

    2004-11-20

    Several samples of polymeric micelles, formed by amphiphilic derivatives of PHEA, obtained by grafting into polymeric backbone of PEGs and/or hexadecylamine groups (PHEA-PEG-C(16) and PHEA-C(16)) and containing different amount of Tamoxifen, were prepared. All Tamoxifen-loaded polymeric micelles showed to increase drug water solubility. TEM studies provided evidence of the formation of supramolecular core/shell architectures containing drug, in the nanoscopic range and with spherical shape. Samples with different amount of encapsulated Tamoxifen were subjected to in vitro cytotoxic studies in order to evaluate the effect of Tamoxifen micellization on cell growth inhibition. All samples of Tamoxifen-loaded polymeric micelles showed a significantly higher antiproliferative activity in comparison with free drug, probably attributable to fluidification of cellular membranes, caused by amphiphilic copolymers, that allows a higher penetration of the drug into tumoral cells. To gain preliminary information about the potential use of prepared micelles as Tamoxifen drug delivery systems, studies evaluating drug release ability of micelle systems in media mimicking biological fluids (buffer solutions at pH 7.4 and 5.5) and in human plasma were carried out. These studies, performed evaluating the amount of Tamoxifen that remains in solution as a function of time, showed that at pH 7.4, as well as in plasma, PHEA-C(16) polymeric micelles were able to release lower drug amounts than PHEA-PEG(5000)-C(16) ones, while at pH 5.5, the behavior difference between two kind of micelles was less pronounced.

  16. Studies on the preparation and evaluation of colloidal chromic phosphate - 32P for possible therapeutic use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, G.; Mehra, K.S.; Ramamoorthy, N.

    2001-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy has become the focus of recent attention in nuclear medicine, thanks to the emergence of new therapeutic radionuclides as well as the known prospects of local instillation approach and the exciting promise of targeted therapy concept. This has naturally led to a revived interest in the use of established products of earlier generation also, for example 32 P compounds. In response to such a demand of nuclear medicine physicians in India, 32 P labelled colloidal chromic phosphate suspension (CCPS) was prepared by suitable modifications to a reported procedure. 51 Cr was used as tracer for initial studies of standardisation, in order to avail the benefits of relatively greater ease and higher efficiency of assay of gamma activity at low levels. Recovery of the colloid and purification were accomplished by dialysis leading to about 60% radiochemical (RC) yield. The RC purity of the CCPS formulated in 30% dextrose solution was over 98% as assessed by paper chromatography. The particle size was below 5μM, with nearly 99% of the particles present in the size range of 0.6-2.5 μM. The stability of the colloid was found to be not less than 7 days, in terms of soluble phosphate content of the CCPS. The consistency of biological behaviour of CCPS was attempted to be studied by i.v. administration in test animals, although the envisaged end use is only by local instillation. The animal studies revealed prominent lung uptake (∼70%) indicating the presence of >10μM particles formed in vivo, most probably due to agglomeration in serum. The easy reliable preparation of CCPS in acceptable yield, purity and particle size distribution demonstrated in the present study, considered along with the added advantages of abundant, economic availability and convenient production logistics of no-carrier-added 32 P, would merit further investigations on CCPS and similar *M(III)-phosphate colloids for possible therapeutic applications. (author)

  17. Towards Teachers’ Communicative Competence Enhancement: A Study on School Preparation for Bilingual Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Hartono

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research is a preliminary study of an empirical research aimed to develop an English training model to enhance teachers’ communicative competence in bilingual schools. This preliminary study aims to give a description of the schools’ background and preparation to run bilingual programs, teachers’ background and experience in teaching using English, and the challenges related to communicative competence which are faced by teachers inside and outside the classrooms. This study was a qualitative study and the data were collected using semi-structured interview, open-ended questionnaire, and focus group discussion. This study involved 54 teachers and 5 school principals. The results of the study revealed that the schools under this study were under the category of additive bilingual education; the teachers in the bilingual programs were English and non-English Department graduates; and the challenges faced by the teachers were mostly related with their teaching experience and educational background. The findings of this study will be useful to recommend teacher trainings as a part of teachers’ professional development.

  18. A Thematic Analysis of Self-described Authentic Leadership Behaviors Among Experienced Nurse Executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Catherine; Lopez, Ruth Palan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the behaviors experienced nurse executives use to create healthy work environments (HWEs). The constructs of authentic leadership formed the conceptual framework for the study. The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses recommends authentic leadership as the preferred style of leadership for creating and sustaining HWEs. Behaviors associated with authentic leadership in nursing are not well understood. A purposive sample of 17 experienced nurse executives were recruited from across the United States for this qualitative study. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the in-depth, semistructured interviews. Four constructs of authentic leaders were supported and suggest unique applications of each including self-awareness (a private and professional self), balanced processing (open hearted), transparency (limiting exposure), and moral leadership (nursing compass). Authentic leadership may provide a sound foundation to support nursing leadership practices; however, its application to the discipline requires additional investigation.

  19. A Thematic Analysis of Graffiti on the University Classroom Walls - A Case of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Farnia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study positions a research to analyze the university students’ graffiti on classroom walls to make a thematic analysis of the graffiti used in the Iranian higher education context. It is an attempt to investigate how university students voice their opinions and express themselves using graffiti on the university classroom walls.  The study is based on the documentation and classification of more than 200 pieces of graffiti on university classroom walls in Isfahan, Iran. The analysis suggests different themes such as love and hatred, politics, religion, poem, class notes, signature, presence, date, complaint/despair, self-expression, drawings, etc. It is believed that this study is not only a sociological analysis of graffiti in the university context, but it may also be interesting to a wider audience like educators, administrators, teachers and parents.

  20. The Geological information and modelling Thematic Core Service of EPOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robida, François; Wächter, Joachim; Tulstrup, Jørgen; Lorenz, Henning; Carter, Mary; Cipolloni, Carlo; Morel, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Geological data and models are important assets for the EPOS community. The Geological information and modelling Thematic Core Service of EPOS is being designed and will be implemented in an efficient and sustainable access system for geological multi-scale data assets for EPOS through the integration of distributed infrastructure components (nodes) of geological surveys, research institutes and the international drilling community (ICDP/IODP). The TCS will develop and take benefit of the synergy between the existing data infrastructures of the Geological Surveys of Europe (EuroGeoSurveys / OneGeology-Europe / EGDI) and of the large amount of information produced by the research organisations. These nodes will offer a broad range of resources including: geological maps, borehole data, geophysical data (seismic data, borehole log data), archived information on physical material (samples, cores), geochemical and other analyses of rocks, soils and minerals, and Geological models (3D, 4D). The services will be implemented on international standards (such as INSPIRE, IUGS/CGI, OGC, W3C, ISO) in order to guarantee their interoperability with other EPOS TCS as well as their compliance with INSPIRE European Directive or international initiatives (such as OneGeology). This will provide future virtual research environments with means to facilitate the use of existing information for future applications. In addition, workflows will be established that allow the integration of other existing and new data and applications. Processing and the use of simulation and visualization tools will subsequently support the integrated analysis and characterization of complex subsurface structures and their inherent dynamic processes. This will in turn aid in the overall understanding of complex multi-scale geo-scientific questions. This TCS will work alongside other EPOS TCSs to create an efficient and comprehensive multidisciplinary research platform for the Earth Sciences in Europe.

  1. Concepts as Context: Thematic Museum Education and Its Influence on Meaning Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubard, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Thematic art museum education programmes--programmes where visitors make meaning of various artworks in relation to a specific preselected theme--are conspicuous within interactive museum education on both sides of the Atlantic. How do thematic programmes influence visitors' experiences with art? In this article, I explore this question based…

  2. Study of Processing and Mechanical Behavior of Pp/clay Nanocomposites Prepared by Melt Blending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Sareh Mosleh; Janghorban, Kamal

    In this research, the melt blending technique was used to prepare various polypropylene (PP) based nanocomposites containing 1,3,5,7 wt% montmorillonite (MMT). A commercial organoclay (denoted K-10) served as the filler for PP matrix and the polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) was used as compatibalizer. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), results of which showed that the nanocomposites are best described as intercalated-exfoliated systems. PP/MMT nanocomposites showed good thermal stability in the TGA analysis. Introducion of 3% MMT in the nanocomposites increased the onset temperature of the degradation by 27.5 °C compared to that of pure PP. Test results showed that PP/clay nanocomposites had an enhanced tensile strength, hardness and decreased wear rates.

  3. A Study of Simple α Source Preparation Using a Micro-coprecipitation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Ho; Park, Taehong; Song, Byung Chul; Park, Jong Ho; Song, Kyuseok

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a rapid and simple α source preparation method for a radioactive waste sample. The recovery of 239 Pu, 232 U and 243 Am using a micro-coprecipitation method was over 95%. The α-peak resolution of Pu and Am isotopes through the micro-coprecipitation method is enough to discriminate the Pu and Am isotopes from other Pu and Am isotopes. The determination of the Pu and Am isotopes using the micro-coprecipitation method was applied to the radioactive waste sample, so that the activity concentrations of the Pu and Am isotopes using the micro-coprecipitation method in the radioactive waste sample were similar to those using the electrodeposition method

  4. Preparation and Study on Nickel Oxide Reduction of Polyacrylonitrile-Based Carbon Nanofibers by Thermal Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeong Ju; Kim, Hyun Bin; Jeun, Joon Pyo; Lee, Dae Soo; Koo, Dong Hyun; Kang, Phil Hyun

    2015-08-01

    Carbon materials containing magnetic nanopowder have been attractive in technological applications such as electrochemical capacitors and electromagnetic wave shielding. In this study, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers containing nickel nanoparticles were prepared using an electrospinning method and thermal stabilization. The reduction of nickel oxide was investigated under a nitrogen atmosphere within a temperature range of 600 to 1,000 °C. Carbon nanofibers containing nickel nanoparticles were characterized by FE-SEM, EDS, XRD, TGA, and VSM. It was found that nickel nanoparticles were formed by a NiO reduction in PAN as a function of the thermal treatment. These results led to an increase in the coercivity of nanofibers and a decrease in the remanence magnetization.

  5. Study of the ultrasonic waves action on the preparation of calcium aluminates cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenco, R.R.; Exposito, C.C.D.; Rodrigues, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Calcium aluminates cements were prepared through a route that uses the sonochemical process. In this process, calcia and alumina in an aqueous suspension are put under an ultrasonic bath during some time. After that, the water is evaporated and the material is heat treated. In this work, the action of ultrasonic waves were studied on initials molar compositions calcia:alumina of 1:1. It was also verified the influence of the water on the reactivity of initial solids. SEM and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the obtained materials. In addition, mechanical strength of the products was evaluated through splitting tensile tests. The X-ray diffractograms showed that the presence of the water was enough to form hydrated compounds. However the material subjected to the sonochemical process presented the highest mechanical strength, indicating the potential of this route of synthesis. (author)

  6. Structural study of gallium oxynitrides prepared by ammonolysis of different oxide precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cailleaux, Xavier; Merdrignac-Conanec, Odile; Tessier, Franck [UMR CNRS 6226 Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Equipe Verres et Ceramiques, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); De Lucas, MarIa del Carmen Marco [Institut Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS-Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Av. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Nagasaka, Kazuteru; Kikkawa, Shinichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13W8, Kita-ku Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2009-02-21

    A comparative structural study has been carried out on gallium oxynitride powders using XRD and Raman spectroscopy. Gallium oxynitrides have been prepared by ammonolysis of either NiGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} ternary oxide or the citrate method-derived amorphous oxide. Their crystal chemistry is different and appears to be influenced by the nature of the oxide precursor: whereas gallium oxynitride obtained from amorphous gallium oxide crystallizes with the common wurtzite structure, gallium oxynitride obtained from NiGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystallizes with an original structure that we have identified as the carborundum II (B6) structure type or 6H-SiC. As far as we know, this is the first 6H-SiC structure found in gallium oxynitride powders.

  7. Studies Performed in Preparation for the Spallation Neutron Source Accumulator Ring Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Cousineau, Sarah M; Henderson, Stuart; Holmes, Jeffrey Alan; Plum, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source accumulator ring will compress 1.5?1014, 1 GeV protons from a 1 ms bunch train to a single 695 ns proton bunch for use in neutron spallation. Due to the high beam power, unprecedented control of beam loss will be required in order to control radiation and allow for hands-on maintenance in most areas of the ring. A number of detailed investigations have been performed to understand the primary sources of beam loss and to predict and mitigate problems associated with radiation hot spots in the ring. The ORBIT particle tracking code is used to perform realistic simulations of the beam accumulation in the ring, including detailed modeling of the injection system, transport through the measured magnet fields including higher order multipoles, and beam loss and collimation. In this paper we present the results of a number of studies performed in preparation for the 2006 commissioning of the accumulator ring.

  8. Electrochemical study of CdS/CdTe solar cells prepared by electrochemical deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, V.; Llabres, J.

    1985-01-01

    The growth conditions of thin films of cadmium telluride, using the electrochemical deposition technique, for the production of p-CdTe/n-CdS heterojunction solar cells are presented in this communication. Special attention is paid to the examination of parameters controlling and limiting the growth of CdTe samples presenting one or other type of majority change carriers. Voltammograms were performed under different conditions for growth mechanism determination. In particular, the growth kinetic function on stainless steel and cadmium sulfide substrates is shown. Heterojunctions were prepared by electrochemically depositing CdTe (type P) on CdS thin films, deposited in high vacuum. The aim of this study is characterization of low cost production of CdS/CdTe heterojunctions solar cells by electrochemical deposition

  9. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of as-prepared and annealed CdS:O thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalilova, Khuraman; Hasanov, Ilham; Mamedov, Nazim [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, 1143 Baku (Azerbaijan); Shim, YongGu [Department of Physics and Electronics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan); Asaba, Ryo; Wakita, Kazuki [Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba 275-0016 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Cadmium sulfide thin films on soda lime substrates were obtained by rf-magnetron sputtering in argon-oxygen atmosphere. As-prepared and vacuum annealed films were then studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry at room temperature over photon energy range from 0.5 to 6 eV. The obtained ellipsometric data were treated using optical dispersion models based on Gaussian type oscillators. Dielectric function of oxygen-free films, as well as those obtained under 3% of O/Ar partial pressure was reliably restored. At the same time, dielectric function obtained for 5% CdS:O can be regarded only as an average over several materials since our XPS examination disclosed presence of several compounds in thin films deposited at O/Ar ratios higher than 3%. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Advantages of infrared transflection micro spectroscopy and paraffin-embedded sample preparation for biological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jie; Li, Qian; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Dan; Wu, Rie

    2018-04-01

    Fourier-Transform Infrared micro-spectroscopy is an excellent method for biological analyses. In this paper, series metal coating films on ITO glass were prepared by the electrochemical method and the different thicknesses of paraffin embedding rat's brain tissue on the substrates were studied by IR micro-spetroscopy in attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode and transflection mode respectively. The Co-Ni-Cu alloy coating film with low cost is good reflection substrates for the IR analysis. The infrared microscopic transflection mode needs not to touch the sample at all and can get the IR spectra with higher signal to noise ratios. The Paraffin-embedding method allows tissues to be stored for a long time for re-analysis to ensure the traceability of the sample. Also it isolates the sample from the metal and avoids the interaction of biological tissue with the metals. The best thickness of the tissues is 4 μm.

  11. Preparation and Structural Studies on Hybrid Core-Shell Nanoparticles Consisting of Silica Core and Conjugated Block Copolymer Shell Prepared by Surface-Initiated Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sourav; Karam, Tony; Rosu, Cornelia; Li, Xin; Do, Changwoo; Youm, Sang Gil; Haber, Louis; Russo, Paul; Nesterov, Evgueni

    Controlled Kumada catalyst-transfer polymerization occurring by chain-growth mechanism was developed for the synthesis of conjugated polymers and block copolymers from the surface of inorganic substrates such as silica nanoparticles. Although synthesis of conjugated polymers via Kumada polymerization became an established method for solution polymerization, carrying out the same reaction in heterogeneous conditions to form monodisperse polymer chains still remains a challenge. We developed and described a simple and efficient approach to the preparation of surface-immobilized layer of catalytic Ni(II) initiator, and demonstrated using it to prepare polymers and block copolymers on silica nanoparticle. The structure of the resulting hybrid nanostructures was thoroughly studied using small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering, thermal analysis, and optical spectroscopy. The photoexcitation energy transfer processes in the conjugated polymer shell were studied via steady-state and time resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. This study uncovered important details of the energy transfer, which will be discussed in this presentation.

  12. Expertise in soccer teams: A thematic inquiry into the role of shared mental models within team chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Gershgoren, Lael; Basevitch, Itay; Filho, Edson; Gershgoren, Aaron; Brill, Yaron S.; Schinke, Robert J.; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    Aims. The purpose of the current study was to establish a conceptual framework of team chemistry components in sport with an emphasis on Shared Mental Models (SMM).\\ud Method. Elite soccer coaches (n = 6) and players (n = 3) were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. An inductive thematic analysis was employed to analyze the data. Results. Four themes related to team chemistry components were identified: (1) members' characteristics (i.e., demographic data, on-field characteris...

  13. Preparation, characterization and gas permeation study of PSf/MgO nanocomposite membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Momeni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite membranes composed of polymer and inorganic nanoparticles are a novel method to enhance gas separation performance. In this study, membranes were fabricated from polysulfone (PSf containing magnesium oxide (MgO nanoparticles and gas permeation properties of the resulting membranes were investigated. Membranes were prepared by solution blending and phase inversion methods. Morphology of the membranes, void formations, MgO distribution and aggregates were observed by SEM analysis. Furthermore, thermal stability, residual solvent in the membrane film and structural ruination of membranes were analyzed by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. The effects of MgO nanoparticles on the glass transition temperature (Tg of the prepared nanocomposites were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The Tg of nanocomposite membranes increased with MgO loading. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra of nanocomposite membranes were analyzed to identify the variations of the bonds. The results obtained from gas permeation experiments with a constant pressure setup showed that adding MgO nanoparticles to the polymeric membrane structure increased the permeability of the membranes. At 30 wt% MgO loading, the CO2 permeability was enhanced from 25.75×10-16 to 47.12×10-16 mol.m/(m².s.Pa and the CO2/CH4 selectivity decreased from 30.84 to 25.65 when compared with pure PSf. For H2, the permeability was enhanced from 44.05×10-16 to 67.3×10-16 mol.m/(m².s.Pa, whereas the H2/N2 selectivity decreased from 47.11 to 33.58.

  14. Attitudes of nursing students towards caring for people with HIV/AIDS: thematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, David; King, Lindy; Belan, Ingrid

    2009-11-01

    Attitudes of nursing students towards caring for people with HIV/AIDS: thematic literature review. This paper is a report of a literature review conducted to examine current research studies into attitudes of nursing students towards caring for people with HIV/AIDS and to identify factors that influenced those attitudes to inform current nursing practice and to develop nursing education regarding care provided to people with HIV/AIDS. Attitudes of nurses towards people living with HIV/AIDS have long been scrutinized. Studies show that some nurses have negative attitudes and are reluctant to provide care to people with HIV/AIDS, resulting in poorer quality nursing support being provided. Attitudes of nursing students towards caring for people with HIV/AIDS is thus of vital importance since they become the future practising nurses. Eight electronic data bases were searched from 1996-2008. Criteria used for study selection were: attitudes of nursing students towards caring for people with HIV/AIDS, primary research studies, published in English language in peer reviewed journals from 1996 to June 2008. Sixteen studies were identified for inclusion in this thematic review. The following themes were identified: education and knowledge of HIV/AIDS; fear of contracting HIV/AIDS; reluctance to care for people with HIV/AIDS; homophobia; and stigma associated with HIV/AIDS. There is reluctance on the part of some nursing students in specific regions of the world to provide care for people with HIV/AIDS. Educational programmes based on research evidence must play a leading role in developing strategies to help nursing students understand and overcome such attitudes.

  15. Social narratives in agenesis of the corpus callosum: linguistic analysis of the Thematic Apperception Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Anne A; Brown, Warren S; Symington, Melissa; Paul, Lynn K

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study, individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) with normal intelligence provided narratives to pictures from the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) that were limited in logical coherence and social awareness. The current study examined the linguistic content of TAT stories from 22 persons with isolated complete ACC compared to 30 IQ- and age-matched controls using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (Pennebaker et al., 2001). Compared to controls, individuals with ACC used fewer words pertaining to emotionality, cognitive processes, and social processes. They also used relatively more present tense verbs and first person pronouns. These findings suggest that callosal agenesis results in deficiencies in imagining and inferring the mental, emotional, and social functioning of others as implied by TAT pictures, and in translating this content into a narrative. In addition, ACC affects the grammatical structure of verbally produced narratives, with greater emphasis on the present tense and the first person.

  16. Off-site training of laparoscopic skills, a scoping review using a thematic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Ebbe; Kleif, Jakob; Bjerrum, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    on learning theories including proficiency-based learning, deliberate practice, and self-regulated learning. CONCLUSIONS: Methods of instructional design vary widely in off-site training of laparoscopic skills. Implementation can be facilitated by organizing courses and training curricula following sound...... in MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, Scopus, and PsychINFO, following a scoping review methodology. The included literature was analyzed iteratively using a thematic analysis approach. The study was reported in accordance with the STructured apprOach to the Reporting In healthcare education of Evidence Synthesis...... education theories such as proficiency-based learning and deliberate practice. Directed self-regulated learning has the potential to improve off-site laparoscopic skills training; however, further studies are needed to demonstrate the effect of this type of instructional design....

  17. Mechanical Preparation Showed Superior Shaping Ability than Manual Technique in Primary Molars - A Micro-Computed Tomography Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo, Lídia Regina da Costa; Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra da; Leoni, Graziela Bianchi; Mazzi-Chaves, Jardel Francisco; Carvalho, Emily Eduardo da Silva; Consolaro, Alberto; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate canal preparation in primary molars with hand files, ProTaper Next and Self-Adjusting File (SAF) by 2D and 3D micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. Canals of 24 primary molars were prepared with hand files (HF), ProTaper Next (PTN) and SAF (n=8/group). The teeth were scanned before and after root canal preparation and the pre- and postoperative micro-CT images were reconstructed. Changes in 2D (area, perimeter, roundness, minor and major ...

  18. Preparation and Comparative Bioavailability Studies of Indomethacin-Loaded Cetyl Alcohol Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vishal Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the in vitro release and to find out whether the bioavailability of a 75 mg indomethacin capsule (Microcid SR was equivalent to optimized formulation (indomethacin-loaded cetyl alcohol microspheres. Indomethacin-loaded cetyl alcohol microspheres were prepared by meltable emulsified cooling-induced technique. Surface morphology of microspheres has been evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. A single dose, randomized, complete cross over study of IM microspheres was carried out on 10 healthy male and female Albino sheep’s under fasting conditions. The plasma was separated and the concentrations of the drug were determined by HPLC-UV method. Plasma indomethacin concentrations and other pharmacokinetic parameters obtained were statistically analyzed. The SEM images revealed the spherical shape of fat microspheres, and more than 98.0% of the isolated microspheres were in the size range 12–32 μm. DSC, FTIR spectroscopy and stability studies indicated that the drug after encapsulation with fat microspheres was stable and compatible. Both formulations were found to be bioequivalent as evidenced by in vivo studies. Based on this study, it can be concluded that cetyl alcohol microspheres and Microcid SR capsule are bioequivalent in terms of the rate and extent of absorption.

  19. How people from Chinese backgrounds make sense of and respond to the experiences of mental distress: Thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, E Y W; Irvine, F; Ng, S M; Tsang, K M S

    2017-10-01

    Many Chinese people do not contact mental health services when they first develop mental health problems. It is therefore important to find out reasons for low uptake of services so that strategies can be identified to promote early intervention. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC?: Most Chinese people only come into contact with mental health services during crisis situations. Language difference, lack of knowledge of mainstream services and stigma attached to mental health problems are barriers to access and utilize mental health services. WHAT THE STUDY ADDS TO THE INTERNATIONAL EVIDENCE?: Chinese people apply both Western medication and traditional healing to manage distress caused by mental health problems. Because of the extreme stigma associated with mental health problems, Chinese people are reluctant to accept support from their own cultural groups outside their family. Family plays a major role in caring for relatives with mental health problems. Families are prepared to travel across the world in search of folk healing if not available in Western societies. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: It is important to recognize the different approaches to understanding and managing mental health problems among Chinese people, otherwise they will be dissuaded from engaging with mental health services if their beliefs are disregarded and invalidated. Services that involve Chinese speaking mental health workers can address the issue of language differences and sensitive mental health issues within the Chinese community. Introduction Late presentation and low utilization of mental health services are common among Chinese populations. An understanding of their journey towards mental health care helps to identify timely and appropriate intervention. Aim We aimed to examine how Chinese populations make sense of the experiences of mental distress, and how this understanding influences their pathways to mental health care. Method We undertook in-depth interviews

  20. A brief intervention for preparing ICU families to be proxies: A phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Alison E; Chessare, Caroline M; Coffin, Rachel K; Needham, Dale M

    2017-01-01

    Family members of critically ill patients report high levels of conflict with clinicians, have poor understanding of prognosis, struggle to make decisions, and experience substantial symptoms of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress regardless of patient survival status. Efficient interventions are needed to prepare these families to act as patient proxies. To assess a brief "patient activation" intervention designed to set expectations and prepare families of adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients to communicate effectively with the clinical team. Phase I study of acceptability and immediate side effects. 122 healthcare proxies of 111 consecutive patients with a stay of ≥24 hours in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Medical ICU (MICU), in Baltimore, Maryland. Reading aloud to proxies from a booklet (Flesch-Kincard reading grade level 3.8) designed with multidisciplinary input including from former MICU proxies. Enrolled proxies had a median age of 51 years old with 83 (68%) female, and 55 (45%) African-American. MICU mortality was 18%, and 37 patients (33%) died in hospital or were discharged to hospice. Among proxies 98% (95% CI: 94% - 100%) agreed or strongly agreed that the intervention was appropriate, 98% (95% CI: 92% - 99%) agreed or strongly agreed that it is important for families to know the information in the booklet, and 54 (44%, 95% CI 35%- 54%) agreed or strongly agreed that parts of the booklet are upsetting. Upset vs. non-upset proxies were not statistically or substantially different in terms of age, sex, education level, race, relation to the patient, or perceived decision-making authority. This patient activation intervention was acceptable and important to nearly all proxies. Frequently, the intervention was simultaneously rated as both acceptable/important and upsetting. Proxies who rated the intervention as upsetting were not identifiable based on readily available proxy or patient characteristics.

  1. The Homeopathic Preparation Neurexan® vs. Valerian for the Treatment of Insomnia: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Waldschütz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Insomnia is prevalent and complementary therapies are common, but data are lacking on the effectiveness and tolerability of preparations beyond valerian. Here we report on an open-label, prospective cohort study in 89 German centers offering both conventional and complementary therapies. Subjects received the homeopathic preparation Neurexan® or valerian for 28 days. Doses were at physicians' judgments. Sleep duration and latency were evaluated based on patients' sleep diaries over 14 days; sleep quality was evaluated at 28 ± 1 days. A total of 409 subjects were enrolled. The groups were balanced at baseline for age, sex, weight, and sleep disturbances. At day 14, both groups reported improved sleep latency and duration; latency was reduced from baseline by 37.3 ± 36.3 min with Neurexan and by 38.2 ± 38.5 min with valerian. The duration of sleep increased by 2.2 (±1.6 h in the Neurexan group and by 2.0 (±1.5 h in the valerian group. Differences between the groups in improvement on sleep duration were significantly in favor of Neurexan therapy at days 8, 12, and 14. At day 28, quality of sleep was improved in both groups with no significant differences between the treatments. Significantly more patients reported lack of daytime fatigue with Neurexan than with valerian therapies (49% vs. 32%; p < 0.05 for the comparison. For patients favorable towards a CAM-based therapy, Neurexan might be an effective and well-tolerated alternative to conventional valerian-based therapies for the treatment of mild to moderate insomnia.

  2. Sustained release donepezil loaded PLGA microspheres for injection: Preparation, in vitro and in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjia Guo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a PLGA microspheres-based donepezil (DP formulation which was expected to sustain release of DP for one week with high encapsulation efficiency (EE. DP derived from donepezil hydrochloride was encapsulated in PLGA microspheres by the O/W emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The optimized formulation which avoided the crushing of microspheres during the preparation process was characterized in terms of particle size, morphology, drug loading and EE, physical state of DP in the matrix and in vitro and in vivo release behavior. DP microspheres were prepared successfully with average diameter of 30 µm, drug loading of 15.92 ± 0.31% and EE up to 78.79 ± 2.56%. Scanning electron microscope image showed it has integrated spherical shape with no drug crystal and porous on its surface. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction results suggested DP was in amorphous state or molecularly dispersed in microspheres. The Tg of PLGA was increased with the addition of DP. The release profile in vitro was characterized with slow but continuous release that lasted for about one week and fitted well with first-order model, which suggested the diffusion governing release mechanism. After single-dose administration of DP microspheres via subcutaneous injection in rats, the plasma concentration of DP reached peak concentration at 0.50 d, and then declined gradually, but was still detectable at 15 d. A good correlation between in vitro and in vivo data was obtained. The results suggest the potential use of DP microspheres for treatment of Alzheimer's disease over long periods.

  3. Studying of the standardization principles of pharmacological activity of recombinant erythropoietin preparations

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Yakovlev; L. A. Gayderova; N. A. Alpatova; T. N. Lobanova; E. L. Postnova; E. I. Yurchikova; T. A. Batuashvili; R. A. Volkova; V. N. Podkuiko; Yu. V. Olefir

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the publications devoted to the structure, functions, mechanism of action of erythropoietin is given in the article. Erythropoietin preparations derived from recombinant DNA technology are a mixture of isoforms with different biological activity, which determine the biological properties pharmacological activity, pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of medicinal product. Erythropoietin preparations derived by using recombinant DNA technology are a mixture of isoforms with differe...

  4. Changes in corticospinal excitability and the direction of evoked movements during motor preparation: A tms study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elswijk, G.; Schot, W.D.; Stegeman, D.F.; Overeem, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Preparation of the direction of a forthcoming movement has a particularly strong influence on both reaction times and neuronal activity in the primate motor cortex. Here, we aimed to find direct neurophysiologic evidence for the preparation of movement direction in humans. We used

  5. Changes in corticospinal excitability and the direction of evoked movements during motor preparation: a TMS study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elswijk, G.A.F. van; Schot, W.D.; Stegeman, D.F.; Overeem, S.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preparation of the direction of a forthcoming movement has a particularly strong influence on both reaction times and neuronal activity in the primate motor cortex. Here, we aimed to find direct neurophysiologic evidence for the preparation of movement direction in humans. We used

  6. Preparation of polymers suitable for radiation shielding and studying its properties (polyester composites with heavy metals salts)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharita, M. H.; Al-Ajji, Z.; Yousef, S.

    2010-12-01

    Four composites were prepared in this work, based on polyester and heavy metals oxides and salts. The attenuation properties, as well as mechanical properties were studied, and the chemical stability was evaluated. It has been shown, that these composites can be used in radiation shielding for X-rays successfully, and the exact composition of these composites can be optimized according to the radiation energy to prepare the lightest possible shield. (author)

  7. Assessment of dietary habits, nutritional status and blood biochemical parameters in patients prepared for bariatric surgery: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Jastrzębska-Mierzyńska, Marta; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Hady, Hady Razak; Dadan, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Morbid obesity needs to be treated by bariatric procedures. Proper dietary preparation of patients before surgery conditions their postoperative status. Aim Assessment of dietary habits, nutritional status and biochemical parameters of the blood in patients being prepared for different bariatric procedures. Material and methods The study involved a group of 27 obese adults: 19 women (mean age: 40.4 ±13.9 years) and 8 men (mean age: 39.6 ±12.7 years) qualified for bariatric proced...

  8. Medical students' perceptions of a novel institutional incident reporting system : A thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Morris; Parakh, Dillan

    2017-10-01

    Errors in healthcare are a major patient safety issue, with incident reporting a key solution. The incident reporting system has been integrated within a new medical curriculum, encouraging medical students to take part in this key safety process. The aim of this study was to describe the system and assess how students perceived the reporting system with regards to its role in enhancing safety. Employing a thematic analysis, this study used interviews with medical students at the end of the first year. Thematic indices were developed according to the information emerging from the data. Through open, axial and then selective stages of coding, an understanding of how the system was perceived was established. Analysis of the interview specified five core themes: (1) Aims of the incident reporting system; (2) internalized cognition of the system; (3) the impact of the reporting system; (4) threshold for reporting; (5) feedback on the systems operation. Selective analysis revealed three overriding findings: lack of error awareness and error wisdom as underpinned by key theoretical constructs, student support of the principle of safety, and perceptions of a blame culture. Students did not interpret reporting as a manner to support institutional learning and safety, rather many perceived it as a tool for a blame culture. The impact reporting had on students was unexpected and may give insight into how other undergraduates and early graduates interpret such a system. Future studies should aim to produce interventions that can support a reporting culture.

  9. EPOS Thematic Core Service Anthropogenic Hazards: Implementation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlecka-Sikora, Beata; Lasocki, Stanislaw; Grasso, Jean Robert; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Styles, Peter; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Sterzel, Mariusz; Garcia, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    EPOS Thematic Core Service ANTHROPOGENIC HAZARDS (TCS AH) aims to integrate distributed research infrastructures (RI) to facilitate and stimulate research on anthropogenic hazards (AH) especially those associated with the exploration and exploitation of geo-resources. The innovative element is the uniqueness of the integrated RI which comprises two main deliverables: (1) Exceptional datasets, called "episodes", which comprehensively describe a geophysical process; induced or triggered by human technological activity, posing hazard for populations, infrastructure and the environment, (2) Problem-oriented, bespoke services uniquely designed for the discrimination and analysis of correlations between technology, geophysical response and resulting hazard. These objectives will be achieved through the Science-Industry Synergy (SIS) built by EPOS WG10, ensuring bi-directional information exchange, including unique and previously unavailable data furnished by industrial partners. The Episodes and services to be integrated have been selected using strict criteria during the EPOS PP. The data are related to a wide spectrum of inducing technologies, with seismic/aseismic deformation and production history as a minimum data set requirement and the quality of software services is confirmed and referenced in literature. Implementation of TCS AH is planned for four years and requires five major activities: (1) Strategic Activities and Governance: will define and establish the governance structure to ensure the long-term sustainability of these research infrastructures for data provision through EPOS. (2) Coordination and Interaction with the Community: will establish robust communication channels within the whole TCS AH community while supporting global EPOS communication strategy. (3) Interoperability with EPOS Integrated Core Service (ICS) and Testing Activities: will coordinate and ensure interoperability between the RIs and the ICS. Within this modality a functional e

  10. Patterns of Feedback on the Bridge to Independence: A Qualitative Thematic Analysis of NIH Mentored Career Development Award Application Critiques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatz, Anna; Dattalo, Melissa; Regner, Caitlin; Filut, Amarette; Carnes, Molly

    2016-01-01

    NIH Mentored Career Development (K) Awards bridge investigators from mentored to independent research. A smaller proportion of women than men succeed in this transition. The aim of this qualitative study was to analyze reviewers' narrative critiques of K award applications and explore thematic content of feedback provided to male and female applicants. We collected 88 critiques, 34 from 9 unfunded and 54 from 18 funded applications, from 70% (n = 26) of investigators at the University of Wisconsin-Madison with K awards funded between 2005 and 2009 on the first submission or after revision. We qualitatively analyzed text in the 5 critique sections: candidate, career development plan, research plan, mentors, and environment and institutional commitment. We explored thematic content within these sections for male and female applicants and for applicants who had received a subsequent independent research award by 2014. Themes revealed consistent areas of criticism for unfunded applications and praise for funded applications. Subtle variations in thematic content appeared for male and female applicants: For male applicants criticism was often followed by advice but for female applicants it was followed by questions about ability; praise recurrently characterized male but not female applicants' research as highly significant with optimism for future independence. Female K awardees that obtained subsequent independent awards stood out as having track records described as "outstanding." This exploratory study suggests that K award reviewer feedback, particularly for female applicants, should be investigated as a potential contributor to research persistence and success in crossing the bridge to independence.

  11. Assessing a thematic condom advertising campaign on condom use in urban Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Sohail; Beaudoin, Christopher E

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to assess communication processes involving a thematic condom advertising campaign in Pakistan in 2009. To evaluate the social marketing campaign for Touch condoms, the authors conducted a nationally representative survey of 1,606 men married to women aged 15-49 years. About 15% of urban married men were aware of Touch advertising. After controlling for a range of other variables including daily television viewership, confirmed awareness of Touch advertising was associated with a higher level of belief in the effectiveness of condoms, reduced embarrassment in negotiating condom use, reduced embarrassment in purchasing condoms, increased discussion of family planning, and increased use of condoms and other contraceptive methods. The findings have implications for the further development and dissemination of contraceptive advertising in Pakistan, as well as the broader construction of scientific knowledge on how advertising can influence contraceptive and other critical health behaviors in other contexts.

  12. Working with difference: Thematic concepts of Japanese nurses working in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healee, David; Inada, Kumiko

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the differences experienced by Japanese nurses working in New Zealand from an organizational and personal perspective, using a qualitative approach. Interview data was analyzed using a thematic method to abstract increasing levels of themes until one main theme explained the data: finding a voice. This core theme demonstrated that Japanese nurses had to learn to accommodate difference while learning to speak up. Moreover, this needed to occur through a number of cultural filters. The principal conclusion was that migrant nurses face multiple personal and organizational challenges when working in a new environment. Finding a voice is the method in which nurses learn to communicate and work within new healthcare settings. Nurses use a number of filters to manage the transition. The host country needs to recognize these differences and accommodate them through orientation modules. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Innovation, Quality and Networking in Engineering Education in Europe: the Contribution of SOCRATES THEMATIC NETWORKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borri, Claudio; Guberti, Elisa; Maffioli, Francesco

    Accreditation of the degree programmes in Engineering is surely an argument which stimulates a great interest not only in the Italian level but above all in the European perspective. It appears strategic that Europe is equipped with a system which permits to compare the degree programmes in Engineering offered by various universities in Europe also in view of a major competition in the area of higher education in the European Union, in comparison with third countries. This appears the principal basis of different actions financed by the European Commission, which have among their own objectives also the study of an accreditation system of the degree programmes in Engineering in Europe. In this article 3 SOCRATES Thematic Networks are presented, which, one after the other, starting from 1998, have been operational in the European panorama. Among their objectives there is a recurrent motive: accreditation of the degree programmes in Engineering in Europe.

  14. Thematic mapping, land use, geological structure and water resources in central Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delascuevas, N. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The images can be positioned in an absolute reference system (geographical coordinates or polar stereographic coordinates) by means of their marginal indicators. By digital analysis of LANDSAT data and geometric positioning of pixels in UTM projection, accuracy was achieved for corrected MSS information which could be used for updating maps at scale 1:200,000 or smaller. Results show that adjustment of the UTM grid was better obtained by a first order, or even second order, algorithm of geometric correction. Digital analysis of LANDSAT data from the Madrid area showed that this line of study was promising for automatic classification of data applied to thematic cartography and soils identification.

  15. A Thematic Analysis of the Motivation Behind Sexual Homicide From the Perspective of the Killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Kevin J; Beech, Anthony R

    2016-12-01

    Using thematic analysis, this study explores the motivation to commit sexual homicide from the perspective of the perpetrator. In the process, it revisits motivational models and offender typologies that have been put forward to explain such offenses. From the homicide narratives of eight sexual homicide offenders detained in a high security hospital in the United Kingdom, four themes were found which appeared significant in terms of understanding the offenses committed. These themes were labeled as follows: (a) avenging sexual abuse, (b) events leading to a catathymic reaction, (c) homicidal impulse, and (d) emotional loneliness. Although these findings are not inconsistent with previous research, we argue that the current literature fails to capture the complexity associated with these offenses. We also argue that the context or situation in which sexual homicide occurs is a crucial feature of the offense, and one which has not been adequately taken into account by motivational models. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Addictive buying: causes, processes, and symbolic meanings. Thematic analysis of a buying addict's diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ureta, Irene

    2007-11-01

    The aims of this study were twofold. On the one hand, to reach an understanding of, and to illustrate the experience of addictive buying and, on the other, to throw some light on the controversial subject of addicts' personal responsibility for their behavior. With these aims, a thematic analysis of an extensive diary written by a compulsive buyer is presented. Four themes emerge from the analysis: the defining characteristics of addiction to buying that determine the boundary separating it from other forms of impulsive or careless buying; several causal factors; the role that money and material objects play in family relationships and friendships through the symbolic meanings they adopt; and the relationship of personal values with impulsiveness and self-control. In view of the results, the moral model of addiction to buying is discussed, and an explanatory model of the ambivalence that is characteristic of addiction to buying is proposed, based on a personal hierarchy of values.

  17. Women's experiences of mammography: A thematic evaluation of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Sarah; Reeves, Pauline J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse relevant literature to understand women's experiences of mammography-both screening and symptomatic. Method: A structured literature search was performed to locate relevant research. Research articles published between 2002 and 2013 were identified in CINAHL, MEDLINE and Science Direct. The quality of the research was assessed using an appropriate critical appraisal tool to enable a systematic and consistent assessment. Results: Qualitative thematic analysis of the literature identified five themes: fear, pain and discomfort, waiting, the physical environment and staff interactions. Whilst it is accepted that women's experiences are unique and diverse, literature suggested that these themes do influence women's experiences. Conclusion: Women's experiences of mammography were not limited to the examinations alone but encompassed the entire encounter. The themes identified influenced women's experiences and their perception of care

  18. Data-driven Methods for the Study of Food Perception, Preparation, Consumption, and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole G. Mouritsen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of food consumption, in the broadest sense, intersects with a wide range of academic disciplines. The perception of food involves molecular biology, chemistry, soft-matter physics, neuroscience, psychology, physiology, and even machine learning. Our choices and preparation of food are of interest to anthropologists, social scientists, historians, philosophers, and linguists. The advent of information technology has enabled the accumulation and analysis of large amounts of food-related data, from the interactions of biomolecules and the chemical properties of aroma compounds to online recipes and food-related social media postings. In this perspective article, we outline several areas in which the availability and analysis of data can inform us about general principles that may underlie the perception of food and the diversity of culinary practice. One of these areas is the study of umami taste through a combination of chemical analysis and quantitative sensory evaluation for a wide range of fermented products. Another is the mapping of global culinary diversity by mining online recipes and the analysis of culinary habits recorded by individuals on social media. A third area is the study of the properties of flavor compounds and the application of these insights in the context of high-end gastronomy. These examples illustrate that large-scale data analysis is already transforming our understanding of food perception and consumption, and that it is likely to fundamentally influence our food choices and habits in the future.

  19. Monolith Chromatography as Sample Preparation Step in Virome Studies of Water Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Kutnjak, Denis; Rački, Nejc; Rupar, Matevž; Ravnikar, Maja

    2018-01-01

    Viruses exist in aquatic media and many of them use this media as transmission route. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have opened new doors in virus research, allowing also to reveal a hidden diversity of viral species in aquatic environments. Not surprisingly, many of the newly discovered viruses are found in environmental fresh and marine waters. One of the problems in virome research can be the low amount of viral nucleic acids present in the sample in contrast to the background ones (host, eukaryotic, prokaryotic, environmental). Therefore, virus enrichment prior to NGS is necessary in many cases. In water samples, an added problem resides in the low concentration of viruses typically present in aquatic media. Different concentration strategies have been used to overcome such limitations. CIM monoliths are a new generation of chromatographic supports that due to their particular structural characteristics are very efficient in concentration and purification of viruses. In this chapter, we describe the use of CIM monolithic chromatography for sample preparation step in NGS studies targeting viruses in fresh or marine water. The step-by-step protocol will include a case study where CIM concentration was used to study the virome of a wastewater sample using NGS.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Cerium (III Doped Captopril Nanoparticles and Study of their Photoluminescence Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghamami Shahriar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research Ce3+ doped Captopril nanoparticles (Ce3+ doped CAP-NP were prepared by a cold welding process and have been studied. Captopril may be applied in the treatment of hypertension and some types of congestive heart failure and for preventing kidney failure due to high blood pressure and diabetes. CAP-NP was synthesized by a cold welding process. The cerium nitrate was added at a ratio of 10% and the optical properties have been studied by photoluminescence (PL. The synthesized compounds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The size of CAP-NP was calculated by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The size of CAP-NP was in the range of 50 nm. Morphology of surface of synthesized nanoparticles was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Finally the luminescence properties of undoped and doped CAP-NP were compared. PL spectra from undoped CAP-NP show a strong pack in the range of 546 nm after doped cerium ion into the captopril appeared two bands at 680 and 357 nm, which is ascribed to the well-known 5d–4f emission band of the cerium.

  1. Sample preparation and study by electronic diffraction of oxidations and fluorinations of some metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auguin, B.

    1963-06-01

    After having recalled that electron diffraction is particularly adapted to the study of thin films and surface layers, notably those forming during corrosions, and recalled some characteristics of this technique (wavelength, interactions with substances, parasite reactions, observation by transmission or reflection, obtained diagrams for polycrystalline and mono-crystalline substances), the author describes how samples are prepared in the case of examinations performed by transmission and by reflection. As fluorination agents are used for the separation of uranium 235 and 238, the second part discusses some works related to the fluorination of metals and alloys, some of them being used in these separation installations. Chlorine trifluoride is generally used and materials are generally oxidised. Thus, the author reports the study of the action of ClF 3 on different oxides. Oxidations of iron, nickel and Monel are addressed, as well as the behaviour of stainless steel. The study of fluorinations of metals (nickel, chromium, copper), alloys (stainless steel, Monel) and oxides is reported. The author finally addresses treatments performed after fluorinations: vacuum heating, action of humid air

  2. A preparation for studying electrical stimulation of the retina in vivo in rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig-Silva, M. S.; Hathcock, C. D.; Hetling, J. R.

    2005-03-01

    A remaining challenge to the development of electronic prostheses for vision is improving the effectiveness of retinal stimulation. Electrode design and stimulus parameters need to be optimized such that the neural output from the retina conveys information to the mind's eye that aids the patient in interpreting his or her environment. This optimization will require a detailed understanding of the response of the retina to electrical stimulation. The identity and response characteristics of the cellular targets of stimulation need to be defined and evaluated. Described here is an in vivo preparation for studying electrical stimulation of the retina in rat at the cellular level. The use of rat makes available a number of well-described models of retinal disease that motivate prosthesis development. Artificial stimulation can be investigated by adapting techniques traditionally employed to study the response of the retina to photic stimuli, such as recording at the cornea, single-cell recording, and pharmacological dissection of the response. Pilot studies include amplitude-intensity response data for subretinal and transretinal stimulation paradigms recorded in wild-type rats and a transgenic rat model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. The ability to record single-unit ganglion cell activity in vivo is also demonstrated.

  3. Efficacy and Stability studies of microbial folate fortified fruit juices prepared using probiotic microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep, S; Ojha, S; Kundu, S

    2017-07-31

    Folate, natural form of water soluble vitamin folic acid, is significant for humans as involved in most important metabolic reactions i.e. nucleotide synthesis and amino acid inter conversions. Thus its deficiency causes neural tube defects in newborns and cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. Humans cannot synthesize folate de novo so consumption through diet is essential. Natural food sources, supplements and fortified food products are the choices available to complete the Daily recommended intake. However microbial fortification using probiotics recently gained wide attention due to dual advantage of natural food matrix with enhanced folate content along with the probiotics benefits. Current study was focused on the microbial fortification of fruit juices and their efficacy and stability studies. Freshly filtered orange and tomato juice was prepared and inoculated with Streptococcus thermophilus NCIM 2904. Incubation was done at 40°C and samples were collected at different time interval. Folate extraction was done using human plasma and content was measured by microbiological assay using Lactobacillus casei NCIM No. 2364. Efficacy and stability studies were carried out to ensure the quality of juices to be consumed in terms of folate content, viable cell count and pH after 4 weeks of storage at low temperature. Positive results were observed as folate content was quite stable whereas viable cell count was also found to be significant till some time without adding any preservatives. The results indicated that fortified fruit juices could be used as probiotic beverages with enhanced folate content.

  4. International clinical placements for Australian undergraduate nursing students: A systematic thematic synthesis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Caroline A; Fetherston, Catherine M; Medigovich, Kristina

    2015-10-01

    International clinical placements provide undergraduate nursing students with the opportunity to experience or practice nursing care in diverse countries, settings, and cultures. This systematic review aims to ascertain the current knowledge on international clinical placements offered by undergraduate nursing programs in Australia. It seeks to explore three questions: (1) How have previous experiences of nursing students' international clinical placements been described? (2) How have participants and stakeholders determined if the placement has been successful? And (3) What benefits or challenges have been identified by stakeholders as a result of participating in international clinical placements? A systematic thematic synthesis was undertaken. A search of electronic databases including CINAHL, Proquest Central, Scopus, PubMed, and Health Collection was undertaken between September and October 2014. Key terms including 'international clinical placement', 'study abroad', 'international exchange', 'nursing', and 'Australia' were used to identify articles that appeared in peer-reviewed English language journals and that explored international clinical placements offered to undergraduate nursing students by Australian universities. Eight studies were identified that meet the inclusion criteria, and through thematic analysis, five key themes were identified including developing cultural awareness and competence, providing a global perspective on health care, translation of theory to practice, growing personally through reflection, and overcoming apprehension to successfully meet the challenge. A comparison search of literature from Canada and the United Kingdom revealed that similar themes occurred internationally. Although personal successes were identified by students undertaking international clinical placement, further research is required to identify all stakeholder experiences including those of the educators, the educational institutions, and travel providers

  5. How Does Homelessness Affect Parenting Behaviour? A Systematic Critical Review and Thematic Synthesis of Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Caroline; McGowan, John; Michelson, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    The adverse social and physical conditions of homelessness pose significant developmental risks for children, which may be compounded or buffered by the quality of parenting behaviour they are exposed to. There is currently a limited understanding of how parents approach their care-giving role and responsibilities while adjusting to the experience of homelessness. Advancing knowledge in this area is essential for developing acceptable, appropriate and effective interventions to support highly marginalised and vulnerable homeless families. This review explored homeless parents' perceptions of how homelessness affects their parenting behaviour and identified adaptive strategies that parents may use to mitigate the potentially negative impacts of homelessness on the quality of care-giving. A systematic search of four electronic databases (ASSIA, PsycINFO, Web of Science and MEDLINE) identified 13 published qualitative studies, all originating from the USA, which explored parenting behaviour in homeless contexts. The studies were critically appraised using the CASP qualitative assessment tool. Thematic synthesis identified the following determinants of parenting behaviour; negative self-concept in the parental role, parental mental health, material resources, challenges to autonomy and self-efficacy, daily hassles, physical environment and service context, stigma, child characteristics and lack of support. These were synthesised thematically using existing models of parenting determinants and positive parenting. Findings indicate substantive impacts of homelessness on parental mental health, parenting authority, material resources, parenting environments and social support. Parents developed a number of adaptive methods to negotiate the challenges of homeless parenting such as maintaining a positive mindset, cherishing the parental role and developing practical strategies. We conclude with recommendations that service providers should tailor parenting support to

  6. Examination of China's performance and thematic evolution in quantum cryptography research using quantitative and computational techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olijnyk, Nicholas V

    2018-01-01

    This study performed two phases of analysis to shed light on the performance and thematic evolution of China's quantum cryptography (QC) research. First, large-scale research publication metadata derived from QC research published from 2001-2017 was used to examine the research performance of China relative to that of global peers using established quantitative and qualitative measures. Second, this study identified the thematic evolution of China's QC research using co-word cluster network analysis, a computational science mapping technique. The results from the first phase indicate that over the past 17 years, China's performance has evolved dramatically, placing it in a leading position. Among the most significant findings is the exponential rate at which all of China's performance indicators (i.e., Publication Frequency, citation score, H-index) are growing. China's H-index (a normalized indicator) has surpassed all other countries' over the last several years. The second phase of analysis shows how China's main research focus has shifted among several QC themes, including quantum-key-distribution, photon-optical communication, network protocols, and quantum entanglement with an emphasis on applied research. Several themes were observed across time periods (e.g., photons, quantum-key-distribution, secret-messages, quantum-optics, quantum-signatures); some themes disappeared over time (e.g., computer-networks, attack-strategies, bell-state, polarization-state), while others emerged more recently (e.g., quantum-entanglement, decoy-state, unitary-operation). Findings from the first phase of analysis provide empirical evidence that China has emerged as the global driving force in QC. Considering China is the premier driving force in global QC research, findings from the second phase of analysis provide an understanding of China's QC research themes, which can provide clarity into how QC technologies might take shape. QC and science and technology policy researchers

  7. Examination of China's performance and thematic evolution in quantum cryptography research using quantitative and computational techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas V Olijnyk

    Full Text Available This study performed two phases of analysis to shed light on the performance and thematic evolution of China's quantum cryptography (QC research. First, large-scale research publication metadata derived from QC research published from 2001-2017 was used to examine the research performance of China relative to that of global peers using established quantitative and qualitative measures. Second, this study identified the thematic evolution of China's QC research using co-word cluster network analysis, a computational science mapping technique. The results from the first phase indicate that over the past 17 years, China's performance has evolved dramatically, placing it in a leading position. Among the most significant findings is the exponential rate at which all of China's performance indicators (i.e., Publication Frequency, citation score, H-index are growing. China's H-index (a normalized indicator has surpassed all other countries' over the last several years. The second phase of analysis shows how China's main research focus has shifted among several QC themes, including quantum-key-distribution, photon-optical communication, network protocols, and quantum entanglement with an emphasis on applied research. Several themes were observed across time periods (e.g., photons, quantum-key-distribution, secret-messages, quantum-optics, quantum-signatures; some themes disappeared over time (e.g., computer-networks, attack-strategies, bell-state, polarization-state, while others emerged more recently (e.g., quantum-entanglement, decoy-state, unitary-operation. Findings from the first phase of analysis provide empirical evidence that China has emerged as the global driving force in QC. Considering China is the premier driving force in global QC research, findings from the second phase of analysis provide an understanding of China's QC research themes, which can provide clarity into how QC technologies might take shape. QC and science and technology

  8. Features of Computer-Based Decision Aids: Systematic Review, Thematic Synthesis, and Meta-Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrowatka, Ania; Krömker, Dörthe; Meguerditchian, Ari N; Tamblyn, Robyn

    2016-01-26

    Patient information and education, such as decision aids, are gradually moving toward online, computer-based environments. Considerable research has been conducted to guide content and presentation of decision aids. However, given the relatively new shift to computer-based support, little attention has been given to how multimedia and interactivity can improve upon paper-based decision aids. The first objective of this review was to summarize published literature into a proposed classification of features that have been integrated into computer-based decision aids. Building on this classification, the second objective was to assess whether integration of specific features was associated with higher-quality decision making. Relevant studies were located by searching MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL databases. The review identified studies that evaluated computer-based decision aids for adults faced with preference-sensitive medical decisions and reported quality of decision-making outcomes. A thematic synthesis was conducted to develop the classification of features. Subsequently, meta-analyses were conducted based on standardized mean differences (SMD) from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported knowledge or decisional conflict. Further subgroup analyses compared pooled SMDs for decision aids that incorporated a specific feature to other computer-based decision aids that did not incorporate the feature, to assess whether specific features improved quality of decision making. Of 3541 unique publications, 58 studies met the target criteria and were included in the thematic synthesis. The synthesis identified six features: content control, tailoring, patient narratives, explicit values clarification, feedback, and social support. A subset of 26 RCTs from the thematic synthesis was used to conduct the meta-analyses. As expected, computer-based decision aids performed better than usual care or alternative aids; however, some features performed better than

  9. STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF PREVIOUS ORAL APPLICATION OF DIPHTHERIA ANTIGENIC PREPARATIONS ON RABBIT ALLERGIC REACTION FORMING AFTER SKIN TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babych YeM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It’s studied an influence of previous oral application of diphtheria antigenic preparations on allergic inflammation forming after skin test. It’s used destroyed by ultrasonic microbe cells C.diphtheriae var. gravis tox+ massachusets, free from destroyed cells by the use of centrifugation supernatant and refined concentrated diphteria toxoid. Experimental rabbits are fed to 3,5 ml of one of antigenic preparations (the total protein dose is 33,6 mg, control ones are fed to saline. In a week all animals were injected intracutaneously 0,2 ml each of corresponding antigenic preparation. The findings testify to decreasing manifestation tendency of rabbit skin reactions on antigenic preparations.

  10. Tweet if you want to be sustainable: a thematic analysis of a Twitter chat to discuss sustainability in nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Janet; Grose, Jane; Nelmes, Pam; Parra, Gema; Linares, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    To explore the concept of sustainability in nursing using social media as a vehicle for discussion on the topic. There is a need for an increased awareness among nurses of the issues that are crucial for the healthcare sector to prepare for climate change and contribute to sustainable development. However, topics about sustainability and climate change are not a requirement of nursing curricula in Europe; social media provides an opportunity to raise issues and promote discussion. A thematic analysis of a Twitter discussion. A Twitter discussion session hosted by @WeNurses took place on 24 March 2015 over 1 hour. Data were gathered via this online discussion hosted on Twitter, a social media platform. Following the discussion a thematic analysis of the posted Tweets was conducted. One hundred and nineteen people posted nine hundred and ninety six Tweets, a reach of 3,306,368. Tweets broadly followed the questions posted by the team. Several threads related to the sustainable use of healthcare resources and the need to reduce waste was evident. A Word Cloud of the Tweets highlighted prominent words in the discussion: sustainability, nursing/nurses, curriculum, important, waste, practice, resources, student, plastic, health, gloves. Social media is an effective way of engaging nurses and students in a discussion on challenging issues. Sustainability appears to be important for nurses, with a particular emphasis on resource use and the importance of sustainability topics in nurse education. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Comparison of different procedures to prepare platelet-rich plasma for studies of platelet aggregation by light transmission aggregometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femia, Eti Alessandra; Pugliano, Mariateresa; Podda, Gianmarco; Cattaneo, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Light transmission aggregometry (LTA), the gold standard for the study of patients with defects of platelet function, is a poorly standardized technique. The guidelines that have been produced so far are largely based on consensus of experts, due to the absence of studies directly comparing different procedures. Therefore, ad hoc studies are needed to gather scientific evidence on how to choose the most appropriate procedures for LTA measurement. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the most appropriate conditions for preparing samples of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for studies of platelet aggregation by LTA. Citrate-anticoagulated blood from 32 individuals was centrifuged at 150, 200, 250 or 300×g at room temperature for 10 min. Red blood cells contamination was highest in PRP prepared at 150×g; mean platelet volume (MPV) was lowest in PRP prepared at 300×g. The extent of platelet aggregation measured by LTA was lower and more variable in PRP prepared at 300×g. Therefore, centrifugation of blood at 200×g or 250×g for 10 min appears to be the best condition for preparing PRP for LTA studies.

  12. Preparation and Tribological Study of Biodegradable Lubrication Films on Si Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chen Shi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for preparing eco-biodegradable lubricant based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC via hydration process is demonstrated. The smooth and homogeneous HPMC coating has a uniform thickness (~35 μm. It has been demonstrated that the preparation parameters play a critical role in controlling the lubricating behavior of the coating; in addition, excess HPMC and water concentration suppress the tribology properties. Nevertheless, a remarkable friction-reduction and anti-wear performance has been obtained. Impressively, the preparation parameter of 5% HPMC + 30 mL water significantly improves lubricant performance and durability. A simple approach for the water-degradability evaluation of HPMC is proposed.

  13. A case study of illicit preparation of antirheumatic analgesic with phenylbutazone as active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuan, C E; Huat, L B

    1989-06-01

    The abuse of phenylbutazone among rheumatoid arthritis patients has recently become a subject of interest. Unscrupulous manufacturers take advantage of the miraculous analgesic property of phenylbutazone and deliberately add this toxic drug in their preparations without declaring its presence on the label. In a recent survey, many such illicit preparations were seized from Chinese medical halls in Johor and sent to the Department of Chemistry, Johor Bahru for analysis. Here a Gas Chromatograph Mass Selective Detector (GC-MSD) method was developed for the determination of phenylbutazone in illicit traditional preparations.

  14. Preparation and Tribological Study of Biodegradable Lubrication Films on Si Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shih-Chen; Huang, Teng-Feng; Wu, Jhen-Yu

    2015-04-14

    A novel method for preparing eco-biodegradable lubricant based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) via hydration process is demonstrated. The smooth and homogeneous HPMC coating has a uniform thickness (~35 μm). It has been demonstrated that the preparation parameters play a critical role in controlling the lubricating behavior of the coating; in addition, excess HPMC and water concentration suppress the tribology properties. Nevertheless, a remarkable friction-reduction and anti-wear performance has been obtained. Impressively, the preparation parameter of 5% HPMC + 30 mL water significantly improves lubricant performance and durability. A simple approach for the water-degradability evaluation of HPMC is proposed.

  15. A Plan-Do-Study-Act Approach to Improving Bowel Preparation Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderwood, Audrey H; Mahoney, Elaine M; Jacobson, Brian C

    Up to 20% of patients presenting for colonoscopy have inadequate bowel cleanliness. In this study, the Plan-Do-Study-Act quality improvement process was used to improve bowel cleanliness among outpatients undergoing screening colonoscopy at Boston Medical Center. Rates of inadequate bowel cleanliness were assessed at baseline (April 2010 to September 2012), during several rapid-cycle experiments (October 2012 to September 2013), and through an observation phase (October 2013 to September 2015). The baseline rate of inadequate cleanliness was 9% with a target of 5%. Gap analysis identified 3 areas amenable to specific interventions: contacting patients, commitment to the procedure, and complexity and variation in instructions. Rates of inadequate cleanliness decreased to 4% at the end of the last intervention, but began rising for new reasons. Standardizing instructions and the use of navigators improved preparation quality. Bowel cleanliness is the end result of a multistep process with areas for improvement at many levels. Long-term monitoring is required to ensure ongoing success.

  16. Exploring perceptions of instructors about childbirth preparation training courses: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otogara, Marzieh; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Poorolajal, Jalal; Radnia, Nahid; Akrami, Forouzan; Bagheri, Fahimeh

    2017-04-01

    Childbirth preparation training courses on maternal and neonatal health increase awareness, and capability of pregnant women in overcoming fear and anxiety and managing labor pains. To identify the affecting factors and barriers of these courses from the perspective of their instructors. This qualitative study of the content analysis type, has been conducted on 16 certified teachers of the training courses of the Hamadan city in 2015. Data were collected by semi-structured in-depth interviews and were then analyzed by using MAXQDA10 application. Participants' experiences are indicated on three main themes including the objectives of the course, facilitators and barriers. The main objectives of the course were reported as to improve maternal and newborn health, promote natural childbirth and preparedness for parenting and breastfeeding. The main facilitators of the successful implementation include observing educational standards, strengthening the communication and relationship between mothers and staff, mobilization, and the role of instructor. The major barriers are reported as inadequate support from management system, insufficient intra-sector collaboration, poor attitude of obstetricians and physicians, inadequate access, theory-practice gap and not intended to labor naturally. The results of our study show that multiple factors are involved in the participation of pregnant women in antenatal classes. Promoting natural childbirth requires intra-sector and inter-sectoral collaboration, as well as the community participation.

  17. Preparation and properties studies of UV-curable silicone modified epoxy resin composite system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhouhui; Cui, Aiyong; Zhao, Peizhong; Wei, Huakai; Hu, Fangyou

    2018-01-01

    Modified epoxy suitable for ultraviolet (UV) curing is prepared by using organic silicon toughening. The curing kinetics of the composite are studied by dielectric analysis (DEA), and the two-phase compatibility of the composite is studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tensile properties, heat resistance, and humidity resistance of the cured product are explored by changing the composition ratio of the silicone and the epoxy resin. SEM of silicone/epoxy resin shows that the degree of cross-linking of the composites decreases with an increase of silicone resin content. Differential thermal analysis indicates that the glass transition temperature and the thermal stability of the composites decrease gradually with an increase of silicone resin content. The thermal degradation rate in the high temperature region, however, first decreases and then increases. In general, after adding just 10%-15% of the silicone resin and exposing to light for 15 min, the composite can still achieve a better curing effect. Under such conditions, the heat resistance of the cured product decreases a little. The tensile strength is kept constant so that elongation at breakage is apparently improved. The change rate after immersion in distilled water at 60°C for seven days is small, which shows excellent humidity resistance.

  18. A study on preparation and mechanical properties of UHMWPE/nylon composite covered yarn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wei-Hua; Yeh, Jen-Taut; Chou, Wen-Li; Shu, Yao-Chi

    2009-07-01

    The study is describing Nylon yarn, though with low weight (specific weight 1.14), good elongation and high strength (4.5~9.5 g/d). Through the combination of irregular section long staple fiber to reach the core yarn, spun from Nylon fiber and long filament fiber, not only has the advantages of Nylon product but also has it can be used for making army-bag which can enhance the abrasion resistance, low weight and coving yarn that has doubled yarn effect from yarn surface consisting of Nylon fiber and long filament fiber. We used a Hamel's Elasto Twister (hollow-spindle machine) to prepare the yarn samples for our study. During spinning, the spindle speed was kept the same, while yarn through put speed was varied to obtain different wrap twists (700, 800, 900, 1000 T/M). The wrapping yarn is Nylon yarn with different count (40, 70D) and core yarn is ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) filament with 375 deniers, respectively. The results revealed the covered yarn have good physical properties and will be good performance in army-bag and army uniform. Keywords: Nylon, abrasion resistance, UHMWPE, physical properties

  19. Identification of components of fibroadenoma in cytology preparations using texture analysis: a morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Gupta, R

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the utility of image analysis using textural parameters obtained from a co-occurrence matrix in differentiating the three components of fibroadenoma of the breast, in fine needle aspirate smears. Sixty cases of histologically proven fibroadenoma were included in this study. Of these, 40 cases were used as a training set and 20 cases were taken as a test set for the discriminant analysis. Digital images were acquired from cytological preparations of all the cases and three components of fibroadenoma (namely, monolayered cell clusters, stromal fragments and background with bare nuclei) were selected for image analysis. A co-occurrence matrix was generated and a texture parameter vector (sum mean, energy, entropy, contrast, cluster tendency and homogeneity) was calculated for each pixel. The percentage of pixels correctly classified to a component of fibroadenoma on discriminant analysis was noted. The textural parameters, when considered in isolation, showed considerable overlap in their values of the three cytological components of fibroadenoma. However, the stepwise discriminant analysis revealed that all six textural parameters contributed significantly to the discriminant functions. Discriminant analysis using all the six parameters showed that the numbers of pixels correctly classified in training and tests sets were 96.7% and 93.0%, respectively. Textural analysis using a co-occurrence matrix appears to be useful in differentiating the three cytological components of fibroadenoma. These results could further be utilized in developing algorithms for image segmentation and automated diagnosis, but need to be confirmed in further studies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Neutron radiography for the study of water uptake in painting canvases and preparation layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boon, J.J.; Hendrickx, R.; Ferreira, E.S.B.; Eijkel, G.; Cerjak, I.; Kaestner, A.

    2015-01-01

    Easel paintings on canvas are subjected to alteration mechanisms triggered or accelerated by moisture. For the study of the spatial distribution and kinetics of such interactions, a moisture exposure chamber was designed and built to perform neutron radiography experiments. Multilayered sized and primed canvas samples were prepared for time-resolved experiments in the ICON cold neutron beamline. The first results show that the set-up gives a good contrast and sufficient resolution to visualise the water uptake in the layers of canvas, size and priming. The results allow, for the first time, real-time visualisation of the interaction of water vapour with such layered systems. This offers important new opportunities for relevant, spatially and time-resolved material behaviour studies and opens the way towards numerical modelling of the process. These first results show that cellulose fibres and glue sizing have a much stronger water uptake than the chalk-glue ground. Additionally, it shows that the uptake rate is not uniform throughout the thickness of the sized canvas. With prolonged moisture exposure, a higher amount of water is accumulating at the lower edge of the canvas weave suggesting a decrease in permeability in the sized canvas with increased water content. (orig.)

  1. Neutron radiography for the study of water uptake in painting canvases and preparation layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boon, J.J. [Swiss Institute for Art Research (SIK-ISEA), Zurich (Switzerland); FOM Institute AMOLF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hendrickx, R.; Ferreira, E.S.B. [Swiss Institute for Art Research (SIK-ISEA), Zurich (Switzerland); Eijkel, G.; Cerjak, I. [FOM Institute AMOLF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaestner, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Neutron Imaging and Activation Group, Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    Easel paintings on canvas are subjected to alteration mechanisms triggered or accelerated by moisture. For the study of the spatial distribution and kinetics of such interactions, a moisture exposure chamber was designed and built to perform neutron radiography experiments. Multilayered sized and primed canvas samples were prepared for time-resolved experiments in the ICON cold neutron beamline. The first results show that the set-up gives a good contrast and sufficient resolution to visualise the water uptake in the layers of canvas, size and priming. The results allow, for the first time, real-time visualisation of the interaction of water vapour with such layered systems. This offers important new opportunities for relevant, spatially and time-resolved material behaviour studies and opens the way towards numerical modelling of the process. These first results show that cellulose fibres and glue sizing have a much stronger water uptake than the chalk-glue ground. Additionally, it shows that the uptake rate is not uniform throughout the thickness of the sized canvas. With prolonged moisture exposure, a higher amount of water is accumulating at the lower edge of the canvas weave suggesting a decrease in permeability in the sized canvas with increased water content. (orig.)

  2. The preparation of Zr-deuteride and phase stability studies of the Zr-D system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimaitiyili, T.; Steuwer, A.; Bjerkén, C.; Blomqvist, J.; Hoelzel, M.; Ion, J. C.; Zanellato, O.

    2017-03-01

    Deuteride phases in the zirconium-deuterium system in the temperature range 25-286 °C have been studied in-situ by high resolution neutron diffraction. The study primarily focused on observations of δ→γ transformation at 180 °C, and the peritectoid reaction α + δ ↔ γ at 255 °C in commercial grade Zr powder that was deuterated to a deuterium/Zr ratio of one to one. A detailed description of the zirconium deuteride preparation route by high temperature gas loading is also described. The lattice parameters of α-Zr, δ-ZrDx and ε-ZrDx were determined by whole pattern crystal structure analysis, using Rietveld and Pawley refinements, and are in good agreement with values reported in the literature. The controversial γ-hydride phase was observed both in-situ and ex-situ in deuterated Zr powder after a heat treatment at 286 °C and slow cooling.

  3. Neutron radiography for the study of water uptake in painting canvases and preparation layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, J. J.; Hendrickx, R.; Eijkel, G.; Cerjak, I.; Kaestner, A.; Ferreira, E. S. B.

    2015-11-01

    Easel paintings on canvas are subjected to alteration mechanisms triggered or accelerated by moisture. For the study of the spatial distribution and kinetics of such interactions, a moisture exposure chamber was designed and built to perform neutron radiography experiments. Multilayered sized and primed canvas samples were prepared for time-resolved experiments in the ICON cold neutron beamline. The first results show that the set-up gives a good contrast and sufficient resolution to visualise the water uptake in the layers of canvas, size and priming. The results allow, for the first time, real-time visualisation of the interaction of water vapour with such layered systems. This offers important new opportunities for relevant, spatially and time-resolved material behaviour studies and opens the way towards numerical modelling of the process. These first results show that cellulose fibres and glue sizing have a much stronger water uptake than the chalk-glue ground. Additionally, it shows that the uptake rate is not uniform throughout the thickness of the sized canvas. With prolonged moisture exposure, a higher amount of water is accumulating at the lower edge of the canvas weave suggesting a decrease in permeability in the sized canvas with increased water content.

  4. Comprehensive Adsorption Studies of Doxycycline and Ciprofloxacin Antibiotics by Biochars Prepared at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhi-wei; Tan, Xiao-fei; Liu, Yun-guo; Tian, Si-rong; Zeng, Guang-ming; Jiang, Lu-hua; Liu, Shao-bo; Li, Jiang; Liu, Ni; Yin, Zhi-hong

    2018-01-01

    This paper comparatively investigated the removal efficiency and mechanisms of rice straw biochars prepared under three pyrolytic temperatures for two kinds of tetracycline and quinolone antibiotics (doxycycline and ciprofloxacin). The influencing factors of antibiotic adsorption (including biochar dosage, pH, background electrolytes, humic acid, initial antibiotics concentration, contact time, and temperature) were comprehensively studied. The results suggest that biochars produced at high-temperature [i.e., 700°C (BC700)], have higher adsorption capacity for the two antibiotics than low-temperature (i.e., 300–500°C) biochars (BC300 and BC500). Higher surface area gives rise to greater volume of micropores and mesopores, and higher graphitic surfaces of the BC700 contributed to its higher functionality. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be in the following order: DOX > CIP. The π-π EDA interaction and hydrogen bonding might be the predominant adsorption mechanisms. Findings in this study highlight the important roles of high-temperature biochars in controlling the contamination of tetracycline and quinolone antibiotics in the environment. PMID:29637067

  5. Influence of perception of colorectal cancer risk and patient bowel preparation behaviors: a study in minority populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaduputi V

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vinaya Gaduputi, Chaitanya Chandrala, Hassan Tariq, Sailaja Sakam, Anil Dev, Sridhar Chilimuri Bronx Lebanon Hospital Center, Department of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY, USA Background: Large disparities exist in the utilization rates of screening modalities for colorectal cancer (CRC in different socioeconomic areas. In this study, we evaluated whether the quality of bowel preparation differed significantly among populations with a high risk of CRC compared with that among the general population after matching for potential confounding factors.Methods: Hispanic and African American patients who underwent routine screening or surveillance colonoscopies in an outpatient setting between 2003 and 2013 were included in this retrospective study. Patients who underwent colonoscopies for emergent indications and repeat routine screening colonoscopies because of prior history of inadequate bowel preparation were excluded from this study. The patients were divided into three groups: patients having an average risk of being diagnosed with CRC (group 1; patients having a high risk of being diagnosed with CRC because of a personal history of adenomatous polyps (group 2; and patients having a high risk of being diagnosed with CRC because of a family history of CRC in first-degree relatives (group 3. All the patients were given preprocedural counseling and written instructions for bowel preparation. Data on demographic information, method of bowel preparation, quality of bowel preparation, comorbidities, and prescription medications were collected.Results: In all, 834 patients had a "high-risk for CRC" surveillance colonoscopy in view of their personal history of adenomatous polyps and were included in group 2. In total, 250 patients had a "high-risk for CRC" screening colonoscopy in view of their family history of CRC in first-degree relatives and were included in group 3. Further, 1,000 patients were selected to serve as controls (after matching for age

  6. Adsorption studies of methylene blue and phenol onto vetiver roots activated carbon prepared by chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenor, Sandro; Carene, Betty; Emmanuel, Evens; Lambert, Jacques; Ehrhardt, Jean-Jacques; Gaspard, Sarra

    2009-06-15

    Vetiver roots have been utilized for the preparation of activated carbon (AC) by chemical activation with different impregnation ratios of phosphoric acid, X(P) (gH(3)PO(4)/g precursor): 0.5:1; 1:1 and 1.5:1. Textural characterization, determined by nitrogen adsorption at 77K shows that mixed microporous and mesoporous structures activated carbons (ACs) with high surface area (>1000 m(2)/g) and high pore volume (up to 1.19 cm(3)/g) can be obtained. The surface chemical properties of these ACs were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Boehm titration. Their textural and chemical characteristics were compared to those of an AC sample obtained by steam activation of vetiver roots. Classical molecules used for characterizing liquid phase adsorption, phenol and methylene blue (MB), were used. Adsorption kinetics of MB and phenol have been studied using commonly used kinetic models, i.e., the pseudo-first-order model, the pseudo-second-order model, the intraparticle diffusion model and as well the fractal, BWS (Brouers, Weron and Sotolongo) kinetic equation. The correlation coefficients (R(2)) and the normalized standard deviation Deltaq (%) were determined showing globally, that the recently derived fractal kinetic equation could best describe the adsorption kinetics for the adsorbates tested here, indicating a complex adsorption mechanism. The experimental adsorption isotherms of these molecules on the activated carbon were as well analysed using four isotherms: the classical Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson equations, but as well the newly published deformed Weibull Brouers-Sotolongo isotherm. The results obtained from the application of the equations show that the best fits were achieved with the Brouers-Sotolongo equation and with the Redlich-Peterson equation. Influence of surface functional groups towards MB adsorption is as well studied using various ACs prepared from vetiver roots and sugar cane bagasse. Opposite effects governing MB

  7. A nutrition and conditioning intervention for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Scott Lloyd; Lambeth-Mansell, Anneliese; Gillibrand, Gavin; Smith-Ryan, Abbie; Bannock, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Bodybuilding competitions are becoming increasingly popular. Competitors are judged on their aesthetic appearance and usually exhibit a high level of muscularity and symmetry and low levels of body fat. Commonly used techniques to improve physique during the preparation phase before competitions include dehydration, periods of prolonged fasting, severe caloric restriction, excessive cardiovascular exercise and inappropriate use of diuretics and anabolic steroids. In contrast, this case study documents a structured nutrition and conditioning intervention followed by a 21 year-old amateur bodybuilding competitor to improve body composition, resting and exercise fat oxidation, and muscular strength that does not involve use of any of the above mentioned methods. Over a 14-week period, the Athlete was provided with a scientifically designed nutrition and conditioning plan that encouraged him to (i) consume a variety of foods; (ii) not neglect any macronutrient groups; (iii) exercise regularly but not excessively and; (iv) incorporate rest days into his conditioning regime. This strategy resulted in a body mass loss of 11.7 kg's, corresponding to a 6.7 kg reduction in fat mass and a 5.0 kg reduction in fat-free mass. Resting metabolic rate decreased from 1993 kcal/d to 1814 kcal/d, whereas resting fat oxidation increased from 0.04 g/min to 0.06 g/min. His capacity to oxidize fat during exercise increased more than two-fold from 0.24 g/min to 0.59 g/min, while there was a near 3-fold increase in the corresponding exercise intensity that elicited the maximal rate of fat oxidation; 21% V̇O2max to 60% V̇O2max. Hamstring concentric peak torque decreased (1.7 to 1.5 Nm/kg), whereas hamstring eccentric (2.0 Nm/kg to 2.9 Nm/kg), quadriceps concentric (3.4 Nm/kg to 3.7 Nm/kg) and quadriceps eccentric (4.9 Nm/kg to 5.7 Nm/kg) peak torque all increased. Psychological mood-state (BRUMS scale) was not negatively influenced by the intervention and all values relating to the Athlete

  8. An Overview of Thematic Evolution of Physical Therapy Research Area From 1951 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Moral-Munoz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical Therapy is a profession which development and conceptual framework have been performed in the twentieth century. One of the major challenges of Physical Therapy in the twenty-first century is to identify the intellectual basis of its scientific domain. The aim of the present paper is to analyze the evolution of Physical Therapy research throughout scientific literature published in Web of Science (WoS and Scopus databases. In order to perform the analysis, WoS and Scopus bibliographic databases were used to download all records. A set of journals with overall topics in Physical Therapy discipline with the largest history in the Journal Citation Report were selected: Physiotherapy, Physical Therapy, and Australian Journal of Physiotherapy/Journal of Physiotherapy. The bibliometric tool SciMAT was employed to perform a science mapping analysis in order to detect and visualize the research themes and their evolution across three periods: 1951–1984, 1985–2000, and 2001–2013. The analysis carried out shows that Physical Therapy research field is mainly divided into nine thematic areas: Middle-Aged People, Muscle Function Alterations and Recovery, Health Education, Gait and Biomechanics, Central Nervous System, Heart Rate and Exercise, Diagnosis, Low Back Pain, and Animals. In conclusion, Physical Therapy citations and production are primarily focused on two large thematic areas, diseases that involve middle-aged population and muscle function and its alterations. Results can be used to provide a historical perspective on research conducted in this emerging field and to provide a scientific evidence-based practice model on which future studies can be built.

  9. The use of Latin terminology in medical case reports: quantitative, structural, and thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysanets, Yuliia V; Bieliaieva, Olena M

    2018-02-23

    This paper focuses on the prevalence of Latin terms and terminological collocations in the issues of Journal of Medical Case Reports (February 2007-August 2017) and discusses the role of Latin terminology in the contemporary process of writing medical case reports. The objective of the research is to study the frequency of using Latin terminology in English-language medical case reports, thus providing relevant guidelines for medical professionals who deal with this genre and drawing their attention to the peculiarities of using Latin in case reports. The selected medical case reports are considered, using methods of quantitative examination and structural, narrative, and contextual analyses. We developed structural and thematic typologies of Latin terms and expressions, and we conducted a quantitative analysis that enabled us to observe the tendencies in using these lexical units in medical case reports. The research revealed that the use of Latin fully complies with the communicative strategies of medical case reports as a genre. Owing to the fact that Latin medical lexis is internationally adopted and understood worldwide, it promotes the conciseness of medical case reports, as well as contributes to their narrative style and educational intentions. The adequate use of Latin terms in medical case reports is an essential prerequisite of effective sharing of one's clinical findings with fellow researchers from all over the world. Therefore, it is highly important to draw students' attention to Latin terms and expressions that are used in medical case reports most frequently. Hence, the analysis of structural, thematic, and contextual features of Latin terms in case reports should be an integral part of curricula at medical universities.

  10. A qualitative thematic content analysis of medical students' essays on professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Youn; Shon, Changwoo; Kwon, Oh Young; Yoon, Tai Young; Kwon, Ivo

    2017-05-03

    Physicians in both Western and Eastern countries are being confronted by changes in health care delivery systems and medical professionalism values. The traditional concept of "In-Sul" (benevolent art) and the modern history of South Korea have led to cultural differences between South Korea and other countries in conceptualizing medical professionalism; thus, we studied medical students' perceptions of professionalism as described in essays written on this topic. In 2014, we asked 109 first-year medical students who were enrolled in a compulsory ethics course to anonymously write a description of an instance of medical professionalism that they had witnessed, as well as reflecting on their own professional context. We then processed 105 valid essays using thematic content analysis with computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software. Thematic analysis of the students' essays revealed two core aspects of professionalism in South Korea, one focused on respect for patients and the other on physicians' accountability. The most common theme regarding physician-patient relationships was trust. By contrast, distributive justice was thought to be a non-essential aspect of professionalism. In Western countries, physicians tend to promote justice in the health care system, including fair distribution of medical resources; however, we found that medical students in South Korea were more inclined to emphasize doctors' relationships with patients. Medical educators should develop curricular interventions regarding medical professionalism to meet the legitimate needs of patients in their own culture. Because professionalism is a dynamic construct of culture, medical educators should reaffirm cultural context-specific definitions of professionalism for development of associated curricula.

  11. Waste Preparation and Transport Chemistry: Results of the FY 2001 Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, R.D.

    2002-03-25

    of researchers from AEA Technology, Florida International University (FIU), Fluor Hanford, Mississippi State University (MSU), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to evaluate various aspects of the waste preparation and transport chemistry. The majority of this effort was focused on saltcake dissolution and saltwell pumping. The results of the AEA Technology, FIU, and MSU studies of saltcake dissolution and slurry transfers for Hanford are discussed in detail in a companion report prepared by T. D. Welch in 2001 (ORNIJTM-2001097). Staff members at Fluor Hanford have continued to conduct saltcake dissolution tests on actual tank waste (documented in reports prepared by D. L. Herting in 2000 and 2001). It should be noted that full-scale saltcake dissolution at Hanford is scheduled to begin in FY 2002. While the Hanford effort is focused on the transfer of waste from one tank to another, the objective of the SRTC study is the formation of aluminosilicates at elevated temperatures, which are present in the waste evaporator.

  12. Studying nursing in a rural setting: are students adequately supported and prepared for rural practice? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gum, L F

    2007-01-01

    A rural nursing program has a vital role in improving the recruitment and retention of nurses in rural and remote settings. A small pilot study was conducted to explore the views and experiences of the first cohort of undergraduate nursing students who completed a rurally based bachelor of nursing program which commenced in 2002 in Renmark, South Australia. The participants were eight current undergraduate nursing students who were part of the first cohort of nursing students nearing completion of the program. The pilot study set out to explore support provided to rural nursing students studying in a rural setting; to investigate whether rural nursing students feel adequately prepared for rural clinical practice near completion of the nursing program; to identify the challenges and highlights of studying rurally; and to explore the probability of retention and recruitment of future nursing graduates in a rural setting. The method used was a descriptive, exploratory, web-based survey. Quantitative data were limited to descriptive statistics of demographic characteristics, career goals, graduate nurse program and future employment intentions, level of support, preparation for practice, challenges and highlights of rural study and clinical placements. Qualitative responses to open-ended questions were content analysed to identify common themes. This study found between two and four participants indicated they received no support from academic, administrative staff and clinical facilitators from the city campus. Five participants (63%) indicated they received no financial support during their studies. Seven of the participants (88%) surveyed, indicated an intention to undertake a graduate nurse program and the same number indicated they would be living in a rural or remote area in 5 years time. Six participants (75%) indicated they were prepared with regard to their 'attitude' towards their future practice as a registered nurse. The study identified some of the

  13. Studies on preparation and characterization of Fe/TiO2 catalyst in photocatalysis applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruanetr, Senee; Wanchanthuek, Ratchaneekorn

    2017-07-01

    A Fe/TiO2 photocatalyst was synthesized and used as the catalyst in paraquat degradation as a test reaction to examine the photo-properties. The TEM, XRD, FTIR, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrometer, XPS and BET surface area analysis methods were used as the characterization techniques to investigate the physical and chemical properties of the prepared catalyst. Moreover, some of the preparation parameters, such as the preparation method, the content of Fe loading, thermal treatment and source of light irradiation, were also examined. According to the characterization and the expressed catalytic activity, it was found that the factor that significantly responded to the catalyst activity was the -OH surface species on the catalyst surface. Moreover, the lower band gap energy of the Fe/TiO2 catalyst was also an important parameter that gave high catalytic properties because of the higher light adsorption. The preparation scheme and the photodegradation mechanism were proposed.

  14. A Study of Perioperative Team Members' Role and Educational Preparation on Cost-Containment Attitudes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pistone, Mark

    1999-01-01

    ...) or unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP), length of healthcare experience, and educational preparation play in a perioperative staff member's attitude toward cost-containment in general, and specifically, the reprocessing of disposables...

  15. Mentor preparation: A qualitative study of STEM master teacher professional development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Click-Cuellar, Heather Lynn

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 has required districts to staff all classrooms with highly qualified teachers. Yet, retaining certified teachers in the profession has been a national concern, especially among new teachers who leave at alarming rates within their first three years. This comes at a heavy cost to districts financially and in trying to maintain highly qualified status, but also to the continuity and effective education of students. Mentoring has been identified by many researchers as a plausible solution to reducing attrition rates for beginning teachers. In this dissertation, I conducted qualitative research to explore and understand the perceptions of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) Master Teachers' mentoring professional development in the context of the Master Teacher Academies program situated at Desert State University (pseudonym), a large institution located on the Texas-Mexico border. Additionally, I examined the reported teaching self-efficacy of STEM Master Teachers (mentors), as well as that of their novice teachers (mentees). Another purpose of the study was to investigate the forms and elements of interactions between these mentors and their mentees. Participants of this study were Texas certified Master Mathematics or Master Science Teachers, and their novice mathematics or science teacher mentees; all of whom teach in a high need U.S. Mexico border city school district serving a student population that is over 93% Hispanic. A grounded theory approach was used in examining and analyzing mentor and mentee perceptions and experiences through case studies. A constructivist framework was utilized to derive findings from interviews and the review of documents and contribute a diverse context and population to the literature. The study reveals conclusions and recommendations that will benefit educators, universities, school districts, and policy makers in regard to teacher mentor preparation.

  16. Human study of the herbal preparation(HemoHIM) on enhancement of immune and hematopoietic functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-Nam; Jeon, Sun-Hee [Eulji Univ. Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-01-15

    This study was aimed to evaluate the human efficacy of the herbal preparation(HemoHIM) on the immune and hematopoiesis enhancement in sub-healthy volunteers. It was conducted as a double-blind, placebo-controlled human study. The sub-healthy volunteers with peripheral White Blood Cell (WBC) counts below 5000/μl were recruited and randomly allocated to 3 groups and administered with HemoHIM 6g/day, HemoHIM 12g/day, or placebo throughout the test. Peripheral blood was collected 4 times before or after the administration and analyzed for the hematological and serum biochemical values, immune cell activities, antioxidant status of plasma. The data of 38 volunteers were finally included in the analysis. Although there were no statistical significances, a trend was observed that the dose and duration of HemoHIM administration was correlated to the increased number of immune cells (white blood cells and lymphocytes). NK cell activity was increased significantly in the male group administered with HemoHIM 6g/day. The cytokines involved in immune activation (IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-6) were significantly increased or showed the trends of increases in HemoHIM administered groups, while IL-4 involved in allergy and asthma was not changed or showed the trends of decreases in HemoHIM administered groups. On the other hand, the antioxidant biomarkers such as total GSH, MDA, and TAS, were not affected by HemoHIM administration. The toxicological safety of HemoHIM administration was confirmed by the serum biochemical analysis of liver and kidney function markers and the questionnaire of HemoHIM administration and the consultation with the doctor, which showed no side effects of HemoHIM administration. The results of this study may provide the basic data for further clinical study on HemoHIM.

  17. The preparation of biodegradable vena filter and the study of its properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiao; Xiao Yueyong; Yang Jie; Ma Xuyang; Liu Shirong; Ren Chao; Wang Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the preparation of biodegradable vena cava filter (BVCF) with poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA), and to evaluate its mechanical properties, delivery performance, the ability of capturing thrombus and the degradation property. Methods: Three-dimensional design software was used to design the shape of BVCF. The BVCF was prepared by using PLLA with molecular weight of 100 000 unit. Twelve minipigs were used to test the feasibility of this BVCF. They were randomly divided into four groups. At first the BVCFs were placed into the inferior vena cava of pigs in three experimental groups. The fourth group was used as a blank control group. The thrombi were injected into all pigs after 1 week, and CT examinations were performed at different time points to observe the filter locations and pulmonary artery. The animals were sacrificed according to a fixed time table for histopathological assessment. Results: The BVCF was successfully designed and produced, which could expand by stretching the center-thread. In vitro test results showed the radial force of BVCF was approximately 1.6 N and could capture the thrombus more than 5 mm in diameter, and it was easy to release. Through the animal experiment confirmed that the filter could capture the lethal thrombus and all 9 pigs of experimental groups were survived, two of those had the symptoms of respiratory frequency and heartbeat accelerated slightly in the operation. In control group, the symptoms such as accelerate of respiratory rate, shortness of breath were observed in varying degree. The pig which was injected with 8 strips of thrombus died in the same day after surgery. Postoperative CT and pathological examinations showed that 2 pigs in the experimental group developed peripheral pulmonary embolism, while the dead pig in the control group developed central pulmonary embolism. Histological findings showed that the intima covered the BVCF lateral branch partly after one week,and thoroughly after six weeks

  18. From language classroom to clinical context: the role of language and culture in communication for nurses using English as a second language: a thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Fiona

    2011-09-01

    This study explores the experiences of internationally educated nurses using English as a second language, recruited by advanced economies to supplement diminishing local workforces, as they progress from language learning programs to clinical settings. Understanding the journey these nurses experience as language learners and professionals highlights ways in which they could be better supported in their adaptation and integration into the Australian workforce. By means of semi-structured interviews, the nurses' narratives were explored and documented. Thematic analysis was used to interpret their experiences as they move from the English language classroom to the clinical setting. The participants had all completed studies in English as a second language in Australia and had experienced working in Australian as part of a competency based assessment program. At the time of the study, conducted in South Australia, six of the nurses had met the English language requirements of the Nurses Board of South Australia and had started working as Registered Nurses in Australia. Four participants were still to reach the mandatory English requirements, among whom three were to return to their home countries due to visa restrictions, and continue their efforts to attain the English language proficiency requirement. There were six female participants and four male. Five participants were Indian, four Chinese, and one, Nepalese. In exploring their experiences, themes of identity and belonging, safety and competence and adapting to new roles and ways of communicating are revealed. In their own words, these nurses reveal the challenges they face as they concurrently manage the roles of language learners and professionals. The journey from language classroom to clinical setting is a process that goes beyond the notions of language proficiency; these nurses are constructing new cultural and professional identities. Bridging the gap between preparation and practice involves making

  19. Physiological profile of a professional boxer preparing for Title Bout: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Israel; Hughes, Steven; Chapman, Dale W

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to (1) profile a professional boxer (23 years and 80 kg) with boxing-specific, muscle function, aerobic capacity and body composition tests, and (2) quantify how these measures varied during an 8-week preparation phase leading to, and post a state-Title Bout fought in the 76.2-kg class. A series of boxing-specific and muscle function tests were completed on 11 occasions: 9 prior and twice after the bout, each separated by approximately 2 weeks. The boxing test included 36 maximal punches (9 of each: lead and rear straights, lead and rear hooks) to a punching integrator measuring forces and velocity. Muscle function tests included countermovement jump, drop-jumps, isometric mid-thigh pull and isometric bench-press. Body composition was assessed using skin-fold measurements on three occasions and one dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Aerobic capacity was assessed using 2 VO2 max tests. Leading up to the bout, performance decreased in isometric mid-thigh pull (8%), isometric bench-press (5%), countermovement jump (15%) and impact forces in 3 of 4 punches (4%-7%). Whereas measures of dynamic and isometric muscle function remained depressed or unchanged post competition, punching forces (6%-15%) and aerobic power (6%) increased. Data suggest the athlete may have super-compensated following rest as fatigue dissipated and further adaptation occurred.

  20. Preparation, characterization and permeation studies of a nanovesicular system containing diclofenac for transdermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Praveen Kumar; Purohit, Suresh; Kumar, Yatendra; Mishra, Shikha; Bhandari, Anil

    2014-02-01

    Transdermal formulations contain permeation enhancer which causes skin damage. Ceramide 2 is natural lipid found in stratum corneum (SC). Drug-loaded nanovesicles of ceramide-2, cholesterol, palmitic acid, cholesteryl sulfate were formulated and analyzed for physical and biological properties. Diclofenac was used as a model drug. The vesicles were prepared using the film hydration method and characterized for physical parameters, in vitro drug release, accelerated stability studies and formulated into gel. Respective gels were compared with a commercial formulation (CEG) and plain carbopol gel (CG) containing drug for ex vivo, in vivo drug permeation and anti-inflammatory activity. The vesicles were stable with optimum physical parameters. DCG-1 showed 92.89% in vitro drug release. Ceramide vesicles showed drug release between 18 and 25 μg/cm(2) whereas CG and CEG released 0.33 and 1.35 μg/cm(2) drug, respectively. DCG-1 and CEG showed corresponding Cmax at 6 and 4 h, respectively. DCG-1 showed six times AUC than CEG. DCG-1 inhibited edema by 86.37% by 4th hour of application. The presence of ceramide 2 specifically promotes the drug permeation through SC and dermis and also contribute towards stability and non-irritancy. The composition of the nanovesicle played an important role in physical properties and drug permeation.

  1. Preparation Of Deposited Sediment Sample By Casting Method For Environmental Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutabarat, Tommy; Ristin PI, Evarista

    2000-01-01

    The preparation of deposited sediment sample by c asting m ethod for environmental study has been carried out. This method comprises separation of size fraction and casting process. The deposited sediment samples were wet sieved to separate the size fraction of >500 mum, (250-500) mum, (125-250) mum and (63-125) mum and settling procedures were followed for the separation of (40-63) mum, (20-40) mum, (10-20) mum and o C, ashed at 450 o C, respectively. In the casting process of sample, it was used polyester rapid cure resin and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) hardener. The moulded sediment sample was poured onto caster, allow for 60 hours long. The aim of this method is to get the casted sample which can be used effectively, efficiently and to be avoided from contamination of each other samples. Before casting, samples were grinded up to be fine. The result shows that casting product is ready to be used for natural radionuclide analysis

  2. Preparation of well-defined samples of AlPdMn quasicrystals for surface studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, C. J.; Delaney, D. W.; Bloomer, T. E.; Chang, S.-L.; Lograsso, T. A.; Shen, Z.; Zhang, C.-M.; Thiel, P. A.

    1996-12-01

    We have developed a method for preparing single-grain, quasicrystalline AlPdMn samples for surface studies in ultrahigh vacuum. The main issues of concern are phase purity, the quality of the surface structure, and the surface, and the surface composition. Phase purity is enhanced by annealing the sample in ultra-pure Ar in a sealed quartz ampoule for several days before polishing. Polishing with colloidal silica allows secondary phases to be detected readily with an optical microscope. As a final precaution, phase purity can be checked sensitively with scanning Auger microscopy. After this stage, the sample can be cleaned in ultrahigh vacuum with ion bombardment. Annealing is required after bombardment to restore surface structure and to obtain a low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) pattern of an oriented sample. However, both ion bombardment and heating to temperatures above 870 K in vacuum, produce Pd-rich surfaces. As a final step, for the five-fold surface, we recommend heating briefly to 1050-1100 K and then annealing at 870 K for several hours. This produces both an excellent LEED pattern, and a surface composition close to that of the bulk.

  3. Preparation, characterization and antimicrobial study of a hydrogel (soft contact lens) material impregnated with silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazly Bazzaz, Bibi Sedigheh; Khameneh, Bahman; Jalili-Behabadi, Mohammad-mehdi; Malaekeh-Nikouei, Bizhan; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2014-06-01

    Contact lenses that incorporate antimicrobial properties may reduce the risk for microbial-associated adverse events for lens wearers. The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles (NP) when impregnated in a hydrogel material. Hydrogel disks, used as a proxy for soft contact lenses, were prepared with silver NPs to add an antimicrobial effect to the polymer. Six groups of disks were created, each with a different concentration of silver NPs. The antimicrobial effect of the hydrogels against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC15442) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC6538) was evaluated at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h. Silver NP concentrations ranged from 20.71 to 98.06 μg/disk. All groups demonstrated excellent antibacterial effects against P. aeruginosa at each time point. After 6h all disks didn't exhibit desirable antibacterial activity against S. aureus; whereas except those with 20.71 μg silver NPs showed antibacterial activity at 24h and only the disks with 57.13 and 98.06 μg silver NPs showed antimicrobial activity at 48 and 72 h. The development of contact lenses made of a silver NP-impregnated hydrogel material may bring antimicrobial effects sufficient to decrease the risk of microbial-related adverse events for lens wearers. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A New Preparation of Pancreatic Ducts for Patch-Clamp Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Hug, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    was measured as an indication of the intracellular Ca2+ activity, [Ca2+]i. Carbachol and ATP evoked characteristic calcium transients, the peak changes in [Ca2+]i were about 370 and 410 nmol/l, respectively (n = 16; 11). Taken together, responses of the present preparation of pancreatic ducts in the electrical...... for isolation of pancreatic ducts from normal rat pancreas by collagenase digestion and a study of their electrical parameters with the whole-cell nystatin method. In addition, intracellular Ca2+ activity was estimated. All experiments were carried out at 37 °C and ducts were bathed with bicarbonate......-containing solutions. Duct cells were found to have a resting membrane voltage, Vm, of-55 ± 2 mV (n = 63). An increase in the bath K+ concentration (to 19 mmol/l) or an introduction of Ba2+ (3-5 mmol/l) into the bathing solution depolarized Vm by 16 and 22 mV (n = 21; 7), respectively. Secretin (10-9 mol...

  5. The Study of Release of Chlorhexidine from Preparations with Modified Thermosensitive Poly-N-isopropylacrylamide Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Musial

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the release rates of chlorhexidine (CX base entrapped in the polymeric beads of modified poly-N-isopropylacrylamides (pNIPAMs at temperatures below and over the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT of synthesized polymers: pNIPAM-A with terminal anionic groups resulting from potassium persulfate initiator, pNIPAM-B with cationic amidine terminal groups, and pNIPAM-C comprising anionic terminals, but with increased hydrophobicity maintained by the N-tert-butyl functional groups. The preparations, assessed in vitro below the VPTT, release an initial burst of CX at different time periods between 120 and 240 min, followed by a period of 24 h, when the rate of release remains approximately constant, approaching the zero-order kinetics; the release rates for the polymers beads are as follows: pNIPAM-C>pNIPAM-B>pNIPAM-A. The pattern of release rates at temperature over the VPTT is as follows: pNIPAM-C>pNIPAM-A>pNIPAM-B. In the presence of pNIPAM-C, the duration between the start of the release and the attained minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC for most of the microbes, in conditions over the VPTT, increased from 60 to 90 min. The release prolongation could be ascribed to some interactions between the practically insoluble CX particle and the hydrophobic functional groups of the polymer.

  6. Preparation of Ag/Cu/Ti Nanofluids by Spark Discharge System and Its Control Parameters Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsiung Tseng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study selected silver, copper, and titanium as the research objects to explore the relationship between nanofluids properties and electrical discharge machining (EDM processes. Regarding the products, UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis was applied to measure the concentration distribution of nanofluids; zeta-size analysis is applied for measuring nanometal particles’ Zeta-Potential and the size distribution of metallic particles in the fluid. Finally, various instruments, including scanning electron microscope (SEM, were applied to observe the shape, size, and composition ratio of metal particles after processing. According to the experimental results, the control of the discharge pulse time, in addition to affecting the concentration of metallic liquid and temperature in the process, affects the size of the metal particles after the process. As the resistivity of silver and copper is very low, at about 15×10-9 Ω·m, if TON is set to between 10~50 μs, good preparation efficiency can be obtained. The resistivity of titanium is 420×10-9 Ω·m, which is much larger than that of silver or copper. Hence, TON should be set to approximately 100 μs to achieve a good discharge success rate.

  7. In Vivo Studies on the Influence of Bacteriophage Preparations on the Autoimmune Inflammatory Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Międzybrodzki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phage preparations used for phage therapy may have not only direct antibacterial action but also immunomodulating effects mediated by phages themselves as well as by bacterial antigens. Therefore phage application in patients with immune disorders, and especially with autoimmune diseases, requires special attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of phage lysates (staphylococcal phages A3/R, phi200, and MS-1 cocktail, enterococcal phage 15/P, Pseudomonas phage 119x, and E. coli T4 phage as well as purified T4 phage on the course of murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA, commonly used as an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. Intraperitoneal application of phage lysates or purified T4 phage did not aggravate the course of autoimmune joint disease. Moreover, although endotoxins are known to potentiate CIA, the systemic administration of phage lysate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which contains debris of this Gram-negative bacillus, did not significantly influence CIA although the sonicate of the corresponding bacterial strain did. Interestingly, a purified T4 phage revealed some anti-inflammatory activity when applied under the therapeutic scheme. Our preliminary results do not suggest that phages may aggravate the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. In contrast T4 phage may even exert an immunosuppressive effect.

  8. Bevacizumab loaded solid lipid nanoparticles prepared by the coacervation technique: preliminary in vitro studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Luigi; Gallarate, Marina; Peira, Elena; Chirio, Daniela; Solazzi, Ilaria; Giordano, Susanna Marzia Adele; Gigliotti, Casimiro Luca; Riganti, Chiara; Dianzani, Chiara

    2015-06-01

    Glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor in adults, has an inauspicious prognosis, given that overcoming the blood-brain barrier is the major obstacle to the pharmacological treatment of brain tumors. As neoangiogenesis plays a key role in glioblastoma growth, the US Food and Drug Administration approved bevacizumab (BVZ), an antivascular endothelial growth factor antibody for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma in patients whose the initial therapy has failed. In this experimental work, BVZ was entrapped in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) prepared by the fatty-acid coacervation technique, thanks to the formation of a hydrophobic ion pair. BVZ activity, which was evaluated by means of four different in vitro tests on HUVEC cells, increased by 100- to 200-fold when delivered in SLNs. Moreover, SLNs can enhance the permeation of fluorescently labelled BVZ through an hCMEC/D3 cell monolayer—an in vitro model of the blood brain barrier. These results are promising, even if further in vivo studies are required to evaluate the effective potential of BVZ-loaded SLNs in glioblastoma treatment.

  9. Preparation of Diffusion Couples (I) to Study Ag/Pd Migration in SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. G.; Yeo, S.; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, H. M.; Cho, M. S. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    It has been observed in reactor experiments that although the SiC layer can retain most fission products, some species such as Ag can escape from fuel particles. In particular, because of a strong γ-ray emitter and a long half-life of 250 days of {sup 110m}Ag, the release of {sup 110m}Ag from intact TRISO fuel is especially a concern as {sup 110m}Ag in the primary coolant loop can plate out on the turbine system of VHTR causing safety and maintenance concerns and an increased risk of radiation exposure. In order to improve reactor operation and reduce safety and maintenance concerns, there were many efforts to understand Ag diffusion mechanism and release rates. In this study, spherical diffusion couples using surrogate TRISO particles were successfully prepared to trap Ag or/and Pd between IPyC layer and SiC layer, and SiC layers using silver nitrate, palladium nitrate hydrate, and polycarbosilane (PCS). These diffusion couples will provide the opportunity to investigate diffusion mechanism and to determine diffusion coefficients of Ag or/and Pd as FPs in SiC and the role of the Pd for Ag migration in SiC layer.

  10. Phase study of titanium dioxide nanoparticle prepared via sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladeji Araoyinbo, Alaba; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Salleh, Mohd Arif Anuar Mohd; Aziz, Nurul Nadia Abdul; Iskandar Azmi, Azwan

    2018-03-01

    In this study, titanium dioxide nanoparticles have been prepared via sol-gel process using titanium tetraisopropoxide as a precursor with hydrochloric acid as a catalyst, and ethanol with deionized water as solvents. The value of pH used is set to 3, 7 and 8. The sols obtained were dried at 100 °C for 1 hr and calcined at 350, 550, and 750 °C for 3 hrs to observe the phase transformation of titanium dioxide nanoparticle. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscope. The morphology analysis is obtained from field emission scanning electron microscope. The phase transformation was investigated by x-ray diffraction. It was found that the pH of the solution affect the agglomeration of titanium dioxide particle. The x-ray diffraction pattern of titanium dioxide shows the anatase phase most abundant at temperature of 350 °C. At temperature of 550 °C the anatase and rutile phase were present. At temperature of 750 °C the rutile phase was the most abundant for pH 3, 7 and 8. It was confirmed that at higher temperature the rutile phase which is the stable phase are mostly present.

  11. Acrylamide content in French fries prepared in households: A pilot study in Spanish homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesias, Marta; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Holgado, Francisca; Morales, Francisco J

    2018-09-15

    An observational cross-sectional pilot study in 73 Spanish households was conducted to evaluate the impact of consumer practices on the formation of acrylamide during the preparation of French fries from fresh potatoes applying one stage frying. 45.2% of samples presented acrylamide concentrations above the benchmark level for French fries (500 µg/kg). 6.9% of samples exceeded 2000 µg/kg and the 95th percentile was 2028 µg/kg. The median and average values were significantly higher than the EFSA report for this food category, suggesting that the total exposure to acrylamide by the population could be underestimated. In this randomised scenario of cooking practices, the content of reducing sugar and asparagine did not explain the acrylamide levels. However, the chromatic parameter a ∗ of the fried potato was a powerful tool to classify the samples according to the acrylamide benchmark level regardless of the agronomical characteristics of the potato or the consumer practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Studies of magnetic properties of permalloy (Fe-30%Ni) prepared by SLM technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baicheng; Fenineche, Nour-Eddine; Zhu Lin; Liao Hanlin; Coddet, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, a high permeability induction Fe-30%Ni alloy cubic bulk was prepared by the selective laser melting process. In order to reveal the microstructure effect on soft magnetic properties, the microstructure and magnetic properties of the Fe-30%Ni alloy were carefully investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and hysteresis measurements. The bcc-Fe (Ni) phase formation is identified by X-ray diffraction. Meanwhile, it was found that low bcc lattice parameter and high grain size could be obtained when high laser scanning velocity and low laser power were used. Moreover, the lowest value of coercivity is 88 A/m, and the highest value of saturation magnetization is 565 Am 2 /kg, which can be obtained at a low laser scanning velocity of 0.4 m/s and high laser power input at 110 W. - Highlights: → Proper Fe-30%Ni alloy (permalloy) using selective laser melting technology. → Microstructure of Fe-30%Ni alloy exhibits fine cellular structure of approximately 100 nm. → Magnetic properties can be controlled by laser parameter. → Lowest coercivity is 88 A/m and highest saturation magnetization is 565 Am 2 /kg.

  13. Study and preparation of 99Tcm-GP kit for lung ventilation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Lin; Meng Fanmin; Zhang Jihong; Hong Tao; Liu Yunzhong; Liu Xiujie

    1997-01-01

    The preparation of the lyophilizing reagent, D-glucose-l-phosphate (GP) kit and the method of using this kit to label 99 Tc m to form 99 Tc m -GP for lung ventilation imaging at room temperature in a simple, rapid procedure are described. The stability of the lyophilizing reagent kit under various stock conditions is examined. The results show that all of the 99 Tc m -GP yields by the lyophilizing reagent kit are above 95% at 4 degree C (cold), 20-25 degree C (room temperature) and 40 degree C (oven) for 180, 90 and 3 days, respectively. The clinical practice indicates that in comparison with 99 Tc m -DTPA, 99 Tc m -GP has remarkable difference (P 99 Tc m -GP is an ideal radioaerosol for SPECT studies of lung ventilation. It has high alveolar deposition rate but low adhesion in the major airways compared to those of 99 Tc m -DTPA. 99 Tc m -GP also features prolonged pulmonary clearance time

  14. TPACK Development in Science Teacher Preparation: A Case Study in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickel, Jamie L.

    This study sought to identify key experiences that impact the development of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) of preservice secondary sciences teachers at a medium-sized university in Queensland, Australia. TPACK is a conceptual framework of a body of knowledge that teachers draw upon to influence practice; it is a dynamic and emergent form of knowledge that informs the employment of technology for teaching specific subject matter. This study employed an embedded case study approach, including delivery of a TPACK survey instrument and analysis of participant interviews, to identify the context-specific experiences that promote the development of TPACK among twelve preservice secondary science teachers. The research addresses a specific need cited in the literature, identifying TPACK impact factors, and provides a novel way to visualize TPACK development through contextual experiences. A novel approach to visually representing context-specific experiences and their influence on teacher knowledge, self-efficacy, values and beliefs was employed. Three major findings are presented below: 1) the majority of preservice secondary science teachers were unable to define the constructs of learning and science; 2) a focus on motivation and interest paired with a disconnect between expressed and enacted pedagogical orientation lead to teacher-centered instruction augmented with superficial tactics aimed at generating interest; and 3) difficulty in integrating knowledge bases yielded lower TPACK self-efficacy, which has detrimental impacts on the instruction planned by pre-service teachers for their students. Findings are directly aligned with participants' prior experience, compared to the relevant literature, and utilized to identify implications for teacher preparation as well as recommendations for future research.

  15. In situ TEM studies of micron-sized all-solid-state fluoride ion batteries: Preparation, prospects, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad Fawey, Mohammed; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Reddy, Munnangi Anji; Rongeat, Carine; Scherer, Torsten; Hahn, Horst; Fichtner, Maximilian; Kübel, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Trustworthy preparation and contacting of micron-sized batteries is an essential task to enable reliable in situ TEM studies during electrochemical biasing. Some of the challenges and solutions for the preparation of all-solid-state batteries for in situ TEM electrochemical studies are discussed using an optimized focused ion beam (FIB) approach. In particular redeposition, resistivity, porosity of the electrodes/electrolyte and leakage current are addressed. Overcoming these challenges, an all-solid-state fluoride ion battery has been prepared as a model system for in situ TEM electrochemical biasing studies and first results on a Bi/La0.9 Ba0.1 F2.9 half-cell are presented. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:615-624, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Stability studies of cosmetic emulsions prepared from natural products such as wine, grape seed oil and mastic resin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glampedaki, P.; Dutschk, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    An attempt was made in this study to use diluted wine as the aqueous phase and grapeseed oil as the oil phase for the preparation of oil-in-water cosmetic emulsions. Two monovarietal wines of Hellenic origin were used in this study; a red one from Sangiovese grapes and a white one from Muscat of

  17. Preparing Elementary School Teachers for the Academic Study of Religion: Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice in Colleges of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahim Tartir, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive study examined the attitudes, awareness, and actions of elementary teacher prep faculty at NCATE accredited universities on issues of preparing elementary school teachers for teaching "about" religion within the curriculum. The purpose of this study was to learn more about what colleges of education are currently…

  18. A Predictive Study of Community College Faculty Perceptions of Student Academic Preparation, Work Ethics, and Institutional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibezim-Uche, Scholar

    2013-01-01

    Examined in this study were faculty perceptions of students who do not continue their college education. Also examined was how urban and rural community colleges faculty perceived academic preparation, work ethics, and institutional support as predictors of student success. In this predictive study of community college faculty, 36 faculty members…

  19. Morphological Study Of Border Area Of Pulp-Capping Materials And Er:YAG Laser Prepared Hard Dental Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova, Vessela P; Tomov, Georgi T; Tsanova, Snezhana Ts

    2015-01-01

    Vital pulp therapy involves biologically based therapeutic activities aimed at restoring health and preserving the vitality of cariously or traumatically damaged pulp. Adaptation of pulp-capping materials to the prepared tooth surface may be the key to the success of biological tooth treatment. To investigate the area of adaptation of synthetic tricalcium silicate cement, calcium hydroxide cement and mineral trioxide-aggregate to the dentin surface, prepared with the help of Er:YAG dental laser. Four extracted human tooth cavities were prepared with the help of Er:YAG dental laser (LiteTouch, Syneron, Israel), establishing microcommunication with the pulp chamber less than 1 mm in diameter. As pulp-capping materials in the cavities we used tricalcium silicate cement (Biodentine, Septodont, France), calcium hydroxide cement (Dycal) and mineral-trioxide aggregate (ProRoot MTA), stirred and administered according to manufacturers' instructions. The first material fills the whole cavity and the other two are spread in a thin layer and sealed with glass ionomer cement. Thus prepared, the samples were left for three days at 37°C in humidified environment. The samples were prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) by standard methodology. The border area surfaces of the materials and the dentin were scanned using electron microscopy. The morphological changes occurring to the Er:YAG laser prepared dentin and the structural characteristics of the studied pulp-capping materials are demonstrated using scanograms. The border areas where good contact of materials and dentinal tubules is established are thoroughly studied. Good adaptation is seen in three-calcium silicate cement, followed by mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide cement. The dentin surface, prepared with Er:YAG laser demonstrates a very good adaptation of the three tested pulp-capping materials.

  20. Preparation of monoclonal antibodies against cardiac myosin and some radiolabelling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bapat, K.; Venkatesh, M.; Pillai, M.R.A.; Sarma, H.D.; Sainis, K.B.

    1998-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were raised against myosin, a specific indicator of myocardial infarction and labelled with 125 I and 99m Tc. Human cardiac myosin was isolated from normal human heart and was used for raising the monoclonal antibodies by the hybridoma technique. Antibody producing clones were identified by ELISA and cloning was done by the limiting dilution technique. Of the 13 clones obtained, 4 were deemed suitable for further studies. The antibodies were grown in ascites, purified, isotyped and their cross reactions with other forms of myosin were estimated. All the clones showed negligible cross reaction with rabbit myosin, but reacted to different extents with bovine skeletal myosin. The most avid antibody Mab-4G4 was chosen for further labelling studies. Mab-4G4 was labelled with 125 I using different oxidising agents such as iodogen, chloramine-T and lactoperoxidase. Purified radioiodinated antibody with radiochemical purity >95% could be obtained by gel filtration. Immunoreactivity was retained as tested by binding to myosin immobilised on a solid support. Mab-4G4 was also labelled with 99m Tc using stannous tartrate as the reducing agent. Radiolabelling yield was ∼60%, the purity was >95% and the immunoreactivity was retained. Both the labelled preparations were tested for bio-distribution in normal and infarcted rats. The activity accumulation in the infarcted region was ∼ 1.5 and 3.5 times as that in normal heart muscle for 125 I and 99m Tc labelled Mab-4G4 respectively. The major problem with the iodinated antibody was the in vivo deiodination resulting in very high percentage of activity in the thyroid. Although the fraction of the total activity associated with the infarcted heart is not very impressive, the fact that the activities with the infarcted and normal hearths are significantly different is heartening. With further optimisation of labelling and use of F(ab)'2 fragments, better delineation of the infarct sites is aspired. (author)