WorldWideScience

Sample records for thematic plant life

  1. The thematic plant life assessment network (PLAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.C.; McGarry, D. [EC/JRC Institute for Advanced Materials, Petten (Netherlands); Pedersen, H.H. [Brite Euram DG XII, Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-12-31

    The Plant Life Assessment Network (PLAN) is a Brite Euram Type II Thematic Network, initiated by the European Commission to facilitate structured co-operation between all cost shared action projects already funded by the Commission which fall under this common technical theme. The projects involved address a multiplicity of problems associated with plant life assessment and are drawn from Brite-Euram, Standards, Measurement and Testing, Nuclear Fission Safety and Esprit EC programmes. The main aim of the Network is to initiate, maintain and monitor a fruitful co-operation process between completed, ongoing and future EC R and D projects, thereby promoting improved cross fertilization and enhanced industrial exploitation of R and D results. As the project is in its infancy, this presentation covers the background to the initiative in some detail. In particular two key aspects are highlighted, namely, the requirement of the EC to launch such a network in the area of plant life assessment including its evolution from two small Thematic Research Actions and, secondly, the mechanism for structuring the Network in an ordered and proven way along the lines of the EC/JRC European Networks, PISC, NESC, AMES, ENIQ, ENAIS and EPERC. The operating and financial structure of the Network is detailed with reference made to the role of the executive Steering Committee, The Network Project Leader and the Network Financial Co-ordinator. Each of the 58 projects involved in the Network, representing a wide range of industrial sectors and disciplines, is distributed in terms of their efforts between 4 disciplinary Clusters covering Inspection, Instrumentation and Monitoring, Structural Mechanics and Maintenance. For each of these Clusters, an expert has been appointed as a Project Technical Auditor to support the elected Cluster Co-ordinator to define Cluster Tasks, which contribute to the overall objectives of the project. From the Project Representatives, Cluster Task Leaders and

  2. The thematic plant life assessment network (PLAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R C; McGarry, D [EC/JRC Institute for Advanced Materials, Petten (Netherlands); Pedersen, H H [Brite Euram DG XII, Brussels (Belgium)

    1999-12-31

    The Plant Life Assessment Network (PLAN) is a Brite Euram Type II Thematic Network, initiated by the European Commission to facilitate structured co-operation between all cost shared action projects already funded by the Commission which fall under this common technical theme. The projects involved address a multiplicity of problems associated with plant life assessment and are drawn from Brite-Euram, Standards, Measurement and Testing, Nuclear Fission Safety and Esprit EC programmes. The main aim of the Network is to initiate, maintain and monitor a fruitful co-operation process between completed, ongoing and future EC R and D projects, thereby promoting improved cross fertilization and enhanced industrial exploitation of R and D results. As the project is in its infancy, this presentation covers the background to the initiative in some detail. In particular two key aspects are highlighted, namely, the requirement of the EC to launch such a network in the area of plant life assessment including its evolution from two small Thematic Research Actions and, secondly, the mechanism for structuring the Network in an ordered and proven way along the lines of the EC/JRC European Networks, PISC, NESC, AMES, ENIQ, ENAIS and EPERC. The operating and financial structure of the Network is detailed with reference made to the role of the executive Steering Committee, The Network Project Leader and the Network Financial Co-ordinator. Each of the 58 projects involved in the Network, representing a wide range of industrial sectors and disciplines, is distributed in terms of their efforts between 4 disciplinary Clusters covering Inspection, Instrumentation and Monitoring, Structural Mechanics and Maintenance. For each of these Clusters, an expert has been appointed as a Project Technical Auditor to support the elected Cluster Co-ordinator to define Cluster Tasks, which contribute to the overall objectives of the project. From the Project Representatives, Cluster Task Leaders and

  3. Response to "Learning through Life": Thematic Area of Poverty Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This paper responds to the NIACE report "Learning through Life" in relation to the report's thematic area of poverty reduction. The paper draws on the thematic working papers that informed the report as well as wider literature on poverty. It takes a multidimensional perspective of poverty, drawing on Sen's concept of poverty as "unfreedom" and…

  4. Dreaming of a Better Life: Utopia as a Focus for Thematic, Interdisciplinary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resor, Cynthia; Gandy, S. Kay

    2014-01-01

    Throughout history humans have dreamed of a better life. This concept of utopia can be used as a central focus for thematic and interdisciplinary instruction. This approach has three key advantages. First, students recognize that certain themes are consistent across time and place and that realization can lead students to explore their own dreams…

  5. Plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, S.; Framatome, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Plant life assessment and extension studies have been performed by numerous companies all over the world. Critical equipment has been identified as well as various degradation mechanisms involved in the plant aging process. Nowadays one has to think what to implement to improve the existing situation in the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). FRAMATOME has undertaken this thought process in order to find the right answers and bring them to utilities facing either critical concern for plant life extension or the problem of management of power plant potential longevity. This is why we prepared a Plant Life Improvement Action Plan, comprising 10 (ten) major items described hereafter using examples of work performed by FRAMATOME for its utility customers desiring to manage the lives of their plants, both in France with EDF and abroad

  6. Nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negin, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear power industry's addressing of life extension is a natural trend in the maturation of this technology after 20 years of commercial operation. With increasing emphasis on how plants are operated, and less on how to build them, attention is turning on to maximizing the use of these substantial investments. The first studies of life extension were conducted in the period from 1978 and 1982. These were motivated by the initiation, by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), of studies to support decommissioning rulemaking. The basic conclusions of those early studies that life extension is feasible and worth pursuing have not been changed by the much more extensive investigations that have since been conducted. From an engineering perspective, life extension for nuclear plants is fundamentally the same as for fossil plants

  7. The development of global coherence in life narratives across adolescence: temporal, causal, and thematic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, Tilmann; de Silveira, Cybèle

    2008-05-01

    Extending the study of autobiographical narratives to entire life narratives, we tested the emergence of globally coherent life narratives in adolescence, as hypothesized by McAdams (1985). Participants were 102 children and young adults (ages 8, 12, 16, and 20 years) who narrated their lives twice. Between narrations, half of each age group participated in tasks designed to train autobiographical reasoning; the other half participated in control tasks. Coherence was measured by the relative frequency of local temporal, causal, and thematic linguistic indicators identified qualitatively at the level of propositions, as well as by quantitative global rating scales measuring the impressions of the listeners. Coherence increased across the age span. Overall, repeated narrating and training did not increase coherence. Crystallized and fluid intelligence, number of negative life events, and frequency of biographical practices and confiding in others did not contribute substantially to the prediction of coherence beyond age. Results are interpreted in the context of adolescent identity development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Children's experiences of managing Type 1 diabetes in everyday life: a thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D; Harden, J; Jepson, R; Lawton, J

    2017-08-01

    To explore the everyday experiences of children (aged ≤ 12 years) with Type 1 diabetes to identify factors that help or hinder diabetes self-management practices. Eight databases (Embase, Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsychInfo, ASSIA, ERIC and ProQuest Dissertations) were searched in 2016 to identify qualitative studies exploring children's views about self-managing diabetes. Data were extracted, coded and analysed using thematic synthesis. Eighteen studies from five countries were included in the review. Synthesis of studies' findings resulted in the identification of three overarching analytical themes. The first theme, 'Understandings of diabetes and involvement in self-management', outlines ways in which children understand diabetes and develop self-management responsibilities. The second theme, 'Disruption to life and getting on with it', reports children's frustrations at disruptions to everyday life when managing diabetes, and how attempts to appear normal to family and friends affect self-management practices. The third theme, 'Friends' support', describes how friends' reactions and responses to diabetes affect children's ability to appear normal and willingness to disclose information about diabetes, and support provided by 'informed friends', or peers with diabetes. Although the synthesis has identified how children's everyday life experiences inform ways in which they undertake diabetes self-management, it was not possible to determine new ways to provide support. To help children optimise their glycaemic control, further work should be undertaken to identify their need for support and which takes into account the potential ways in which parents, friends and peers can offer assistance. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  9. Plant life management at Loviisa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hytoenen, Y.; Savikoski, A.

    1998-01-01

    IVO, Power Engineering Ltd. has developed a company-wide approach to plant life management. The first stage of plant life management comprises operational and maintenance histories, design and plant inspection data using advanced computer systems. The life of the plant can be controlled by maintenance, refurbishment and inspection programs, and by varying the method of plant operation. On-line monitoring is needed, and cost control and training must be taken into account if the life of the plant is to be managed efficiently. Identifying the life-limiting factors is essential at Loviisa. It has been concentrated on the aging in the form of materials degradation due to fatigue, erosion, corrosion, radiation and thermal effects. Certain other life-limiting factors are also mentioned

  10. Nuclear power plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rorive, P.; Berthe, J.; Lafaille, J.P.; Eussen, G.

    1998-01-01

    Several definitions can be given to the design life of a nuclear power plant just as they can be attributed to the design life of an industrial installation: the book-keeping life which is the duration of the provision for depreciation of the plant, the licensed life which corresponds to the duration for which the plant license has been granted and beyond which a new license should be granted by the safety authorities, the design life which corresponds to the duration specified for ageing and fatigue calculations in the design of some selected components during the plant design phase, the technical life which is the duration of effective technical operation and finally the economic life corresponding to the duration of profitable operation of the plant compared with other means of electricity production. Plant life management refers to the measures taken to cope with the combination of licensed, design, technical and economical life. They can include repairs and replacements of components which have arrived to the end of their life due to known degradation processes such as fatigue, embrittlement, corrosion, wear, erosion, thermal ageing. In all cases however, it is of great importance to plan the intervention so as to minimise the economic impact. Predictive maintenance is used together with in-service inspection programs to fulfil this goal. The paper will go over the methodologies adopted in Belgium in all aspects of electrical, mechanical and civil equipment for managing plant life. (author)

  11. Leaf water stress detection utilizing thematic mapper bands 3, 4 and 5 in soybean plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holben, B. N.; Schutt, J. B.; Mcmurtrey, J., III

    1983-01-01

    The total and diffuse radiance responses of Thematic Mapper bands 3 (0.63-0.69 microns), 4 (0.76-0.90 microns), and 5 (1.55-1.75 microns) to water stress in a soybean canopy are compared. Polarization measurements were used to separate the total from the diffuse reflectance; the reflectances were compared statistically at a variety of look angles at 15 min intervals from about 09.00 until 14.00 hrs EST. The results suggest that remotely sensed data collected in the photographic infrared region (TM4) are sensitive to leaf water stress in a 100 percent canopy cover of soybeans, and that TM3 is less sensitive than TM4 for detection of reversible foliar water stress. The mean values of TM5 reflectance data show similar trends to TM4. The primary implication of this study is that remote sensing of water stress in green plant canopies is possible in TM4 from ground-based observations primarily through the indirect link of leaf geometry.

  12. Identifying the Types of Support Needed by Interprofessional Teams Providing Pediatric End-of-Life Care: A Thematic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riotte, Clare O; Kukora, Stephanie K; Keefer, Patricia M; Firn, Janice I

    2018-04-01

    Despite the number of interprofessional team members caring for children at the end of life, little evidence exists on how institutions can support their staff in providing care in these situations. We sought to evaluate which aspects of the hospital work environment were most helpful for multidisciplinary team members who care for patients at the end of life and identify areas for improvement to better address staff needs. Qualitative thematic analysis was completed of free-text comments from a survey distributed to interprofessional staff members involved in the care of a recently deceased pediatric patient. A total of 2701 surveys were sent; 890 completed. Free-text responses were provided by 306 interprofessional team members. Interprofessional team members involved in the care of a child who died at a 348 bed academic children's hospital in the Midwestern United States. Realist thematic analysis of free-text responses was completed in Dedoose using a deductive and inductive approach with line-by-line coding. Descriptive statistics of demographic information was completed using Excel. Thematic analysis of the 306 free-text responses identified three main support-related themes. Interprofessional team members desire to have (1) support through educational efforts such as workshops, (2) support from colleagues, and (3) support through institutional practices. Providers who participate in end-of-life work benefit from ongoing support through education, interpersonal relationships, and institutional practices. Addressing these areas from an interprofessional perspective enables staff to provide the optimal care for patients, patients' families, and themselves.

  13. Managing BWR plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianni, P.W.; Kiss, E.

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies have confirmed that extending the useful life of a large nuclear plant can be justified with very high cost benefit ratio. In turn, experience with large power plant systems and equipment has shown that a well-integrated and -managed plan is essential in order to achieve potential economic benefits. Consequently, General Electric's efforts have been directed at establishing a life extension plan that considers alternative options and cost-effective steps that can be taken in early life, those appropriate during middle life, and those required in late life. This paper briefly describes an approach designed to provide the plant owner a maximum of flexibility in developing a life extension plan

  14. Plant life management in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillemot, F.

    1998-01-01

    The life management in Hungary is in an early stage. The preparation of a suitable database, development of maintenance systems and education of the plant and consultant staff is essential. The Act of Nuclear Safety, the introduction of the 10 years periodic safety review system (periodic licence extension) is a good basis for life management. At the same time the economic changes in the country make the life management difficult. Presently most important task is to prepare the technical environment and the methodology for NPP Life management, and within a few years, when the economy would be consolidated, a real life management will be performed

  15. NDE and plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.N.; Ammirato, F.V.; Nottingham, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    Component life extension is the process of making run-repair-replace decisions for plant components and includes a thorough analysis of the capability of the component to perform throughout the projected lifetime. For many critical plant components, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is essential in determining whether the component can be operated safely and economically in the extended life period and to help utilities determine safe and economic inspection intervals. NDE technology is required for not only detecting defects that could grow to a size of concern during extended lifetimes, but also will be called upon to measure and monitor accumulating material degradation that strongly affects component reliability. This paper discusses the role of NDE in life extension by reviewing three examples--a reactor pressure vessel, steam turbine-generator rotors, and generator retaining rings. In each example, the contribution of NDE to life extension decisions is described. (author)

  16. A systematic review and thematic synthesis of quality of life in the informal carers of cancer patients with cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelwright, Sally; Darlington, Anne-Sophie; Hopkinson, Jane B; Fitzsimmons, Deborah; Johnson, Colin

    2016-02-01

    Informal carers of cancer patients with cachexia face additional challenges to those encountered by informal carers in general because of the central role food and eating play in everyday life. Patient weight loss and anorexia, core features of cancer cachexia, are frequent causes of distress in caregivers. Identification of quality of life issues can inform the development of interventions for both caregivers and patients and facilitate communication with healthcare professionals. To identify quality of life issues that are relevant to carers of cancer patients with cachexia. A systematic review and thematic synthesis of the qualitative literature were conducted. Reporting followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and PsycARTICLES were searched for publications dated from January 1980 to February 2015 using search terms relating to cancer, cachexia, quality of life and carers. Papers written in the English language, featuring direct quotes from the carers of adult patients with any cancer diagnosis and cachexia or problems with weight loss or anorexia, were included. Five themes were extracted from the 16 identified studies. These highlighted the impact on everyday life, the attempts of some carers to take charge, the need for healthcare professional's input, conflict with the patient and negative emotions. The complexity of caring for a cancer patient with cachexia translates into a range of problems and experiences for informal carers. By addressing the impact of caring for a patient with cancer cachexia on carers, both caregiver and patient quality of life may improve. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Japanese plant life extension program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitsugu, M.

    1988-01-01

    As one of the main items of up-grading light water reactor program in Japan, plant life extension has been recommended by Advisory Committee of Ministry of International trade and Industry and the practical work has begun to be carried out. It is overviewed here. After preliminary works, including investigation on the state of the arts through a entrusted survey work, participation in international meetings and exchange of informations with related organizations, actual work has just started. So-called critical components based on our experience during the past 17 years have been listed up and some experimental works inaugurated as from 1987

  18. In Search of the Nordic Working Life Model; Introduction to the Thematic Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Kasvio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this issue is “in search of the Nordic working life model.” The main reason for choosing this theme is related to the widespread observation that several features of the Nordic institutions of work have been considered atypical when compared with those prevailing in other advanced industrial societies. We are not, of course, the first to make such an observation, and much effort has been spent in order to sort out what we actually talk about when we apply a term like the Nordic model. However, in spite of this effort, we are still toiling with the question of what it is that entitles us to talk about a specific order. Furthermore, if it really exists, will it be able to survive in the face of far-reaching changes that may be expected to take place in the coming decades? On what kinds of resources may it be based in the future? In the following, we will present some speculations upon such questions while distinguishing between qualities at the societal and organizational level. This may, of course, be considered an artificial differentiation since organizations are a part of society. Nonetheless, we choose to apply this distinction based on analytical reasons. In this way we hope to better illustrate how these entities are linked together in a mutual relationship, thus contributing both to stability and to change. At the end of the introduction, we will give a brief orientation of the content of this issue (...

  19. A thematic review of life cycle assessment (LCA) applied to pig production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAuliffe, Graham A.; Chapman, Deborah V.; Sage, Colin L.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial livestock production is known to have significant impacts on the environment. Pig production is a complex system which involves the production of animal feed, transportation, animal rearing and waste management. One tool for assessing the environmental performance of such complex systems is life cycle assessment (LCA). LCA has been applied to pig production considerably to date. This paper provides a chronological review of state-of-the-art pig production LCAs under three themes: feed production; entire-system livestock rearing; and waste management. The study considers how LCA applications have addressed technological improvements in animal husbandry, and highlights methodological limitations, particularly related to cross-study comparisons. Recent research demonstrates crude protein reduction in feed and anaerobic treatment of pig excreta resulting in bioenergy production are the key targets for environmental performance improvements related to pig production. - Highlights: • An extensive review of LCA applied to pig production is provided chronologically over the past decade. • Individual studies have been categorised into feed, whole-system pig production and waste management themes. • We consider how LCAs have addressed state-of-the-art pig husbandry. • We offer a discussion on key findings, limitations and future research.

  20. A thematic review of life cycle assessment (LCA) applied to pig production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAuliffe, Graham A., E-mail: g.a.mcauliffe@umail.ucc.ie [Department of Geography, University College Cork, O' Donovan' s Road, Cork (Ireland); School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University College Cork, Distillery Fields, North Mall, Cork (Ireland); Chapman, Deborah V. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University College Cork, Distillery Fields, North Mall, Cork (Ireland); Sage, Colin L. [Department of Geography, University College Cork, O' Donovan' s Road, Cork (Ireland)

    2016-01-15

    Commercial livestock production is known to have significant impacts on the environment. Pig production is a complex system which involves the production of animal feed, transportation, animal rearing and waste management. One tool for assessing the environmental performance of such complex systems is life cycle assessment (LCA). LCA has been applied to pig production considerably to date. This paper provides a chronological review of state-of-the-art pig production LCAs under three themes: feed production; entire-system livestock rearing; and waste management. The study considers how LCA applications have addressed technological improvements in animal husbandry, and highlights methodological limitations, particularly related to cross-study comparisons. Recent research demonstrates crude protein reduction in feed and anaerobic treatment of pig excreta resulting in bioenergy production are the key targets for environmental performance improvements related to pig production. - Highlights: • An extensive review of LCA applied to pig production is provided chronologically over the past decade. • Individual studies have been categorised into feed, whole-system pig production and waste management themes. • We consider how LCAs have addressed state-of-the-art pig husbandry. • We offer a discussion on key findings, limitations and future research.

  1. Remaining life assessment and plant life extension in high temperature components of power and petrochemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explains the reasons why plant life can so easily be extended beyond the original design life. It details the means by which plant life extension is normally achieved, a structured plan for achieving such plant life extension at reasonable cost and some of the key techniques used in assessing the remaining life and discusses the simple repair options available. (author)

  2. Thematic strategy on sustainable use of plant protection products. Prospects and requirements for transferring proposals for plant protection products to biocides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartiser, Stefan [Hydrotox GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Lueskow, Heike [Institut fuer Oekologie und Politik GmbH (OEKOPOL), Hamburg (Germany); Gross, Rita [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    The sustainable use of pesticides pursues, independent of the authorisation of single products, the aim to minimise existing environmental risks of pesticide use and therefore contribute to the reduction of its impact on the environmental protection goals. The Thematic Strategy (TS) and the Framework Directive 2009/128/EC (FWD) on sustainable use of pesticides have so far only been implemented for plant protection products (PPP). For biocides there exists no harmonised approach. Within the project the possibilities and requirements for transferring measures of the FWD to the biocide area have been analysed, with specific focus on wood preservatives, insecticides, and antifouling products. Several biocidal active substances are found in the outlets of sewage treatment plants and in surface water, but an inventory of the present environmental impact as well as reliable data on biocide consumption and use patterns, which could be used to identify key action areas, are generally missing. These data are urgently needed for the development of suitable indicators and the definition of the objectives. Sustainable use of biocides addresses the three issues; social, environmental and economic impact at which the ecological background assigns the borderline and beam barrier of the economic and social development. A systematic analysis of the instruments for improving sustainable use of pesticides described in TS and FWD indicated that many issues can be transferred to the biocide area. This concerns e.g. education and training, requirements for sales, the establishment of awareness programmes, control of the machinery for biocide application, the development of best practice standards based on integrated pest management principles, and the collection of statistics on biocide consumption. Some biocide specific characteristics need to be considered: E.g. unlike PPP, the intended use of some biocides is to be directly applied in water bodies or indoors. Furthermore for some

  3. An integrated approach to plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredlund, L.

    1998-01-01

    Plant life is no longer determined by components, almost everything can be replaced. A plant life management program should aim at actions and replacements being performed at the right time. In order to manage this there is need for experience feedback systems, a plant specific risk study and safety upgrades. (author)

  4. Nuclear plant life cycle costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Life cycle costs of nuclear power plants in the United States are discussed. The author argues that these costs have been mishandled or neglected. Decommissioning costs have escalated, e.g. from $328 per unit in 1991 to $370 in 1993 for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, though they still only amount to less than 0.1 cent per kWh. Waste management has been complicated in the U.S. by the decision to abandon civilian reprocessing; by the year 2000, roughly 30 U.S. nuclear power units will have filled their storage pools; dry storage has been delayed, and will be an expense not originally envisaged. Some examples of costs of major component replacement are provided. No single component has caused as much operational disruption and financial penalties as the steam generator. Operation and maintenance costs have increased steadily, and now amount to more than 70% of production costs. A strategic plan by the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (of U.S. utilities) will ensure that the ability to correctly operate and maintain a nuclear power plant is built into the original design. 6 figs

  5. The significance of plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrddin Davies, L.

    2000-01-01

    The paper carries a definition and describes Plant life and plant life management. It also describes the procedures and defines the categorisation of components giving examples and referring to key components. Examples of 'good practice and guidance' are given for the establishment and implementation of plant life management programmes. A description is given of recent and current IAEA activities under the aegis of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Life Management (IWG-LMNPP). Some of the future activities in this field are described. (author)

  6. Remanent life management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, J.; Gomez Santamaria, J.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of life in the nuclear power plants is very special. The main aceptions are: design life, economic life and useful life. The good management of NPP will do the prolongation of the life in the NPP. The remanent of management life summarizes certain activities in order to prolong the lifetime of the NPP. This article presents the activities of the RML program, the technological program and its benefits

  7. Life management plants at nuclear power plants PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, G.

    2014-01-01

    Since in 2009 the CSN published the Safety Instruction IS-22 (1) which established the regulatory framework the Spanish nuclear power plants must meet in regard to Life Management, most of Spanish nuclear plants began a process of convergence of their Life Management Plants to practice 10 CFR 54 (2), which is the current standard of Spanish nuclear industry for Ageing Management, either during the design lifetime of the plant, as well as for Long-Term Operation. This article describe how Life Management Plans are being implemented in Spanish PWR NPP. (Author)

  8. Plant life management optimized utilization of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzinger, H.; Erve, M.

    1999-01-01

    For safe, reliable and economical nuclear power generation it is of central importance to understand, analyze and manage aging-related phenomena and to apply this information in the systematic utilization and as-necessary extension of the service life of components and systems. An operator's overall approach to aging and plant life management which also improves performance characteristics can help to optimize plant operating economy. In view of the deregulation of the power generation industry with its increased competition, nuclear power plants must today also increasingly provide for or maintain a high level of plant availability and low power generating costs. This is a difficult challenge even for the newest, most modern plants, and as plants age they can only remain competitive if a plant operator adopts a strategic approach which takes into account the various aging-related effects on a plant-wide basis. The significance of aging and plant life management for nuclear power plants becomes apparent when looking at their age: By the year 2000 roughly fifty of the world's 434 commercial nuclear power plants will have been in operation for thirty years or more. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency, as many as 110 plants will have reached the thirty-year service mark by the year 2005. In many countries human society does not push the construction of new nuclear power plants and presumably will not change mind within the next ten years. New construction licenses cannot be expected so that for economical and ecological reasons existing plants have to be operated unchallengeably. On the other hand the deregulation of the power production market is asking just now for analysis of plant life time to operate the plants at a high technical and economical level until new nuclear power plants can be licensed and constructed. (author)

  9. BALTICA III. Plant condition and life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietanen, S.; Auerkari, P.

    1995-01-01

    The BALTICA III, International Conference on Plant Condition and Life Management was held on June 6 - 8, 1995 on board Silja Serenade on its cruise between Helsinki - Stockholm and at the Forest Lake Hotel Korpilampi in Espoo. BALTICA III provides forum for the transfer of technology from applied research to practise. This is the second volume of the publications, which contain the presentations given at the BALTICA III, Plant Condition and Life Management. A total of 45 articles report recent experience in plant condition and life management. The conference focuses on recent applications that have been demonstrated for the benefit of safe and economical operation of power plants. Practical approach is emphasised, including the presentations that aim to provide insight into new techniques, improvements in assessment methodologies as well as maintenance strategies. Compared to earlier occasions in the BALTICA series, a new aspect is in the applications of knowledge-based systems in the service of power plant life management. (orig.)

  10. Plant life management and maintenance technologies for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Tsukasa; Aoki, Masataka; Shimura, Takao; Kaimori, Kimihiro; Koike, Masahiro

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power generation occupying an important position for energy source in Japan and supplying about one third of total electric power usage is now required for further upgrading of its economics under regulation relaxation of electric power business. And, under execution retardation of its new planning plant, it becomes important to operate the already established plants for longer term and to secure their stability. Therefore, technical development in response to the plant life elongation is promoted under cooperation of the Ministry of Economics and Industries, electric power companies, literate, and plant manufacturers. Under such conditions, the Hitachi, Ltd. has progressed some technical developments on check inspection, repairs and maintenance for succession of the already established nuclear power plants for longer term under securing of their safety and reliability. And in future, by proposing the check inspection and maintenance program combined with these technologies, it is planned to exert promotion of maintenance program with minimum total cost from a viewpoint of its plant life. Here were described on technologies exerted in the Hitachi, Ltd. such as construction of plant maintenance program in response to plant life elongation agreeing with actual condition of each plant, yearly change mechanism grasping, life evaluation on instruments and materials necessary for maintenance, adequate check inspection, repairs and exchange, and so forth. (G.K.)

  11. CANDU plant life management - An integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlebois, P.; Hart, R.S.; Hopkins, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Commercial versions of CANDU reactors were put into service starting more than 25 years ago. The first unit of Ontario Hydro's Pickering A station was put into service in 1971, and Bruce A in 1977. Most CANDU reactors, however, are only now approaching their mid-life of 15 to 20 years of operation. In particular, the first series of CANDU 6 plants which entered service in the early 1980's were designed for a 30 year life and are now approaching mid life. The current CANDU 6 design is based on a 40 year life as a result of advancement in design and materials through research and development. In order to assure safe and economic operation of these reactors, a comprehensive CANDU Plant Life Management (PLIM) program is being developed from the knowledge gained during the operation of Ontario Hydro's Pickering, Bruce, and Darlington stations, worldwide information from CANDU 6 stations, CANDU research and development programs, and other national and international sources. This integration began its first phase in 1994, with the identification of most of the critical systems structures and components in these stations, and a preliminary assessment of degradation and mechanisms that could affect their fitness for service for their planned life. Most of these preliminary assessments are now complete, together with the production of the first iteration of Life Management Plans for several of the systems and components. The Generic CANDU 6 PLIM program is now reaching its maturity, with formal processes to systematically identify and evaluate the major CSSCs in the station, and a plan to ensure that the plant surveillance, operation, and maintenance programs monitor and control component degradation well within the original design specifications essential for the plant life attainment. A Technology Watch program is being established to ensure that degradation mechanisms which could impact on plant life are promptly investigated and mitigating programs established. The

  12. Nuclear plant life - A business decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joosten, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Regarding the future of the nuclear power option, many scenarios have been put forth over the years. The most commonly accepted projections for installed nuclear capacity show it growing at a rate of about 2% per year throughout the next few decades. These projections appear modes on the surface. However, underlying the projections are critical assumptions and sometimes misconceptions about the lifetimes of existing reactors and how they are determined. The notion of a 40 year plant life is very common. Consequently, many projections start either with the assumption that no plants will be retired in the near terms or with the assumption that each retired plant will be replaced by another nuclear plant after 40 years. Effectively, these assumptions yield future projections for installed capacity that might be characterized as low growth, medium growth and high growth scenarios - or grow, grow, grow. The question remains as to whether or not these assumptions accurately model the driving forces and constraints to nuclear development. After all, there is no scientific basis for believing that all plants, PWRs BWRs, RBMKs, etc., should have the same 40 year life. Most power plant owners purchase the plant for the main reason of supplying electrical power to their consumer. For these owners, electricity production is a day to day commercial activity with various alternatives on how to achieve the prime objective. The decision of which electricity generation alternative to select (gas, coal, nuclear or renewable energy) and how long to operate the plant before replacing it with a new one is essentially a business decision. The paper discusses ageing, the nuclear plant life decision process, the factors which influence the decision and their ramifications regarding the near term growth of nuclear power capacity. The modelling of nuclear plant lifetimes is also discussed. (author). 5 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  13. Work-Life and Well-Being in U.K. Therapeutic Prison Officers: A Thematic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Emma J; Egan, Helen H; Jackson, Craig A; Tonkin, Matthew

    2018-06-01

    Previous research has clearly demonstrated the positive impact of therapeutic interventions on offenders' well-being. Much less is known about the impact on prison staff facilitating and delivering such interventions. We employed qualitative methodology to capture a deeper understanding of the work of therapeutic prison officers. Seven prison officers working in a U.K. Category B therapeutic community prison were interviewed about their working lives, including their own participation in therapy. Following a thematic analysis approach, key findings indicated that the physical and cultural work environment was very important to staff; the therapeutic element of their job role, although demanding, was both satisfying and rewarding; and that working in a therapeutic prison environment provided the opportunity for personal as well as professional development. We conclude that further attention should be given to the unique nature of therapeutic prison work and the positive impact it can have on well-being at work.

  14. Plant Betterment as Anticipated Measure For Plant Life Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvat, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    A lot of modifications have been made since critically on each of the 28 standardized 900 MW class PWR units in France. Most of this technical upgrading was accomplished to facilitate operation, improve availability, or bring the unit design in line with evolving regulatory requirements, but a substantial part of the modifications was dedicated to Plant Life Management. As part of the program launched by EDF for plant life management, this paper introduces the Frustum's contribution for plant betterment and enhancement of reactor operation concurrently to ensure or extend plant service life. The solutions contemplated in this field are provided to reduce the frequency of unexpected reactor trip occurrences, to mitigate their negative effects or to smooth off the reactor operation and thus the magnitude of associated transients. The lifetime evaluation of NPP is basically an economical exercise, which tries to determine how long the operation of the plant will remain competitive, taking into account the long term perspective maintenance costs. There cannot be any conflict between lifetime and safety considerations, based upon the pituitary requisite that the safety requirement must be met at any time of the operation. Plant life management needs a consistent approach that can not be improvised on a case by case basis. Instead, it must be kept in mind from the very beginning of unit operation. This is the sense of the backfitting and technical upgrading carried out in France for the PWRs of the 900 MW class. It is thanks to this necessary anticipation that plant life will be actually managed, giving benefit both from the standpoint of availability and from that of the service lives of sensitive components. Substantial savings will thus be obtained

  15. Cost savings from extended life nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, L.R. Jr.; Deutsch, T.R.; Schenler, W.W.

    1988-09-01

    This study assesses the costs and benefits of nuclear power plant life extension (NUPLEX) for the overall US under widely varying economic assumptions and compares these with alternative new coal- fired plants (NEWCOAL). It is found that NUPLEX saves future electricity consumers more than 3 cents/-kwh compared with NEWCOAL. The NUPLEX costs and benefits for existing individual US nuclear power plants under base-line, or most likely, assumptions are assessed to determine the effects of the basic plant design and plant age. While benefits vary widely, virtually all units would have a positive benefit from NUPLEX. The study also presents a cost-benefit analysis of the nuclear industry's planned advanced light water reactor (ALWR). It is concluded that ALWR offers electrical power at a substantially lower cost than NEWCOAL. 9 refs., 6 figs

  16. Plant life management (PLIM) in Swiss nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stejskal, Jan; Steudler, Daniel; Thoma, Kurt; Fuchs, Reinhard

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Swiss Utility Working group for ageing Management (AM) presented their programme for the first time at the PLIM/PLEX 93. In the meantime the key guideline documents have been prepared and the most so called S teckbrief - files for Safety Class 1 (SC1) are issued. The 'Steckbrief' file is a summary of the component history and includes the results of the Reviews performed and measures taken or planned to counteract ageing mechanisms. The scope of these activities does not only serve the important aspect of reliable plant service but also facilitates component and plant life extension feasibility. The older plants have been operated now for up to 30 years, so PLEX will become a more important topic for Swiss NPP. It is very encouraging, that there is an official memorandum of the Swiss authority with the clear statement, that they could not identify any technical reason, why the older plants should not extend their design life of 40 years for at least 10 and the younger for 20 years. The result of this is that a well established Ageing Management Programme (AMP) provide a good basis for Plant Life Extension (PLEX), e.g. the Swiss AMP has to be seen as a PLIM. (author)

  17. Life management of SG for WWER plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trunov, N. B.; Dragunov, Yu. G.; Banyuk, G. F.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, 252 steam generators (SG) of horizontal type are in operation at WWER plants constructed by the Russian designs. In connection with end of the specified service life of the reactor plant equal to 30 years the activities are performed on service life extension of the main equipment including the SG. At some Units, throughout the design service life of SG there were problems resulting in necessity of SG replacement. At the same time the SGs at some Units are in successful operation above the design service life. This report deals with the peculiarities of operation of the horizontal SGs and the problems to be highlighted as the most important for service life extension. The main component to determine possibility for SG service life extension is the SG tubing. As the operating experience shows it is water chemistry of the secondary circuit that is the main factor influencing operability of the SG tubing. Therefore, differences in water chemistry organization leads to significant differences in operability of the SG tubing at various Units and in some cases within one Unit. Owing to the fact that the cases of water chemistry disturbance and the process of tubes fouling with the corrosion products of the main condensate system are not excluded, the damages continue to occur. Tube integrity shall be inspected by eddy current method using the various instrument complexes. This method has certain disadvantages but allows to estimate the degree and direction of degradation processes. The results of eddy current test (ECT) can be used to determine the plugging criterion for defective tubes. The significant number of defective tubes at some Units makes a choice of the plugging criterion to be an important problem, on which solution the SG safety, reliability and service life depends. The report deals with directions of activities in service life management for the SG at WWER plants. Main activities are improvement of water chemistry and non-destructive tests.(author)

  18. Actions concerning nuclear power plant life evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chocron, M.; Fabbri, S.; Mizrahi, R.; Savino, E.J.; Versaci, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    One of the main activities to be undertaken by CNEA will be to provide technological assistance to NASA in problems concerning NPP operation. Works on life extensions of NPP are included in these activities. To fulfill these requirements the Atomic Energy National Commission (CNEA) has constituted a technical committee for Nuclear Power Plants Support (CAPCEN). CAPCEN should be the knowledge reservoir of those issues concerning the performance, safety and life extension of Nuclear Power Plants. One of CAPCEN's most important activities is to promote research work connected with such issues. The main technical areas are: Pressure Vessel and Piping, Heat Exchanges and Fuel Channels and Reactor Inner Components. Efforts are focused on the identification of the main components susceptible of ageing, the study of their ageing mechanisms, the follow-up of their behaviour during operation, and the measures taken to extend their life. (author)

  19. "It Was the Best Decision of My Life": a thematic content analysis of former medical tourists' patient testimonials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohm, Carly; Snyder, Jeremy

    2015-01-22

    Medical tourism is international travel with the intention of receiving medical care. Medical tourists travel for many reasons, including cost savings, limited domestic access to specific treatments, and interest in accessing unproven interventions. Medical tourism poses new health and safety risks to patients, including dangers associated with travel following surgery, difficulty assessing the quality of care abroad, and complications in continuity of care. Online resources are important to the decision-making of potential medical tourists and the websites of medical tourism facilitation companies (companies that may or may not be affiliated with a clinic abroad and help patients plan their travel) are an important source of online information for these individuals. These websites fail to address the risks associated with medical tourism, which can undermine the informed decision-making of potential medical tourists. Less is known about patient testimonials on these websites, which can be a particularly powerful influence on decision-making. A thematic content analysis was conducted of patient testimonials hosted on the YouTube channels of four medical tourism facilitation companies. Five videos per company were viewed. The content of these videos was analyzed and themes identified and counted for each video. Ten main themes were identified. These themes were then grouped into three main categories: facilitator characteristics (e.g., mentions of the facilitator by name, reference to the price of the treatment or to cost savings); service characteristics (e.g., the quality and availability of the surgeon, the quality and friendliness of the support staff); and referrals (e.g., referrals to other potential medical tourists). These testimonials were found either not to mention risks associated with medical tourism or to claim that these risks can be effectively managed through the use of the facilitation company. The failure fully to address the risks of medical

  20. Risk informed life cycle plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Ralph S. III; Nutt, Mark M.

    2003-01-01

    Many facility life cycle activities including design, construction, fabrication, inspection and maintenance are evolving from a deterministic to a risk-informed basis. The risk informed approach uses probabilistic methods to evaluate the contribution of individual system components to total system performance. Total system performance considers both safety and cost considerations including system failure, reliability, and availability. By necessity, a risk-informed approach considers both the component's life cycle and the life cycle of the system. In the nuclear industry, risk-informed approaches, namely probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) or probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), have become a standard tool used to evaluate the safety of nuclear power plants. Recent studies pertaining to advanced reactor development have indicated that these new power plants must provide enhanced safety over existing nuclear facilities and be cost-competitive with other energy sources. Risk-informed approaches, beyond traditional PRA, offer the opportunity to optimize design while considering the total life cycle of the plant in order to realize these goals. The use of risk-informed design approaches in the nuclear industry is only beginning, with recent promulgation of risk-informed regulations and proposals for risk-informed codes. This paper briefly summarizes the current state of affairs regarding the use of risk-informed approaches in design. Key points to fully realize the benefit of applying a risk-informed approach to nuclear power plant design are then presented. These points are equally applicable to non-nuclear facilities where optimization for cost competitiveness and/or safety is desired. (author)

  1. CANDU plant life management - An integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    An integrated approach to plant life management has been developed for CANDU reactors. Strategies, methods, and procedures have been developed for assessment of critical systems structures and components and for implementing a reliability centred maintenance program. A Technology Watch program is being implemented to eliminate 'surprises'. Specific work has been identified for 1998. AECL is working on the integrated program with CANDU owners and seeks participation from other CANDU owners

  2. Life extension for German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2005-01-01

    The Federation of German Industries (BDI) commissioned a study of the ''Economic Effects of Alternative Lifetimes of Nuclear Power Plants in Germany.'' The expert organizations invited as authors were the Power Economy Institute of the University of Cologne (EWI) and Energy Environment Forecast Analysis GmbH (EEFA), Berlin. The reasons for commissioning the Study include the changed framework conditions (deregulation, CO 2 emission certificate trading, worldwide competition for resources), which have altered the energy supply situation in Europe. The findings of the Study were presented to the public by the BDI on October 26, 2005. The study deals with two scenarios of extended lifetimes for German nuclear power plants of 40 and 60 years as against the existing regulations with plant lifetimes limited to approx. 32 years. The longer service lives of plants are reflected in reduced electricity generation costs and thus may have a positive influence on electricity prices. Moreover, there would be additional growth of production together with additional jobs, all of which would add up to nearly 42,000 persons for all sectors of the economy as compared to the basic scenario. Also, CO 2 emissions could be curbed by up to 50 million tons of carbon dioxide. The Study offers ample and valid reasons in favor of extending the lifetimes of nuclear power plants. In the interest of general welfare, politics would be well advised to relax the restrictions on plant life in the course of this legislative term. (orig.)

  3. RIMAP demonstration project. Pat. 1: Risk based life management of piping system in power plant Heilbronn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareiss, J.; Puck, P.; Matschecko, B.; Jovanovic, A.; Balos, D.; Perunicic

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of EU project RIMAP [1] a new European Guideline for optimized risk based maintenance and inspection planning of industrial plants (RBLM - Risk Based Life Management) is being developed. The RIMAP project consists of the three clustered projects: development (RTD), demonstration (DEMO) and thematic network (TN). Current work and future, planned work in RIMAP demonstration project on applications of the RIMAP methodology in power plants are presented briefly in the first part of the paper. Also presented in the paper are the results of a preliminary analysis of piping system in power plant Heilbronn using the concept of risk-based monitoring as part of overall concept of risk-based life management. Shortly the following issues are discussed in the paper: identification of critical components, application of a multilevel risk analysis (..from ''screening'' to ''detailed analysis''), determination of PoF - Probability of Failure, determination of COF - Consequence of Failure and optimation of inspection and maintenance plan. (orig.)

  4. Considering plant life management influences on new plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, R.F.; Choy, E.; Soulard, M.; Nickerson, J.H.; Hopwood, J.

    2003-01-01

    After operating successfully for more than half their design life, owners of CANDU reactors are now engaging in Plant Life Management (PLiM) activities to ensure not only life attainment, but also life extension. For several years, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) has been working with domestic and offshore CANDU utilities on a comprehensive and integrated CANDU PLiM program that will see existing CANDU plants successfully and reliably operate through their design life and beyond. To support the PLiM program development, a significant level of infrastructure has been, and continues to be, developed at AECL. This includes the development of databases that document relevant knowledge and background to allow for a more accessible and complete understanding of degradation issues and the strategies needed to deal with these issues. As the level of integration with various project, services and R and D activities in AECL increases, this infrastructure is growing to encompass a wider range of design, operations and maintenance details to support comprehensive and quantitative assessment of CANDU stations. With the maturation of the PLiM program, these processes were adapted for application to newer plants. In particular, a fully integrated program was developed that interrelates the design basis, operations, safety, and reliability and maintenance strategies, as applied to meet plant design goals. This has led to the development of the maintenance-based design concept. The various PLiM technologies, developed and applied in the above programs with operating stations, are being modified and tailored to assist with the new plant design processes to assure that ACR- Advanced CANDU Reactor meets its targets for operation, maintenance, and lifetime performance. Currently, the ACR, developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), is being designed with features to increase capacity factors, to reduce the risk of major equipment failures, to improve access to key components

  5. Ageing and plant life management software Comsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nopper, H.; Daeuwel, W.; Kastner, W. [Siemens Nuclear Power GmbH (SNP), Erlangen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Cost-effective power generation is becoming more important as the prices charged by power producers in the energy market continue to fall. To ease the cost situation there is a growing demand for innovative maintenance management methods which allow power plants to be economically operated over their entire lifetime. The purpose of a systematic ageing and plant life management program is to allow the lifetime of plant components to be planned, and to indicate when a component has reached the end of its effective lifetime before it fails. Another important function of such programs is to increase the availability of power plants as they age, and to enable implementation of a targeted maintenance strategy in terms of its economic and technical effect. Implementation of such programs requires the existence of detailed information concerning the status of the components as well as their operating conditions. Based on this information, an understanding of how the relevant ageing and degradation mechanisms work enables a prediction to be made concerning component lifetime. Advanced software programs provide such predictions at reasonable cost across all systems. (author)

  6. Ageing and plant life management software Comsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nopper, H.; Daeuwel, W.; Kastner, W.

    2001-01-01

    Cost-effective power generation is becoming more important as the prices charged by power producers in the energy market continue to fall. To ease the cost situation there is a growing demand for innovative maintenance management methods which allow power plants to be economically operated over their entire lifetime. The purpose of a systematic ageing and plant life management program is to allow the lifetime of plant components to be planned, and to indicate when a component has reached the end of its effective lifetime before it fails. Another important function of such programs is to increase the availability of power plants as they age, and to enable implementation of a targeted maintenance strategy in terms of its economic and technical effect. Implementation of such programs requires the existence of detailed information concerning the status of the components as well as their operating conditions. Based on this information, an understanding of how the relevant ageing and degradation mechanisms work enables a prediction to be made concerning component lifetime. Advanced software programs provide such predictions at reasonable cost across all systems. (author)

  7. Plant maintenance and plant life extension issue, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2008-01-01

    The focus of the March-April issue is on plant maintenance and plant life extension. Major articles include the following: Exciting time to be at the U.S. NRC, by Dale Klein, Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Extraordinary steps to ensure a minimal environmental impact, by George Vanderheyden, UniStar Nuclear Energy, LLC.; Focused on consistent reduction of outages, by Kevin Walsh, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; On the path towards operational excellence, by Ricardo Perez, Westinghouse Electric Company; Ability to be refuelled on-line, by Ian Trotman, CANDU Services, Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd.; ASCA Application for maintenance of SG secondary side, by Patrick Wagner, Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Phillip Battaglia and David Selfridge, Westinghouse Electric Company; and, An integral part of the landscape and lives, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The Industry Innovation article is titled Steam generator bowl drain repairs, by John Makar and Richard Gimple, Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation

  8. Plant life management study of Japanese nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Toshihiko

    1999-01-01

    Already more than twenty-five years have passed since the first commercial LWR plant went into operation in Japan. In this situation, MITI and 3 electric utilities (Tokyo Electric Power Company, Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc, Japan Atomic Power Company) have started a plant life management (PLM) study from 1994 to evaluate the long-term integrity of major systems, structures and components of aged LWR plants and ensure the safe, steady and highly reliable long-term operation. It consists of two phases: part 1 study and part 2 study. The part 1 study started in 1994 and focused on seven typical safety-related components. The part 1 study reports were made public in 1996. The part 2 study started in 1997. In this study we reviewed not only safety-related components but also plant reliability related components. The part 2 study reports were opened to the public in February 1999. This paper shows a summary of the part 2 study and our future PLM program. (author)

  9. Using Plants to Explore the Nature & Structural Complexity of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Ava R.

    2014-01-01

    Use of real specimens brings the study of biology to life. This activity brings easily acquired plant specimens into the classroom to tackle common alternative conceptions regarding life, size, complexity, the nature of science, and plants as multicellular organisms. The activity occurs after a discussion of the characteristics of life and engages…

  10. 9. Nuclear power plant service life prolongation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evropin, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    The problem of prolongation of nuclear power plant service life duration is discussed. A schematic diagram of the program developed in the course of activities dealing with NPP service time prolongation is shown and analyzed in details. It is shown that the basic moment when determining the strategy for NPP service time prolongation is the positive confirmation of the agreement between the NPP safety provisions and modern safety requirements. The other very important aspect of the problem is engineering substantiation of the measures assuring the reactor operation prolongation. The conclusion is made that available methods of recovering reactor materials properties, main components repair and replacement, the modern techniques for nondestructive testing of metals and NPP pipelines, as well as the developed approaches to reactor facility safety improvements make the prolongation of the Russian NPP service lifetimes possible from engineering viewpoint and economically desirable

  11. Nuclear power plant life management and longer-term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This book, prepared by NEA member country experts, contains data and analyses relevant to nuclear power plant life management and the plants' extended, longer-term operation (LTO). It addresses technical, economic and environmental aspects and provides insights into the benefits and challenges of plant life management and LTO. It will be of interest to policy makers and senior managers in the nuclear power sector and governmental bodies involved in nuclear power programme design and management. The data and information on current trends in nuclear power plant life management will be useful to researchers and analysts working in the field of nuclear energy system assessment. (authors)

  12. Framatome ANP worldwide experience in ageing and plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daeuwel, W.; Kastner, B.; Nopper, H.

    2004-01-01

    The deregulation of the power generation industry has resulted in increased competitive pressure and is forcing operators to improve plant operating economy while maintaining high levels of plant safety. A key factor to meet this challenge is to apply a comprehensive plant life management (PLIM) approach which addresses all relevant ageing and degradation mechanisms regarding the safety concept, plant components and documentation, plant personnel, consumables, operations management system and administrative controls. For this reason, Framatome ANP has developed an integrated PLIM concept focussing on the safety concept, plant components and documentation. Representative examples for plant wide analyses are described in the following. The results of the analyses support the plant owner for taking the strategic decisions, involved in plant life extension (PLEX). (orig.)

  13. Life styles of Colletotrichum species and implications for plant biosecurity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Dilani D. De; Crous, Pedro W.; Ades, Peter Kevin; Hyde, Kevin D.; Taylor, Paul W. J.

    Colletotrichum is a genus of major plant pathogens causing anthracnose diseases in many plant crops worldwide. The genus comprises a highly diverse group of pathogens that infect a wide range of plant hosts. The life styles of Colletotrichum species can be broadly categorised as necrotrophic,

  14. Thematic curriculum approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šefer Jasmina P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Thematic curriculum combines disciplines and media. The process is problem-oriented and the scenario most often follows the logic of exploring or storytelling. Those two approaches to teaching are appropriate because they fit into interdisciplinary and creative open-ended problem solving through play, as insisted upon by thematic curriculum. The matrix, where seven types of abilities intersect with five types of problems according to their degree of openness, defines well the outcomes of teaching. However, it did not prove to be suitable for planning the majority of activities in thematic curriculum, for it follows with difficulty the process of exploring or storytelling i.e. it disrupts the subject matter coherence of thematic curriculum. Therefore, it is suggested that matrix should be used for disciplinary curriculum planning but for that of thematic curriculum only in exclusive cases. The matrix should be used primarily as a framework for evaluating the distribution of various types of abilities and problem situations in teaching. The logic of diverse approaches to teaching reflects itself in the manner of planning and organizing the teaching process. Conceptual, visual-graphic, structural and other aids employed during educational process planning should suit the nature of the approach chosen. On the basis of qualitative investigations of educational process, in the present paper considerations are given to various approaches to teaching development of various drafts for the planning of teaching, and recognition of the logic of storytelling and exploring in thematic curriculum.

  15. Modeling Operating Modes during Plant Life Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Lind, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Modelling process plants during normal operation requires a set a basic assumptions to define the desired functionalities which lead to fullfillment of the operational goal(-s) for the plant. However during during start-up and shut down as well as during batch operation an ensemble of interrelated...... modes are required to cover the whole operational window of a processs plant including intermediary operating modes. Development of such an model ensemble for a plant would constitute a systematic way of defining the possible plant operating modes and thus provide a platform for also defining a set...... of candidate control structures. The present contribution focuses on development of a model ensemble for a plant with an illustartive example for a bioreactor. Starting from a functional model a process plant may be conceptually designed and qualitative operating models may be developed to cover the different...

  16. BALTICA IV. Plant maintenance for managing life and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hietanen, S.; Auerkari, P. [eds.] [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Operational Reliability

    1998-12-31

    BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and performance held on September 7-9, 1998 on board M/S Silja Symphony on its cruise between Helsinki-Stockholm and at Aavaranta in Kirkkonummi. The BALTICA IV conference provides a forum for the transfer of technology from applied research to practice. This is one of the two volumes of the proceedings of the BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and Performance. The BALTICA IV conference focuses on new technology, recent experience and applications of condition and life management, and on improvements in maintenance strategies for safe and economical operation of power plants. (orig.)

  17. BALTICA IV. Plant maintenance for managing life and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hietanen, S; Auerkari, P [eds.; VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Operational Reliability

    1999-12-31

    BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and performance held on September 7-9, 1998 on board M/S Silja Symphony on its cruise between Helsinki-Stockholm and at Aavaranta in Kirkkonummi. The BALTICA IV conference provides a forum for the transfer of technology from applied research to practice. This is one of the two volumes of the proceedings of the BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and Performance. The BALTICA IV conference focuses on new technology, recent experience and applications of condition and life management, and on improvements in maintenance strategies for safe and economical operation of power plants. (orig.)

  18. Motor life management at Gentilly 2 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazic, L.; Renaud, P.; Marcotte, P.

    2002-01-01

    Hydro Quebec's Gentilly 2 CANDU Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) located on the St. Lawrence River about 150 kms NE of Montreal Quebec Canada, is completing its second full decade of commercial operation. Since the original design life of 30 years is fast approaching, Hydro Quebec (HQ) is positioning itself proactively, to ensure plant operation for the original design life as well implementing a plant life management program to achieve a plant life extension to 50 years. All components in a nuclear plant are affected by ageing during the plant service life. This affects the availability, reliability, and safety of the plant operation and could affect the plant service life. However, if a life management program (LMP) is implemented; the ageing mechanisms can be understood and monitored, and their effects can be controlled and even mitigated. Among other vital equipment in the plant, the station motors are being examined to determine what has to be done to ensure that the motors do not contribute negatively to the plant operating plan. Gentilly 2 NPP has almost 900 motors of various configurations. Their size ranges from 0.1 HP to 9000 HP. A distribution of quantity at different horsepower levels is given. This paper will describe the plant's motor history, method of operation, and proposed future changes required to ensure effective life management of the motors. Up to the present time, Gentilly 2 NPP staff has had very good experience with plant motor operation and reliability. Nevertheless, indications from other industry motor experiences indicate that this favourable trend is unlikely to continue. A plant motor life management strategy as outlined in this paper, based on condition based maintenance in combination with traditional types of maintenance, can help to ensure protection against unexpected plant motor problems and help to ensure achievement of motor design life and beyond. Although nothing will ever replace a thorough visual inspection for discovering

  19. Predicting the residual life of plant equipment - Why worry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaske, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Predicting the residual life of plant equipment that has been in service for 20 to 30 years or more is a major concern of many industries. This paper reviews the reasons for increased concern for residual-life assessment and the general procedures used in performing such assessments. Some examples and case histories illustrating procedures for assessing remaining service life are discussed. Areas where developments are needed to improve the technology for remaining-life estimation are pointed out. Then, some of the critical issues involved in residual-life assessment are identified. Finally, the future role of residual-life prediction is addressed

  20. Determination of the remaining operational life of power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiden, H.; Vorwerk, K.; Graeff, D.; Hoff, E.

    1983-01-01

    The proceedings volume presents, in full wording, eight papers read at a TUEV Rheinland meeting in Johannesburg, South Africa, in August 1982. Subjects: Layout, quality assurance, service life analysis etc. of power plant components. (RW) [de

  1. Plant control system upgrades in the context of industry trends towards plant life-extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Grosbois, J.; Basso, R.; Hepburn, A.; Kumar, V.

    2002-01-01

    Domestic CANDU nuclear plants were brought online between 1972 and 1986. Over the next decade, most of these stations will be nearing the end of their designed operating life. Effort has traditionally been placed on ensuring that the existing installed plant control system equipment could operate reliably until the end of this design life. Until recently, little attention has been given to plant control system upgrades or replacements to meet the expected requirement for 30+ years of additional plant operation following potential plant refurbishments. Industry developments are changing this thinking. The combination of expected increases in electricity demand (and prices), and the many recent successful turnaround stories of U.S. nuclear power plants has resulted in new interest in plant life improvement and plant life extension programs. Plant control system upgrade decisions are now being driven by the need to replace or upgrade these systems to support plant life extension. This article is the first of several that investigate aspects of plant control system upgrades or replacement, specifically in the context of the CANDU station digital control computers (DCCs). It sets the context for the discussion in the subsequent articles by providing a brief review of industry trends favouring plant refurbishment, by outlining the basic issues of aging and obsolescence of control system equipment, by establishing the need for upgrades and replacements, and by introducing some of the basic challenges to be addressed by the industry as it moves forward. (author)

  2. Plant life history and above–belowground interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deyn, de Gerlinde

    2017-01-01

    The importance of above–belowground interactions for plant growth and community dynamics became clear in the last decades, whereas the numerous studies on plant life history improved our knowledge on eco-evolutionary dynamics. However, surprisingly few studies have linked both research fields

  3. Role of organizational leadership in plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohindra, R.K.; Chou, Q.B.

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear power plant (NPP) operational trend shows that the plants of the same design and brought to service about the same time demonstrate a wide range of life time operational performance. Based on years of performance assessment experience from various types of industry audits, it can be seen that there is a strong relationship between organizational leadership and the good performing plants. A review based on this relationship is provided to suggest important characteristics needed in management and leadership team for an organization to have a successful life management program in a NPP. The required characteristics and attributes are discussed in the following three important organizational elements: Environment, People and Process

  4. Operational data collection and analysis for nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuCharme, A.R.; Berg, R.M.; Bailey, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes initial work undertaken by the US Department of Energy, through Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to define the operational data necessary for support of nuclear plant life extension (PLEX) programs. This work is being performed in coordination with the Working Group on Plant Life Extension of the US Nuclear Management and Resources Council. The intent of the effort is to use results gained initially from pilot PLEX programs a US BWR and a US PWR to build towards the use of ''PLEX indicators'' by which a plant's readiness for successful life extension can be measured. Another objective of the study was to examine chemistry data in detail to determine how well US plants are collecting, preserving, and trending the chemistry data that is important to PLEX. The methods used to disseminate this data to outside agencies and other utilities were studied. Finally, an analysis was made to determine additional chemistry data needed to support PLEX

  5. Countermeasure to plant life management of the nuclear power plants out of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Some investigations on countermeasure to plant life management of the nuclear power plants were begun since beginning of 1990s under cooperation with Ministry of International Trade and Industry and all electric power companies under consideration of recent state on abroad and at concept of preventive conservation implementation against the plant life management. As a result, the Tokyo Electric Power Company, the Kansai Electric Power Company and the Japan Atomic Power Company settled each program on countermeasure to plant life management of the Fukushima-1 Power Plant, the Mihama-1 Power Plant and the Tsuruga-1 Power Plant, respectively, which were reported to the Atomic Energy Safety Commission to issue on February, 1999, after deliberation in the Adviser Group of Ministry of International Trade and Industry. Such investigations on countermeasure to the plant life management are also conducted out of Japan in parallel to those in Japan, which contain programs reflecting states of operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants and atmosphere around atomic energy in each country. Here were described on some present states of the countermeasures to plant life management in U.S.A., France, Germany, Sweden, England and so forth. (G.K.)

  6. Interrelationships of food safety and plant pathology: the life cycle of human pathogens on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Jeri D; Schroeder, Brenda K

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial food-borne pathogens use plants as vectors between animal hosts, all the while following the life cycle script of plant-associated bacteria. Similar to phytobacteria, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and cross-domain pathogens have a foothold in agricultural production areas. The commonality of environmental contamination translates to contact with plants. Because of the chronic absence of kill steps against human pathogens for fresh produce, arrival on plants leads to persistence and the risk of human illness. Significant research progress is revealing mechanisms used by human pathogens to colonize plants and important biological interactions between and among bacteria in planta. These findings articulate the difficulty of eliminating or reducing the pathogen from plants. The plant itself may be an untapped key to clean produce. This review highlights the life of human pathogens outside an animal host, focusing on the role of plants, and illustrates areas that are ripe for future investigation.

  7. Tilapia (Tilapiinae. Thematic bibliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kolesnyk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Forming a thematic bibliographic list of publications on certain issues of the biotechnics of the cultivation of tilapia (Tilapiinae in accordance with the specificity of aquaculture in the conditions of different types of fish farms of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Methodology. In the process of the preparation of the thematic list, both holistic and selective methods have been used. The bibliographic core was formed by Ukrainian, Russian and English literature sources from the stock of the scientific library of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS and scientific electronic library “CyberLeninka”. Findings. A thematic bibliographic list of major publication was formed: thematic collections of research papers, proceedings of international scientific and practical conferences, scientific works, articles and dissertation abstracts. It is composed of 202 sources, 85 of which are in English. The listed publications cover a time period from 1965 to 2017. However, the majority of them are after 1991. The scientific sources illustrate the studies on feeding, selective breeding, ecology, culture technologies and aquaculture-biological characteristics of the most widespread fish in world aquaculture – tilapia. The literary sources are arranged in alphabetical order by author or title, and described according to DSTU 8302:2015 “Information and documentation. Bibliographic reference. General principles and rules of composition”, with the amendments (code UKND 01.140.40, as well as in accordance with the requirements of APA style — international standard of references. Practical value. The list may be useful for scientists, practitioners, students, whose area of ​​interests covers the questions of the cultivation and study of the biological features of tilapia.

  8. Nuclear power plant life extension in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodison, D.; Seddon, J.W.; Pape, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    The safety cases for the United Kingdom's older nuclear power plant have been reviewed by their utilities in order to justify continued operation of the reactors up to an age of at least 30 year. These 'long term safety reviews' have identified worthwhile plant modifications and aspects where further studies or plant inspections are required. As the plants approach the age of 30 years, 'life extension reviews' are now being undertaken, concentrating on management of ageing, to support operation to at least 40 years. (author)

  9. Plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants? Controversial discussion on potential electricity price effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthes, Felix C.; Hermann, Hauke

    2009-06-01

    The discussions on electricity price effects in case of the plant life extension of German nuclear power plants covers the following topics: (1) Introduction and methodology. (2) Electricity generation in nuclear power plants and electricity price based on an empirical view: electricity generation in nuclear power plants and final consumption price for households and industry in the European Union; electricity generation in nuclear power plants and electricity wholesale price in case of low availability of nuclear power plants in Germany; comparison of electricity wholesale prices in Germany and France. (3) Model considerations in relation to electricity prices and nuclear phase-out. (4) Concluding considerations.

  10. Plant life management of the ACR-1000 Concrete containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrishami, H.H.; Ricciuti, R.; Elgohary, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Ageing of reinforced concrete structures due to service conditions, aggressive environments, or accidents may cause their strength, serviceability and durability to decrease over time. For a new plant, a Plant Life Management (PLiM) program should start in the design process and then continues through the plant operation and decommissioning. Hence, PLiM must provide not only Ageing Management program (AMP) but also provide requirements on material characteristic and design criteria as well. The purpose of this paper is to present the Plant Life Management (PLiM) strategy for the concrete containment structure of the ACR-10001 (Advanced CANDU Reactor) designed by AECL. The ACR-1000 is designed for a 100-year plant life including 60-year operating life and an additional 40-year decommissioning period. The approach adopted for the PLiM strategy of the concrete containment structure is a preventive one, key areas being: 1) design methodology, 2) material performance and 3) ageing management program. During the design phase, in addition to strength and serviceability, durability, throughout the service life and decommissioning phase of the ACR-1000 structure, is a major consideration. Factors affecting durability design include: a) concrete performance, b) structural application, and c) consideration of environmental conditions. In addition to addressing the design methodology and material performance requirements, a systematic approach for the ageing management program for the concrete containment structure is presented. (authors)

  11. Development of life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, J. D. [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, K. J. [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2001-03-15

    This research focuses on development of reliable life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant (NPP) components, and is divided into two parts, development of life evaluation systems for pressurized components and evaluation of applicability of emerging technology to operating plants. For the development of life evaluation system for nuclear pressure vessels, the following seven topics are covered: development of expert systems for integrity assessment of pressurized components, development of integrity evaluation systems of steam generator tubes, prediction of failure probability for NPP components based on probabilistic fracture mechanics, development of fatigue damage evaluation technique for plant life extension, domestic round robin analysis for pressurized thermal shock of reactor vessels, domestic round robin analysis of constructing P--T limit curves for reactor vessels, and development of data base for integrity assessment. For evaluation of applicability of emerging technology to operating plants, on the other hand, the following eight topics are covered: applicability of the Leak-Before-Break analysis to Cast S/S piping, collection of aged material tensile and toughness data for aged Cast S/S piping, finite element analyses for load carrying capacity of corroded pipes, development of Risk-based ISI methodology for nuclear piping, collection of toughness data for integrity assessment of bi-metallic joints, applicability of the Master curve concept to reactor vessel integrity assessment, measurement of dynamic fracture toughness, and provision of information related to regulation and plant life extension issues.

  12. Economics and policies of nuclear plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagata, H.

    1998-01-01

    NEA provides an opportunity for international exchange of information on the economics and policies of nuclear plant life management for governments and plant owners. The NEA Secretariat is finalising the 'state-of-the-art report' on the economics and policies of nuclear plant life management, including the model approach and national summaries. In order to meet power supply obligations in the early 2000, taking into account energy security, environmental impact, and the economics of nuclear power plants whose lives have been extended, initiatives at national level must be taken to monitor, co-ordinate, and support the various industry programmes of nuclear plant life management by integrated and consistent policies, public acceptance, R and D, and international co-operation. Nuclear power owners should establish an organisation and objectives to carry nuclear plant life management in the most economic and smoothest way taking into consideration internal and external influences. The organisation must identify the critical item and the ageing processes, and optimise equipment reliability and maintenance workload. (author)

  13. Technology and testing for the extension of plant life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, U.R.; Edelmann, X.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes selected portions of a recommended program for the application of equipment-manufacturing-related technology and testing for the extension of life for operating nuclear power plants. It is appropriate to mention that the Swiss nuclear plants, their staffs, and the supporting Swiss nuclear industry are rightfully proud of their record of performance. Plant staffs have been intimately involved in system and equipment design and engineering from the very beginnings of their plants. Maintenance of the plant systems and equipment is referred to as engineering rather than maintenance, because it is viewed as a technical effort and an extension of the original plant and equipment design and construction effort. Care, competence, cleanliness, and attention to detail have been bywords for the Swiss plants. Success has been demonstrated through enviable availability performance. With operation and availability capability already demonstrated, the Swiss are now turning their attention to the extension of plant life. This summary describes some aspects of this work, which is fundamentally based on the application of technology and testing skills developed for equipment manufacture and the original installation of this equipment in the plants, but has been enhanced by research and development (R and D) and an ongoing effort to serve utilities in their maintenance activities

  14. COMSY - A Software Tool for Aging and Plant Life Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, Andre; Nopper, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    A Plant-wide and systematic Aging and Plant Life Management is essential for the safe operation and/or availability of nuclear power plants. The Aging Management (AM) has the objective to monitor and control degradation effects for safety relevant Systems, Structures and Components (SSCs) which may compromise safety functions of the plant. The Plant Life Management (PLM) methodology also includes aging surveillance for availability relevant SSCs. AM and PLM cover mechanical components, electrical and I and C systems and civil structures All Aging and Plant Life Management rules call for a comprehensive approach, requiring the systematic collection of various aging and safety relevant data on a plant-wide basis. This data needs to be serviced and periodically evaluated. Due to the complexity of the process, this activity needs to be supported by a qualified software tool for the management of aging relevant data and associated documents (approx. 30 000 SSCs). In order to support the power plant operators AREVA NP has developed the software tool COMSY. The COMSY software with its integrated AM modules enables the design and setup of a knowledge-based power plant model compatible to the requirements of international and national rules (e.g. IAEA Safety Guide NS-G-2.12, KTA 1403). In this process, a key task is to identify and monitor degradation mechanisms. For this purpose the COMSY tool provides prognosis and trending functions, which are based on more than 30 years of experience in the evaluation of degradation effects and numerous experimental studies. Since 1998 COMSY has been applied successfully in more than fifty reactor units in this field. The current version 3.0 was revised completely and offers additional AM functions. All aging-relevant component data are compiled and allocated via an integrated power plant model. Owing to existing interfaces to other software solutions and flexible import functions, COMSY is highly compatible with already existing data

  15. Considerations related to plant life management for Cernavoda-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojan, Mihail

    2002-01-01

    Cernavoda-1 NPP, the first CANDU 6 Unit in Eastern Europe, is one of the original five CANDU 6 plants and the first CANDU 6 producing over 700 MWe. CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) continues to play a significant role in electricity supply both in Canada and some offshore countries (Korea, Argentina, Romania). The commercial versions of CANDU reactors were put into service more than 30 years ago. While the first series of CANDU 6 plants (which entered service in the early 1980's) have now reached the middle portion of their 30 years design life, the Cernavoda-1 was put into service on 2 December 1996. However, the Cernavoda-1 Plant Life Management should be an increasingly important program to Utility ('CNE-Prod') in order to protect the investment and the continued success of plant operation. Over the past three years, INR (Institute for Nuclear Research - Romania) has been working with AECL-Canada on R and D Programs to support a comprehensive and integrated Cernavoda-1 Plant Life Management (PLiM) program that will see the Cernavoda-1 NPP successfully and reliably through to design life and beyond. The PLiM program has a focus on critical systems, structures, and components (CSSCs) and will be applied in three phases: Phase 1 - Planning (assessment and recommendations); Phase 2 - Life attainment implementation, and; Phase 3 - Plant Life Extension (PLEx), also known as plant extended operation. The key activities during each phase are shown. The schedule of each Phase are shown using the in service date of 1983 as the basis. This schedule applies to three original CANDU 6 plants with an in-service date of 1983: Point Lepreau, Gentilly-2, Wolsong-1 and shortly thereafter (1984) the 4th original CANDU 6 Embalse NPP was declared in service. Cernavoda-1 is the 5th original CANDU 6 plant and was put into service on 2 December 1996 (on site activities were started in 1980). The paper will describe the elements of an integrated program, the multiphase

  16. Integrated plant life management (PLiM)-the IAEA contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.-S.; Clark, C.R.; Omoto, A.; )

    2005-01-01

    For the past couple of decades there has been a change of emphasis in the world nuclear power from that of building new Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) to that of taking measures to optimize the life cycle of operational plants. National approaches in many countries showed an increase of interest in Plant Life Management (PLiM), both in terms of plant service life assurance and in optimizing the service or operational life of NPP. A strong convergence of views is emerging from different National approaches, particularly in the area of the economic aspects of NPP operation and in the evolution in the scope of NPP PLIM. The latter can directly affect the cost of electricity from NPP in an increasingly competitive environment. The safety considerations of a NPP are paramount and those requirements have to be met to obtain and to extend/renew the operating license. To achieve the goal of the long term safe, economic and reliable operation of the plant an integrated Plant Life Management Programme (PLiM) is necessary. Some countries already have advanced PLiM Programmes while others still have none. The PLiM objective is to identify all that factors and requirements for the overall plant life cycle. The optimization of these requirements would allow for the minimum period of the investment return and maximum of the revenue from the sell of the produced electricity. Recognizing the importance of this issue and in response to the requests of the Member States the IAEA Division of Nuclear Power implements the Sub-programme on 'Engineering and Management Support for Competitive Nuclear Power'. Four projects within this sub-programme deal with different aspects of the NPP life cycle management with the aim to increase the capabilities of interested Member States in implementing and maintenance of the competitive and sustainable nuclear power. Although all four projects contain certain issues of PLiM there is one specific project on guidance on engineering and management practices

  17. CANDU steam generator life management: laboratory data and plant experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; Nickerson, J.H.; Subash, N.; Wright, M.D.

    2001-10-01

    As CANDU reactors enter middle age, and the potential value of the plants in a deregulated market is realized, life management and life extension issues become increasingly important. An accurate assessment of critical components, such as the CANDU 6 steam generators (SGs), is crucial for successful life extension, and in this context, material issues are a key factor. For example, service experience with Alloy 900 tubing indicates very low levels of degradation within CANDU SGs; the same is also noted worldwide. With little field data for extrapolation, life management and life extension decisions for the tube bundles rely heavily on laboratory data. Similarly, other components of the SGs, in particular the secondary side internals, have only limited inspection data upon which to base a condition assessment. However, in this case there are also relatively little laboratory data. Decisions on life management and life extension are further complicated--not only is inspection access often restricted, but repair or replacement options for internal components are, by definition, also limited. The application of CANDU SG life management and life extension requires a judicious blend of in-service data, laboratory research and development (R and D) and materials and engineering judgment. For instance, the available laboratory corrosion and fretting wear data for Alloy 800 SG tubing have been compared with plant experience (with all types of tubing), and with crevice chemistry simulations, in order to provide an appropriate inspection guide for a 50-year SG life. A similar approach has been taken with other SG components, where the emphasis has been on known degradation mechanisms worldwide. This paper provides an outline of the CANDU SG life management program, including the results to date, a summary of the supporting R and D program showing the integration with condition assessment and life management activities, and the approach taken to life extension for a typical

  18. Analysis of integrated plant upgrading/life extension programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCutchan, D.A.; Massie, H.W. Jr.; McFetridge, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    A present-worth generating cost model has been developed and used to evaluate the economic value of integrated plant upgrading life extension project in nuclear power plants. This paper shows that integrated plant upgrading programs can be developed in which a mix of near-term availability, power rating, and heat rate improvements can be obtained in combination with life extension. All significant benefits and costs are evaluated from the viewpoint of the utility, as measured in discounted revenue requirement differentials between alternative plans which are equivalent in system generating capacity. The near-term upgrading benefits are shown to enhance the benefit picture substantially. In some cases the net benefit is positive, even if the actual life extension proves to be less than expected

  19. Nuclear plant life cycle management implementation guide. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sliter, G.E.; Negin, C.A.

    1998-11-01

    Nuclear power plants, as baseload suppliers of electricity, are major corporate assets. As the nuclear industry enters its fourth decade as a major producer of clean electricity, the structure of the utility industry is undergoing a historical landmark transition from economic deregulation to a competitive, market-driven industry. An integral part of competition is to manage the operation of the key asset, the plant, in the long term, thereby enhancing its long-term profitability. Life cycle management (LCM) is a well-known technical-economic decision-making process for any large industrial facility. LCM optimizes the service life of a facility and maximizes its life-cycle asset value. LCM integrates aging management (maintaining the availability of costly-to-replace components and structures) with asset management (plant valuation and investment strategies that account for economic, performance, regulatory, and environmental uncertainties). LCM involves predicting maintenance, repair, and other capital costs for a nuclear unit far into the future, as well as planning and managing strategic issues such as waste disposal, fuel storage, decommissioning, and public acceptance. This Life Cycle Management Implementation Guide introduces the reader to the LCM concept and its benefits, describes the elements and activities associated with an LCM program (most of which already exist in all plants), gives an overview of asset and aging management, and provides key references related to life cycle management for nuclear power plants. It also summarizes the major elements of life cycle management required for license renewal or, for newer plants, keeping open the option of license renewal

  20. Comparison of Plant Life Management Approaches for Long Term Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kisig

    2012-01-01

    Plant life management can be defined as the integration of ageing and economic planning to maintain a high level of safety and optimize operations. Many Member States have given high priority to long term operation of nuclear power plants beyond the time frame originally anticipated (e. g. 30 or 40 years). Out of a total of 445 (369 GWe) operating nuclear power plants, 349 units (297 GWe) have been in operation for more than 20 years (as of November 2011). The need for engineering support to operation, maintenance, safety review and life management for long term operation as well as education and training in the field is increasingly evident. In addition the Fukushima accident has rendered all stake holders even more attentive to safety concerns and to the provision of beyond safety measures in the preparation and scrutiny of applications for operational design life extensions. In many countries, the safety performance of NPPs is periodically followed and characterized via the periodic safety review (PSR) approach. The regulatory The regulatory review and acceptance of the PSR gives the licensee the permission to operate the plant for up to the end of the next PSR cycle (usually 10 years). In the USA and other countries operating US designed plants, the license renewal application is based on the five pre-requisite requirements and ageing management programme for passive long life system structure and components(SSCs) and active systems is adequately addressed by the maintenance rule (MR) requirements and other established regulatory processes. Other Member States have adopted a combined approach that incorporates elements of both PSR and additional LRA specific requirements primarily focused on time limited ageing analysis. Taking into account this variety of approaches, the international atomic energy agency (IAEA) initiated work for collecting and sharing information among Member States about good practices on plant life management for long term operation in

  1. RIMAP demonstration project. Risk-based life management of piping system in power plant Heilbronn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareiss, J.; Buck, P.; Matschecko, B.; Jovanovic, A.; Balos, D.; Perunicic, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of EU project RIMAP [Risk Based Inspection and Maintenance Procedures for European Industry (2000)] a new European Guideline for optimized risk based maintenance and inspection planning of industrial plants (RBLM, Risk Based Life Management) is being developed. The RIMAP project consists of the three clustered projects: - development (RTD); - demonstration (DEMO): - thematic network (TN). Current work and future, planned work in RIMAP demonstration project on applications of the RIMAP methodology in power plants are presented briefly in the first part of the paper. Also presented in the paper are the results of a preliminary analysis of piping system in power plant Heilbronn using the concept of risk-based monitoring as part of overall concept of risk-based life management. Shortly the following issues are discussed in the paper: - identification of critical components; - application of a multilevel risk analysis (...from 'screening' to 'detailed analysis'); - determination of PoF (Probability of Failure); - determination of CoF (Consequence of Failure); - optimation of inspection and maintenance plan. From our experience with the application of the RIMAP methodology the following conclusions can be drawn: The use of risk-based methods in inspection and maintenance of piping systems in power plants gives transparency to the decision making process and gives an optimized maintenance policy based on current state of the components. The results of the work clearly show the power of the proposed method for concentration on critical items: out of 64 monitored components 5 were selected for intermediate analysis and only 1 for the detailed analysis (probabilistic high temperature fracture mechanics)

  2. South African Regulatory Framework for Nuclear Power Plant Life Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbebe, B.Z.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the regulatory approach to plant life management (PLiM) adopted by the National Nuclear Regulator (NNR) in South Africa, the licensing basis and regulatory requirements for Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (KNPS),operational programmes ensuring continued safe operation, issues related to the ageing of the plant, and the requirements for spent fuel as well as radioactive waste management. The paper will further present insights from the Periodic Safety Review (PSR) and Long Term Asset Management. (author)

  3. [The evolution of plant life span: facts and hypotheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    There are two different views on the evolution of life forms in Cormophyta: from woody plants to herbaceous ones or in opposite direction - from herbs to trees. In accordance with these views it is supposed that life span in plants changed in the course of evolution from many years (perennials) to few years (annuals, biennials), or went in reverse - from few years to many years. The author discusses the problems of senescence and longevity in Cormophyta in the context of various hypotheses of ageing (programmed death theory, mutation accumulation, antagonistic pleiotropy, disposable soma, genes of ageing, genes of longevity). Special attention is given to bio-morphological aspects of longevity and cases of non-ageing plants ("negative senescence", "potential immortality"). It is proposed to distinguish seven models of simple ontogenesis in Cormophyta that can exemplify the diversity of mechanisms of ageing and longevity. The evolution of life span in plants is considered as an indirect result of natural selection of other characteristics of organisms or as a consequence of fixation of modifications (episelectional evolution). It seems that short life span could emerge several times during evolution of one group of plants, thus favoring its adaptive radiation.

  4. Nuclear power plant life management in a changing business world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    At the end of 1999, there were 348 nuclear power plants connected to the grid in OECD Member countries, representing a total capacity of 296 GWe and generating some 24% of their electricity. One third of these nuclear power plants had been in operation for over 20 years. The demand for electricity throughout OECD countries is increasing steadily but the construction of new nuclear power plants has become increasingly difficult. Many utilities would like to keep existing nuclear power plants operating for as long as they can continue to function safely and economically because. extending the lifetime of nuclear power plants is a substitute to constructing new plants. Therefore, nuclear plant life management (PLIM) has been carried out in many OECD Member countries and has played a very important role in the nuclear generation field. Nuclear power plant owners seek to economically optimise the output from their plants, taking into consideration internal and external influences, as well as equipment reliability and maintenance workload. Nuclear power plant life management and extension is generally an attractive option for utilities supplying electricity because of its low marginal cost and low investment risk. PLIM has become an important issue in the context of changing business circumstances caused by regulatory reform of the electricity market. Specifically, the economic aspect of PLIM has become an important focus in the competitive electricity market. The international workshop on 'Plant Life Management in a Changing Business World' was hosted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) in co-operation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) in Washington, DC, on 26-27 June 2000. Some 50 senior utility executives and policy makers from 12 Member countries, the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the European Commission (EC) attended the meeting. The objective of the workshop was to examine the status of

  5. Thematic mapper data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settle, M.; Chavez, P.; Kieffer, H. H.; Everett, J. R.; Kahle, A. B.; Kitcho, C. A.; Milton, N. M.; Mouat, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The geological applications of remote sensing technology are discussed, with emphasis given to the analysis of data from the Thematic Mapper (TM) instrument onboard the Landsat 4 satellite. The flight history and design characteristics of the Landsat 4/TM are reviewed, and some difficulties endountered in the interpretation of raw TM data are discussed, including: the volume of data; residual noise; detector-to-detector striping; and spatial misregistration between measurements. Preliminary results of several geological, lithological, geobotanical mapping experiments are presented as examples of the geological applications of the TM, and some areas for improving the guality of TM imagery are identified.

  6. Nuclear power plant life management. Proceedings of a symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Presently, an area of major interest of the IAEA is the management of the nuclear power plant (NPP) life cycle from concept development to decommissioning and disposal, with the primary objective of maximising the return on investment in nuclear facilities through efficient operation of NPPs. 441 NPPs, with a capacity of about 350GW(e) supplied 16% of global electricity in 2002. Of these, about 300 NPPs have been in operation for 15 years or more and these older units with partially or fully amortized capital costs have proven to be the most profitable. Moreover, there are no significant safety or economic reasons not to continue the operation of well managed NPPs over a longer period and consequently the issues of plant life management and license extension are receiving increasing emphasis in many countries. Forecasts of nuclear power growth over the next two decades range from 350GW(e) in the worst case to 500GW(e) in the best case. This will need additional personnel and expansion of the infrastructure in the developing countries, particularly as much of the new demand growth is forecast to take place outside the countries where most of the existing infrastructure resides. All aspects of NPP life cycle management are addressed by the IAEA and are briefly described in these proceedings. The IAEA Technical Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants (TWG-LMNPP) recommended, during its regular meeting in February 1999, that the IAEA should consider holding a symposium on this subject area in 2002. This TWG-LMNPP Proposal was approved and, this symposium was held, attended by 138 participants from 32 Member States and 2 international organizations. The objectives of the symposium were as follows: Emphasise the role of NPP life management programmes in assuring a safe and reliable NPP operating cycle; Identify progress in methodological and technological developments for managing ageing processes and understanding ageing mechanisms; Provide a forum for

  7. Nuclear power plants life extension and decommissioning its economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    1994-06-01

    In USA where the development of nuclear power was started early, the life of nuclear power plants expires successively around the turn of century, and the serious hindrance to electric power supply is feared. Therefore, the research for extending 40 year approved period of operation is in progress. By the extension of life of nuclear power plants, huge cost reduction is estimated as compared with the construction of new plants. However, due to the rise of the cost for the life extension, there were the cases of forced decommissioning. In this book, the present state of the life extension of nuclear power stations, the economical assessment and analysis of the life extension by DOE, the economical assessment by MIDAS method of Electric Power Research Institute, the economical assessment by cost-benefit method of Northern States Power Co., the assessment of the long term operation possibility of nuclear power stations, the economical assessment system for the life extension in Japan, the present state of the decommissioning of nuclear power stations and that in USA, Canada and Europe, the assessment of the decommissioning cost by OECD/NEA, and the decommissioning cost for thermal power stations are described. (K.I.)

  8. Aging and Plant Life Management with the Software Tool COMSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nopper, Helmut; Rossner, Roland; Zander, Andre

    2006-01-01

    Within the scope of PLEX, a systematic and efficient ageing and plant life management system is becoming more and more important to ensure a safe and economical power plant operation in spite of continuous plant ageing. For the methodical implementation of PLIM and PLEX strategies, AREVA NP has developed the software tool COMSY. This knowledge-based program integrates degradation analysis tools with an inspection data management system. COMSY provides the capability to establish a program guided technical documentation by utilizing a virtual plant model which includes information regarding thermal hydraulic operation, water chemical conditions and materials applied for mechanical components. It provides the option to perform a plant-wide screening for identifying system areas, which are sensitive for degradation mechanisms typically experienced in nuclear power plants (FAC, corrosion fatigue, IGSCC, Pitting, etc.). If a system area is identified as being susceptible to degradation, a detailed analysis function enables the condition-oriented service life evaluation of vessels and piping systems in order to localize and conservatively quantify the effect of degradation. Based on these forecasts with COMSY, specific strategies can be developed to mitigate the effect of degradation and inspection activities can be focused on degradation sensitive areas. In addition, a risk-informed assessment tool serves to optimize inspection activities in respect to degradation potential and the associated damage consequence. After an in-service inspection is performed for a distinct location, the inspection data is to be evaluated according to generally accepted procedures. For this purpose an integrated inspection data management system module provides standardized, interactively operated evaluation functions. The key inspection results are transmitted as feedback in respect to the as-is condition of the component. Subsequently, all further life evaluations of the associated

  9. Environmentally Clean Mitigation of Undesirable Plant Life Using Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenchik, A M; McGrann, T J; Yamamoto, R M; Parker, J M

    2009-07-01

    This concept comprises a method for environmentally clean destruction of undesirable plant life using visible or infrared radiation. We believe that during the blossom stage, plant life is very sensitive to electromagnetic radiation, with an enhanced sensitivity to specific spectral ranges. Small doses of irradiation can arrest further plant growth, cause flower destruction or promote plant death. Surrounding plants, which are not in the blossoming stage, should not be affected. Our proposed mechanism to initiate this effect is radiation produced by a laser. Tender parts of the blossom possess enhanced absorptivity in some spectral ranges. This absorption can increase the local tissue temperature by several degrees, which is sufficient to induce bio-tissue damage. In some instances, the radiation may actually stimulate plant growth, as an alternative for use in increased crop production. This would be dependent on factors such as plant type, the wavelength of the laser radiation being used and the amount of the radiation dose. Practical, economically viable realization of this concept is possible today with the advent of high efficiency, compact and powerful laser diodes. The laser diodes provide an efficient, environmentally clean source of radiation at a variety of power levels and radiation wavelengths. Figure 1 shows the overall concept, with the laser diodes mounted on a movable platform, traversing and directing the laser radiation over a field of opium poppies.

  10. Life cycle management. Condition monitoring of wind power plants; Life-cycle-management. Zustandsueberwachung von Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, R. [cmc GmbH, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on maintenance strategies and condition monitoring in the field of wind energy. Beside the components in the drive train of wind turbines under consideration, the condition monitoring of the hardware systems and their software is explained. A brief overview of the field of machinery diagnosis and an explanation of the transmission of the measured data follow. Additional sensors such as sensors for the rotor blade monitoring, oil particles counter or oil quality sensors are described. In the field of diagnostic certainty, special follow-up studies such as video endoscopy, analysis of oil or grease, filter testing and material testing are discussed. The information from these thematic fields is used in the life-cycle management database for operationally relevant evaluations and considerations of economy of condition monitoring systems.

  11. Plant life management and modernisation: Research challenges in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.; Aho-Mantila, I.

    2010-01-01

    The NULIFE (Nuclear plant life prediction) European network of excellence is described in detail. The following topics are highlighted: Vision; Consortium; Organization and working methods; Research and development planning; Research project portfolio (pilot projects, umbrella projects); Strategic research planning; and Conclusions. (P.A.)

  12. Brain surgery breathes new life into aging plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makansi, J. [Pearl Street Inc. (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Unlike managing the human aging process, extending the life of a power plant often includes brain surgery, modernizing its control and automation system. Lately, such retrofits range from wholesale replacing of existing controls to the addition of specific control elements that help optimize performance. Pending revisions to safety codes and cybersecurity issues also need to be considered. 4 figs.

  13. Declaration of the rights of animal and plant life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.

    1977-01-01

    i Each living creature on earth has the right to exist, independent of its usefulness to humans. ii Every effort should be made to preserve all species of animal and plant life from premature extinction. Special protection should be afforded to those species whose survival is already threatened.

  14. Plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants? Controversial discussion profit taking of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthes, Felix C.

    2009-10-01

    The discussion on the plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants beyond the residual quantity of electricity particularly focus on three aspects: Effects for the emission of carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas; Development of the electricity price for which a reduction or attenuation is postulated due to a plant life extension; Skimming of additional profits at operating companies and their use in the safeguarding of the future (development of renewable energies, support of energy efficiency, promotion of the research, consolidation of the public budget, and so on). Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the profit taking of nuclear power plant operators. The presented analysis considers three aspects: (a) Specification of the quantity structures for the investigated model of plant life extension; (b) The decisive parameter is the revenue situation and thus the price development for electricity at wholesale markets; (c) Determination and evaluation of the course in time of the profit taking.

  15. Development of life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Yun Jae; Choi, Jae Boong [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2002-03-15

    This project focuses on developing reliable life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant components, and is divided into two parts, development of a life evaluation system for nuclear pressure vessels and evaluation of applicability of emerging technology to operating plants. For the development of life evaluation system for nuclear pressure vessels, the following seven topics are covered in this project: defect assessment method for steam generator tubes, development of fatigue monitoring system, assessment of corroded pipes, domestic round robin analysis for constructing P-T limit curve for RPV, development of probabilistic integrity assessment technique, effect of aging on strength of dissimilar welds, applicability of LBB to cast stainless steel, and development of probabilistic piping fracture mechanics.

  16. FANP concept for plant life management and recent experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nopper, H.; Daeuwel, W.; Waas, U.

    2002-01-01

    The deregulation of the power generation industry has resulted in increased competitive pressure and is forcing operators to improve plant operating economy while maintaining high levels of plant safety. A key factor to meet this challenge is to apply a comprehensive plant life management (PLIM) approach. The PLIM strategy addresses all relevant ageing and degradation mechanisms, the safety concept and the plant component documentation. In addition, it affects the management of plant personnel, consumables, operations management systems and administrative control procedures. Framatome ANP GmbH has developed an integrated PLIM concept and associated software tools applicable for both new and operating plants. The concept includes procedures and strategies regarding mechanical, electrical and I and C components as well as civil structures. The majority of e.g. mechanical components in a well-kept power plant will experience a technical service life, which is far above the intended design life. In most cases, only a small percentage of mechanical components is subject to significant degradation which may effect the integrity or the function of the component. The intention of an effective PLIM concept is to select safety and availability relevant components, were relevant degradation can not be ruled out. The PLIM concept utilizes a combination of strategies to identify components in a power plant: which are relevant to life management. An integrated safety review identifies components essential to safety, providing a classification of the associated safety levels. Assessment concerning the availability relevance of components is conduced. Components identified to be important to safety and availability are subject to a screening process for further grouping with respect to degradation potential. The selection process provides reasonable prioritisation of ageing relevant components and ensures that efforts are devoted to elements, where ageing is a relevant concern

  17. Plant Life Management of the EC6 Concrete Containment Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrishami, Homayoun; Ricciuti, Rick; Khan, Azhar [CANDU Energy Inc., Mississauga (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Aging of reinforced concrete structures due to service conditions, aggressive environments, or accidents may cause their strength, serviceability and durability to decrease over time. Due to the complex nature of safety-related structures in nuclear power plants in comparison to other structures, they possess a number of characteristics that make them comparison to other structures, they possess a number of characteristics that make them unique. These characteristics are: thick concrete cross-sections, heavy reinforcement, often one-side access only, subjected to such ageing stresses as irradiation and elevated temperature, in addition to other typical ageing mechanisms (i. e., exposure to freeze/thaw cycles, aggressive chemicals, etc.) that typically affects other types of non-nuclear structures. For a new plant, the Plant Life Management Program (PLiM) should start in the design process and then continues through construction, plant operation and decommissioning. Hence PLiM must provide not only Ageing Management program (AMP) but also provide requirements on material characteristic and the design criteria as well. The purpose of this paper is to present the Plant Life Management (PLiM) strategy for the concrete containment structure of EC6 (Enhanced CANDU 6) Nuclear Power Plant designed by CANDU Energy Inc. The EC6 is designed for 100-year plant life including a 60-year operating life and an additional 40-year decommissioning period of time. The approach adopted for the PLiM strategy of the concrete containment structure is a preventive one, key areas being: 1) design methodology, 2) material performance and 3) life cycle management and ageing management program. In addition to strength and serviceability, durability is a major consideration during the design phase, service life and up to the completion of decommissioning. Factors affecting durability design include: a) concrete performance, b) structural application, and c) consideration of environmental

  18. Plant Life Management of the EC6 Concrete Containment Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrishami, Homayoun; Ricciuti, Rick; Khan, Azhar

    2012-01-01

    Aging of reinforced concrete structures due to service conditions, aggressive environments, or accidents may cause their strength, serviceability and durability to decrease over time. Due to the complex nature of safety-related structures in nuclear power plants in comparison to other structures, they possess a number of characteristics that make them comparison to other structures, they possess a number of characteristics that make them unique. These characteristics are: thick concrete cross-sections, heavy reinforcement, often one-side access only, subjected to such ageing stresses as irradiation and elevated temperature, in addition to other typical ageing mechanisms (i. e., exposure to freeze/thaw cycles, aggressive chemicals, etc.) that typically affects other types of non-nuclear structures. For a new plant, the Plant Life Management Program (PLiM) should start in the design process and then continues through construction, plant operation and decommissioning. Hence PLiM must provide not only Ageing Management program (AMP) but also provide requirements on material characteristic and the design criteria as well. The purpose of this paper is to present the Plant Life Management (PLiM) strategy for the concrete containment structure of EC6 (Enhanced CANDU 6) Nuclear Power Plant designed by CANDU Energy Inc. The EC6 is designed for 100-year plant life including a 60-year operating life and an additional 40-year decommissioning period of time. The approach adopted for the PLiM strategy of the concrete containment structure is a preventive one, key areas being: 1) design methodology, 2) material performance and 3) life cycle management and ageing management program. In addition to strength and serviceability, durability is a major consideration during the design phase, service life and up to the completion of decommissioning. Factors affecting durability design include: a) concrete performance, b) structural application, and c) consideration of environmental

  19. Engineering support for plant life management: the IAEA contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.; Hezoucky, F.; Clark, R. C.; )

    2007-01-01

    For the past couple of decades there has been a change of emphasis in the world nuclear power from that of building new Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) to that of taking measures to optimize the life cycle of operational plants. National approaches in many countries showed an increase of interest in Plant Life Management (PLiM), both in terms of plant service life assurance and in optimizing the service or operational life of NPP. The safety considerations of a NPP are paramount and those requirements have to be met to obtain and to extend/renew the operating license. To achieve the goal of the long term safe, economic and reliable operation of the plant, PLiM programme is essential. Some countries already have advanced PLiM programmes while others still have none. The PLiM objective is to identify all that factors and requirements for the overall plant life cycle. The optimization of these requirements would allow for the minimum period of the investment return and maximum of the revenue from the sell of the produced electricity. Recognizing the importance of this issue and in response to the requests of the Member States the IAEA Division of Nuclear Power implements the Sub-programme on 'Engineering and Management Support for Competitive Nuclear Power'. Three projects within this sub-programme deal with different aspects of the NPP life cycle management with the aim to increase the capabilities of interested Member States in implementing and maintenance of the competitive and sustainable nuclear power. Although all three projects contain certain issues of PLiM, there is one specific project on guidance on engineering and management practices for optimization of NPP service life. This particular project deals with different specific issues of PLiM including aspects of ageing phenomena and their monitoring, issues of control and instrumentation, maintenance and operation issues, economic evaluation of PLiM including guidance on its earlier shut down and decommissioning

  20. Life cycle analysis of photovoltaic cell and wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yohji

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents life cycle analyses of net energy and CO 2 emissions on photovoltaic cell and wind power generation plants. Energy requirements associated with a plant are estimated for producing materials, manufacturing equipment, constructing facilities, acid operating plants. Energy ratio and net supplied energy are calculated by the process energy analysis that examines the entire energy inventory of input and output during life time of a plant. Life cycle CO 2 emission can also be calculated from the energy requirements obtained by the net energy analysis. The emission also includes greenhouse effect equivalent to CO 2 emission of methane gas leakage at a mining as well as CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion during generating electricity, natural gas treatment at an extracting well and cement production in industry. The commercially available and future-commercial technologies are dealt with in the study. Regarding PV technologies, two different kinds of installation are investigated; roof-top typed installation of residential houses and ground installation of electric utilities. (author)

  1. Fracture mechanics based life assessment in petrochemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norasiah Ab Kasim; Abd Nassir Ibrahim; Ab Razak Hamzah; Shukri Mohd

    2004-01-01

    The increasing use of thick walled pressure vessels in petrochemical plants operating at high pressure under severe service conditions could lead to catastrophic failure. In the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), initial efforts are underway to apply fracture mechanics approach for assessment of significance of defects detected during periodic in service inspection (ISI) of industrial plants. This paper outlines the integrity management strategy based on fracture mechanics and proposes a new procedure for life assessment of petrochemical plants based on ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, BSI PD 6493:1991, BSI 6539:1994, BSI Standard 7910:1999 and API 579:2000. Essential relevant data required for the assessment is listed. Several methods available for determination of fracture toughness are reviewed with limitations in their application to petrochemical plants. A new non destructive method for determination of fracture toughness based on hardness testing and normalized key roughness curve is given. Results of fracture mechanics based life assessment conducted for 100 mm thick ammonia converter of Ni r o steel and 70 mm thick plat forming reactor vessel of ASTM A 38 7 grade B steel in operational fertilizer and petroleum refining plants are presented. (Author)

  2. Practical standard for nuclear power plant life management programs: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    The standard specifies the method of implementing nuclear power plant life management programs. The plant life management programs evaluate the integrity of the plant structures, systems and components, assessing if appropriate measures are taken against existing aging phenomena, if there are possibilities of occurrence and development of aging phenomena and if a sufficient level of margin is maintained to assure the integrity throughout the future operating period. The programs also assess the validity of the current maintenance activities, such as trend monitoring, walkdowns, periodic tests and inspections, repair and replacement work for the purpose of preventive maintenance, and utilization of lessons learned from past trouble experience, in order to newly identify maintenance measures. The technical evaluation on aging phenomena is conducted to establish the 10 year maintenance program for nuclear power plants until the plant reaches 30 years of service. The standard was established and issued by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) through the discussion of experts in the associated fields. (T. Tanaka)

  3. Reliability Centered Maintenance as a tool for plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.O.; Mulay, J.N.; Nakahara, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Currently in the nuclear industry there is a growing interest in lowering the cost and complexity of maintenance activities while at the same time improving plant reliability and safety in an effort to prepare for the technical and regulatory challenges of life extension. This seemingly difficult task is being aided by the introduction of a maintenance philosophy developed originally by the airline industry and subsequently applied with great success both in that industry and the U.S. military services. Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), in its basic form, may be described as a consideration of reliability and maintenance problems from a systems level approach, allowing a focus on preservation of system function as the aim of a maintenance program optimized for both safety and economics. It is this systematic view of plant maintenance, with the emphasis on overall functions rather than individual parts and components which sets RCM apart from past nuclear plant maintenance philosophies. It is also the factor which makes application of RCM an ideal first step in development of strategies for life extension, both for aging plants, and for plants just beginning their first license term. (J.P.N.)

  4. Low-level radioactive waste associated with plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciacca, F.; Zigler, G.; Walsh, R.

    1992-01-01

    Many utilities operating nuclear power plants are expected to seek to extend the useful life of their plants through license renewal. These US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees are expected to implement enhanced inspection, surveillance, testing, and monitoring (ISTM) as needed to detect and mitigate age-related degradation of important structures, systems, and components (SSCs). In addition, utilities may undertake various refurbishment and upgrade activities at these plants to better assure economic and reliable power generation. These activities performed for safety and/or economic reasons can result in radioactive waste generation, which is incremental to that generated in the original licensing term. Work was performed for the NRC to help define and characterize potential environmental impacts associated with nuclear plant license renewal and plant life extension. As part of this work, projections were made of the types and quantities of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) likely to be generated by licensee programs. These projections were needed to estimate environmental impacts related to the disposal of such wastes

  5. Field dodder life cycle and interaction with host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarić-Krsmanović Marija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Field dodder is a parasitic plant that attaches to stems and leaves of broadleaf plants, including weeds, field crops, vegetables and ornamentals, across most agricultural regions of the world. Effective field dodder control is extremely difficult to achieve due to the nature of attachment and close association between the host and the parasite, which require a highly effective and selective herbicide to destroy the parasite without damaging its host. To establish a strategy for controlling parasite growth and restricting the spread of field dodder in crop fields, it is important to learn more about this weed, its life cycle and development.

  6. Life form succession in plant communities on colliery waste tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Down, C G

    1973-01-01

    Five disused colliery waste tips in the Somerset Coalfield, 12, 15, 21, 55 and 98 years old, respectively, were examined to determine the life forms of the naturally-occurring vascular plant species. Hemicryptophytes comprised between 68 and 79% of the number of species on each tip. Rosette hemicryptophytes comprised 31.8% of the species on the 12-year tip, declining to 11.8% on the 98-year tip. It is suggested that artificial planting of rosette hemicryptophytes may be beneficial in reclamation schemes. 3 tables.

  7. Habitat Fragmentation Drives Plant Community Assembly Processes across Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Yu, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the principal causes of biodiversity loss and hence understanding its impacts on community assembly and disassembly is an important topic in ecology. We studied the relationships between fragmentation and community assembly processes in the land-bridge island system of Thousand Island Lake in East China. We focused on the changes in species diversity and phylogenetic diversity that occurred between life stages of woody plants growing on these islands. The observed diversities were compared with the expected diversities from random null models to characterize assembly processes. Regression tree analysis was used to illustrate the relationships between island attributes and community assembly processes. We found that different assembly processes predominate in the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition (SS) vs. the saplings-to-trees transition (ST). Island area was the main attribute driving the assembly process in SS. In ST, island isolation was more important. Within a fragmented landscape, the factors driving community assembly processes were found to differ between life stage transitions. Environmental filtering had a strong effect on the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition. Habitat isolation and dispersal limitation influenced all plant life stages, but had a weaker effect on communities than area. These findings add to our understanding of the processes driving community assembly and species coexistence in the context of pervasive and widespread habitat loss and fragmentation. PMID:27427960

  8. Specification of life cycle assessment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbaspour, M.; Kargari, N.; Mastouri, R.

    2008-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment is an environmental management tool for assessing the environmental impacts of a product of a process. life cycle assessment involves the evaluation of environmental impacts through all stages of life cycle of a product or process. In other words life cycle assessment has a c radle to grave a pproach. Some results of life cycle assessment consist of pollution prevention, energy efficient system, material conservation, economic system and sustainable development. All power generation technologies affect the environment in one way or another. The main environmental impact does not always occur during operation of power plant. The life cycle assessment of nuclear power has entailed studying the entire fuel cycle from mine to deep repository, as well as the construction, operation and demolition of the power station. Nuclear power plays an important role in electricity production for several countries. even though the use of nuclear power remains controversial. But due to the shortage of fossil fuel energy resources many countries have started to try more alternation to their sources of energy production. A life cycle assessment could detect all environmental impacts of nuclear power from extracting resources, building facilities and transporting material through the final conversion to useful energy services

  9. Area-normalized thematic views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keahey, T.A.

    1998-10-01

    This paper presents a novel technique for dealing with a classic problem that frequently arises in visualization. Very expressive nonlinear transformations can be automatically generated to correct thematic maps so that the areas of map regions are proportional to the thematic variables assigned to them. This helps to eliminate one of the most commonly occurring visual lies that occurs in information visualization. Thematic variables are commonly used in cartography to encode additional information within the spatial layout of a map. Common examples of thematic variables are population density, pollution level and birth rate. The method is illustrated with two examples, mapping interstate speed limits and presidential election results.

  10. Advanced maintenance strategies for power plant operators--introducing inter-plant life cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeber, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    One of the most important goals of competing power plant operators is to ensure safe operation of their plants, characterized by maximum availability throughout the entire life cycle and minimized specific generating costs. One parameter crucial to the total price of electricity--and one that can be actively influenced by the power plant operators--is maintenance. Up to 30% of all electricity generating costs accrue from maintenance. In the past years maintenance measures have been optimized particularly by the application and continuing development of testing and diagnostic techniques, by the increased level of system and component automation as well as more efficient organization structures. Despite the considerable success of these efforts, the potential for further cost reductions is still far from exhausted. But the risks connected to reliability, availability and safety need to be analyzed in greater detail in order to ensure the sustainability of the savings already achieved as well as those yet to be realized. The systematic application of condition-based maintenance and the implementation of structured life cycle management are essential requirements. An inter-plant approach is recommended to make a quick implementation of maintenance optimization potentials possible. Plant-specific improvement potentials can be established with the help of a best-practice comparison, and measures and priorities can be defined for realizing them. Creating an inter-plant database will allow experience and findings to be analyzed quickly and efficiently by experts and made available to all participants on a neutral platform. Despite--or maybe owing to--the increasingly competitive marketplace, a sustained reduction in the maintenance costs of power plant operators can only be achieved through a structured, inter-plant exchange of experience. The ZES offers the industry a suitable platform for cooperation with its 'Condition-Based Maintenance' research focus. The introduction

  11. EPRI research on component aging and nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sliter, G.E.; Carey, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper first describes several research efforts sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) that examine the aging degradation of organic materials and the nuclear plant equipment in which they appear. This research includes a compendium of material properties characterizing the effects of thermal and radiation aging, shake table testing to evaluate the effects of aging on the seismic performance of electrical components, and a review of condition monitoring techniques applicable to electrical equipment. Also described is a long-term investigation of natural versus artificial aging using reactor buildings as test beds. The paper then describes how the equipment aging research fits into a broad-scoped EPRI program on nuclear plant life extension. The objective of this program is to provide required information, technology, and guidelines to enable utilities to significantly extend operating life beyond the current 40-year licensed term

  12. Regulatory considerations for extending the life of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinroth, H.; Rowden, M.

    1987-01-01

    This study provides the nuclear industry with its first systematic evaluation of the regulatory implications of nuclear plant life extension. The report recommends courses of action that might be followed by the industry and its regulators to ensure the development of a process that is both reasonable and predictable. The study holds that ''license renewal should be a reaffirmation of the ongoing and continuous process of hardware renewal that is already an integral part of every nuclear power plant's operating program.'' The report's findings can be used by the new AIF Subcommittee on License Renewal, by other industry groups, and by individual licensees in making constructive recommendations to NRC for the development of a workable license renewal policy. No such policy now exists, and the establishment of one is preferable to allowing the consideration of life extension matters on a case-by-case basis

  13. R and D in support of CANDU plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; Holt, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    One of the keys to the long-term success of CANDUs is a high capacity factor over the station design life. Considerable R and D in underway at AECL to develop technologies for assessing, monitoring and mitigating the effect of plant ageing and for improving plant performance and extending plant life. To achieve longer service life and to realize high capacity factor from CANDU stations, AECL is developing new technologies to enhance fuel channel and steam generator inspection capabilities, to monitor system health, and to allow preventive maintenance and cleaning (e.g., on-line chemical cleaning processes that produce small volumes of wastes). The life management strategy for fuel channels and steam generators requires a program to inspect components on a routine basis to identify mechanisms that could potentially affect fitness-for-service. In the case of fuel channels, the strategy includes inspections for dimensional changes, flaw detection, and deuterium concentration. New techniques are been developed to enhance these inspection capabilities; examples include accurate measurement of the gap between a pressure tube and its calandria tube and rapid full-length inspections of steam generator tubes for all known flaw types. Central to life management of components are Fitness-for-Service Guidelines (FFSG) that have been developed with the CANDU Owners Group (COG) that provide a standardized method to assess the potential for propagation of flaws detected during in-service inspections, and assessment of any change in fracture characteristics of the material. FFSG continue to be improved with the development of new technologies such as the capability to credit relaxation of stresses due to creep and non-rejectable flaws in pressure tubes. Effective management of plant systems throughout their lifetime requires much more than data acquisition and display - it requires that system health is continually monitored and managed. AECL has developed a system Health Monitor

  14. Life management of power plant based on structural damage testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallermo, H.; Klevtsov, I. [Thermal Engineering Department of Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia); Arras, V. [Eesti Energia, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    Life management system is based on the valid nowadays in Estonian power plants regulation documentation. The system allows to estimate stress distribution in components, find computational assessment of cumulated creep damage, determine when and where it is necessary to cut off the particular number of microsamples or take replicas. Finally, the real metal condition may be assessed on the basis of metallographic specimen research and reasonable 3-R decision - run, repair, replacement - made on further component use. (orig.) 6 refs.

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of Daugavgriva Waste Water Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Romagnoli, F; Fraga Sampaio, F; Blumberga, D

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the assessment of the environmental impacts caused by the treatment of Riga’s waste water in the Daugavgriva plant with biogas energy cogeneration through the life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA seems to be a good tool to assess and evaluate the most serious environmental impacts of a facility The results showed clearly that the impact category contributing the most to the total impact –eutrophicationcomes from the wastewater treatment stage. Cl...

  16. Life management of power plant based on structural damage testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallermo, H; Klevtsov, I [Thermal Engineering Department of Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia); Arras, V [Eesti Energia, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1999-12-31

    Life management system is based on the valid nowadays in Estonian power plants regulation documentation. The system allows to estimate stress distribution in components, find computational assessment of cumulated creep damage, determine when and where it is necessary to cut off the particular number of microsamples or take replicas. Finally, the real metal condition may be assessed on the basis of metallographic specimen research and reasonable 3-R decision - run, repair, replacement - made on further component use. (orig.) 6 refs.

  17. International requirements for life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernicke, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Lifetime extension or long-term operation of nuclear facilities are topics of great international significance against the backdrop of a fleet of nuclear power plants of which many have reached 2/3 of their planned life. The article deals with the conditions for, and the specific requirements of, seeking long-term operation of nuclear power plants as established internationally and on the basis of IAEA collections. Technically, long-term operation is possible for many of the nuclear power plants in the world because, normally, they were built on the basis of conservative rules and regulations and, as a consequence, incorporate significant additional safety. Application of requirements to specific plants implies assessments of technical safety which show that conservative design philosophies created reserves and, as a consequence, there is an adequate level of safety also in long-term plant operation. For this purpose, the technical specifications must be revised, necessary additions made, and (international) operating experience taken into account and management of aging established. Two examples are presented to show how the approach to long-term plant operation is put into practice on a national level. (orig.)

  18. Plant life management processes and practices for heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.-S.; Cleveland, J.; Clark, C.R.

    2006-01-01

    In general, heavy water reactor (HWR) nuclear power plant (NPP) owners would like to keep their NPPs in service as long as they can be operated safely and economically. Their decisions are depending on essentially business model. They involve the consideration of a number of factors, such as the material condition of the plant, comparison with current safety standards, the socio-political climate and asset management/ business planning considerations. Continued plant operation, including operation beyond design life, called 'long term operation, depends, among other things, on the material condition of the plant. This is influenced significantly by the effectiveness of ageing management. Key attributes of an effective plant life management program include a focus on important systems, structure and components (SSCs) which are susceptible to ageing degradation, a balance of proactive and reactive ageing management programmes, and a team approach that ensures the co-ordination of and communication between all relevant nuclear power plant and external programmes. Most HWR NPP owners/operators use a mix of maintenance, surveillance and inspection (MSI) programs as the primary means of managing ageing. Often these programs are experienced-based and/or time-based and may not be optimised for detecting and/or managing ageing effects. From time-to-time, operational history has shown that this practice can be too reactive, as it leads to dealing with ageing effects (degradation of SSCs) after they have been detected. In many cases premature and/or undetected ageing cannot be traced back to one specific reason or an explicit error. The root cause is often a lack of communication, documentation and/or co-ordination between design, commissioning, operation or maintenance organizations. This lack of effective communication and interfacing frequently arises because, with the exception of major SSCs, such as the fuel channels or steam generators, there is a lack of explicit

  19. NULIFE - the European NoE 'Nuclear Plant Life Prediction'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojan, Mihail

    2008-01-01

    INR Pitesti become on the 29th September 2006 a partner in the European Network of Excellence Nuclear Plant Life Prediction (NULIFE) coordinated by Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). The EU's Network of Excellence NULIFE has been launched under the EURATOM FP6 Program with a clear focus on integrating safety-oriented research on materials, structures and systems and exploiting the results of this integration through the production of harmonized lifetime assessment methods. NULIFE will help provide a better common understanding of, and information on, the factors affecting the lifetime of nuclear power plants which, together with associated management methods, will help facilitate extensions to the safe and economic lifetime of existing nuclear power plants. (author)

  20. Near-term benefits of the plant life extension program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushansky, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The aging process can be expected to reduce the availability and increase the production costs of nuclear power plants over time. To mitigate this process and recover or enhance plant availability, capacity, thermal efficiency, and maintenance expenditures, the utility must dedicate increased attention and commitment to a comprehensive plant life extension (PLEX) program. Improvements must be justified by balancing the cost of the recommended modifications with the economic value of benefits obtained from its implementation. It is often extremely difficult for utility management to make an optimal selection from among hundreds of proposed projects, most of which are cost-effective. A properly structured PLEX program with an emphasis on near-term benefits should provide the utility with a means of evaluating proposed projects, thus determining the optimum combination for authorization and implementation

  1. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Ready Mix Concrete Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkar, V. M.; Duggar, A. R.; Kumar, A.; Bonde, P. P.; Girwalkar, R. S.; Gade, S. B.

    2013-11-01

    India, being a developing nation is experiencing major growth in its infrastructural sector. Concrete is the major component in construction. The requirement of good quality of concrete in large quantities can be fulfilled by ready mix concrete batching and mixing plants. The paper presents a technique of applying the value engineering tool life cycle cost analysis to a ready mix concrete plant. This will help an investor or an organization to take investment decisions regarding a ready mix concrete facility. No economic alternatives are compared in this study. A cost breakdown structure is prepared for the ready mix concrete plant. A market survey has been conducted to collect realistic costs for the ready mix concrete facility. The study establishes the cash flow for the ready mix concrete facility helpful in investment and capital generation related decisions. Transit mixers form an important component of the facility and are included in the calculations. A fleet size for transit mixers has been assumed for this purpose. The life cycle cost has been calculated for the system of the ready mix concrete plant and transit mixers.

  2. EPRI/DOE nuclear plant life extension overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, J.J.; Lapides, M.E.; Harrison, D.; Ducharme, A.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing the major investment in current U.S. nuclear capacity and the excellent prospects that these units have a useful life substantially in excess of their 40 year license term, EPRI and DOE have jointly undertaken a comprehensive, multiyear, nuclear plant life extension program. The program, which has its antecedents in EPRI studies of 1978-9, aims to support U.S. utilities, first in verifying the requirements of extended operation and then in implementing a plan for achieving extended service and license renewal. The effort, begun in 1985, has already yielded numerous benefits and is expected to further aid in improving near-term performance of nuclear units. A utility LWR Plant Life Extension Committee has been established to provide overview and guidance to the DOE/EPRI research and development activities and also to develop and integrate utility responses to licensing and codes and standards issues. Pilot study projects, performed by Virginia Power and Northern States Power, were the initial EPRI/DOE focus. This base has gradually expanded to incorporate other utilities and generating units, as well as a broad base of technology support. The latter includes: a) economic and financial analysis methods applicable at the unit, region and national level, b) long-term materials deterioration analysis and sampling, c) component life prediction methods and d) refurbishment and repair evaluations. This paper presents the history and status of the overall EPRI/DOE program

  3. Non-destructive testing for plant life assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is promoting industrial applications of nondestructive testing (NDT) technology, which includes radiography testing (RT) and related methods, to assure safety and reliability of operation of industrial facilities and processes. NDT technology is essentially needed for improvement of the quality of industrial products, safe performance of equipment and plants, including safety of metallic and concrete structures and constructions. The IAEA is playing an important role in promoting the NDT use and technology support to Member States, in harmonisation for training and certification of NDT personnel, and in establishing national accreditation and certifying bodies. All these efforts have led to a stage of maturity and self sufficiency in numerous countries especially in the field of training and certification of personnel, and in provision of services to industries. This has had a positive impact on the improvement of the quality of industrial goods and services. NDT methods are primarily used for detection, location and sizing of surface and internal defects (in welds, castings, forging, composite materials, concrete and many more). Various NDT methods are applied for preventive maintenance (aircraft, bridge), for the inspection of raw materials, half-finished and finished products, for in-service-inspection and for plant life assessment studies. NDT is essential for quality control of the facilities and products, and for fitness - for purpose assessment (so-called plant life assessment). NDT evaluates remaining operation life of plant components (processing lines, pipes, vessels) providing an accurate diagnosis that allows predicting extended life operation beyond design life. Status and trends on the NDT for plant life assessment have been discussed in many IAEA meetings related with NDT development, training and education. Experts have largely demonstrated that, using NDT methods, a comprehensive assessment of the life

  4. Thematic tourism vs. mass tourism in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Červinka Michal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article titled Thematic Tourism vs. Mass Tourism in the Czech Republic is concerned with the relationship between thematic tourism, mass tourism and presuppositions of the tourism development. The authors aim is to compare the turnout of thematic tourism attractions and sights focused on mass tourism paying attention to presuppositions of the tourism development and barriers for the turnout of thematic monuments. Comparisons will be based on presuppositions of tourism development and will be based especially on the specifics of thematic tourism - as a marginal field within the tourism industry. The application part will focus on the comparison of sights with massive turnout in the Czech Republic and thematic landmarks as the subject of thematic tourism. Special attention will be paid to the comparison of the two most visited monuments in the Czech Republic as for mass tourism - the Charles Bridge, and the most visited monument as for thematic tourism - the hydro-power plant Dlouhé Stráně, a technical representative of thematic tourism. Both monuments were elected by general public on the list of Seven Wonders of the Czech Republic in 2013. The aim is to confirm / refute the hypothesis that quality preconditions of tourism development are essential for the development of tourism and visiting tourist attractions. The article will use secondary data analysis methods and author's own field research.

  5. An approach to nuclear-power-plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojvodic Tuma, J.; Celin, R.; Udovc, M.; Bundara, B.; Zabric, I.

    2007-01-01

    The plant life of a nuclear power plant (NPP) depends on degradation processes and ageing. Degradation is a deterioration phenomenon that can lead to component failure or limit the life of a component or the NPP itself. Ageing describes a continuous time or operational degradation of materials due to operational conditions, which include both normal and operating conditions. As a result of ageing degradation the state of the NPP or component can vary throughout the operating life. The degradation mechanisms for metallic components are general and local corrosion, erosion/corrosion, fatigue, corrosion fatigue, material changes due to irradiation and temperature, creep and wear. All the components of an NPP are subject to ageing, which may lead to the degradation of the physical barriers and redundant components, resulting in an increased probability of common-cause failures. The aims of NPP ageing management are to ensure that the necessary safety margins, adequate reliability and unforeseen and uncontrolled ageing of critical components do not shorten the NPP's lifetime. For the reasons stated above, plans are necessary to maintain the NPP in a state of high reliability. These are plans for an assessment of the life of the components that cannot be readily replaced, plans for operating life assessment or the planned replacement of major components where economic considerations will largely condition whether replacement or decommissioning should be pursued and plans for maintenance and replacements so that outages and delays can be minimised. In this paper some aspects of the process of NPP life management will be presented. (author)

  6. Life prediction study of reactor pressure vessel as essential technical foundation for plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, H.; Nakajima, N.; Kondo, T.

    1987-01-01

    The life of a LWR plant is determined essentially by the limit of reliable performance of the components which are difficult to replace without high economic and/or safety risks. Typical of such a component is the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). The engineering life of a RPV of a given quality of steel is considered to be a complex function of factors such as the resistance to fracture, which has deteriorated due to neutron irradiation and thermal aging, and generation of surface flaws by environmental effects such as corrosion and their growth under operational load that varies during steady state operation and transients. In an attempt to evaluate the engineering life of a RPV of a LWR, a preliminary survey was made by applying a set of knowledge accumulated primarily in the field of subcritical crack growth behavior of RPV steels in reactor water environments. The major conclusions drawn are: (1) the life of a RPV is dependent on the quality of steel used, particularly with respect to any minor impurities it contains. (2) The issue of plant life extension in RPV aspect is found to be optimistic for cases where the steels used satisfy a reasonable level of quality control. (3) The importance of providing sound scientific foundation is stressed for the implementation of a practicable life extension scheme: this can be established through intensified studies of flaw growth and fracture behaviours in well defined testings under reasonably simulated service conditions

  7. Integration of plant life management in operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutin, Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Full text: 1 - INTRODUCTION. Electricite de France is now operating 58 PWR nuclear power plants which produce 75% of french electricity. Besides maintaining safety and availability on a routine basis, it is outmost important to protect the investment. Indeed, such an asset is a tremendous advantage just as the company is going to face the new european electricity market. That is the reason why EDF is devoting important effort to implement ageing management as an integral part of operation and maintenance programs. But it must be recognized that NPP lifetime is not threatened only by component-related problems: other less technical issues must be seriously considered like industrial support, information system, skilled people, public acceptance, etc. 2 - LIFE MANAGEMENT POLICY. In France, there is no limited licensing period for NPPs. The life management policy of nuclear power plants is based on three principles: - safe and cost-effective operation, looking for excellence in daily activities, with an effective experience feedback organisation taking advantage of the high level of standardization of the units, - every ten years, a new set of safety standards, a complete review of each facility and an upgrading of its safety level through appropriate modifications while maintaining unit standardization in all the fleet, - a Life Management Program, at corporate level, which permanently scrutinizes operation and maintenance activities to identify decisions which could impair plant lifetime and which surveys research and development programs related to ageing phenomenon understanding. 3 - INTEGRATION OF LIFETIME CONCERN IN O and M ACTIVITIES. It is outmost important to take in account lifetime concern in daily operation and maintenance activities and this must be done as early as possible in plant life. Even though sophisticated assessments require engineering capacity, many good ideas may arise from plant staff. For that reason, increasing lifetime awareness of plant

  8. Plant life management in Belgium: an integrated project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacquier, W.; Smet, M. de; Hennart, J.C.; Greer, J.L.; Breesch, Ch.; Havard, P.

    2001-01-01

    In Belgium, a specific plant life management project, named ''Continuous Operation of Belgian NPPs'' is currently developing. Its final objective is to centralize all safety and economic aspects of plant life management in order to determine, for each NPP unit, the optimal actions required to maintain their safe and reliable operation. As the lifetime of safety-related active components is permanently controlled by the current maintenance programs, the project focuses only on passive safety-related components and on non-safety components important for the availability of the plants. These structures and components were evaluated and compared on the basis of a set of weighted criteria in order to measure their criticality and to identify those which must be considered in the project. The selection and the ranking of those components is based on the KBM TM methodology (Knowledge Based Maintenance). This methodology facilitates the collection, formalization and exchange of know-how and gives immediate results thanks to a sequential and systematic step by step analysis. (author)

  9. Life Cycle Assessment to Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J. s.; Herrera, I.; Rodriguez, A.

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation was done at a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWTP), through the application of the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) performed by using a commercial tool called SIMAPRO. The objective of this study was to apply Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in two systems: municipal wastewater effluent without treatment and Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that is operating in poor condition and has a direct discharge to a natural body, which is a threat to the environment. A LCA was done using SIMAPRO 7, in order to determine the environmental impact in each scenery was assessed, a comparison of the impacts and propose improvements to decrease, following the steps this methodology and according to the respective standardized normative (ISO 14040/ ISO 14044). In this study, most of used data have been reported by the plant from early 2010 and some data from literature. We identified the environmental impacts generated by the treatment, making emphasis on those related to the subsequent use of the water body receiving the discharge, such as eutrophication (near to 15% reduction). Likewise, a comparative analysis between the impacts in the two systems, with and without treatment by analyzing the variation in the impact categories studied. Finally within this work, alternatives of improvements, in order to reduce the identified and quantified impacts are proposed. (Author) 33 refs.

  10. Plant/life form considerations in the rangeland hydrology and erosion model (RHEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resilience of rangeland to erosion has largely been attributed to adequate plant cover; however, plant life/growth form, and individual species presence can have a dramatic effect on hydrologic and erosion dynamics on rangelands. Plant life/growth form refers to genetic tendency of a plant to grow i...

  11. Aging management review for license renewal and plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinckel, M.A.; Young, G.G.

    2002-01-01

    license renewal for 25 nuclear units by 2005. It is anticipated that over 90% of the 103 operating nuclear plants in the United States will pursue license renewal and seek an additional 20 years of operation. Some plants may pursue operation to 80 years or longer since the license renewal rule does not limit the operating life of a nuclear power plant. The estimated cost to prepare and process a license renewal application is approximately $10M to $15M, which includes NRC review fees. The NRC review for license renewal is strictly a safety review and plant economics is not a consideration. However, economics will drive the decision to pursue license renewal for U.S. nuclear power plants. For nuclear units with strong performance records, license renewal is a good business decision when compared to the cost of building new generating capacity. The license renewal rule focuses on ageing of passive long-lived components and ageing management programs that manage those structures and components. Ninety to ninety-five percent of the ageing management programs credited in a plant license renewal application are existing programs (e.g., ASME Section XI, Chemistry Control Program, and Steam Generator Integrity). Typical examples of new programs required to manage ageing include reactor vessel internals, small bore Class 1 piping, Alloy 600, buried piping, and buried high voltage cable exposed to wetted environments. At present, there have been no commitments by any utility to replace components as a result of license renewal. After the NRC has approved a license renewal application, the credited ageing management programs (i.e., existing and new) become commitments for the remaining plant life. These commitments typically form the bases for a comprehensive plant life management program (PLIM). PLIM differs from license renewal in that it considers active and passive components as well as economics of plant operation and maintenance. Plants that have recently received renewed

  12. Only in dying, life: programmed cell death during plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hautegem, Tom; Waters, Andrew J; Goodrich, Justin; Nowack, Moritz K

    2015-02-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a fundamental process of life. During the evolution of multicellular organisms, the actively controlled demise of cells has been recruited to fulfil a multitude of functions in development, differentiation, tissue homeostasis, and immune systems. In this review we discuss some of the multiple cases of PCD that occur as integral parts of plant development in a remarkable variety of cell types, tissues, and organs. Although research in the last decade has discovered a number of PCD regulators, mediators, and executers, we are still only beginning to understand the mechanistic complexity that tightly controls preparation, initiation, and execution of PCD as a process that is indispensable for successful vegetative and reproductive development of plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prognostics and Life Beyond 60 for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard J. Bond; Pradeep Ramuhalli; Magdy S. Tawfik; Nancy J. Lybeck

    2011-06-01

    Safe, secure, reliable and sustainable energy supply is vital for advanced and industrialized life styles. To meet growing energy demand there is interest in longer term operation (LTO) for the existing nuclear power plant fleet and enhancing capabilities in new build. There is increasing use of condition based maintenance (CBM) for active components and periodic in service inspection (ISI) for passive systems: there is growing interest in deploying on-line monitoring. Opportunities exist to move beyond monitoring and diagnosis based on pattern recognition and anomaly detection to and prognostics with the ability to provide an estimate of remaining useful life (RUL). The adoption of digital I&C systems provides a framework within which added functionality including on-line monitoring can be deployed, and used to maintain and even potentially enhance safety, while at the same time improving planning and reducing both operations and maintenance costs.

  14. Regulatory issues for nuclear power plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, J.

    2000-01-01

    The workshop of 26-27 june 2000, on nuclear power Plant LIfe Management (PLIM), also included working groups in which major issues facing PLIM activities for nuclear power plants were identified and discussed. The second group was on Regulation. The Regulatory Working Group will attempt to identify some of the more pertinent issues affecting nuclear plant regulation in a changing PLIM environment, to identify some possible actions to be taken to address these issues, and to identify some of the parties responsible for taking these actions. Some preliminary regulatory issues are noted below. This is not intended to be a comprehensive list of such issues but rather is intended to stimulate discussion among the experts attending this Workshop. One of the concerns in the regulatory arena is how the structural integrity of the plants can be assured for an extended lifetime. Technological advances directed toward the following are likely to be important factors in the regulatory process of life extension. - Preventive and corrective maintenance (e.g., water chemistry control, pressure vessel annealing, and replacement of core internals). - Ageing and degradation mechanisms and evaluation (e.g., embrittlement, wear, corrosion/erosion, fatigue, and stress corrosion). - Monitoring, surveillance, and inspection (e.g., fatigue monitoring and non-destructive testing). - Optimisation of maintenance (e.g., using risk-based analysis). On the business side, there is concern about technical support by manufacturers, fuel companies, and construction companies. Maintaining a strong technical base and skilled workers in a potentially declining environment is another concern in the regulatory community. Waste management and decommissioning remain significant issue regarding PLIM. These issues affect all three areas of concern - technology, business, and regulation. It is against this background, that the issues put forth in this paper are presented. The objective of presenting these

  15. The life prediction study of Rokkasho reprocessing plant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, K.; Yano, M.; Takizawa, M.; Shibata, S.

    1998-01-01

    The life prediction study of major equipment materials used in heavily corrosive nitric acid solutions of the RRP was carried out. The nitric acid recovery made of type 304ULC austenitic steel and the dissolver made of type 705 metallic zirconium are selected on the present study. This study is composed of major three programs, namely, the mock-up tests by small-sized equipments simulated to the practical design, laboratory tests for examining corrosion controlling factors by small specimens and to establish the data base system for the life prediction. Important parameters on this study was extracted with analyzing the past data of the life prediction on the Tokai reprocessing equipments. The mock-ups design was made by considering the quantitative evaluation of the most important parts on objective equipments, namely, heat conducting tubes in an acid recovery evaporator and a thermal jacket in a dissolver. From pre-examinations, the effects of radioactive species, nitric acid solution chemistry, the corrosion mechanisms were elucidated. Mock-up testing conditions corrosion monitoring methods and a data base concept for the the life prediction were selected from pre-examination data by referencing the plant operation planning. (author)

  16. Using thematic analysis in psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, V.; Clarke, V.

    2006-01-01

    Thematic analysis is a poorly demarcated, rarely-acknowledged, yet widely-used qualitative analytic method within psychology. In this paper, we argue that it offers an accessible and theoretically-flexible approach to analysing qualitative data. We outline what thematic analysis is, locating it in relation to other qualitative analytic methods that search for themes or patterns, and in relation to different epistemological and ontological positions. We then provide clear guidelines to those w...

  17. Thematic Composition and Idiom Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cserép Attila

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA has been studied to retrieve variant forms of semantically decomposable idioms that have no thematic composition for the purpose of determining whether thematic composition is a necessary criterion for idiom variation as claimed by Horn (2003. The syntactic variants searched for include passive, raising, tough-movement, relative clauses and wh-questions. Horn’s (2003 hypothesis is not fully confirmed, as some variation has been found.

  18. Plant life management and modernisation: Research challenges in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.; Aho-Mantila, I.

    2011-01-01

    The European network of excellence NULIFE (nuclear plant life prediction) has been launched with a clear focus on integrating safety-oriented research on materials, structures and systems and exploiting the results of this integration through the production of harmonised lifetime assessment methods. NULIFE will help provide a better common understanding of the factors affecting the lifetime of nuclear power plants which, together with associated management methods, will help facilitate safe and economic long-term operation of existing nuclear power plants. In addition, NULIFE will help in the development of design criteria for future generations of nuclear power plant. NULIFE was kicked-off in October 2006 and will work over a 5-year period to create a single organization structure, capable of providing harmonised research and development (R and D) at European level to the nuclear power industry and the related safety authorities. Led by VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland), the project has a total budget in excess of 8 million euros, with over 40 partners drawn from leading research institutions, technical support organizations, electric power utilities and manufacturers throughout Europe. NULIFE also involves many industrial organizations and, in addition to their R and D contributions, these take part in a dedicated End User Group. Over the last 15 years the European Commission has sponsored a significant number of R and D projects under the Euratom Framework Programme and its Joint Research Centre has developed co-operative European Networks for mutual benefits on specific topics related to plant life management. However, their overall impact has been reduced due to fragmentation. These networks are considered forerunners to NULIFE. The importance of the long-term operation of the plants has been recognized at European level, in the strategic research agenda of SNETP (Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform). In NULIFE, the joint EU

  19. Current status of technology for plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, B.

    2000-01-01

    In most developed countries of the world, deregulation of electricity markets has been established: competition is fierce, and utilities have to improve the competitiveness of their plants. It is an important challenge for nuclear power plants: a smart way to deal with this problem is life extension of existing units. The financial stakes associated with maintaining or extending the lifetime of nuclear power stations are very high; thus, if their lifetime is shortened by about ten years, dismantling and renewal would be brought forward which would increase their costs by several tens of billions of French francs. Furthermore, every extra year of operation of a 900 MWe unit should save about 500 million French francs per year on financial charges that would be necessary for a new investment, provided that maintenance costs do not become excessive. In order to succeed, utilities must improve their knowledge of ageing mechanisms, demonstrate to safety authorities the feasibility of life extension (especially taking into account critical components), operate existing units in an exemplary way, manage and master the long-term evolution of the safety reference state. (author)

  20. Environmental life cycle assessment of high temperature nuclear fission and fusion biomass gasification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shutaro; Sakurai, Shigeki; Kasada, Ryuta; Konishi, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    The authors propose nuclear biomass gasification plant as an advancement of conventional gasification plants. Environmental impacts of both fission and fusion plants were assessed through life cycle assessment. The result suggested the reduction of green-house gas emissions would be as large as 85.9% from conventional plants, showing a potential for the sustainable future for both fission and fusion plants. (author)

  1. Application of plant life management program and experience at NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickerson, J.; Dam, R.; Arnold, J.; See Hoye, D.

    2004-01-01

    The National Research Universal (NRU) reactor has seen extensive and excellent service since going into operation in 1957. During that time, significant investments in upgrading and improving the facility have been implemented. Recently, as part of the NRU Licenseability Extension (LE) program, AECL has developed a Plant Life Management (PLiM) program to support planned operation to at least 2012. The objective of the PLiM program is to systematically assess the various aging related degradation mechanisms in order to evaluate both current condition and the potential for further extending service life. Another objective is to identify the associated maintenance, surveillance and inspection strategy for service life extension of important Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs). The strategy uses approaches that build on AECL's PLiM/PLEx experience at CANDU plants, but also utilizes previous Age Management and refurbishment work performed at NRU. The program is multi-faceted, systematic and integrated, and involves the facility operations organization in the assessment process. The PLiM program has used a number of pilot studies in the initial stages to test out PLiM procedures, gain experience with the various aging assessment techniques and enhance effectiveness of interfaces between the aging assessment team and the facility staff. The aging assessment process begins with the screening and prioritization of the facility SSCs. Selection of the appropriate assessment technique is based on priority and component type. Life and condition assessment techniques used at other plants have been adapted to NRU and performed on important components and structures. For important systems, a combination of condition assessment and systematic maintenance assessment techniques are being used. Detailed PLiM procedures have been developed and are in trial use in pilot studies. These procedures are currently being updated with the experience gained during the pilot studies. In

  2. Overview of plant life extension technology development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Arai, H.; Akiyama, M.; Mishima, Y.; Okubo, T.

    1993-01-01

    In Japan, it is expected that the nuclear power will continue to play an important role in electric power supply. Since it is expected that the fast breeder reactor (FBR) will be introduced sometime during the first half of the 21st century, light water reactors (LWRs) will continue to play a key role some 30 to 40 years to come. For this reason, technology development projects are being implemented to further enhance light water reactor technology and thereby improve the reliability of LWRs. From this point, the Plant Life Extension (PLEX) technology development program [1-4] is entrusted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry to the Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC). This program is an 11-year plan which started in 1985. The objectives are to extend the service lives of existing LWRs to increase the energy generated by these plants during their lifetime, and to reduce the lifetime generating costs. In this report, we will present our project overview and recent activities with respect to extensive verification tests on component material behavior. The JAPEIC PLEX project is divided into 3 phases. Phase I is the feasibility study. Phase 2 involves the verification tests and the evaluation of life extension technologies. The overall evaluation of the project will be conducted in Phase 3. The feasibility study of Phase I has been completed in fiscal year 1985 and 1986. In Phase I, the important components (the components and structures that are likely to govern the lives of nuclear power plants) have been selected. (author)

  3. Overview of plant life management for long term operation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.S.; Vincze, P.; Bychkov, A.

    2014-01-01

    Many IAEA member states have given high priority to licensing their nuclear power plants to operate for terms longer than the time frame originally anticipated (generally 40 years). The task of managing plant ageing is assigned in most member states to an engineering specialty called 'plant life management' (PLiM) applying a systematic analysis methodology to System Structure Components (SSCs) ageing. In many countries, the safety performance of nuclear power plants is periodically assessed and characterized via the periodic safety review (PSR) process. Regulatory review and acceptance of PSRs constitutes for these countries the licensing requirement for continued operation of the plant to the following PSR cycle (usually 10 years). In the USA and in other countries operating US designed plants, instead of PSR process, a license renewal application (LRA) process is followed, which requires certain prerequisites such as ageing management programs, particularly for passive irreplaceable SSCs. Active components are normally addressed via the maintenance rule (MR) requirements and other established regulatory processes. A third group of member states have adopted a combined approach that incorporates elements of both the PSR process and selected LRA specific requirements, such as time limited ageing analysis. The article ends with some IAEA recommendations for the implementation of national PLiM programs

  4. Proceedings of the topical meeting on nuclear power plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the topical meeting on nuclear power plant life extension. The sessions are organized under the following headings: Perspectives on nuclear power plant life extension, the potential for additional years of power production, NRC and industry life extension initiatives, concrete and structures degradation and evaluation of useful remaining life, plant life extension programs, Reactor pressure vessel and intervals degradation and evaluation of useful remaining life, life extension decision making issues and institutions, systems degradation and evaluation of remaining life, monitoring and repair, design records and maintenance activities for life extension, Mechanical and electrical component degradation and evaluation of remaining life, expert systems and other techniques for enhanced and continued operation, life extension aspect of codes, standards, and related technologies, piping and valve degradation and evaluation of useful remaining life

  5. Life management plants at nuclear power plants PWR; Planes de gestion de vida en centrales nucleares PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, G.

    2014-10-01

    Since in 2009 the CSN published the Safety Instruction IS-22 (1) which established the regulatory framework the Spanish nuclear power plants must meet in regard to Life Management, most of Spanish nuclear plants began a process of convergence of their Life Management Plants to practice 10 CFR 54 (2), which is the current standard of Spanish nuclear industry for Ageing Management, either during the design lifetime of the plant, as well as for Long-Term Operation. This article describe how Life Management Plans are being implemented in Spanish PWR NPP. (Author)

  6. Report on countermeasure to plant life management of the nuclear power plants at three electric power companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Three nuclear power reactors of the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant, the Mihama-1 power plant and the Tsuruga-1 power plant were investigated according to the estimation plan shown in the Fundamental Concept on Plant Life Management of Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of International Trade and Industry on April, 1996. Their reports contained the technical evaluation against, the responsive items to and the future examinations of the plant life management. In special, in the responsive items, some items to be added to the present maintenance process and some technical developmental problems are described in details and concretely. (G.K.)

  7. Plant life time management for safe long term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burket, Danes

    2010-01-01

    The topics discussed include LTO (long-term operation) and licensing procedure in general and specifically for the Dukovany NPP, components of an LTO programme, the PLIM (plant life management) concept for Dukovany and Temelin, the LTO implementation project for Dukovany, LTO strategy, LTO risk study, international verification. The Conclusions include the following items: (i) Technical-economic study of Dukovany NPP LTO demonstrates technical feasibility and economic profitability of Dukovany NPP LTO with perspective for up to 60 years of operation. (ii) Safety part of Program for assurance of Dukovany NPP LTO complies with IAEA SALTO recommendations. (iii) Dukovany NPP LTO programme incorporated IAEA SALTO Peer Review Mission recommendations. (iv) LTO Implementation Project for 2009-2015 was approved with major targets to renew operational permission and prepare NPP for operation up to 60 years. (v) Preparation of Temelin NPP LTO programme has been started. (P.A.)

  8. Japan's policy on the nuclear power plant life management, life management for nuclear power plants and measures to cope with aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takuma, Masao

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear Plant is born after a lengthy, multi-year construction period, and ends its life decades later, having generated a vast amount of electricity. Its period of operation is, far longer than its period of construction. 'Construction' is the process of 'creating something of value', a new nuclear plant, using technology. 'Operation' is the process of 'raising the child with care' so that its potential can be realized to the fullest over the course of its life. From the view point of plant life management, it is appropriate to divide the life of a power plant into three stages, 'fostering, mature and aging', from the start of operation to the end of its operation. It is important to manage a plant accordingly. It is recently become important to the Utility companies under the competitive power market to manage aging plants effectively, in order to extend its life with sustained high level of performances, with plant safety in the first place. Whether this is, in fact, possible or not, depends upon how the plant was operated in the prior stages, that means, depends upon how it was 'brought up'. This report briefly shows what are important points of management in these 3 stages, and also describes general significances of plant maintenance and inspection, with the practices applied to the plants in Japan. Currently 52 plants Light Water Reactor Nuclear Plants are in operation in Japan, and 13 plants within next 5 years and 23 plants within 10 years are regarded as aged plants. So the contents of periodic inspections by the government and maintenance requirements on the Utilities will be modified to keep and enhance safe and stable operations of the aged plants. In the year 1994, Japanese Government released the report 'Basic Concepts on the Nuclear Power Plant Aging', the objectives of which was the evaluation of the soundness of major equipment and to establish the concepts of aging measures, assuming the plant to be operated 60 years. Utilities, in

  9. French nuclear plants PWR vessel integrity assessment and life management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezdikian, G. [Electricite de France (EDF), Div. Production Nucleaire, 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Quinot, P. [FRAMATOME, Dept. Bloc Reacteur et Boucles Primaires, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France); Faidy, C.; Churier-Bossennec, H. [Electricite de France (EDF), Div. Ingenierie et Service, 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2001-07-01

    The Reactor Pressure Vessel life management of 56 PWR 3 loop and 4 loop reactors units was engaged by the French Utility EDF (Electricite de France) a few years ago and is yet on going on. This paper will present the work carried out within the framework of justifying why the 34 three loop reactor vessels will remain acceptable for operation for a lifetime of at least 40-years. A summary of the measures will be given. An overall review of actions will be presented describing the French approach, using important existing databases, including studies related to irradiation surveillance monitoring program and end of life fluence assessment. The last results obtained are based on generic integrity analyses for all categories of situations (normal upset emergency and faulted conditions) until the end of lifetime, postulating circumferential an radial kinds of flaw located in the stainless steel cladding or shallow sub-cladding area. The results of structural integrity analyses beginning with elastic computations and completed with three-dimensional finite element elastic plastic computations for envelope cases, are compared with code criteria for operating plants. The objective is to evaluate the margins on different parameters as RTNDT (Reference Nil Ductility Transition Temperature), toughness or crack size, to justify the global fitness for service of all these Reactor Pressure Vessels. The paper introduces EDF's maintenance strategy, related to integrity assessment, for those nuclear power plants under operation, based on NDE in-service inspection of the first thirty millimeters in the thickness of the wall and major surveillance programs of the vessels. (author)

  10. French nuclear plants PWR vessel integrity assessment and life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdikian, G.; Quinot, P.; Faidy, C.; Churier-Bossennec, H.

    2001-01-01

    The Reactor Pressure Vessel life management of 56 PWR 3 loop and 4 loop reactors units was engaged by the French Utility EDF (Electricite de France) a few years ago and is yet on going on. This paper will present the work carried out within the framework of justifying why the 34 three loop reactor vessels will remain acceptable for operation for a lifetime of at least 40-years. A summary of the measures will be given. An overall review of actions will be presented describing the French approach, using important existing databases, including studies related to irradiation surveillance monitoring program and end of life fluence assessment. The last results obtained are based on generic integrity analyses for all categories of situations (normal upset emergency and faulted conditions) until the end of lifetime, postulating circumferential an radial kinds of flaw located in the stainless steel cladding or shallow sub-cladding area. The results of structural integrity analyses beginning with elastic computations and completed with three-dimensional finite element elastic plastic computations for envelope cases, are compared with code criteria for operating plants. The objective is to evaluate the margins on different parameters as RTNDT (Reference Nil Ductility Transition Temperature), toughness or crack size, to justify the global fitness for service of all these Reactor Pressure Vessels. The paper introduces EDF's maintenance strategy, related to integrity assessment, for those nuclear power plants under operation, based on NDE in-service inspection of the first thirty millimeters in the thickness of the wall and major surveillance programs of the vessels. (author)

  11. Impurities in air and their effect on plant life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanyam, P

    1957-01-01

    Air is said to be polluted when it contains an unusual amount of contaminants. The fact that several of these impurities influence plant life has been fairly well established. Damage caused to agriculture and forestry has been a subject of economic interest in the highly industrialized countries of Europe and America for more than a century now. Germany was the pioneer in this aspect of study and as early as in 1842. Researchers described the poisoning of elm trees. England's history records that the smoke and fume has been one of concern to its citizens ever since the days of the Industrial Revolution. As early as in 1848, the Government initiated a study of the harmful gases to vegetation. The subject attracted the attention of United States of America by about 1900. The writings of one researcher from 1906 to 1916 give evidence of the frequent instances of injuries to trees in New England, attributed to the escape of illuminating gas. Extensive research has followed the periodic concern regarding localized or general pollution. Similar attention has also been paid in Italy and Austria to the effect of impurities of air on vegetation. However, in India the problem attracted the attention of administrators, plant pathologists and chemists only very recently. The vicinity of industrial plants in many places has been responsible for litigation, setting up of commissions and regulation of acts in several countries. The purpose of the present contribution is to bring out the salient features of research work done so far on this subject. 30 references.

  12. US national and regional impacts of nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makovich, L.; Forest, L.; Fletcher, T.

    1988-01-01

    The US will need new sources of electricity in the early 21st century due to retirement of much of the nation's generating capacity. Almost all of the US nuclear capacity would be included in those retirements if, as originally expected, the nuclear units were shut down and decommissioned as the operating licenses expired between 2005 and 2025. However, given the large demands for new capacity during that period, nuclear plant life extension (NUPLEX) -- the extension of operating life beyond the original license period -- needs to be considered as an electricity source. This study assesses the benefits and costs of NUPLEX relative to the anticipated competing sources of electricity supply in the early 21st century. We find that NUPLEX yields large net benefits under a wide range of plausible economic conditions. This study associates net benefits with electricity cost savings, thereby abstracting from speculative reliability considerations. To illustrate the effects of uncertainty, the study assesses NUPLEX net benefits under varying assumptions on NUPLEX investment costs and other future economic conditions

  13. Plant life management for long term operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The world's fleet of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) is approximately 20 years old on average, and most plants are believed to be able to operate for 60 years or more. The design life of a NPP is typically 30 to 40 years. This may be extended by 10 to 20 years, or more, provided that the plant can demonstrate by analysis, trending, equipment and system upgrades, increased vigilance, testing, ageing management, and other means that license renewal presents no threat to public health and safety. The basic goal of Plant Life Management (PLiM) is to satisfy requirements for safe long-term supplies of electricity in an economically competitive way. The basic goal of the operating company and the owners to operate as long as economically reasonable and possible from safety point of view. PLiM is a management tool for doing that. PLiM is a system of programmes and procedures to satisfy safety requirements for safe operation and for power production in a competitive way and for time which is rational from technical and economical point of view. PLiM is not only a technical system, it is also an attitude of the operational company to keep the plant in operation as long as possible from safety and business point of view. The common objectives of PLiM assessment is to help and review the pre-conditions for PLiM and long-term operation approaches. PLiM should not be associated with extension of operational life-time of the NPP only. It is an owner's attitude and rational approach of the operating company to run the business economically and safely. The effectiveness of PLiM Programme can be assessed by three complementary kinds of assessment: self-assessment, peer review and comprehensive programme review by the plant owner/ operator. IAEA will provide the assessment service for peer review of PLiM. Preparation for a PLiM Assessment service will be initiated only after the IAEA has been formally approached by a MS and funding (e.g. an existing Technical cooperation project) has

  14. Use of plant specific information in life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simola, K.; Talja, H.

    2002-01-01

    In plant life management decisions are made on prevention and mitigation measures of ageing phenomena. In these processes, information from several sources has to be combined, and the decisions are based on data and analyses including lots of uncertainties. In order to make good decisions, the uncertainties and limitations related to both analyses and the raw data should be recognised. A schematic presentation of the information used in the decision making with an emphasis on data needs and analyses for the technical life assessment of a component is given. On the way from the raw data to the final decision on ageing management there are several steps where engineering judgement is used or more sophisticated analyses are made. In this paper we present a view upon the decision making process in managing the ageing of components, systems and structures. Further, we propose practices to improve the transparency of ageing analyses and means to improve the availability and usability of plant specific information for ageing management purposes. The availability of plant specific information and easy access to these records are vital for the efficient ageing management. Often, the data collection and record keeping has not been organised in an efficient way and the use of experience data is very laborious. As illustrated, a lot of plant specific information is needed in ageing assessment. It is also very important to ensure that the information is up-to-date, e.g. possible modifications are taken into account in lifetime predictions. As an example of improvement in the data collection practices we shortly summarise the pipeline analysis and monitoring system that VTT is developing together with TVO. The system is meant to contain all up-to-date information necessary to analyse and monitor piping systems of an operating plant. The core of the system contains five databases. Piping database contains information like geometry, material, loading, detected cracks etc. All

  15. Enhanced design, operation and maintenance practices for a longer plant service life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimondo, E.; Courcoux, A.

    2004-01-01

    Plant service life problems have been under detailed investigation in France and the experience acquired by our company over the past 25 years in the design, construction and maintenance of Pressurized Water Reactors has contributed to develop skills, equipment and capabilities available for efficient plant aging management and component service life extension. The service life of a nuclear power plant is deeply dependant of the provisions made during the design stage, directly linked to good operating conditions and adequate maintenance practices. This paper presents the importance of these three steps (design, operation and maintenance) for plant service life concern. (author)

  16. A study on the optimization of plant life extension and decommissioning for the improvement of economy in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae In; Jung, K. J.; Chung, U. S.; Baik, S. T.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Park, B. Y

    2000-01-01

    Fundamentals on the plan, the national policy, the safety securities for the life extension of the nuclear power plant was established from the domestic/abroad documents and case studies in relation with the life extension and decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Concerning the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant, the management according to decommissioning stages was analyzed by the investigation of the domestic/abroad standard of the decommissioning (decontamination. dismantling) technology and regulation. Moreover, the study on the cost estimation method has been carried out for the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. (author)

  17. Development of life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Young Hwan; Shin, Hyun Jae [Sungkwunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyang Beom [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Young Kil [Kunsan National Univ., Gunsan (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hyun Jo [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ik Keun; Park, Eun Soo [Seoul National University of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    Retaining reliabilities of nondestructive testing is essential for the life-time maintenance of nuclear power plant. In order to Improve reliabilities of ultrasonic testing and eddy current testing, the following five subjects were carried out in this study: development of BEM analysis technique for ECT of SG tube, development of neural network technique for the intelligent analysis of ECT flaw signals of SG tubes, development of RFECT technology for the inspection of SG tube, FEM analysis of ultrasonic scattering field and evaluation of statistical reliability of PD-RR test of ultrasonic testing. As results, BEM analysis of eddy current signal, intelligent analysis of eddy current signal using neural network, and FEM analysis of remote field eddy current testing have been developed for the inspection of SG tubes. FEM analysis of ultrasonic waves in 2-dimensional media and evaluation of statistical reliability of ultrasonic testing with PD-RR test also have been carried out for the inspection of weldments. Those results can be used to Improve reliability of nondestructive testing.

  18. Life cycle management of french operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valibus, L.; Loriette, Ph.

    1998-01-01

    The PWR units of the EDF generation capacity in operation are young. They represent a technical and financial asset with a strategic significance both for the company and for France. According to regulations, even if the safety reports take into account a 40-year lifetime for the NSSS, the French regulations do not specify a time limit for the operation of the facilities according to the plant authorization decree. The Safety Authorities may, at any time require another safety re-examination. In fact, it was decided to carry out unit safety periodic reviews according to types of series. A program was set up in order to achieve regular assessments on the aging of the facilities. This program, combining all the skills within EDF and the manufacturers, is a guarantee for the coherence and the exhaustivity of the consideration as it relies on a great number of evaluation areas. It seems to day that under operational conditions, an appropriate surveillance and maintenance of components the 900 and 1300 MWe units should be able to fulfill the expected duty for a 40-year design life and very likely even longer. (author)

  19. Probabilistic approaches to life prediction of nuclear plant structural components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villain, B.; Pitner, P.; Procaccia, H.

    1996-01-01

    In the last decade there has been an increasing interest at EDF in developing and applying probabilistic methods for a variety of purposes. In the field of structural integrity and reliability they are used to evaluate the effect of deterioration due to aging mechanisms, mainly on major passive structural components such as steam generators, pressure vessels and piping in nuclear plants. Because there can be numerous uncertainties involved in a assessment of the performance of these structural components, probabilistic methods. The benefits of a probabilistic approach are the clear treatment of uncertainly and the possibility to perform sensitivity studies from which it is possible to identify and quantify the effect of key factors and mitigative actions. They thus provide information to support effective decisions to optimize In-Service Inspection planning and maintenance strategies and for realistic lifetime prediction or reassessment. The purpose of the paper is to discuss and illustrate the methods available at EDF for probabilistic component life prediction. This includes a presentation of software tools in classical, Bayesian and structural reliability, and an application on two case studies (steam generator tube bundle, reactor pressure vessel). (authors)

  20. Probabilistic approaches to life prediction of nuclear plant structural components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villain, B.; Pitner, P.; Procaccia, H.

    1996-01-01

    In the last decade there has been an increasing interest at EDF in developing and applying probabilistic methods for a variety of purposes. In the field of structural integrity and reliability they are used to evaluate the effect of deterioration due to aging mechanisms, mainly on major passive structural components such as steam generators, pressure vessels and piping in nuclear plants. Because there can be numerous uncertainties involved in an assessment of the performance of these structural components, probabilistic methods provide an attractive alternative or supplement to more conventional deterministic methods. The benefits of a probabilistic approach are the clear treatment of uncertainty and the possibility to perform sensitivity studies from which it is possible to identify and quantify the effect of key factors and mitigative actions. They thus provide information to support effective decisions to optimize In-Service Inspection planning and maintenance strategies and for realistic lifetime prediction or reassessment. The purpose of the paper is to discuss and illustrate the methods available at EDF for probabilistic component life prediction. This includes a presentation of software tools in classical, Bayesian and structural reliability, and an application on two case studies (steam generator tube bundle, reactor pressure vessel)

  1. Development of life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Young Hwan; Shin, Hyun Jae; Lee, Hyang Beom; Shin, Young Kil; Chung, Hyun Jo; Park, Ik Keun; Park, Eun Soo

    2001-03-01

    Retaining reliabilities of nondestructive testing is essential for the life-time maintenance of nuclear power plant. In order to Improve reliabilities of ultrasonic testing and eddy current testing, the following five subjects were carried out in this study: development of BEM analysis technique for ECT of SG tube, development of neural network technique for the intelligent analysis of ECT flaw signals of SG tubes, development of RFECT technology for the inspection of SG tube, FEM analysis of ultrasonic scattering field and evaluation of statistical reliability of PD-RR test of ultrasonic testing. As results, BEM analysis of eddy current signal, intelligent analysis of eddy current signal using neural network, and FEM analysis of remote field eddy current testing have been developed for the inspection of SG tubes. FEM analysis of ultrasonic waves in 2-dimensional media and evaluation of statistical reliability of ultrasonic testing with PD-RR test also have been carried out for the inspection of weldments. Those results can be used to Improve reliability of nondestructive testing

  2. Nutritional and cultural aspects of plant species selection for a controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, J. E.; Howe, J. M.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using higher plants in a controlled ecological life support system is discussed. Aspects of this system considered important in the use of higher plants include: limited energy, space, and mass, and problems relating to cultivation and management of plants, food processing, the psychological impact of vegetarian diets, and plant propagation. A total of 115 higher plant species are compared based on 21 selection criteria.

  3. Plant life extension program for Indian PHWR power plants - Actual experience and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, M.B.; Ghoshal, B.; Shirolkar, K.M.; Ahmad, S.N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) is responsible for design, construction and operation for all nuclear power plants in India. Currently, it has fourteen (14) reactor units under operation and another eight units are under various stages of planning and construction. India has adopted Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) for the initial phase of its nuclear power program. In the earlier PHWRs zircaloy-2 has been used as coolant tube material. Subsequent studies and experience have shown their life to be considerably lower (about 10 full power years) than originally estimated. This meant that reactors at Rajasthan - 1 and 2 Madras - 1 and 2 Narora - 1 and 2 and Kakrapara-1 would require en-masse coolant channel replacement at least once in their lifetime. Subsequent reactors from Kakrapara-2 onwards would not need this en-masse coolant channel replacement as the coolant tube material has been upgraded to Zr 2.5% Nb. En-masse coolant channel replacement and other life extension work have been carried out successfully in Rajasthan Unit-2 (RAPS-2). Madras unit-2 (MAPS-2) has been shutdown since January 2002 and preparatory work for en-masse coolant channel replacement and plant life extension is in progress. This paper discusses in brief the experience of RAPS-2 in carrying out the above jobs as well as the strategies being adopted for MAPS-2. Since the coolant channel replacement work requires a plant outage of about 18 months, this opportunity is used to extend life of existing systems as well as upgradation work. This life extension and upgradation program is based on the results of detailed in service inspection, evaluation of performance of critical equipment, obsolescence and other strategic reasons. This paper discusses in detail some of the major areas of work done, for example introduction of supplementary control room, process control, computer based plant information and event analysis systems, provision of enhanced

  4. Empirically Testing Thematic Analysis (ETTA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bradley, Stephen K.; Tingleff, Elllen B.

    2015-01-01

    Text analysis is not a question of a right or wrong way to go about it, but a question of different traditions. These tend to not only give answers to how to conduct an analysis, but also to provide the answer as to why it is conducted in the way that it is. The problem however may be that the li...... for themselves. The advantage of utilizing the presented analytic approach is argued to be the integral empirical testing, which should assure systematic development, interpretation and analysis of the source textual material....... between tradition and tool is unclear. The main objective of this article is therefore to present Empirical Testing Thematic Analysis, a step by step approach to thematic text analysis; discussing strengths and weaknesses, so that others might assess its potential as an approach that they might utilize/develop...

  5. U.S. National and regional impacts nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makovick, L.; Fletcher, T.; Harrison, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the economic impacts of nuclear plant life extension on a national and regional level. Nuclear generating capacity is expected to reach 104 Gigawatts (119 units) in the 1994-1995 period. Nuclear units of the 1970 to 1980 vintage are expected to account for 96% of nuclear capacity. As operating licenses expire, a precipitous decline in nuclear capacity results, with an average of 5 gigawatts of capacity lost each year from 2010 to 2030. Without life extension, 95% of all nuclear capacity is retired between the years 2010 and 2030. Even with historically slow growth in electric demand and extensive fossil plant life extension, the need for new generating capacity in the 2010-2030 time period is eight times greater than installed nuclear capacity. Nuclear plant life extension costs and benefits were quantified under numerous scenarios using the DRI Electricity Market Model. Under a wide range of economic assumptions and investment requirements, nuclear plant life extension resulted in a net benefit to electricity consumers. The major source of net benefits from nuclear plant life extension results from the displacement of fossil-fired generating sources. In the most likely case, nuclear plant life extension provides a dollar 200 billion net savings through the year 2030. Regions with a large nuclear capacity share, newer nuclear units and relatively higher costs of alternative fuels benefit the most from life extension. This paper also discusses the importance of regulatory policies on nuclear plant life extension

  6. Oconee: Is life extension in the cards for plants of this vintage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killian, D.E.; Moore, K.E.; Tally, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent nuclear-industry interest in plant life extension is prompted by the realization that the economics of plant life extension are clearly favorable. Studies sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) show that replacing even the most costly nuclear components can easily be justified, if the life of the plant can be extended just a few years. This may not be apparent for the early, small plants, but its applicability to the larger plants that started to appear in the early 70s-such as the three 860-MW Oconee units-is hard to dispute. The large capital investment in the typical nuclear station and extensive decommissioning costs add impetus to life-extension efforts. The same is true for fossil plants, and they are being successfully refurbished to extend their operating lives. Refurbishment of a fossil plant is comparatively simple, however, especially with regard to licensing and environmental qualifications where recognized standards are already in place. In the case of nuclear plants, much work must be done before all the pertinent issues and alternatives are identified. Potentially conflicting objectives may require resolution before a utility makes long-term decisions about life extension. For example, a utility may decide to designate a plant to accommodate grid load swings. In the near term, this may be a logical choice. However, the long-term negative aspects of component thermal cycling should be considered, especially if plant life extension is deemed important

  7. Life Limiting Issues for Long Term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esselman, Thomas; Gaertner, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a study which identified and characterized life limiting issues for consideration by nuclear plant owners in their decision to extend plant life or seek subsequent license renewal. As nuclear plants operate for longer periods, the risk that a condition in the plant or an event that occurs, at the plant or elsewhere, will cause a plant owner not to extend plant life increases. The Fukushima accident has made this concept concrete. This paper defines 'Life Limiting' concepts for nuclear plants. It identifies the highest risk conditions and events that may limit duration of continued operation in nuclear plants and employs a survey to prioritize these concerns. Methods for evaluating these risks and changing the capability of systems, structures, and components (SSC) to reduce and manage this risk in long term operation are presented. Integrated obsolescence -the existence of an accumulation of events or condition that can threaten long term operation- is discussed. Many of the life limiting conditions or events may be controllable by early identification, recognition, and mitigation of the potential threat. The recognition of conditions may allow measures to be taken to mitigate the condition. Recognition of the potential for events that may be life limiting may allow actions to be taken that will minimize the likelihood or consequences of the event. These actions may include enhanced research on the expected behavior of the SSC, risk assessment and management, and enhanced monitoring and aging management at the plant. (author)

  8. Fast-slow continuum and reproductive strategies structure plant life-history variation worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Jones, Owen R; Jongejans, Eelke

    2016-01-01

    The identification of patterns in life-history strategies across the tree of life is essential to our prediction of population persistence, extinction, and diversification. Plants exhibit a wide range of patterns of longevity, growth, and reproduction, but the general determinants of this enormous...... variation in life history are poorly understood. We use demographic data from 418 plant species in the wild, from annual herbs to supercentennial trees, to examine how growth form, habitat, and phylogenetic relationships structure plant life histories and to develop a framework to predict population...

  9. A study on the optimization of plant life extension and decommissioning for the improvement of economy in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae In; Jung, K. J.; Chung, U. S.; Baik, S. T.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Park, B. Y

    2001-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on the life extension of the nuclear power plant and decommissioning optimization were established from the domestic abroad information and case analyses. Concerning the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant, the management according to decommissioning stages was analyzed by the investigation of the standard of the decommissioning(decontamination dismantling) regulation. Moreover, basics were set for the decommissioning of domestic nuclear power plants and research reactors from the analyses on the decommissioning technology and precedence.

  10. Framatome ANP GmbH concept of Plant Life Management (PLIM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daeuwel, W.; Biemann, W.; Danisch, R.; Kastner, B.; Meyer, W.; Nopper, H.; Waas, U.; Warnken, L.

    2002-01-01

    The deregulation of the power generation industry has resulted in increased competitive pressure and is forcing operators to improve plant operating economy while maintaining high levels of plant safety. A key factor to meeting this challenge is to apply a comprehensive plant life management (PLIM) approach which addresses all relevant ageing and degradation mechanisms regarding the safety concept, plant component structures and documentation, plant personnel, consumables, operations management system and administrative controls. For this reason, Framatome ANP GmbH has developed an integrated PLIM concept applicable for both new and operating plants and focusing on the safety concept, plant component structures and documentation. (orig.)

  11. Overview of German R and D activities relevant to life management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillot, R.

    1998-01-01

    Life management issues of German NPPs include measures for qualifying continuous operation of NPPs and research activities related to materials behaviour under operating conditions. Plant management for life extension demand use of on-line monitoring systems for load (mechanical and thermal); vibration; leakage; water chemistry; neutron irradiation as well as replacement of systems, structures and components. The main goals to be achieved under international cooperation are increased safety, increased plant availability, extension of operating lifetime and improvement of plant economics

  12. Planning study and economic feasibility for extended life operation of light water reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negin, C.A.; Goudarzi, L.A.; Kenworthy, L.U.; Lapides, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this planning study was to perform an assessment of the engineering and economic feasibility of extended life operation of present nuclear power plant units and to recommend future programs that may be warranted by the feasibility assessments. This effort concludes, essentially, that there is sufficient economic motivation for refurbishment to warrant more extensive examination for present plants and to identify possible design modifications that would facilitate extended service life in future plants. The costs of replacing the deterioration-prone equipment in a nuclear power plant appear to represent a small portion of the total plant costs, provided downtime is not excessive. A refurbishment and economic analysis is presented

  13. Thematic mapping from satellite imagery

    CERN Document Server

    Denègre, J

    2013-01-01

    Thematic Mapping from Satellite Imagery: A Guidebook discusses methods in producing maps using satellite images. The book is comprised of five chapters; each chapter covers one stage of the process. Chapter 1 tackles the satellite remote sensing imaging and its cartographic significance. Chapter 2 discusses the production processes for extracting information from satellite data. The next chapter covers the methods for combining satellite-derived information with that obtained from conventional sources. Chapter 4 deals with design and semiology for cartographic representation, and Chapter 5 pre

  14. Nuclear plant owners move closer to life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    A major debate is now underway about the safety of 40-year-old nuclear power plants. Under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 a nuclear power plant's license is limited to a maximum of 40 years. Although the act permits the renewal of an operating license, it does not outline any standards or procedures for determining when or under what conditions a plant's operating license should be renewed. This paper reports that the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are co-sponsors of a program to demonstrate the license renewal process for two nuclear power plants - Yankee Atomic Electric's 175-MW Yankee PWR plant and Northern States Power's 536-MW Monticello BWR plant. The demonstration is known as the lead plant project. Yankee Atomic has already analyzed the plant's condition and evaluated aging using computer-based expert systems and the plant's operating experience. During these tests Yankee Atomic found embrittlement of the reactor vessel

  15. Materials for Nuclear Plants From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffelner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The clamor for non-carbon dioxide emitting energy production has directly  impacted on the development of nuclear energy. As new nuclear plants are built, plans and designs are continually being developed to manage the range of challenging requirement and problems that nuclear plants face especially when managing the greatly increased operating temperatures, irradiation doses and extended design life spans. Materials for Nuclear Plants: From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments  provides a comprehensive treatment of the structural materials for nuclear power plants with emphasis on advanced design concepts.   Materials for Nuclear Plants: From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments approaches structural materials with a systemic approach. Important components and materials currently in use as well as those which can be considered in future designs are detailed, whilst the damage mechanisms responsible for plant ageing are discussed and explained. Methodologies for materials characterization, material...

  16. Beyond the conventional life cycle inventory in wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo-Toja, Yago, E-mail: yago.lorenzo@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Alfonsín, Carolina [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Amores, María José; Aldea, Xavier; Marin, Desirée [Cetaqua, Water Technology Centre, 08940 Cornellà de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    The conventional approach for the environmental assessment of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is typically based on the removal efficiency of organic load and nutrients as well as the quantification of energy and chemicals consumption. Current wastewater treatment research entails the monitoring of direct emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and emerging pollutants such as pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), which have been rarely considered in the environmental assessment of a wastewater treatment facility by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. As a result of that, the real environmental impacts of a WWTP may be underestimated. In this study, two WWTPs located in different climatic regions (Atlantic and Mediterranean) of Spain were evaluated in extensive sampling campaigns that included not only conventional water quality parameters but also direct GHG emissions and PPCPs in water and sludge lines. Regarding the GHG monitoring campaign, on-site measurements of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) were performed and emission factors were calculated for both WWTPs. GHG direct emissions accounted for 62% of the total global warming potential (GWP), much more relevant than indirect CO{sub 2} emissions associated with electricity use. Regarding PPCPs, 19 compounds were measured in the main streams: influent, effluent and sludge, to perform the evaluation of the toxicity impact categories. Although the presence of heavy metals in the effluent and the sludge as well as the toxicity linked to the electricity production may shade the toxicity impacts linked to PPCPs in some impact categories, the latter showed a notable influence on freshwater ecotoxicity potential (FETP). For this impact category, the removal of PPCPs within the wastewater treatment was remarkably important and arose as an environmental benefit in comparison with the non-treatment scenario. - Highlights: • The influence of LCI quality on the environmental assessment

  17. Life-cycle cost assessment of seismically base-isolated structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hao; Weng, Dagen; Lu, Xilin; Lu, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The life-cycle cost of seismic base-isolated nuclear power plants is modeled. • The change law of life-cycle cost with seismic fortification intensity is studied. • The initial cost of laminated lead rubber bearings can be expressed as the function of volume. • The initial cost of a damper can be expressed as the function of its maximum displacement and tonnage. • The use of base-isolation can greatly reduce the expected damage cost, which leads to the reduction of the life-cycle cost. -- Abstract: Evaluation of seismically base-isolated structural life-cycle cost is the key problem in performance based seismic design. A method is being introduced to address the life-cycle cost of base-isolated reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants. Each composition of life-cycle cost is analyzed including the initial construction cost, the isolators cost and the excepted damage cost over life-cycle of the structure. The concept of seismic intensity is being used to estimate the expected damage cost, greatly simplifying the calculation. Moreover, French Cruas nuclear power plant is employed as an example to assess its life-cycle cost, compared to the cost of non-isolated plant at the same time. The results show that the proposed method is efficient and the expected damage cost is enormously reduced because of the application of isolators, which leads to the reduction of the life-cycle cost of nuclear power plants

  18. International symposium on nuclear power plant life management. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    A number of nuclear power plants in operation are meeting the problems of aging. Besides maintaining safety and reliability many NPP owners are concerned with service life extension, life management policy, and reactor maintenance procedures. The topics covered in this report are devoted to: NPP life management, economics and technical aspects of service life extension, reactor licensing procedures; aging of reactor components; physical radiation effects on reactor materials; corrosion; mechanical properties of reactor materials; reactor control systems; reactor safety systems.

  19. International symposium on nuclear power plant life management. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A number of nuclear power plants in operation are meeting the problems of aging. Besides maintaining safety and reliability many NPP owners are concerned with service life extension, life management policy, and reactor maintenance procedures. The topics covered in this report are devoted to: NPP life management, economics and technical aspects of service life extension, reactor licensing procedures; aging of reactor components; physical radiation effects on reactor materials; corrosion; mechanical properties of reactor materials; reactor control systems; reactor safety systems

  20. A resource guide to nuclear plant life-cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negin, C.A.; Klein, D.J.

    1993-11-01

    Forecasting the useful economic life of a nuclear unit and addressing the complementary issue of license renewal, both key elements of life cycle management, are complex undertakings. This guide is a resource document emphasizing the technical elements of life cycle management (LCM) with focus on the determination of adequate maintenance programs and the identification of data and records necessary to support them. Information on other life cycle management issues, such as license renewal regulation, is also provided. Because of the volume of information required for LCM evaluations and the need for periodic updating, this Guide is presented as an updatable ''electronic book.''

  1. Evaluation of the integrity and duration of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant life- Plant Life Management program (PLIM). TC MEX 04/53 Technical Cooperation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arganis J, C.R.; Diaz S, A.; Aguilar T, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the IAEA TC MEX 04/53 Project 'Evaluation of the integrity and extension of life of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant Handling Program of plant' whose objective is the one of beginning the actions to apply the methodology of Handling of plant life in the Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central for to obtain the Renovation of License in 2020 the ININ, through the Department of Synthesis and Characterization of materials has carried out more of 20 analysis of susceptibility to the intergranular cracking for corrosion under effort in interns so much of the reactor of the unit 1 like of the unit 2 documenting the current state of components based on the type or types of materials that conform them, to it thermomechanical history, operational and of production, as well as of the particularities associated to its use and operation. For the application of the methodology of life handling of plant 5 structure systems or pilot components were selected, to carry out the programs of handling of the aging and handling of plant life: The encircling of the reactor core (Core Shroud), the reactor pressure vessel (Reactor Pressure Vessel), the primary container (Primary Containment), the recirculation system of feeding water (Reactor Feed Water) and cables. (Author)

  2. Fast-slow continuum and reproductive strategies structure plant life-history variation worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Jones, Owen R; Jongejans, Eelke; Blomberg, Simon P; Hodgson, David J; Mbeau-Ache, Cyril; Zuidema, Pieter A; de Kroon, Hans; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2016-01-05

    The identification of patterns in life-history strategies across the tree of life is essential to our prediction of population persistence, extinction, and diversification. Plants exhibit a wide range of patterns of longevity, growth, and reproduction, but the general determinants of this enormous variation in life history are poorly understood. We use demographic data from 418 plant species in the wild, from annual herbs to supercentennial trees, to examine how growth form, habitat, and phylogenetic relationships structure plant life histories and to develop a framework to predict population performance. We show that 55% of the variation in plant life-history strategies is adequately characterized using two independent axes: the fast-slow continuum, including fast-growing, short-lived plant species at one end and slow-growing, long-lived species at the other, and a reproductive strategy axis, with highly reproductive, iteroparous species at one extreme and poorly reproductive, semelparous plants with frequent shrinkage at the other. Our findings remain consistent across major habitats and are minimally affected by plant growth form and phylogenetic ancestry, suggesting that the relative independence of the fast-slow and reproduction strategy axes is general in the plant kingdom. Our findings have similarities with how life-history strategies are structured in mammals, birds, and reptiles. The position of plant species populations in the 2D space produced by both axes predicts their rate of recovery from disturbances and population growth rate. This life-history framework may complement trait-based frameworks on leaf and wood economics; together these frameworks may allow prediction of responses of plants to anthropogenic disturbances and changing environments.

  3. Effects of SO/sub 2/ pollution on plant life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, T A; Bull, J N

    1972-01-01

    SO/sub 2/ is the most intensively studied of the air pollutants that affect plants. Some lower plants (e.g. lichens and bryophytes) are so sensitive that they cannot tolerate exposure to concentrations above 0.011 ppM. Higher plants appear to be more resistant but recent research shows that other pollutants may inter-act with SO/sub 2/ to increase their susceptibility. The physiological and biochemical effects of SO/sub 2/ are discussed, and the economic implications are briefly considered. 15 references.

  4. The ASME Section 11 Special Working Group On Plant Life Extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    The codes and standards applicable to plant life extension have not been identified in the U.S. at this time. However, several initiatives have been taken to establish specific codes and standards pertaining to nuclear plant life extension (PLEX). One of these initiatives, sponsored by ASME, is the Section XI Special Working Group on Plant Life Extension (SWG-PLEX). The SWG-PLEX reports to the ASME Section XI Subcommittee and is responsible for recommending or drafting rules and requirements for modifying Section XI to accommodate age-related degradation to support nuclear plant life extension. This paper summarizes the results and reports the activities of the SWG-PLEX during the 1989/1990 period

  5. Overview of the Italian activities in the field of life management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pini, A.

    1994-01-01

    Overview of the Italian activities in the field of life management of nuclear power plants is presented, including the following issues: nuclear energy scenario in Italy, study of reactor pressure vessel, piping and containment integrity, seismic risk analysis

  6. UNIRAM modeling for increased nuclear-plant availability and life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mara, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    At the start of a nuclear-power plant's design life of 40 years, most parts of the plant are effectively brand new, but some subcomponents have already experienced significant wear and aging effects. In short, the spectrum of where each component is in its life cycle at any time is quite broad, and this makes the prediction of the future availability of the plant a complex issue. Predictive models that account for the differential effects of aging, wear, and functional failure on the plant are desirable as a means to represent this complex behavior. This paper addresses the task of using a computer model to account for the relationships between components, systems, and plant availability, in the context of current and future needs, including eventual life extension. The computer model is based on the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) code, UNIRAM, which has a large and growing user base among utilities

  7. Nuclear power plant ageing and life extension: Safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, S.; Podest, M.

    1987-01-01

    Experience with large fossil-fired electrical generating units, as well as in all process industries, shows that plants begin to deteriorate with age after approximately 10 years of operation. Similar phenomena will prevail for nuclear plants, and it is reasonable to postulate that their availability will be affected, as will their safety, if appropriate measures are not taken. It is evident that the average age of power reactors in the IAEA's Member States is increasing. By 2000, more than 50 nuclear plants will have been providing electricity for 25 years or longer. Most nuclear power plants have operating lifetimes of between 20 and 40 years. Ageing is defined as a continuing time-dependent degradation of material due to service conditions, including normal operation and transient conditions. It is common experience that over long periods of time, there is a gradual change in the properties of materials. These changes can affect the capability of engineered components, systems, or structures to perform their required function. Not all changes are deleterious, but it is commonly observed that ageing processes normally involve a gradual reduction in performance capability. All materials in a nuclear power plant can suffer from ageing and can partially or totally lose their designed function. Ageing is not only of concern for active components (for which the probability of malfunction increases with time) but also for passive ones, since the safety margin is being reduced towards the lowest allowable level

  8. Systems Modeling For The Laser Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Abbott, R.; Beach, R.; Blink, J.; Caird, J.; Erlandson, A.; Farmer, J.; Halsey, W.; Ladran, T.; Latkowski, J.; MacIntyre, A.; Miles, R.; Storm, E.

    2008-01-01

    A systems model has been developed for the Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) power plant. It combines cost-performance scaling models for the major subsystems of the plant including the laser, inertial fusion target factory, engine (i.e., the chamber including the fission and tritium breeding blankets), energy conversion systems and balance of plant. The LIFE plant model is being used to evaluate design trade-offs and to identify high-leverage R and D. At this point, we are focused more on doing self consistent design trades and optimization as opposed to trying to predict a cost of electricity with a high degree of certainty. Key results show the advantage of large scale (>1000 MWe) plants and the importance of minimizing the cost of diodes and balance of plant cost

  9. Status of NDE research and applications for life management of nuclear power plants in india

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, B.; Shyamsunder, M.T.; Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Metallurgy and Materials Group

    1999-08-01

    The development and application of various nondestructive evaluation techniques and methodologies for the life management of nuclear power plants in India are described. The indigenous development carried out to meet the stringent quality requirements in evaluation of fabricated components and innovative methodologies using multidisciplinary approaches and advances for assessment of inservice performance of plants are highlighted. (orig.)

  10. Status of NDE research and applications for life management of nuclear power plants in india

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, B.; Shyamsunder, M.T.; Jayakumar, T.

    1999-01-01

    The development and application of various nondestructive evaluation techniques and methodologies for the life management of nuclear power plants in India are described. The indigenous development carried out to meet the stringent quality requirements in evaluation of fabricated components and innovative methodologies using multidisciplinary approaches and advances for assessment of inservice performance of plants are highlighted. (orig.)

  11. The iPlant collaborative: cyberinfrastructure for enabling data to discovery for the life sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    The iPlant Collaborative provides life science research communities access to comprehensive, scalable, and cohesive computational infrastructure for data management; identify management; collaboration tools; and cloud, high-performance, high-throughput computing. iPlant provides training, learning m...

  12. Plant life management for long term operation of light water reactors. Principles and guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The subject of this report was originally suggested by the IAEA Technical Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants. It was then approved by the IAEA for work to begin in 2004. The participants in the group felt that it was time to address plant life management and ageing issues from the point of view of long term operation and licence renewal. It is believed that the nuclear power industry will only be able to survive if plant economics are favourable and safety is maintained. Therefore, the issue of ageing and obsolescence has to be addressed from an operational and safety standpoint, but also in the context of plant economics in terms of the cost of electricity production, including initial and recurring capital costs. Use of new technologies, such as advanced in-service inspection and condition based maintenance, should be considered, not only to predict the consequences of ageing and guard against them, but also to monitor equipment performance throughout the lifetime of the plant and to help establish replacement schedules for critical systems, structures and components, and to better estimate the optimum end of the operating licence, which means the end of the nuclear power plant's lifetime. The importance of nuclear power plant life management in facilitating the technical and economic goals of long term operation is presented in this report in terms of the requirement to ensure safe long term supplies of electricity in the most economically competitive way. Safe and reliable operation is discussed in terms of the overall economic benefits when plant life management is implemented. Preconditions for plant life management for long term operation are identified and approaches are reviewed. Plant life management should not be associated only with the extension of the operational lifetime of the nuclear power plant, but with an owner's attitude and a rational approach of the operating company towards running the business economically and safely

  13. Repair and replacement of reactor internals for plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graae, T.

    1998-01-01

    Recent experience from early Swedish BWRs corroborate that all components in a nuclear power plant can be repaired or replaced with new ones. Oskarshamn 1 has gone through a thorough refurbishment project. A number of internals were repaired or replaced including the core shroud support which was welded to the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel. The project verifies that it is fully possible to carry out complicated inspection and repair work inside a nuclear pressure vessel which has been in operation for more than 20 years. Along with increased capacity factor, operating nuclear power plants get the financial conditions needed for extensive repair and modernization projects. Large power output leads to short pay-back times for the investments. The FENIX project at Oskarshamn 1 is such a project. There are utilities whose policy is to keep their plants in as-new condition for an unlimited length of time. (orig.)

  14. Life history strategies and biomass allocation : the population dynamics of perennial plants in a regional perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongejans, E.

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the knowledge of how plants respond to adverse influences of intensified land use. In particular, attention was paid to the ways in which life history strategies change in order to buffer environmental variation, and which important parts of the life cycle are

  15. Fast–slow continuum and reproductive strategies structure plant life-history variation worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Jones, Owen R.; Jongejans, Eelke; Blomberg, Simon; Hodgson, D.; Zuidema, P.A.; Kroon, de Hans; Buckley, Yvonne M.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of patterns in life-history strategies across the tree of life is essential to our prediction of population persistence, extinction, and diversification. Plants exhibit a wide range of patterns of longevity, growth, and reproduction, but the general determinants of this enormous

  16. Elements of healthy death: a thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estebsari, Fatemeh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Mostafaei, Davood; Rahimi, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Death is a natural and frightening phenomenon, which is inevitable. Previous studies on death, which presented a negative and tedious image of this process, are now being revised and directed towards acceptable death and good death. One of the proposed terms about death and dying is "healthy death", which encourages dealing with death positively and leading a lively and happy life until the last moment. This study aimed to explain the views of Iranians about the elements of healthy death. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted for 12 months in two general hospitals in Tehran (capital of Iran), using the thematic analysis method. After conducting 23 in-depth interviews with 21 participants, transcription of content, and data immersion and analysis, themes, as the smallest meaningful units were extracted, encoded and classified. Results: One main category of healthy death with 10 subthemes, including dying at the right time, dying without hassle, dying without cost, dying without dependency and control, peaceful death, not having difficulty at dying, not dying alone and dying at home, inspired death, preplanned death, and presence of a clergyman or a priest, were extracted as the elements of healthy death from the perspective of the participants in this study. Conclusion: The study findings well explained the elements of healthy death. Paying attention to the conditions and factors causing healthy death by professionals and providing and facilitating quality services for patients in the end stage of life make it possible for patients to experience a healthy death.

  17. Pattern-recognition system application to EBR-II plant-life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.W.; Radtke, W.H.; Mott, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    A computer-based pattern-recognition system, the System State Analyzer (SSA), is being used as part of the EBR-II plant-life extension program for detection of degradation and other abnormalities in plant systems. The SSA is used for surveillance of the EBR-II primary system instrumentation, primary sodium pumps, and plant heat balances. Early results of this surveillance indicate that the SSA can detect instrumentation degradation and system performance degradation over varying time intervals, and can provide derived signal values to replace signals from failed critical sensors. These results are being used in planning for extended-life operation of EBR-II

  18. Current approaches to nuclear power plant life management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, T.; Tajima, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Koyama, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Some of Japan's commercial light water reactors (LWRs) have been operating for more than 30 years. The more progress in ageing, the more increasing concerns of the public will grow about such nuclear power plants. In order to develop basic policies regarding countermeasures against ageing on nuclear power plants, in 1996, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) summarized a report entitled 'Basic Policy on Aged Nuclear Power Plants'. The MITI also indicated that following 30 years' commercial operation of these plants, the electric utility companies should conduct technical evaluations for the ageing of all the components in the plants and to prepare detailed maintenance plans for the future. The Nuclear Safety Commission (NSC) accepted the MITI's report as appropriate in November 1998. The Commission also recommended the addition of effective countermeasures against ageing to the Periodical Safety Review and the evaluation of activities in response to ageing in order to implement such activities regularly and systematically in the future. The MITI reviewed the ageing countermeasures conducted by the electric utility companies and issued the second report entitled 'Evaluation of Countermeasures for ageing Conducted by Electric Utility Companies and Future Plans to cope with ageing'. The evaluation was made for Tsuruga Power Station Unit 1, Mihama Power Station Unit 1, and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 1. At the same time, the MITI determined to incorporate the technical evaluations of ageing and the preparation of long-term maintenance plans into the periodical safety review in the future. The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., and Tokyo Electric Power Co. conducted the technical evaluations in their periodical safety reviews concerning the ageing phenomena of all their safety-related components/structures of Mihama Power Station Unit 2 and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 2. Also, concerning ageing, they

  19. Transcriptional responses to sucrose mimic the plant-associated life style of the plant growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Safiyh; Wu, Xiao; Ouyang, Liming; Zhang, Yian Biao; Stadler, Andrea; McCorkle, Sean; Zhu, Wei; Maslov, Sergei; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Growth in sucrose medium was previously found to trigger the expression of functions involved in the plant associated life style of the endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638. Therefore, comparative transcriptome analysis between cultures grown in sucrose or lactate medium was used to gain insights in the expression levels of bacterial functions involved in the endophytic life style of strain 638. Growth on sucrose as a carbon source resulted in major changes in cell physiology, including a shift from a planktonic life style to the formation of bacterial aggregates. This shift was accompanied by a decrease in transcription of genes involved in motility (e.g., flagella biosynthesis) and an increase in the transcription of genes involved in colonization, adhesion and biofilm formation. The transcription levels of functions previously suggested as being involved in endophytic behavior and functions responsible for plant growth promoting properties, including the synthesis of indole-acetic acid, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, also increased significantly for cultures grown in sucrose medium. Interestingly, despite an abundance of essential nutrients transcription levels of functions related to uptake and processing of nitrogen and iron became increased for cultures grown on sucrose as sole carbon source. Transcriptome data were also used to analyze putative regulatory relationships. In addition to the small RNA csrABCD regulon, which seems to play a role in the physiological adaptation and possibly the shift between free-living and plant-associated endophytic life style of Enterobacter sp. 638, our results also pointed to the involvement of rcsAB in controlling responses by Enterobacter sp. 638 to a plant-associated life style. Targeted mutagenesis was used to confirm this role and showed that compared to wild-type Enterobacter sp. 638 a ΔrcsB mutant was affected in its plant growth promoting ability.

  20. Transcriptional responses to sucrose mimic the plant-associated life style of the plant growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safiyh Taghavi

    Full Text Available Growth in sucrose medium was previously found to trigger the expression of functions involved in the plant associated life style of the endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638. Therefore, comparative transcriptome analysis between cultures grown in sucrose or lactate medium was used to gain insights in the expression levels of bacterial functions involved in the endophytic life style of strain 638. Growth on sucrose as a carbon source resulted in major changes in cell physiology, including a shift from a planktonic life style to the formation of bacterial aggregates. This shift was accompanied by a decrease in transcription of genes involved in motility (e.g., flagella biosynthesis and an increase in the transcription of genes involved in colonization, adhesion and biofilm formation. The transcription levels of functions previously suggested as being involved in endophytic behavior and functions responsible for plant growth promoting properties, including the synthesis of indole-acetic acid, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, also increased significantly for cultures grown in sucrose medium. Interestingly, despite an abundance of essential nutrients transcription levels of functions related to uptake and processing of nitrogen and iron became increased for cultures grown on sucrose as sole carbon source. Transcriptome data were also used to analyze putative regulatory relationships. In addition to the small RNA csrABCD regulon, which seems to play a role in the physiological adaptation and possibly the shift between free-living and plant-associated endophytic life style of Enterobacter sp. 638, our results also pointed to the involvement of rcsAB in controlling responses by Enterobacter sp. 638 to a plant-associated life style. Targeted mutagenesis was used to confirm this role and showed that compared to wild-type Enterobacter sp. 638 a ΔrcsB mutant was affected in its plant growth promoting ability.

  1. Plant-life extension planning for an operating LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The study concluded that continued EBR-II operation is certainly feasible for well beyond 10 more years, and that continued demonstration of the unique inherent safety and operability features of a pool-type liquid-metal-cooled reactor and the demonstration of a reasonable operating lifetime are very important and will provide invaluable information for the design and development of the next generation nuclear power plants

  2. Development of Information Management System for Plant Life Cycle Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byon, SuJin; Lee, SangHyun; Kim, WooJoong

    2015-01-01

    The study subjects are S. Korean NPP(Nuclear Power Plant) construction projects. Design, construction, operations companies have different nuclear power plant construction project structures, and each company has its own Information Management System. In this study, the end user developed an Information Management System early in the project, and developed a management structure that systematically integrates and interfaces with information in each lifecycle phase. The main perspective of Information Management is moving from the existent document-centric management to the data-centric management. To do so, we intend to integrate information with interfaces among systems. Integrated information management structure and management system are essential for an effective management of the lifecycle information of nuclear power plants that have a lifespan over as much as 80 years. The concept of integration management adopted by the defence, ocean industries or various PLM solution providers is important. Although the NPP project has application systems in each key lifecycle phase, it is more effective to develop and use PLIMS in consideration of the interface and compatibility of information among systems. As an initial study for development of that integrated information management structure, this study is building the system and has interfaced it with a design-stage system

  3. Development of Information Management System for Plant Life Cycle Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byon, SuJin; Lee, SangHyun; Kim, WooJoong [KOREA HYDRO and NUCLEAR POWER CO. LTD, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The study subjects are S. Korean NPP(Nuclear Power Plant) construction projects. Design, construction, operations companies have different nuclear power plant construction project structures, and each company has its own Information Management System. In this study, the end user developed an Information Management System early in the project, and developed a management structure that systematically integrates and interfaces with information in each lifecycle phase. The main perspective of Information Management is moving from the existent document-centric management to the data-centric management. To do so, we intend to integrate information with interfaces among systems. Integrated information management structure and management system are essential for an effective management of the lifecycle information of nuclear power plants that have a lifespan over as much as 80 years. The concept of integration management adopted by the defence, ocean industries or various PLM solution providers is important. Although the NPP project has application systems in each key lifecycle phase, it is more effective to develop and use PLIMS in consideration of the interface and compatibility of information among systems. As an initial study for development of that integrated information management structure, this study is building the system and has interfaced it with a design-stage system.

  4. Leaf and life history traits predict plant growth in a green roof ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Lundholm

    Full Text Available Green roof ecosystems are constructed to provide services such as stormwater retention and urban temperature reductions. Green roofs with shallow growing media represent stressful conditions for plant survival, thus plants that survive and grow are important for maximizing economic and ecological benefits. While field trials are essential for selecting appropriate green roof plants, we wanted to determine whether plant leaf traits could predict changes in abundance (growth to provide a more general framework for plant selection. We quantified leaf traits and derived life-history traits (Grime's C-S-R strategies for 13 species used in a four-year green roof experiment involving five plant life forms. Changes in canopy density in monocultures and mixtures containing one to five life forms were determined and related to plant traits using multiple regression. We expected traits related to stress-tolerance would characterize the species that best grew in this relatively harsh setting. While all species survived to the end of the experiment, canopy species diversity in mixture treatments was usually much lower than originally planted. Most species grew slower in mixture compared to monoculture, suggesting that interspecific competition reduced canopy diversity. Species dominant in mixture treatments tended to be fast-growing ruderals and included both native and non-native species. Specific leaf area was a consistently strong predictor of final biomass and the change in abundance in both monoculture and mixture treatments. Some species in contrasting life-form groups showed compensatory dynamics, suggesting that life-form mixtures can maximize resilience of cover and biomass in the face of environmental fluctuations. This study confirms that plant traits can be used to predict growth performance in green roof ecosystems. While rapid canopy growth is desirable for green roofs, maintenance of species diversity may require engineering of conditions that

  5. Leaf and life history traits predict plant growth in a green roof ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Jeremy; Heim, Amy; Tran, Stephanie; Smith, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Green roof ecosystems are constructed to provide services such as stormwater retention and urban temperature reductions. Green roofs with shallow growing media represent stressful conditions for plant survival, thus plants that survive and grow are important for maximizing economic and ecological benefits. While field trials are essential for selecting appropriate green roof plants, we wanted to determine whether plant leaf traits could predict changes in abundance (growth) to provide a more general framework for plant selection. We quantified leaf traits and derived life-history traits (Grime's C-S-R strategies) for 13 species used in a four-year green roof experiment involving five plant life forms. Changes in canopy density in monocultures and mixtures containing one to five life forms were determined and related to plant traits using multiple regression. We expected traits related to stress-tolerance would characterize the species that best grew in this relatively harsh setting. While all species survived to the end of the experiment, canopy species diversity in mixture treatments was usually much lower than originally planted. Most species grew slower in mixture compared to monoculture, suggesting that interspecific competition reduced canopy diversity. Species dominant in mixture treatments tended to be fast-growing ruderals and included both native and non-native species. Specific leaf area was a consistently strong predictor of final biomass and the change in abundance in both monoculture and mixture treatments. Some species in contrasting life-form groups showed compensatory dynamics, suggesting that life-form mixtures can maximize resilience of cover and biomass in the face of environmental fluctuations. This study confirms that plant traits can be used to predict growth performance in green roof ecosystems. While rapid canopy growth is desirable for green roofs, maintenance of species diversity may require engineering of conditions that favor less

  6. Life Cycle Management Managing the Aging of Critical Nuclear Plant Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Theodore A.; Elder, G. Gary; Llovet, Ricardo

    2002-01-01

    Life Cycle Management is a structured process to manage equipment aging and long-term equipment reliability for nuclear plant Systems, Structures and Components (SSCs). The process enables the identification of effective repair, replace, inspect, test and maintenance activities and the optimal timing of the activities to maximize the economic value to the nuclear plant. This paper will provide an overview of the process and some of the tools that can be used to implement the process for the SSCs deemed critical to plant safety and performance objectives. As nuclear plants strive to reduce costs, extend life and maximize revenue, the LCM process and the supporting tools summarized in this paper can enable development of a long term, cost efficient plan to manage the aging of the plant SSCs. (authors)

  7. Plant life management strategies for pressurized heavy water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Suk; Kwon, Sang Chul; Choo, Ki Nam; Ahn, Sang Bok; Kuk, Il Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    This technical report reviewed aging mechanism of the major components of CANDU 6 reactor such as pressure tubes, calandria tube, end fitting, fuel channel spacer and calandria. Furthermore, the surveillance methodology was described for monitoring and inspection of these core components. Based on the in-reactor performances data such as delayed hydride cracking, leak-before-break, enhanced deformation-creep and growth, the life management of pressure tubes was illustrated in this report. (author). 19 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Life cycle evaluation of an intercooled gas turbine plant used in conjunction with renewable energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thank-God Isaiah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle estimation of power plants is important for gas turbine operators. With the introduction of wind energy into the grid, gas turbine operators now operate their plants in Load–Following modes as back-ups to the renewable energy sources which include wind, solar, etc. The motive behind this study is to look at how much life is consumed when an intercooled power plant with 100 MW power output is used in conjunction with wind energy. This operation causes fluctuations because the wind energy is unpredictable and overtime causes adverse effects on the life of the plant – The High Pressure Turbine Blades. Such fluctuations give rise to low cycle fatigue and creep failure of the blades depending on the operating regime used. A performance based model that is capable of estimating the life consumed of an intercooled power plant has been developed. The model has the capability of estimating the life consumed based on seasonal power demands and operations. An in-depth comparison was undertaken on the life consumed during the seasons of operation and arrives at the conclusion that during summer, the creep and low cycle life is consumed higher than the rest periods. A comparison was also made to determine the life consumed between Load–Following and stop/start operating scenarios. It was also observed that daily creep life consumption in summer was higher than the winter period in-spite of having lower average daily operating hours in a Start–Stop operating scenario.

  9. It is never too early to start planning for plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neils, G.H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper outlines some of the reasons why the subject of plant life extension (PLEX) deserves the attention it is receiving and describes some of the work that is currently being conducted in order to make PLEX a reality for U.S. nuclear power plants. One such major effort is a pilot program at the Monticello Nuclear Generating plant. This program, as well as other programs, have already produced some valuable lessons from which other plant owners can benefit. The Monticelle pilot program and the lessons learned thereof are described in some detail in this paper. (Liu)

  10. Controlled ecological life support systems: Development of a plant growth module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averner, Mel M.; Macelroy, Robert D.; Smernoff, David T.

    1987-01-01

    An effort was made to begin defining the scientific and technical requirements for the design and construction of a ground-based plant growth facility. In particular, science design criteria for the Plant Growth Module (PGM) of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) were determined in the following areas: (1) irradiation parameters and associated equipment affecting plant growth; (2) air flow; (3) planting, culture, and harvest techniques; (4) carbon dioxide; (5) temperature and relative humidity; (6) oxygen; (7) construction materials and access; (8) volatile compounds; (9) bacteria, sterilization, and filtration; (10) nutrient application systems; (11) nutrient monitoring; and (12) nutrient pH and conductivity.

  11. Strategies and policies for nuclear power plant life management. Proceedings of the IAEA specialists meeting. Working document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the Specialists Meeting organized by the IAEA was to provide an international forum for discussing of recent results in national and utility experience in development of nuclear power plant life management programmes and their technical, regulatory and economic assessments. Plant life management requires detailed knowledge of ageing degradation of the components and the results of mitigation technologies. The basic conclusion includes the need of Guide on NPP Life management which should encompass: plant safety; plant availability; plant operating life extension; human resources policy; research and development needs

  12. ORFEO, THE PLEIADES ACCOMPANIMENT PROGRAM AND ITS USERS THEMATIC COMMISSIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tinel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available ORFEO, the PLEIADES Accompaniment Program, was set up by CNES, the French Space Agency, to prepare, accompany and promote the use and the exploitation of the images acquired by this Very High Resolution optical sensor. It was initiated in 2004 and will last until the end of the first year of the satellite life (launched in December 2011 . The Thematic part of the ORFEO accompaniment program covers a large range of applications, and aims at specifying and validating products and services required by users. An in-depth work of user needs assessments in eight thematic domains (sea and coastline, risks and humanitarian aid, cartography and urban planning, geophysical hazards, hydrology, forestry, agriculture and defence has given rise to a large number of feasibility studies from 2006 to 2011. The Methodological Part of the ORFEO accompaniment program aims at preparing the use and exploitation of these submetric images. CNES decided to develop Orfeo Toolbox (OTB, an open source library capitalising the methodological know-how as a set of image processing and algorithmic components. Among other, OTB provides a number of heavily documented image processing functionalities such as filtering, feature extraction, segmentation, classification, change detection, 3D extraction, GIS links,.... As a conclusion to the ORFEO program, the PLEIADES Users Thematic Commissioning (UTC started three months after the satellite launch and will last until mid 2013. It covers a large number of specific interest ORFEO sites, on which PLEIADES images are being intensively acquired and processed. These ORFEO sites have been chosen according to the expectations expressed by the users in terms of their interest for dedicated thematic, their geographic location and their multi-thematic content. This paper presents the ORFEO program achievements (thematic and methodology and the organisation of the Users Thematic Commissioning (sites, studies. The paper is illustrated with some

  13. Analysis of environmental impact phase in the life cycle of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez del M, C.

    2015-01-01

    The life-cycle analysis covers the environmental aspects of a product throughout its life cycle. The focus of this study was to apply a methodology of life-cycle analysis for the environmental impact assessment of a nuclear power plant by analyzing international standards ISO 14040 and 14044. The methodology of life-cycle analysis established by the ISO 14044 standard was analyzed, as well as the different impact assessment methodologies of life cycle in order to choose the most appropriate for a nuclear power plant; various tools for the life-cycle analysis were also evaluated, as is the use of software and the use of databases to feed the life cycle inventory. The functional unit chosen was 1 KWh of electricity, the scope of analysis ranging from the construction and maintenance, disposal of spent fuel to the decommissioning of the plant, the manufacturing steps of the fuel were excluded because in Mexico is not done this stage. For environmental impact assessment was chosen the Recipe methodology which evaluates up to 18 impact categories depending on the project. In the case of a nuclear power plant were considered only categories of depletion of the ozone layer, climate change, ionizing radiation and formation of particulate matter. The different tools for life-cycle analysis as the methodologies of impact assessment of life cycle, different databases or use of software have been taken according to the modeling of environmental sensitivities of different regions, because in Mexico the methodology for life-cycle analysis has not been studied and still do not have all the tools necessary for the evaluation, so the uncertainty of the data supplied and results could be higher. (Author)

  14. The Design of Tactile Thematic Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Megan M.; Lobben, Amy K.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the design and legibility of tactile thematic maps, focusing on symbolization and the comprehension of spatial patterns on the maps. The results indicate that discriminable and effective tactile thematic maps can be produced using classed data with a microcapsule paper production method. The participants…

  15. Safe and effective nuclear power plant life cycle management towards decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    The objective of this publication is to promote and communicate the need for a longer-term perspective among senior managers and policy or strategy makers for decisions that have the potential to affect the life cycle management of a nuclear power plant including decommissioning. The following sections provide practical guidance in the subject areas that might have the potential to have such an impact. The publication should be used as an aid to help strategic planning take place in an informed way through the proper consideration of any longer-term decisions to enforce recognition of the point that decommissioning is a part of the whole life cycle of a nuclear power plant. The guidance contained in this publication is relevant to all life cycle stages of a nuclear power plant, with particular emphasis on how these decisions have the potential to impact effective decommissioning. The intended users of this publication are: Strategic decision makers within a Utility through all the various life cycle stages; The senior representatives of the owners of a nuclear power plant. This publication is divided into two basic sections. Section 2 provides guidance on the topics considered generic inputs to plant life cycle management and Section 3 provides guidance on the topics that contribute to effective decommissioning

  16. Characterization of in-containment cables for nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuCharme, A.R.; Bustard, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    Electrical cable is made by a large number of manufacturers and used for a variety of applications in nuclear plants. cables have been identified in the Monticello and Surry Pilot Plant life extension studies and the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program as components important to the economic and safety aspects of life extension. Currently, fitness for service is largely determined by preoperational testing. The US Department of Energy is supporting work at Sandia National Laboratories to assess the technical basis for the life extension of cables found inside containment at US nuclear plants. The work is being performed in coordination with the Nuclear Management and Resource Council's (NUMARC) NUPLEX Working Group. The initial task of this effort is to characterize the design attributes of in-containment cables. This has been completed via development of a data base depicting the manufacturer, type, material composition, use, qualification, and relative popularity of cables installed in containment. Other ongoing work is focused on a review of cable operational experience and assessment of the issues affecting cable life extension. In the long term, the work aims to identify the technical criteria and life extension strategies needed to support continued cable qualification by nuclear plant owner/operators. 7 refs., 4 tabs

  17. Current activities in support of CANDU plant life management: an industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalaby, B.A.; Price, E.G.; Hopkins, J.; Charlebois, P.

    1998-01-01

    The current focus of the CANDU industry is to position the nuclear option as a cost competitive, safe and reliable means of electricity production. To achieve its goal the CANDU industry as a whole is undertaking steps to improve further its performance and safety of its nuclear power plants. A number of programs have been planned and implemented particularly for plants in the mid-life range. Some of these programs include life assessment studies of critical systems, Structures and Components (SSCS), refurbishment and upgrading programs and monitoring and periodic inspection programs. Some elements of the programs have been in place from station start up and some are being instituted as part of the aging management and performance improvement program. The industry recognizes that the key to sustaining high performance over the life of the plant is the implementation of an integrated aging management program that encompasses all elements of plant operation and maintenance. A systematically implemented program on optimized maintenance and inspection strategy, standardized work processes, component rehabilitation programs, and applying lessons learned are some of the elements of a sustainable high performance and an effective plant life assurance program. The paper will describe the elements of an integrated program, the multiphase approach defined for CANDU PLIM and some of the activities undertaken by the industry to further improve and sustain plant safety, reliability and performance. (author)

  18. A methodology for on-line fatigue life monitoring of Indian nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.K.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushawaha, H.S.

    1992-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most important aging effects of nuclear power plant components. Information about accumulation of fatigue helps in assessing structural degradation of the components. This assists in-service inspection and maintenance and may also support future life extension program of a plant. In the present report a methodology is being proposed for monitoring on line fatigue life of nuclear power plant components using available plant instrumentations. Major factors affecting fatigue life of a nuclear power plant components are the fluctuations of temperature, pressure and flow rate. Green's function technique is used in on line fatigue monitoring as computation time is much less than finite element method. A code has been developed which computes temperature and stress Green's functions in 2-D and axisymmetric structure by finite element method due to unit change in various fluid parameters. A post processor has also been developed which computes the temperature and stress responses using corresponding Green's functions and actual fluctuation in fluid parameters. In this post processor, the multiple site problem is solved by superimposing single site Green's function technique. It is also shown that Green's function technique is best suited for on line fatigue life monitoring of nuclear power plant components. (author). 6 refs., 43 figs

  19. Computational models for residual creep life prediction of power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grewal, G.S.; Singh, A.K.; Ramamoortry, M.

    2006-01-01

    All high temperature - high pressure power plant components are prone to irreversible visco-plastic deformation by the phenomenon of creep. The steady state creep response as well as the total creep life of a material is related to the operational component temperature through, respectively, the exponential and inverse exponential relationships. Minor increases in the component temperature can thus have serious consequences as far as the creep life and dimensional stability of a plant component are concerned. In high temperature steam tubing in power plants, one mechanism by which a significant temperature rise can occur is by the growth of a thermally insulating oxide film on its steam side surface. In the present paper, an elegantly simple and computationally efficient technique is presented for predicting the residual creep life of steel components subjected to continual steam side oxide film growth. Similarly, fabrication of high temperature power plant components involves extensive use of welding as the fabrication process of choice. Naturally, issues related to the creep life of weldments have to be seriously addressed for safe and continual operation of the welded plant component. Unfortunately, a typical weldment in an engineering structure is a zone of complex microstructural gradation comprising of a number of distinct sub-zones with distinct meso-scale and micro-scale morphology of the phases and (even) chemistry and its creep life prediction presents considerable challenges. The present paper presents a stochastic algorithm, which can be' used for developing experimental creep-cavitation intensity versus residual life correlations for welded structures. Apart from estimates of the residual life in a mean field sense, the model can be used for predicting the reliability of the plant component in a rigorous probabilistic setting. (author)

  20. Design and fabrication of stainless steel components for long life of spent fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, R.; Ramkumar, P.; Sundararaman, V.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Baldev Raj; Shanmugam, K.

    2010-01-01

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels based on the PUREX process is the proven process with many commercial plants operating satisfactorily worldwide. The process medium being nitric acid, austenitic stainless steel is the material of construction as it is the best commercially available material for meeting the conditions in the reprocessing plants. Because of the high radiation fields, contact maintenance of equipment and systems of these plants are very time consuming and costly unlike other chemical process plants. Though the plants constructed in the early years required extensive shut downs for replacement of equipment and systems within the first fifteen years of operation itself, development in the field of stainless steel metallurgy and fabrication techniques have made it possible to design the present day plants for an operating life period of forty years. A review of the operational experience of the PUREX process based aqueous reprocessing plants has been made in this paper and reveals that life limiting failures of equipment and systems are mainly due to corrosion while a few are due to stresses. Presently there are no standards for design specification of materials and fabrication of reprocessing plants like the nuclear power plants, where well laid down ASTM and ASME codes and standards are available which are based on the large scale operational feedbacks on pressure vessels for conventional and nuclear industries. (author)

  1. Near-term benefits of life extension planning for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickens, T.; Gregor, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    Life Extension of Nuclear Power Plants is now viewed as a realistic alternative to construction of new generating facilities. The subject has been under intensive study since 1984 and two comprehensive pilot plant programs have been completed under EPRI, U.S. Department of Energy and utility sponsorship. A major lesson learned from these studies is that planning for life extension must start early and that many activities must be implemented as early in life as possible to enhance the option for life extension through mitigate and preventive actions. It was also determined that achievement of a 40-year licensed life is by no means guaranteed without substantial effort during the remaining plant life. In examining these recommended actions, it becomes obvious that conscientious implementation also leads to realization of significant short-term benefits in the form of availability improvement, outage reduction, maintenance optimization and longer term planning decisions. In addition to the economic benefits, plant safety is also enhanced by reducing challenges to the safety systems and slowly switching from a corrective maintenance to a preventive maintenance program

  2. A thematic framework of illness narratives produced by stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluta, A; Ulatowska, H; Gawron, N; Sobanska, M; Lojek, E

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims at elucidating the impact of stroke on psychosocial functioning of stroke survivors. Data were investigated using interpretative thematic analysis of illness stories produced by 29 patients. Eight themes emerged from the data: Medical Information; Interpersonal Changes; Cognitive, Physical and Emotional Functioning; Strategies of Coping; Social Support; and Information Irrelevant to the Question. The most frequent organization of the themes followed the course of medical intervention and rehabilitation. Narrations of individual patients varied in terms of the presence of particular themes, the amount of information on each topic and organization. The results suggest that the analysis of non-guided illness narratives can be effectively used to identify the thematic areas important to individual stroke patients. The thematic content analysis of stroke stories can allow health professionals to better understand the patient's state of knowledge related to illness as well as his or her socio-psychological functioning which may be useful in the course of planning further assessment and rehabilitation of patients with stroke. Implications for Rehabilitation Experience of illness and life changes following stroke should be recognized as central to the provision of targeted rehabilitation. To understand the subjective perspective a content analysis of the content narrative is recommended. Our study highlights seven general thematic categories that may be regarded as key. The categories may be useful for clinicians to help individuals to clarify their main concerns following a stroke.

  3. Light, plants, and power for life support on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Dempster, W. F.; Allen, J. P.; Alling, A.; Bubenheim, D.; Nelson, M.; Silverstone, S.

    2002-01-01

    Regardless of how well other growing conditions are optimized, crop yields will be limited by the available light up to saturation irradiances. Considering the various factors of clouds on Earth, dust storms on Mars, thickness of atmosphere, and relative orbits, there is roughly 2/3 as much light averaged annually on Mars as on Earth. On Mars, however, crops must be grown under controlled conditions (greenhouse or growth rooms). Because there presently exists no material that can safely be pressurized, insulated, and resist hazards of puncture and deterioration to create life support systems on Mars while allowing for sufficient natural light penetration as well, artificial light will have to be supplied. If high irradiance is provided for long daily photoperiods, the growing area can be reduced by a factor of 3-4 relative to the most efficient irradiance for cereal crops such as wheat and rice, and perhaps for some other crops. Only a small penalty in required energy will be incurred by such optimization. To obtain maximum yields, crops must be chosen that can utilize high irradiances. Factors that increase ability to convert high light into increased productivity include canopy architecture, high-yield index (harvest index), and long-day or day-neutral flowering and tuberization responses. Prototype life support systems such as Bios-3 in Siberia or the Mars on Earth Project need to be undertaken to test and further refine systems and parameters.

  4. I and C systems refurbishment projects for plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrashov, A.A.; Sklyar, V.V.; Siora, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the approach to implementation of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems refurbishment projects using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based platform. The analysis identifying advantages of refurbishment projects for NPPs is performed. The main goals of the utilities with respect to refurbishment of NPPs I and C systems are outlined. The advantages of FPGA technology application for NPP I and C systems are described. Regulatory framework of FPGA technology for NPPs I and C systems is presented. General principles which may be used for implementation of NPPs I and C system refurbishment projects are presented. The experience of Research and Production Corporation (RPC) Radiy in implementation of NPPs I and C system refurbishment projects is considered. (author)

  5. Economic evaluation of Kori and Wolsong Unit 1 plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, T. H.; Jeong, I. S.

    2002-01-01

    24 years have been passed since Kori Unit 1 began its commercial operation, and 19 years have been passed since Wolsong Unit 1 began its commercial operation. As the end point of design life become closer, plant life extension and periodic safety assessment is paid more and more attention to by the utility company. In this paper, the methodologies and results of plant lifetime management economic evaluations of both units have been presented in comparison with Korean standard nuclear power plant 10, 20 and 30 year life extension cases respectively. In addition to that, sensitivity analysis and break even point analysis results are presented with the variables of capacity factor, operation and maintenance cost, and discount rate

  6. Radon thematic days - Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the Radon thematic days organized by the French society of radiation protection (SFRP). Twenty five presentations (slides) are compiled in the document and deal with: 1 - General introduction about radon (Sebastien Baechler, IRA); 2 - Survey of epidemiological studies (Dominique Laurier, IRSN); 3 - Dosimetric model (Eric Blanchardon, Estelle Davesne, IRSN); 4 - Radon issue in Franche-Comte: measurement of the domestic exposure and evaluation of the associated health impact (Francois Clinard, InVS); 5 - WHO's (World Health Organization) viewpoint in limiting radon exposure in homes (Ferid Shannoun, OMS); 6 - Radon measurement techniques (Roselyne Ameon, IRSN); 7 - Quality of radon measurements (Francois Bochud, IRA); 8 - International recommendations (Jean-Francois Lecomte, IRSN); 9 - Radon management strategy in Switzerland - 1994-2014 (Christophe Murith, OFSP); 10 - 2011-2015 action plan for radon risk management (Jean-Luc Godet, Eric Dechaux, ASN); 11 - Radon at work place in Switzerland (Lisa Pedrazzi, SUVA); 12 - Strategies of radiation protection optimization in radon exposure situations (Cynthia Reaud, CEPN); 13 - Mapping of the radon potential of geologic formations in France (Geraldine Ielsch, IRSN); 14 - Radon database in Switzerland (Martha Gruson, OFSP); 15 - Radon 222 in taps water (Jeanne Loyen, IRSN); 16 - Buildings protection methods (Bernard Collignan, CSTB, Roselyne Ameon, IRSN); 17 - Preventive and sanitation measures in Switzerland (Claudio Valsangiacomo, SUPSI); 18 - Training and support approach for building specialists (Joelle Goyette-Pernot, Fribourg engineers and architects' school); 19 - Status of radon bulk activity measurements performed between 2005-2010 in public areas (Cyril Pineau, ASN); 20 - Neuchatel Canton experiments (Didier Racine, SENE); 21 - Montbeliard region experience in the radon risk management (Isabelle Netillard, Pays de Montbeliard Agglomeration); 22

  7. Evaluation and measures of the life extension of TVO I and TVO II power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, J.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous and wide preventive maintenance and renovation is chosen to the life extension strategy at TVO I and II units. This requires extensive concentration on all ageing phenomena on theoretical level as well as on following their development at the power plant. The work related to ageing is partly performed by persons who are responsible for systems and components in the power plant organization, partly by the working groups, which are organized for those purposes. The evaluation of the ageing phenomenon of the power plant systems, of large components and of different technical fields has revealed several needs for measures. Partly those are already performed. However the evaluation has not revealed any such ageing phenomena, which would limit the power plant life time to originally planned 40 years. (orig.)

  8. A Reliability-Based Determination of Economic Life of Marine power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atua, K.

    1999-01-01

    The reliability-based life approach is utilized. Selective failure modes of marine power plants are used for illustration. A case study of the Egyptian Commercial Fleet owned by the Public Sector Company was analyzed and used to establish a demonstration of the expected economic life based on local operating and maintenance conditions. The data acquired is analyzed and failure trend is derived for each failure mode. Probabilistic techniques are used to randomly generate numbers and times of occurrence of different failure modes. The reliability analysis is performed on the life span expected by the manufacture to predict the total number of failures, dependent failures, and cost of failures. Total expenditure due to random failure and cost of scheduled maintenance together with the annual income are utilized (using the time value of money) to determine the economic life of the plant. Conclusions are derived and recommendations for the enhancement of this work in the future are made

  9. Towards a more consolidated approach to material data management in life assessment of power plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, A.; Maile, K. [MPA Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The presentation discusses the necessity of having a more consolidated (unified, possibly `European`) framework for all (not only pure experimental) material data needed for optimized life management and assessment of high-temperature and other components in power and process plants. After setting the main requirements for such a system, a description of efforts done in this direction at MPA Stuttgart in the area of high-temperature components in power plants is given. Furthermore, a reference to other relevant efforts elsewhere is made and an example of practical application of the proposed solution described (optimized material selection and life assessment of high-temperature piping). (orig.) 10 refs.

  10. Towards a more consolidated approach to material data management in life assessment of power plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, A; Maile, K [MPA Stuttgart (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    The presentation discusses the necessity of having a more consolidated (unified, possibly `European`) framework for all (not only pure experimental) material data needed for optimized life management and assessment of high-temperature and other components in power and process plants. After setting the main requirements for such a system, a description of efforts done in this direction at MPA Stuttgart in the area of high-temperature components in power plants is given. Furthermore, a reference to other relevant efforts elsewhere is made and an example of practical application of the proposed solution described (optimized material selection and life assessment of high-temperature piping). (orig.) 10 refs.

  11. Aging plant life management - the requirements defined to date by the KTA nuclear engineering codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowski, I.

    1996-01-01

    German nuclear engineering codes so far do not enclose a specific aging plant life management programme. However, the existing codes and standards do contain a number of applicable requirements and principles of relevance to objectives and principles of such programmes, as they also cover aging-induced effects on power plants. The major principles relating to preventive safety engineering and quality assurance are laid down in the publications KTA 1401, 1404, 1201, 1202, and KTA 3211. (DG) [de

  12. Should the service life of nuclear power plants be limited for technical reasons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomer, E.

    1995-01-01

    German nuclear power plant operating licenses take into account the fact that the design lifetime of the facilities is 40 years. The technological lifetime, however, is governed by actual ageing processes and operational burden. The service life of nuclear power plants can be extended by replacement of the steam generator and by repair or replacement of the reactor pressure vessel or parts thereof. Attention is also paid to the reactor protection systems. (J.B.). 8 figs

  13. Herbivore-mediated ecological costs of reproduction shape the life history of an iteroparous plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tom E X; Tenhumberg, Brigitte; Louda, Svata M

    2008-02-01

    Plant reproduction yields immediate fitness benefits but can be costly in terms of survival, growth, and future fecundity. Life-history theory posits that reproductive strategies are shaped by trade-offs between current and future fitness that result from these direct costs of reproduction. Plant reproduction may also incur indirect ecological costs if it increases susceptibility to herbivores. Yet ecological costs of reproduction have received little empirical attention and remain poorly integrated into life-history theory. Here, we provide evidence for herbivore-mediated ecological costs of reproduction, and we develop theory to examine how these costs influence plant life-history strategies. Field experiments with an iteroparous cactus (Opuntia imbricata) indicated that greater reproductive effort (proportion of meristems allocated to reproduction) led to greater attack by a cactus-feeding insect (Narnia pallidicornis) and that damage by this herbivore reduced reproductive success. A dynamic programming model predicted strongly divergent optimal reproductive strategies when ecological costs were included, compared with when these costs were ignored. Meristem allocation by cacti in the field matched the optimal strategy expected under ecological costs of reproduction. The results indicate that plant reproductive allocation can strongly influence the intensity of interactions with herbivores and that associated ecological costs can play an important selective role in the evolution of plant life histories.

  14. PLEXFIN a computer model for the economic assessment of nuclear power plant life extension. User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA developed PLEXFIN, a computer model analysis tool aimed to assist decision makers in the assessment of the economic viability of a nuclear power plant life/licence extension. This user's manual was produced to facilitate the application of the PLEXFIN computer model. It is widely accepted in the industry that the operational life of a nuclear power plant is not limited to a pre-determined number of years, sometimes established on non-technical grounds, but by the capability of the plant to comply with the nuclear safety and technical requirements in a cost effective manner. The decision to extend the license/life of a nuclear power plant involves a number of political, technical and economic issues. The economic viability is a cornerstone of the decision-making process. In a liberalized electricity market, the economics to justify a nuclear power plant life/license extension decision requires a more complex evaluation. This user's manual was elaborated in the framework of the IAEA's programmes on Continuous process improvement of NPP operating performance, and on Models for analysis and capacity building for sustainable energy development, with the support of four consultants meetings

  15. Material aging and degradation detection and remaining life assessment for plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramuhalli, P.; Henager, C.H. Jr.; Griffin, J.W.; Meyer, R.M.; Coble, J.B.; Pitman, S.G.; Bond, L.J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the major factors that may impact long-term operations is structural material degradation. Detecting materials degradation, estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of the component, and determining approaches to mitigating the degradation are important from the perspective of long-term operations. In this study, multiple nondestructive measurement and monitoring methods were evaluated for their ability to assess the material degradation state. Metrics quantifying the level of damage from these measurements were defined and evaluated for their ability to provide estimates of remaining life of the component. An example of estimating the RUL from nondestructive measurements of material degradation condition is provided. (author)

  16. Life extension of nuclear power plants. World situation and the USA case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, Pablo T.; Cuesta, Loreto; Serra, Eduardo; Yaguee, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Life extension of Nuclear Power Plants above 40 years of operation is an important issue in many countries. The Kyoto limits for CO 2 emissions, the security of supply, the costs and predictability of renewable energy, etc., are putting nuclear energy in the agenda of many countries all around the world. The delay, due to the economic crisis, of the new nuclear projects in many countries, push governments to continue operation of nuclear plants above the 40 years design life. This is the case in the USA, where 59 units have obtained the extension of operation license from 40 to 60 years, and currently have 19 units are in the reviewing process. The life extension of these plants permits savings in CO 2 emissions and in the consumption of additional amounts of fossil fuels. In this paper, the position of the different nuclear countries about the Extension of Life will be reviewed, with a special emphasis on the situation in the USA. In this last case, the NRC approach for operation licenses above 40 years will be explained, and actions taken by nuclear companies in the country will be reviewed. In this country, the debate about life extension over 40 years has been surpassed, and the new technical discussion focuses on the operation of nuclear power plants above 60 years. (authors)

  17. Life extension of nuclear power plants. World situation and the USA case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, Pablo T.; Cuesta, Loreto; Serra, Eduardo; Yaguee, Luis [Endesa. C/ Ribera del Loira, No.60, 28042 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Life extension of Nuclear Power Plants above 40 years of operation is an important issue in many countries. The Kyoto limits for CO{sub 2} emissions, the security of supply, the costs and predictability of renewable energy, etc., are putting nuclear energy in the agenda of many countries all around the world. The delay, due to the economic crisis, of the new nuclear projects in many countries, push governments to continue operation of nuclear plants above the 40 years design life. This is the case in the USA, where 59 units have obtained the extension of operation license from 40 to 60 years, and currently have 19 units are in the reviewing process. The life extension of these plants permits savings in CO{sub 2} emissions and in the consumption of additional amounts of fossil fuels. In this paper, the position of the different nuclear countries about the Extension of Life will be reviewed, with a special emphasis on the situation in the USA. In this last case, the NRC approach for operation licenses above 40 years will be explained, and actions taken by nuclear companies in the country will be reviewed. In this country, the debate about life extension over 40 years has been surpassed, and the new technical discussion focuses on the operation of nuclear power plants above 60 years. (authors)

  18. Life extension for fossil power plants: The EPRI [Electric Power Research Institute] strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byron, J.; Dooley, B.

    1988-01-01

    Fossil fuel-fired generating plants have traditionally been built under the assumption of an economic life of 20-30 years. Due to low load growth, escalating interest rates and costs of construction, and increasing regulation, great interest is expressed in retaining these units in service for 50-60 years or longer. Life extension activities are part of an ongoing process that continues throughout the extended lives of a utility's units. The process begins with an initial evaluation of life extension as a generation alternative, resulting in a ranking of units for life extension and a prioritization of components for evaluation. As the process continues, more detailed inspection data are created by a three-level approach, as well as a means for collecting, organizing and scheduling the information. This is implemented through the Integrated Life Extension Management (ILEM) model. This model provides information needed for management decision making such as component performance on unit power rating, availability of components on unit availability, component performance on unit availability and overall costs of the life extension tasks. Risks involved in life extension include the initial unavailability of capacity credits, uncertainty as to the level of availability that can be achieved by the life-extended plant, and uncertainties in environmental compliance. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  19. Aircraft industry workers in evacuation: conditions of life of evacuated plants' workers in 1941-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Юрьевич Мухин

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the work of the factories in 1941-1945 in the evacuation. The author analyzes the living conditions of workers in evacuated aviation plants, their daily life, maintenance, etc. The author concludes that in the early years of the War the conditions of life of the aviation industry's workers were very difficult, and the welfare and financial situation improved in 1944, the sure sign of fracture in the Second world war.

  20. An overview of actions concerning life management of nuclear power plants in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochettino, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    An overview of actions concerning life management of nuclear power plants in Argentina is presented including the following issues: reorganization of nuclear activities in Argentina; life extension actions; main specific research and development actions (reactor pressure vessel integrity assessment project; reactor internal components project; heat exchanges project); other research and development actions (non-destructive testing developments; eddy current techniques; acoustic emission applications; materials; vibrations and fretting wear; reactor chemistry; control and instrumentation; probabilistic safety assessment)

  1. Nuclear power plant life management: flow accelerated corrosion and chemical control. Application to Embalse Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chocron, Mauricio; Saucedo, Ramona E.; Sainz, Ricardo A.; Ovando, Luis E.

    2006-01-01

    The chemistry of a water-steam cycle is one of the main aspects of the Plant Life Management of a Nuclear Power Plant and it is important for the preservation, efficiency and availability of the whole system. In that sense this aspect has to be prioritized in any study whose aim is the life extension of the plant. In particular, the flow-assisted -corrosion or FAC is a problem that worldwide has been considered important due to the piping wall thinning that in some occasions has led to severe accidents. The FAC phenomena is not easy to be interpreted and addressed although nowadays there are some accepted models to understand and predict sensitive areas of the cycle. The objectives of the present paper have been: a) The construction of an integrated code that involves all the aspects that have influence on FAC, i.e., materials, composition, geometry, temperature and flow rate, quality, chemistry, etc.; b) Establish or adapting current models to the circuit of Embalse PHWR NPP; c) Identify new locations for inspection and wall thickness measurement in order to predict residual life; d) Compare different chemistries and e) handle large sets of inspection data. Among the results, new lines have been incorporated to the inspection schedule of the 2005' programmed outage. Also, the evaluation is part of the PLIM-PLEX programme at Embalse-N.A.S.A. in collaboration with C.N.E.A. is being carried out. (author)

  2. Pythium invasion of plant-based life support systems: biological control and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D. G.; Cook, K. L.; Garland, J. L.; Board, K. F.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Invasion of plant-based life support systems by plant pathogens could cause plant disease and disruption of life support capability. Root rot caused by the fungus, Pythium, was observed during tests of prototype plant growth systems containing wheat at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). We conducted experiments to determine if the presence of complex microbial communities in the plant root zone (rhizosphere) resisted invasion by the Pythium species isolated from the wheat root. Rhizosphere inocula of different complexity (as assayed by community-level physiological profile: CLPP) were developed using a dilution/extinction approach, followed by growth in hydroponic rhizosphere. Pythium growth on wheat roots and concomitant decreases in plant growth were inversely related to the complexity of the inocula during 20-day experiments in static hydroponic systems. Pythium was found on the seeds of several different wheat cultivars used in controlled environmental studies, but it is unclear if the seed-borne fungal strain(s) were identical to the pathogenic strain recovered from the KSC studies. Attempts to control pathogens and their effects in hydroponic life support systems should include early inoculation with complex microbial communities, which is consistent with ecological theory.

  3. Overview of life cycle management - LCM (plant life management - PLiM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickerson, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses life cycle management which involves a structured and comprehensive aging management program to ensure that significant aging effects are detected as early as possible and engineering, operations and maintenance actions are undertaken to control aging degradation and wear out of components

  4. The iPlant Collaborative: Cyberinfrastructure for Enabling Data to Discovery for the Life Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Nirav; Lyons, Eric; Goff, Stephen; Vaughn, Matthew; Ware, Doreen; Micklos, David; Antin, Parker

    2016-01-01

    The iPlant Collaborative provides life science research communities access to comprehensive, scalable, and cohesive computational infrastructure for data management; identity management; collaboration tools; and cloud, high-performance, high-throughput computing. iPlant provides training, learning material, and best practice resources to help all researchers make the best use of their data, expand their computational skill set, and effectively manage their data and computation when working as distributed teams. iPlant's platform permits researchers to easily deposit and share their data and deploy new computational tools and analysis workflows, allowing the broader community to easily use and reuse those data and computational analyses.

  5. Service life monitoring of the main components at the Temelin nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, J.; Vincour, D.

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge and experience gained from the introduction and periodical implementation of life assessment of the major components of the Temelin nuclear power plant is summarized. The initial Soviet technical design of the plant did not incorporate lifetime monitoring and evaluation, therefore it was completed with demonstrative strength and lifetime calculations from Czech companies. Moreover, a Westinghouse primary circuit diagnosis and monitoring system, including the monitoring of temperature and pressure cycles for low-cycle fatigue evaluation, was installed at the plant. The DIALIFE code for the calculation of mainly the low-cycle fatigue of the key pressure components, was developed and installed subsequently as a superstructure to the monitoring system. (author)

  6. The iPlant Collaborative: Cyberinfrastructure for Enabling Data to Discovery for the Life Sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav Merchant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The iPlant Collaborative provides life science research communities access to comprehensive, scalable, and cohesive computational infrastructure for data management; identity management; collaboration tools; and cloud, high-performance, high-throughput computing. iPlant provides training, learning material, and best practice resources to help all researchers make the best use of their data, expand their computational skill set, and effectively manage their data and computation when working as distributed teams. iPlant's platform permits researchers to easily deposit and share their data and deploy new computational tools and analysis workflows, allowing the broader community to easily use and reuse those data and computational analyses.

  7. Development of procedural requirements for life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Son, Moon Kyu; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Chang, Keun Sun; Ham, Chul Hoon; Chang, Soon Hong

    2002-03-01

    Technical issues relevant to life extension of NPP were investigated. The GALL report, domestic PSR and periodic inspection rules were reviewed. Technical issues appearing in the safety evaluation reports related to license renewal of Calvert Ciffs 1 and 2 and Qconee 1,2 and 3 NPPs were reviewed. Preliminary study on PSA usage in NPP life extension assessment was performed and further works were suggested. The environment of rules and regulations was analyzed from the viewpoint of plant life extension. Two alternatives are suggested to revise the current domestic nuclear acts

  8. Development of procedural requirements for life extension of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Son, Moon Kyu [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Ji Hwan [Baekseok College, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Keun Sun [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Chul Hoon [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Hong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Technical issues relevant to life extension of NPP were investigated. The GALL report, domestic PSR and periodic inspection rules were reviewed. Technical issues appearing in the safety evaluation reports related to license renewal of Calvert Ciffs 1 and 2 and Qconee 1,2 and 3 NPPs were reviewed. Preliminary study on PSA usage in NPP life extension assessment was performed and further works were suggested. The environment of rules and regulations was analyzed from the viewpoint of plant life extension. Two alternatives are suggested to revise the current domestic nuclear acts.

  9. A novel life cycle arising from leaf segments in plants regenerated from horseradish hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Y; Matsuhashi, M

    1995-03-01

    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) hairy root clones were established from hairy roots which were transformed with the Ri plasmid in Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834. The transformed plants, which were regenerated from hairy root clones, had thicker roots with extensive lateral branches and thicker stems, and grew faster compared with non-transformed horseradish plants. Small sections of leaves of the transformed plants generated adventitious roots in phytohormone-free G (modified Gamborg's) medium. Root proliferation was followed by adventitious shoot formation and plant regeneration. Approximately twenty plants were regenerated per square centimeter of leaf. The transformed plants were easily transferable from sterile conditions to soil. When leaf segments of the transformed plants were cultured in a liquid fertilizer under non-sterile conditions, adventitious roots were generated at the cut ends of the leaves. Adventitious shoots were generated at the boundary between the leaf and the adventitious roots and developed into complete plants. This novel life cycle arising from leaf segments is a unique property of the transformed plants derived from hairy root clones.

  10. BIOREGENERATIVE LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS IN THE SPACE (BLSS: THE EFFECTS OF RADIATION ON PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Arena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The growth of plants in Space is a fundamental issue for Space exploration. Plants play an important role in the Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS to sustain human permanence in extraterrestrial environments. Under this perspective, plants are basic elements for oxygen and fresh food production as well as air regeneration and psychological support to the crew. The potentiality of plant survival and reproduction in space is limited by the same factors that act on the earth (e.g. light, temperature and relative humidity and by additional factors such as altered gravity and ionizing radiation. This paper analyzes plant responses to space radiation which is recognized as a powerful mutagen for photosynthetic organisms thus being responsible for morpho-structural, physiological and genetic alterations. Until now, many studies have evidenced how the response to ionizing radiation is influenced by several factors associated both to plant characteristics (e.g. cultivar, species, developmental stage, tissue structure and/or radiation features (e.g. dose, quality and exposure time. The photosynthetic machinery is particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation. The severity of the damages induced by ionizing radiation on plant cell and tissues may depend on the capability of plants to adopt protection mechanisms and/or repair strategies. In this paper a selection of results from studies on the effect of ionizing radiations on plants at anatomical and eco-physiological level is reported and some aspects related to radioresistance are explored.

  11. Cost drivers for the assessment of nuclear power plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    In the period of the nineteen-sixties to eighties, nuclear power had rapidly expanded in many countries of the world. The nuclear power plants built in this period, will reach the end of their planned life in the near future. Statistics drawn from IAEA's Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) indicate that, by the end of 2001, there were 175 nuclear power units (NPPs) with about 122 GWe of net electrical capacity, having 21 to 45 years of operation. This represents about 34% of the total installed nuclear capacity in the world. Since these plants were initially designed for 30-40 years of operation, utilities operating such NPPs will now have to consider whether they will shutdown, decommission, and replace the plants reaching the end of their planned life, or refurbish the plants and extend their original design life. This decision is quite complex, involving a number of political, technical and economic issues. Finally, the utilities involved should manage their assets in a manner that is as close as practicable to the best possible economic optimum scenario. Well before the end of the plant life, NPP operators must evaluate the technical and economic feasibility for PLEX options, seek and obtain regulatory approvals, and implement PLEX schemes that are justified. Often they also have to substantiate the planned life extension, including the economic viability to the relevant governmental bodies, as well as to assure the general public acceptance. Economic feasibility analysis requires cost data that are not readily available. A recent IAEA review of published information on costs of PLEX revealed the scarcity of published information, while the estimated costs of NPP decommissioning are widely available. This is due in part to the reluctance by NPP operators to divulge the cost data that are considered commercial/confidential, as more plant operators are being privatised, and in part to the absence of a common framework and methodology to account for the

  12. Practice and perspectives of nuclear power plants life management activities in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurakov, Y.; Yanko, L.

    1998-01-01

    Extension of safe operation of NPPs is of special importance for Russia for economical reasons. The principles of NPP life extension are the same as for issuing licences for operation by the Regulatory body. It is requested to prove that undertaken measures compensate effects of ageing of structural components. Special attention is foreseen for methods of modernization of power plants for their safe operation

  13. The life cycle emission of greenhouse gases associated with plant oils used as biofuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2011-01-01

    Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions associated with biofuels should not only consider fossil fuel inputs, but also N2O emissions and changes in carbon stocks of (agro) ecosystems linked to the cultivation of biofuel crops. When this is done, current plant oils such as European rapeseed

  14. Using life strategies to explore the vulnerability of ecosystem services to invasion by alien plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vicente, J.; Pinro, A.; Araujo, M.; Lomba, A.; Randin, C.; Guisan, A.; Honrado, J.; Verburg, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive plants can have different effects on ecosystem functioning and on the provision of ecosystem services, with the direction and magnitude of such effects depending on the service and ecosystem being considered, but also on the life strategies of the invaders. Strategies can influence

  15. Discussion on life extension of nuclear power plant around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ming; Zhang Yuansi

    2010-01-01

    The very Paper introduces the concept, basic working flow and fundamental elements of the life extension of nuclear power plant (NPP) around the world; and it generally collects and summarizes the status datum of life extension of NPPs. Afterwards, the Paper analyses the present status of life extension of NPP in various countries with strong nuclear power industry, i.e. the United States, France, Germany, Russia Federation, Japan, South Korea and Canada. At the end, the Paper make a conclusion that whether an operating NPP will adopt life extension at the end of its design life, this issue depends on the factor of economy, safety and technical feasibility of life extension on the NPP. According to latest datum collected in 2009, the nuclear power units around the world, which have exceeded the design lives or are close to design life ends, most of them (about 64%) have selected to extend their service lives; based on this statistical data, we concludes that when an operating nuclear unit is facing with the issue of to extend life or to retire itself, it will be apt to make life extension. (authors)

  16. On economic efficiency of nuclear power unit life extension using steam-gas topping plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Y.N.; Lisitsa, F.D.; Smirnov, V.G.

    2001-01-01

    The different options for life extension of the operating nuclear power units have been analyzed in the report with regard for their economic efficiency. A particular attention is given to the option envisaging the reduction of reactor power output and its subsequent compensation with a steam-gas topping plant. Steam generated at its heat-recovery boilers is proposed to be used for the additional loading of the nuclear plant turbine so as to reach its nominal output. It would be demonstrated that the implementation of this option allows to reduce total costs in the period of power plant life extension by 24-29% as compared with the alternative use of the replacing steam-gas unit and the saved resources could be directed, for instance, for decommissioning of a reactor facility. (authors)

  17. Preliminary results of Physiological plant growth modelling for human life support in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan L, Swathy; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Hezard, Pauline

    2012-07-01

    Human life support is fundamental and crucial in any kind of space explorations. MELiSSA project of European Space Agency aims at developing a closed, artificial ecological life support system involving human, plants and micro organisms. Consuming carbon dioxide and water from the life support system, plants grow in one of the chambers and convert it into food and oxygen along with potable water. The environmental conditions, nutrient availability and its consumption of plants should be studied and necessarily modeled to predict the amount of food, oxygen and water with respect to the environmental changes and limitations. The reliability of a completely closed system mainly depends on the control laws and strategies used. An efficient control can occur, only if the system to control is itself well known, described and ideally if the responses of the system to environmental changes are predictable. In this aspect, the general structure of plant growth model has been designed together with physiological modelling.The physiological model consists of metabolic models of leaves, stem and roots, of which concern specific metabolisms of the associated plant parts. On the basis of the carbon source transport (eg. sucrose) through stem, the metabolic models (leaf and root) can be interconnected to each other and finally coupled to obtain the entire plant model. For the first step, leaf metabolic model network was built using stoichiometric, mass and energy balanced metabolic equations under steady state approach considering all necessary plant pathways for growth and maintenance of leaves. As the experimental data for lettuce plants grown in closed and controlled environmental chambers were available, the leaf metabolic model has been established for lettuce leaves. The constructed metabolic network is analyzed using known stoichiometric metabolic technique called metabolic flux analysis (MFA). Though, the leaf metabolic model alone is not sufficient to achieve the

  18. Reactor pressure vessel life cycle management at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroshuk, B.W.; Bowman, M.E.; Henry, S.A.; Pavinich, W.A.; Lapides, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Life Cycle Management (LCM) seeks to manage the aging process of important systems, structures, and components during licensed operation. The goal of Baltimore Gas and Electric Company's (BG and E) Life Cycle Management Program is to assure attainment of 40 years of operation and to preserve the option of an additional 20 years of operation for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP). Since the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) has been identified as one of the most critical components with regard to long-term operation of a nuclear power plant, BG and E initiated actions to manage life limiting or aging issues for the CCNPP RPVs. To achieve long-term operation, technical RPV issues must be effectively managed. This paper describes methods BG and E uses for managing RPV age-related degradation. (author)

  19. Replacement of major nuclear power plant components for service life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, S.

    1987-01-01

    Problems are discussed associated with replacement of nuclear power plant components with the aim to extend their original scheduled life. The existing foreign experience shows that it is technically feasible to replace practically all basic components for which the necessity of replacement is established. Data is summed up on the replacement of steam generators in US and West German nuclear power plants showing the duration of the job, the total consumption of manhours, the collective dose equivalent and the cost. Attention is also focused on implemented and projected replacements of circulation pipes in nuclear power plants abroad. Based on these figures, the cost is estimated of the replacement of the reactor vessel and the steam generators for WWER-440 nuclear power plants. The conclusion is arrived at that even based on a conservative estimate, the extension by 20 years of the service life of a nuclear power plant is economically more effective than the construction of a new plant. (Z.M.) 2 tabs., 15 refs., 3 figs

  20. Trend in foreign countries of life extension for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusanagi, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    When the nuclear power generation in the world is converted to oil burning thermal power generation, the required quantity of oil is twice as much as the oil production in Saudi Arabia. This represents the size of the role that nuclear power generation plays. More than 30 years have already elapsed since the start of nuclear power generation, and the number of nuclear power plants in operation in the world was 426 as of the end of 1990, and their capacity of about 344 million kW is about 17% of the total generated electric power in the world. Though circumstances are different in respective countries, the construction of new nuclear power plants is not always advancing smoothly, and the possibility of operating existing nuclear power plants as long as possible has been investigated. In USA, the approved term of operation of nuclear power plants is 40 years, and the trend of the research and development of the plant life extension is described. In France, the life of nuclear power plants is not stipulated by the law. In U.K., also it is not stipulated by the law. The trend in these countries is reported. IAEA also has carried out the activities on this problem. (K.I.)

  1. Aging of concrete components and its significance relative to life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power currently supplies about 16% of the US electricity requirements, with the percentage expected to rise to 20% by 1990. Despite the increasing role of nuclear power in energy production, cessation of orders for new nuclear plants in combination with expiration of operating licenses for several plants in the next 15 to 20 years results in a potential loss of electrical generating capacity of 50 to 60 gigawatts during the time period 2005 to 2020. A potential timely and cost-effective solution to the problem of meeting future energy demand is available through extension of the service life of existing nuclear plants. Any consideration of plant life extension, however, must consider the concrete components in these plants, since they play a vital safety role. Under the USNRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program, a study was conducted to review operating experience and to provide background that will lead to subsequent development of a methodology for assessing and predicting the effects of aging on the performance of concrete-based structures. The approach followed was in conformance with the NPAR strategy

  2. Overview of United States Department of Energy activities to support life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    Today, 109 nuclear power plants provide over 20 percent of the electrical energy generated in the US The operating license of the first of these plants will expire in the year 2000; one-third of the operating licenses will expire by 2010 and the remaining plant licenses are scheduled to expire by 2033. The National Energy Strategy assumes that 70 percent of these plants will continue to operate beyond their current license expiration to assist in ensuring an adequate, diverse, and environmentally acceptable energy supply for economic growth. In order to preserve this energy resource in the US three major tasks must be successfully completed: establishment of regulations, technical standards, and procedures for the preparation and review of a license renewal application; development, verification, and validation of technical criteria and bases for monitoring, refurbishing, and/or replacing plant equipment; and demonstration of the regulatory process. Since 1985, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been working with the nuclear industry and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to establish and demonstrate the option to extend the life of nuclear power plants through the renewal of operating licenses. This paper focuses primarily on DOE's Plant Lifetime Improvement (PLIM) Program efforts to develop the technical criteria and bases for effective aging management and lifetime improvement for continued operation of nuclear power plants. This paper describes current projects to resolve generic technical issues in the principal areas of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) integrity, fatigue, and environmental qualification (EQ)

  3. Concept design of overall evaluation system for nuclear plant life extension, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Takeshi

    1989-01-01

    In this report the frameworks of the plans for the Overall Evaluation System and the 8 systems concerning the plant Life extension are discussed. Main results are as follows. 1) The extension period decision subsystem supported by the AI techniques and Fuzzy theory will be added to the Overall Evaluation System. By using this subsystem the plant lives will be overall evaluated. 2) The range of the data collection for constructing the plant operation and maintenance data base is covered by, i) Operation data in the typical plant start/stop cycling, ii) Operation data at the representative point of the period, iii) All data of the repair and replacement. 3) The degradation monitoring and diagnosing system will be constructed for the expert system based on the knowledge base using the elastic wave theorem. (author) 74 refs

  4. Life cycle assessment of a small-scale anaerobic digestion plant from cattle waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezzullo, William G.; McManus, Marcelle C.; Hammond, Geoff P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Emissions from plant manufacture contributed little towards the lifecycle impacts. ► The use phase of the AD plant could have significant impacts. ► Production of biogas and fertiliser created significant impacts. ► The consequential displacement of kerosene showed a net-benefit. ► The study concluded that it is essential to cover the digestate storage tank. -- Abstract: This paper outlines the results of a comprehensive life cycle study of the production of energy, in the form of biogas, using a small scale farm based cattle waste fed anaerobic digestion (AD) plant. The life cycle assessment (LCA) shows that in terms of environmental and energy impact the plant manufacture contributes very little to the whole life cycle impacts. The results show that compared with alternative energy supply the production and use of biogas is beneficial in terms of greenhouse gases and fossil fuel use. This is mainly due to the replacement of the alternative, kerosene, and from fertiliser production from the AD process. However, these benefits come at a cost to ecosystem health and the production of respiratory inorganics. These were found to be a result of ammonia emissions during the production phase of the biogas. These damages can be significantly reduced if further emission control measures are undertaken.

  5. A review of assessment and retrofitting of structures for plant life extension (PLEX) programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samota, A.; Verma, U.S.P.; Tilak, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Assessment of the life of existing civil engineering structures for the plant life extension programme has to be made considering various factors such as strength, deterioration, environmental impact particularly with regard to radiation field, etc. which need to be evaluated very carefully. Generally, it is considered that initial design usually caters for a period of around 40 years, though structural failures have been reported even at a much younger stage due to deficiency in design and construction. In the context of nuclear power plant when the initial license is given for a period 30-40 years, it becomes necessary to evaluate the health of the various structures particularly while applying for a license for the extension of plant life. The present paper discuss the various issues connected with the evaluation of the future life of an existing structure in terms of strength and change in its property particularly when the structure is exposed to radiation. The various effects with regard to ageing and radiation exposure and the destructive and non-destructive tests which need to be carried out are discussed in detail. (author). 8 refs., 4 figs

  6. Production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Sogo Begoña

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelargonium is one of the most popular garden plants in the world. Moreover, it has a considerable economic importance in the ornamental plant market. Conventional cross-breeding strategies have generated a range of cultivars with excellent traits. However, gene transfer via Agrobacterium tumefaciens could be a helpful tool to further improve Pelargonium by enabling the introduction of new genes/traits. We report a simple and reliable protocol for the genetic transformation of Pelargonium spp. and the production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium zonale plants, using the pSAG12::ipt and PsEND1::barnase chimaeric genes respectively. Results The pSAG12::ipt transgenic plants showed delayed leaf senescence, increased branching and reduced internodal length, as compared to control plants. Leaves and flowers of the pSAG12::ipt plants were reduced in size and displayed a more intense coloration. In the transgenic lines carrying the PsEND1::barnase construct no pollen grains were observed in the modified anther structures, which developed instead of normal anthers. The locules of sterile anthers collapsed 3–4 days prior to floral anthesis and, in most cases, the undeveloped anther tissues underwent necrosis. Conclusion The chimaeric construct pSAG12::ipt can be useful in Pelargonium spp. to delay the senescence process and to modify plant architecture. In addition, the use of engineered male sterile plants would be especially useful to produce environmentally friendly transgenic plants carrying new traits by preventing gene flow between the genetically modified ornamentals and related plant species. These characteristics could be of interest, from a commercial point of view, both for pelargonium producers and consumers.

  7. Nuclear Power Plant Life Management - Challenges and Proposal for a Unified Model Integrating Safety and Economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contri, Paolo; Elsing, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    In recent years many electric utilities and nuclear power plants adopted policies for improved coordination of both safety and non-safety programs, called plant life management (PLIM), also in view on plant life extension programs, but mainly for an optimisation of operating costs. The implementation of PLIM programs has followed many different approaches, being intrinsically dependent on the national regulatory framework and technical traditions. In Countries with some experience, the PLIM program proved very convenient, especially when coupled with Maintenance, Surveillance an Inspection (MS and I) optimization: average savings are reported in the range of 20-30% of total (maintenance) costs. A unified European model for PLIM was developed at the JRC-Institute for Energy with the support of a network of stakeholders (SENUF), and validated at some EU nuclear plants. This paper provides a summary of the model features, the result of its validation at some plants and summarises the perceived scientific/technological challenges on which JRC proposes to focus, based upon its competencies and skills, having in mind both the European and world-wide context and its potential evolution. (author)

  8. An evaluation of information sources and requirements for nuclear plant-aging research with life-extension implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, P.T.

    1986-01-01

    Information requirements for plant-aging and life-extension research are discussed. Various information sources that have been used in plant-aging studies and reliability assessments are described. Data-base searches and analyses were performed for a specific system using several data bases and plant sources. Comments are provided on the results using the various information sources

  9. Research on Chinese life cycle-based wind power plant environmental influence prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-08-19

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development.

  10. Life extension of nuclear power plants: world situation and the Usa case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, P.T.; Cuesta, L.; Serra, E.; Yague, L.

    2010-01-01

    Life extension of nuclear power plants above 40 years of operation is an important issue in many countries. The Kyoto limits for CO 2 emissions, the security of supply, the costs of renewable energies and the economic crisis have pushed governments to continue operation of nuclear plants over the 40 years design life. In the Usa 59 units have obtained the extension of operation license from 40 to 60 years, and currently 19 units are in the reviewing process. The situation in the rest of the world is different. A list of countries, where nuclear units with a service life over 30 years, are still operating has been drawn up. A few countries like Belgium, Germany, Spain and Sweden are opposed to life extension. Some countries like Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, India, Japan and Usa, have adopted a life extension policy for their nuclear fleet. Other countries like France, Russia, United-Kingdom, Pakistan, South-Korea and Argentina have not yet taken any final decision. United-Kingdom and France have a case by case policy. In some countries like Japan, Indian or Pakistan, the legislation makes no reference to a maximum operating time but the reactors are allowed to continue operating as long as they comply with established safety conditions. (A.C.)

  11. Aging management and life assessment of buried commodities in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. H.; Jung, I. S.; Jo, H. S.; Kim, M. G.; Kim, S. T.; Lee, S. S.

    2000-01-01

    General field survey, inspection and life assessment were performed to establish effective aging management program of buried commodities in nuclear power plant. Basic informations on material characteristics, aging degradation experiences and maintenance history were gathered. Considering their degradation effects on power operation or safety, buried commodities were screened for the aging management priority. Various inspection techniques were applied in field survey and inspection, and their results were incorporated in the life assessment of buried commodities. In the aspect of aging degradation, general status of buried commodities were considered still sound while some revealed local degradation

  12. Introduction to the Volume's Two Thematic Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Chase-Dunn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The first batch contains an article by Political Scientist Daniel Whitcncck on epistemic communities and global leadership and a special thematic section focussing around the ideas ofW. Warren Wagar regarding the future of the world-system and global politics. The second batch of papers in Volume 2 has been edited by P. Nick Kardulias of the Department of Anthropology and Sociology at Kenyon College. This special thematic section focusses on anthropological and archaeological approaches to the study of world systems.

  13. Magrit: a new thematic cartography tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viry, Matthieu; Giraud, Timothée; Lambert, Nicolas

    2018-05-01

    The article provides an overview of the features of the Magrit web application: a free online thematic mapping tool, presenting a strong pedagogical dimension and making possible to mobilize all the elements necessary for the realization of a thematic map. In this tool, several simple modes of representation are proposed such as proportional maps or choropleth maps. Other, more complex modes are also available such as smoothed maps and cartograms. Each map can be finalized thanks to layout and customization features (projection, scale, orientation, toponyms, etc.) and exported in vector format. Magrit is therefore a complete, light and versatile tool particularly adapted to cartography teaching at the university.

  14. Quality factors in the life cycle of software oriented to safety systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez McLeod, J.E.; Rivera, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    The inclusion of software in safety related systems for nuclear power plants, makes it necessary to include the software quality assurance concept. The software quality can be defined as the adjustment degree between the software and the specified requirements and user expectations. To guarantee a certain software quality level it is necessary to make a systematic and planned set of tasks, that constitute a software quality guaranty plan. The application of such a plan involves activities that should be performed all along the software life cycle, and that can be evaluated through the so called quality factors, due to the fact that the quality itself cannot be directly measured, but indirectly as some of it manifestations. In this work, a software life cycle model is proposed, for nuclear power plant safety related systems. A set os software quality factors is also proposed , with its corresponding classification according to the proposed model. (author) [es

  15. Long-term capital planning considering nuclear plant life-cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negin, C.A.; Simpson, J.M.; Hostetler, D.R.

    1992-09-01

    The creation of a Life Cycle Management (LCM) group at utilities to evaluate the long term capital refurbishment needs is gaining favor. Among the functions of such groups can be the responsibility for recommending long term capital planning projects based on results of evaluations of systems, structures, and components that are not only essential to achieving the full current license term of operation, but also to extend the service life of the plant. Making such recommendations, in content and timing, requires the ability to view all recommendations in the context of an overall capital budget and long range outage impacts. This report illustrates an approach for creating a Long-Term Capital Plan with methods for deciding on, compiling, integrating, and presenting projects from the perspective of an LCM program for a nuclear power plant. It also addresses a rationale for capitalization of LCM program activities that would not be allowed under current accounting treatment

  16. FP-4 and FP-5 Euratom research activities in the field of plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaitre, P.; Goethem, G. van

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an overview is given of the European Union (EU) Euratom research conducted through shared cost and concerted actions in the field of plant life management. After a general introduction on the organisation of the research framework programmes the achievements of the 4th framework programme (FP-4/1994-1998) and the activities under the 5th framework programme (FP-5/1999-2002) in the field of plant life management are presented and discussed in detail. Besides technological safety requirements, socio-economic aspects are becoming increasingly important due to the level of public and political acceptance and to the economic pressure of deregulated electricity markets. It is shown that research conducted in the Euratom framework may contribute to meet these requirements, thereby maintaining nuclear power as a competitive and sustainable option for the energy policy of the European Union. (author)

  17. POPCYCLE: a computer code for calculating nuclear and fossil plant levelized life-cycle power costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardie, R.W.

    1982-02-01

    POPCYCLE, a computer code designed to calculate levelized life-cycle power costs for nuclear and fossil electrical generating plants is described. Included are (1) derivations of the equations and a discussion of the methodology used by POPCYCLE, (2) a description of the input required by the code, (3) a listing of the input for a sample case, and (4) the output for a sample case

  18. Thematic approach and complex scientific school knowledge: thematic and conceptual organization as proposals of open educational path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Watanabe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In a traditional way, the school knowledge of the sciences, especially in high school, is consolidated from a set of conceptual contents that reflects a given historical construction of the referred science, whether Biology, Physics or Chemistry. In this format, textbooks generally present a more deterministic and reductionist view. There are several consequences, in this scheme that impact the formation of students, among them a mechanized learning and little contextual meaning. In an opposing movement to these limitations, the thematic approaches have been proposed and discussed in research of science teaching field, which propose a treatment of a given topic that is considered relevant for the formation of the youth. However, the organization by themes makes it difficult to integrate into the school curricular culture. Facing this question, this article intends to investigate potential ways of dealing with the two mentioned approaches (traditional and thematic methods, identifying possibilities for the building of knowledge with the potential to promote a more critical and reflexive formation. Methodologically, in this perspective, the research proposes a theoretical reflection from the complexity view about the works with themes, but considering the national school reality. From these considerations emerge the proposal of articulation between two forms of organization, conceptual and thematic, which create space for diversified choices by teachers, based on issues of their school daily life and their training goals. These choices are represented by what we call open thematic pathways. From the results, it may be concluded that the proposed strategies can promote an alternative view of science, the complexity idea, to address questions of an open and dynamic nature and, in this way; it may allow reflections about perceptions, attitudes and values. At same time, it aims to ways of acting of teachers with greater autonomy and protagonism

  19. International requirements for life extension of nuclear power plants; Internationale Anforderungen zur Lebensdauerverlaengerung von Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernicke, Robert [TUeV NORD SysTec GmbH und Co. KG, Abt. Festigkeit und Konstruktion, Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Lifetime extension or long-term operation of nuclear facilities are topics of great international significance against the backdrop of a fleet of nuclear power plants of which many have reached 2/3 of their planned life. The article deals with the conditions for, and the specific requirements of, seeking long-term operation of nuclear power plants as established internationally and on the basis of IAEA collections. Technically, long-term operation is possible for many of the nuclear power plants in the world because, normally, they were built on the basis of conservative rules and regulations and, as a consequence, incorporate significant additional safety. Application of requirements to specific plants implies assessments of technical safety which show that conservative design philosophies created reserves and, as a consequence, there is an adequate level of safety also in long-term plant operation. For this purpose, the technical specifications must be revised, necessary additions made, and (international) operating experience taken into account and management of aging established. Two examples are presented to show how the approach to long-term plant operation is put into practice on a national level. (orig.)

  20. Plant fertilization interacts with life history: variation in stoichiometry and performance in nettle-feeding butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Audusseau

    Full Text Available Variation in food stoichiometry affects individual performance and population dynamics, but it is also likely that species with different life histories should differ in their sensitivity to food stoichiometry. To address this question, we investigated the ability of the three nettle-feeding butterflies (Aglais urticae, Polygonia c-album, and Aglais io to respond adaptively to induced variation in plant stoichiometry in terms of larval performance. We hypothesized that variation in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments should be functionally linked to species differences in host plant specificity. We found species-specific differences in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments that could not be explained by nutrient limitation. We showed a clear evidence of a positive correlation between food stoichiometry and development time to pupal stage and pupal mass in A. urticae. The other two species showed a more complex response. Our results partly supported our prediction that host plant specificity affects larval sensitivity to food stoichiometry. However, we suggest that most of the differences observed may instead be explained by differences in voltinism (number of generations per year. We believe that the potential of some species to respond adaptively to variation in plant nutrient content needs further attention in the face of increased eutrophication due to nutrient leakage from human activities.

  1. The implications of plant design on the life-time costs for nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macphee, D.S.; Hexter, B.C.; Young, M.P.; Wilson, B.J.

    1997-01-01

    Utilising the experience gained during many years of design and project management of nuclear plant, BNFL is now approaching the final stages of the construction and commissioning of the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP) in the UK. The paper uses the SMP project to highlight the benefits of these experiences, in particular addressing the implications of the approach to plant design on life time costs. In addition to providing BNFL with a state of the art, commercial scale MOX fuel fabrication facility, the construction of this 120 tHM/yr facility, which is currently in the advanced stages of commissioning, represents a significant demonstration of the design and project management skills of BNFL Engineering Ltd. As well as meeting the main process requirements, the plant design incorporates the highest standards of safety, together with input from the future plant operators and potential customers. As befits a commercial scale plutonium handling facility, SMP also incorporates material accountancy and security provisions that will meet all international requirements. Design, construction and commissioning of this complex and highly automated plant, has benefited from a totally integrated approach to design and documentation that considers not only project implementation but also overall lifetime costs. In addition, project management techniques, developed over many years of major project construction at Sellafield, have been utilised in order to ensure successful project implementation against a background of significant technical challenge and 'fast track' timescales. (author)

  2. Update on the status of life extension in U.S. Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevia Ruperez, F.; Lehnert, D.F.; Gregor, F.E.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the status of key activities that may affect the plant life extension option for U.S. nuclear power plants and to explain how the progress on the regulatory and technical developments may affect the world-wide nuclear industry. Establishing a predictable and stable regulatory process is the final piece that is needed by U.S. utilities to confidently consider the plant life extension option in their strategic planning. Certain technical issues were also identified in the previous studies where additional investigation would benedict the U.S. nuclear power industry's understanding of an aging effect and/or capability to demonstrate that the aging effect can be effectively managed. It is concluded that the lessons learned from the U.S. industry activities and the associated interactions with the NRC are leading to a positive indication that U.S. utilities believe the differences between the NRC and industry on the implementation of the amended license renewal rule can be successfully resolved and the that many utilities generally are interested in pursuing the life extension option as part of their strategic planning. The methodology and guidance developed in the U.S. for performing integrated plant assessments and evaluating time-limited aging analyses will be of significant interest to utilities and regulators in other countries. They will undoubtedly lay the foundation for an acceptable approach for demonstrating that aging processes are being processes are being effectively managed by plant programs and that safety margins or bases will be maintained during an extended operating period. (Author)

  3. Analysis of Piping Systems for Life Extension of Heavy Water Plants in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Rajesh K.; Soni, R.S.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Raj, V. Venkat

    2002-01-01

    Heavy water production in India has achieved many milestones in the past. Two of the successfully running heavy water plants are on the verge of completion of their design life in the near future. One of these two plants, situated at Kota, is a hydrogen sulfide based plant and the other one at Tuticorin is an ammonia-based plant. Various exercises have been planned with an aim to assess the fatigue usage for the various components of these plants in order to extend their life. Considering the process parameters and the past history of the plant performance, critical piping systems and equipment are identified. Analyses have been carried out for these critical piping systems for mainly two kinds of loading, viz. sustained loads and the expansion loads. Static analysis has been carried out to find the induced stress levels due to sustained as well as thermal expansion loading as per the design code ANSI B31.3. Due consideration has been given to the design corrosion allowance while evaluating the stresses due to sustained loads. At the locations where the induced stresses (S L ) due to the sustained loads are exceeding the allowable limits (S h ), exercises have been carried out considering the reduced corrosion allowance value. This strategy is adopted in view of the fact that the thickness measurements carried out at site at various critical locations show a very low rate of corrosion. It has been possible to qualify the system with reduced corrosion allowance values however, it is recommended to keep that location under periodic monitoring. The strategy adopted for carrying out analysis for thermal expansion loading is to qualify the system as per the code allowable value (S a ). If the stresses are more than the allowable value, credit of liberal allowable value as suggested in the code i.e., with the addition of the term (S h -S L ) to the term 0.25 S h , has been taken. However, if at any location, it is found that thermal stress is high, fatigue analysis has

  4. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of an energy recovery plant in the olive oil industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intini, Francesca; Kuhtz, Silvana [Dep. Engineering and Environmental Physics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Basilicata (Italy); Gianluca Rospi, [Dep. Engineering and Environmental Physics, Faculty of Architecture, University of Basilicata (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    To reduce the GHG emissions in the UE and to increase the produced energy it is important to spread out decentralized technologies for renewable energy production. In this paper a power plant fed with biomass is studied, in particular the biomass considered is the waste of the olive oil industries. This study focuses on the possibility of using the de-oiled pomace and waste wood as fuel. A life cycle assessment (LCA) of a biomass power plant located in the South of Italy was performed. The global warming potential has been calculated and compared with that of a plant for energy production that uses refuse derived fuel (RDF) and that of one that uses coal. The LCA shows the important environmental advantages of biomass utilization in terms of greenhouse gas emissions reduction. An improved impact assessment methodology may better underline the advantages due to the biomass utilization.

  5. Flora, life form and chorology of plants in Jozak – Chaminbid area, North Khorassan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHABAT NADAF

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Floristic study of a region is of great importance as the list of plants represents the genetic resources of the area. The intended region (Jozak-Chaminbid with an area of ca. 3637.81 ha. is located in the western part of North Khorassan Province in the Maneh and Semelghan counties. Phytogeographically, this region is located in Khorassan-Kopet Dagh floristic province of the Irano-Turanian region. The mean altitude is 1415 meter and mean annual precipitation of the area is 559 mm. The plant species of the area were collected and identified according to the Floras. The floristic list of the area and its life forms and endemic species were presented. The results showed the presence of 53 families, 205 genera and 308 species. Among them 13 species were endemic to Khorassan-Kopet Dagh Province. The largest plant family was Asteraceae with 28 genera and 40 species. According to Raunkiaer’s life form categories, the identified species are categorized as hemicryptophytes 35.38%, therophytes 34.74%, cryptophytes (geophytes 12.33%, chamaephytes 11.03% and phanerophytes 6.49%. The high percentage of hemicryptophytes indicated that the area had a cold mountain climate. The chorotype of species was obtained on the basis of the available sources. Irano-Turanian plants were the most frequent chorotype of the area with 59%.

  6. Gas fired combined cycle plant in Singapore: energy use, GWP and cost-a life cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R.; Leong, K.C.; Osman, Ramli; Ho, H.K.; Tso, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    A life cycle assessment was performed to quantify the non-renewable (fossil) energy use and global warming potential (GWP) in electricity generation from a typical gas fired combined cycle power plant in Singapore. The cost of electricity generation was estimated using a life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) tool. The life cycle assessment (LCA) of a 367.5 MW gas fired combined cycle power plant operating in Singapore revealed that hidden processes consume about 8% additional energy in addition to the fuel embedded energy, and the hidden GWP is about 18%. The natural gas consumed during the operational phase accounted for 82% of the life cycle cost of electricity generation. An empirical relation between plant efficiency and life cycle energy use and GWP in addition to a scenario for electricity cost with varying gas prices and plant efficiency have been established

  7. Life cycle GHG assessment of fossil fuel power plants with carbon capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odeh, Naser A.; Cockerill, Timothy T.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from power generation with carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a critical factor in energy and policy analysis. The current paper examines life cycle emissions from three types of fossil-fuel-based power plants, namely supercritical pulverized coal (super-PC), natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), with and without CCS. Results show that, for a 90% CO 2 capture efficiency, life cycle GHG emissions are reduced by 75-84% depending on what technology is used. With GHG emissions less than 170 g/kWh, IGCC technology is found to be favorable to NGCC with CCS. Sensitivity analysis reveals that, for coal power plants, varying the CO 2 capture efficiency and the coal transport distance has a more pronounced effect on life cycle GHG emissions than changing the length of CO 2 transport pipeline. Finally, it is concluded from the current study that while the global warming potential is reduced when MEA-based CO 2 capture is employed, the increase in other air pollutants such as NO x and NH 3 leads to higher eutrophication and acidification potentials

  8. Environmental sustainability assessment of hydropower plant in Europe using life cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, M. A. P.; Huda, N.; Farjana, S. H.; Lang, C.

    2018-05-01

    Hydropower is the oldest and most common type of renewable source of electricity available on this planet. The end of life process of hydropower plant have significant environmental impacts, which needs to be identified and minimized to ensure an environment friendly power generation. However, identifying the environmental impacts and health hazards are very little explored in the hydropower processing routes despite a significant quantity of production worldwide. This paper highlight the life-cycle environmental impact assessment of the reservoir based hydropower generation system located in alpine and non-alpine region of Europe, addressing their ecological effects by the ReCiPe and CML methods under several impact-assessment categories such as human health, ecosystems, global warming potential, acidification potential, etc. The Australasian life-cycle inventory database and SimaPro software are utilized to accumulate life-cycle inventory dataset and to evaluate the impacts. The results reveal that plants of alpine region offer superior environmental performance for couple of considered categories: global warming and photochemical oxidation, whilst in the other cases the outcomes are almost similar. Results obtained from this study will take part an important role in promoting sustainable generation of hydropower, and thus towards environment friendly energy production.

  9. Analysing how plants in coastal wetlands respond to varying tidal regimes throughout their life cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tian; Cui, Baoshan; Li, Shanze

    2017-10-15

    Important to conserve plant species in coastal wetlands throughout their life cycle. All life stages in these habitats are exposed to varying tidal cycles. It is necessary to investigate all life stages as to how they respond to varying tidal regimes. We examine three wetlands containing populations of an endangered halophyte species, each subjected to different tidal regimes: (1). wetlands completely closed to tidal cycles; (2). wetlands directly exposed to tidal cycles (3). wetlands exposed to a partially closed tidal regime. Our results showed that the most threatened stage varied between wetlands subjected to these varying tidal regimes. We hypothesis that populations of this species have adapted to these different tidal regimes. Such information is useful in developing management options for coastal wetlands and modifying future barriers restricting tidal flushing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of overall evaluation system for nuclear plant life extension, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soneda, Naoki; Takao, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    Life and integrity assessment of structural components is essential for the nuclear plant life evaluation. Many works have been done on the life and integrity assessment methods up to date. However, there are few methods for the reliability evaluation of analysis results obtained by those methods. This report presents a reliability evaluation method of analysis results based on knowledge base and its application to the integrity assessment of PWR reactor pressure vessel against PTS event. Probabilistic fracture mechanics method is used to obtain the sensitivity of failure probability to analysis inputs. Knowledge base of fuzzy rules is constructed using the sensitivity analysis results. This method makes it possible to set reasonable safety margins to the analysis results. (author)

  11. Life Cycle Assessment of the MBT plant in Ano Liossia, Athens, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeliotis, Konstadinos; Kalogeropoulos, Alexandros; Lasaridi, Katia

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model the operation of an MBT plant in Greece based on LCA. ► We compare four different MBT operating scenarios (among them and with landfilling). ► Even the current operation of the MBT plant is preferable to landfilling. ► Utilization of the MBT compost and metals generates the most environmental gains. ► Thermal exploitation of RDF improves further the environmental performance of the plant. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is the application of Life Cycle Assessment to the operation of the MBT facility of Ano Liossia in the region of Attica in Greece. The region of Attica is home to almost half the population of Greece and the management of its waste is a major issue. In order to explicitly analyze the operation of the MBT plant, five scenarios were generated. Actual operation data of the MBT plant for the year 2008 were provided by the region of Attica and the LCA modeling was performed via the SimaPro 5.1 software while impact assessment was performed utilizing the Eco-indicator’99 method. The results of our analysis indicate that even the current operation of the MBT plant is preferable to landfilling. Among the scenarios of MBT operation, the one with complete utilization of the MBT outputs, i.e. compost, RDF, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, is the one that generates the most environmental gains. Our analysis indicates that the exploitation of RDF via incineration is the key factor towards improving the environmental performance of the MBT plant. Our findings provide a quantitative understanding of the MBT plant. Interpretation of results showed that proper operation of the modern waste management systems can lead to substantial reduction of environmental impacts and savings of resources.

  12. TMAP: Stata module for simple thematic mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Pisati

    2005-01-01

    This is a revised version of the package published in The Stata Journal 4(4):361-378 (2004) for carrying out simple thematic mapping. This new release should be considered as a beta version: comments and problem reports to the author are welcome. After the final revision, the resulting version will be submitted for publication to The Stata Journal.

  13. Thematic characterisation of Ndebele izichothozo | Ndlovu | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a thematic categorisation of izichothozo. It identifies the themes that are pursued in the folk humour. Images that are used in izichothozo are derived from a range of themes that help derive the humour. Social realities are subjected to humorous transformations, and these social and cultural realities are used as ...

  14. Environmental burdens over the entire life cycle of a biomass CHP plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungmeier, G.; Spitzer, J.; Resch, G.

    1998-01-01

    To increase the use of biomass for energy production it is important to know the possible and significant environmental effects. A life cycle inventory (LCI) was made on a 1.3 MW el biomass CHP plant located in Reuthe/Vorarlberg/Austria with the purpose of analysing the different environmental burdens over the entire life cycle. The plant is fired with coarse and small fuelwood (10,000 t/yr) from industrial waste and forest residues. The boiler for the steam process has a moving grate burner and a muffle burner. The annual production is 4700 MWh of electricity and 29,000 MWh of district heat. The methodology of the analysis is orientated on the ISO Committee Draft of the Series 13,600. The analysis was carried out for the different sections of the biomass plant over their entire life cycle-construction (1 yr), operation (20 yrs) and dismantling (1 yr). The plant in Reuthe, which is the first cogeneration system of this kind in Austria, is a model for other similar projects. The results are shown as environmental burdens of one year and of the entire life cycle. Some results of the life cycle inventory, like the mass and energy balances, selected emissions to air, allocation results and effects on carbon storage pools are given. The results demonstrate that depending on the stage and the period of life, different environmental burdens become significant, i.e. CO 2 emissions of fossil fuels during construction. NO x emission during operation, emissions to soil during dismantling. The different options for allocation the environmental burdens to electricity and heat show a wide range of possible results, depending on the choice of allocation parameters (energy, exergy, credits for heat or electricity, price) i.e. for the particles emissions: 161 mg/kWh el to minus 566 mg/kWh el , 0 mg/kWh th to 118 mg/kWh th . With the results of the analysis it is thus possible for future similar projects to know when and where significant environmental burdens might be further

  15. Abordagem temática e contextos de vida em uma prática educativa em ciências e biologia na EJA Thematic approach and contexts of life in a science and biology educative practice in EJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelson Fernandes Moreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, analisamos depoimentos de educandos acerca de suas vivências em uma prática educativa no ensino de Ciências e Biologia na Educação de Jovens e Adultos, nomeada de Seminários Interativos. Os dados obtidos em vídeo foram categorizados confrontando-se elementos significativos dos depoimentos com os objetivos da prática em questão e as observações do educador na sua interação com os educandos durante o processo. Esse educador coordenou o desenvolvimento dos seminários e é um dos responsáveis pela pesquisa. Os depoimentos representativos das diferentes visões orientaram a realização de um grupo focal com o objetivo de detalhar e confirmar a representatividade das categorias construídas. Os depoimentos dos educandos indicam uma aproximação entre conhecimento científico e realidade. Entretanto, essas não foram as únicas contribuições da prática, que também possibilitou o desenvolvimento de habilidades de comunicação e interpretação e atitudes relativas a negociação e convivência coletiva.In this article we analyze student's speeches about its experiences in an educative science and biology practice in Adult and Young Education nominated Interactive Seminaries. These speeches were video recorded, observed and categorized, detaching relevant elements referring to objectives of practice in question and to educator observation of the student's interaction during the process. This educator co-ordinated the seminaries development and is one of the researchers. The representative speech of the different visions had guided the accomplishment of a focal group with the objective to detail and to confirm the categories constructed. The students' speechs indicate relations between scientific knowledge and student's life contexts. Moreover, the Interactive Seminaries also made possible the development of communication and interpretation abilities and negotiation and collective relationship attitudes.

  16. Consequential environmental life cycle assessment of a farm-scale biogas plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stappen, Florence; Mathot, Michaël; Decruyenaere, Virginie; Loriers, Astrid; Delcour, Alice; Planchon, Viviane; Goffart, Jean-Pierre; Stilmant, Didier

    2016-06-15

    Producing biogas via anaerobic digestion is a promising technology for meeting European and regional goals on energy production from renewable sources. It offers interesting opportunities for the agricultural sector, allowing waste and by-products to be converted into bioenergy and bio-based materials. A consequential life cycle assessment (cLCA) was conducted to examine the consequences of the installation of a farm-scale biogas plant, taking account of assumptions about processes displaced by biogas plant co-products (power, heat and digestate) and the uses of the biogas plant feedstock prior to plant installation. Inventory data were collected on an existing farm-scale biogas plant. The plant inputs are maize cultivated for energy, solid cattle manure and various by-products from surrounding agro-food industries. Based on hypotheses about displaced electricity production (oil or gas) and the initial uses of the plant feedstock (animal feed, compost or incineration), six scenarios were analyzed and compared. Digested feedstock previously used in animal feed was replaced with other feed ingredients in equivalent feed diets, designed to take account of various nutritional parameters for bovine feeding. The displaced production of mineral fertilizers and field emissions due to the use of digestate as organic fertilizer was balanced against the avoided use of manure and compost. For all of the envisaged scenarios, the installation of the biogas plant led to reduced impacts on water depletion and aquatic ecotoxicity (thanks mainly to the displaced mineral fertilizer production). However, with the additional animal feed ingredients required to replace digested feedstock in the bovine diets, extra agricultural land was needed in all scenarios. Field emissions from the digestate used as organic fertilizer also had a significant impact on acidification and eutrophication. The choice of displaced marginal technologies has a huge influence on the results, as have the

  17. Identification of Bottlenecks in the Plant Life Cycle for Sustainable Conservation of Rare and Endangered Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Aronne

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Long term survival of a species relies on maintenance of genetic variability and natural selection by means of successful reproduction and generation turnover. Although, basic to monitor the conservation status of a plant species, life history data are rarely available even for threatened species due to the gap between the large amount of information required and the limits in terms of time and available economic resources to gather these data. Here, the focus on bottlenecks in life-cycle of rare endangered plant species is proposed as a resolving approach to address the challenges of feasible conservation actions. Basic considerations for this approach are: (a all biological and ecological studies on plant species can be scientifically important, but not all of them are equally relevant to conservation planning and management requirements; (b under a changing environment, long term survival of a species relies on generation turnover; (c for conservation purposes, priority should be given to studies aimed to focus on bottlenecks in the succession of generations because they prevent, or slow down natural selection processes. The proposed procedure, named Systematic Hazard Analysis of Rare-endangered Plants (SHARP, consists of a preliminary survey of the already available information on the species and two main components. The first component is the identification of the bottlenecks in the life cycle by means of field surveys. The second is the diagnosis of the causes of the bottleneck by appropriate experimental methods. The target is to provide researchers, managers and practitioners with substantiated indications for sustainable conservation measures.

  18. Eu-funded nuclear research on plant life management in the 4. and 5. framework programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaitre, P.; Van Goethem, G.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an overview will be given of the European Union EURATOM research in the field of plant life management and ageing of structural components. The results obtained so far in the projects executed under the 5. framework programme (FP-5/1999-2002) will be presented and discussed in detail. The objectives of the 5. framework programme, which is end-user driven, are: 1) to develop a common basis for the continued safe operation and prolonging the safe operational life-spans of existing nuclear installations; 2) to develop better methods for their inspection, maintenance and management (both in terms of performance and occupational exposure). The following three sections were proposed under this heading of the work programme: Integrity of equipment and structures, on-line monitoring, inspection and maintenance, and organisation and management of safety. Besides the traditional technological challenges, socio-economic concerns are also taken on board, such as public acceptance and cost of the nuclear option as well as plant simplification and man-technology-organisation interaction. An additional challenge for the EU consists of the enlargements process towards Central and Eastern European Countries in the coming years. Therefore FP5 pays attention also to plant safety assessments of VVER reactors and to the spreading of the new safety culture in these candidate countries in co-operation with similar activities run at the Commission especially under the programmes of Tacis/Phare and of the Joint Research Centre (JRC). In the area of plant life management so far 18 projects have been selected for funding by the European Commission. Most of them are costs shared actions, which means that the European Commission on the one hand and the project partners on the other hand provide each 50 % of the necessary funding. The total contract value of the selected projects is about 18 million euros. (authors)

  19. Eu-funded nuclear research on plant life management in the 4. and 5. framework programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P.; Van Goethem, G. [European Commission, Dir. General Research, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    In this paper an overview will be given of the European Union EURATOM research in the field of plant life management and ageing of structural components. The results obtained so far in the projects executed under the 5. framework programme (FP-5/1999-2002) will be presented and discussed in detail. The objectives of the 5. framework programme, which is end-user driven, are: 1) to develop a common basis for the continued safe operation and prolonging the safe operational life-spans of existing nuclear installations; 2) to develop better methods for their inspection, maintenance and management (both in terms of performance and occupational exposure). The following three sections were proposed under this heading of the work programme: Integrity of equipment and structures, on-line monitoring, inspection and maintenance, and organisation and management of safety. Besides the traditional technological challenges, socio-economic concerns are also taken on board, such as public acceptance and cost of the nuclear option as well as plant simplification and man-technology-organisation interaction. An additional challenge for the EU consists of the enlargements process towards Central and Eastern European Countries in the coming years. Therefore FP5 pays attention also to plant safety assessments of VVER reactors and to the spreading of the new safety culture in these candidate countries in co-operation with similar activities run at the Commission especially under the programmes of Tacis/Phare and of the Joint Research Centre (JRC). In the area of plant life management so far 18 projects have been selected for funding by the European Commission. Most of them are costs shared actions, which means that the European Commission on the one hand and the project partners on the other hand provide each 50 % of the necessary funding. The total contract value of the selected projects is about 18 million euros. (authors)

  20. Aquatic food production modules in bioregenerative life support systems based on higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluem, V.; Paris, F.

    Most bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) are based on gravitropic higher plants which exhibit growth and seed generation disturbances in microgravity. Even when used for a lunar or martian base the reduced gravity may induce a decreased productivity in comparison to Earth. Therefore, the implementation of aquatic biomass production modules in higher plant and/or hybrid BLSS may compensate for this and offer, in addition, the possibility to produce animal protein for human nutrition. It was shown on the SLS-89 and SLS-90 space shuttle missions with the C.E.B.A.S.-MINI MODULE that the edible non gravitropic rootless higher aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demeresum exhibits an undisturbed high biomass production rate in space and that the teleost fish species, Xiphophorus helleri, adapts rapidly to space conditions without loss of its normal reproductive functions. Based on these findings a series of ground-based aquatic food production systems were developed which are disposed for utilization in space. These are plant production bioreactors for the species mentioned above and another suitable candidate, the lemnacean (duckweed) species, Wolffia arrhiza. Moreover, combined intensive aquaculture systems with a closed food loop between herbivorous fishes and aquatic and land plants are being developed which may be suitable for integration into a BLSS of higher complexity.

  1. How to deal with financial risk under the life circles of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shilong

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power plants don't necessarily form enterprise boundary, in the background of nuclear power booming, what characteristics of financial risk exist in nuclear power plant, how to deal with such financial risk and how to sustain a stable development of nuclear power ? Based on the enterprise boundary theory of transaction fees, the separate of the nuclear power plant owner, engineering company and operating company comply with the cost-efficient principle. The financial risk of the plant owner come from the cash flow characteristics under different life circles of its nuclear power plants, due to the passivation of the asset structure in the construction and early operation periods, considering the effects of asset structure on financial risk is meaningless. Based on the owners with single reactor or constructing reactors, big-scale investment holding company is needed to conduct professional asset management, and to diversify the financial risk, on the other hand, professional engineering and operation companies can realize the scale and the multi-reactor advantages. (author)

  2. Risk assessment considerations for plant protection products and terrestrial life-stages of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltje, Lennart; Ufer, Andreas; Hamer, Mick; Sowig, Peter; Demmig, Sandra; Dechet, Friedrich

    2018-04-28

    Some amphibians occur in agricultural landscapes during certain periods of their life cycle and consequently might be exposed to plant protection products (PPPs). While the sensitivity of aquatic life-stages is considered to be covered by the standard assessment for aquatic organisms (especially fish), the situation is less clear for terrestrial amphibian life-stages. In this paper, considerations are presented on how a risk assessment for PPPs and terrestrial life-stages of amphibians could be conducted. It discusses available information concerning the toxicity of PPPs to terrestrial amphibians, and their potential exposure to PPPs in consideration of aspects of amphibian biology. The emphasis is on avoiding additional vertebrate testing as much as possible by using exposure-driven approaches and by making use of existing vertebrate toxicity data, where appropriate. Options for toxicity testing and risk assessment are presented in a flowchart as a tiered approach, progressing from a non-testing approach, to simple worst-case laboratory testing, to extended laboratory testing, to semi-field enclosure tests and ultimately to full-scale field testing and monitoring. Suggestions are made for triggers to progress to higher tiers. Also, mitigation options to reduce the potential for exposure of terrestrial life-stages of amphibians to PPPs, if a risk were identified, are discussed. Finally, remaining uncertainties and research needs are considered by proposing a way forward (road map) for generating additional information to inform terrestrial amphibian risk assessment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Inservice inspection of heavy water plants - a tool in assessing damage to components and life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, C.V.; Thavasimuthu, M.; Bhattacharys, D.K.; Baldev Raj

    1994-01-01

    Any system and its components are expected to give trouble free service over a certain period of time known as life time. The life time is estimated during the design stage. To achieve the design life, certain level of quality are to be defined and this quality has to be worked into the components by proper fabrication processes and their compliance with quality are to be checked. In addition, one has to guard against initiation or propagation of defects which may occur due to normal and abnormal service conditions. Non-destructive test (NDT) techniques are widely used for finding the health of the component. The role of NDT extends from the production stage to the entire life period of the system. This paper highlights the periodic in-service inspection (ISI) carried out on various components of the Heavy Water Plants (HWP) in India in assessing the integrity of the components and predicting the life of the components. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs

  4. Ecological life histories of the three aquatic nuisance plants, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton crispus and Elodea canadensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S.A.; Shaw, B.H.

    1986-01-01

    The life histories of Myriophyllum spicatum L., Elodea canadensis Michx., and Potamogeton crispus L., serious aquatic nuisances in many regions of the world, are reviewed to provide insights into the life style of successful aquatic nuisance plants. Specifically, their distribution and spread in North America; their life cycle, productive and reproductive potential; and their ecosystem relationships are reviewed. Hopefully this review will improve a manager's ability to deal with aquatic nuisance problems. It also provides suggestions for basic research needed to develop more effective management practices. It was found that all three species possess a number of adaptations, including an ability to rapidly propagate vegetatively, an opportunistic nature for obtaining nutrients, a life cycle that favors cool weather, and a number of mechanisms which enhance photosynthetic efficiency, which allow them to proliferate. These three species do provide benefits to the ecosystem through their roles in materials cycling and energy flow. Therefore, management of these species should take an integrated approach which recognizes these benefits. The life history information available about the three species varies tremendously; however, a better understanding of resource gain and allocation is needed to manage all three species. Specifically, more research is needed to provide a better understanding of: 1) the role bicarbonate plays in photosynthesis, 2) the role roots play in supplying CO2 to the plabts, 3) resource accumulation and allocation under different temperature and light regimes, 4) resource allocation on a seasonal basis, and 5) nutrient cycling under different management regimes. ?? 1986 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  5. Life cycle inventories for bioenergy and fossil-fuel fired cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braennstroem-Norberg, B.M.; Dethlefsen, U.

    1998-06-01

    Life-cycle inventories for heat production from forest fuel, Salix, coal and oil are presented. Data from the Oerebro cogeneration plant are used for the bioenergy and coal cycles, whereas the oil-fired cycle is based on a fictive plant producing 53 MW electricity and 106 MW heat, also located in the town of Oerebro. This life cycle analysis only covers the inventory stage. A complete life cycle analysis also includes an environmental impact assessment. The methods for assessing environmental impact are still being developed and thus this phase has been omitted here. The intention is, instead, to provide an overall perspective of where in the chain the greatest environmental load for each fuel can be found. Production and energy conversion of fuel requires energy, which is often obtained from fossil fuel. This input energy corresponds to about 11% of the extracted amount of energy for oil, 9% for coal, 6% for Salix, whereas it is about 4% for forest fuel. Utilization of fossil fuel in the coal cycle amounts to production of electricity using coal condensation intended for train transports within Poland. In a life cycle perspective, biofuels show 20-30 times lower emissions of greenhouse gases in comparison with fossil fuels. The chains for biofuels also give considerably lower SO 2 emissions than the chains for coal and oil. The coal chain shows about 50% higher NO x emission than the other fuels. Finally, the study illustrates that emission of particles are similar for all sources of energy. The biofuel cycle is assessed to be generally applicable to plants of similar type and size and with similar transport distances. The oil cycle is probably applicable to small-scale cogeneration plants. However, at present there are no cogeneration plants in Sweden that are solely fired with oil. In the case of the coal cycle, deep mining and a relatively long transport distance within Poland have been assumed. If the coal mining had been from open-cast mines, and if the

  6. Butterfly Larval Host Plant use in a Tropical Urban Context: Life History Associations, Herbivory, and Landscape Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiple, Ashish D.; Khurad, Arun M.; Dennis, Roger L. H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines butterfly larval host plants, herbivory and related life history attributes within Nagpur City, India. The larval host plants of 120 butterfly species are identified and their host specificity, life form, biotope, abundance and perennation recorded; of the 126 larval host plants, most are trees (49), with fewer herbs (43), shrubs (22), climbers (7) and stem parasites (2). They include 89 wild, 23 cultivated, 11 wild/cultivated and 3 exotic plant species; 78 are perennials, 43 annuals and 5 biannuals. Plants belonging to Poaceae and Fabaceae are most widely used by butterfly larvae. In addition to distinctions in host plant family affiliation, a number of significant differences between butterfly families have been identified in host use patterns: for life forms, biotopes, landforms, perennation, host specificity, egg batch size and ant associations. These differences arising from the development of a butterfly resource database have important implications for conserving butterfly species within the city area. Differences in overall butterfly population sizes within the city relate mainly to the number of host plants used, but other influences, including egg batch size and host specificity are identified. Much of the variation in population size is unaccounted for and points to the need to investigate larval host plant life history and strategies as population size is not simply dependent on host plant abundance. PMID:21864159

  7. Monitoring ethylene emissions from plants cultured for a controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    Emission of hydrocarbons and other volatile compounds by materials and organisms in closed environments will be a major concern in the design and management of advanced life support systems with a bioregenerative component. Ethylene, a simple hydrocarbon synthesized by plants, is involved in the elicitation of a wide range of physiological responses. In closed environments, ethylene may build up to levels which become physiologically active. In several growouts of 'Yecora Rojo' wheat in Kennedy Space Center's Biomass Production Chamber (BPC), it was observed that leaf flecking and rolling occurred in the sealed environment and was virtually eliminated when potassium permanganate was used to scrub the atmospheric environment. It was suggested that ethylene, which accumulated to about 60 ppb in the chamber and which was effectively absorbed by potassium permanganate, was responsible for the symptoms. The objectives of this work were to: (1) determine rates of ethylene evolution from lettuce (Lactuca sativa cultivar Waldemann's Green) and wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivar Yecora Rojo) plants during growth and development; (2) determine the effects of exposure of whole, vegetative stage plants to exogenous ethylene concentrations in the range of what would develop in closed environment growth chambers; and (3) develop predictive functions for changes in ethylene concentration that would develop under different cropping and closed environment configurations. Results will lead to the development of management strategies for ethylene in bioregenerative life support systems.

  8. Advanced condition monitoring techniques and plant life extension studies at EBR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, R.M.; Gross, K.C.; Perry, W.H.; King, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous advanced techniques have been evaluated and tested at EBR-2 as part of a plant-life extension program for detection of degradation and other abnormalities in plant systems. Two techniques have been determined to be of considerable assistance in planning for the extended-life operation of EBR-2. The first, a computer-based pattern-recognition system (System State Analyzer or SSA) is used for surveillance of the primary system instrumentation, primary sodium pumps and plant heat balances. This surveillance has indicated that the SSA can detect instrumentation degradation and system performance degradation over varying time intervals and can be used to provide derived signal values to replace signals from failed sensors. The second technique, also a computer-based pattern-recognition system (Sequential Probability Ratio Test or SPRT) is used to validate signals and to detect incipient failures in sensors and components or systems. It is being used on the failed fuel detection system and is experimentally used on the primary coolant pumps. Both techniques are described and experience with their operation presented

  9. Russian conceptions of plant life management and decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugaenko, S.E.; Butorin, S.L.

    2000-01-01

    Plant life management (PLIM) of nuclear power plant is the concept and practice to provide profitability of safe operation of nuclear electricity-generating installations. Therefore, application of the PLIM technology is a unique possibility for the nuclear power not only to preserve its presence at the generated electricity market but also to enlarge it there at the first quarter of the third millennium. PLIM is considered as the concept and procedure covering the whole life cycle of NPP, consisting of three main phases: pre-operation, operation, post-operation. When considering the list of the main standard works for PLIM, one can notice that the structure of a full volume of works can be presented as the sum of two constituents: specific for a particular power unit and universal one. A specific constituent implies realising the PLIM process at a particular power unit, and universal one implies development scientific-methodological, technological and normative basis supporting PLIM process. The concept of decommissioning NPP power units was developed and adopted in 1991, and nowadays is renewed. Its main principles and provisions correspond to a general approach to decommissioning nuclear power plants which was adopted in international practice and recommended in the IAEA documents. Elimination of NPP power unit is adopted in it as the basic option

  10. Activities of the IAEA International Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants (IWG-LMNPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianko, L.

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the IAEA international working group on life management of nuclear power plants are outlined with emphasis on objectives, scope of activities, methods of work, organizational matters, financing

  11. Thematic cartography as a geographical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Perko

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A thematic map may be a geographical application (tool in itself or the basis for some other geographical work. The development of Slovene thematic cartography accelerated considerably following the independence of the country in 1991. From the viewpoint of content and technology, its greatest achievements are the Geographical Atlas of Slovenia and the National Atlas of Slovenia, which are outstanding achievements at the international level and of great significance for the promotion of Slovenia and Slovene geography and cartography. However, this rapid development has been accompanied by numerous problems, for example, the ignoring of various Slovene and international conventions for the preparation of maps including United Nations resolutions, Slovene and international (SIST ISO, and copyright laws.

  12. Fourth Thematic CERN School of Computing

    CERN Multimedia

    Alberto Pace, CSC Director

    2016-01-01

    The Fourth Thematic School of Computing (tCSC2016) takes place this year in Split, Croatia, from 22 to 28 May 2016.   The theme is "Efficient and Parallel Processing of Scientific Data", looking at: The challenge of scientific data processing: commonalities, analogies and the main differences between different sciences. Size of scientific software projects. Parallelism and asynchronism: computation and I/O. The School is open to postgraduate students and research workers with a few years' experience in elementary particle physics, computing, engineering or related fields.  All applicants are welcome, including former and future participants in the main CSC summer school. Registration will close on 15 February and participation is limited to 24 students. To register, please go here. About: The Thematic Schools are part of the annual series of CERN Schools of Computing, to promote advanced learning and knowledge exchange on the subject of scientific compu...

  13. Piping analysis for the life extension of Heavy Water Plant, Kota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Rajesh; Soni, R.S.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2001-02-01

    Heavy water production in India has achieved many milestones in the past. One of the most successfully running heavy water plant situated at Kota (Rajasthan) is on the verge of completion of its design life in near future. Heavy Water Plant, Kota is hydrogen sulfide based plant. Various exercises have been planned with an aim to assess the fatigue usage for the various components of these plants in order to extend their life. Considering the process parameters and past history of the plant performance, 25 process critical nozzle locations and connected piping systems are identified. Analyses have been carried out for these critical piping systems for mainly two kinds of loading, viz. sustained loads and the expansion loads. The static analysis has been carried out to find the induced stress levels due to sustained as well as thermal expansion loading as per the design code ANSI B31.3. Due consideration is given to the design corrosion allowance while evaluating the stresses due to sustained loads. At the locations where induced stresses (S 1 ) due to the sustained loads are exceeding the allowable limits (S h ), exercises have been carried out considering the reduced corrosion allowance value. This strategy is adopted due to the fact that the corrosion measurements carried out at site at various critical locations show a very low rate of corrosion. Where it is found that system is getting qualified with reduced corrosion allowance values, it is recommended to keep that location under periodic monitoring. The strategy adopted for carrying out the analysis for thermal expansion loading is to qualify the system as per the code allowable value (S a ). Where it is found that the stresses are more than the allowable value, credit of liberal allowable value as suggested in the code i.e., with the addition of the term (S h -S 1 ) to the allowable stress (S a ) value, has been taken. If at any location, it is found that the problem of high thermal stress still persists, the

  14. Graphic proposal for multi thematic maps: the case of geoenvironmental diagnostic map of the Igarapava hydroelectric power plant; Proposta grafica para mapas politematicos: o caso do mapa diagnostico geoambiental da U.H.E. de Igarapava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Valeria Amorim do [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geografia

    1995-12-31

    This article aims at developing a graphic proposal for multithematic diagnostic map. The research`s objective is the analysis of the legends of the maps entitled Mapa Diagnostico Geoambiental da Usina Hidreletrica de Igarapava (Geoenvironmental Diagnostic map of the Igarapava Hydroelectric Plant). The analysis emphases on identifying and solving problems resulting in non-respect of the graphic transcription laws which prejudice the map`s clarity. Upon analyzing both versions of the maps, it appeared that these problems were basically resulting from bad legibility and visualization and the inadequate use of retina`s variables in the translation of graphic density and both retinian and angular separation. Graphic density was reduced and retinian separation was improved through leading a better contrast between elements of cartographic base and the Geoenvironment Synthesis Map. The angular separation was increased by using simplified forms to better visualization of the spatial structure of the information. That aspect was laos improved by creating a series of small maps to accompany the legend. Point and line elements were represented on the same map so to not prejudice hierarchical relationship between elements. All these modifications were done without affecting information extraction of the various levels of the Geoenvironmental Synthesis (BASE MAP, VEGETATION and LAND USE, HUMAN ASPECTS, CULTURAL ASPECTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL DYNAMIC). The visualization of the document as a whole was greatly improved with respect to the original proposed format. This research is but one of the various steps to the preparation of an environmental map that aims at giving clear visibility to the thousands of words of an environmental study report. (author) 4 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Higher plant modelling for life support applications: first results of a simple mechanistic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezard, Pauline; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Sasidharan L, Swathy

    2012-07-01

    In the case of closed ecological life support systems, the air and water regeneration and food production are performed using microorganisms and higher plants. Wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, tomato or other types of eatable annual plants produce fresh food while recycling CO2 into breathable oxygen. Additionally, they evaporate a large quantity of water, which can be condensed and used as potable water. This shows that recycling functions of air revitalization and food production are completely linked. Consequently, the control of a growth chamber for higher plant production has to be performed with efficient mechanistic models, in order to ensure a realistic prediction of plant behaviour, water and gas recycling whatever the environmental conditions. Purely mechanistic models of plant production in controlled environments are not available yet. This is the reason why new models must be developed and validated. This work concerns the design and test of a simplified version of a mathematical model coupling plant architecture and mass balance purposes in order to compare its results with available data of lettuce grown in closed and controlled chambers. The carbon exchange rate, water absorption and evaporation rate, biomass fresh weight as well as leaf surface are modelled and compared with available data. The model consists of four modules. The first one evaluates plant architecture, like total leaf surface, leaf area index and stem length data. The second one calculates the rate of matter and energy exchange depending on architectural and environmental data: light absorption in the canopy, CO2 uptake or release, water uptake and evapotranspiration. The third module evaluates which of the previous rates is limiting overall biomass growth; and the last one calculates biomass growth rate depending on matter exchange rates, using a global stoichiometric equation. All these rates are a set of differential equations, which are integrated with time in order to provide

  16. Social Life Cycle Assessment of a Concentrated Solar Power Plant in Spain: A Methodological Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corona, Blanca; Bozhilova-Kisheva, Kossara Petrova; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2017-01-01

    of sustainability, namely, economy, environment, and society. Social life cycle assessment (S-LCA) is a novel methodology still under development, used to cover the social aspects of sustainability within LCSA. The aim of this article is to provide additional discussion on the practical application of S...... generation in a concentrated solar power plant in Spain. The inventory phase was completed by using the indicators proposed by the United Nations Environment Program/Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (UNEP/SETAC) Guidelines on S-LCA. The impact assessment phase was approached by developing...... a social performance indicator that builds on performance reference points, an activity variable, and a numeric scale with positive and negative values. The social performance indicator obtained (+0.42 over a range of –2 to +2) shows that the deployment of the solar power plant increases the social welfare...

  17. Rehabilitation of heat exchange equipment a key to power plant life extension and performance improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taveau, F.; Huiban, A.M. [Alstom Power Heat Exchange, 78 - Velizy Villacoublay (France)

    2001-07-01

    With the current evolutions of the energy market and the life extension of the power plants, all the equipment initially supplied need one day or another partial or total rehabilitation. For heat exchange equipment, this includes the condensers, feed water heaters and various heat exchangers. Modernization is in particular necessary when in-service monitoring and periodic inspections show significant deteriorations of the tubes and cooling water leakages leading to forced outages or when tube and tube plate materials are no longer suited to cooling water characteristics or to updated specifications of the secondary system. Feedwater heaters and heat exchangers damaged by erosion/corrosion, vibrations, etc. can be re-designed, manufactured and replaced easily. The operation is more complex on condensers and requires technical surveys, study of alternative solutions and has a more direct impact on the global output of the power plant. That is why our conference will focus on the condenser refurbishment. (author)

  18. Life time of nuclear power plants and new types of reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    This report, realized by the Evaluation Parliamentary Office of scientific and technological choices, aims to answer simple but fundamental questions for the french electric power production. What are the phenomena which may limit the exploitation time of nuclear power plants? How can we fight against the aging, at which cost and with which safety? The first chapter presents the management of the nuclear power plants life time, an essential element of the park optimization but not a sufficient element. The second chapter details the EPR and the other reactors for 2015 as a bond between the today and tomorrow parks. The last chapter deals with the necessity of efforts in the research and development to succeed in 2035 and presents other reactors in project. (A.L.B.)

  19. Rehabilitation of heat exchange equipment a key to power plant life extension and performance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taveau, F.; Huiban, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    With the current evolutions of the energy market and the life extension of the power plants, all the equipment initially supplied need one day or another partial or total rehabilitation. For heat exchange equipment, this includes the condensers, feed water heaters and various heat exchangers. Modernization is in particular necessary when in-service monitoring and periodic inspections show significant deteriorations of the tubes and cooling water leakages leading to forced outages or when tube and tube plate materials are no longer suited to cooling water characteristics or to updated specifications of the secondary system. Feedwater heaters and heat exchangers damaged by erosion/corrosion, vibrations, etc. can be re-designed, manufactured and replaced easily. The operation is more complex on condensers and requires technical surveys, study of alternative solutions and has a more direct impact on the global output of the power plant. That is why our conference will focus on the condenser refurbishment. (author)

  20. Testing fungistatic properties of soil-like substrate for growing plants in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzhu, Hu; Nesterenko, Elena; Liu, Professor Hong; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, Vladimir; Gurevich, Yu.; Kozlov, Vladimir; Khizhnyak, Serge; Xing, Yidong; Hu, Enzhu; Enzhu, Hu

    There are two ways of getting vegetable food in BLSS: in hydroponic culture and on soil substrates. In any case there is a chance that the plants will be affected by plant pathogenic microorganisms. The subject of the research was a soil-like substrate (SLS) for growing plants in a Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). We estimated the fungistatic properties of SLS using test cultures of Bipolaris and Alternaria plant pathogenic fungi. Experiments were made with the samples of SLS, natural soil and sand (as control). We tested 2 samples of SLS produced by way of bioconversion of wheat and rice straw. We measured the disease severity of wheat seedlings and the incidence of common root rot in natural (non-infectious) background and man-made (infectious) conditions. The severity of disease on the SLS was considerably smaller both in non-infectious and infectious background conditions (8 and 12%) than on the natural soil (18 and 32%) and sand. It was the soil-like substrate that had the minimal value among the variants being compared (20% in non-infectious and 40% in infectious background conditions). This index in respect of the soil was 55 and 78%, correspondingly, and in respect of the sand - 60%, regardless of the background. It was found that SLS significantly suppressed conidia germination of Bipolaris soroikiniana (pwheat and rice straw.

  1. Coupling sensing to crop models for closed-loop plant production in advanced life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazzoni, James; Ling, Peter P.

    1999-01-01

    We present a conceptual framework for coupling sensing to crop models for closed-loop analysis of plant production for NASA's program in advanced life support. Crop status may be monitored through non-destructive observations, while models may be independently applied to crop production planning and decision support. To achieve coupling, environmental variables and observations are linked to mode inputs and outputs, and monitoring results compared with model predictions of plant growth and development. The information thus provided may be useful in diagnosing problems with the plant growth system, or as a feedback to the model for evaluation of plant scheduling and potential yield. In this paper, we demonstrate this coupling using machine vision sensing of canopy height and top projected canopy area, and the CROPGRO crop growth model. Model simulations and scenarios are used for illustration. We also compare model predictions of the machine vision variables with data from soybean experiments conducted at New Jersey Agriculture Experiment Station Horticulture Greenhouse Facility, Rutgers University. Model simulations produce reasonable agreement with the available data, supporting our illustration.

  2. Inspection and mitigating measures for life extension of nuclear power plant containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, B.L.; Daye, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The subject of life extension of nuclear power plants has drawn considerable attention during the last few years. Interest in life extension initiated because of both safety and economic reasons. A number of evaluations have been performed. The main thrust of earlier work was directed toward evaluating the factors causing aging, and defining degradation sites, degradation mechanism and failure modes. At present, attention is directed toward establishing the appropriate inspection programs suitable for each of the defined aging sites. Some components and aging sites are already subjected to routine inspection programs such as the surveillance of post-tensioning system and the integrated leak rate test (ILRT) of prestressed concrete and reinforced concrete containments. The aging process affects mechanical, electrical and structural components in all types of containments. This paper addresses the structural components of PWR containments only and presents examples of inspection approaches and describes methods to prevent further degradation of select sites

  3. Risk-based management of remaining life of power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, E.; Jovanovic, A.S.; Maile, K.; Auerkari, P.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes application of different modules of the MPA-System ALIAS in risk-based management of remaining life of power plant components. The system allows comprehensive coverage of all aspects of the remaining life management, including also the risk analysis and risk management. In addition, thanks to the modular character of the system it is also possible to implement new methods: In the case described here, a new (probabilistic) method for determination of the next inspection time for the components exposed to creep loading has been developed and implemented in the system. Practical application of the method has shown (a) that the mean values obtained by the method fall into the range of results obtained by other methods (based on expert knowledge), and (b) that it is possible to quantify the probability of aberration from the mean values. This in turn allows quantifying the additional risks linked to e.g. prolonging of inspection intervals. (orig.) [de

  4. Integrity and life estimation of turbine runner cover in a hydro power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sedmak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents integrity and life estimation of turbine runner cover in a vertical pipe turbines, Kaplan 200 MW nominal output power, produced in Russia, and built in six hydro-generation units of hydroelectric power plant „Đerdap 1” in Serbia. Fatigue and corrosion-fatigue interaction have been taken into account using experimentally obtained material properties, as well as analytical and numerical calculations of stress state, to estimate appropriate safety factors. Fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN, was also calculated, indicated that internal defects of circular or elliptical shape, found out by ultrasonic testing, do not affect reliable operation of runner cover.

  5. Evaluation of residual life of material of power plant construction elements after long-term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osasyuk, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    Existing methods are analyzed for estimation of residual resource of elements of constructions, working in creep conditions. A suggested and experimentally verified new method of residual durability forecasting is described permitting the value of the supplementary resource to be specified according to the real state of the material after preoperation. Evaluation results are given for residual life of steam lines received by different methods and advantages of the technique proposed are shown. Reliability of the new technique is confirmed by steam line operation at thermal power plants

  6. Coal handling system structural analysis for modifications or plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufault, A.; Weider, F.; Doyle, P.

    1989-01-01

    One neglected aspect of plant modification or life extension is the extent to which previous projects may have affected the integrity of existing structures. During the course of a project to backfit fire protection facilities to existing coal handling systems, it was found that past modifications had added loads to existing coal handling structures which exceeded the available design margin. This paper describes the studies that discovered the original problem areas, as well as the detailed analysis and design considerations used to repair these structures

  7. Condition Based Prognostics of Passive Components - A New Era for Nuclear Power Plant Life Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiari, S.; Mohanty, S.; Prokofiev, I.; Tregoning, R.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a research project sponsored by the U.S. NRC, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted scoping studies to identify viable and promising sensors and techniques for in-situ inspection and real-time monitoring of degradation in nuclear power plant (NPP) systems, structures, and components (SSC). Significant advances have been made over the past two decades toward development of online monitoring (OLM) techniques for detection, diagnostics, and prognostics of degradation in active nuclear power plant (NPP) components (e.g., pumps, valves). However, early detection of damage and degradation in safety-critical passive components, (e.g. piping, tubing pressure vessel), is challenging, and will likely remain so for the foreseeable future. Ensuring the structural integrity of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and piping systems in particular is a prerequisite to long term safe operation of NPPs. The current practice is to implement inservice inspection (ISI) and preventive maintenance programs. While these programs have generally been successful, they are limited in that information is only obtained during plant outages. Additionally, these inspections, often the critical path in the outage schedule, are costly, time consuming, and involve potentially high dose to nondestructive examination/evaluation (NDE) personnel. A viable plant-wide on-line structural health monitoring program for continuous and automatic monitoring of critical SSCs could be a more effective approach for guarding against unexpected failures. Specifically, OLM information about the current condition of the SSCs could be input to an online prognostics (OLP) system to forecast their remaining useful life in real time. This paper provides an overview of scoping studies performed at ANL on assessing the viability of OLM and OLP systems for real time and automated monitoring and remaining of condition and the remaining useful life of passive components in NPPs. (author)

  8. Development of a support system to make economic and technical assessments for the issues relating to plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, T.; Soneda, N.; Sakai, T.

    1994-01-01

    To realize the life extension of nuclear power plants, overall evaluation for the plant is required, which covers technology, economy such as cost of repair or/and replacement of components, and regal regulations for licensing. A prototype of integrated assessment support system for life extension ''INPLEX'' have developed in order to evaluate the technical and economic issues relating to the plant life extension and to make a life extension scenario. Analysis procedure of INPLEX is as follows. A comparison of the cost between the life extension and the reconstruction is made to see whether the life extension is cost effective or not. Next, components required detailed assessments are selected, and the residual life assessment of these components are made. After those procedures life extension measures are selected and the implementation time schedule is set on the basis of the formulas for predicting the degradation of the components and the component reliability data. Finally the implementation time schedule is optimized from the viewpoint of economy, and the life extension scenario is proposed. INPLEX also has the data base ''PRINS'', in which information and data related to life extension are registered, such as component degradation experiences, degradation management methodologies, degradation mitigation measures, and so on. PRINS can be referred at any time during the operation of INPLEX

  9. Dispersal and life span spectra in plant communities : a key to safe site dynamics, species coexistence and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strykstra, RJ; Bekker, RM; Van Andel, J

    Dispersal and life span of individual plant species within five plant communities were assessed to obtain a characterization of these communities in this respect. Such a characterization is important in the context of restoration and maintenance. The most frequent species of five communities were

  10. Probabilistic residual life assessment of high temperature pipings in nuclear power plants against creep fatigue damage: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sanjay

    2014-02-01

    Residual life assessment of components of nuclear power plants is essential for their operational safety, reliability and financial viability. The high risks involved in the event of failures in nuclear power plants have led to the development of design philosophies that incorporate extreme conservatism in design. The implications of such conservatism in design leads to more frequent maintenance operations than necessary

  11. Safeguard assessment for life extension in nuclear power plants (NPPs) using a production function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae-Ho; Lee, Un-Chul

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The numerical value is constructed for the secure operation. → As the power increases, the NSEF increases. → Specific month could be indicated by the relative value of NSEF. → It is suggested for the better power in NPPs. → There is another possibility for the secure operation factors. - Abstract: Life extension is investigated as a safeguard assessment for the stability on the operation of the nuclear power plants (NPPs). The Cobb-Douglas function, one of the production functions, is modified for the nuclear safeguard in NPPs, which was developed for the life quality of the social and natural objects. Nuclear Safeguard Estimator Function (NSEF) is developed for the application in NPPs. The cases of NPPs are compared with each other in the aspect of the secure performance. The results are obtained by the standard productivity comparisons with the designed power operations. The range of secure life extension is between 1.008 and 5.353 in 2000 MW e and the range is between 0.302 and 0.994 in 600 MW e . So, the successfulness of the power operation increases about 5 times higher than that of the interested power in this study, which means that the safeguard assessment has been performed in the life extension of the NPPs. The technology assessment (TA) is suggested for the safe operation which is an advanced method comparing conventional probabilistic safety assessment (PSA).

  12. EVALUATING THE LIFE CYCLE COSTS OF PLANT ASSETS – A MULTIDIMENSIONAL VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Gram

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of the task group "Asset life cycle management" of the AustrianScientific Maintenance and Asset Management Association (ÖVIA. One purpose of the researchactivities is to create a generic life cycle model for physical assets which includes all costs in everyphase of the asset life cycle. The first step is a literature review determining the most established lifecycle cost models. This is the input for discussing the completeness of such frameworks with theparticipating industrial companies. A general model is deducted from existing approaches and thedetermined costs are evaluated with respect to priority and practical relevance. The result of theevaluation shows which costs are taken into account for investment decisions. Another outcome ofthe study is the verification of importance of the proposed costs for industrial companies, especiallyfor the process industry. The derived life cycle cost framework is the basis for developing a calculationtool and subsequently, for further research in the flied of uncertainty-based methodologies forlife cycle cost analyzing of physical plant assets.

  13. Evaluation of vibration and vibration fatigue life for small bore pipe in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaoxi; Xue Fei; Gong Mingxiang; Ti Wenxin; Lin Lei; Liu Peng

    2011-01-01

    The assessment method of the steady state vibration and vibration fatigue life of the small bore pipe in the supporting system of the nuclear power plants is proposed according to the ASME-OM3 and EDF evaluation methods. The GGR supporting pipe system vibration is evaluated with this method. The evaluation process includes the filtration of inborn sensitivity, visual inspection, vibration tests, allowable vibration effective velocity calculation and vibration stress calculation. With the allowable vibration effective velocity calculated and the vibration velocity calculated according to the acceleration data tested, the filtrations are performed. The vibration stress at the welding coat is calculated with the spectrum method and compared with the allowable value. The response of the stress is calculated with the transient dynamic method, with which the fatigue life is evaluated with the Miners linear accumulation model. The vibration stress calculated with the spectrum method exceeds the allowable value, while the fatigue life calculated from the transient dynamic method is larger than the designed life with a big safety margin. (authors)

  14. Engineering melon plants with improved fruit shelf life using the TILLING approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Dahmani-Mardas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruit ripening and softening are key traits that have an effect on food supply, fruit nutritional value and consequently, human health. Since ethylene induces ripening of climacteric fruit, it is one of the main targets to control fruit over ripening that leads to fruit softening and deterioration. The characterization of the ethylene pathway in Arabidopsis and tomato identified key genes that control fruit ripening.To engineer melon fruit with improved shelf-life, we conducted a translational research experiment. We set up a TILLING platform in a monoecious and climacteric melon line, cloned genes that control ethylene production and screened for induced mutations that lead to fruits with enhanced shelf life. Two missense mutations, L124F and G194D, of the ethylene biosynthetic enzyme, ACC oxidase 1, were identified and the mutant plants were characterized with respect to fruit maturation. The L124F mutation is a conservative mutation occurring away from the enzyme active site and thus was predicted to not affect ethylene production and thus fruit ripening. In contrast, G194D modification occurs in a highly conserved amino acid position predicted, by crystallographic analysis, to affect the enzymatic activity. Phenotypic analysis of the G194D mutant fruit showed complete delayed ripening and yellowing with improved shelf life and, as predicted, the L124F mutation did not have an effect.We constructed a mutant collection of 4023 melon M2 families. Based on the TILLING of 11 genes, we calculated the overall mutation rate of one mutation every 573 kb and identified 8 alleles per tilled kilobase. We also identified a TILLING mutant with enhanced fruit shelf life. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of TILLING as a reverse genetics tool to improve crop species. As cucurbits are model species in different areas of plant biology, we anticipate that the developed tool will be widely exploited by the scientific community.

  15. Plant identification based on noisy web data: the amazing performance of deep learning (LifeCLEF 2017)

    OpenAIRE

    Goeau, Herve; Bonnet, Pierre; Joly, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The 2017-th edition of the LifeCLEF plant identification challenge is an important milestone towards automated plant identification systems working at the scale of continental floras with 10.000 plant species living mainly in Europe and North America illustrated by a total of 1.1M images. Nowadays, such ambitious systems are enabled thanks to the conjunction of the dazzling recent progress in image classification with deep learning and several outstanding international...

  16. Life cycle management at nuclear power plants; La gestion de la vida util de las centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, R.I.

    2010-07-01

    The Life Management Plan (PGV) consists in a series of actions aimed at improving the reliability and availability of a plant by guaranteeing its operation in safe conditions during its design life while keeping open the option of renewing the operating license in the long term. (Author).

  17. Correct safety requirements during the life cycle of heating plants; Korrekta saekerhetskrav under vaermeanlaeggningars livscykel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegehall, Jan; Hedberg, Johan [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2006-10-15

    The safety of old steam boilers or hot water generators is in principle based on electromechanical components which are generally easy to understand. The use of safety-PLC is a new and flexible way to design a safe system. A programmable system offers more degrees of freedom and consequently new problems may arise. As a result, new standards which use the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) concept for the level of safety have been elaborated. The goal is to define a way of working to handle requirements on safety in control systems of heat and power plants. SIL-requirements are relatively new within the domain and there is a need for guidance to be able to follow the requirements. The target of this report is the people who work with safety questions during new construction, reconstruction, or modification of furnace plants. In the work, the Pressure Equipment Directive, 97/23/EC, as well as standards which use the SIL concept have been studied. Additionally, standards for water-tube boilers have been studied. The focus has been on the safety systems (safety functions) which are used in water-tube boilers for heat and power plants; other systems, which are parts of these boilers, have not been considered. Guidance has been given for the aforementioned standards as well as safety requirements specification and risk analysis. An old hot water generator and a relatively new steam boiler have been used as case studies. The design principles and safety functions of the furnaces have been described. During the risk analysis important hazards were identified. A method for performing a risk analysis has been described and the appropriate content of a safety requirements specification has been defined. If a heat or power plant is constructed, modified, or reconstructed, a safety life cycle shall be followed. The purpose of the safety life cycle is to plan, describe, document, perform, check, test, and validate that everything is correctly done. The components of the safety

  18. Dynamic assessment for life extension of nuclear power plants (NPPs) using system dynamics (SD) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed to extend the life of nuclear power plants (NPPs) for the economic purpose. Especially, the primary systems in reactor are considered in the thermohydraulic and neutronic aspect, which is related to the safety system. The electric power and the lifespan of components are expressed as economic situation. In addition, political considerations are given by the presidential change and the nuclear non-proliferation characteristics. The dynamical investigation using system dynamics (SD) shows the effective time for the life extension of the NPPs by Monte-Carlo simulations. This non-linear algorithm is incorporated with the feedback loop of the event sequences. The expected event is related to the past event, which affects to the dynamical simulations of lifetime in the NPPs. In the conclusions, the safety guarantee as well as the economic profit in the re-use of long term operated power plants is presented, which is mentioned as the transient time between 2019 and 2021 in this paper. (orig.)

  19. Concrete component aging and its significance relative to life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.

    1986-09-01

    The objectives of this study are to (1) expand upon the work that was initiated in the first two Electric Power Research Institute studies relative to longevity and life extension considerations of safety-related concrete components in light-water reactor (LWR) facilities and (2) provide background that will logically lead to subsequent development of a methodology for assessing and predicting the effects of aging on the performance of concrete-based materials and components. These objectives are consistent with Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program goals: (1) to identify and characterize aging and service wear effects that, if unchecked, could cause degradation of structures, components, and systems and, thereby, impair plant safety; (2) to identify methods of inspection, surveillance, and monitoring or of evaluating residual life of structures, components, and systems that will ensure timely detection of significant aging effects before loss of safety function; and (3) to evaluate the effectiveness of storage, maintenance, repair, and replacement practices in mitigating the rate and extent of degradation caused by aging and service wear

  20. Dynamic assessment for life extension of nuclear power plants (NPPs) using system dynamics (SD) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2012-12-15

    It has been proposed to extend the life of nuclear power plants (NPPs) for the economic purpose. Especially, the primary systems in reactor are considered in the thermohydraulic and neutronic aspect, which is related to the safety system. The electric power and the lifespan of components are expressed as economic situation. In addition, political considerations are given by the presidential change and the nuclear non-proliferation characteristics. The dynamical investigation using system dynamics (SD) shows the effective time for the life extension of the NPPs by Monte-Carlo simulations. This non-linear algorithm is incorporated with the feedback loop of the event sequences. The expected event is related to the past event, which affects to the dynamical simulations of lifetime in the NPPs. In the conclusions, the safety guarantee as well as the economic profit in the re-use of long term operated power plants is presented, which is mentioned as the transient time between 2019 and 2021 in this paper. (orig.)

  1. Plant condition assessments as a requirement before major investment in life extension for a CANDU nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubray, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Since, to extend the life of a CANDU-6 reactor beyond its original design life requires the replacement of reactor components (380 pressure and calandria tubes), a major investment will have to be done. After a preliminary technical and economical feasibility study, Hydro- Quebec, owner of the Gentilly-2 NPP, has decided to perform a more detailed assessment to: 1. Get assurance that it is technically and economically viable to extend Gentilly-2 for another 20 years beyond the original design life; 2. Identify the detailed work to be done during the refurbishment period planned in 2008-2009; 3. Define the overall cost and the general schedule of the refurbishment phase; 4. Ensure an adequate licensing strategy to restart after refurbishment; 5. Complete all the Environmental Impact Studies required to obtain the government authorizations. The business case to support the refurbishment of Gentilly-2 has to take in consideration the reactor core components, which will be the major work to be completed during refurbishment. In summary the following main component will have to be changed or refreshed: The pressure and calandria tubes and the feeders (partial replacement only) (ageing mechanisms); The control computers (obsolescence); The condenser tubes (tubes plugging); The turbine control and electric-governor (obsolescence). An extensive campaign is under way to assess the 'health' of the station systems, structures and components (SSC). Two processes have been used for this assessment: Plant Life Management Studies (PLIM) for approximately 10 critical SSC or families of SSC (PLIM Studies); Condition Assessment Studies for other SSC with a lower impact on the Plant production or safety). The PLIM Studies are done on SSC's, which were judged critical because they are not replaceable (Reactor Building, Calandria), or that their failure could have a significant impact on safety or production (electrical motors, majors pumps, heat exchangers and pressure

  2. Collaborative machining solution extends the operating life of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, Geoff; Becker, Andrew; Vandenberg, James

    2007-01-01

    Examination of a CANDU 6 nuclear power plant's steam generators during a scheduled maintenance outage revealed that the manway ports, part of the ASME Section III, Class 1 pressure boundary, needed repair. The port's inner cover gasket was not seating properly. Integrity was at risk. It was determined that this operation would required a specialized machine to successfully repair the manway port. The solution included the modification of a standard portable boring machine with a custom mounting option to enlarge the counterbore in the primary head shell from a round shape to an obround shape (76 mm of shell thickness, 16 mm radially). The shape change was needed to accommodate the new obround cover and gasket seal design. Once the new major shape was machined, the repair was finished with a Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machine developed by the service team to achieve the necessary gasket face location and sizing. The final result met all of the plant's expectations and was completed well within the time allotted during the maintenance shut down. This success was due to the positive partnership and collaboration of the service team and the machine tool manufacture working together to successfully extend the operating life of the nuclear power plant. (author)

  3. The response of different plant life forms to natural environment changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Svetlana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains test results revealing norm and stress reactions of various life-form plants: trees — Betula pendula Roth, Tilia platyphyllos Scop., Pinus sylvetris L; water-plant -Galium palustre L.; grass — Solidago Canadensis; cereal — Secale cereal L. Collection and processing of the material was made in the area of Berlin/Brandenburg, Germany. Clark sensor-based method made it possible to determine the amount and rate of the oxygen evolution by plants in the dark and light phase. Under the reaction norm the average amount of the oxygen evolved and the average rate of metabolism processes during dark and light phases are changing simultaneously. Parabolic and periodic dependences of these changes during the vegetation period has been found. Under the stress reaction (drought, illness the rate of metabolism dark reactions is increased by 2—3 times as compared with light reactions. The obtained results may be use for bioindication of the climate change in the Baltic Region.

  4. Equipment reliability and life cycle optimization of a nuclear plant feedwater heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Daniel; Coakley, Michael; Catapano, Michael; Svensson, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Many papers published over the last 25 years have strongly emphasized the need for an ongoing program of inspection and testing with subsequent failure cause analysis of feedwater heaters. Plants must be run more competitively; therefore, Utilities must lower operation and maintenance costs, while optimizing overall plant efficiency and capacity factor. One recognized area that needs to be addressed in accomplishing this goal is the heat cycle. This paper specifically deals with the feedwater heating system. Utility engineers must monitor feedwater heater performance in order to recognize degradation, identify and mitigate failure mechanisms, and prevent in-service failures thereby optimizing availability. Periodic tube plugging without complete analysis of the degraded/failed areas resolves the immediate need for return to service; however, heater life will not be optimized. This paper illustrates a complete life cycle management inspection, testing, and maintenance program implemented at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). Concerns that tubes may have been too conservatively plugged due to insufficient data and lack of root cause analysis, justified a program that included: - Removal of previously installed plugs; - Video-probe inspection of failed areas; - Extraction of tube samples for further analysis; - Eddy current testing of selected tubes; - Evaluation of the condition of 'insurance' plugged tubes for return to service; - Hydrostatic testing of selected individual tubes; - Final repair plan based on the results of the above program. This paper concludes that no single method of inspection or testing should solely be relied upon in establishing: - The extent of actual degraded conditions; - The mechanism(s) of failure; - The details of repair to be implemented. Evaluating all data affords the best chance in arresting problems and optimizing feedwater heater life. Problem heaters should be continuously monitored and inspected over time until the facts

  5. Introduction to the Thematic Minireview Series: Green biological chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jez, Joseph M

    2018-04-06

    Plants and their green cousins cyanobacteria and algae use sunlight to drive the chemistry that lets them grow, survive, and perform an amazing range of biochemical reactions. The ability of these organisms to use a freely available energy source makes them attractive as sustainable and renewable platforms for more than just food production. They are also a source of metabolic tools for engineering microbes for "green" chemistry. This Thematic Minireview Series discusses how green organisms capture light and protect their photosynthetic machinery from too much light; new structural snapshots of the clock complex that orchestrates signaling during the light/dark cycle; challenges for improving stress responses in crops; harnessing cyanobacteria as biofactories; and efforts to engineer microbes for "green" biopolymer production. © 2018 Jez.

  6. Analyzing thematic maps and mapping for accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    Two problems which exist while attempting to test the accuracy of thematic maps and mapping are: (1) evaluating the accuracy of thematic content, and (2) evaluating the effects of the variables on thematic mapping. Statistical analysis techniques are applicable to both these problems and include techniques for sampling the data and determining their accuracy. In addition, techniques for hypothesis testing, or inferential statistics, are used when comparing the effects of variables. A comprehensive and valid accuracy test of a classification project, such as thematic mapping from remotely sensed data, includes the following components of statistical analysis: (1) sample design, including the sample distribution, sample size, size of the sample unit, and sampling procedure; and (2) accuracy estimation, including estimation of the variance and confidence limits. Careful consideration must be given to the minimum sample size necessary to validate the accuracy of a given. classification category. The results of an accuracy test are presented in a contingency table sometimes called a classification error matrix. Usually the rows represent the interpretation, and the columns represent the verification. The diagonal elements represent the correct classifications. The remaining elements of the rows represent errors by commission, and the remaining elements of the columns represent the errors of omission. For tests of hypothesis that compare variables, the general practice has been to use only the diagonal elements from several related classification error matrices. These data are arranged in the form of another contingency table. The columns of the table represent the different variables being compared, such as different scales of mapping. The rows represent the blocking characteristics, such as the various categories of classification. The values in the cells of the tables might be the counts of correct classification or the binomial proportions of these counts divided by

  7. Thematic mapper studies band correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, S. G.; Kiang, R.

    1976-01-01

    Spectral data representative of thematic mapper candidate bands 1 and 3 to 7 were obtained by selecting appropriate combinations of bands from the JSC 24 channel multispectral scanner. Of all the bands assigned, only candidate bands 4 (.74 mu to .80 mu) and 5 (.80 mu to .91 mu) showed consistently high intercorrelation from region to region and time to time. This extremely high correlation persisted when looking at the composite data set in a multitemporal, multilocation domain. The GISS investigations lend positive confirmation to the hypothesis, that TM bands 4 and 5 are redundant.

  8. ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Multibody Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Multibody Dynamics : Computational Methods and Applications

    2016-01-01

    This book includes selected papers from the ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Multibody Dynamics, that took place in Barcelona, Spain, from June 29 to July 2, 2015. By having its origin in analytical and continuum mechanics, as well as in computer science and applied mathematics, multibody dynamics provides a basis for analysis and virtual prototyping of innovative applications in many fields of contemporary engineering. With the utilization of computational models and algorithms that classically belonged to different fields of applied science, multibody dynamics delivers reliable simulation platforms for diverse highly-developed industrial products such as vehicle and railway systems, aeronautical and space vehicles, robotic manipulators, smart structures, biomechanical systems,and nanotechnologies.

  9. Plant life extension and ageing mechanisms: an ANSALDO proposal for the application to Kozloduy NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlandi, S.; Macco, A.; Zanaboni, P.

    1999-01-01

    In the frame of extension of NPP's installations lifetime, ageing management has become a topical subject to obtain the items: - Evaluation of residual life of the plant through the investigation of the residual life of well identified Safety Related Equipment in the as built configuration; - Organization of identified representative equipment per typological Classes (as Piping Systems, Tanks, Valves, Pumps, Electrical Equipment, Pressurized Components) in order to define for each High Level Class a set of elementary families capable to have, within each family, a common ageing mechanism and methodological investigation and potential common on-line monitoring; Application of a consistent methodology for residual life evaluation at each High Level Class (and subsequent elementary family and group if any) in order to assess an integral approach to backfitting and ageing management, taking also into account the economical investment effort required to the utility. In this report, a technical proposal for the application of the ANSALDO standard methodology approach, applied to the re-evaluation of the Kozloduy NPP's (Unit 1 - to 4) is presented. (authors)

  10. Maximum utilization of primary reformer catalyst tubes careful assessment of remaining life-An experience at an ammonia plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Condition evaluation and residual life assessment of Reformer Catalyst Tubes has always been a point of concern for Ammonia and Methanol Plant operators. Failure of catalyst tubes results in total plant shutdown and consequent production loss. On the other hand, replacement of these tubes entails major cost impact on the company's budget, being a capital expenditure. A careful Residual Life Assessment of the tubes is therefore of utmost importance for maximum utilization of these tubes without jeopardizing plant operational reliability. This paper presents an experience of extracting maximum service life from the catalyst tubes of Primary Reformer of an Ammonia Plant. Fauji Fertilizer Company (FFC) has been operating the plant since 1982, having a designed capacity of 1100 MTPD. Its Primary Reformer has 288 catalyst tubes of IN-519 material (24Cr-24Ni-Nb). The design temperature and pressures are 925 degree C and 38kg/Cm respectively. Thanks to the optimum operating conditions, regular inspections and careful assessment of the residual life, the tubes have achieved more than double of the designed life and are still operating reliably. To evaluate the tube's health, Ultrasonic Inspection (UT) was carried out in 1987 and 1994 using attenuation technique. The tubes with maximum attenuation were marked for further evaluation. Accelerated Creep Rupture Test was carried out on sample tubes periodically (1996, 2001 and 2004). Tubes were selected on the basis of UT results, TMT (Tube Metal Temperature) monitoring and Inspection findings. Based on the combined results of DT, NDT, equipment history and foreseen operational parameters, the life of these tubes was carefully assessed periodically. The tubes have been in service for more than 23 years (design life: 11 years) and a further life of 04 years has been predicted as per last assessment.The experience of successful health evaluation and residual life assessment has saved substantial cost involved in tubes replacement

  11. Effects of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN throughout the life cycle of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Josefina Poupin

    Full Text Available Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR induce positive effects in plants, such as increased growth or reduced stress susceptibility. The mechanisms behind PGPR/plant interaction are poorly understood, as most studies have described short-term responses on plants and only a few studies have analyzed plant molecular responses under PGPR colonization. Here, we studied the effects of the PGPR bacterial model Burkholderiaphytofirmans PsJN on the whole life cycle of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. We reported that at different plant developmental points, strain PsJN can be found in the rhizosphere and also colonizing their internal tissues. In early ontogeny, strain PsJN increased several growth parameters and accelerated growth rate of the plants. Also, an Arabidopsis transcriptome analysis revealed that 408 genes showed differential expression in PsJN-inoculated plants; some of these genes are involved in stress response and hormone pathways. Specifically, genes implicated in auxin and gibberellin pathways were induced. Quantitative transcriptional analyses of selected genes in different developmental stages revealed that the beginning of these changes could be evidenced early in development, especially among the down-regulated genes. The inoculation with heat-killed bacteria provoked a more severe transcriptional response in plants, but was not able to induce plant growth-promotion. Later in ontogeny, the growth rates of inoculated plants decreased with respect to the non-inoculated group and, interestingly, the inoculation accelerated the flowering time and the appearance of senescence signs in plants; these modifications correlate with the early up-regulation of flowering control genes. Then, we show that a single inoculation with a PGPR could affect the whole life cycle of a plant, accelerating its growth rate and shortening its vegetative period, both effects relevant for most crops. Thus, these findings provide novel and interesting aspects

  12. Plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants? Controversial discussion profit taking of nuclear power plant operators; Laufzeitverlaengerungen fuer die deutschen Kernkaftwerke? Kurzanalyse zu den Gewinnmitnahmen der KKW-Betreiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Felix C.

    2009-10-15

    The discussion on the plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants beyond the residual quantity of electricity particularly focus on three aspects: Effects for the emission of carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas; Development of the electricity price for which a reduction or attenuation is postulated due to a plant life extension; Skimming of additional profits at operating companies and their use in the safeguarding of the future (development of renewable energies, support of energy efficiency, promotion of the research, consolidation of the public budget, and so on). Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the profit taking of nuclear power plant operators. The presented analysis considers three aspects: (a) Specification of the quantity structures for the investigated model of plant life extension; (b) The decisive parameter is the revenue situation and thus the price development for electricity at wholesale markets; (c) Determination and evaluation of the course in time of the profit taking.

  13. Regression to fuzziness method for estimation of remaining useful life in power plant components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamaniotis, Miltiadis; Grelle, Austin; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H.

    2014-10-01

    Mitigation of severe accidents in power plants requires the reliable operation of all systems and the on-time replacement of mechanical components. Therefore, the continuous surveillance of power systems is a crucial concern for the overall safety, cost control, and on-time maintenance of a power plant. In this paper a methodology called regression to fuzziness is presented that estimates the remaining useful life (RUL) of power plant components. The RUL is defined as the difference between the time that a measurement was taken and the estimated failure time of that component. The methodology aims to compensate for a potential lack of historical data by modeling an expert's operational experience and expertise applied to the system. It initially identifies critical degradation parameters and their associated value range. Once completed, the operator's experience is modeled through fuzzy sets which span the entire parameter range. This model is then synergistically used with linear regression and a component's failure point to estimate the RUL. The proposed methodology is tested on estimating the RUL of a turbine (the basic electrical generating component of a power plant) in three different cases. Results demonstrate the benefits of the methodology for components for which operational data is not readily available and emphasize the significance of the selection of fuzzy sets and the effect of knowledge representation on the predicted output. To verify the effectiveness of the methodology, it was benchmarked against the data-based simple linear regression model used for predictions which was shown to perform equal or worse than the presented methodology. Furthermore, methodology comparison highlighted the improvement in estimation offered by the adoption of appropriate of fuzzy sets for parameter representation.

  14. Electricity-cost savings obtained by means of nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, L.; Fletcher, T.; DuCharme, A.; Harrison, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    This study examines savings caused by nuclear-plant life extension (NUPLEX) and describes the effects of changes in assumptions on costs and technology using an approach simpler than the large economic-model simulations used in other reports. Under the simplified approach, we estimate savings at the broad national level by comparing projected costs/kWh for the typical NUPLEX plant with those for new coal-fired plants, which seem the most likely alternative in most regions. While ignoring some complications handled by the large, regionally disaggregated econometric models, the approach used in this study has advantages in sensitivity analyses. It reveals relationships between savings and basic assumptions on costs and technology in a more transparent way than in large-model simulations. We find that, absent major technological breakthroughs for present generating options, NUPLEX saves consumers money on their electric bills under most plausible economic scenarios. Using mid-range assumptions, we find that NUPLEX saves consumers a total of about dollar 180 billion spread over the period 2010-50. Under optimistic assumptions, the savings swell to over dollar 900 billion. Under extremely pessimistic assumptions, the savings actually turn negative. This wide range of estimates largely reflects the uncertainty in cost projections. Within plausible limits, higher- or lower-than-expected load growth does not affect the savings estimates. The NUPLEX construction costs stand out as the most critical unknown. If they turn out to be 50% (dollar 500 billion) above the baseline estimate savings would fall by almost 60% (dollar 105 billion). A 50% rise in nuclear fuel costs would drop baseline savings by almost 22%. A 50% increase in nuclear-plant operations-and-maintenance costs, would cut baseline savings by about 36%. These sensitivities highlight the need for continued monitoring of economic developments

  15. Life cycle assessment of four potable water treatment plants in northeastern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Orlando Ortiz Rodriguez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is currently great concern about the processes that directly or indirectly contribute to the potential for global warming, such as stratospheric ozone depletion or acidification. In this context, and provided that treated water is a basic public utility in urban centers around the world as well as in some rural areas, its impact on the environment is of great interest. Therefore, this study applied the environmental methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA to evaluate the environmental loads of four potable water treatment plants (PWTPs located in northeastern Colombia following the international guidelines delineated in ISO 14040. The different stages of the drinking water process were thoroughly assessed, from the catchment point through pumping to the distribution network. The functional unit was defined as 1 m3 of drinking water produced at the plant. The data were analyzed through the database Ecoinvent v.3.01, and modeled and processed in the software LCA-Data Manager. The results showed that in plants PLA-CA and PLA-PO, the flocculation process has the highest environmental load, which is mostly attributable to the coagulant agent, with a range between 47-73% of the total impact. In plants PLA-TON and PLA-BOS, electricity consumption was identified as the greatest impact source, with percentages ranging from 67 to 85%. Treatment processes and techniques, bioclimatic conditions and culturally driven consumption behavior varied from region to region. Furthermore, changes in treatment processes and techniques are likely to affect the environment during all stages of a plant’s operational cycle.

  16. Life extension, power upgrade, and return to service work for Pickering NGS and other PWR and CANDU plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millman, J.; Idvorian, N.; Schneider, W.

    2002-01-01

    Work on life extension, power upgrade and return to service has been performed and is in progress for a number of PWR and CANDU plants. For PWR plants, power upgrade work has been done for the new replacement steam generators in several cases. This work consists of redoing the formal equipment qualification analysis and reports for the uprated operating conditions to support the application for license adjustment. Life extension assessments have been performed for several CANDU plants. These are highly detailed assessments in which the particular steam generator is reassessed part by part as to the ability of each to sustain full life operation and also extended life operation. Return to service work for Pickering NGSA specifically has included this type of assessment and also specific repair, cleaning and retrofit activities including secondary side inspection, waterlancing, divider plate repair, eddy current inspection, etc. Steam generator modifications and retrofit work have been performed in a number of cases. The paper discusses various life extension, power upgrade, equipment modification and return to service activities all of which are part of the renewed drive in the industry to realise the full potential of nuclear plants by getting more and better performance from the extended service of existing plants. (author)

  17. Response of Thematic Mapper bands to plant water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibula, W. G.; Zetka, E. F.; Rickman, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in leaf reflectance as water content decreases have been hypothesized to occur in the 1.55-1.75 and 2.08-2.35 micron wavelength regions. To evaluate this hypothesis, studies were conducted on ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and oats (Avena sativa L.), which were grown in a controlled, outdoor situation. Both fully-watered control beds and water-stressed beds were periodically examined with a spectroradiometer calibrated against a reflectance reference of polytetrafluoroethylene. The observed changes correspond to those predicted by stochastic leaf models employed by other investigators (leaf reflection increases in the 1.55-1.75 micron region as leaf water content decreases). Although the percentage changes in TM bands 1-3 are nearly as great as those found in TM bands 5 and 7, the absolute values of reflectance change are much lower. It is believed that these patterns are probably characteristic of a broad range of vegetation types. In terms of phenomena detection, these patterns should be considered in any practical remote sensing sensor scenario.

  18. Landsat-D thematic mapper simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, G. F.; Tilton, E. L., III

    The design and testing program for the airborne Landsat-D thematic-mapper simulator (TMS) is summarized. The TMS is intended to provide data similar enough to those expected from Landsat-D to facilitate the development of data-processing software. The design process comprised mainly modifications on the existing MSS-simulator fiber optics, dichroics, and detectors to provide 7-channel coverage of the 0.45-12.3-micron range at 60-deg angle of view, corresponding to a 418-element, 13.8-km-wide ground swath. The TMS is carried on a Lear 23 aircraft operating at 750 km/h and 12-m altitude and equipped with a 15.2-cm aerial mapping camera and a ground-updated inertial navigational system. Agricultural, forestry, and geological trial applications are reviewed, and some sample results are given. The significant improvements predicted for the Landsat-D thematic mapper (relative to the Landsat MSS) are seen as confirmed, with the possible exception of the 120-m-resolution version of channel 7.

  19. DANUBE SALMON (HUCHO HUCHO L.. THEMATIC BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsynyak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Creating of the thematic bibliographic list of publications dedicated to ecological and zoogeographical, morphological and biological, physiological, biochemical and genetic characteristics of the Danube salmon, as well as to its cultivation in Ukraine and abroad. Methodology. In the process of systematic search complete and selective methods were applied. The bibliographic core have been formed by the literature from the fund of scientific library of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS. Findings. There was composed the thematic list of publications in a quantity of 100 sources, containing characteristics of Danube salmon as representative of salmonids. Literary sources was arranged in alphabetical order by author or title, and described according to DSTU 7.1:2006 «System of standards on information, librarianship and publishing. Bibliographic entry. Bibliographic description. General requirements and rules», as well as in accordance with the requirements of APA style – international standard of references. Practical value. The list may be useful for scientists, practitioners, students, whose area of interests covers the questions of breeding, and researching of the salmon biological features.

  20. Black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus, Richardson. Thematic bibliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsynyak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Creating a thematic bibliographic list of publications in Ukrainian and Russian, dedicated to the ecology, biology, selection and cultivation of such Far East fish fauna species as black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus Richardson in conditions of fish farms of Ukraine and neighboring countries, as well as the possibility of it introduction into water bodies for bioameliorative purpose. Methodology. The complete and selective methods were applied in the process of the systematic search. The bibliographic core has been formed with the literature from the fund of the scientific library of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS. Findings. There was composed a thematic list of publications with a total quantity of 67 sources, containing characteristics of black carp as representative of cyprinids, which is very important species from the point of view of aquaculture. This bibliography covers the time period from 1949 till 2011.The literary sources were arranged in alphabetical order by author or title, and described according to DSTU 7.1:2006 «System of standards on information, librarianship and publishing. Bibliographic entry. Bibliographic description. General requirements and rules», as well as in accordance with the requirements of APA style — international standard of references. Practical value. The list may be useful for scientists, practitioners, students, whose area of interests covers the questions of breeding and study of the biological features of black carp.

  1. Can soil microbial diversity influence plant metabolites and life history traits of a rhizophagous insect? A demonstration in oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaise, Tom; Ourry, Morgane; Lebreton, Lionel; Guillerm-Erckelboudt, Anne-Yvonne; Linglin, Juliette; Paty, Chrystelle; Chaminade, Valérie; Marnet, Nathalie; Aubert, Julie; Poinsot, Denis; Cortesero, Anne-Marie; Mougel, Christophe

    2017-12-01

    Interactions between plants and phytophagous insects play an important part in shaping the biochemical composition of plants. Reciprocally plant metabolites can influence major life history traits in these insects and largely contribute to their fitness. Plant rhizospheric microorganisms are an important biotic factor modulating plant metabolites and adaptation to stress. While plant-insects or plant-microorganisms interactions and their consequences on the plant metabolite signature are well-documented, the impact of soil microbial communities on plant defenses against phytophagous insects remains poorly known. In this study, we used oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and the cabbage root fly (Delia radicum) as biological models to tackle this question. Even though D. radicum is a belowground herbivore as a larva, its adult life history traits depend on aboveground signals. We therefore tested whether soil microbial diversity influenced emergence rate and fitness but also fly oviposition behavior, and tried to link possible effects to modifications in leaf and root metabolites. Through a removal-recolonization experiment, 3 soil microbial modalities ("high," "medium," "low") were established and assessed through amplicon sequencing of 16S and 18S ribosomal RNA genes. The "medium" modality in the rhizosphere significantly improved insect development traits. Plant-microorganism interactions were marginally associated to modulations of root metabolites profiles, which could partly explain these results. We highlighted the potential role of plant-microbial interaction in plant defenses against Delia radicum. Rhizospheric microbial communities must be taken into account when analyzing plant defenses against herbivores, being either below or aboveground. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Combined cycle power plants: A comparison between two different dynamic models to evaluate transient behaviour and residual life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benato, Alberto; Stoppato, Anna; Bracco, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two procedures aimed at simulating the dynamic behaviour of power plants are compared. • They both are aimed at predicting the residual life of plant devices. • A single pressure gas-steam combined plant has been modelled. • A good correspondence has been found despite the different approaches used. - Abstract: The deregulated energy market and the increasing quota of electrical capacity covered by non-predictable renewable sources require strongly irregular and discontinuous operation of thermoelectric plants to satisfy users demand and compensate the variability of renewable sources. As a consequence, due to thermo-mechanical fatigue, creep and corrosion, a lifetime reduction of the most critical components occurs. The availability of a procedure able to predict the residual life of plant devices is necessary to assist the management decisions about power plants’ operation and maintenance scheduling. The first step of this procedure is the capability of simulating the plant behaviour versus time by evaluating the trends of the main thermodynamic parameters that describe the plant operation during different transient periods. In this context, the main contribution of the present paper is to propose a complete procedure able to simulate the plant dynamic behaviour and estimate the residual life reduction of some components. Indeed, two different models, developed by two different research groups, of the same single pressure heat recovery steam generator unit are presented and utilized to characterize the dynamic behaviour of the above mentioned power plant. The main thermodynamic variables during different transient operation conditions are predicted and good correspondence between the two methods is obtained. It can be also noted that, when the geometry and size of the devices are considered, the thermal inertia related to heat exchangers tubes, pipes and other physical masses causes a delay in the system response. Moreover, a residual life

  3. Plant DB link - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods ...e Site Policy | Contact Us Plant DB link - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive ...

  4. Microalgae Production from Power Plant Flue Gas: Environmental Implications on a Life Cycle Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadam, K. L.

    2001-06-22

    Power-plant flue gas can serve as a source of CO{sub 2} for microalgae cultivation, and the algae can be cofired with coal. This life cycle assessment (LCA) compared the environmental impacts of electricity production via coal firing versus coal/algae cofiring. The LCA results demonstrated lower net values for the algae cofiring scenario for the following using the direct injection process (in which the flue gas is directly transported to the algae ponds): SOx, NOx, particulates, carbon dioxide, methane, and fossil energy consumption. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons emissions were statistically unchanged. Lower values for the algae cofiring scenario, when compared to the burning scenario, were observed for greenhouse potential and air acidification potential. However, impact assessment for depletion of natural resources and eutrophication potential showed much higher values. This LCA gives us an overall picture of impacts across different environmental boundaries, and hence, can help in the decision-making process for implementation of the algae scenario.

  5. Summary of plant life management evaluation for Onagawa Nuclear Power Station Unit-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nodate, Kazumi

    2014-01-01

    The Onagawa Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 (Onagawa NPS-1) began commercial operation on June 1, 1984, and has reached 30-year from starting of operation on June of 2014. To that end, we implemented the Plant Life Management (PLM) evaluation for Onagawa NPS-1 as our first experience. We decided on a Long-term Maintenance Management Policy from result of the evaluation, and then applied the Safety-Regulations change approval application on November 6, 2013 and its correcting application on April 16, 2014. Our application was approved on May 21, 2014 through investigation by the Nuclear Regulatory Agency. Also at implementation of the PLM evaluation, we considered effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011 against ageing phenomena. In this paper, we introduce summary of PLM evaluation for Onagawa NPS-1 and the evaluation that considered effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake. (author)

  6. Life cycle cost of biomass power plant: Monte Carlo simulation of investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odavić Petrana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of life cycle cost is considered as an important instrument for designing and evaluating success of every project. The aim of this work is to determine the precise impact of the investment costs and future operating and maintenance costs of CHP biomass plant. By using the Monte Carlo simulation are determined variations in the settings and the possible impact on the investment risk. The results show that the investment is justified, thanks to the positive outcome of the net present value (NPV, internal rate of return (IRR and the payback period. The greatest impact on the variability of annual profits have operating costs, which have the highest coefficient of variation of 6.44% and the largest share. Variability of net present value of 4% is acceptable, and the investment is considered as stable.

  7. NDT methods for life-time assessment of high temperature plant; Ofoerstoerande provning foer livslaengdsbedoemning av hoegtemperaturanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, J [Swedish Inst. for Metals Research, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    A comprehensive literature study of NDT and analysis methods for residual life-time assessment of high temperature plant has been made. The study has been concentrated on components in boilers, steam piping and turbines in fossil fired power plant. Most types of components are exposed to creep which is also the life-time limiting mechanism in many cases. In addition to creep, other stresses and damages which appear in plant are described for each type of component. Thermal fatigue, corrosion and embrittlement as well as combined damage mechanisms are also life-time limiting in many cases. The literature shows a large number of NDT methods developed and under development in purpose to identify and measure the size and extent of damage in the components. The methods and their limitations are described in relation to the experience and understanding of character, distribution and development of damage in different situations. 83 refs, 12 figs, 1 tab

  8. Exploring Hospitals’ Use of Facebook: Thematic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Diana K

    2018-01-01

    Background Although health care organizations such as hospitals and clinics have widely embraced social media as a means to educate the community on health topics and increase patient loyalty and satisfaction, little is known about the content these organizations actually share when using social media channels. Objective This study aimed to explore the types of content US hospitals post on their Facebook pages and how hospitals’ Facebook activities differ with regard to content types. Methods We collected and thematically analyzed more than 1700 Facebook posts made over a 3-month period by 17 US hospitals. During the first phase, the 2 researchers coded a set of 159 posts and created an initial thematic web of content. During the second phase, the researchers coded the remaining posts and then revised, refined, and validated the initial web of content accordingly. Coding consensus was achieved on 1184 of the 1548 analyzable sampled posts (76.49%). Results We identified a list of 13 unique health social media post themes and classified those themes into 3 thematic groups that included announcing, sharing, and recognizing activities. The most frequently used theme was sharing health information, which appeared in 35.81% (424/1184) of the posts analyzed. Such posts sought to provide health tips and advice to community members. Recognizing special days and recognizing employees were the second and third most frequently used themes, respectively, with 14.95% (177/1184) and 11.82% (140/1184) of the posts containing those themes. The frequency of these themes was surprising as the content was geared more toward stakeholders internal to the organization, although most previous literature has focused on social media as a tool to connect with external stakeholders. In addition, we found many of the posts involved more than one theme, and selected sets of themes co-occurred frequently. For example, 25.4% (45/177) of the posts recognizing special days also included content

  9. Plant life (PLIM) and ageing management (AM) in German NPPs. Prerequisite for long term operation (LTO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, X.

    2010-01-01

    dependant) or based on monitoring of relevant parameters (predictive). The results of these procedures are assessed for each SSC, specifically. For both groups of SSC, in addition to the control of (known) damage mechanisms, all significant plant data (e.g. reports of failures, work orders) and the reports from other plants (incl. exchange of knowledge) are assessed regularly in order to be prepared for new damage mechanisms (and to prevent / control them consequently). This is performed by an appropriate software approach. Within this SSC-specific assessment the entity of measures to control degradation effects is reviewed and modified / extended, if necessary. On the basis of good experiences with the AM procedure and driven by the latest political development (nuclear power is an option in energy supply again) the utilities are re-structuring their plant life management (PLIM), actually. PLIM addresses both safety and economical aspects. Consequently, all SSC of a plant and every possible degradation mechanism have to be considered within PLIM - besides other more not-technical aspects. AM is part of the plant life management. Regarding technical equipment, the PLIM procedure is similar to that established in AM. Depending on the requirements it is necessary to - establish quality during design and manufacture - safeguard this quality in operation by appropriate measures - assess procedure / measures and existing quality, regularly. Living an effective PLIM procedure the utilities are kept on the state of the art; on this basis energy production can be safe and economic at any time. This is an essential prerequisite for long term operation (LTO). (orig.)

  10. Dental calculus evidence of Taï Forest Chimpanzee plant consumption and life history transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Robert C.; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Wittig, Roman M.; Freiberg, Martin; Henry, Amanda G.

    2015-10-01

    Dental calculus (calcified dental plaque) is a source of multiple types of data on life history. Recent research has targeted the plant microremains preserved in this mineralised deposit as a source of dietary and health information for recent and past populations. However, it is unclear to what extent we can interpret behaviour from microremains. Few studies to date have directly compared the microremain record from dental calculus to dietary records, and none with long-term observation dietary records, thus limiting how we can interpret diet, food acquisition and behaviour. Here we present a high-resolution analysis of calculus microremains from wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. We test microremain assemblages against more than two decades of field behavioural observations to establish the ability of calculus to capture the composition of diet. Our results show that some microremain classes accumulate as long-lived dietary markers. Phytolith abundance in calculus can reflect the proportions of plants in the diet, yet this pattern is not true for starches. We also report microremains can record information about other dietary behaviours, such as the age of weaning and learned food processing techniques like nut-cracking.

  11. Some ways of plants wastes utilization in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, N. P.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Tirranen, L. S.; Ushakova, S. A.; Zolotukhin, I. G.; Anischenko, O. V.

    In works on experimental modeling of bioregenerative life support systems BLSS carried out at Institute of Biophysics Russian Academy of Science Siberian Branch SB RAS the possibility of increase of a system closure degree under the condition of inedible plant biomass return into the organic matter turnover was demonstrated At the same time when radish inedible biomass was subjected to biological oxidation in soil-like substrate SLS after its drying then wheat straw was subjected to stepwise processing including mushrooms growing stage Mushrooms cultivation facilitated to lignin destruction and quicker straw decomposition On the other hand mushrooms growing required additional technological procedures leading to complication of a technological chain of straw processing The purpose of this work is to study the possibility of exclusion of mushrooms growing stage under straw pretreatment for its further use as an equivalent of radish edible biomass grown on SLS To solve the problem put by the radish cenosis in a conveyer regime was grown The conveyer included radish four ages with the conveyer step equal to 7 days The experiment consisted of two successive stages On the first stage radish was grown without straw addition into SLS control To return mineral elements into SLS the biomass grown was restored in SLS On the second stage inedible radish biomass and wheat straw were returned into SLS in the quantity equivalent to edible biomass The possibility of the method described was estimated according to plant productivity microbiological

  12. Ecological half-life of 137Cs in plants associated with a contaminated stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peles, John D.; Smith, Michael H.; Lehr Brisbin, I.

    2002-01-01

    Ecological half-life (T e ) is a useful measure for studying the long-term decline of contaminants, such as radionuclides, in natural systems. The current investigation determined levels of radiocesium ( 137 Cs) in two aquatic (Polygonum punctatum, Sagittaria latifolia) and three terrestrial (Alnus serrulata, Myrica cerifera, Salix nigra) plant species from a contaminated stream and floodplain on the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. Current 137 Cs levels in plants were used in conjunction with historical data to determine T e of 137 Cs in each species. Median concentrations of 137 Cs were highest in S. latifolia (0.84 Bq g -1 ) and lowest in M. cerifera (0.10 Bq g -1 ). T e 's ranged from 4.85 yr in M. cerifera to 8.35 yr in S. nigra, both terrestrial species. T e 's for all aquatic (6.30 yr) and all terrestrial (5.87) species combined were very similar. The T e 's of the two aquatic primary producers (P. punctatum and S. latifolia) in the Steel Creek ecosystem were somewhat longer than T e values previously reported for some consumers from this ecosystem

  13. A roadmap for global synthesis of the plant tree of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L; Antonelli, Alexandre; Bennett, Dominic J; Botigué, Laura R; Burleigh, J Gordon; Dodsworth, Steven; Enquist, Brian J; Forest, Félix; Kim, Jan T; Kozlov, Alexey M; Leitch, Ilia J; Maitner, Brian S; Mirarab, Siavash; Piel, William H; Pérez-Escobar, Oscar A; Pokorny, Lisa; Rahbek, Carsten; Sandel, Brody; Smith, Stephen A; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Vos, Rutger A; Warnow, Tandy; Baker, William J

    2018-03-01

    Providing science and society with an integrated, up-to-date, high quality, open, reproducible and sustainable plant tree of life would be a huge service that is now coming within reach. However, synthesizing the growing body of DNA sequence data in the public domain and disseminating the trees to a diverse audience are often not straightforward due to numerous informatics barriers. While big synthetic plant phylogenies are being built, they remain static and become quickly outdated as new data are published and tree-building methods improve. Moreover, the body of existing phylogenetic evidence is hard to navigate and access for non-experts. We propose that our community of botanists, tree builders, and informaticians should converge on a modular framework for data integration and phylogenetic analysis, allowing easy collaboration, updating, data sourcing and flexible analyses. With support from major institutions, this pipeline should be re-run at regular intervals, storing trees and their metadata long-term. Providing the trees to a diverse global audience through user-friendly front ends and application development interfaces should also be a priority. Interactive interfaces could be used to solicit user feedback and thus improve data quality and to coordinate the generation of new data. We conclude by outlining a number of steps that we suggest the scientific community should take to achieve global phylogenetic synthesis. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  14. Nuclear power plant life time improvement and management program in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung Yull Hong; Ill Seok Jeong; Taek Ho Song

    1995-01-01

    Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI) of Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) has performed a lifetime management of nuclear power plant program (LMNPP), ''Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management (PLIM) (I)'', since November 1993, which is a feasibility study of the Kori Unit 1 lifetime management including aging evaluation of the thirteen major components. The results of the PLIM(I) will provide information which is necessary for decision making of the Kori Unit 1 lifetime improvement. A plan of the work scope and schedule for the next phase, PLIM(II), will also be provided by this project. This paper introduced KEPRI's basic strategy of LMNPP, PLIM organization, current status, some interim results of the PLIM(I), and other related programs in Korea. So far, we have done field data survey, systems/structures screening, components prioritization, lifetime evaluation methodology study, and fracture mechanics tests of the Kori Unit 1 reactor pressure vessel surveillance coupons. Currently life assessment of the major components and PLIM economic evaluation of Kori Unit 1 are under way. (author)

  15. Small punch creep test: A promising methodology for high temperature plant components life evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tettamanti, S. [CISE SpA, Milan (Italy); Crudeli, R. [ENEL SpA, Milan (Italy)

    1998-12-31

    CISE and ENEL are involved for years in a miniaturization creep methodology project to obtain similar non-destructive test with the same standard creep test reliability. The goal can be reached with `Small punch creep test` that collect all the requested characteristics; quasi nondestructive disk specimens extracted both on external or internal side of components, than accurately machined and tested on little and cheap apparatus. CISE has developed complete creep small punch procedure that involved peculiar test facility and correlation`s law comparable with the more diffused isostress methodology for residual life evaluation on ex-serviced high temperature plant components. The aim of this work is to obtain a simple and immediately applicable relationship useful for plant maintenance managing. More added work is need to validate the Small Punch methodology and for relationship calibration on most diffusion high temperature structural materials. First obtained results on a comparative work on ASTM A355 P12 ex-serviced pipe material are presented joint with a description of the Small Punch apparatus realized in CISE. (orig.) 6 refs.

  16. On the implementation of activities for the life management of nuclear power plants in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Lorenzo, R.F.; Mansur, T.R.; Moreira, R.M.; Quinan, M.A.; Rocha, Z.; Soares, W.A.; Tofani, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    Brazil joined the IAEA IWG-LMNPP in 1993, in view of a potential interest in the LMNPP subject. In this report, aspects of nuclear activities, as well as activities related to LMNPP, are reviewed. The nuclear energy scenario is presented with emphasis on the nuclear share of the total electrical energy supply and on the nuclear sector organization. Angra Nuclear Power Plant units are presented and some construction and/or operational features are discussed. Concerning the activities on LMNPP, the contribution of different nuclear sector organizations is briefly considered. Some aspects are stressed with regard to an integrated approach of LMNPP and the country's available manpower and technical infrastructure capabilities in the nuclear field. The technical assistance of the IAEA in the area of plant life management if focused. From the experience of this first phase (1993-97) representing Brazil in the IWG-LMNPP, special aspects are emphasized aiming, on the basis of their consideration, at improving the efficiency of this process. The implementation of a Brazilian network, the BRWG-LMNPP, is underway, formulating plans for the future. (author)

  17. Small punch creep test: A promising methodology for high temperature plant components life evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tettamanti, S [CISE SpA, Milan (Italy); Crudeli, R [ENEL SpA, Milan (Italy)

    1999-12-31

    CISE and ENEL are involved for years in a miniaturization creep methodology project to obtain similar non-destructive test with the same standard creep test reliability. The goal can be reached with `Small punch creep test` that collect all the requested characteristics; quasi nondestructive disk specimens extracted both on external or internal side of components, than accurately machined and tested on little and cheap apparatus. CISE has developed complete creep small punch procedure that involved peculiar test facility and correlation`s law comparable with the more diffused isostress methodology for residual life evaluation on ex-serviced high temperature plant components. The aim of this work is to obtain a simple and immediately applicable relationship useful for plant maintenance managing. More added work is need to validate the Small Punch methodology and for relationship calibration on most diffusion high temperature structural materials. First obtained results on a comparative work on ASTM A355 P12 ex-serviced pipe material are presented joint with a description of the Small Punch apparatus realized in CISE. (orig.) 6 refs.

  18. COMSY- A Software Tool For Aging And Plant Life Management With An Integrated Documentation Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, Roman; Zander, Andre

    2008-01-01

    For the aging and plant life management the integrity of the mechanical components and structures is one of the key objectives. In order to ensure this integrity it is essential to implement a comprehensive aging management. This should be applied to all safety relevant mechanical systems or components, civil structures, electrical systems as well as instrumentation and control (I and C). The following aspects should be covered: - Identification and assessment of relevant degradation mechanisms; - Verification and evaluation of the quality status of all safety relevant systems, structures and components (SSC's); - Verification and modernization of I and C and electrical systems; - Reliable and up-to-date documentation. For the support of this issue AREVA NP GmbH has developed the computer program COMSY, which utilizes more than 30 years of experience resulting from research activities and operational experience. The program provides the option to perform a plant-wide screening for identifying system areas, which are sensitive to specific degradation mechanisms. Another object is the administration and evaluation of NDE measurements from different techniques. An integrated documentation tool makes the document management and maintenance fast, reliable and independent from staff service. (authors)

  19. At-reactor storage of spent fuel for life-of-plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuierer, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The management of commercial spent fuel is a fairly broad topic beginning with the discharge from a reactor, its storage on-site, its transport from the reactor site to a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility, and its ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. This paper discusses spent-fuel management in the at-reactor phase. There are two basic methods for at-reactor storage of spent fuel. The first is wet storage in a pool, and the second is dry storage external to the plant in some form of cask or vault. Spent-fuel consolidation will impact the utility and the DOE waste system. Some of these impacts have a positive effect and some have a negative effect, and each will vary somewhat for each utility. Spent-fuel consolidation and life-of-plant storage will be an increased burden to utilities but will likely result in significant cost savings to the overall waste management system and by proper integration can result in significant institutional benefits

  20. Integrated Life Cycle Management: A Strategy for Plants to Extend Operating Lifetimes Safely with High Operational Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esselman, Thomas; Bruck, Paul; Mengers, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear plant operators are studying the possibility of extending their existing generating facilities operating lifetime to 60 years and beyond. Many nuclear plants have been granted licenses to operate their facilities beyond the original 40 year term; however, in order to optimize the long term operating strategies, plant decision-makers need a consistent approach to support their options. This paper proposes a standard methodology to support effective decision-making for the long-term management of selected station assets. Methods detailed are intended to be used by nuclear plant site management, equipment reliability personnel, long term planners, capital asset planners, license renewal staff, and others that intend to look at operation between the current time and the end of operation. This methodology, named Integrated Life Cycle Management (ILCM), will provide a technical basis to assist decision makers regarding the timing of large capital investments required to get to the end of operation safely and with high plant reliability. ILCM seeks to identify end of life cycle failure probabilities for individual plant large capital assets and attendant costs associated with their refurbishment or replacement. It will provide a standard basis for evaluation of replacement and refurbishment options for these components. ILCM will also develop methods to integrate the individual assets over the entire plant thus assisting nuclear plant decision-makers in their facility long term operating strategies. (author)

  1. Registered plant list - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods ...the Plant DB link list in simple search page) Genome analysis methods Presence or... absence of Genome analysis methods information in this DB (link to the Genome analysis methods information ...base Site Policy | Contact Us Registered plant list - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive ...

  2. Optimal greenhouse gas emissions in NGCC plants integrating life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, Etienne; Maréchal, François; Samson, Réjean

    2012-01-01

    The optimal design of an energy-intensive process involves a compromise between costs and greenhouse gas emissions, complicated by the interaction between optimal process emissions and supply chain emissions. We propose a method that combines generic abatement cost estimates and the results of existing (LCA) life cycle assessment studies, so that supply chain emissions are properly handled during optimization. This method is illustrated for a (NGCC) natural gas combined cycle power plant model with the following design and procurement options: procurement of natural gas from low-emissions producers, fuel substitution with (SNG) synthetic natural gas from wood, and variable-rate CO 2 capture and sequestration from both the NGCC and SNG plants. Using multi-objective optimization, we show two Pareto-optimal sets with and without the proposed LCA method. The latter can then be shown to misestimate CO 2 abatement costs by a few percent, penalizing alternate fuels and energy-efficient process configurations and leading to sub-optimal design decisions with potential net losses of the order of $1/MWh. Thus, the proposed LCA method can enhance the economic analysis of emissions abatement technologies and emissions legislation in general. -- Highlights: ► Multi-objective optimization and LCA used for process design considering supply chain. ► Off-site emissions in LCA reveal potential future indirect taxes for energy consumers. ► Generic abatement cost curves provide a mitigation model for off-site emissions. ► Off-site mitigation precedes CO 2 capture or biogas substitution in NGCC plant. ► Profitability estimation of capture or substitution depends on off-site mitigation.

  3. Life Cycle Assessment of a HYSOL Concentrated Solar Power Plant: Analyzing the Effect of Geographic Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Corona

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Concentrating Solar Power (CSP technology is developing in order to achieve higher energy efficiency, reduced economic costs, and improved firmness and dispatchability in the generation of power on demand. To this purpose, a research project titled HYSOL has developed a new power plant, consisting of a combined cycle configuration with a 100 MWe steam turbine and an 80 MWe gas-fed turbine with biomethane. Technological developments must be supported by the identification, quantification, and evaluation of the environmental impacts produced. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the environmental performance of a CSP plant based on HYSOL technology using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology while considering different locations. The scenarios investigated include different geographic locations (Spain, Chile, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Mexico, and South Africa, an alternative modelling procedure for biomethane, and the use of natural gas as an alternative fuel. Results indicate that the geographic location has a significant influence on the environmental profile of the HYSOL CSP plant. The results obtained for the HYSOL configuration located in different countries presented significant differences (between 35% and 43%, depending on the category, especially in climate change and water stress categories. The differences are mainly attributable to the local availability of solar and water resources and composition of the national electricity mix. In addition, HYSOL technology performs significantly better when hybridizing with biomethane instead of natural gas. This evidence is particularly relevant in the climate change category, where biomethane hybridization emits 27.9–45.9 kg CO2 eq per MWh (depending on the biomethane modelling scenario and natural gas scenario emits 264 kg CO2 eq/MWh.

  4. Development and application of the methodology to establish life extension and modernization plan of aged hydropower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Kwon, Hyuck Cheon; Song, Byung Hun; Kwon, Chang Seop

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides how to establish an integrated plan for LE (Life Extension) and MD (MoDernization) of aged hydropower plants. The methodology is developed through review of overseas/domestic LE/MD histories, investigation of the previous overseas methodologies and consideration of domestic practices. The methodology includes reviews of the various factors such as condition, operation and maintenance history, up-to-date technology, and economic benefit. In order to establish the life extension/modernization plan, the methodology is applied to the domestic aged hydropower plants. Finally, priority rankings and draft practice plans for LE/MD are derived.

  5. Efficacy of planting seasons and macro nutritional levels on growth, yield and vase life of carnation dianthus caryophyllus l

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, A.; Akhtar, G.; Balal, R.M.; Ahmed, I.; Younis, A.; Imran, S.

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted to elucidate the effect of various planting seasons and macro nutritional (NPK) levels on vegetative, reproductive and vase life of carnation viz. Chaubad Mixed. There were two planting seasons (16th Nov. and 15th Feb.) and seven treatments (NPK combinations) were used. Planting season S1 (16th Nov.) showed better results for indices like plant height, number of branches per plant, length of branches, number of leaves per plant, NPK contents, flower diameter, fresh weight of flower, fresh and dry weight ratio and flower quality as compared to planting season S2 (15th Feb.). However, regarding treatments, T2 (5:10:10 g pot/sup -1/ NPK) showed positive correlation for morpho-physiological and bio-chemical traits like plant height, number of branches per plant, length of branches, number of leaves per plant, chlorophyll contents, NPK estimation and bud diameter by showing maximum values for the attributes with comparison to other treatments. (author)

  6. Nuclear power plant life management. An overview of identification of key components in relation with degradation mechanism - IAEA guidelines presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdikian, Georges

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) lifetime has a direct bearing on the cost of the electricity generated from it. The annual unit cost of electricity is dependent upon the operational time, and also annual costs and the capital cost assumptions function of Euros/kw. If the actual NPP lifetime has been underestimated then an economic penalty could be incurred. But the ageing degradation, of nuclear power plants is an important aspect that requires to be addressed to ensure: - that necessary safety margins are maintained throughout service life; - the adequate reliability and therefore the economic viability of older plants is maintained; - that unforeseen an uncontrolled degradation of critical plant components does not foreshorten the plant lifetime. Accommodating the inevitable obsolescence of some components has also to be addressed during plant life. Plant lifetime management requires the identification and life assessment of those components which not only limit the lifetime of the plant but also those which cannot be reasonably replaced. The planned replacement of major or 'key' components needs to be considered - where economic considerations will largely dictate replacement or the alternative strategy of power plant decommissioning. The necessary but timely planning for maintenance and replacements is a necessary consideration so that functions and reliability are maintained. The reasons for the current increasing attention in the area of plant life management are diverse and range from the fact that many of the older plants are approaching for the oldest plants more than 30 years in operation, and for important number of NPPs between 20 and 30 years. The impact of plant life management on the economics of generating electricity is the subject of ongoing studies and it can readily be seen that there can be both savings and additional costs associated with these activities. Not all degradation processes will be of significance in eroding safety margins and there is a

  7. Microgravity effects on different stages of higher plant life cycle and completion of the seed-to-seed cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, V; De Pascale, S; Paradiso, R; Aronne, G

    2014-01-01

    Human inhabitation of Space requires the efficient realisation of crop cultivation in bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS). It is well known that plants can grow under Space conditions; however, perturbations of many biological phenomena have been highlighted due to the effect of altered gravity and its possible interactions with other factors. The mechanisms priming plant responses to Space factors, as well as the consequences of such alterations on crop productivity, have not been completely elucidated. These perturbations can occur at different stages of plant life and are potentially responsible for failure of the completion of the seed-to-seed cycle. After brief consideration of the main constraints found in the most recent experiments aiming to produce seeds in Space, we focus on two developmental phases in which the plant life cycle can be interrupted more easily than in others also on Earth. The first regards seedling development and establishment; we discuss reasons for slow development at the seedling stage that often occurs under microgravity conditions and can reduce successful establishment. The second stage comprises gametogenesis and pollination; we focus on male gamete formation, also identifying potential constraints to subsequent fertilisation. We finally highlight how similar alterations at cytological level can not only be common to different processes occurring at different life stages, but can be primed by different stress factors; such alterations can be interpreted within the model of 'stress-induced morphogenic response' (SIMR). We conclude by suggesting that a systematic analysis of all growth and reproductive phases during the plant life cycle is needed to optimise resource use in plant-based BLSS. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. What does 'recovery' mean to people with neck pain? Results of a descriptive thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, David M; Macdermid, Joy C; Taylor, Todd

    2013-01-01

    To describe the meaning of being recovered as perceived by people with chronic mechanical neck pain. To determine the way people with neck pain would describe a recovered state a descriptive thematic approach was used. A nominal focus group technique, written reflections, and one-on-one semi-structured interviews were used to collect sufficient data. Data from the focus groups were analyzed both through vote tallying and thematic analysis. Reflections and interviews were analyzed thematically by two independent researchers. Triangulation and member-checking were employed to establish trustworthiness of results. A total of 35 people, primarily females with neck pain of traumatic origin, participated in this study. Thematic analysis identified 6 themes that adequately described the data: absent or manageable symptoms, having the physical capacity one ought to have, participation in life roles, feeling positive emotions, autonomy & spontaneity, and re-establishing a sense of self. Member checking and triangulation suggested data saturation and accuracy of the generated themes. Recovery from neck pain appears to be informed by factors that fit with existing models of health, quality of life and satisfaction. Basing recovery solely on symptom or activity-level measures risks inaccurate estimates of recovery trajectories from traumatic or non-traumatic neck pain.

  9. State of technology assessment for life extension of electrical and I and C equipment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuCharme, A.R.; Boger, R.M.; Meyer, L.C.; Beament, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the IEEE Working Group 3.4 on Nuclear Plant Life Extension, an assessment is made of the current state of technology for the life extension of certain classes of electrical and IandC equipment. The classes investigated include motors, cables, emergency diesel generators, penetrations, inverters/chargers, switchgear, and reactor protection systems. The work is focussed on assessment of current or recently completed RandD efforts to resolve issues affecting life extension of the equipment. Aspects discussed include the degree of resolution of these issues, potentially affected standards, and technical aspects requiring further research. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  10. State of technology assessment for life extension of electrical and I and C equipment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Charme, A.R.; Boger, R.M.; Meyer, L.C.; Beament, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    As part of the IEEE Working Group 3.4 on Nuclear Plant Life Extension, an assessment is made of the current state of technology for the life extension of certain classes of electrical and I and C equipment. The classes investigated include motors, cables, emergency diesel generators, penetrations, inverters/charges, switchgear, and reactor protection systems. The work is focussed on assessment of current or recently completed R and D efforts to resolve issues affecting life extension of the equipment. Aspects discussed include the degree of resolution of these issues, potentially affected standards, and technical aspects requiring further research

  11. Exploring Hospitals' Use of Facebook: Thematic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordzadeh, Nima; Young, Diana K

    2018-05-16

    Although health care organizations such as hospitals and clinics have widely embraced social media as a means to educate the community on health topics and increase patient loyalty and satisfaction, little is known about the content these organizations actually share when using social media channels. This study aimed to explore the types of content US hospitals post on their Facebook pages and how hospitals' Facebook activities differ with regard to content types. We collected and thematically analyzed more than 1700 Facebook posts made over a 3-month period by 17 US hospitals. During the first phase, the 2 researchers coded a set of 159 posts and created an initial thematic web of content. During the second phase, the researchers coded the remaining posts and then revised, refined, and validated the initial web of content accordingly. Coding consensus was achieved on 1184 of the 1548 analyzable sampled posts (76.49%). We identified a list of 13 unique health social media post themes and classified those themes into 3 thematic groups that included announcing, sharing, and recognizing activities. The most frequently used theme was sharing health information, which appeared in 35.81% (424/1184) of the posts analyzed. Such posts sought to provide health tips and advice to community members. Recognizing special days and recognizing employees were the second and third most frequently used themes, respectively, with 14.95% (177/1184) and 11.82% (140/1184) of the posts containing those themes. The frequency of these themes was surprising as the content was geared more toward stakeholders internal to the organization, although most previous literature has focused on social media as a tool to connect with external stakeholders. In addition, we found many of the posts involved more than one theme, and selected sets of themes co-occurred frequently. For example, 25.4% (45/177) of the posts recognizing special days also included content to share health information, and

  12. Young people's food practices and social relationships. A thematic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Eva; Walton, Mat; Stephens, Christine

    2014-11-01

    Food practices are embedded in everyday life and social relationships. In youth nutrition promotion little attention is awarded to this centrality of food practices, yet it may play a pivotal role for young people's overall health and wellbeing beyond the calories food provides. Limited research is available explicitly investigating how food practices affect social relationships. The aim of this synthesis was therefore to find out how young people use everyday food practices to build, strengthen, and negotiate their social relationships. Using a thematic synthesis approach, we analysed 26 qualitative studies exploring young people's food practices. Eight themes provided insight into the ways food practices affected social relationships: caring, talking, sharing, integrating, trusting, reciprocating, negotiating, and belonging. The results showed that young people use food actively to foster connections, show their agency, and manage relationships. This synthesis provides insight into the settings of significance for young people where more research could explore the use of food in everyday life as important for their social relationships. A focus on social relationships could broaden the scope of nutrition interventions to promote health in physical and psychosocial dimensions. Areas for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Young Children's Drawings of Plant Life: A Study Concerning the Use of Colours and Its Relationship with Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, José Domingo

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the drawings that elementary grade school children make on the subject of plant life. More specifically, the pictorial elements drawn by children are analysed together with their colour choices and the size of coloured surfaces. Furthermore, the results are put into perspective with the age of the children in the sample. The…

  14. Plant Growth and Development: An Outline for a Unit Structured Around the Life Cycle of Rapid-Cycling Brassica Rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Wayne M.

    This outline is intended for use in a unit of 10-12 lectures on plant growth and development at the introductory undergraduate level as part of a course on organismal biology. The series of lecture outlines is structured around the life cycle of rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr). The unit begins with three introductory lectures on general plant…

  15. The maximization of the productivity of aquatic plants for use in controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B. G.

    Lemna minor (common duckweed) and a Wolffia sp. were grown in submerged growth systems. Submerged growth increased the productivity/unit volume (P/UV) of the organisms and may allow these plants to be used in a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS).

  16. Testing soil-like substrate for growing plants in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, J. B.; Lasseur, Ch.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Ushakova, S. A.; Zolotukhin, I. G.; Tirranen, L. S.; Karnachuk, R. A.; Dorofeev, V. Yu.

    We studied soil-like substrate (SLS) as a potential candidate for plant cultivation in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). The SLS was obtained by successive conversion of wheat straw by oyster mushrooms and worms. Mature SLS contained 9.5% humic acids and 4.9% fulvic acids. First, it was shown that wheat, bean and cucumber yields as well as radish yields when cultivated on mature SLS were comparable to yields obtained on a neutral substrate (expanded clay aggregate) under hydroponics. Second, the possibility of increasing wheat and radish yields on the SLS was assessed at three levels of light intensity: 690, 920 and 1150 μmol m -2 s -1 of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The highest wheat yield was obtained at 920 μmol m -2 s -1, while radish yield increased steadily with increasing light intensity. Third, long-term SLS fertility was tested in a BLSS model with mineral and organic matter recycling. Eight cycles of wheat and 13 cycles of radish cultivation were carried out on the SLS in the experimental system. Correlation coefficients between SLS nitrogen content and total wheat biomass and grain yield were 0.92 and 0.97, respectively, and correlation coefficients between nitrogen content and total radish biomass and edible root yield were 0.88 and 0.87, respectively. Changes in hormone content (auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins and abscisic acid) in the SLS during matter recycling did not reduce plant productivity. Quantitative and species compositions of the SLS and irrigation water microflora were also investigated. Microbial community analysis of the SLS showed bacteria from Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Nocardia, Mycobacterium, Arthrobacter and Enterobacter genera, and fungi from Trichoderma, Penicillium, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Mucor, Botrytis, and Cladosporium genera.

  17. Children's understandings’ of obesity, a thematic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Fielden

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a major concern in today's society. Research suggests the inclusion of the views and understandings of a target group facilitates strategies that have better efficacy. The objective of this study was to explore the concepts and themes that make up children's understandings of the causes and consequences of obesity. Participants were selected from Reception (4–5 years old and Year 6 (10–11 years old, and attended a school in an area of Sunderland, in North East England. Participants were separated according to age and gender, resulting in four focus groups, run across two sessions. A thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006 identified overarching themes evident across all groups, suggesting the key concepts that contribute to children's understandings of obesity are “Knowledge through Education,” “Role Models,” “Fat is Bad,” and “Mixed Messages.” The implications of these findings and considerations of the methodology are discussed in full.

  18. A Thematic Approach to Increasing Climate Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, R. J.; Schwerin, T. G.; Witiw, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA), an NSF, NASA, and NOAA supported program providing K-12 teacher professional development uses a thematic approach to frame participant inquiry. To address topics such as carbon sequestration, ocean acidification or aerosols, ESSEA online courses present participants with scenarios or contexts depicting an anomaly or perturbation to the Earth system. The courses deepen teachers’ content knowledge within an inquiry environment through reflection, analysis and self-discovery. Courses familiarize participants with Earth system analyses and provide a suite of techniques that can be employed to facilitate student learning, for example, through the use of Problem-based learning (PBL). Problem-based learning (PBL) is designed to "simultaneously develop both problem solving strategies and disciplinary knowledge bases and skills by placing students in the active role of problem-solvers confronted with an ill-structured problem that mirrors real-world problems.” PBL models are generally characterized by the following steps: 1) the presentation of a problem to a small group of students, 2) discussion of the problem among the students which produces tentative explanations of the problem, and 3) an attempt to solve the problem. When participants work to solve ill-structured problems, they are working toward learning generalized procedures for problem solving that will transfer to new situations (University of Delaware, 1999). At the end of an ESSEA course experience, teachers are better equipped with the content and the confidence in using inquiry in the teaching of climate science.

  19. Geotechnical thematic maps of Petrobras pipeway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, W.J. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Moreira, L.F.R. [TransPetro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Valente, J.C.P.; Vieira, A.C.; Dourado, A.F.; Viitaniemi, T. [Terrabyte Ltd., Sao Goncalo (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The challenges of installing underground terrestrial pipelines in regions with different morphologic characteristics include geotechnical problems such as superficial erosion or landslides. Due to this risk, TransPetro pipeline routes require continuous geologic-geotechnical inspections. This paper presented a methodology to detect possible risk of a geotechnical nature. The methodology uses remote sensing technology combined with geographic information system (GIS) geoprocessing. Aerial photography interpretation provides the visualization of risk features along pipelines and adjacent areas. The features of risk identified during photointerpretation are digitized and georeferenced, thereby facilitating geoprocessing. All data statistics are then analyzed in such a way to identify areas of high risk for geotechnical occurrence. The analyses allowed for the creation of a risk index, which was calculated to portions of 5 km of the pipeline. Risk was ranked in terms of high, medium and low susceptibility to geotechnical accidents. The geotechnical thematic mapping (GTM) was then created to predict geotechnical risk areas. The GTM was also incorporated into the 2002 standard for management of pipeline structural integrity due to its capability of classifying pipeline routes according to susceptibility to geological-geotechnical accidents. Inspection frequency can be established based on this classification. In addition to measuring the effectiveness of applied engineering techniques, the monitoring will also improve the understanding of the evolution of rights-of-way. 18 refs., 3 tabs.

  20. ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Multibody Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fisette, Paul; Multibody Dynamics : Computational Methods and Applications

    2013-01-01

    This volume provides the international multibody dynamics community with an up-to-date view on the state of the art in this rapidly growing field of research which now plays a central role in the modeling, analysis, simulation and optimization of mechanical systems in a variety of fields and for a wide range of industrial applications. This book contains selected contributions delivered at the ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Multibody Dynamics, which was held in Brussels, Belgium and organized by the Université catholique de Louvain, from 4th to 7th July 2011.  Each paper reflects the State-of-Art in the application of Multibody Dynamics to different areas of engineering. They are enlarged and revised versions of the communications, which were enhanced in terms of self-containment and tutorial quality by the authors. The result is a comprehensive text that constitutes a valuable reference for researchers and design engineers which helps to appraise the potential for the application of multibody dynamics meth...

  1. A methodology to estimate greenhouse gases emissions in Life Cycle Inventories of wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, G.; Hospido, A.; Bagley, D.M.; Moreira, M.T.; Feijoo, G.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the Direct Emissions Estimation Model (DEEM), a model for the estimation of CO 2 and N 2 O emissions from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This model is consistent with non-specific but widely used models such as AS/AD and ASM no. 1 and presents the benefits of simplicity and application over a common WWTP simulation platform, BioWin®, making it suitable for Life Cycle Assessment and Carbon Footprint studies. Its application in a Spanish WWTP indicates direct N 2 O emissions to be 8 times larger than those associated with electricity use and thus relevant for LCA. CO 2 emissions can be of similar importance to electricity-associated ones provided that 20% of them are of non-biogenic origin. - Highlights: ► A model has been developed for the estimation of GHG emissions in WWTP. ► Model was consistent with both ASM no. 1 and AS/AD. ► N 2 O emissions are 8 times more relevant than the one associated with electricity. ► CO 2 emissions are as important as electricity if 20% of it is non-biogenic.

  2. A methodology to estimate greenhouse gases emissions in Life Cycle Inventories of wastewater treatment plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, G., E-mail: gonzalo.rodriguez.garcia@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Hospido, A., E-mail: almudena.hospido@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bagley, D.M., E-mail: bagley@uwyo.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Wyoming, 82072 Laramie, WY (United States); Moreira, M.T., E-mail: maite.moreira@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Feijoo, G., E-mail: gumersindo.feijoo@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2012-11-15

    The main objective of this paper is to present the Direct Emissions Estimation Model (DEEM), a model for the estimation of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This model is consistent with non-specific but widely used models such as AS/AD and ASM no. 1 and presents the benefits of simplicity and application over a common WWTP simulation platform, BioWin Registered-Sign , making it suitable for Life Cycle Assessment and Carbon Footprint studies. Its application in a Spanish WWTP indicates direct N{sub 2}O emissions to be 8 times larger than those associated with electricity use and thus relevant for LCA. CO{sub 2} emissions can be of similar importance to electricity-associated ones provided that 20% of them are of non-biogenic origin. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A model has been developed for the estimation of GHG emissions in WWTP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model was consistent with both ASM no. 1 and AS/AD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O emissions are 8 times more relevant than the one associated with electricity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions are as important as electricity if 20% of it is non-biogenic.

  3. Cost versus life cycle assessment-based environmental impact optimization of drinking water production plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanescu, F; Rege, S; Marvuglia, A; Benetto, E; Ahmadi, A; Gutiérrez, T Navarrete; Tiruta-Barna, L

    2016-07-15

    Empowering decision makers with cost-effective solutions for reducing industrial processes environmental burden, at both design and operation stages, is nowadays a major worldwide concern. The paper addresses this issue for the sector of drinking water production plants (DWPPs), seeking for optimal solutions trading-off operation cost and life cycle assessment (LCA)-based environmental impact while satisfying outlet water quality criteria. This leads to a challenging bi-objective constrained optimization problem, which relies on a computationally expensive intricate process-modelling simulator of the DWPP and has to be solved with limited computational budget. Since mathematical programming methods are unusable in this case, the paper examines the performances in tackling these challenges of six off-the-shelf state-of-the-art global meta-heuristic optimization algorithms, suitable for such simulation-based optimization, namely Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2), Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II), Indicator-based Evolutionary Algorithm (IBEA), Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm based on Decomposition (MOEA/D), Differential Evolution (DE), and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The results of optimization reveal that good reduction in both operating cost and environmental impact of the DWPP can be obtained. Furthermore, NSGA-II outperforms the other competing algorithms while MOEA/D and DE perform unexpectedly poorly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, water and land use for concentrated solar power plants with different energy backup systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Sharon J.W.; Rubin, Edward S.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrated solar power (CSP) is unique among intermittent renewable energy options because for the past four years, utility-scale plants have been using an energy storage technology that could allow a CSP plant to operate as a baseload renewable energy generator in the future. No study to-date has directly compared the environmental implications of this technology with more conventional CSP backup energy options. This study compares the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, and direct, onsite land use associated with one MW h of electricity production from CSP plants with wet and dry cooling and with three energy backup systems: (1) minimal backup (MB), (2) molten salt thermal energy storage (TES), and (3) a natural gas-fired heat transfer fluid heater (NG). Plants with NG had 4–9 times more life cycle GHG emissions than plants with TES. Plants with TES generally had twice as many life cycle GHG emissions as the MB plants. Dry cooling reduced life cycle water consumption by 71–78% compared to wet cooling. Plants with larger backup capacities had greater life cycle water consumption than plants with smaller backup capacities, and plants with NG had lower direct, onsite life cycle land use than plants with MB or TES. - highlights: • We assess life cycle environmental effects of concentrated solar power (CSP). • We compare CSP with three energy backup technologies and two cooling technologies. • We selected solar field area to minimize energy cost for plants with minimal backup and salt storage. • Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions were 4–9 times lower with thermal energy storage than with fossil fuel backup. • Dry cooling reduced life cycle water use by 71–78% compared to wet cooling

  5. Plant growth and mineral recycle trade-offs in different scenarios for a CELSS. [Closed Ecological Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, E. V.; Wydeven, T.; Spitze, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    Data for hydroponic plant growth in a manned system test is combined with nutritional recommendations to suport trade-off calculations for closed and partially closed life support system scenarios. Published data are used as guidelines for the masses of mineral nutrients needed for higher plant production. The results of calculations based on various scenarios are presented for various combinations of plant growth chamber utilization and fraction of mineral recycle. Estimates are made of the masses of material needed to meet human nutritional requirements in the various scenarios. It appears that food production from a plant growth chamber with mineral recycle is favorable to reduction of the total launch weight in missions exceeding 3 years.

  6. Application of risk based inspection as a part of life management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinod, Gopika; Babar, A.K.; Saraf, R.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Risk Informed approach is a systematic effort to improve plant safety in a more efficient manner by distributing the available safety resources depending on the importance to plant safety. This approach has found immense application in various aspects associated with Nuclear Power Plants, including design, manufacturing, operation and regulation. Typical applications of Risk Informed approach are in Technical Specification, In-Service Inspection (ISI) requirements, Motor Operated Valve testing, Configuration Control etc. In order to cater to such variety of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) based Risk Informed requirements, a software package, 'Risk Monitor' has been developed by the authors. An important application of Risk informed approach that has been undertaken for Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) is towards Risk Informed In-Service Inspection (RI-ISI). Studies are being conducted to evolve an inspection plan that is optimised to provide effective inspections at the right location with a proper inspection frequency. Using risk informed approach, the identification of system / component for inspection resource allocation is based on the results from Level 1 PSA of a NPP. Even though this methodology can be employed on any of the nuclear components/systems such as mechanical systems, instrumentation, etc., as a starting point, piping has been considered for employing Risk Informed Inspection. Plant risk assessment is modelled through the analysis of Core Damage Frequency (CDF) using PSA models. Risk Informed Inspection program of piping involves the estimation of failure probability or frequency of a piping segment and estimation of consequences of piping failures. ISI program changes could affect the failure probability values of piping and can introduce a change in CDF. These effects can be brought out through the implementation of Risk Informed inspection strategy. Various importance measures like Fussel-Vesely, Birnbaum

  7. Investigation on the geographical distribution and life form of plant species in sub alpine zone Karsanak region, Shahrekord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanbakhsh Pairanj

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in rangelands of Karsanak, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, which is regarded as one of the rich rangelands. Phytogeographically, this region is located in Irano-Turanian (zone of sub alpine. Endemic and rare plants were identified and geographical distribution and life form of identified plant species were investigated as well. Overall, 100 species from 17 families were identified from which 20 percent of identified species was endemic element of Irano-Turanian region. Results indicated that 75.7 percent of identified plants belonged to the Irano-Turanian and only 3 and 2 percent belonged to Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean regions respectively. The reason of high percentage of Irano-Turanian elements is probably the long distance of this region from other regions. Similarities of Irano-Turanian and Mediterranean were included 6.1 percent of identified plants and Irano-Turanian and Euro-Siberian included 2 percent. Results of life forms showed hemichryptophytes including 60 percent of life forms which indicate the cold and mountainous weather.

  8. Genomics and Evolution in Traditional Medicinal Plants: Road to a Healthier Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants have long been utilized in traditional medicine and ethnomedicine worldwide. This review presents a glimpse of the current status of and future trends in medicinal plant genomics, evolution, and phylogeny. These dynamic fields are at the intersection of phytochemistry and plant biology and are concerned with the evolution mechanisms and systematics of medicinal plant genomes, origin and evolution of the plant genotype and metabolic phenotype, interaction between medicinal plant genomes and their environment, the correlation between genomic diversity and metabolite diversity, and so on. Use of the emerging high-end genomic technologies can be expanded from crop plants to traditional medicinal plants, in order to expedite medicinal plant breeding and transform them into living factories of medicinal compounds. The utility of molecular phylogeny and phylogenomics in predicting chemodiversity and bioprospecting is also highlighted within the context of natural-product-based drug discovery and development. Representative case studies of medicinal plant genome, phylogeny, and evolution are summarized to exemplify the expansion of knowledge pedigree and the paradigm shift to the omics-based approaches, which update our awareness about plant genome evolution and enable the molecular breeding of medicinal plants and the sustainable utilization of plant pharmaceutical resources.

  9. Integrating life cycle assessment and emergy synthesis for the evaluation of a dry steam geothermal power plant in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonocore, Elvira; Vanoli, Laura; Carotenuto, Alberto; Ulgiati, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions, climate change and the rising energy demand are currently seen as most crucial environmental concerns. With the exploration of renewable energy sources to meet the challenges of energy security and climate change, geothermal energy is expected to play an important role. In this study a LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) and an EMA (Emergy Assessment) of a 20 MW dry steam geothermal power plant located in the Tuscany Region (Italy) are performed and discussed. The plant is able to produce electricity by utilizing locally available renewable resources together with a moderate support by non-renewable resources. This makes the geothermal source eligible to produce renewable electricity. However, the direct utilization of the geothermal fluid generates the release into the atmosphere of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, mercury, arsenic and other chemicals that highly contribute to climate change, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, human toxicity and photochemical oxidation. The study aims to understand to what extent the geothermal power plant is environmentally sound, in spite of claims by local populations, and if there are steps and/or components that require further attention. The application of the Emergy Synthesis method provides a complementary perspective to LCA, by highlighting the direct and indirect contribution in terms of natural capital and ecosystem services to the power plant construction and operation. The environmental impacts of the geothermal power plant are also compared to those of renewable and fossil-based power plants. The release of CO 2 -eq calculated for the investigated geothermal plant (248 g kWh −1 ) is lower than fossil fuel based power plants but still higher than renewable technologies like solar photovoltaic and hydropower plant. Moreover, the SO 2- eq release associated to the geothermal power plant (3.37 g kWh −1 ) is comparable with fossil fuel based power plants. Results suggest the

  10. Synthesis of Biomass and Utilization of Plant Wastes in a Physical Model of a Biological Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Lisovsky, G. M.; Kudenko, Yu A.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gribovksaya, I. V.; Tirranen, L. S.; Zolotukkhin, I. G.; Gros, J. B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    Biological life support systems (LSS) with highly closed intrasystem mass ex change mass ex change hold much promise for long-term human life support at planetary stations (Moon, Mars, etc.). The paper considers problems of biosynthesis of higher plants' biomass and "biological incineration" of plant wastes in a working physical model of biological LSS. The plant wastes are "biologically incinerated" in a special heterotroph block involving Californian worms, mushrooms and straw. The block processes plant wastes (straw, haulms) to produce soil-like substrate (SLS) on which plants (wheat, radish) are grown. Gas ex change in such a system consists of respiratory gas ex change of SLS and photosynthesis and respiration of plants. Specifics of gas ex change dynamics of high plants -SLS complex has been considered. Relationship between such a gas ex change and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) and age of plants has been established. SLS fertility has been shown to depend on its thickness and phase of maturity. The biogenic elements (potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen) in Liebig minimum have been found to include nitrogen which is the first to impair plants' growth in disruption of the process conditions. The SLS microflora has been found to have different kinds of ammonifying and denitrifying bacteria which is indicative of intensive transformation of nitrogen-containing compounds. The number of physiological groups of microorganisms in SLS was, on the whole, steady. As a result, organic substances -products of ex change of plants and microorganisms were not accumulated in the medium, but mineralized and assimilated by the biocenosis. Experiments showed that the developed model of a man-made ecosystem realized complete utilization of plant wastes and involved them into the intrasystem turnover. In multiple recycle of the mat ter (more than 5 cycles) under the irradiance intensity of 150 W/m2 PAR and the SLS mass (dry weight) of 17.7 -19.9 kg/m2 average total harvest of

  11. Genome analysis of medicinal Ganoderma spp. with plant-pathogenic and saprotrophic life-styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kües, Ursula; Nelson, David R; Liu, Chang; Yu, Guo-Jun; Zhang, Jianhui; Li, Jianqin; Wang, Xin-Cun; Sun, Hui

    2015-06-01

    Ganoderma is a fungal genus belonging to the Ganodermataceae family and Polyporales order. Plant-pathogenic species in this genus can cause severe diseases (stem, butt, and root rot) in economically important trees and perennial crops, especially in tropical countries. Ganoderma species are white rot fungi and have ecological importance in the breakdown of woody plants for nutrient mobilization. They possess effective machineries of lignocellulose-decomposing enzymes useful for bioenergy production and bioremediation. In addition, the genus contains many important species that produce pharmacologically active compounds used in health food and medicine. With the rapid adoption of next-generation DNA sequencing technologies, whole genome sequencing and systematic transcriptome analyses become affordable approaches to identify an organism's genes. In the last few years, numerous projects have been initiated to identify the genetic contents of several Ganoderma species, particularly in different strains of Ganoderma lucidum. In November 2013, eleven whole genome sequencing projects for Ganoderma species were registered in international databases, three of which were already completed with genomes being assembled to high quality. In addition to the nuclear genome, two mitochondrial genomes for Ganoderma species have also been reported. Complementing genome analysis, four transcriptome studies on various developmental stages of Ganoderma species have been performed. Information obtained from these studies has laid the foundation for the identification of genes involved in biological pathways that are critical for understanding the biology of Ganoderma, such as the mechanism of pathogenesis, the biosynthesis of active components, life cycle and cellular development, etc. With abundant genetic information becoming available, a few centralized resources have been established to disseminate the knowledge and integrate relevant data to support comparative genomic analyses of

  12. Redistribution of natural radioactive elements resulting from animal and plant life activity in regions with high radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malslov, V.I.; Maslova, K.I.; Alexakhin, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    A quantitative assessment is made of the influence of plant and animal life on the migration and redistribution of naturally occurring radionuclides in several localized areas with unusually high soil concentrations of 226 Ra, 238 U, or 232 Th. In the taiga and tundra zones examined, the effects of radionuclide accumulation in certain plant species and of the feeding and burrowing habits of small mammals were particularly significant. The observed regularities have predictive applications in assessing the redistribution of radionuclides in regions of high radioactivity

  13. The chooz a expert survey program and its main conclusions for plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelet, B.; Heuze, A.; Hennart, J.C.; Havard, P.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the importance of PWR components life management represents for Electricity Companies, significant R and D programs are dedicated to identifying and analysing mechanisms and damage rates of the different degradation modes of these components, systems and structures. To assess R and D assumptions and to validate non destructive test results through reviews, expert survey programs on in-situ equipment may enhance the knowledge about most of the various phenomena involved. In this regard, an extensive program was launched after the Chooz A NPP was decommissioned in 1991, after 24 years in operation. This program gathered EDF, IPSN, FRAMATOME, ELECTRABEL and TRACTEBEL into partnership. The expert survey program was performed in various laboratories between 1995 and 1999 and includes: - on-site non destructive testing before sampling, - and metallurgical and mechanical tests performed on samples taken from the nuclear and non nuclear part of the unit. The expert survey program performed by Utilities in various laboratories involved the following equipment: - reactor vessel and internal equipment, - reactor coolant system (dissimilar metal welds, SS welds, cast austenitic ferritic steels), - feedwater plant piping (erosion-corrosion), - electric cables susceptible of temperature and irradiation induced ageing, - anchoring in civil engineering structures, - main primary circuit concerning activation measurement. In conclusion, the extensive Chooz A expert survey program yields numerous significant results. The main outcomes will contribute to validate non destructive tests and enhance our knowledge of some degradation mechanisms of often quite similar components present in units in operation. It is worthy to note that this program is of prime importance for operation feedback; the cost of the whole study amounts to approximately 10 Million Euros. (author)

  14. Need for consent of a law extending the operating life of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degenhart, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the question whether a law extending nuclear power plant life beyond the residual periods of time laid down in the law of April 22, 2002 requires consent of the Federal Council. The Atomic Energy Act needed the consent of the Federal Council pursuant to Article 87c, Basic Law, as its Section 24 determines that central functions of licensing and supervision be exercised by the federal states on behalf of the Federal Government. This has not changed after the current version of the norm. Increasing the residual quotas of electricity by amending Annex 3 of Sec.7, Para.1a, Atomic Energy Act, per se does not require consent. This is a substantive provision. Sec.24, Atomic Energy Act, does not need to be amended. The Federal Council, which consented to the original legislation, thus does not bear continued responsibility for the law. Every law must be treated as a separate entity in terms of legislative method. The Federal Council, with its first consent to the piece of legislation, ''approves'' this systemic shift. Renewed consent is required only in case of another systemic shift. This is the case when the provision about administrative responsibility takes on a very different meaning and impact no longer supported by the earlier consent. According to decisions by the Federal Constitutional Court, this expressly applies also to administration by commission. What is required is a comparison of administrative duties before and after entry into force of the amending law; mere quantitative shifts of administrative burdens do not cause a systemic shift. Whether the inclusion of backfitting obligations would be associated with regulations in administrative procedures has not been decided. In its ruling of May 4, 2010, the Federal Constitutional Court confirms that these do not require consent within the framework of Art.85 Para.1, Basic Law. (orig.)

  15. Experiences with the technical cooperation project TC MEX 04/53. Evaluation of the integrity and extension of life of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. Management program of the plant life (PLIM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arganis J, C.R.; Aguilar T, J.A.; Guevara M, A.; Garcia M, C.; Martinez G, R.R.; Griz C, M.M.; Sanchez M, M.A.; Diaz O, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    In the biennium 2005-2006 the project of technical cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency OIEA TC MEX 04/53 'Evaluation of the integrity and extension of life of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant Plant life handling program (PLIM)' was approved, which has as objective the one to begin the actions to apply the methodology of Handling of life of Plant (PLIM) in the Unit I (Ul) of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central (CNLV), in order to obtain the Renovation of License (LR), in a long term (2020). To apply this methodology 5 systems they were selected, structures or components (SEC) to carry out the handling programs of the one aging (AMP), and PLIM which are: The encircling of the reactor core (Core Shroud), the pressure vessel of the reactor (Reactor Pressure Vessel), the one primary container (Primary Containment), the system of feeding water (Reactor Feed Water) and cables, which were not in this work to be of another nature. The report presents the more important aspects considered in these systems for their programs of AMP and PLIM, as like a revision of those selection processes and evaluation (screening and scoping) for the application of PLIM in the systems of the Ul of the CNLV. (Author)

  16. Africa burning: a thematic analysis of the Southern African regional science initiative (SAFARI 2000)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swap, RJ

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available at widely separated sites. Other important sources of aerosol and trace gas emissions were identified, including plant and soil microbial action, industrial, marine and mineral emissions. The strength of plant and soil sources vary in space and time... stream_source_info swap_2003.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 100489 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name swap_2003.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Africa burning: A thematic...

  17. Early Understanding of the Concept of Living Things: An Examination of Young Children's Drawings of Plant Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, José Domingo; Infante, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at the drawings of a sample of 118 children aged between 4 and 7 years old on the topic of plant life and relates the content to their knowledge of the concept of living things. The research project uses two types of tests: a task to analyse the level of understanding of the concept of living things and a free drawing activity.…

  18. International Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants. (IWG-LMNPP). Regular meeting. Working material. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    National programs of Hungary, Japan, Korea, Russian Federation, Bulgaria, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom and USA, related to nuclear power plants life management presented at the Technical Committee Meeting are published in this volume. The main features of the reports are oriented towards extension of NPP lifetime and conditions indispensable to achieve in order to fulfil the safety requirements including testing the mechanical properties of relevant reactor components

  19. International Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants. (IWG-LMNPP). Regular meeting. Working material. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    National programs of Argentina, Brazil, Belgium, Czech Republic, Canada, France and Germany related to nuclear power plants life management presented at the Technical Committee Meeting are published in this volume. Finnish report VTT-TIED-1843 included in this volume was already included separately in the INIS Database. The main features of the reports are oriented towards extension of NPP lifetime and conditions indispensable to achieve in order to fulfil the safety requirements including testing the mechanical properties of relevant reactor components

  20. Radiation exposure near Chernobyl based on analysis of conifer injury using thematic mapper satellite images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.; Ustin, S.L.; Sadowski, F.G.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation-induced damage in conifers adjacent to the damaged Chernobyl nuclear power plant has been evaluated using LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite images. Eight images acquired between 22 April 1986 and 15 May 1987 were used to assess the extent and magnitude of radiation effects on pine trees within 10 km of the reactor site. The timing and spatial extent of vegetation damaged was used to estimate the radiation doses in the near field around the Chernobyl nuclear power station and to indirectly derive the dose rates as a function of time during and after the accident. A normalized vegetation index was developed from the TM band data to visually demonstrate the damage and mortality to nearby conifer stands. The patterns of spectral change indicative of vegetation stress are consistent with changes expected for radiation injury and mortality. The extent and timing of these effects permitted the development of an integrated dose estimate, which was combined with the information regarding the characteristics of radionuclide mix, to provide an estimate of maximum dose rates during the early period of the accident. The derived peak dose rates during the 10-day release in the accident are high and are estimated at about 0.5 to 1 rad per hour. These are not considered life-threatening and would therefore require prompt but not immediate evacuation; that is, no off-site fatalities would be likely under such conditions. The methodology employed to combine remote-sensing analyses and the estimates of source term release with the known radiation effects on conifers represent a unique integration of these scientific and technical tools. The results of the study show that remote-sensing techniques can be used to develop a quantitative methodology for dosimetric applications and for future monitoring activities related to reactor safety

  1. Life cycle assessment of coal-fired power plants and sensitivity analysis of CO2 emissions from power generation side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Libao; Liao, Yanfen; Zhou, Lianjie; Wang, Zhao; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2017-05-01

    The life cycle assessment and environmental impacts of a 1000MW coal-fired power plant were carried out in this paper. The results showed that the operation energy consumption and pollutant emission of the power plant are the highest in all sub-process, which accounts for 93.93% of the total energy consumption and 92.20% of the total emission. Compared to other pollutant emissions from the coal-fired power plant, CO2 reached up to 99.28%. Therefore, the control of CO2 emission from the coal-fired power plants was very important. Based on the BP neural network, the amount of CO2 emission from the generation side of coal-fired power plants was calculated via carbon balance method. The results showed that unit capacity, coal quality and unit operation load had great influence on the CO2 emission from coal-fired power plants in Guangdong Province. The use of high volatile and high heat value of coal also can reduce the CO2 emissions. What’s more, under higher operation load condition, the CO2 emissions of 1 kWh electric energy was less.

  2. Swiss regulatory use of databanks for nuclear power plant life management, surveillance and safety analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipping, Ph.; Beutler, R.; Schoen, G.; Noeggerath, J.

    2002-01-01

    the type of input required and the necessary quality assurance (QA) for the data. It is shown that record keeping and DBs on reportable incidents, PSA data and material degradation in NPPs have an increasingly important and integral role to play in increasing reliability, safety and maintaining NPP operational and life management goals. Lessons learned provide the foundation for creating vigilant and questioning attitudes, which are essential for maintaining safety. Safe operation of a NPP is clearly a prerequisite for optimum plant performance and life management. (author)

  3. Analysis of the thematic content of review Nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Valdes, Ramiro

    2007-01-01

    A computer programme for performing standardized analysis of research areas and key concepts of nuclear science and technology under development at Cubaenergia is presented. Main components of the information processing system, as well as computational methods and modules for thematic content analysis of INIS Database record files are described. Results of thematic content analysis of review Nucleus from 1986 to 2005 are shown. Furthermore, results of demonstrative study Nucleus, Science, Technology and Society are also shown. The results provide new elements to asses the significance of the thematic content of review Nucleus in the context of innovation in interrelated multidisciplinary research areas

  4. A field experiment demonstrating plant life-history evolution and its eco-evolutionary feedback to seed predator populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Johnson, Marc T J; Hastings, Amy P; Maron, John L

    2013-05-01

    The extent to which evolutionary change occurs in a predictable manner under field conditions and how evolutionary changes feed back to influence ecological dynamics are fundamental, yet unresolved, questions. To address these issues, we established eight replicate populations of native common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis). Each population was planted with 18 genotypes in identical frequency. By tracking genotype frequencies with microsatellite DNA markers over the subsequent three years (up to three generations, ≈5,000 genotyped plants), we show rapid and consistent evolution of two heritable plant life-history traits (shorter life span and later flowering time). This rapid evolution was only partially the result of differential seed production; genotypic variation in seed germination also contributed to the observed evolutionary response. Since evening primrose genotypes exhibited heritable variation for resistance to insect herbivores, which was related to flowering time, we predicted that evolutionary changes in genotype frequencies would feed back to influence populations of a seed predator moth that specializes on O. biennis. By the conclusion of the experiment, variation in the genotypic composition among our eight replicate field populations was highly predictive of moth abundance. These results demonstrate how rapid evolution in field populations of a native plant can influence ecological interactions.

  5. In-situ metallography for damage assessment and life extension in power plants- a few case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghu, N.; Muralidharan, N.G.; Jayakumar, T.; Kasiviswanathan, K.V.

    1996-01-01

    In-service inspection of components in power plants is necessary for damage assessment, life prediction and extension. The useful life of some of the components like pipelines are most crucial in case they are exposed to the conditions of high temperature and pressure. Periodic inservice inspection by means of non-destructive testing to obtain information on damage assessment is carried out as a routine and mandatory procedure. During these inspections, only reduction in localised and uniform wall thickness are measured. However, the microstructural degradation due to both normal and abnormal temperatures occurring conditions are not revealed by conventional non-destructive test methods during this routine inspection. For life prediction and extension programme, the information on microstructural degradation is essential and the same can be studies in an effective manner through in-situ metallography technique. (author)

  6. Effectiveness of beneficial plant-microbe interactions under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions in an advanced life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Olathe; Stasiak, Michael; Cottenie, Karl; Trevors, Jack; Dixon, Mike

    An assembled microbial community in the hydroponics solution of an advanced life support system may improve plant performance and productivity in three ways: (1) exclusion of plant pathogens from the initial community, (2) resistance to infection, and (3) plant-growth promotion. However, the plant production area is likely to have a hypobaric (low pressure) and hypoxic (low oxygen) atmosphere to reduce structural mass and atmosphere leakage, and these conditions may alter plant-microbe interactions. Plant performance and productivity of radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb II) grown under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions were investigated at the University of Guelph's Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility. Changes in the microbial communities that routinely colonized the re-circulated nutrient solution, roots, and leaves of radishes in these experiments were quantified in terms of similarity in community composition, abundance of bacteria, and community diversity before and after exposure to hypobaric and hypoxic conditions relative to communities maintained at ambient growth conditions. The microbial succession was affected by extreme hypoxia (2 kPa oxygen partial pressure) while hypobaria as low as 10 kPa total pressure had little effect on microbial ecology. There were no correlations found between the physiological profile of these unintentional microbial communities and radish growth. The effects of hypobaric and hypoxic conditions on specific plant-microbe interactions need to be determined before beneficial gnotobiotic communities can be developed for use in space. The bacterial strains Tal 629 of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and WCS417 of Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani will be used in future experiments. B. japonicum Tal 629 promotes radish growth in hydroponics systems and P. fluorescens WCS417 induces systemic resistance to fusarium wilt (F. oxysporum f. sp. raphani) in radish under ambient

  7. Advanced steam power plant concepts with optimized life-cycle costs: A new approach for maximum customer benefit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiter, C.

    1998-07-01

    The use of coal power generation applications is currently enjoying a renaissance. New highly efficient and cost-effective plant concepts together with environmental protection technologies are the main factors in this development. In addition, coal is available on the world market at attractive prices and in many places it is more readily available than gas. At the economical leading edge, standard power plant concepts have been developed to meet the requirements of emerging power markets. These concepts incorporate the high technological state-of-the-art and are designed to achieve lowest life-cycle costs. Low capital cost, fuel costs and operating costs in combination with shortest lead times are the main assets that make these plants attractive especially for IPPs and Developers. Other aspects of these comprehensive concepts include turnkey construction and the willingness to participate in BOO/BOT projects. One of the various examples of such a concept, the 2 x 610-MW Paiton Private Power Project Phase II in Indonesia, is described in this paper. At the technological leading edge, Siemens has always made a major contribution and was pacemaker for new developments in steam power plant technology. Modern coal-fired steam power plants use computer-optimized process and plant design as well as advanced materials, and achieve efficiencies exceeding 45%. One excellent example of this high technology is the world's largest lignite-fired steam power plant Schwarze Pumpe in Germany, which is equipped with two 800 MW Siemens steam turbine generators with supercritical steam parameters. The world's largest 50-Hz single-shaft turbine generator with supercritical steam parameters rated at 1025 MW for the Niederaussem lignite-fired steam power plant in Germany is a further example of the sophisticated Siemens steam turbine technology and sets a new benchmark in this field.

  8. Development of procedural requirements for life extension of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Son, Moon Kyu [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Cheol Hun [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Keun Sun [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Won Phil [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Ji Hwan [Baekseok College Cultural Studies, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    Current status of regulatory aspects of life extension and upgrading of NPPs is reviewed for major foreign countries. Most countries require similar technical requirements; however, procedural aspects differ country by country. Regulatory systems suitable for NPP life extension is investigated. The procedure and requirements for reassessment of design life should be established first; then it can be incorporated into the PSR system. The concept of 'Current Licensing Basis (CLB)' can be adopted in Korea, but further elaboration for terms and definitions is needed for common understanding between interested groups. The procedure for maintenance and backfitting should also be improved. The Systems, Structures, and Components (SSCs) that require development of regulatory requirements for life extension are identified based on extensive analysis of foreign experiences. By analyzing the rules and regulations related to life extension. Basic directions are suggested to harmonize or establish regulatory systems for life extension, two-step licensing, PSR, and backfitting.

  9. Life in the dark: Roots and how they regulate plant-soil interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Chou, C.; Peruzzo, L.; Riley, W. J.; Hao, Z.; Petrov, P.; Newman, G. A.; Versteeg, R.; Blancaflor, E.; Ma, X.; Dafflon, B.; Brodie, E.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Roots play a key role in regulating interactions between soil and plants, an important biosphere process critical for soil development and health, global food security, carbon sequestration, and the cycling of elements (water, carbon, nutrients, and environmental contaminants). However, their underground location has hindered studies of plant roots and the role they play in regulating plant-soil interactions. Technological limitations for root phenotyping and the lack of an integrated approach capable of linking root development, its environmental adaptation/modification with subsequent impact on plant health and productivity are major challenges faced by scientists as they seek to understand the plant's hidden half. To overcome these challenges, we combine novel experimental methods with numerical simulations, and conduct controlled studies to explore the dynamic growth of crop roots. We ask how roots adapt to and change the soil environment and their subsequent impacts on plant health and productivity. Specifically, our efforts are focused on (1) developing novel geophysical approaches for non-invasive plant root and rhizosphere characterization; (2) correlating root developments with key canopy traits indicative of plant health and productivity; (3) developing numerical algorithms for novel geophysical root signal processing; (4) establishing plant growth models to explore root-soil interactions and above and below ground traits co-variabilities; and (5) exploring how root development modifies rhizosphere physical, hydrological, and geochemical environments for adaptation and survival. Our preliminary results highlight the potential of using electro-geophysical methods to quantifying key rhizosphere traits, the capability of the ecosys model for mechanistic plant growth simulation and traits correlation exploration, and the combination of multi-physics and numerical approach for a systematic understanding of root growth dynamics, impacts on soil physicochemical

  10. Timing of seasonal migration in mule deer: effects of climate, plant phenology, and life-history characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Kevin L.; Bleich, Vernon C.; Stephenson, Thomas R.; Pierce, Beck M.; Conner, Mary M.; Klaver, Robert W.; Bowyer, R. Terry

    2011-01-01

    Phenological events of plants and animals are sensitive to climatic processes. Migration is a life-history event exhibited by most large herbivores living in seasonal environments, and is thought to occur in response to dynamics of forage and weather. Decisions regarding when to migrate, however, may be affected by differences in life-history characteristics of individuals. Long-term and intensive study of a population of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, allowed us to document patterns of migration during 11 years that encompassed a wide array of environmental conditions. We used two new techniques to properly account for interval-censored data and disentangle effects of broad-scale climate, local weather patterns, and plant phenology on seasonal patterns of migration, while incorporating effects of individual life-history characteristics. Timing of autumn migration varied substantially among individual deer, but was associated with the severity of winter weather, and in particular, snow depth and cold temperatures. Migratory responses to winter weather, however, were affected by age, nutritional condition, and summer residency of individual females. Old females and those in good nutritional condition risked encountering severe weather by delaying autumn migration, and were thus risk-prone with respect to the potential loss of foraging opportunities in deep snow compared with young females and those in poor nutritional condition. Females that summered on the west side of the crest of the Sierra Nevada delayed autumn migration relative to east-side females, which supports the influence of the local environment on timing of migration. In contrast, timing of spring migration was unrelated to individual life-history characteristics, was nearly twice as synchronous as autumn migration, differed among years, was related to the southern oscillation index, and was influenced by absolute snow depth and advancing phenology of plants

  11. Nuclear power plant life management processes: Guidelines and practices for heavy water reactors. Report prepared within the framework of the Technical Working Groups on Advanced Technologies for Heavy Water Reactors and on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    The time is right to address nuclear power plant life management and ageing management issues in terms of processes and refurbishments for long term operation and license renewal aspects of heavy water reactors (HWRs) because some HWRs are close to the design life. In general, HWR nuclear power plant (NPP) owners would like to keep their NPPs in service as long as they can be operated safely and economically. This involves the consideration of a number of factors, such as the material condition of the plant, comparison with current safety standards, the socio-political climate and asset management/ business planning considerations. This TECDOC deals with organizational and managerial means to implement effective plan life management (PLiM) into existing plant in operating HWR NPPs. This TECDOC discusses the current trend of PLiM observed in NPPs to date and an overview of PLiM programmes and considerations. This includes key objectives of such programs, regulatory considerations, an overall integrated approach, organizational and technology infrastructure considerations, importance of effective plant data management and finally, human issues related to ageing and finally integration of PLiM with economic planning. Also general approach to HWR PLiM, including the key PLiM processes, life assessment for critical structures and components, conditions assessment of structures and components and obsolescence is mentioned. Technical aspects are described on component specific technology considerations for condition assessment, example of a proactive ageing management programme, and Ontario power generation experiences in appendices. Also country reports from Argentina, Canada, India, the Republic of Korea and Romania are attached in the annex to share practices and experiences to PLiM programme. This TECDOC is primarily addressed to both the management (decision makers) and technical staff (engineers and scientists) of NPP owners/operators and technical support

  12. Plant phenotype - Arabidopsis Phenome Database | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of organs, tissues, development stages. The vocabulary is defined in Plant Ontology(PO). Qualities: Characte...ristics, attributes of entities. The vocabulary is defined in Phenotype Ontology(PATO). Data file File name:...w/riken_piam_phenome#en Data acquisition method Plant Ontology, Phenotype Ontology Data analysis method - Nu

  13. Plant Pathology: A Life and Death Struggle in Rice Blast Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-Min

    2016-09-26

    The fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae causes severe disease symptoms and yield losses on rice plants. A new study shows that this fungus elicits disease lesions by co-opting a host protein and reveals how rice plants fight back. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mobile dune fixation by a fast-growing clonal plant : a full life-cycle analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Shou-Li; Yu, Fei-Hai; Werger, Marinus J A; Dong, Ming; During, Heinjo J; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2015-01-01

    Desertification is a global environmental problem, and arid dunes with sparse vegetation are especially vulnerable to desertification. One way to combat desertification is to increase vegetation cover by planting plant species that can realize fast population expansion, even in harsh environments.

  15. Mobile dune fixation by a fast-growing clonal plant: a full life-cycle analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werger, M.J.A.; During, H.J.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Desertification is a global environmental problem, and arid dunes with sparse vegetation are especially vulnerable to desertification. One way to combat desertification is to increase vegetation cover by planting plant species that can realize fast population expansion, even in harsh environments.

  16. Uncovering the abilities of Agaricus bisporus to degrade plant biomass throughout its life cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patyshakuliyeva, A.; Post, H.; Zhou, M.; Jurak, E.; Heck, A.J.R.; Hilden, K.S.; Kabel, M.A.; Makela, M.R.; Altenaar, M.A.F.; Vries, de R.P.

    2015-01-01

    The economically important edible basidiomycete mushroom Agaricus bisporus thrives on decaying plant material in forests and grasslands of North America and Europe. It degrades forest litter and con-tributes to global carbon recycling, depolymerizing (hemi-)cellulose and lignin in plant biomass.

  17. The UNESCO Thematic Initiative ``Astronomy and World Heritage''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, Anna

    2016-10-01

    My presentation is divided into two parts: the first part retraces chronologically all the main achievements accomplished within the framework of this Thematic Initiative; the second provides key information regarding the nomination process.

  18. Conducting qualitative research in mental health: Thematic and content analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Marie; Inder, Maree; Porter, Richard

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe two methods of qualitative analysis - thematic analysis and content analysis - and to examine their use in a mental health context. A description of the processes of thematic analysis and content analysis is provided. These processes are then illustrated by conducting two analyses of the same qualitative data. Transcripts of qualitative interviews are analysed using each method to illustrate these processes. The illustration of the processes highlights the different outcomes from the same set of data. Thematic and content analyses are qualitative methods that serve different research purposes. Thematic analysis provides an interpretation of participants' meanings, while content analysis is a direct representation of participants' responses. These methods provide two ways of understanding meanings and experiences and provide important knowledge in a mental health context. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS ON THEMATIC IMAGE CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscape characteristics such as small patch size and land cover heterogeneity have been hypothesized to increase the likelihood of misclassifying pixels during thematic image classification. However, there has been a lack of empirical evidence, to support these hypotheses. This...

  20. Applying thematic analysis theory to practice: a researcher's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckett, Anthony G

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an experience of thematic analysis. In order to answer the question 'What does analysis look like in practice?' it describes in brief how the methodology of grounded theory, the epistemology of social constructionism, and the theoretical stance of symbolic interactionism inform analysis. Additionally, analysis is examined by evidencing the systematic processes--here termed organising, coding, writing, theorising, and reading--that led the researcher to develop a final thematic schema.

  1. A Study on the Spontaneous Representation of Animals in Young Children’s Drawings of Plant Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Domingo Villarroel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that complex biological concepts may be successfully introduced in preschool age, provided that suitable educational interventions are designed for the initial stages of education. In this regard, there is evidence that a basic understanding of the issue of the ecological interactions among organisms may be achieved in the preschool years. With this in mind, this research project tests the assumption that recognising the fact that plants and animals are not isolated creatures, but live engaged in constant interactions in nature, may begin to be understood in early education. To that end, this study examines the content of free drawings that a sample of 328 children aged four to seven years of age, undertook when explaining their understanding of plant life. Data regarding the type and frequency of the depictions of animals found in the children’s graphic explanations on flora is collected and read in conjunction with participants’ gender and academic level. The results show that a substantial proportion of the children in the sample spontaneously drew illustrations of animals in their graphic explanations concerning vegetable life and, more significantly, some pictures show plants and animals engaged in clear contact. This is the case, despite the fact that the drawing activity had been focused solely on the issue of plant life and no indication linked to depicting other kinds of living things mentioned during the activity. The conclusions discuss the data collected in connection with the growing number of research projects that study the question of how young children begin to embrace the fundamental biological concepts that pave the way to the understanding of natural phenomena and make the public capable of making responsible choices when it comes to sustainability issues.

  2. Development of a web-based fatigue life evaluation system for primary components in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Hyong Won; Lee, Sang Min; Choi, Jae Boong; Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Sung Nam; Jang, Ki Sang; Hong, Sung Yull

    2004-01-01

    A nuclear power plant is composed of a number of primary components. Maintaining the integrity of these components is one of the most critical issues in nuclear industry. In order to maintain the integrity of these primary components, a complicated procedure is required including regular in-service inspection, failure assessment, fracture mechanics analysis, etc. Also, experts in different fields have to co-operate to resolve the integrity issues on the basis of inspection results. This integrity evaluation process usually takes long, and thus, is detrimental for the plant productivity. Therefore, an effective safety evaluation system is essential to manage the integrity issues on a nuclear power plant. In this paper, a web-based fatigue life evaluation system for primary components in nuclear power plant is proposed. This system provides engineering knowledge-based information and concurrent and collaborative working environment through internet, and thus, is expected to raise the efficiency of integrity evaluation procedures on primary components of a nuclear power plant

  3. Plantas medicinais: o saber sustentado na prática do cotidiano popular Medicinal plants: the knowledge sustained by daily life practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rossato Badke

    2011-03-01

    para la necesidad de una aproximación entre el saber popular y el conocimiento científico, y también para la creación de proyectos que trabajan con este tema.The objective of this work was to know the daily life of people living in the community assisted by a Family Health Unit in a Rio Grande do Sul city, about the therapeutic use of medicinal plants in health care. This is a qualitative research, with data collection through semi-structured interview and observation as participant. The ten interviewees, users of medicinal plants, nominated to the unit, were selected by the network of relationships. Thematic analysis was performed that allowed the emergence of categories. It was verified that the use of homemade tea is common among the participants and that most of the medicinal plants used by the interviewees have their popular therapeutics indications as those found in scientific literature. It is believed that the research has relevance for nurses and for society, so it points to a necessary approach between the popular and scientific knowledge, and also to create projects that work with this theme.

  4. A concept of a component based system to determine pot-plant shelf-life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Körner, Oliver; Skou, Anne-Marie Thonning; Aaslyng, Jesper Peter Mazanti

    2006-01-01

    to calculate the expected keeping quality, or it will be able to apply the system as decision support during plant cultivation. In the latter case, the model-based system can be implemented in a greenhouse climate computer. The concept contains information on climate control strategies, controlled stress......, the keeping quality of a plant after removal from the greenhouse could be estimated. A concept of a system that describes a model based knowledge system aiming at determination of the last selling date for pot plants is presented. The core of the conceptual system is a tool that can either be used......, diseases, nutrient management and substrates....

  5. Flow accelerated corrosion and life management of the secondary circuit of the Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chocron, Mauricio; La Gamma, Ana M.; Fernandez, Narciso; Moyano, Ricardo; Schiersmann, Christian; Ovando, Luis E.; Sainz, Ricardo A.; Keitelman, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Flow accelerated corrosion is a matter of concern in secondary circuits of nuclear power plants as well as in fossil fired plants. It contributes to the piping wall thinning and to the corrosion products transport to the steam generators. Because it is a generalized corrosion phenomena, could address to extensive failures. In that sense the plants conduct extensive programs of surveillance of piping degradation. Because the problem involves many variables like alloys, water chemistry and hydrodynamics several models have been proposed in the literature. In the present paper the variables have been organized in a spreadsheet which allows the calculation of normalized risk factors. (author)

  6. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment and Cost Analysis of Bath Wastewater Treatment Plant Upgrades - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many municipalities are facing the call to increase nutrient removal performance of their wastewater treatment plants in order to limit the impacts of eutrophication on the receiving waterbodies. The associated upgrades often demand investment in new technologies and increases in...

  7. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment and Cost Analysis of Bath, NY Wastewater Treatment Plant: Potential Upgrade Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many communities across the U.S. are required to upgrade wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) to meet increasingly stringent nutrient effluent standards. However, increased capital, energy and chemical requirements of upgrades create potential trade-offs between eutrophication pot...

  8. The genome and life-stage specific transcriptomes of Globodera pallida elucidate key aspects of plant parasitism by a cyst nematode

    KAUST Repository

    Cotton, James A; Lilley, Catherine J; Jones, Laura M; Kikuchi, Taisei; Reid, Adam J; Thorpe, Peter; Tsai, Isheng J; Beasley, Helen; Blok, Vivian; Cock, Peter J A; den Akker, Sebastian Eves-van; Holroyd, Nancy; Hunt, Martin; Mantelin, Sophie; Naghra, Hardeep; Pain, Arnab; Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Berriman, Matthew; Jones, John T; Urwin, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    -knot nematodes are the two most important plant parasitic nematode groups and together represent a global threat to food security. Results: We present the complete genome sequence of G. pallida, together with transcriptomic data from most of the nematode life

  9. Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission impacts of different corn ethanol plant types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Michael; Wu, May; Hong Huo

    2007-01-01

    Since the United States began a programme to develop ethanol as a transportation fuel, its use has increased from 175 million gallons in 1980 to 4.9 billion gallons in 2006. Virtually all of the ethanol used for transportation has been produced from corn. During the period of fuel ethanol growth, corn farming productivity has increased dramatically, and energy use in ethanol plants has been reduced by almost by half. The majority of corn ethanol plants are powered by natural gas. However, as natural gas prices have skyrocketed over the last several years, efforts have been made to further reduce the energy used in ethanol plants or to switch from natural gas to other fuels, such as coal and wood chips. In this paper, we examine nine corn ethanol plant types-categorized according to the type of process fuels employed, use of combined heat and power, and production of wet distiller grains and solubles. We found that these ethanol plant types can have distinctly different energy and greenhouse gas emission effects on a full fuel-cycle basis. In particular, greenhouse gas emission impacts can vary significantly-from a 3% increase if coal is the process fuel to a 52% reduction if wood chips are used. Our results show that, in order to achieve energy and greenhouse gas emission benefits, researchers need to closely examine and differentiate among the types of plants used to produce corn ethanol so that corn ethanol production would move towards a more sustainable path

  10. TAPS-1 and 2 upgradation: a new lease of life to the vintage plant of 1960 design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.P.; Sharma, B.L.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Ramamurty, U.; Mittal, Subhash

    2006-01-01

    Improvements and modifications in Nuclear Power Plants design and safety is a continuous process to maintain the highest safety standards and for the survival of the nuclear industry in the today's competitive world. Old plants modifications are aimed at to reduce the risk posed by equipment degradation and outdated systems. Due to these considerations plant up gradation becomes inevitable to preclude the possibility of severe accidents. Tarapur Atomic Power Station 1 and 2 (TAPS 1 and 2) is a twin Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power station, with each unit operating at 160 MWe. Both the units were commissioned in the year 1969 and have completed about 36 years of commercial operation. The systems and equipment layout of this plant is based upon the BWR design criteria's prevailing at that time. As the plant had operated for more than three decades, it was felt prudent to assess the condition of plant structures, systems and components and apply the new design criteria's of the latest design nuclear plants to determine the need for system modifications and life extension of the plant. The detailed review of the plant included the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) studies, aging degradations of structures, systems and components, operating experiences, seismic studies and design review based upon the General Design Criteria's, codes and guides. The reviews were carried out by expert groups and completed in about three years. The proposed modifications were mainly about the change in equipment layout and unit wise segregation of electrical and mechanical systems and replacement of the 3 x 50 % capacity emergency diesel generators with 3 x 100 % capacity diesel generators apart from aging related inspections/replacements and seismic up grades. The shared systems such as control rod drive hydraulic system, reactor shut down cooling system, de-linking of fuel pool cooling system from reactor shut down cooling system and power supply to the neutron monitoring

  11. Use of a life simulator and SPDS for a nuclear plant emergency preparedness exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.; Anderson, J.; Goldman, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that in one of the first such efforts in the nuclear industry, Perry Nuclear Power Plant (PNPP) engineered its Control Room Simulator system to provide real-time live scenario data to the PNPP Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) during its 1989 Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Evaluated Emergency Preparedness Exercise. A Scenario Team developed realistic scenarios built upon exercise objectives coupled with Simulator capabilities. Free play by participants was an underlying objective of the Scenario Team. For the exercise, the Simulator SPDS was connected via telephone lines and modems to actual SPDS display units in two remote facilities: the Technical Support Center (TSC) and Emergency Operations Facility (EOF). Since the PNPP Simulator does not presently model radiological parameters, radiological data was input separately from plant scenario thermodynamic/mechanical/electrical data. During the exercise, plant operators at the Simulator manipulated plant controls to start/stop components or systems as needed for the exercise conditions. Players in the TSC and EOF were able to see and track plant conditions on a real-time basis

  12. Probabilistic life-cycle cost analysis for renewable and non-renewable power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartelle Barros, Juan José; Lara Coira, Manuel; Cruz López, María Pilar de la; Caño Gochi, Alfredo del

    2016-01-01

    Two probabilistic models are presented to assess the costs of power plants. One of them uses requirement trees, value functions and the analytic hierarchy process. It is also based on Monte Carlo simulation. The second one is a mathematical model for calculating the levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) based on discounted cash flow techniques, and combined with Monte Carlo simulation. The results obtained with both models are compared and discussed. On the one hand, the LCOE model provides the most reliable results. These results reinforce the idea that conventional or coal, lignite, oil, natural gas and nuclear power plants are still the most competitive options, with the LCOE falling in a range of around 25 to 200 €/MWh and mean values approaching 70 €/MWh. Generally, renewable power plants obtained the worst results, with a LCOE varying from around 30 to more than 450 €/MWh. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that renewable alternatives can compete with their conventional counterparts under certain conditions. - Highlights: • Two probabilistic models are presented to assess the costs of power plants. • Conventional power plants are still the most competitive options. • Renewable energies can compete with their conventional counterparts under certain conditions. • The model aids the decision making process in the energy policy field.

  13. Life Cycle Assessment of Producing Electricity in Thailand: A Case Study of Natural Gas Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usapein Parnuwat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impacts from natural gas power plant in Thailand was investigated in this study. The objective was to identify the hotspot of environmental impact from electricity production and the allocation of emissions from power plant was studied. All stressors to environment were collected for annual natural gas power plant operation. The allocation of environmental load between electricity and steam was done by WRI/WBCSD method. Based on the annual power plant operation, the highest of environmental impact was fuel combustion, followed by natural gas extraction, and chemical reagent. After allocation, the result found that 1 kWh of electricity generated 0.425 kgCO2eq and 1 ton of steam generated 225 kgCO2eq. When compared based on 1GJ of energy product, the result showed that the environmental impact of electricity is higher than steam product. To improve the environmental performance, it should be focused on the fuel combustion, for example, increasing the efficiency of gas turbine, and using low sulphur content of natural gas. This result can be used as guideline for stakeholder who engage with the environmental impact from power plant; furthermore, it can be useful for policy maker to understand the allocation method between electricity and steam products.

  14. Safety margin evaluation concepts for plant Up rates and life extension. Results of the OECD/NEA/CSNI working group on Safety Margin Action Plan (SMAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belac, J

    2006-01-01

    This presentation summarizes results of the OECD/NEA/CSNI working group on Safety Margin Action Plan (SMAP) aimed to develop generalized safety margin concept and means of its quantification for the process of evaluating plant safety in the frame of plant life extension and power up rating activities to be used by OECD member countries. (author)

  15. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES--INTEGRATED LIFE-CYCLE OPTIMIZATION INITIATIVES FOR THE HANFORD RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT--WASTE TREATMENT PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auclair, K. D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the ongoing integrated life-cycle optimization efforts to achieve both design flexibility and design stability for activities associated with the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford. Design flexibility is required to support the Department of Energy Office of River Protection Balance of Mission objectives, and design stability to meet the Waste Treatment Plant construction and commissioning requirements in order to produce first glass in 2007. The Waste Treatment Plant is a large complex project that is driven by both technology and contractual requirements. It is also part of a larger overall mission, as a component of the River Protection Project, which is driven by programmatic requirements and regulatory, legal, and fiscal constraints. These issues are further complicated by the fact that both of the major contractors involved have a different contract type with DOE, and neither has a contract with the other. This combination of technical and programmatic drivers, constraints, and requirements will continue to provide challenges and opportunities for improvement and optimization. The Bechtel National, Inc. team is under contract to engineer, procure, construct, commission and test the Waste Treatment Plant on or ahead of schedule, at or under cost, and with a throughput capacity equal to or better than specified. The Department of Energy is tasked with the long term mission of waste retrieval, treatment, and disposal. While each mission is a compliment and inextricably linked to one another, they are also at opposite ends of the spectrum, in terms of expectations of one another. These mission requirements, that are seemingly in opposition to one another, pose the single largest challenge and opportunity for optimization: one of balance. While it is recognized that design maturation and optimization are the normal responsibility of any engineering firm responsible for any given project, the aspects of integrating requirements and the management

  16. Reducing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol by integrating biomass to produce heat and power at ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliyan, Nalladurai; Morey, R. Vance; Tiffany, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) of corn ethanol was conducted to determine the reduction in the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for corn ethanol compared to gasoline by integrating biomass fuels to replace fossil fuels (natural gas and grid electricity) in a U.S. Midwest dry-grind corn ethanol plant producing 0.19 hm 3 y -1 of denatured ethanol. The biomass fuels studied are corn stover and ethanol co-products [dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and syrup (solubles portion of DDGS)]. The biomass conversion technologies/systems considered are process heat (PH) only systems, combined heat and power (CHP) systems, and biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) systems. The life-cycle GHG emission reduction for corn ethanol compared to gasoline is 38.9% for PH with natural gas, 57.7% for PH with corn stover, 79.1% for CHP with corn stover, 78.2% for IGCC with natural gas, 119.0% for BIGCC with corn stover, and 111.4% for BIGCC with syrup and stover. These GHG emission estimates do not include indirect land use change effects. GHG emission reductions for CHP, IGCC, and BIGCC include power sent to the grid which replaces electricity from coal. BIGCC results in greater reductions in GHG emissions than IGCC with natural gas because biomass is substituted for fossil fuels. In addition, underground sequestration of CO 2 gas from the ethanol plant's fermentation tank could further reduce the life-cycle GHG emission for corn ethanol by 32% compared to gasoline.

  17. Plant life forms in thermal regulation and self purification of urban housing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, S H [Osmania Univ., Ecology and Environmental Studies Div., Hyderabad (India)

    1995-12-01

    This article is concerned with the air quality of the closed indoor environment with respect to its temperature and carbon dioxide levels and with the assessment of management practices that have been used to reduce temperature and carbon dioxide levels with the help of certain plants. Phanerophytic lifeforms, such as trees, shrubs, herbs and creepers surrounding dwellings can be shown to produce a cooling effect, reducing temperatures by up to 11{sup o}C. Certain succulent plants like Kalanchoe marmorata, Bryophyllum pinnata and Apicra deltoideae were observed under experimental conditions to reduce carbon dioxide levels up to 90% from closed chambers under dark conditions. Certain ornamental plants such as Verbena bipinnatifida and Ixora coccinea could remove 63-75% of carbon dioxide from closed indoor environments in the presence of light. (author) 3 tabs., 11 refs.

  18. Hermeneutic phenomenological analysis: the 'possibility' beyond 'actuality' in thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ken H M; Chiang, Vico C L; Leung, Doris

    2017-07-01

    This article discusses the ways researchers may become open to manifold interpretations of lived experience through thematic analysis that follows the tradition of hermeneutic phenomenology. Martin Heidegger's thinking about historical contexts of understandings and the notions of 'alētheia' and 'techne' disclose what he called meaning of lived experience, as the 'unchanging Being of changing beings'. While these notions remain central to hermeneutic phenomenological research, novice phenomenologists usually face the problem of how to incorporate these philosophical tenets into thematic analysis. Discussion paper. This discussion paper is based on our experiences of hermeneutic analysis supported by the writings of Heidegger. Literature reviewed for this paper ranges from 1927 - 2014. We draw on data from a study of foreign domestic helpers in Hong Kong to demonstrate how 'dwelling' in the language of participants' 'ek-sistence' supported us in a process of thematic analysis. Data were collected from December 2013 - February 2016. Nurses doing hermeneutic phenomenology have to develop self-awareness of one's own 'taken-for-granted' thinking to disclose the unspoken meanings hidden in the language of participants. Understanding the philosophical tenets of hermeneutic phenomenology allows nurses to preserve possibilities of interpretations in thinking. In so doing, methods of thematic analysis can uncover and present the structure of the meaning of lived experience. We provide our readers with vicarious experience of how to begin cultivating thinking that is aligned with hermeneutic phenomenological philosophical tenets to conduct thematic analysis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. 24. MPA-seminar: safety and reliability of plant technology with special emphasis on integrity and life management. Vol. 2. Papers 28-63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The second volume is dedicated to the safety and reliability of plant technology with special emphasis on the integrity and life management. The following topics are discussed: 1. Integrity of vessels, pipes and components. 2. Fracture mechanics. 3. Measures for the extension of service life, and 4. Online Monitoring. All 30 contributions are separately analyzed for this database. (orig.)

  20. Corrosion issues in the BWR and their mitigation for plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    Corrosion is a major service life limiting mechanism for both pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs). For the BWR, stress corrosion cracking of piping has been the major source of concern where extensive research has led to a number of qualified remedies and currently > 90% of susceptible welds have been mitigated or replaced. Stress corrosion cracking of reactor internals due to the interaction of irradiation, as discussed elsewhere in this conference, is also a possible life limiting phenomenon. This paper focusses on two corrosion phenomena in the BWR which have only recently been identified as impacting the universal goal of BWR life extension: the general corrosion of containment structures and the erosion-corrosion of carbon steel piping

  1. Life Cycle Management for Equipments in Nuclear Plants Based on Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dalin; Sun Jinlong

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle management model based on reliability includes two parts: obtaining failure rate function and founding cost-oriented model to solve. It is actually a single objective programming whose optimal solution is the most economical replacement period. Parameters of failure rate function are estimated by Weibull process fitting with the method of maximum likelihood. The objective function of the model is life-cost function where the dependent variable is replacement period T, with the constraints of failure rate or availability. After foundation of LCM model, we solve it to find the optimal replacement period for the equipments. (author)

  2. Life cycle management for equipments in nuclear plants based on reliability and actual conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalin, Wang; Jingquan, Liu; Peng, Liu

    2010-01-01

    Life cycle management model based on reliability includes two parts: obtaining failure rate function and founding cost-oriented model to solve. It is actually a single objective programming whose optimal solution is the most economical replacement period. Parameters of failure rate function are estimated by Weibull process fitting with the method of maximum likelihood. The objective function of the model is life-cost function where the dependent variable is replacement period T, with the constraints of failure rate or availability. After foundation of LCM model, we solve it to find the optimal replacement period for the equipments. (authors)

  3. Life cycle assessment of a HYSOL concentrated solar power plant: Analyzing the effect of geographic location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, B.; Ruiz, Diego; San Miguel, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technology is developing in order to achieve higher energy efficiency, reduced economic costs, and improved firmness and dispatchability in the generation of power on demand. To this purpose, a research project titled HYSOL has developed a new power plant, consisting

  4. Determination of atmospheric SO/sub 2/ concentrations that are dangerous to plant life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratmann, H

    1963-01-01

    Controlled climate experiments indicate that the reaction of plants is not simply proportional to the project of SO/sub 2/ concentration and exposure time, and the degree of damage inflicted increases in proportion to this product as the concentration itself increases. A determining factor is the fact that plants, even when kept in a controlled climate, undergo a diurnal cycle of sensitivity. High concentrations for a shorter time do more damage than low concentrations for a longer exposure time, indicating the existence of concentration peaks. Although most cultivated plants are resistant to night exposure, a night exposure immediately following a daylight exposure causes a multiplication of damages, as does a succession of peak concentrations. It has also been discovered that plants whose leaves are not fully developed suffer a higher degree of SO damage than those whose leaves are fully matured. In the case of deciduous trees, sensitivity increases in proportion to the development of the leaves, until full leaf maturity is reached. Older trees are more resistant to SO/sub 2/.

  5. US national report on research that relates to life management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    This report will focus on the status of license renewal activities in the US and associated research. First, it is noted that about 20 percent of the electricity generating capacity in the US (over 100 GW) is provided by nuclear plants, but as the current 40-year licenses expire, this nuclear generating capacity will decline dramatically after the year 2010. Plants operate under licenses granted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The regulatory requirements for their licensing and operating nuclear reactors are laid out in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR). Currently, 10 CFR (Part 50.51) permits license renewal upon expiration of the current license period, but it has not previously given guidance on requirements for extending the period. In anticipation of requests to renew licenses, the NRC undertook, several years ago vigorous efforts to establish regulatory policies, technical bases, and procedures of renewal. The NRC has worked hard to ensure that technically defensible and practical methods are established. The resulting requirements that an applicant is to meet to renew a plant's license are being placed in Parts 51 and 54 of 10 CFR. Part 51 addresses environmental requirements and reviews. Part 54 addresses the technical requirements and reviews that a plant must satisfy at the time the extension is granted and during the extension period

  6. The Conceptual Framework of Thematic Mapping in Case Conceptualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Charles R; Jeffrey, Christina E

    2017-04-01

    This article, the 3rd in a series of 5, introduces the conceptual framework for thematic mapping, a novel approach to case conceptualization. The framework is transtheoretical in that it is not constrained by the tenets or concepts of any one therapeutic orientation and transdiagnostic in that it conceptualizes clients outside the constraints of diagnostic criteria. Thematic mapping comprises 4 components: a definition, foundational principles, defining features, and core concepts. These components of the framework, deemed building blocks, are explained in this article. Like the foundation of any structure, the heuristic value of the method requires that the building blocks have integrity, coherence, and sound anchoring. We assert that the conceptual framework provides a solid foundation, making thematic mapping a potential asset in mental health treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A stochastic process model for life cycle cost analysis of nuclear power plant systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Weide, J.A.M.; Pandey, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a general stochastic model to analyze the life cycle cost of an engineering system that is affected by minor but repairable failures interrupting the operation and a major failure that would require the replacement or renewal of the failed system. It is commonly observed that the

  8. Are Animals "More Alive" than Plants? Animistic-Anthropocentric Construction of Life Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorek, Nurettin; Sahin, Mehmet; Aydin, Halil

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics students use in attributing value to and classifying the living things; the relational construction of the life concepts and the living things and the place of human in this construction. Participants were first-year high school students from seven schools in Izmir (a large western city in Turkey). An…

  9. 78 FR 47012 - Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... for quality assurance programs in Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 50 as they apply to software development... is one of six RG revisions addressing computer software development and use in safety related systems... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0195] Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in...

  10. Some activities in France related to life management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrequin, P.

    1998-01-01

    Significant events concerned with life management of NPPs in France were: replacement of steam generators of TRICASTIN 1 NPP, defect detected in the emergency cooling system of DAMPIERRE 1 reactor and expertise of decommissioned CHOOZ A reactor. Programs in progress described in this report are: irradiation of materials for internal components and fracture toughness studies of irradiated materials

  11. Complex investigations for the technical diagnosis and constructive optimization of the pipe systems from Rovinari power plant to extend their remaining life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delamarian, C. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Sueddeutschland (TUeV), Muenchen (Germany); Lupescu, L.; Nicolescu, N. [Institutul de Studii si Proiectari Energetice, Bucharest (Romania); Pisc, I.; Botis, A. [ISIM, Timisoara (Romania)

    2003-07-01

    The remnant life assessment of power plant components is an issue of a high importance all over the Europe and not only. The need of power products, the environmental-related restrictions within this field as well as the task of lowering the fabrication costs led to and increased importance of maintenance and retrofit activities of old power equipment during the last decade. Replacement of pipe lines exceeding their designed life is no longer regarded as an option for power plant managers. Instead, life assessment techniques combined with state of the art design and fabrication methods focusing on the replacement of damaged components as well as redesign of pipe line systems in order to eliminate overloading and/or secondary stresses that usually lead to premature life exhaustion are only some of the issues discussed within this paper. It deals with the retrofit of a conventional power plant (Group no. 3 of Rovinari Power Plant) which reached its designed life after about 110.000 operating hours. The need of improvement of the boiler efficiency as well as the extension of the plant life, maintaining in the same time old, but still good components determined the three companies (ISPE, ISIM and TUeV) to gather their skills in order to reach this task. (orig.)

  12. Potential utility of the thematic mapper for surface mine monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irons, J.R.; Lachowski, H.M.

    1981-01-01

    One of many potential applications of the thematic mapper (TM) is surface mine monitoring. To assess this potential, data acquired by an aircraft multispectral scanner over Pennsylvania surface mines were preprocessed to simulate the anticipated spectral, spatial, and radiometric characteristics of TM data. False color imagery and thematic maps were derived from the simulated data and compared to imagery and maps derived from LANDSAT multispectral scanner subsystems data. On the basis of this comparison, TM data should definitely increase the detail and accuracy of remotely acquired surface mine information and may enable the remote determination of compliance with reclamation regulations

  13. The thematic framework of Christmas orations by Venclović

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Maja M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines Christmas orations delivered by Gavrilo Stefanović Venclović to Komoran congregation from 1739 to 1743, the records of which are to be found in the anthology of orations, entitled Slova izbrana (1743. Particular attention has been paid to the thematic framework and to defining thematic layers, but in their correlation. In addition to that, the integral part of the analysis is identifying the Church Fathers' notional concepts as patterns to orations by Venclović.

  14. Effect of very high pressure on life of plants and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, F; Mori, Y; Sougawa, M; Takarabe, K; Hada, Y; Nishihira, N; Motose, H; Saigusa, M; Matsushima, Y; Yamazaki, D; Ito, E; Saini, N L

    2012-01-01

    We studied the tolerance of living organisms, such as a small animal (Milnesium tardigradum), a small crustacean (Artemia), non-vascular plants or moss (Ptichomitrium and Venturiella), and a vascular plant (Trifolium) to the extremely high hydrostatic pressure of 7.5 GPa. It turned out that most of the high pressure exposed seeds of white clover were alive. Those exposed to 7.5 GPa for up to 1 day and seeded on agar germinated roots. Those exposed for up to 1 hour and seeded on soil germinated stems and leaves. Considering the fact that proteins begins to unfold around 0.3 GPa, it seems difficult to understand that all the living samples which have been investigated can survive after exposure to 7.5 GPa.

  15. Probabilistic methods for condition assessment and life prediction of concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingwood, B.R.; Mori, Yasuhiro

    1993-01-01

    A probability-based methodology is being developed in support of the NRC Structural Aging Program to assist in evaluating the reliability of existing concrete structures in nuclear power plants under potential future operating loads and extreme evironmental and accidental events. The methodology includes models to predict structural deterioration due to environmental stressors, a database to support the use of these models, and methods for analyzing time-dependent reliability of concrete structural components subjected to stochastic loads. The methodology can be used to support a plant license extension application by providing evidence that safety-related concrete structures in their current (service) condition are able to withstand future extreme events with a level of reliability sufficient for public health and safety. (orig.)

  16. Plant life management. An integral part of operation and maintenance policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faidy, C.; Hutin, J.-P.

    2002-01-01

    Electricite de France is now operating 58 PWR nuclear power plants that produce 75% of electricity in France. Besides maintaining safety and availability on a routine basis, it is outmost important to protect the investment. That is the reason why EDF is devoting important resources to implement ageing management concern as an integral part of operation and maintenance programs (for example through appropriate data collection and analysis, specific repair and replacement projects and important anticipation efforts, taking in account the high level of standardisation of the units). A particular organisation has been set up to continuously observe and analyse all activities so as to make sure that ageing concern is correctly taken in account in strategies and that no decisions are susceptible to impair plant lifetime. This 'lifetime program' is paying attention to technical issues associated with main components but is also dealing with issues related to economics and industry situation. (orig.)

  17. Reakcii rastenij raznyh zhiznennyh form na izmenenija prirodnoj sredy [The response of different plant life forms to natural environment changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains test results revealing norm and stress reactions of various life-form plants: trees — Betula pendula Roth, Tilia platyphyllos Scop., Pinus sylvetris L; water-plant -Galium palustre L.; grass — Solidago Canadensis; cereal — Secale cereal L. Collection and processing of the material was made in the area of Berlin/Brandenburg, Germany. Clark sensor-based method made it possible to determine the amount and rate of the oxygen evolution by plants in the dark and light phase. Under the reaction norm the average amount of the oxygen evolved and the average rate of metabolism processes during dark and light phases are changing simultaneously. Parabolic and periodic dependences of these changes during the vegetation period has been found. Under the stress reaction (drought, illness the rate of metabolism dark reactions is increased by 2—3 times as compared with light reactions. The obtained results may be use for bioindication of the climate change in the Baltic Region.

  18. Research priorities at the European Commission in relation to maintenance optimization and nuclear power plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contri, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of experience in many countries operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) suggests that, while differences in long term operation (LTO) programs are mainly related to the various national regulatory processes, the main features and basic technical requirements are similar. The implementation of these however needs reshaping in an integrated plant life management (PLIM) framework, bearing in mind the specific safety implications of LTO. R and D is essential to support this process, not only for long term extrapolation of the component integrity and behaviour, but also for a proper maintenance system and for an adequate management structure ensuring effective management strategies at plant level, able to address organisational issues, spare part management, staff ageing, component obsolescence, etc. This is recognised by the European Commission, which supports R and D in targeted areas in the framework of the EURATOM programme, both by “direct actions” i.e. projects managed and executed by its Directorate General Joint Research Centers (JRC) and by indirect actions i.e. funding of selected projects, managed by the Directorate General Research (RTD). This paper outlines the JRC's priorities in the current 7th Framework Programme in relation to R and D tasks for maintenance and ISI to support the highest safety level at member's NPPs and appropriate decision-making tools for the optimisation of these programs. A newly developed UE model for PLIM, also integrating maintenance optimisation issues, is presented for further discussion. (author)

  19. Preliminary data on the effects of low radiation doses on plant life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabries, M.; Grauby, A.

    1975-01-01

    The initial findings from the experimental low level irradiation of an ecosystem, with references to prior in this field, are studied. Previous research on low radiation doses of the University of Toulouse suggests that living organisms are in equilibrium with the radioactivity levels in their environment. Any decrease or increase in the natural radioactivity level seems to induce modifications in the microbe or plant population studies. The radioactivity level thus appears to be an ecological factor just as temperature, humidity, sunlight, etc... The preliminary experiments were conducted using an artificial radioactive source (Cesium-137) similar to sources likely in the future to cause increased environmental radioactivity from radioactive wastes and nuclear power plants. These experiments reveal an apparent reaction threshold of approximately 50μrad/hour among spontaneous plant populations. Above this dose the individuals show the effects of increased size, reduced size or both effects in turn (wave phenomenon) as the radiation level increases. It is difficult to come to any firm conclusions at the present time. Nevertheless, there seem to be a number of phenomena related to the increase in low level radiation doses. Some reflections on the behavior observed are offered [fr

  20. An overview of actions concerning life management of nuclear power plants in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savino, E.; Versaci, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The main activities concerning reorganisation of nuclear activities in Argentina are presented. This includes the activities related to the main technical areas, namely pressure vessel and piping; heat exchangers; fuel channels and reactor inner components. The main objectives was to develop and to store knowledge on performance, safety and life extension of critical components of power reactors. Main priority subjects were: changes of properties due to irradiation; mechanical properties; post-irradiation inspection of components and microstructure

  1. Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants – Interim Study FY13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Pardini, Allan F.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-09-27

    The most important criterion for cable performance is its ability to withstand a design-basis accident. With nearly 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, it would be a significant undertaking to inspect all of the cables. Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components is a key issue that is likely to affect the ability of the currently installed cables to operate safely and reliably for another 20 to 40 years beyond the initial operating life. The development of one or more nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and supporting models that could assist in determining the remaining life expectancy of cables or their current degradation state would be of significant interest. The ability to nondestructively determine material and electrical properties of cable jackets and insulation without disturbing the cables or connections has been deemed essential. Currently, the only technique accepted by industry to measure cable elasticity (the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation) is the indentation measurement. All other NDE techniques are used to find flaws in the cable and do not provide information to determine the current health or life expectancy. There is no single NDE technique that can satisfy all of the requirements needed for making a life-expectancy determination, but a wide range of methods have been evaluated for use in NPPs as part of a continuous evaluation program. The commonly used methods are indentation and visual inspection, but these are only suitable for easily accessible cables. Several NDE methodologies using electrical techniques are in use today for flaw detection but there are none that can predict the life of a cable. There are, however, several physical and chemical ptoperty changes in cable insulation as a result of thermal and radiation damage. In principle, these properties may be targets for advanced NDE methods to provide early

  2. Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants - Interim Study FY13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Pardini, Allan F.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    The most important criterion for cable performance is its ability to withstand a design-basis accident. With nearly 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, it would be a significant undertaking to inspect all of the cables. Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components is a key issue that is likely to affect the ability of the currently installed cables to operate safely and reliably for another 20 to 40 years beyond the initial operating life. The development of one or more nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques and supporting models that could assist in determining the remaining life expectancy of cables or their current degradation state would be of significant interest. The ability to nondestructively determine material and electrical properties of cable jackets and insulation without disturbing the cables or connections has been deemed essential. Currently, the only technique accepted by industry to measure cable elasticity (the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation) is the indentation measurement. All other NDE techniques are used to find flaws in the cable and do not provide information to determine the current health or life expectancy. There is no single NDE technique that can satisfy all of the requirements needed for making a life-expectancy determination, but a wide range of methods have been evaluated for use in NPPs as part of a continuous evaluation program. The commonly used methods are indentation and visual inspection, but these are only suitable for easily accessible cables. Several NDE methodologies using electrical techniques are in use today for flaw detection but there are none that can predict the life of a cable. There are, however, several physical and chemical ptoperty changes in cable insulation as a result of thermal and radiation damage. In principle, these properties may be targets for advanced NDE methods to provide early

  3. License - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods ...t list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods © Satoshi ... Policy | Contact Us License - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive ...

  4. Deficits in Thematic Integration Processes in Broca's and Wernicke's Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroko; Blumstein, Sheila E.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated how normal subjects and Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics integrate thematic information incrementally using syntax, lexical-semantics, and pragmatics in a simple active declarative sentence. Three priming experiments were conducted using an auditory lexical decision task in which subjects made a lexical decision on a…

  5. DESIGNA ND ANALYSIS FOR THEMATIC MAP ACCURACY ASSESSMENT: FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Before being used in scientific investigations and policy decisions, thematic maps constructed from remotely sensed data should be subjected to a statistically rigorous accuracy assessment. The three basic components of an accuracy assessment are: 1) the sampling design used to s...

  6. A Thematic Review of Blended Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pima, John Marco; Odetayo, Michael; Iqbal, Rahat; Sedoyeka, Eliamani

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews the international literature on blended learning in view of establishing its thematic trends in higher education. The systematic review through PRISMA, sought to answer three research questions: First, how have publications evolved from 2000 to 2016 in blended learning in higher education? Secondly, what themes are frequently…

  7. Impact of Thematic Approach on Communication Skill in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokan, Varun; Venugopal, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of thematic approach on communication skills for preschool children. The study was a quasi experimental non-equivalent pretest-post-test control group design whereby 5-6 year old preschool children (n = 49) were randomly assigned to an experimental and a control group. The experimental group students were exposed…

  8. Thematic cartography, cartography and the impact of the quantitative revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Cauvin, Colette; Serradj, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    This series in three volumes considers maps as constructions resulting from a number of successive transformations and stages integrated in a logical reasoning and an order of choices. Volume 2 focuses on the impact of the quantitative revolution, partially related to the advent of the computer age, on thematic cartography.

  9. Mobile GIS strategies for disseminating thematic tourist information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses the concept of spatial narratives based on so-called narrative links and their potential role within the implementation of flexible and thematic tourist information systems on mobile gps-enabled devices. References are made to two examples of specific application areas: one from...

  10. Learning from Mistakes in History--A Thematic Instructional Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richburg, Robert W.; Harward, Kathleen; Steinkamp, Kathy

    2000-01-01

    Describes a thematic unit for secondary education students that focuses on eight themes, with accompanying activities, on learning from mistakes, such as "mistakes are inevitable, and everyone makes them" and "making mistakes does not make you a faulty person." Provides a concluding activity on the Titanic. (CMK)

  11. Identification and management of plant aging and life extension issues for a liquid-metal-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.W.; Perry, W.H.

    1991-06-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 (EBR-2) is a pool-type sodium-cooled fast reactor that supports extensive experimental, test and demonstration programs while providing electrical power to the local grid. EBR-2 is a US Department of Energy Facility located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and operated by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The current mission of EBR-2 is to serve as the operational prototype for the Integral Fast Reactor demonstration program. This mission and other programs require EBR-2 to operate reliability to a 40-year lifetime, a significant extension beyond the five to ten year life originally planned for the facility. The benefits of operating EBR-2 in the extended-life mode are important for providing long-term operational performance data for a sodium-cooled fast reactor that is not available elsewhere. Identification and preliminary assessment of potential life-limiting factors indicate that, with appropriate consideration given in the design phase, the sodium-cooled plant has potential for a very long operational lifetime. Achievement of a 40-year lifetime with high reliability is important not only for achieving the near-term goals of the EBR-2/IFR programs, but for the advancement of the liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept to the demonstration/commercialization phase. Key features make extended-life operation feasible based on the use of sodium as the primary coolant: low-pressure, high thermal capacity primary system and a low-pressure secondary system requiring no active valves; and limited corrosion of components. 2 refs

  12. Proactive pressure relief system management of life cycle and ageing in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenc, J.; Ferrar, S.

    2011-01-01

    The last major power nuclear station built in North America was built when the Altair Company introduced the first microcomputer sparking the PC frenzy. It is safe to assume that there have been a great many changes since 1977 on both accounts. As the world's aging nuclear plants continue to be challenged with maintenance and replacement issues (obsolescence), as well making improvements within their facilities, proper pressure relief system management looms as a growing concern. This problem grows more acute as new engineering best practices are promulgated across industries and regulatory standards become more rigorous with much stricter enforcements. Unlike most pieces of operating equipment in a nuclear facility, pressure relief devices demand an extra level of consideration; as they form the 'last line of defense'. Combine the on-going obsolescence issue, with today's ever increasing demands for overall plant and public safety; pressure relief safety management will require increasing 'proactive' efforts to ensure safe facilities. This paper has been written to address some global pressure relief system management issues with respect the worlds aging nuclear facilities. This paper reflects findings we have discovered while conducting engineering pressure relief system audits on various nuclear power stations. It should be noted that these finding are not atypical of similar findings in pressure relief systems in the hydrocarbon processing world. (author)

  13. Update History of This Database - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods ...B link & Genome analysis methods English archive site is opened. 2012/08/08 PGDBj... Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods is opened. About This...ate History of This Database - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analys